Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, dictionarius anglo-latinus princeps, auctore fratre Galfrido grammatico dicto, ex ordine fratrum Predicatorum, northfolciensi, circa A. D. M.CCCC.XL. Olim ex officina Pynsoniana editum, nunc ab integro, commentariolis subjectis, ad Fidem codicum recensuit Albertus Way, A. M.
Galfridus, Anglicus, active 1440., Way, Albert, 1805-1874, ed., British Library. Manuscript. Harley 221.
  • HABURYONE, or hawberk (habu∣rion, K. P. haburgyn, S. habu∣riune, HARL. MS. 2274.)

    1. The term habergeon appears properly to be a diminutive of hawberk, although here given as synonymous. Wace, in his Roman de Rou, written about 1160, describes the Conqueror as armed, at the battle of Hastings, with a "boen haubert;" but Odo, his half-brother, Bishop of Bayeux, who could not decorously assume the complete military equipment, and rode with a staff merely to stimulate the combatants, provided himself with this partial defence.

    "Un haubergeon avoit vestu,
    De sor une chemise blanche."

    T. ii. 220, edit. by Pluquet.

    The precept of Randolph III., Earl of Chester, to his barons, about the close of the XIIIth cent. requires that their knights and free tenants should have "loricas, et hau∣bergella;" and the ordinance of Hen. III. 1252, "super juratis ad arma," directs that every man, according to the rate of his land and chattels, should arm himself either with the lorica, the habergetum, called also in this docment haubercus, or the perpunctum. The stat. of Winchester, 13 Edw. I. 1285, makes the same distinction between the hauberg', haubergeon, and parpoint, to be used by the three classes re∣spectively, according to their assessment. Stat. of Realm, i. 97. From these authorities it is evident that the habergeon was a defence of an inferior description to the hawberk; and when the introduction of plate armour in the reign of Edw. III. had supplied more convenient and effectual defences for the legs and thighs, the long skirt of the hawberk became superfluous; from that period the habergeon alone seems to have been worn. This, in its turn, being superseded by the cuirass, was reduced to the mere apron of mail; but at the time when the Promptorium was compiled, the expensive nature of plate armour caused its use to be restricted, and combatants of the lower classes were content to arm themselves with the brigandine, or the habergeon. The value of three "hauburiounes," in 1374, was 13 marks: See Invent. of Edw. de Appelby, Sloane Cart. xxxi. 2. Milan was celebrated for the manufacture of this defence: in a document dated 33 Hen. VI. relating to armour delivered out of the Tower, are mentioned "haberg'ons, some of Meleyn, and sme of Westewale," that is, probably, Westphalia, or the Wes∣terwald, where the iron-works of Solingen have long been in repute. Archaeol. xvi. 125. In the Inventory of Sir John Fastolfe's armoury, 1459, are likewise found "iij. har∣buryones of l'Milayne." Archaeol. xxi. 271. In the Wicliffite version Goliath is said to have had "a brasun basynet on his heed, and he was cloþid wiþ an haburion hokid (eþer mailid, loricâ squamatâ," Vulg.) "He shal cloþe riȝtfulnesse for an haburioun (pro thorace, Vulg.) and he shal take certeyn doom for a basynet." Sapiens, v. 15. "Bilix, lorica que contexitur duobus liciis accumulatis, a hawbergion; ita trilix. Pancerium est lorica, an haberyon." ORTUS. "An haberion, lorica; hec trilex est lorica ex tribus (liciis) confecta." CATH. ANG. "Haulbergyn of mayle, aulbergon, haulberion." PALSG. See Ducange, v. Halsberga; and Jamieson, v. Awbyrchowne.

  • HACHET, or hakchyp. Securi∣cula, CATH.
  • HADDOK, fysche. Morius, KYLW.
  • HAGAS, puddynge (hakkys, pud∣dyngys, S. hageys, H.)2. [This dish, now considered as almost exclusively a Northern delicacy, seems to have been anciently in more general esteem. A curious metrical recipe is found in the Liber Cure cocorum, Sloane MS. 1986, f. 103. "Omasus, i. tripa vel ventriculus qui con∣tinet alia viscera, a trype, or a podynge, or a wesaunt, or hagges. Tucetum, hagas; tuceterius, hagas maker." ORTUS. "Haggas, a podyng, caliette de mouton" PALSG. "Gogue, a sheep's paunch, and thence, a haggas made of good herbs, chopt lard, spices, eggs, and cheese." COTG. "Tucetum, a meate made with chopped fleshe, lyke to a gygot, or alowe." ELYOT. See Jamieson, and Dr. Hunter's Culina famulatrix Medicinae.]Tu∣cetum, UG. in tundo.
  • HAYE, net to catche conys wythe Page  221 (hay net, P. hanet, W.)1. [Forby explains hay-net as signifying in Norfolk "a hedge net, a long low net, to prevent hares or rabbits from escaping to covert, in or through hedges." See also Moore. In a lease dated 1572, in the manor of Hawsted, Suffolk, the landlord reserves the right of "hawking, haying," &c. that is, rabbit-netting. Cullum's Hawsted, p. 198. "Haye, a net for connes, bourcettes à chasser." PALSG. "Tendere plagas, to pytche hayes, or nettes. Casses, nets which may be called haies." ELYOT. "Toiles, toils, or a hay to inclose or intangle wild beasts in. Pan, a toyle or hay wherewith wild beasts are caught." COTG. The word is doubtless derived from Ang.-Sax. haeȝ, or heȝe, septum. In the edition of the Ortus in Mr. Wilbraham's library, clausura is rendered "a closse, or a heye." Haye occurs elsewhere in the sense of an enclosure; thus in the gloss on the "liber vocatus equus," called in the Promptorium "Distigius," written by John de Garlandiâ, occurs "Cimiterium, chyrche-haye." Harl. MS. 1002. In the Golden Legend it is said, "he had—foule way thorugh hayes and hedges, woodes, stones, hylles and valeys." f. 68, b.]Cassis, C. F.
  • HAYYN' for conyys. Cassio, C. F. in cassis.
  • HAYL. Grando.
  • HAYLYN̄'. Grandinat.
  • HAYRYF, herbe (harfyyf, S.)2. ["Harife, rubium minor, herba est." CATH. ANG. The Galium aparine is called in the North, according to Ray, "Hariff and catchweed, goose-grease;" according to Parkinson it was reckoned by the old botanists as a kind of madder; but he does not give the name hayryf, which is probably derived from the asperity of its stalks. In some places it is called hairough. Palsgrave gives "haylife, an herbe."]Rubea, (sic) vel rubia minor, et major dicitur madyr.
  • HAYYR, or hayre.

    3. "Cilicium, velamen factum de pilis capraru, Anglicè a heere." ORTUS. "An haire, cilicium." CATH. ANG. "Hayre for parfite men, hayre." PALSG.

    "Hastily þei hent hem on heiȝresse ful rowe,
    Next here bare bodi, and bare fot þei went."

    Will. and Werw. p. 172.

    In the version of Vegecius is a description of the military engine called the "snayle or welke (testudo), a frame of goode tymber, shaped square, keuerede and hillede alle a-boute wythe rawe hides, or with feltes, and heyres, for drede of brynnyng." Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. f. 105. Among the trades, in the order of the pageants of the Play of Corpus Christi, at York, 1415, "hayresters" are mentioned. Drake, App. In the Goden Legend the term hayre is of frequent occurrence, signifying a garment of morti∣fication. St. Thomas clothed himself with an "hard heyre, full of knottes, whiche was his sherte, and his breche was of the same." And again, during grievous pestilence, "they couered the crosse and the auters with blyssed hayres; and thus we sholde take on vs clothynge of penaunce." In medieval Latin a shagy garment was termed haira, according to Ducange. Ang-Sax. haera, cilicium.

  • HAYHT, harry.

    4. Chaucer describes a cart that had stuck in a deep way,

    "The carter smote, and cryde as he were wode,
    Heit Scot! Heit Brok̄ what, spare ye for the nones?"

    Frere's Tale.

    In the Eastern counties, according to Forby and Moore, the ejaculation Hait-wo! or Height! is now used only to turn a cart-horse to the left; and Ree! is given by the latter as a command which causes a movement to the right. Bp. Kennett gives 'to hite up and down, to run idly about, North; Hiting, gadding abroad. Sax. ytinȝ, peregre. In Yorkshire for Geè oo, the carters say Hite and reè. Height nor ree, neither go nor drive, spoken of a wilful person." Lansd. MS. 1033. See Yorksh. Dial. p. 58. HAYHT is not found in any other MS. of the Promptorium. Harry appears to be the imperative mood of the word HARYYN̄', which occurs subsequently; or possibly the out-cry, haro, haroll. Both the ejaculations above given occur in the Towneley Mystery of the death of Abel, p. 9, where Cain and his plough-boy are represented as tilling the ground, and the latter cries to the horses, "Harrer, Morelle, iofurthe, hyte!"

  • HAKENEY, horse. Bajulus, equi∣ferus.
  • HAKKYN̄'. Sectulo.
  • Page  222HAKKYNGE, or hewynge. Sectio.
  • HAKE, fysche. Squilla, glossâ Merarii.
  • HALE, or tente.1. [Among the effects of Hen. V. were "ij. tentes de bloy carde, &c. ovec j. porche, et j. aley." 1423, Rot. Parl. iv. 240. In a ltter to Sir John Paston, 7 Hen. VII. it is said respecting preparations for the expedition in to France, "ye Kyng sendythe ordy∣naunce dayly to ye see syde, and hys tents and alys be a makynge faste;" also that great provision was made by the gentry, who were to accompany him, "for hors harnes, tentes, halys, gardyuyens, carts," &c. Past. Lett. v. 412. Among the requisites provided for the Earl of Northumberland, in the French campaign in 1513, at the siege of Therouenne, are named "haylles, tents, and pauillions." Ant. Rep. iv. 364. See also Hall's Chron. 12 Hen. VIII. p. 618, last edit. "Hale in a felde for men, tref. Hall, a long tent in a felde, tente." Elyot gives "scena, a pauyllion, or haule." The hangings of a chamber, as it has been observed in the note on the word DORCERE, were termed hallings, in Latin halae, alae, or aulaea. "An hallynge, auleum, anabatrum." CATH. ANG.]Papilio, scena, CATH. et C. F.
  • HALE, or cyrcle a-bowte þe mone. Halo, C. F.
  • HALLE. Aula, atrium.
  • HALF, or halfundele. Dimidius, semis.
  • HALF a buschel, or eytendele (half or a bowndel, boshel, or ethyn∣del, s. or tynt, H. P.)2. [Compare EYȜtyndele, AND TYNTE. Ray, Bp. Kennett, in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033, and Grose mention another name for the same measure, in use in the North, namely, "frundele, a measure of two pecks." As it is called eyȝtyndele, because it is the eighth part of a coom, so also furundel, or frundele, a corruption of furthindele, as being the fourth part of a bushel. Ang.-Sax. feorðan, quartus. See Cowel's Interpr. v. Furundellus. The term "eytendele" occurs in the Hist. Eliensis, where it is re∣corded of Will. de Longchamp, Bp of Ely, who died 1197, "ordinavit ut in die anni∣versarii sui dentur pauperibus xiij. eytendeles de frumento." Angl. Sacra, i. 633.]Satum, CATH. UG. V. in S.
  • HALF a ferthynge.3. ["Halfe a fardynge, calcus, calculus, minutum." CATH. ANG. See the notes on the word CU. Sherwood, in his Eng. French Dict. 1632, gives "a cue, la moitié d'un fardin, mot usé seulement des escoliers d'Oxford." There is a proverbial saying of contempt, "I would kick him for half a farthing;" but the cue seems to have been as imaginary as the bodle, of like supposed value, and in the North familiarly mentioned as if it really existed. See Brockett, and the other North-country Glossarists.]Calcus, C. F. et variatur q. cum cu (q. vel qu, S.)
  • HALY, or be-hatyd.4. [Halo, halah, or healo, signifies in the Northern counties bashful, backward, or fearful. See Brockett, Craven, and Hallamshire Dialects. "Honteux, shamefull, bashfull, helo, modest," &c. COTG. Jamieson gives heily in the sense of proud, Ang.-Sax. healic, excelsus, and the verb to heally, to abandon, or forsake, which seems to approach towards the signification of the word given above, be-hatyd.]Exosus, C. F.
  • HALYDAY (halliday, K.) Festi∣vitasPage  223vel dies festivalis, festale, C. F. feria.
  • HALYN̄, or drawyn̄'. Traho.
  • HALYNGE, or drawynge. Tractus.
  • HALYWATER. Aqua benedicta.
  • HALYWATER berere. Aquabaju∣lus.
  • HALY WATER spryngelle, or strencle (haliwatyr styk, K. H.)1. [See STRENKYL, hereafter. "Halywater sprincle, uespillon, aspergoyr." PALSG.]Aspersorium, isopus, mediâ pro∣ductâ; isopus, mediâ correptâ, Anglicè ysope, herbe: unde versus, Isopus est herba, Isopo spargitur unda.
  • HALYVEY, or bote a-ȝēn sekenesse, as treacle or oþer lyke (haliwey, K.)

    2. In Laȝamon, Arthur says that he would go into avalon, to Argante the fair,

    "for heo sculde mid haleweie
    helen his wunde."

    Vol. ii. p. 546, Madden's edit.

    Compare the corresponding passage, vol. iii. p. 144, where it is said that she should make him all whole with "haleweiȝe drenchen." "Balsamus est arbor, Gall. baumere; balsamum gummi est predicti arboris, Gall. baume, Ang. haliwey." Sloane MS. 5, f. 3. "Balsamum, &c. haliwhey." Arund. MS. 42, f. 93. See TREACLE hereafter.

    Antidotum, CATH. salu∣tiferum.
  • HALKE or hyrne.

    3. This word seems to be taken from Ang.-Sax. heal, angulus, or, as Tyrwitt pro∣poses, from hylca, sinus. It is used repeatedly by Chaucer.

    "As yonge clerkys, that ben likerous
    To reden artes that ben curious,
    Seken in every halke and every herne
    Particular sciences for to lerne."

    Frankel. Tale, v. II, 433.
    Angulus, la∣tibulum.
  • HALM, or stobyl (stopyll, P.)4. [Bp. Kennett has the following note, Lansd. MS. 1033. "Haulm, straw left in an esh, or gratten; stubble, thatch. Sax. haelme, culmus, calamus; Isl. halmur, palea." Ray gives "haulm or helm, stubble gathered after the corn is inned."]Stipula.
  • HALOW, schypmannys crye.

    5. "Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, vel heuylaw romylawe (ut heue and howe, rombylow," edit. 1518.) ORTUS. In the MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's possession, "heualow, rummylow." See Ritson's Dissert. on Anc. Songs, p. li.

    "They rowede hard, and sungge ther too,
    With heuelow and rumbeloo."

    Rich. C. de Lion, 2521.
    "Your mariners shall synge arowe,
    Hey how and rumbylowe."

    Squyre of lowe degree.

    It occurs likewise in Skelton's Bowge of Court; Cocke Lorelle's bote, &c. This cry appears not to have been exclusively nautical, for it forms the burden of a ballad on the Battle of Bannocksburn, 1314, the alternate stanzas of which, as given in Caxton's Chron. terminate thus, "with heuelogh—with rombilogh;" or, as in Fabyan, "with heue a lowe—with rumbylow." A cor et à cry, by might and maine, with heaue and hoe." COTG. Hence seems to be derived the surname of Stephen Rummelowe, Constable of Nottingham Castle, 45 Edw. III. mentioned in Issue Roll of Exch. 1369. Compare CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe.

    Ce∣leuma, C. F.
  • Page  224HALOWYN̄, or cryyn̄ as schypmen (halowen with cry, P.) Celeumo.
  • HALPENY, or halfpeny. Obolus, stips.
  • HALPENY WORTHE, or hal(f)peny worthe (halpworthe, K.) Obo∣litas, oblata (oboleitas, P.)
  • HALS, or halce, throte (hols, S.) Guttur.
  • HALS, or nekke.1. [The noun halse, the neck, and the verb to halse, to embrace, are used by most of the early writers. See R. Brunne, Chaucer, the Vision of P. Ploughman, &c. Ang.- Sax. hals, collum. "Amplexus, a clyppynge, or a halsynge." ORTUS. "An halsynge, amplexus; to halse, amplexare. An hailsynge, salutacio; to hailse, salutare." CATH. ANG. "Halsyng, accollée. I take one in myn armes, I halse him, i'embrasse. Halse me aboute the necke, my sonne, and thou shalte haue a fygge, accollez moy, &c. I haylse or greete, ie salue." PALSG. The verb to hailse occurs in this sense of saluting in the Vision of P. Ploughman, 4816, 4918. See Jamieson.]Collum, am∣plexatorium.
  • HALSYN̄', or bēn halsyd. Am∣plector, amplexor, CATH.
  • HALSYNGE, or dallynge. Am∣plexus.
  • HALTE, or crokyd.2. [Compare CROKYD, or crypylle, or lame, above. "Halte, cadax, claudus. To halte, claudicare, varicare. An halter, claudicarius; duplicarius, qui ex utrâque parte claudicat." CATH. ANG. Instances of the use of the word "crokyd" in the sense of lame may be found in Syr Gowghter, line 673; Sir Tryamoure, line 228. So likewise in the Wicliffite version "claudum" is rendered "crokid," Matt. xviii. 8.]Claudus.
  • HALTYN̄'. Claudico.
  • HALTARE. Claudicator, clau∣dicarius, CATH. claudicaria.
  • HALTYNGE. Claudicacio.
  • HALWAR of holy placys (halowar, H. P.) Consecrator, dedicator.
  • HALWARE of holydayes. Cele∣brator, celebratrix.
  • HALWYN̄' holydayys. Festivo, festo, CATH. (celebro, P.)
  • HALWYN̄' holy placys, or holy in∣strumentys. Consecro (dedico, P.)
  • HALWYNGE of holy placys. Con∣secracio, dedicacio.
  • HALWYNGE of holydayes. Cele∣bracio.
  • HALVUNDEL (halfundel, K. han∣dele, S. haluedell, P.)3. [In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that "halfendele the profites (dimidia pars) of the knyghtes sowde shulde be kept vnder the principalle baner." B. ii. c. 19. In a petition from the Commons, 1442, it is said respecting the appropritation of a penalty, that "the halvyndele" should belong to the King, and the other moiety to the party suing the offender. Rot. Parl. v. 54. See also Awntyrs of Arthure, 625; edit. by Mr. Robson; Emare, 442; Voiage of Sir John Maundevile, pp.200, 219. Ang.-Sax. healf, dimidium, and dael, pars.]Dimi∣dium, medietas (medium, P.)
  • HAME, thyn skynne of an eye, or oþer lyke (skynne of an hay, s.)

    4. In the relation of the deception practised upon Olympias by Neptanabus, disguised as Jupiter Ammon, it is said,

    "Neptanabus his charme hath y-nome,
    And takith him haums of a dragon,
    From his scholdron, to his hele adoun."

    K. Alis. 385.

    The credulous Queen having no suspicion of deceit, the magician leaps upon her couch, and throws aside "his dragoun's hame." Ang.-Sax. hama, cutis. "Induvie, sloghes, or the homes of adders." MED. MS. CANT. Compare FLAKE, above; where the King's Coll. MS. adds the synonym hame. Eye signifies here an egg. See EY, ovum.

  • Page  225HAMME. Poplex.
  • HAMUR (hambyr, S. hamowre, HARL. MS. 2274.) Malleus, martellus, C. F.
  • HAN, or havyn̄'. Habeo, pos∣sideo.
  • HAN, or have abhomi(n)acyōn'. Abhominor, detestor.
  • HAN, or haue dysdeyne. Dedignor.
  • (HAN in mynde, K. have one in mynde, S.) Recordor, memoror, memini (memoro, commemoro, S.)
  • HANDE. Manus.
  • HAND BAROW (handbarwe, K. S. H.)1. [Epirhedium is in the Ortus explaned to be "a whele barowe, or a rounge;" but the vehicle here intended is without wheels, and is still used in many parts of England. Tusser includes both hand-barrow and wheel-barrow among the husbandly furniture, as detailed in September's husbandry. Among the quaint riddles entitled "the Demaundes Joyous," W. de Worde, 1511, is this "Demaunde. Whan antecryst is come in to this worlde, what thynge shall be hardest to hym to knowe? r. A hande-barowe, for of that he shall not knowe whiche ende shall goo before." "Hande barowe, ciuiére." PALSG.]Epiredium, KYLW. CATH.
  • HANDE BREDE.2. [The substantive BREDE of measure has occurred already. Ang.-Sax. braed, lati∣tudo. Compare WYYD, large yn brede. "Brede or squarenesse, croisure." PALSG.]Palmus.
  • HANDFULLE. Manipulus, vola, pugillus.
  • HANDYL of an instrument, what so euer hyt be. Manutentum.
  • HANDE MAYDYN̄'. Ancilla.
  • HANDLYN̄', or gropyn̄'. Palpo, manutracto.
  • HANDSUM, or esy to hond werke (esy to han hand werke, S. hansum, P.) Manualis.
  • HAND TABLYS (handtabyle, S.)3. ["Pinax, a hand table." MED. MS. CANT. Pugillaris is explained in the Ortus to be "tabula manualis. Pinax, i. pugillaris, ephimeris, tabula manualis ex pinâ facta." Tablets, according to the present term, were formerly called a pair of tables, being formed like a diptych of two folding leaves; by the Réglemens sur les arts de Paris, t. Louis IX. 1254, it appears that they were usually of wood. It is there enjoined that "ceus qui font tables à escrire" shall not make them of mixed materials, that is, tables "de quoi li un fuelles soit de buis, et li qutre de fanne; ni mettre avec buis autre manière de fust, qui ne soit plus chier que buis, c'est à savoir, cadre benus, brésil, et ciprès." Documens Inédits, ed. Depping, p. 173. "Payre of writyng tables, tablettes." PALSG.]Pugillaris, CATH. diptica, CATH. et UG. in dico.
  • HAND LYME (hand wyrme, S.)4. ["Hande worme, ciron." PALSG. Nicot explains it to be a little worm "engendré d'humeur acre et aduste en diuers endroits de la personne, mais plus communément es mains, qui ronge et fait demanger ou il est concrée: creredo, acarus," &c. See Cotgrave.]Ciro.
  • HANGE MANNE. Furcillator, CATH.
  • HANGEMENT (or hongment, HARL. MS. 2274.) Suspendium, sus∣pencio.
  • HANGYN̄', by the selfe. Pendeo, CATH.
  • HANGYN̄' a thynge on a walle, or other lyke. Pendo, suspendo, appendo.
  • Page  226HANGYN̄', or don̄' the offyce of an hangmann. Furcillo, suspendo, CATH.
  • HANGYNGE. Suspencio.
  • HANGYNGE of an halle. Auleum.
  • HANGYNGE of a chyrcħe. Pe∣tasma.
  • HANGYNGE of an halle, or tente. velarium, UG. V. inA.
  • HANYPERE (hamper, K.)1. ["Cophinus, hamper." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Calalus, a basket, or a hamper, or a panyer." ORTUS. Cartallus is explained in the Catholicon to be the same as fiscella. Compare FYSCHELLE, above. "Hamper, panier, dosier, escrayn." PALSG. "Banne, benne, a maund, hamper, flasket, or great banket. Calathe, a basket, pannier, or hamper of osiers." COTG. The term has been supposed to be a corruption of hand∣panier, but, as Ducange observes, v. Hanaperium, it seems to have denoted a large vessel, or place for storing up goblets, hanapi, Ang.-Sax. hnaeppa, calix. The hanaper office in the Court of Chancery derives its name from the hanaperium, a large basket wherein writs were deposited. Among places of deposit, in which instruments were stored away in the Exchequer Treasury, are named "hanaperia de virgis—of twyggys." Sir F. Palgrave has given a representation of one, date 3 Rich. II. 1380. Kalend. of Exch. i. pl. ii. See also payments to the keeper "hanaperii cancellar' pro hanaperio ligneo emp' pro lit. pat. imponendis;" and for the horse that carried it. Lib. Gard. 28 Edw. I. p. 359.]Ca∣nistrum, cartallus, CATH.
  • HANSALE.2. ["Arrabo, i. vadimonium, an hansall; et proprie dicitur bona arra. Pars arrabo venit precii, dum res bona venit, i. venduntur. Strena est bona sors, Anglice hansell." ORTUS. "A hanselle, arabo, strena; to hanselle, strenare, arrare. Erls, arabo, arra &c. ubi hanselle. To yife erls, arrare." CATH. ANG. "Hansell, estrayne. I hansell one, I gyue him money in a mornyng for suche wares as he selleth, ie estrene," PALSG. "Estreiné, handselled, that hath the handsell or first use of." COTG. Ang.-Sax. hand∣selen, mancipatio. It implies generally a delivery in hand, an earnest, the first use of a possession; and likewise a reward or bribe, as in Vis. of P. Ploughman, 3128; and the Poem on th deposition of Rich. II. edit. by Mr. Wright, p. 30. Sir F. Madden explains "honde-selle" to mean a gift conferred at a particular season. Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, 66. "Hansell, or a newe yeares gifte, strena." HULOET.]Strena, CATH.
  • HAPPE. Fortuna, eventus, casus, omen, C. F.
  • HAPPE of good spede. Eufor∣tunium, CATH.
  • HAPPE of badde spede (happy or bare sped, P.) Disfortunium.
  • HAPPY. Fortunatus.
  • HAPPY, in goodnesse. Felix, prosper, faustus, C. F. et CATH.
  • HAPPYLY (haply, HARL. MS. 2274.) Forte, forsan, fortuitu, fortassis, fortasse.
  • HAPPYN̄', or betydyn̄'. Contingit, CATH. evenit.
  • HAPPE weel (happyn wel, K.) Prosperor, fortuno, eufortuno.
  • HAPPYN, or betydyn̄' amysse, Disfortuno, infortuno.
  • (HAPPYN, or whappyn̄' yn cloþys, infra in LAPPYN̄.)

    3. Forby gives the verb to hap, to wrap up, happing, a covering, and hap-harlot, a coarse coverlit. Ang.-Sax. haepian, cumulare. The last word is used by Harrison, in a passage which has been cited above, in the note on DAGGYSWEYNE. See also Huloet, Baret's Alvearie, and Skinner. The verb occurs in King Edward and the Shepherd.

    "The schepherd keppid his staf ful warme,
    And happid it euer undur his harme."

    Hartshorne's Metr. Tales, 71.

    John Paston writes as follows: "I pray yow ye woll send me hedir ij. elne of worsted for dobletts, to happe me thys colde wynter." Past. Lett. iv. 91.

  • Page  227(HAPPYNGE, or hyllynge, infra in WAPPYNGE.)
  • HARAROWS, or sterne (haraiowus, K. haraiows, S. haraious, H. P.)1. ["Atrox, curelle or haryous. Immanis, haraious, grete, cruelle, or dredefulle." MED. MS. CANT. "Harageus or gret." Editor's MS. Compare the verb HARYYN̄'.]Austerus, rigidus.
  • HARAS of horse.

    2. "Equiricia, a harasse of horse." MED. MS. CANT. "An haras of horse, equaricia, equicium." CATH. ANG. See Ducange, v. Haracium. "Haras, a race; horses and mares kept only for breed." COTG. In the liber vocatus femina, MS. Coll. Trin. Cant. B. 14, 39, under the title of assemblies of beasts, it is said, "Haraz dit homme dez poleynez, Haras seyþ man of coltys." In the Coventry Mystery of the Nativity, a citizen of Bethlehem directs Joseph and Mary in these words:

    "ȝondyr is an hous of haras that stant be the way,
    Amonge the bestys herboryd may ȝe be."

    p. 147.
  • HARDE yn knowynge, or wark∣ynge. Difficilis.
  • HARDE yn towchynge, or felythe (sic, felynge, S.) Durus.
  • HARDY. Audax.
  • HARDYLY. Audacter.
  • HARDYN̄', or growyn̄' harde. Dureo, induresco.
  • HARDYN̄', or make harde. Induro.
  • HARDYNESSE. Audacia.
  • HARDENESSE of knowy(n)ge, or dede doynge (hardynes of know∣ynge of dede, or other thynge, P.) Difficultas.
  • HARDNES in towchynge. Duricies.
  • HARDE DEMARE, or domys mann wythe-owte mercy (harde, with∣oute mercy, P.) Severus, C. F.
  • HARDE SETT (or obstynat, P.) yn wyckydnesse, þat neuer wylle chawnge. Obstinatus, pertinax.
  • HARE, beeste. Lepus.
  • HARYYN̄', or drawyn̄'.

    3. To harry or harr, to drag by force, is a verb frequently used by the early writers, and still used in the North. Hampole says in the Prick of Conscience,

    "And deuylles salle harre hym vp evene
    In the ayre als he sulde stegh to heuene."

    Harl. MS. 6923, f. 62.

    See Towneley Myst. p. 247. Fabyan says, in his relation of the murder of Bp. Sta∣pylton, 1325, "the corps of ye sayde bysshop, with hys ij. servauntes, were haryed to Thamys syde, where the sayd bysshop had begonne to edyfye a toure," &c. Part. vii. The following passage occurs in Golding's version of Beza's book of Christian ques∣tions, 1572; "Whereas the same (the will) ought to be rule dy reason, as by a wagon∣guider; yet, notwithstanding, how often doth it harie him headlong awaye?" Pals∣grave gives the verb, "I harye, or mysse entreate, or hale one, ie harie. Why do you harye the poore fellowe on this facyon? I harry, or carry by force, ie trayne, and ie hercelle. He haryeth hym aboute, as if he were a traytour." Ang.-Sax. herȝian, vastare. Forby gives harriage, signifying confusion.

    Trahicio, pertraho (protraho, S. traho, traicio, P.)
  • HARLOTTE.4. [This term did not originally denote a dissolute woman, but a low fellow, a buffoon, a varlet. See Sir Cleges, line 349; Ywaine and Gawin, line 2404; Chaucer, and the Vis. of P. Ploughman. Fox speaks of a company of sectarians who were named harlots, in the reign of Hen. III. Acts and Mon. i. 305; Lambarde's Peramb. of Kent, 178. "Gerro, a tryfelour, or a harlott." MED. MS. CANT. "An harlott, balator, rusticus, gerro, mima, joculator, pantomima, parasitaster, histrix, nugator, scurrulus, manducus. An harlottry, lecacitas, inurbanitas, &c. To do harlottry, scurrari." CATH. ANG.]Scurrus.
  • Page  228HARME. Dampnum, detrimen∣tum, dispendium.
  • HARMLES. Indempnis.
  • HARMYD. Dampnificatus.
  • HARMYN̄'. Dampnifico.
  • HARNEYS, or rayment. Para∣mentum.
  • HARNEYS, wepyne. Arma, plur.
  • HARNEYS, or hustylment (instru∣mentys longynge to howslde, K.) Utensile.
  • HARNEYS for hors. Falere, plur.
  • HARNEYSYN̄', or a-rayyn̄' wythe harneys and wepyne (harneysyn or armyn, P.) Armo.
  • HARPE. Cithara, lira.
  • HARPYN̄'. Cithariso.
  • HARP STRYNGYS. Fidis, C. F.
  • HARPOWRE. Citharista, citha∣reda, liricen, fidicen, dico.
  • HARSKE, or haske, as sundry frutys (hars, or harske, P.)1. [The Campanula trachelium, Linn. is called by Parkinson throat-wort or haske∣wort. Skinner gives Hask-wort, Trachelium, forte a sapore austero. Compare Dan. Sw. and Dutch, harsk, rank, or rusty. Haskard, coarse or unpolished, appears to be hence derived. Horman says that "Homer declarying a very folysshe, and an haskard felowe (ignavum) under the person of Thersyte, sayth that he was streyte in the shul∣ders, and copheeded lyke a gygge." Harsh is sometimes written harrish; thus Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, 1562, says that "dates, if they be eaten, they ar good for the harrishenes, or roughnes of the throte;" and of plums, "they that ar litle ones, and harde, and harrish tarte, ar sterk noughts." "Sorbum, an harryshe peare." ELYOT.]Stipticus, poriticus.
  • HAROWE (harwe, K.) Erpica, CATH. et KYLW. traha, C. F. et BRIT.; et traho (sic) Anglicea slede.
  • HARWYN̄'. Erpico, CATH.
  • HASARDE, play. Aleatura.
  • HASARDE (sic, S. P.) or hasar∣dowre. Aleator, UG. V. aleo, CATH.
  • HASSOK.2. ["Ulphus, hassok." MED. Forby states that, in Norfolk, coarse grass, which grows in rank tufts on boggy ground, is termed hassock. In the foundation charter of Saw∣trey Abbey, A.D. 1147, Simon, Earl of Northampton grants certain lands adjoining Whittlesea mere, the boundaries being minutely described: in one place the limit is defined to e "indirecte pertransversum marisci, usque ad tercium hassocum a firmâ terrâ inter mariscum et Higgeneiam." The cartulary of Ramsey supplies a repetition of this statement, contained in the attestation of Alex. Maufe regarding the disputed limits of the donation made by the Earl, his lord; in this document the Latinised word hassocus twice occurs. "Pastores vero nostri super exteriores hassocos versus Walton inter pratum et mariscum debent stare, et animalia sua usque ad pedes suos venire per∣mittere." Mon. Angl. orig. ed. t. i. pp. 850, 852, 853. Ducange, not being acquainted with the locality, interprets the word as denoting the kind of stone called tufa. In an account relating to the castle of Guysnes, in 1465, among the miscell. records of the Queen's Rememb. a statement appears as to the clearing away of "cirparum ac arun∣dinum, segges, soddes et hassokes," which grew to the obstruction of a certain mill∣course. The word is still used in N. Britain. See Jamieson.]Ulphus.
  • HAASTE. Festinencia, festinacio
  • HASTE, yn sodente (hayste, or so∣dayne, S.)3. [HASTE, yn sodence, MS. Compare SODEYNTE, hereafter.]Impetus.
  • HASTY. Festinus, impetuosus, preceps.
  • HASTYBERE, corne (hastybyr, S.)

    4. POLBERE is given hereafter as another name of a kind of barley (Ang.Sax. bere, hordeum) termed hasty from its being early, and coming to maturity in the third month after it is sown. Gerarde refers the name Trimestre to the Amil-corn, or starch-corn, Triticum amyleum, cultivated in Germany and the Low Countries to make starch; but according to Parkinson the grain here alluded to appears to be the naked barley,Hordeum vernum, which, as he observes, "is not seene or sowne by any almost in this land," called in Germany Zeytgerste, or Titgerste, small barley, or "one for the present." It appears, however, that in Tusser's time the early variety was cultivated in the Eastern counties.

    "Sow barley in March, in April, and May,
    The latter in sand, and the sooner in clay."

    March's husbandry.
    Trimensis, C. F.
  • Page  229HASTYLY. Festinanter.
  • HASTYLY, smertly. Impetuose, precipitanter.
  • HASTYN̄', or hyyn̄'. Festino, ac∣celero.
  • HASTYN̄', or hyyn̄' yn goynge. Propero.
  • HASTYNESSE, idem quod HAASTE, supra.
  • HASTLERE, þat rostythe mete (or roostare, infra.)

    1. The enumeration of the household of Hen. II. in the Constit. domus Regis, Liber niger Scacc. Hearne, i. 348, comprises "De magnâ coquinâ—host' (ostiarius?) haste∣lariae," his three men, and the "hastalarius." The latter seems to be the same as the "hastator," named in the ordinance for the household of Louis XI. 1261, called in French hasteur. See Ducange. Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Essex, among the household servants named inhis will, 1361, as "potager, ferou, barber, ewer," &c. mentions "Will. de Barton, hastiler." Roy. Wills, p. 52. In the Liber cure cocorum, the author thus states the intention of his treatise.

    "Fyrst to ȝou I wylle schawe
    þo poyntes of cure al by rawe;
    Of potage, hastery, and bakun mete,
    And petecure I nylle forȝete."

    Sloane MS. 1986, f. 47.

    The chapter "de cibis assatis, of rostyd mete," comprises a singular dish, termed "hasteletes on fysshe day," consisting of figs, raisins, dates, and almonds, transfixed on a "broche of irne," and roasted; f. 86, b. Compare Forme of Cury, p. 8. Among the domestic oficers of the Earl of Northumberland, 1511, was a "yoman cooke for the mouth, who doith hourely attend in the kitching at the haistry for roisting of meat." Ant. Rep. iv. 244. Bp. Percy states that in Shropshire the fireplace is called haister; and, according to Mr. Hartshorne, an hastener, or hasteler, is a kind of screen lined with tin, used for reflecting the heat in roasting. See Salopia Ant. The derivation is evidently from hasta. "Haste, a spit or broach." COTG. Compare ROOSTARE, or hastelere, hereafter.

    Assator, assarius, KYLW. assaria, as∣satrix.
  • HATTE, hed hillynge. Capellum, C. F. vel capellus, CATH.
  • HATTE of strawe. Capedulum, UG. V. in C.
  • HATARE, or he þat hatythe. Osor, C. F.
  • HATE. Odium.
  • HATYN̄'. Odio.
  • HATYR, rent clothe (hatere, K. hatere, or hatyr, H. P.)

    2. In the curious song on the Man in the Moon, printed by Ritson, it is said,

    "When þe forst freseþ muche chele he byd,
    þe þornes beþ kene, is hattren to tereþ."

    Anc. Songs, p. 36.

    When Philip Augustus fell into the river, in consequence of the breaking of the bridge of Gisors, Marcadeus, a captain in the host of King Richard, according to Langtoft's account, derided him thus;

    "Sir Kyng rise vp and skip, for þou has wette þi hater,
    þou fisshes not worþe a leke, rise and go thi ways,
    For þou has wette þi breke, schent is þi hernays."

    R. Brunne, p. 204.

    So likewise in the Romance of Kyng Alisaunder, the word signifies garments, attire: see lines 4264, 7054; and the Brahmins are said to live austere penance, "thinne-lich y-hatered," line 5922. Ang.-Sax. haetero, vestitus. In the Vision of P. Plough man, Haukyn makes the following excuses for his soiled garment.

    "I have but oon hool hater, quod Haukyn;
    I am the lasse to blame,
    Though it be soiled and selde clene:
    I slepe therinne o nyghtes."

    line 8900.

    In line 9758, the word "haterynge" occurs in the sense of clothing. The explanation, however, given in the Promptorium, may suggest the comparison of the word with the verb, still used in Norfolk, to hatter, or exhaust by fatigue. See Bp. Kennett's Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033. "To hatter, to expose to danger, to weary out, or wear out, as a horse by too much riding, or any utensil by too much lending is hattered about: Kent. Isl. haettur, periculosus."

    Scru∣tum, pannucia, C. F.
  • HATEREDE, idem quod HATE, (HATERYD, idem quod debate, S.)
  • Page  230HAUE, supra in HAN.
  • HAVE abhominacyōn', and have disdeyne, supra in HAN.)
  • (HAVYN in mende, K. or han in mynde, supra. Recordor, me∣moro, memini.)
  • HAUE ynvye. Invideo.
  • HAVE leysere. Vaco.
  • HAVE mercy. Misereor.
  • HAVE yn possessyon'. Possideo.
  • HAVE levyr (have leuer, K. P.)1. ["I haue leuer, i'ayme myeulx, i'ai plus chier. Many men had leuer se a play, than to here a masse." PALSG. This word is used very commonly by the old writers. Ang.- Sax. leof, carus, gratus, comp. leofra. See LEFE, and dere.]Malo.
  • HAVE pyte, or ruthe. Compacior.
  • (HAUE suspeckte, K. H. P. Sus∣picio, CATH. suspecto, CATH.)
  • HAWE, frute. Cinum, cornum, C. F. ramnum, CATH.
  • HAWE THORNE. Ramnus, CATH. cinus, cornus.
  • HAVENE. Portus, hostium, CATH.
  • HAVENE kepare, or gouernare. Portunus, C. F.
  • (HAWBERK, supra in HABU∣RYONE.)
  • HAWKE. Falco.
  • HAWKYNGE. Falconatus.
  • HAWNCYN̄', or heynyn̄' (hawtyn, K. hawnsyn or yn heyyn, S. hawten, or heithyn vp, P.)2. [This verb occurs commonly in a composite form, to en-hance, or in-hance, as in the Vision of P. Ploughm. the Wicliffite version, and Chaucer. The lintel of a door is termed, from its position, the haunce. "Limen signifieth not only the thrashold of a doore, but also the haunse. Supercilium, the haunse whyche is ouer the doore. Hy∣perthyron, transumpte, or haunce." ELYOT. In the Nomenclator of Junius, translated by Higins, a distinction is made between the Vitruvian terms hyperthyrum, and supercilium, the former being rendered "the transam, or lintell," the latter "the hanse of a door." Cotgrave gives "contrefrontail, the brow peece, or upmost post of a doore, a haunse, or breast summer." At first sight it may appear doubtful whether heynyn or heyuyn (to heave) be the true reading; but by considering the position in the alphabetical arrange∣ment of the word heynynge, subsequently, the former appears to be correct. Compare Ang.-Sax. héan, evehere. Heithyn may be perhaps traced to Ang.-Sax. heaðo, culmen. In the version of Vegecius, B. iv. c. 19, it is said that the city wall, when a bastile or "somer castel" is brought against it, should be "enhaunsed" and made higher, and describes the means to be adopted by the assailants "ayenst this highething" of the wall. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. "I haythe, I lyfte on heythe, ie haulce. Hayth this tester (haulcez ce ciel) a lytell. I heyghten, I set vp a heythe, ie exalse. This balke (tref) is heythened two foote." PALSG.]Exalto, elevo, sublevo.
  • Page  231HAWNTARE. Frequentator, fre∣quentatrix.
  • HAWNTYN̄', or ofte vsyn̄'. Fre∣quento.
  • HAWNTYNGE. Frequentacio.
  • HAWNTYNGLY, or ofte. Fre∣quenter.
  • HAVURE, or havynge of catel, or oþer goodys (havour, or werdly good, K. havre, or hawynge of catel, S. hauyre, or worldly good, HARL. MS. 2274.)

    1. In the Romance of Coer de Lion, Tancred says to King Richard that he had heard

    "That thou art comme, with gret power,
    Me to bereve my landes hower."

    line 1714.

    Weber interprets the word as meaning hire, possession (rythmi gratiâ.) "Havoir" occurs in Chaucer's Rom. of the Rose, line 4720 in the signification of wealth, avoir. Sir John Maundevile, describing the good dispositions of the folk of the Isle of Brag∣man, says that they are neither covetous nor envious, "and thei ȝive no charge of aveer, ne of ricchesse:" p. 354. In the regulations for the government of Prince Eward, son of Edw. IV. 1474, is this clause: "We wyll that the hall be ordynately served, and strangers served and cherished accordinge to their haveures." Househ. Ordin. p. *29. In the Golden Legend mention is made of "coueytous men that sette all theyr loue in hauyour, and in solace of ye world." See Kennett, and Spelman, v. Avera.

  • HE, or he þat, Ille, ipse.
  • HE, Thys. Iste, hic.
  • HEC, hek, or hetche, or a dore (hecche, K. heke, or hech, S.) 2. ["Antica, a gate, or a dore, or hatche. Est antica domus ingressus ab anteriori." ORTUS. "An heke, antica." CATH. ANG. "Ostiolum, hek." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 27. "Hatche of a dore, hecq." PALSG. "Guichét, a wicket, or hatch of a doore." COTG. Forby gives "hack, half-hack, a hatch, a door divided across." In the North, a heck-door is one partly latticed and partly pannelled. See Brockett.]Antica, CATH. et C. F. et UG. in an.
  • HEED. Caput.
  • HEDARE, or hefdare (hedare, or hedere, S. hevedare, H. behedar, P.) 3. [See HEVEDARE, hereafter. "A hangeman or an heeder is odiose to loke vpon." HORM.]Decapitator, lictor.
  • HEDYN̄', or hefedyn̄' (hevedyn, K. K. behedyn, P.) Decapito, de∣collo (trunco, detrunco, P.)
  • HEED BOROW (hedorwe, K. H. heed broth, S.) 4. [The head-borough, borwealder, borsholder, or tithing man, was the chief of the friborgh or tithing, the subdivision of ten freemen, called hand-boroughs, or franci plegii, who were mutually bound to the king for the good conduct of each other. Ang.-Sax. heafod, caput, borh, fidejussor. In the Statute entitled Visus Franciplegii, which has been called Stat. 18 Edw. II. de tenendâ letâ, they are termed "chiefs plegges." Stat. of Realm, i. 246. The origin of the civil division of the territory into hundreds and tithings has been confidently attributed to Alfred, but, as it seems, on no sufficient evidence. In the laws of the Confessor this system of mutual suretyship is clearly set forth. Anc. Laws and Inst. i. 450. See Spelman, v. Friborga, and Borsholder.]Plegius ca∣pitalis.
  • Page  232HEED CYTE. Metropolis, CATH. monopolis, CATH.
  • HEED of garlek, lely, or oþer lyke (or of a leke, HARL. MS. 2274.) Bulbus, KYLW. et UG. in bullo.
  • HEEDLES. Acephalis, vel ace∣phalus, CATH.
  • HEED WASCHYNGE. Caitila∣vium, C. F.
  • HEEDWERKE, sekenesse (hedake, H.) 1. ["þe hedewarke, cephalia, cephalargia," CATH. ANG. In the edition of the Ortus in Mr. Wilbraham's library ciphalus is rendered "the hede werke;" in the ed. 1518, "the heed ache." In a medical treatise by "Maystere Lanfranke, of Meleyn," MS. in the collection of Sir T. Phillipps, No. 1381, the following occurs among several prescriptions for the "hede warke. Make lie of verveyn, or of betayne, or of wormode, and there with wasshe þin hede thryse in þe weke." See WERKYNGE, or heed ache, hereafter. In Norfolk, according to Forby, "in violent head-ache, the head works like a clock." Ang.-Sax. heafod-waerc, cephalalgia.]Cephalia, CATH.
  • HEEDWARKE sufferere, or he that sufferythe heedwarke. Cepha∣licus, CATH.
  • HEFT. Manubrium.
  • HEFTYDE. Manubriatus.
  • (HEFTYN̄, infra in HELVYN̄.)
  • HEFTYNGE. Manubriacio.
  • HEDGE (hegge, K. S.) Sepes, UG.
  • HEDGYD (heggyd, K. S.) Septus.
  • HEDGYN̄', or make an hedge (heggyn, K. S.) Sepio.
  • (HETCHE, or hek, P. Antica, C. F.)
  • HETCHYD, as byrdys. Pullifica∣tus, fetatus, C. F. in alcione.
  • HEY, beestys mete. Fenum.
  • HEY, or heythe (of heythe, K. for heyth, S. hey of height, P.) Altus, celsus, excelsus.
  • HEY BENCHE. 2. [Compare DESE, of hye benche. "Orcestra dicebatur locus separatus in cenâ, ubi nobiles sedebant." CATH.]Orcestra, CATH. orcistra, C. F. episedium (sub∣sellum, P.)
  • HEYESTE. Altissimus, supremus.
  • HEYKE, garment (or hewke, infra; heyke, clothe, K. hayeste garment, or huke, S.) 3. [The following explanations are suplied by the Catholicon: "Armelausa vestis est, sic dicta quia ante et retro divisa et aperta sit, in armis tantum clausa, quasi armi∣clausa; et est sclavina. Ab armus (humerus) secundum Rabanum dicitur armelus, vestis humeros tantum tegens, sicut scapulare monachorum. Lacerna est pallium fimbriatum quo olim soli milites utebantur, &c.—dicitur lacerna a latere et a cerno." In Harl. MS. 1002, f. 154, levitonarius is rendered "an huke;" in the Ortus it is explained to be "collobium lineum sine manicis, i. dalmatica, quali Egyptii monachi utebantur; a tabarde." It is scarcely possible to define the garment to which, modified by the fashions of different periods, the name of hewke was assigned; it appears from citations given by Ducange that the huca in the XIIIth cent. was furnished with a hood; it also seems to have been a military garment, and sometimes even of the number of such as were of a defensive nature, although not so accounted by Sir. S. Meyrick in his paper on military garments worn in England, Archaeol. xix. In the Wardrobe of Hen. V. 1423, occur "j. heuke noier, garniz d'espanges d'argent dorr', q'estoit à Count Morteyn: pois. viij lb. pris la lb. xxxij. s. en tout, xij. li. xvj. s.—j. heuke de chamelet, ovec j. cha∣peron de mesme.—j. heuke d'escarlet: v. hukes de damask noier, brochés d'argent," &c. Rot. Parl. IV. 225, 236. In an indenture of retainer preserved in the Tower, dated 1441, for military service in France under Richard Duke of York, James Skidmore, Esq. engages to serve as a man at arms with six archers, and to take for himself and his men "huk' of my seid lord the duk' liv'e." Meyrick's Crit. Enqu. ii. 111. The Ordinance of Charles VII. dated 1448, respecting the equipment of the Francs-Archers, requires every parish to provide a man armed with "jacque, ou huque de brigandine." Père Daniel, Mil. Franc. i. 238. In the Invent. of Sir John Fastolfe's wardrobe, 1459, under the head of togae, is the "Item, j. jagged huke of blakke sengle, and di' of the same." Archaeol. xxi. 252. In King Ryence's chalenge the heralds are described as attired in "hewkes," and loudly crying for largesse. Percy's Rel. iii. 26. There was also a female attire called Hewke, Belg. huycke, which covered the shoulders and head. In the Acta Sanctorum Jun. vol. IV. 632, a female is described as clothed "in habitu seculari, cum peplo Brabantico nigro, Huckam vulgo vocant." Palsgrave gives "hewke, a garment for a woman, surquayne, froc; huke, surquanie;" and Minsheu explains huyke, huike, or huke, to be a mantle, such as women use in Spain, Germany, and the Low Countries when they go abroad. Skelton mentions the "huke of Lyncole green" worn by Elinour Rumming. See further in Ducange and Roquefort.]Armelus, CATH. in armelausa, lacerna, CATH. levitonare, KYLW.
  • Page  233HEYL fro sekenesse. Sanus, in∣columis, sospes.
  • HEYLYN̄', or gretyn̄'. Saluto.
  • HEYL, seyde for gretynge. Ave, salve.
  • HEYLYNGE, or gretynge. Salu∣tacio.
  • (HEYNYN, K. H. heighthyn, P. supra in HAWNCYN̄'. Exalto, elevo, sublevo, levo.)
  • HEYNYNGE. Exaltacio, elevacio.
  • HEYNCEMANN (henchemanne, H.) 1. [Chaucer describes the knight as attended by three mounted "henshmen." Flour and the Leaf. The pages of distinguished personages were called henxmen, as Spelman supposes, from Germ. hengst, a war-horse, or, according to Bp. Percy, from their place being at the side, or haunch of their lord. In the household of Edward IV. there were "henxmen, vj enfauntes, or more as it shall please the Kinge," who seem to have been chiefly wards of the Crown, and placed under the direction of a master of henxmen: their mode of living, and education at court, is set forth in the Household Book of Edw. IV. given among the Ordinances published by the Ant. Soc. p. 44. By the Stat. 3 Edw. IV. c. 5, "hensmen, herolds, purceyvauntez, ministrelles, et jouers en lour entreludes" were exempted from the penalties under the statute of apparel. In the household of the Earl of Northumberland, 1511, there were three haunsmen or hanshmen, who are enumerated with "yong gentlemen at thei fryndes fynding, in my lord's house for the hoole yere:" the first served as cupbearer to the Earl, the second to his lady. On New-year's day they presented gloves, and had 6s. 8d. reward. Ant. Rep. iv. 199. See further in Pegge's Curialia, Lodge's Illustr. i. 359, and Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII. edit. by Sir. H. Nicolas. "Henchman, paige d'honneur, enfant d'honneur." PALSG. "Praetextatus assecla, qui Gallice vocatur vn paye d'hommes; a page of honour, or a henchman." Junius, by Higins. "A hench-man, or hench-boy, page d'honneur qui marche devant quelque Seigneur de grand authorité." SHERW.]Gerolocista, duorum generum (gerelocista, S.)
  • HEY STAK. Fenile.
  • HEYTHE (heyght, S. heighte, P.) Page  234Altitudo, culmen, cacumen, sub∣limitas (summitas, P.)

    1. The heyward was the keeper of cattle in a common field, who prevented trespass on the cultivated ground. According to the Anglo-Saxon law the haeiȝ-weard was to have his reward from the part of the crop nearest to the pastures, or, if land were alloted, it was to be adjacent to the same. See Anc. Laws and Inst. i. 441. His office is thus noticed by G. de Bibelesworth:

    "Ly messiers (hayward) ad les chaumps en cure."
    "In tyme of heruest mery it is ynough;
    The hayward bloweth mery his horne,
    In eueryche felde ripe is corne."

    K. Alis. 5756.

    Bp. Kennett observes that there were two kinds of agellarii, the common herd-ward of a town or village, called bubulcus, who overlooked the common herd, and kept it within bounds; and the heyward of the lord of the manor, or religious house, who was regu∣larly sworn at the court, took care of the tillage, paid the labourers, and looked after trespasses and encroachments: he was termed fields-man, or tithing-man, and his wages in 1425 were a noble. "Inclusarius, a heyewarde." MED. "Inclusorius, a pynner of beestes (al. pynder.)" ORT. "Haiward, haward, qui garde au commun tout le bestiail d'un bourgade." SHERW.

    Agellarius, C. F. abigeus, UG. V. (messor, K.)
  • (HEK, or hetche, supra in HEC.)
  • HEKELE (heykylle, HARL. MS. 2274.) 2. ["Hetchell for flaxe, serancq, serant. I heckell (or hetchyll) flaxe, ie cerance, and ie habille du lin. Am nat I a great gentylman, my father was a hosyer, and my mother dyd heckell flaxe?" PALSG. "Seran, a hatchell, or heach, the iron comb whereon flax is dressed." COTG. Forby gives hickle, a comb to dress flax, or break it into its finest fibres. Teut. hekel, pecten.]Mataxa, C. F.
  • HEKELARE. Mataxatrix.
  • HEKELYN̄'. Mataxo.
  • HEKELYNGE. Mataxacio.
  • HEKFERE, beeste (or styrke, infra.) 3. ["Juvenca, a hekefeer beest." ORTUS. "Hecforde, a yong cowe, genisse." PALSG. Caxton, in the Boke for Travellers, speaks of "flesshe of moton, of an hawgher (genise,) or of a calfe." See Bp. Kennett's Gloss. v. Hekfore. Ang.-Sax. heahfore, vaccula. Forby notices a bequest of certain "heckfordes" in the will of a Norfolk clergyman, dated 1579, but the modern pronunciation is heifker.]Juvenca.
  • HELDYN̄', or bowyn̄'. 4. ["To helde, ubi to bowe." CATH. ANG. In the Northern Dialects to heald signifies to slope, as a declivity. See Brockett, Craven Dial. and Jamieson, v. Heild. Ang.-Sax. hyldan, inclinare. Palsgrave gives the verb "I hylde, I leane on the one syde, as a bote or shyp, or any other vessell, ie encline de cousté. Sytte fast, I rede you, for ye bote begynneth to hylde."]Inclino, flecto, deflecto.
  • HELDYNE, or holdynge. Tencio, detencio, retencio.
  • HELDYNGE, or bowynge (clynynge, K.) Inclinacio, fleccio, incur∣vacio.
  • HELE of þe fote. Talus, calcaneus.
  • HEELE, or helthe. 5. ["Salubritas, holsōnes, or heell. Saluber, helefull." ORTUS. "Prosper, hele∣fulle, happy, withe-owte tene." MED. MS. CANT. "Sospitas, firmitas, salvacio, &c. hele." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "An hele, columitas, edia, fecunditas, valitudo. Hele∣fulle, prosper, salutaris." CATH. ANG. "Heale of body, santé." PALSG. In a sermon given by Fox, as delivered by R. Wimbeldon, 1389, is this pasaage: "Giesy was smyt with mesilry, for he sold Naaman's heale, that cam of God's grace." Sir John Paston writes thus to hsi mother: "It'm it lyked yow to weet of myn heelle, I thanke God now yt I am nott greetly syke ner soor." Past. Lett. V. 80. Ang.-Sax. hael, salus.]Sanitas, inco∣lumitas.
  • HELLE. Infernus, Tartarus, Baratrum, Stix (Avernus, P.)
  • Page  235HEELYN̄', or hoolyn̄' of sekenese. Sano, curo, medico, medicor.
  • HEELYNGE, or holynge of seke∣nesse. Sanacio, curacio.
  • HELME, or þe rothere of a schyp (helme of þe roder of shyp, S. helme, rother of a shyppe, H. P.) Temo, CATH. plectrum, CATH. et UG. in plecto.
  • HELME of armure. Galea, C. F. cassis, C. F. et CATH.
  • HELPARE. Adjutor, adjutrix, suffragator.
  • HELPE. Adjutorium, auxilium, suffragium, juvamen, presidium (subsidium, K. P.)
  • HELPYN̄'. Juvo, adjuvo, auxilior, subvenio, succurro, opitulor.
  • HELPYN̄' and defendyn̄'. Patro∣cinor.
  • HELTHE, idem quod HELE, supra.
  • HELTYR (or halter, S.) Capistrum.
  • HELTRYN̄' beestys. Capistro, CATH.
  • HELVE. 1. ["Helue of any tole, manche. Hafte of any tole, manche." PALSG. This word is given by Forby as still used in Norfolk. See also Moore. Ang.-Sax. helf, manubrium.]Manubrium, manuten∣tum.
  • HELVYN̄', or heftyn̄'. Manubrio.
  • HEMME. Fimbria, limbus, CATH. et C. F. lascinia, CATH. et C. F. ora, orarium, CATH.
  • HEMMYN̄' garmentys. Limbo, fimbrio, CATH.
  • HEMPE. Canabum.
  • HEMPYNE, or hempy (hempene, or of hempe, K. S. H.) Canabeus.
  • HENNE. Gallina.
  • (HENNE NEST, HARL. MS. 2274. Ingitatorium.)
  • HENBANE, herbe. Jusquiamus, simphonica, insana, C. F.
  • HENGYL of a dore, or wyndowe (hengyll of a shettinge, K. P.) 2. [Forby states that in Norfolk hingle signifies either a small hinge, or a snare of wire, closing like a hinge, by means of which poachers are said to hingle hares and rabbits. "Hinge, or hingell of a gate, cardo," &c. BARET. Horman says, "This bottell lacketh an hyngill, uter amicino caret." See GYMEWE.]Vertebra, vectis, CATH. et C. F.
  • HENGYL, gymewe (gymmewe, K. gemewe, HARL. MS. 2274, P.) Vertinella, UG. in verro.
  • HEEP. Cumulus, acervus, agger, globus.
  • (HENTYNGE, supra in CAHCH∣YNGE.) 3. [See HYNTYN̄' hereafter. "I hente, I take by vyolence, or to catche, ie happe; this terme is nat vtterly comen." PALSG. It is used by Chaucer.]
  • (HEPAR, K. Cumulator.)
  • HEEPYD. Cumulatus.
  • HEPYN̄', or make on a hepe. Cu∣mulo, accumulo,
  • HEPYNGE. Cumulacio.
  • HER (here, K. S. P.) Capillus, cincinnus, crinis, cesaries, coma.
  • HEER fyrste growynge yn' mannys berde. Lanugo, C. F.
  • (HERBERE, H. P. supra in GRENE PLACE.) 4. [See the note on the word ERBARE.]
  • HERBERIOWRE. Hospiciarius, C. F. et COMM.
  • Page  236HERBEREWE (herborwe, K. herbe∣row, H. herborowe, P.) 1. ["An harbar, hospicium, diversorium. An harbiriour, hospes, hospita. To harber, hospitari. Harberynge, hospitalitas." CATH. ANG. "Herboroughe, logis. I harbo∣rowe, I lodge one in an inne, ie herberge. Herberiour, that prouydeth lodgyng, four∣rier." PALSG. A staion where a marching armyrested was termed in Ang.-Sx. here-berȝa, from here, exercitus, beorȝan, munire. In a more extended sense harbour de∣noted any place of refuge, or hospitable reception. See Vision of P. Ploughm.; Wicliffite Version, &c. In the Golden Legend it is related that St. Amphyabel "prayed Albon of herborough for the love of God; whiche Albon without faynynge, as he yt alwaye loued to do hospytalyte, graunted hym herberough, and well receyued hym." Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, "Grete me the damyselle of your hous, or of your he(r)berow, vostre hostel." The verb is used by Sir John Maundevile in the sense both of giving and receiving hospitality; he says, speaking of Bethany, "there dwelte Symon leprous, and there herberwed our Lord, and aftre he was baptised of the Apos∣tiles, and was clept Julyan, and was made Bisschoppe; and this is the same Julyan that men clepe to for gode herberghage, for our Lord herberwed with him in his hows." Voiage, p. 116. The adjective herberous has the signification of hospitable. In the version prefixed to the translation of the paraphrase of Titus by Erasmus, it occurs as follows: "A bysshop must be such as no man can complaine on—not geuen to filthy lucre, but herberous," &c. Titus, i. 8; printed by Johan Byddell, t. Hen. VIII. The remarkable name Cold-harbour, which occurs repeatedly in most counties at places ad∣jacent to Roman roads, or lines of early communication, seems to have been derived from the station there established; but of the strange epithet thereto prefixed no satis∣factory explanation has yet been suggested. See Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua, p. 253.]Hos∣picium.
  • HERBERWYN̄', or receyvyn̄' to hereboroghe (herbergwyn, K. herborowen, P.) Hospitor, CATH. et si significet to take herboroghe, tunc est quasi de∣ponens.
  • HEERE BONDE (herbonde, P.) Vitta, C. F. et UG. V. in C. cri∣nale, DICC. discriminale.
  • HEERCE on a dede corce (herce vpon dede corcys, K. P. heers of dede cors, S.)

    2. This term is derived from a sort of pyramidal candlestick, or frame for supporting lights, called hercia, or herpica, from its resemblance in form to a harrow, of which mention occurs as early as the XIIth cent. It was not, at first, exclusively a part of funeral display, but was used in the solemn services of the holy week; thus by the statute of the Synod of Exeter, 1287, every parish was bound to provide the "hercia ad tenebras." Wilkins, Conc. ii. 139. In the account of expenses at the death of Thomas, Abbot of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, 1375, occurs an item, "pro corpore ficto, cum hersiâ." W. Thorn, X Script. 2152. See further the accounts of the ob∣sequies of Anne the Queen of Ric. II. Gough's Sep. Mon. i. 170*, and the will of that monarch, in which he directs that for his own interment there should be prepared "iv. herciae excellentiae convenientis regali." Rym. vii. 75. In the will of John de Nevill, 1386, it is termed, "Hercium." Madox, Form. 429. The Pat. 1 Hen. V. 1413, re∣counts the orders of the King to Simon Prentout of London, "wex chaundeler," and Thomas Gloucestre, "pictori nostro," for the provision and transport to Canterbury of the "Hercea" for the funeral of Henry IV. Rym. viii. 14. The ordinance which regulated the charges by wax-chandlers, stat. 11 Hen. VI. c. 12, comprises a clause to except" herces affaires pur leznoblez trespassantsz." Stat. of Realm, vol. ii. 287. Chaucer appears to use the term hearse to denote the decorated bier, or funeral pageant, and not exclusively the illumination, which was a part thereof; and towards the XVIth cent. it had such a general signification alone. Hardyng describes the honours falsely bestowed upon the remains of Richard II. when cloths of gold were offered "upon his hers" by the King and lords.

    "At Poules his masse was done, and diryge,
    In hers royall, semely to royalte."

    Chron. c. 200.

    A representation is given on the Roll or Brevis mortuorum of John Islyppe, Abbot of Westm. who died 1522, and whose corpse was placed "undre a goodlye Hersse wt manye lights, and maiestie, and vallaunce set wt pencells," &c. which was left standing until "the monethes mynde." Vet. Mon. iv. pl. xviii. "Herce for a deed corse, of silke, poille. Herse clothe, poille. Herce, a deed body, corps." PALSG. "He lay in a noble hyrst, or herse, suggesto. There was made a noble hyrst, tumulus." HORM. In the version of Junius' Nomencl. by Higins is given "Cenotaphium, a herse, a se∣pulchre of honour, a stately funeral." "Poille, the square canopy thats borne over the sacrament, or a soveraign prince, in solemne processions; hence also a hearse, hearse-cloth, laid over the beer of a dead person." COTG.

    Pirama, CATH. piramis, C. F. et UG. in pir.
  • HEERDE, or flok of beestys, what so euyr they be. Polia, CATH. armentum, CATH.
  • HEERD MANN. Pastor, agaso, C. F.
  • Page  237HERRE of a locke. 1. [This word is repeatedly used in the later Wicliffite version. "And þe herris (eþer hengis) of þe doris of þe innere hows of þe hooly of hooly þingis, and of þe doris of þe hows of þe temple weren of gold." iii. Kings, vii. 50. "As a dore is turned on his herre (eþer heengis) so a slow man in his bedde." Prov. xxvi. 14. See also Prov. viii. 26; Job xxii. 14. "Cardo, a here of a dore, cuneus qui in foramine vertitur." MED. "Har, the hole in a stone on which the spindle of a door or gate resteth; Dunelm. and the harr tree is the head of the gate, in which the foot or bottom of the spindle is placed. Harrs,hinges, a door-har; Westm." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033. Ang.-Sax. heor, hearre, cardo.]Cardo, COMM.
  • HERE, yn' thys place. Hic.
  • HERYN'. Audio.
  • HERYNGE wythe eere (herynge of here, K. P.) Auditus, au∣dacio (audicio, S. P.)
  • HEERYNGE, fysshe. Allec.
  • HERKYN̄', andtake heede, and ley to þe ere (herkyn to, S.) As∣culto.
  • HEERN, byrde (heryn, K. S. P. herne, HARL. MS. 2274.) Ardea.
  • HERNE PANNE of þe hed.

    2. "Cranium, harnepanne." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. See G. de Bibelesworth.

    "Vous deuet dire moun hanapel (hernepane,)
    Moun frount, e moun cervel (mi forred, ant my brayn.)"

    The word occurs also in Havelok, 1991; Coer de Lion, 5293. Ang.-Sax. haernes, cerebrum, panna, patella. Minot uses the word "hernes," or brains; p. 10.

  • HERYNS, or brayne (hernys, or harneys, S.) Cerebrum.
  • HEROWDE of armys. Curio, C. F.
  • HERT, wylde beeste. Cervus.
  • HERT, ynwarde parte of a beste (myd part, S.) Cor.
  • HERTLES, or vnherty.Vecors.
  • HERTHE, where fyre ys made. Ignearium, C. F. focarium, C. F. ignarium, UG. in Ge.
  • HERTHE STOK or kynlym̄' (stocke, K. P. kynlyn, S.) 3. [The MS., by an error of the scribe, gives repofocilium repeated twice; and the reading ofthe Winch. MS. seems still more corrupt, "reposialium, CATH. vel secundum C. F. Repoficilium." The word intended may be retrofocinium, or repofocinium. See Ducange. The Catholicon gives the following explanation: "Repofocilium, id quod tegit ignem in nocte, vel quod retro ignem ponitur; super quod a posteriori parte foci ligna ponuntur, quod vulgo lar dicitur." In Harl. MS. 1738, it is rendered "an herthe stok, or a skrene;" in the Ortus, "a hudde or a sterne." A stock (Ang.-Sax. stoc, truncus) may signify primarily a large log, against which, as a foundation, the fire was piled. The cellarist of ST. Edmund's-bury held Hardwick under the Abbey, and was bound annually to provide "iv. Cristmesse stocke," each of 8 feet in length. Liber Celler. Rokewode's Suff. p. 475. Hence, probably, any contrivance whereby the fire was supported, so as to facilitate combustion, an object more perfectly attained by means of andirons (AWNDERNE, supra), was termed the hearth-stock. In Norfolk and Suffolk the back or sides of the fire-place are termed "the stock," and Forby derives the word from Ang.-Sax. stoc, locus. See KYNLYN̄ hereafter.]Repofoci∣lium, CATH. vel secundum C. F. repofocinium, UG. in foveo.
  • Page  238HERTY. Cordialis.
  • HERTYLY. Cordialiter.
  • HERTYN̄', or makyn̄' hergy. Animo.
  • HERTYS LETHYR, or lethyri. Ne∣bris, CATH.
  • HERTYS TONGE, herbe. Scolo∣pendria, lingua cervi.
  • HERTLYNESSE. Cordialitas.
  • HERUESTE. Autumpnus.
  • HESYL, tre. Corulus, colurnus.
  • HESPE of threde. 1. [A hank of yarn is called in the North a hesp, or hasp, the fourth part of a spindle. Bp. Kennet gives "a hank of yarn or thread, when it comes off the reel, and is tied in themiddle, or twisted. So the twist or rope that comes over ye saddle of thethiller horse is called the thille hanks; Dunelm. Perhaps from Sax. hanȝan, to tie or twist; but itcomes much nearer to the Isl. haunk, funiculus in circulum colligatus." Lansd. MS. 1033. Mataxa signifies the comb which serves for dressing flax, as given above under the word HEKELE, but implies also a hank of spun thread. See Ducange.]Mataxa, C. F. et UG. haspum, C. F. hapsa, COMM. filipulus.
  • HESPE of a dore. 2. ["Pessellum, a lytel lok of tre, a haspe, a cospe, a sclott." MED. MS. CANT. "Pessulum dicitur sera lignea quâ hostium pellitur cum seratur, Anglice a lyteke, or latche, or a snecke,or barre of a dore." ORT. "Haspe a dore, clichette." PALSG. "Agraphe, a claspe, hook, brace, grapple, haspe." COTG. In this last sense the word haspa occurs in the Sherborn Cartulary, MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillips, where, among the gifts of William the sacrist (XIIth cent.?) is mentioned "Missale cum haspâ argenteâ." Bp. Kennett observes that in Kent, Sussex, and Oxfordshire the word is pronounced "haps, to haps a door or cupboard. Ang.-Sax. haeps, sera, fibula." Lansd. MS. 1033. This older form is also retained in Somerset, Wilts, and in N. Britain, hasp being the corruption. See Jamieson.]Pessulum, vel pessula, NECC. haspa, COMM.
  • HETE. Calor, estus.
  • HTEHE. Bruera, bruare, se∣cundum quosdam.
  • HETHE, or lynge, fowaly. 3. [Sowaly, MS. Compare FOWAYLE, and LYNGE of the hethe.]Bru∣arium.
  • HETYN̄', or make hoote. Calefacio.
  • HETYN̄', or waxyn̄' hoote. Caleo, unde versus: Per memet calui, sub pannisme calefeci.
  • HEWAR. Secator.
  • HEVEDARE (or hedare, supra.) Decapitator, spiculator (lictor, P.)
  • HEVEDYN̄', idem quod HEDON̄', supra.4. ["Decollo, to hefdyn." MED. "He was heeded at Towre hyll." PALSG.]
  • HEVEDYNGE (hedynge, HARL. MS. 2274, hedinge, P.) Decapitacio.
  • Page  239HEVENE. Celum, polum.
  • HEVENELY. Celitus, adv.
  • HEVENLY. Celicus, celestis.
  • HEVY to bere (to beryn, K.) Gravis, ponderosus.
  • HEVY and grevows. Gravis, et idem quod GREVOWS, supra.
  • HEVY in sowle, and herte. Mo∣lests, tristis (mestus, P.)
  • HEVY MANNE, or womanne, and not glad yn chere. Mestificus, mestifica, CATH.
  • HEVY a-slepe (of slepe, S. P.) Somp∣nolentus.
  • HEVYLY. Graviter, moleste, triste.
  • HEAVYYN̄', or makyn̄' hevy yn herte. Mesti(fi)co (mesto, P.)
  • HEVYYN̄', or makyn' hevy in wyghte. Gravo, aggravo, pon∣dero, CATH.
  • HEVYNESSE yn herte. Molestia, tristicia, mesticia.
  • HEVYNESSE of slepe. Sompno∣lencia.
  • HEVYNESSE of wyghte. Ponde∣rositas, gravitas.
  • HEWYN̄'. Seco, C. F.
  • HEWYN̄' a-wey. Abscido.
  • HEWYN̄' downe. Succido.
  • HEVYN̄', or schoppyn̄' to-gedyr thyngys of dyuerse kyndys. Conscido.
  • HEWYNGE (or hakkynge, supra.) Seccio.
  • HEWKE, idem quod HEYKE, supra (hek, K. hevke, S. H.)
  • HETHYNNE, or paynynne (panym, K. P. Paganus, etnicus.
  • HETHYNNESSE. Pagania.
  • HYDDE. Absconditus, celatus.
  • HYDYN̄'. Abscondo, C. F. occulto.
  • HYDYNGE. Absconsio, latitacio.
  • HYDYNGE place. Latibulum, ab∣sconditum, latebra, abditorium, UG. in do.
  • HYDE, or skynne (hyyd, or hyde, HARL. MS. 2274, P.) Pellis, cutis.
  • HYDDYR, or to thys place (hyther, P.) Huc.
  • HYDDYR WARDE (hydward, S. hytherwarde, P.) Istuc.
  • HYDOWS (hiddowus, or gret, K.) Immanis, immensus.
  • HYTCHYD, or remevyd (hichid, K. hychyd, S.) Amotus, remotus.
  • HYTCHYN̄', or remevyn̄' (hychyn, K. hytchen, P. hythen, J. W.) 1. [In Norfolk, according to Fobty, to hitch means to change place: "a man is often desired to hitch, in order to make room; to hitch anything which hapens to be in the way. Isl.hika, cedere (loco.)" TO hike and to hick are used ina similar sense. To hitch is explained by Johnson as signifying "to catch, or move by jerks," and so used by Pope. Skinner would derive the expression "hitch buttock,hitch neighbours," or "level coyl, (levez le vul,)" used by boys in playing, who bid one another move, and make way for the next in turn, from Ang.-Sax. hicȝan, moliri, niti, or Fr. hocher. See Jamieson, v. Hatch, and Hotch. Brockett gives to hitch, hop on one foot.]Amoveo, moveo, removeo.
  • HYTCHYNGE, or remevynge (hich∣ynge, K. hychynge, HARL. MS. 2274.) Amocio, remocio.
  • HYYN̄, idem quod HASTYN̄', supra.
  • HYYNGE, or hastynge.Festinacio, festinancia, properacio.
  • HYLLE. Mons, collis, libanus.
  • HYLDYR, or eldyr (hillerntre, K. ellernetre, HARL. MS. 2274, el∣norne tre, P.) 2. [See the note on the word ELDYR, or hyldyr, or hillerne tre. Ang.-Sax. ellarn, sambucus. In some parts of England the name hilder is still in use; and in Germany the tree is called Holder. It was supposed that Judas hanged himself upon an elder tree, and Sir John Maundevile, who wrote in 1356, speaks of the tree as being still shown at Jerusalem. Voiage, p. 112. Of the superstitious notions inrelation to this tree, see Brand's Pop. Antiqu. under Physical charms.]Sambucus.
  • Page  240HYLLY, or fulle of hyllys. Mon∣tuosus.
  • HYLLYN̄' (hyllen or curyn, H. coueren, P.) 1. [The verb to hill, and the substantive hilling, appear to be in use in many parts of England, but are not noticed in the East-Anglian Glossaries. In the writings of the older authors they occur frequently. See R. Brunne, P. Ploughm. Chaucer, and Gower. "Cooperio, to hyll to-gyder. Tegmentum, a hyllynge, a couerynge." ORTUS. "Tego, to hille; tegmen, an helynge.Circumamictus, a-bowte helynge, or clothynge. Archi∣tector, an helyour of a hous.Cooperio, to hule, or keruere (sic.)" MED. MS. CANT. "I hyll, I wrappe or lappe,ie couvre: ylu must hyll you wel owe a nyghtes, the wether is colde. Hylling, a coueryng, couverture. Hyllyng of an house, couverture, tecte." PALSG. "Paliatif, cloaking, hilling ouer, couering, hiding. Palier, to hill ouer," &c. COTG. Ang.-Sax. helan, celare. Sir John Maundevile, speaking of the Tartars,says that "the helynge of here houses, and the wowes, and the dores ben alle of wode." Voiage, p. 298. Walsingham calls the rebel Wat "Walterus helier, vel tyler." Camd. An∣glica, pp. 252, 264. In the "Objections of Freres," Wicliffe makes the observation that "Freres wollen not be apeied with food and heling," that s, clothing. The ac∣counts of the churchwardens of Walden comprise the item "à le klerk de Thaxstede pur byndynde, hyllynge et bosynge de tous les liveres en le vestiarye." Hist. of Audley End, p. 220. In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, it is said, "loke thou ordenne þat the leves of the yates be keuered and hilled with raw hides." Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. f. 100. Bp. Kennett has the following notes in Lansd. MS. 1033: "Helings, Stragula, bed-cloaths, vox in usu apud Oxonienses. Isl. hil, tego, hulde, texi; Sax. helan. Ejusdem originis videtur esse apud Septentrionales, to hull intobed; the hulls of corne, i. the husks; a swine hull, i. a swine stie.Anglis etiam mediterraneis to hele est tegere. A coverlet in Derbyshire is called a bed-healing, and in some other parts ab∣solutely a healing, and a hylling. Thatchers in Yorkshire are called helliars, and so are the coverers with slat in London, and most parts of England. In old authors the eye-brows are called helings." Compare FORHELYN, celo, and HATTE, hed hillynge.]Operio, cooperio, tego, velo, contego.
  • HYLLYNGE whtye clothys (hillinge of clothes, K. P.) Tegumentum, tegmen, velamen.
  • HYLLYNGE, or coverynge of what thynge hyt be. Coopertura, coopertorium, operimentum.
  • (HYLLYNGE, or happynge, infra in WAPPYNGE.)
  • HYLT of a swerde. Capulus.
  • HYYNDE, beste. Damula, damus, COMM.
  • HYNDYR PARTE of a beste (party, K.) Clunis.
  • (HYNDER PARTY of a ship, K. hyndyr part, S.) Puppis.
  • HYNDERYN̄', or bacchyn̄' (bakkyn', S.) Retrofacio.
  • HYNDRYD, or harmyd. Dampni∣ficatus.
  • HYNDRYN̄', idem quod HARMYN̄', supra.
  • HYDRYNGE, or harmynge. Dampnificacio.
  • HYNTYD. Raptus.
  • HYNTYN̄' (or revyn̄, infra; hyn∣tyn, or hentyn, K. H. P.)

    2. This verb occurs in most of the early writers: see R. Glouc. p. 204; Vis. P. Ploughm. 14,258; Chaucer, Knight's T. 906. It is used likewise by Shakespeare. See Nares.

    "Kyng Richard his ax in honde he hente."

    R. Coer de Lion, 4027.

    I hente, I take by vyolence, or to catche, ie happe: this terme is nat vtterly comen." PALSG. In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said of elephants used in war, "somme ordenned ayenst thies bestes fote menne wele hillede aboue wyth plates, havyng on her shuldres and on her helmes sharp pikes, that if þe olifaunt wolde oughte henche, or catche hem (posset apprehendere), the prickes shulde lette hym." B. iii. c. 24. Compare CAHCHYNGE, or hentynge; KYPPYN̄, or hynton; and REVYN̄, or by vyolence take awey, or hyntyn. Ang.-Sax. hentan, rapere.

    Rapio, (arripio, P.)
  • Page  241HYPE of þe legge. Femur.
  • HYPPYNGE, or haltynge.

    1. Compare the verb OVYRHYPPYN, or ouer skyppyn̄. Hyppynge occurs in the sense of hopping, Vis. of P. Ploughm. 11,488, and to hip has in the North a like signification; hipping stones are steppings at the passage of a shallow stream. The word seems here to be taken from the irregular movement or hopping of the halt person. Gower says of Vulcan,

    "He had a courbe upon his backe,
    And therto he was hippe halte."

    Conf. Am.

    Teut. hippelen, subsilire. Jamieson gives hypalt, a cripple; to hypal, or hirple, to go lame. In Norfolk to himp and to limp are synonymous.

  • HYRDYL. Plecta, flecta, cratis, C. F.
  • HYRDYS, or herdys of flax, or hempe.

    2. "Stupa, hyrdes of hempe, or of flax. Stupo, to stop with hurdes." MED. MS. CANT. "Extupo, Anglice to do awaye hardes or tawe. Stupa, stub, chaf, or towe." ORTUS. Amongst the various significations of napta, given in the Catholicon, it is said "napta etiam, secundum papiam, dicitur purgamentum lini." The word occurs in the Wicliffite version, Judges xvi. 9: "And sche criede to him, Sampson! Felisteis ben on þee, which brak þe boondis as if a man brekith a þrede of herdis (filum de stupâ, Vulg.) wriþun wiþ spotle." Chaucer, in the Rom. of Rose, describesthe dress of Fraunchise, called a suckeny, or rokette,

    "That not of hempe herdes was,
    So faire was none in all Arras."

    In the original, "ne fut de bourras." In Norfolk, according to Forby, hards signify coarse flax, otherwise tow-hards, in other parts of England called hurds; and in many places a coarse kind of linen cloth is still termed harden, or hirden. The Invent. of effects of Sir John Conyers, of Sockburne, Durham. 1567, comprises "vij. harden table clothes, iv. s.—xv. pair of harden sheats, xx. s." Wills and Inv. Surtees Soc. i. 268. "Heerdes of hempe, tillage de chamure (? chainvre), estovpes." PALSG. "Hirdes, or towe, of flaxe, or hempe, stupa." BARET. "Grettes de lin, the hards, or towe of flax." COTG. Ang.-Sax. heordas, stupae.

    Stuppa, C. F. et UG. in stips, napta, CATH. et C. F.
  • HYRE. Stipendium, salarium, manipulus, C. F.
  • HYRYD MAN, or servawnte. Con∣ductius, conductia, mercenarius, mercenaria (conducticius, S. P.)
  • HYRYN̄'. Conduco.
  • HYRNE.3. ["Angulus, a cornere, or a herne. Pentangulus, of fyue hirnes." MED. "An hyrne, angulus, gonus." CATH. ANG. The gloss on Liber vocatus Equus, renders "antris, darke hernys." Harl. MS. 1002, f. 113. Rob. Glouc. and Chaucer use this word, which has occurred previously as synonymous with HALKE. Forby gives "herne, a nook of lund, projecting into another district, parish, or field." At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, there is a street called Cold-hirne street, which traverses an angular piece of ground adjoining the confluence of the Lyn and the Ouse. Ang.-Sax. hyrn, angulus.]Angulus.
  • HYSE, or hys. Suus.
  • Page  242HYSSYN̄' as edderys (heddyr, K. nedrys, H. nedders, P.) Sibilo.
  • HYSSYNGE of edders, or oþer lyke. Sibulus (sibilus, S.)
  • HYT, or towchyd. Tactus.
  • HYTTYNGE, or towchynge. Tactus.
  • HYVE for bees. Alveare, alvea∣rium, C. F. apiarium.
  • HYVYN', or put yn' hyvys. Apio.
  • HYÞE, Where bootys ryve to londe, or stonde.1. [HYYE, MS. The Winch. MS. agrees here in the readig "hyy," but it is evident that hyþe is more correct. Ang.-Sxa. hyð, portus. Hithe occurs in names of sea ports, and even landing places on rivers, far from the coast. See Forby's observations on this word. Examples are not wanting at Lynn, where a lazar-house is mentioned at the spot called Setchhithe, in 1432; in the grant of Edw. VI. 1548, it is called Seche∣main; Woman hithe and Beck hithe occur near Cromer.] Stacio, C. F.
  • HOBY, hawke. Alaudarius, ali∣etus, C. F. et KYLW. (sparrus, P.)
  • HOCHE, or whyche (husch, S. noche, or hutche, H. P.)2. [HUTCHE, MS. By the alphabetical arrangement, the reading, as given from Sir T. Phillipps' MS. seems here to be correct. In the King's Coll. MS. the word is omitted. See HUTCHE, hereafter. Ang.-Sax. hwaecca, arca.]Cista archa.
  • HOODE. Capicium (capucium, P.)
  • HODYD. Capiciatus.
  • HOODYN̄'. Capucio (Capicio, K.)
  • HODYNGE. Capiciatura.
  • HOGGE, swyne. Nefrendis, maialis, CATH. et C. F. Hec omnia UG. in frendere (porcus, P.)
  • HOOKE (hoke, K. P.) Hamus, uncus.
  • HOOKE to hewe wode, or schryd∣ynge (hoke to hev wyth woode, or schraggynge, S.) Sirculus, C. F. (sarculus, S. P.)
  • HOKYD. Hamatus.
  • HOL, as pypys, or percyd thyngys (hole, HARL. MS. 2257, hol∣lowe, P.)3. ["Holle, cavus, naturâ concavus, arte cavatus, inanis. An hollnes, cavitas." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk holl is still commonly used. Ang.-Sax. hol, Cavus.]Cavus.
  • HOLOW, as vessellys (hol, as vesselle or other lyke, K. hole, as vessellys, S.) Concavus.
  • HOOL fro brekynge (hole, P.) In∣teger.
  • HOOL fro sekenesse (or heyl, H. hole, P.) Sanus, incolumis, sospes.
  • HOLDYN̄'. Teneo.
  • HOLDYN̄', or wythe-holdyn̄'. De∣tineo, retineo.
  • HOLDYNGE. Tenens.
  • HOLDYNGE. Tenax, tencio, de∣tencio, retinencia, retencio.
  • HOLE, or bore. Foramen.
  • HOOLE, or huske (hole, S. holl, P.) Siliqua.
  • HOOLE of pesyn', or benys, or oþer coddyd frute (hole of peson, or huske, or codde, K. cod frute, P.)4. [In the recipe for "blaunche perreye" it is directed to "sethe the pesyn in fyne leye," and then rub them with woollen cloth, and "þe holys wyl a-way." Harl. MS. 279, f. 25. Skinner derives the word from Ang.-Sax. helan, tegere. "Hull of a beane or pese, escosse. Hull or barcke of a tree, escorce." PALSG. "Gousse, the huske, swad, cod, hull of beanes, pease," &c. COTG. Gerarde says that Avena nuda is called in Norfolk and Suffolk "unhulled otes." In the Craven dialect, the hull is the skin of a potatoe, or the husk of a nut, and to hull signifies to peel off the husk of any seed: in Hampshire the husk of corn is termed the hull. "Follicula uvarum, the huskes, hulles, or skinnes of grapes. Pericarpium, folliculus, siliqua, the huske or hull, inclusing the seede." Junius' Nomencl. by Higins.]Techa, CATH. in fresus.
  • Page  243HOOLE, or pyt yn an hylle, or other lyke (hole, or eryth, S.) Caverna, C. F.
  • HOOLE of a schyppe (hoole, K. P.) Carina, C. F.
  • (HOLEN, or curen of sekenes, K. S. supra in HELEN, P. Sano, curo.)
  • HOLYN̄', or boryn̄' (hoolen, or make hoolys, P.)1. ["To hole, cavare, perforare, &c. ubi to thyrle." CATH. ANG. "Palare, cavare, forare, Anglice to hole, or to bore." or to bore." Equiv. Joh. de Garlandiâ. A.-S. holian, excavare.]Cavo, per∣foro, terebro.
  • HOLY. Sanctus, sacer.
  • HOLY, heuenly. Celebris, UG. in celo.
  • HOLILY, P.) Sancte.
  • HOLY, halwyd place (holyly hal∣wyde places, S.) Asilum, C. F.
  • HOLY HOKKE, or wylde malowe (malwe, K. S.) Altea, malviscus.
  • HOLYNESSE. sanctitas, sancti∣monia.
  • HOLM, place be-sydone a watur (be-syde a water, S.)2. [The primary meaning of the Ang.-Sax. word Holm appears to be water or ocean; in implies also a river island, or a level meadow, especially near a stream. It is recorded in the Sax. Chron. A. D. 903, that a great fight occurred between the Kentish en and the Danes "aet þam Holme," but the precise locality has not been ascertained. Holm signifies also an elevated spot, as in the instance of the Steep-holm, so called by way of distinction from the Flat-holm, islands in the mouth of the Severn. Leland, in his Comm. in Cygn. cant. (Itin. ix. 59,) would derive Dunolmus, Durham, from dune, a hill, ad holme, which he interprets thus: "Holme vero eminentis loci, interdum et sylvosi, et aquis circumsepti verticem, aut eminentiam exprimit." Bp. Kennett has the following remarks: "Homes, properly holms, which signified originaly river-islands, or gre islands surrounded by running streams; from a resemblance whereof meadows and pasture grounds are in some places called Homes. A meadow by the late Abbey of St. Austin's, Canterbury, commonly called North-homes; and a flat pasture in Romney Marsh is yet called the Holmes, &c. An Holm, an island, Westm.; hence Holme-cultram, Holmby house, &c. Mill-holms, watery places about a mill-dam, from mill, and Sax. holm, which signfies two things, as a hill or rising ground, and a green island, or place almost enclosed with water; from whence the name of many places almost surrounded with waster, as Axholm, Evesholm, corruptly Evesham, &c. The howmes, a green piece of ground near Thirske in Yorkshire, lying between the river Codbeck and the brook called Sewel." Lansd. MS. 1033. In Lincolnshire, as especially near the Trent, the name is frequent; as likewise in Norfolk, and in the vicinity of Lynn, and denotes both low pastures, and elevations of trifling magnitude, but which were perhaps insulated, before draining had been effected. Simon Earl of Huntingdon, who founded St. Andrew's Priory, Northampton, about 1084, granted "tres dalos prati, et unum hulmum;" and in the donation of H. de Pynkeneye to Canons' Ashby, in 1298, he bestowed "totam pasturam illam que vocatur le Hulles, cum duobus holmis in campis Wedone et Westone." Mon. Ang. i. 680, iii. 292.]Hulmus.
  • Page  244HOLME, or holy.1. [Parkinson gives holm, as a name of the holly: in the North it is called hollin. Ang.-Sax. holen, aquifolium. The Gloss on Gaut. de Bibelesworth renders "hous, holyn." "Hussus est quedam arbor que semper tenet viriditatem, Anglice a holyn." ORTUS. "An holyn, hussus; an holyn bery, hussum." CATH. ANG. It is said of St. Bernard, in the Golden Legend, that after he became Abbot of Clairvaux, "he often made his pottage with leues of holm." Sherwood gives "hollie, holme, or huluer tree, houx, housson, mesplier sauvage." In Norfolk the holly is called hulver, ac∣cording to Forby. Compare HULWUR, tre, hereafter.]Ulmus, hussus.
  • HOLM, of a sonde yn the see (holme of sownde in þe see, K. holm or sond of the see, HARL. MS. 2274, of the sonde in the see, P.)2. ["Bitalassum, a place þer two sees rennen." MED. In the Wicliffite version, Dedis xxvii. 41 is thus rendered: "And whan we fellen into a place of gravel gon al aboute wiþ þe see (locum dithalassum, Vulg.) þei hurtleden þe ship." Holm seems here to denote the peninsula, or accumulation of alluvial deposit formed at a confluence of waters. It is, however, remarkable that the name does not appear to be thus applied on the Norfolk coast, especially in the neighbourhood of Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, and where such deposits are made to a vast extent by the Ouse, and other streams that flow into the Wash.]Bitalassum, C F. vel hulmus.
  • (HOLME, or halm, supra, et infra in STOBUL.)
  • HOOLNESSE fro brekynge (hol∣nesse, K.) Integritas.
  • HOLOWNESSE of a vesselle, or other lyke wythe-yn forthe (holnes, K. of a vessell voyd within, H. P.) Concavitas.
  • HOLRYSCHE, or bulrysche (hool ryschyn, K. holryschyne, HARL. MS. 2274.)3. [This name seems to be derived from Ang.-Sax. hol, cavus, and risc, juncus; but as the Scirpus lacustris, Linn. commonly called bull-rush, has not a hollow but a spongy stem, the proper intention of the term is obscure.]Papirus.
  • HOLSUM. Saluber, salutiferus.
  • HOLSUMNESSE. Salubritas.
  • HOLT, lytylle wode.4. ["Holt, a wood. It is yet used for an orchard, or any place of trees, as a cherry∣holt, an apple-holt, Dunelm. Isl. hollte, salebrae." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033. Skinner says that holt denotes a grove, or multitude of trees planted thick together, and Tooke asserts that it is the p. part. of Ang.-Sax. helan, to cover, and signifies a rising ground or knoll covered with trees. The word occurs in Cant. T. Prol. line 6; Lydgate's Thebes; Launfal, &c. Among the benefactions of John Hotham, Bp. Ely, it is recorded that in 1320 he appropriated, for the distribution of alms on his anniversary, "tenementum vocatum Lythgates, et Barkeres, cum quodam alneto vocato Lythgates holt." Hist. Elien. Ang. Sacra, i. 643. "Holte, a lytell woode, petit boys." PALSG. "Touffe de bois, a hoult, a tuft of trees growing neere a house, and serving for a marke or grace unto the seat thereof." COTG. See Jamieson. In names of places it is of occasional occurrence, as the Holt, a wood near Havant, Hants; Knock-holt wood, near Tenterden, Kent; and in Norfolk, according to Forby, a small grove, or planta∣tion, is called a holt, as nut-holt, osier-holt, gooseberry-holt, &c. Ang.-Sax holt, lucus.]Lucus, vir∣gultum, vibranum.
  • HOOME, or dwelly(n)ge place. Mancio.
  • HOOMLY.5. [In the complaint of the Ploughman, t. Edw. III., given by Fox, under the year 1360, the following version is cited of i. Tim. v. 8: "He that forsaketh the charge of thilke that ben homelich with him (suorum, et maxime domesticorum, Vulg.) hath for∣saken his fayth, and is worse than a misbeleued man:" (in the Wicliffite version, "his owne, and moost of his household men.") Here, and in Gal. v. 10, Wicl. version, the word seems to be used precisely in the sense given to it in the Promptorium; but it denotes also familiar, by acquaintance, and presuming."Homely, famylier, through a quaynted, familier. Homelynesse, priuaulté. Homely, saucye, to perte, malapert." PALSG. Horman says that "homelynesse (fiducia) comynge of a true harte, is a maner of vertue," where it seems to imply familiar confidence; and he uses the word also as follows: "He was homely with her, or had to do with her."]Familiaris, domesticus.
  • Page  245(HOMLIMAN, or woman, K. Do∣mesticus, domestica, familiaris.)
  • HOMLY, or yn homly maner. Do∣mestice, familiariter.
  • HOONE, barbarys instrument. Cos, KYLW. et DICC.
  • HONY. Mel.
  • HONYCOOM (honycom, K.) Favus.
  • HONY SOCLE. Apiago, UG. V. in A. (locusta, S.)
  • HOOPE, vesselle byyndynge (hope, K.) Cuneus, circulus, DICC.
  • HOOPYN̄', or settyn̄' hoopys on a vesselle. Cuneo.
  • HOPE. Spes.
  • HOPYN̄', or trustyn̄', or soposyn̄'. Estimo, spero, CATH. arbitror.
  • HOPPE, sede for beyre (bere, K. P.)1. [It should seem that the eala, or swatan of the Anglo-Saxons, were not compounded with any bitter condiment, which was essential to the concoction of beer, a drink of Flemish or German origin, and until the XVIth cent. imported from the Continent, or brewed by foreigners only in this country. The Promptorium gives BERE, cervisia hummulina, as distinguished from ale, which was not hopped; Caxton, in the Boke for Travellers, speaking of drinks, makes the distinction, "Ale of England, Byre of Ale∣mayne;" and it appears by the Customs of London, Arnold's Chron. 87, that beer was first made in London by "byere brewars, straungers—Flemyngis, Duchemen," &c. a recipe for making single beer with malt and hops is given, p. 247. It has been as∣serted that the use of hops was forbidden by Hen. VI. in consequence of a petition of the Commons, mentioned by Fuller, in his Worthies, under Essex, against "the wicked weed called hops;" but no record of the prohibition has been found, and the petition does not appear on the Rolls of Parliament. In the time of Hen. VIII. some prejudice seems to have arisen regarding their use, for among the articles for the reform of sundry misuses in the royal household, 1531, is an injunction to the brewer not to put any hops or brimstone into the ale. Archaeol. iii. 157. Hops, called in Dutch Hoppe, Germ. Hopffen, were introduced into England from Artois, between 10 and 15 Hen. VIII. as affirmed in Stowe's Chron. about the time of the expedition against Tournay. Bullein, in the "Bulwarke of defence," written about 1550, speaks of hops as growing in Suffolk. They are mentined in the stat. 5 and 6 Edw. VI. c. 5, 1552, as cultivated in England; Stat. of Realm, iii. 135. Among the privileges conceded to the strangers from the Low Countries, who settled at Stamford, 1572, is a clause regarding the free exercise of husbandry, in which are specified hops, and all things necessary to gardens. Strype, Life of Parker, App. 115. The management of hops was quickly acquired, as appears by the instructions given by Tusser, in March's and June's husbandry, published 1557. See also the Treatise by Reyn. Scott, 1574; and Harrison's Descr. of Brit. Holinsh. i. 110. The remarks of Leonard Mascall, in his Art of Planting, under the head of "certeyne Dutch practises," p. 85, edit. 1592, are detailed, and curious; and he appears to have been conversant with the method adopted in Flanders. The stat. I Jac. I. c. 18, against the deterioration of hops, shows that a large quantity was still supplied in 1603 from foreign parts. See Beckman's Hist. of Inventions, iv. 325, and Cullum's Hawsted, 202.]Hummulus, secundum extraneos.
  • Page  246HOPPE, sede of flax (hooppe, seed or flax, S.)

    1. This obsolete appellation of linseed occurs in the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth.

    "Du lyn aueret le boceaus (hoppen,)
    De canbre auerez les cordeus (ropes.)"

    Arund. MS. 229, f. 299, b.

    In the Liber vocatus femina, MS. Trin. Coll. Cant. this passage is given as follows.

    "Ore alez à semer v're lynois,
    Now goþ to sow ȝour flex.
    Qar de lynois vous auez lez busceaux,
    For of flex ȝe haue þyȝe hoppes."

    The Ortus gives "apium est nomen herbe, ache, or hoppe;" and in the interpretations by Master Geoffrey of Joh. de Garland. de Equiv. occur "Corna, fructus corni, hoppe: cornus, quidam arbor, hoppe tre, ut quidam dicunt."

    Sinodulum, lino∣dium, KYLW. (lincidulum, P.)
  • HOPPYN̄' as fleys, or froschys, or other lyke. Salio.
  • HOPPYN̄', or skyppyn̄', infra (or dawnsen, K. P.) Salto.
  • HOPPYNGE, or skyppynge. Sal∣tacio.
  • HOPUR of a mylle, or a tramale (tramel, S.)

    2. "An hopyr, ferricapsa, est molendini; saticulum, satum, seminarium." CATH. ANG. The proper distinction is here made between the hopper, or the trough wherein the grain is put in order to be ground, mentioned by Chaucer, Reve's T. 4009, so termed from the hopping movement given to it, and the seed-leep, which was also called a hopper. "Hopper of a myll, tremye." PALSG. "Seminarium, vas quo ponitur semen, an hopre." MED. It is in this last sense that Perkyn the Ploughman says that he will become a pilgrim,

    "And hange myn hoper at myn hals
    Instede of a scryppe."

    Vis. of P. Ploughm. line 3917.

    In Lincolnshire, according to Bp. Kennett, a little hand-basket is termed a hoppet; and in Yorkshire a hopper is "a seed lip, or basket wherein the sower puts his corn." Lansd. MS. 1033. An implement of domestic use, probably for grinding grain, is men∣tioned among the effects of Thos. Arkyndall, of Northallerton, 1499. "A leed and ye stane, xij. d. A hoppyng tre, vj d." Wills and Inv. Surt. Soc. i. 104. See TRAMALY of a mylle, CEED LEPE, and SEED LEPP.

    Taratantara, CATH farricapsium, DICC.
  • HOPUR of a seedlepe (or a seed∣lepe, HARL. MS. 2274.) Sa∣torium, saticulum, UG. V. in S.
  • HORCOP, bastarde.3. [Palsgrave gives "horecoppe," without any French word.]Manzer, spurius, spuria, pelignus, pe∣ligna (pelinus, P.)
  • HOORD, tresowre (horde, K.) Thesaurus, herarium.
  • (HOORDHOWSE, infra in TRE∣SOWRIE.)
  • HORE, woman̄ (hoore, H. P.) Me∣retrix (pelix, P.)
  • HOREHOWSE, supra in B. BOR∣DELLE. (Lupanar, fornix, P.)
  • HOREL, or hullowre (hollowr, S. holour, P.)4. [See HULLOWRE. Horell, Townl. Myst. "Horrell, or whoremonger, concubitor, libidinarius." HULOET. A debauched person was called in Fr. hourieur.]Fornicator, li∣cantor, leno, rivalis, mechus, fornicatrix, licantrix, mecha (lecator, K. S. leciatrix, cori∣nalis, P.)
  • Page  247(HORLEGE, supra in DYALE, et infra in ORLAGE.)
  • HORNE. Cornu, et in plur. cornua sunt vires.
  • HORNARE, or horne make(r).1. [The art of working in horn was one in which the English were formerly much skilled. In 146 the horners presented a petition to Parliament against strangers, who came "to understond the konnyng, and feate of makyng of horns." Rot. Parl. iv. 567. "Horner, a maker of hornes, cornettier; horneresser, a woman, cornettiere." PALSG.]Cornutarius.
  • HORNYD. Cornutus.
  • HORN KEKE, fysche (horne stoke, S. hornkek, or garfysshe, P.)2. ["Hornkecke, a fysshe lyke a mackerell." PALSG. Esox belone, Linn. Ang.-Sax. horn, cornu, and ceac, gena. See GARFYSCHE.]
  • HORNPYPE.3. [Chaucer, in the Rom. of R. speaks of the discordant sounds of "hornepipes of Cornewaile," which, as it has been remarked in the note on the word CORMUSE, seem to have been identical with that instrument, called likewise, according to Roquefort, muse, in Latin musa. The rustic dance, to which the name of hornpipe was transferred from the instrument that served as an accompaniment, seems to be described by Jean de Meung, where he relates that Pygmalion took the "instrumens de Cornouaille," or "muse," and danced to animate his statue. Rom. de la Rose, 21,874. The horn-pipe is mentioned as a musical instrument by Spenser and B. Jonson. No explanation has been found of the word palpista.]Palpista, KYLW. (psalmista, S.)
  • HORONE, herbe.4. [The plant here intended is the white horehound, Marrubium vulgare, Linn. A.-S. hara-hune, marrubium. "Horon, a herbe. Horehounde, herbe, langue de chien." PALSG.]Collocasia, marubium, prassa.
  • HORS. Equus.
  • HORSYS colere. Eph(ipp)ium, COMM. columbar.
  • HORSE combe. Strigilis, UG. in strideo.
  • HORS, gelt, or gelt horse. Cau∣terius, CATH.

    5. The horse-litter, or horse-bere, Ang.-Sax. baere, feretrum, grabatus, was used at an early period in England, and probably introduced from the South. See Mr. Mark∣land's Remarks on Carriages, Archaeol. xx. 445. Bede relates that Ceolfrid, Abbot of Wiremuth, pursued his journey to Rome, during which he died, A. D. 716, "cum ad hoc per infirmitatem deveniret, ut equitare non valens feretro caballario veheretur." W. Malmsb. relates that the corpse of Rufus was conveyed by the rustics to Winchester "in rhedâ caballaria," which in the Polychronicon is termed a "horse bere," and by Fabian a "horse litter." M. Westm. describes the retreat of King John from Swines∣head, when, having lost his "bigas, et quasdam clitellas," in the Wash, and falling sick, he was thus carried to Newark, "factâ lecticâ equestri, descendit de palfrido, et ipsam intravit." G. de Bibelesworth, who wrote in the reign of Edw. I. says,

    "Pur eyse en litier (on hors bere) hom chiuauche."

    "Basterna est theca manualis vel itineris, a carre, or a chareot, or horse lytter. Lec∣tica dicitur currus in quo defertur lectus; et proprie lectus portabilis, a charet or a horslytter." ORTUS. "Horse lytter, letiere aux cheuavlx." PALSG. Horse litters, called by Commenius arceroe or lecticae, carried by two horses, according to the fashion in use in Holland, are represened in the Orbis Sensualium, p. 111, ed. 1659.

    Lectica, UG. in lego. bajulum, UG. V. in B. (bas∣terna, S.)
  • HORSYS harneys. Ep(ip)hia, C. F. falerum, C. F.
  • HORSYS mane. Juba, CATH.
  • HORSKEPARE (horsman', S. Equarius.
  • Page  248HORSMAN, or he þat rydythe (horsys, S.) Equester.
  • HORSMYNTE, herbe. Balsamita, mentastrum.
  • HORSCHO (horsissho, K. horsis sho, P.) Babatum, KYLW. ferrus, C. F. (balatum, K. P.)
  • HORSYS tayle. Penis, CATH.
  • HOOS (hors, K, hoorse, P.)1. [The reading may seem here to be questionable, but the Winch. MS. agrees in giving hoos. Chaucer writes "horse of sowne," speaking of a hunter's horn. Wachter observes that hoarse seems to lead to Ger. hreis, hreisch, formed from Lat. raucus, but hoos, and hoosnesse, which occurs just below, resemble more nearly the Ang.-Sax. has, raucus, and hasnys, raucedo. In the Lat. Eng. Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. is given "raucedo, hasnes." Horman says, "he hath a great haskenes, gravi asthmate implicatur." Compare HARSKE, or haske, above.]Rau∣cus, UG.
  • (HOORSNESSE, HARL. MS. 2274. Raucor.)
  • HOSE.2. [The precise nature of the article of dress, to which the name hos was given by the Anglo-Saxons, it is not easy to define: it is rendered by Elfric "caliga, ocrea." In early illuminations their legs are frequently represented as covered by bands, as it seems, wound around them, and these perhaps were termed hose-bendas, which has been sup∣posed to denote garters. The word hose is common to the Dutch, Danish, and Ice∣landic languages, and the old French houses, or heuses, seem to have been identical therewith. P. Warnefridus states that the Lombards used hose (hosis), and wore over them "tubrugos birreos," when on horseback. Gest. Longob. iv. c. 23. "Calceo, i. caligas et sotulares induere, to put on hose. Oso, i. osas calciare, to house. Caliga, hose; calicula, a lytell hose." ORTUS. "An hose, caliga. Versus: Sunt ocree calige quos tibia portat amictus. To hose, calciare, caligare." CATH. ANG. "Hose for ones legges, chausses. Hosyn and shossys, cha(u)ssure. Payre of hose from the kne vp, demy chausses. Payre of sloppe hoses, braiettes à marinier." PALSG. In the XVIth cent. the term hose was used to denote the entire nether garment, comprising the upper stocks, or breeches, and the nether-stocks of hosen, or stockings. The directions of Queen Eliz. by proclamation in 1565 are curiously explicit as to the prescribed pro∣prieties of his article of dress. Strype's Ann. Vol. i. App. 78.]Caliga (osa, CATH. S.)
  • HOSUN, or don̄ on hosun (hosyn, or done on hosun, K.) Caligo.
  • HOSEBOND (as, K.) weddyd man (hosbonde or husbonde, P.) Ma∣ritus.
  • HOSEBONDE (or husbonde, infra) of (wise, K. P.) gouernaunce of an howsholde. Paterfamilias.
  • HOSEARE, or he þat makythe hosyne (hoseȝere, K. hosiare, S. hoser', P.)3. ["An hosyrer (sic) calciator, caligator." CATH. ANG. "Hosyer, that maketh hosen, chaussettier." PALSG. Sherwood observes on the word "Hosier, chaussetier; aujourdhui (1660) à Londres on appelle ainsi les cousturiers qui vendent les habits d'homme tous faits."]Caligarius.
  • HOOSHEDE, or hoosnesse (hoshed, K. hoorshede, or hoorsnesse, P.) Raucitas, raucor.
  • HOOSE, or cowghe (host, or cowhe, K. host, or cowgth, S. hoost, HARL. MS. 2274)

    4. "Tussis, host." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "An host, tussis; to host, tussire." CATH. ANG. "Raucedo, hoocenesse; raucidus, hooce; raucidulus, sum dele hoce; raucus, hoost." MED. Forby gives hoist, a cough. Ang.-Sax. hwosta, tussis.

    "Yvresce fait fort home chatouner (creopen,)
    Home aroee (hoos) fait haut huper (ȝellen.)"

    G. de Bibelesw.

    Compare COWYN or hostyn. The Craven dialect still retains the word hoste, hoarse∣nesse. See also Jamieson.

  • Page  249HOSTYN̄'. Oscito, UG. V. in H. literâ.
  • HOSTYN̄', or rowhyn̄', or cowghyn (rowwhyn, H. rewyn, or cowhyn, S.) Tussio, CATH. tussito, CATH.
  • HOOT. Calidus, fervidus.
  • HOOTT BATHE. Murtetum, CATH. et C. F. et UG. in mordeo, et in (plurali, S.) terme, C. F.
  • (HOTYN, or hetyn, supra, P.)
  • HOTYN̄', or make beheste (hotyn or behotyn, K. P.)1. [HETYN̄', MS. "Spondeo, to be-hoote. Sponsor et fidejussor, a heetere." MED. MS. CANT. "Promitto, Anglice, to behyght. Promissio, a beheste. Dispondeo, to be-hyght, or to plyght trouth. Nutio, a promyse, or hyghtynge." ORTUS. "To beheste, destinare, vovere, promittere, &c. A beheste, policitacio, promissum, votum." CATH. ANG. Compare BEHOTYN, or make a beheste, above. Ang.-Sax. hatan, jubere; behátan, vovere. In the complaint of the Ploughman, given by Fox, under the year 1360, it is said, "though we preyen thee but a little and shortlich, thou wilt thenken on vs, and graunten vs that vs nedeth, for so thou behighted vs somtime:" and again, "thou yhightest some tyme, &c. He (the Pope) behoteth men the blisse of heauen, withouten any payne, that geuen him much money." Hote, signifying a promise, is used by R. Brunne; it occurs in Townl. Myst. p. 46; and the verb, thou hete, het or hight, thou didst promise. By R. Glouc. and other writers to hote is used in the sense of to com∣mand, or be called.]Promitto.
  • HOTYNGE, or behotynge, or behest (behestynge, K.) Promissio.
  • HOTYNGE, or hetynge. Calefactio.
  • HOWE, or what (howȝ, or qwow, S.) Quomodo, qualiter.
  • HOWE, or hure, heed hyllynge (howue, S. P.)

    2. This term, derived from Ang.-Sax. hufa, cidaris, is used to denote head-coverings of almost every description. In the satirical song on the Consistory Courts, in the time of Edward I. Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, 156, it is said,

    "Furst ther sit an old cherle in a blake hure,
    Of all that ther sitteth semeth best syre."

    It signifies a cap of estate, as in the bequest of John Earl of Warren, Surrey, and Strath∣orne, 1347: "Jeo devys à Monsr. Will. de Warenne mon filz ma hure d'argent dorré pour Strathorne, ove le cercle d'argent dorré pour ycel." Testam. Ebor. i. 43. Margaret de Knaresburgh devises, in 1397, "flameolam de filo, cum j. calamandro, ac houfe; pannum de lak; tenam de cerico; flameolam de crispo," &c. Ibid. p. 221. In the Vision of P. Ploughm. 418, allusion is made to the "howves of selk," worn by ser∣jeants-at-law; and Chaucer, in the Reve's Prol. 3909, uses the phrase "set his howve;" and speaks of "an howve above a call." Troil. B. iii. 775. In 1482, a petition was preferred to Parliament by the craft of "hurers, cappers," &c. against the injurious use of machinery, then introduced to supersede manual labour, by means of a fulling mill, whereby the quality of "huers, bonettes and cappes" was depreciated. See Rot. Parl. vi. 233; Stat. of Realm, 22 Edw. IV., where they are termed "hurez, huretz," &c. Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, "Maulde the huue, or calle maker (huuetier) maynteneth her wisely: she selleth dere her calles, or huues (huues), she soweth them with two semes." "Pileus, a cappe, an hatte, an hove, or a coyfe." MED. "Tena tenet et ornat caput mulieris, Anglice a howfe, i. extrema pars vitte, quâ de∣pendent comae." ORTUS. "An howfe, tena." CATH. ANG. "Houe that a chylde is borne in, taye." PALSG. Sir T. Brown, in Vulgar Errors, B. v. c. 11, alludes to the superstitious notions in regard to the caul, or membrane wherein the head of a new∣born infant is occasionally wrapped, called the silly-how, Ang.-Sax. saeliȝ, beatus, hufa, cidaris; Swed. seger hufwa. In Scotland it is termed the haly, or sily-how. See Brand's Popular Ant.; Ruddiman's Gloss. to G. Douglas, v. How; and Jamieson. Compare HWYR, cappe, hereafter.

    Tena, CATH. capedulum, C. F. sidaris, C. F.
  • Page  250HOWE, or Heve, propyr name. (Howwe, or Huwe, HARL. MS. 2274, How, or Hw, P. Hue, P. Hew, W.)1. ["Huchone, Hugo, nomen proprium viri." CATH. ANG.]Hugo.
  • HOVE, or grownd yvy (herbe, P.)2. [Ground-ivy, gill, or ale-hoof, Glechoma hederacea, Linn. was anciently esteemed both in medicine and as a condiment used in the concoction of ale. G. de Bibelesworth mentions "eyre de boys, e eyre terestre (heyhowe.)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 131. "Edera terrestris ys an herbe þat me clepyþ erth yuye, or heyoue;" its virtues are detailed, Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 74, b. In John Arderne's Practica, Sloane MS. 56, f. 61, the use of "haihoue, vel halehoue, vel folfoyt, vel horshoue," in the composition of an unguent, called Salus populi, is set forth. Gerard calls it ale-hoof, or tun-hoof, and states that "the women of our Northern parts, especially about Wales and Cheshire, do tunne the herbe ale-hoof into their ale." Compare TUNHOVE, hereafter. Langham, in the Garden of Health, 1579, details the qualities of "Alechoofe, ground iuie, gilrumbith, ground or Tudnoor;" and Cotgrave gives "patte de chat, cats-foot, alehoofe, tune∣hoofe, ground ivy, Gill creepby the ground." Skinner thought that ale-hoof was de∣rived from all, and behofe, utilitas, from its numerous medicinal properties, but the derivation of the name is possibly from hof, ungula, in allusion to the hoof-shaped leaf. In the West, the plant colt's-foot is called horse's hoof. It is possible that the read∣hofe of the Anglo-Saxon herbals is the ground ivy, to which, however, the name eorð∣ifig was assigned.]Edera terrestris.
  • HOVE of oyle, as barme, and ale (hove, or holy, as barme of ale, S.)3. [The reading here seems to require correction; the word does not occur in the other MSS. or in the printed editions. Amurca is explained by Ugutio, and the Ortus, to be "inferior fex olei, dregs of oyle," but Muria signifies the "superior fex olei;" and HOVE here seems to be put for such impurities as float on the surface. Compare the verb HOVYN̄ yn water, or oþer lycoure.]Amuria, UG. in mergo.
  • HOVYL, lytylle howse. Teges, CATH. et C. F. (tega, P.)
  • HOVYL for swyne, or oþer beestys. Cartabulum, C. F. (catabulum, S.)
  • HOWLE, byrde. Bubo, CATH.
  • HOWLYN̄', as beestys. Ululo.
  • HOWLYNGE of doggys, or oþer beestys. Ululatus.
  • HOW LONGE. Quamdiu, quous∣que, usquequo.
  • HOW MANY. Quot.
  • HOWE MEKYLLE (howe moche, P.) Quantus.
  • HOWNDE. Canis, CATH.
  • HOWNDE FYSHE. Canis marinus, COMM.
  • HOWNDE FLYE. Cinomia, C. F. vel cinifex, COMM. vel cinifes, COMM.
  • HOWNDYS colere (howndych co∣lowre, S.) Millus, CATH.
  • HOW OFTYN̄'. Quociens.
  • HOWSE. Domus, CATH. edes.
  • HOWSELYN̄' wythe the sacrament (as the sacrament, S.)4. [In the curious directions to the parish priest regarding the instructions which he was bound to give his flock in the mother-tongue, at least four times in the year, it is said of the wine given to the laity, "Lewede men þat underfongeþ Godys body ne shul nowȝt by-leue þat þat drynke þat þey vnderfongeþ after here howsel, ys any oþer sacrament bute wyne and water for to brynge in þe oste þe betere." Burney MS. 376, p. 93. Compare Add. MS. 10,053, f. 109. "Communico, to make comun, or housel. Communio, a comunynge, or a houselynge. Cena, a souper or a houslynge." ORTUS. "Oblata, howsell." Harl. MS. 1587. "Eukaristia, howsyll." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "To howsylle, communicare." CATH. ANG. In the Accounts of the Churchwardens of Walden, 36 Hen. VI. a charge occurs "pro lavacione j. manutergii pro hoselynge." Hist. of Audley End. In the Golden Legend it is said in the Life of St. John, "he said the masse, and houseled and comuned the people." Ang.-Sax. huslian, Eucha∣ristiam celebrare; husel, panis sacer.]Com∣munico.
  • HOWSHOLDE. Familia.
  • Page  251HOWSHOLDARE (howsalder, K.) Pater familias, yconomus.
  • HOWSYN̄', or puttyn̄ yn a howse. Domifero, CATH.
  • HOWSYN̄', or makyn̄' howsys. (Domifico, CATH. S. P.)
  • HOWSKEPARE. Edituus, editua, CATH.
  • HOWSLEKE, herbe, or sengrene.1. ["House leke, iombarde." PALSG. W. Turner says that "Sedum magnum is called also in Latin sempervivum, in English houseleke, and of som singren, but it ought better to be called aygrene." Herbal, 1562. See ORPYN, hereafter.]Barba Jovis, semper viva, ju∣barbium, C. F.
  • HOWESONE. Quamtocius, quam∣cicius.
  • HOWTYN̄', or cryyn̄'. Boo, KYLW.
  • HOWTYN̄', or cryen̄ as shepmenn (howten, K. P. howen, J. W.)2. [HOWCYN̄, MS. See the note on HALOW, schypmannys crye.]Celeumo, CATH.
  • HOWTYNGE, crye.3. [HOWTYNGE crye, MS. The alphabetical arrangement indicates an error in this reading, and all the other MSS., as likewise Pynson's edition, read Howtynge, cry; howynge, W. de Worde, ed. 1516. In the curious Treatise, entitled the Master of the Game, Vesp. B. XII. and Harl. MS. 5086, will be found a detailed account of the proper use of "so how," and all the stimulating cries used in field sports. See also the "huntynge of the haare," in Dame Julyana Bernes' Boke of Huntynge, sign. d. iij.]Boema, CATH. et KYLW. Sohowe, the hare ys fownde, boema, lepus est in∣ventus.
  • HOWHYN' (howghyn, K. howwhyn, H.)4. [To hough, or hock the ham-strings, seems to be derivable from Ang.-Sax. hoh, poples, or possibly the etymon heawan, secare, may be preferred. In the Wicliffite version, Josh. xi. 6, it is written "thou shalt hoxe the horses, subnervabis," Vulg. A statement in Rot. Parl. vi. 38, sets forth that in a riot in Yorkshire 1472, one Rich. Williamson was "speared, and hough synued."]Subnervo (enervo, P.)
  • HOVYN̄' yn watur, or oþer lycoure.

    5. Minot, who wrote about 1350, speaks of the French fleet sent against the English coasts, composed of galleys, carectes, and galiotes,

    "With grete noumber of smale botes,
    Al thai hoved on the flode."

    iii. p. 11.

    In R. Wimbeldon's Sermon at Paul's Cross, 1389, given by Fox, it is said, "In a tonne of wyne the dreggis dwellen byneth, and the cliere wyne houeth aboue." Compare HOVE of oyle, and FLETYN̄. The verb to hove, in the various senses here given, appears to be derived from hof, the past tense of Ang.-Sax. hebban, elevare.

  • HOVYN̄' yn̄' þe eyre, as byrdys (as Page  252 bryddys, or skyis, or other lyke, K. hovun in eyȝire, as byrdys, or askyys, H. as birdis, or askes, P.)1. [This word is evidently synonymous with hover. The reading "skyis" is question∣able, but SKYE occurs hereafter in the sense of a cloud. See the earlier Wicliffite version, Deut. xxxii. 11, "As an egle forthclepynge hias bryddis to flee, and on hem houynge (super eos volitans," Vulg.)]Supervolo, supervolito.
  • HOVYN̄' on hors, and a-bydyn̄'.

    2. This verb is used in this sense by R. Glouc. p. 218; Chaucer, Troil. B. v.; Gower, and other writers. Fabyan speaks of Jack Cade, 1450, as "houynge at Blackhethe;" and states that at Bosworth, "some stode houynge a ferre of, tyl they saw to the whyche partye the victory fyll." In the description of that conflict, as given in the song of Lady Bessy, by Humphrey Brereton, Richard says,

    "I myselfe will hove on the hill, I say,
    The fair battle I will see."

    page 44.
    Sirocino, KYLW.
  • (HUCHE, K. Cista, archa.)
  • HWYR, cappe (hvyr, K. hure, H. huwyr, P. hurwyr, J. W.)3. [See the note on HOWE, or hure, heed hyllynge.]Tena, C. F. et UG. in teneo.
  • HWKSTARE (hukstere, K.)

    4. "Auccionarius, a hukstere: Auccio, ekynge: Auccionor, to merchaunt, and huk." MED. "I hucke, as one dothe that wolde bye a thing good cheape, Ie harcelle and Ie marchande." PALSG. Junius derives huckster from the Dutch Hoecker, a retailer, because he endeavours to hook, or draw in strangers; but it seems to be allied to the Ang.-Sax. eacan, augere, because he sells at a higher price than the first dealer. In Friar Michael's Satire on the people of Kildare, written about 1308, the huckster ap∣pears to have been a female victualler.

    "Hail be ȝe, hokesters, dun bi þe lake,
    Wiþ caudles and golokes and þe pottes blak,
    Tripis and kine fete and schepen heuedes,"

    Harl. MS. 913 f. 8, b.

    In the oath of the beadle of the ward, and of constables, according to the Customs of London, is the following clause: "Ye shalbe no regrater of vitale, nor none huxter of ale, nor partiner with none of theym." Arnold's Chron. 93. "Hucster, a man quo∣quetier: Hucster, a woman, quoquetiere." PALSG. "Howkstar that sellethe meate and drynke, caupo." ELYOT. "Regrateur an huckster, mender, dresser, trimmer up of old things for sale. Revendeur, a huckster, or regrator. Maquignon, a hucster, broker, horse-courser." COTG.

  • HUKSTARE of frute. Colibista.
  • HULKE, shyppe.5. [In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that warfare by sea should be suspended after the equinox, when "grete vesselles made for the nones (for aventure of merchaundise) as carickes, dromondis, hevy hulkis, grete cogges, and shippes of toure," may venture forth; but the captain, who must lead his troops in "small and light vessels, as galeies, barges. fluynnes, and ballyngers," is dissuaded from the attempt. B. iv. c. 39. Walsingham relates that in the engagement between the Duke of Bedford and the French, 1416, "cepit tres caricas, et unam hulkam, et qua∣tuor balingarias." Camd. 394. "Hulke, a shyppe, hevrcque." PALSG. "Orque, a hulke, a huge ship." COTG.]Hulcus.
  • HULLOWRE, idem quod HOREL, supra.

    6. This term of reproach is used by Rob. Glouc. and Chaucer, W. of Bathe's Prol. 5836; and again in the Persone's Tale, as follows: "If he repreve him uncharitably of sinne, as, thou holour! thou dronkelowe harlot! and so forth." In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said of the selection of soldiers, that "fishers, foulers, runnours, and gestours, lechours, and holours ne shulde not be chosen to knyghthode, ne not be suffred comme nyghe the strengthes,—for this maner of menne with her lustes shulle rather nasshe the hertes of warriours to lustes, thenne hardenne theim to fight." B. i. c. 7. In the Towneley Myst. the words holard and horell occur.

    "Thise dysars and thise hullars,
    Thise cokkers and thise bollars,
    And alle purs cuttars,
    Bese welle war of thise men."

    Processus talentorum, p. 242.

    "Holier, houlleur; débauché, luxurieux." ROQUEF. See Ducange, v. Holerii.

  • Page  253HULWUR, tre (huluyr, K. P.)1. [The holly is still called in Norfolk hulver, and in Suffolk hulva; it seems to be the tree which is called by Chaucer "an hulfere," in Complaint of the Black Knight. Skinner supposes it may be so called from it holding or lating long, Ang.-Sax. feor, longe, or holding fair, as being evergreen. "Houx, the holly, holme, or hulver tree. Petit houx, kneehulver, butchers broom." COTG. Holland, in his translation of Pliny, speaks of the "holly or hulver tree." B. XXIV. c. 13.]Hulmus, hulcus, aut huscus.
  • HUMLOK, herbe. Sicuta, lingua canis (intuba, P.)
  • HUMMYNGE (hūnynge, S.) Reuma (secundum Levsay, S.)
  • HUNDRYD. Centum.
  • HUNDRYD tymes. Cencies.
  • HUNGYR. Fames, esuries.
  • HUNGRY. Famelicus, esuriens.
  • HUNGRYN̄', or waxyn̄' hungyr (wax hungry, S.) Esurio.
  • HUNTARE. Venator.
  • HUNTYNGE. Venacio, venatus.
  • HUNTŌN. Venor.
  • HURDYCE, or hustylment (hurdyse, H. P. hustysment, K. vstylment, S.)2. [In Coer de Lion "hurdys" are mentioned repeatedly, lines 612, 3969; "hur∣dices," K. Alis. 2785, but evidently signify barricades, palissades, or large shields termed pavises. See Ducange, v. Hurdicium. It may in the sense above given have been used metaphorically.]Utensile (suppellex, P.)
  • HURL, or debate. Sedicio, C. F.
  • HVRLERE, or debate maker. Se∣diciosus, C. F.
  • HURLYN̄', or debatyn̄'.

    3. In a satire on the studies of the Dialecticians of the times of Edw. I. it is said,

    "Whan menne horlith ham here and there,
    Nego saveth ham fram care."

    Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, 211.

    "Y was hurlid, and turned upsodoun (impulsus eversus sum, Vulg.) þat y schulde falle doun, and þe lord took me up." Ps. cxvii. 13, Wicl. version. John Payne writes to his master, John Paston, regarding the trouble that befell him in Cade's rebellion, 1450, "and a-none after yt hurlyng the Byshop Rosse apechyd me to the Quene." Past. Lett. i. 62. Horman says of troublous times, "in that whorlynge of the worlde (temporum novitate) I wiste nat what to do. Hurrelynge, murmura." "I hurle, I make a noyse as the wynde dothe, ie bruys." PALSG

    Incursor, C. F.
  • HURLYNGE, or stryfe. Incurcio, C. F. conflictus.
  • HURTE, or hurtynge. Lesio, lesura.
  • HURT, or hurtyd. Lesus.
  • HURTUN, or harmyn̄'. Ledo.
  • HURT(EL)YNGE (hurtlynge, K.) Collisio, contactus.
  • HURTELYN̄', as too thyngys to∣gedur (herthyn, H. hurcolyn, S.) Page  254 hurchyn togeder, P.)

    1. "Collicio, to-gidur hurtlynge. Collisus, to-gidur hurtled." MED. The sounds produced by the minstrels at a marriage, described in William and the Werwolf, were so varied and powerful that the hearers might think

    "þat heuen hastili and erþe schuld hurtel to gader,
    So desgeli it denede that al þerþe quakede."

    p. 180.

    This word is of frequent occurrence in the Wicliffite version. "The litil children were hurtlid togidere (collidebantur, Vulg.) in her wombe." Gen. xxv. 22. See also Mark ix. 17; Dedis xxvii. 41. In the Golden Legend it is said of the final Judgment, "the seuenth sygne, the stones shal smyte and hurtle togyder." It is used by Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare.

    Impingo, collido.
  • HURRŌN', or bombon̄ as bees, and otherlyke (hurryn, or bumbyn as ben, K. hurren or bumbyn or been, or other like, P.) Bombizo.
  • HUSBONDE, idem quod HOSEBOND, supra (husbond of gouernawnce, K. man of gouernaunce, P.

    2. In the version of Macer's treatise of the virtues of herbs it is said of honysuckle, "if þe beehyues be anointed with þe ius of her leeues, þe been schlat not goo a-way; þe housbondes kepe her swarmes in tyme of yere by suche anonyntynge." Hardyng says of the taxation imposed by Rufus, which sorely oppressed the commons,

    "A kyng woteth not what harmeth housbandrye,
    Housbande to pill and taxe outrageously."

    Chron. c. 125.

    "An husband, editus, iconimus, incola, paterfamilias." CATH. ANG. "This smythe is a good housbande (mesnaigier), for I herde hym beate with his hamer to daye afore foure of ye clocke. Husbande, a thriuyng man, mesnagier. Husbandes house in the countre, or maner place, metayrie." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. hus-bonda, domus magister.

  • (HUSBONDE, wedded man, P. Maritus, J. W.)
  • HUSBONDYN̄', or wysely dyspendyn̄' worldely goodys. Dispenso, ico∣nomico, C. F. vel prudenter dis∣pensare.
  • HUSBONDYS brothere. Lussus, C. F.
  • HUSKE of frute, or oþer lyke. Corticillus, cullea, UG. in claudo, folliculus, CATH. et C. F. acinus vel acinum, C. F.
  • HUSKE, fyshe (husk, fishe, K. H. husk of fyshe, S. P.)3. ["Squarus, quidam piscis; et dicitur a squamâ, quia squanis acutus sit, unde et ejus cute lignum politur." CATH. Pennant states that the rough skin of the Squalus squatina, Linn. or Angel shark, was used by the ancients to polish wood and ivory, according to Pliny, ix. c. 12; and that in England the skin of the greater dog-fish, cat∣fish, or bounce, Squalus canicula, Linn. called in French roussete, is applied to the same purpose. Zool. iii. pp. 87, 99. This last appears to be the species here called the huske. Palsgrave gives "husse, a fysshe, rousette;" and Cotgrave explains rousset to be "a little ruddie dog-fish." "Squatina, a soole fysshe with a roughe skynne, wherewith fletchers doo make theyr arrowes smoothe." EYLOT. In N. Britain the Cyclopterus lumpus, Linn. the lump, or sea-owl, is called hush-paddle, in Germ. see-haess, lepus marinus. See Jamieson. Compare Teut. hesse, catus.]Squa∣mus, C. F. squarus, CATH.
  • HUSKE of a note. Nuci, UG. in noceo (nauci, S.)
  • Page  255HUSPYLYN̄', or spoylyn̄' (spolyyn, H.)1. [To huspil, in the dialect of Shropshire, signifies to disorder, destroy, or knock about. See Hartshorne's Salopia. In old French houspouillier, or harpailleur, im∣plies a thievish marauder, "homme qui vole les gens de la compagne, vagabond" ROQUEF. "S'houspiller l'un l'autre, to tug, lug, hurry, tear one another," &c. COTG. Compare gaspiller, which, according to Menage, has the same origin.]Spolio, dispolio.
  • HUSTYLMENT (or harneys, or hur∣dyce, supra.)2. ["Suppellectilia, hustelment." MED. This term is used in the original MS. by the first hand, in Bodl. Libr. of the earlier Wicliffite version; "Thou shalt anoynt of it the tabernacle, &c. and the ccandelstik, and the hustilmentis of it (utensilia, Vulg.)" Exod. xxx. 28. It occurs in several documents connected with the Eastern Counties. Joanna, relict of Sir T. Hemgrave, made, about 1421, a will under constraint of her second husband, devising to him personal effects and a sum of money, "1150 marcs, with other jewel and hostelment that were mine other husbands goods and mine," as stated in her protest. Hist. of Hengrave, 93. John Hakone of Wyne∣ton makes the following devise in 1437; "I wyll that alle necessaries and hustylments longyng to myn howsehold, that is to sey, to halle, chaumbyr, and kechene be disposed to the use of my wife." Norwich Wills, Harl. MS. 10, f. 267. In the Paston Letters, ii. 26, are mentioned "gonnes, crossebows, and quarrells, and alle other hostelments to the maneur (of Caistor) belonginge." 1469, 9 Edw. IV. In 1492 Robert Parker be∣queaths to his wife all his "hostiliaments, utenselys, and jowellys, to his house per∣taining." Cullum's Hawsted, 17. The word seems to be taken from the old. Fr. oustillement, ROQUEF. "Outillemens, stuffe, movables, household furniture, or im∣plements." COTG.]Utensile, supellex.
  • HUSWYFE. Materfamilias.
  • HUSWYFERY. Yconomia.
  • HUGE, or grete. Magnus.
  • (HUTCHE, or whyche, supra in HOCHE.3. [Sir Johyn Maundevile says of the Ark of the Testimony. "that arke, or hucche, with the relikes, Tytus ledde with hym to Rome, whan he had scomfyted alle the Jewes." Voiage, p. 102. By Chaucer the word is written "wiche." Caxton, in the Boke for Travellers, says of household stuff, "these thinges set ye in your whutche (huche) or cheste; your jewellis in your forcier, that they be not stolen." "Archa, a whycche, a arke and a cofyre. Archula, a lytelle whycche. Cibutum, a meta whycche. Cista, a whycche." MED. "Hutche, a chest, cofre, huche." PALSG. Ang.|Sax. hwaecca, arca.]Cista, archa.)