Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, dictionarius anglo-latinus princeps, auctore fratre Galfrido grammatico dicto, ex ordine fratrum Predicatorum, northfolciensi, circa A. D. M.CCCC.XL. Olim ex officina Pynsoniana editum, nunc ab integro, commentariolis subjectis, ad Fidem codicum recensuit Albertus Way, A. M.
Galfridus, Anglicus, active 1440., Way, Albert, 1805-1874, ed., British Library. Manuscript. Harley 221.
  • GABBAR (or lyare, infra.)2. [Sir John Maundevile, speaking of false diamonds, says, "I schal speke a litille more of the dyamandes, alle thoughe I tarye my matere for a tyme, to the ende that thei that knowen hem not be not disceyved be gabberes (Fr. barratours) that gon be the contree, that sellen hem."]Men∣daculus, mendacula, mendax.
  • GABYL, or gable, pykyd walle.3. ["A gavelle of a howse, frontispicium." CATH. ANG. Rob. of Glouc. uses the word gable in the sense of high. See Bp. Kennett's Glossary, v. Gabulum.]Murus conalis (gabyll wall, or pyke wall, murustenalis, P.)
  • GABBYN̄'. Menticulor, mencior.
  • GABBYNGE, or lesynge (lye, P.)4. [In Wickliffe's Confession given by Knyghton, he declared respecting the real presence, that "before the fende fader of lesyngus was lowside, was never this gabbyng contryvede." Decem Script. col. 2650. Ang.-Sax. ȝabbunȝ, derisio, or delusion by way of mockery and jesting.]Mendacium, mendaciolum, CATH.
  • Page  184GAD, or gode (gadde or qhyp, H. whyppe, P.) Gerusa, KYLW. scutica, C. F.
  • GAD, to mete wythe londe (gadde, or rodde, P.) Decempeda, CATH. pertica, C. F.
  • (GADERYD, K. Congregatus.)
  • GADERYN'. Colligo, lego. Ver∣sus. Fur legit es, flores virgo, viator iter.
  • GADERYN̄' tresowre. Thesaurizo, CATH.
  • GADERYNGE to-gedur. Colleccio, congregacio.
  • GAGELYN̄', or cryyn̄' as gees. Clingo.
  • GAGELYNGE of geese, or of gan∣ders. Drancitus (drācticus, P.)
  • GAGGYN̄', or streyne be the þrote. Suffoco.
  • GAY. Ornatus.
  • GAYLER, or iaylere. Gaolarius, carcerarius, CATH. pretor.
  • GALACHE, or galoche, vndyr solynge of mannys fote (galegge, or galoch, S. vndirshone, K. vnderschoyinge, H.)

    1. Sunt obstringilli qui per plantas consuti sunt, et ex superiori parte corrigiâ con∣trahuntur." CATH. The galache was a sort of patten fastened to the foot by cross latchets, and worn by men as early as the time of Edw. III. Allusion is made to it by Chaucer.

    "Ne were worthy to unbocle his galoche."

    Squire's Tale, 10,869.

    In the inventory of the effects of Hen. V. taken A.D. 1423, mention occurs of "j peir de galages faitz d'estreyn, iv d.;" but it is not easy to understand how straw should be a proper material for the purpose. See Rot. Parl. IV. 329. In Sir John Howard's Household Book, A.D. 1465, p. 314, are named both galaches and pynsons, which last are in the Promptorium explained to be socks. See Household Expenses in England. This kind of shoe was occasionally an article of luxury and ostentatious display, which probably suggested the allusion that occurs in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, where one is described as coming eagerly, as if to be dubbed a knight,

    "To geten hym gilte spores,
    Or galoches y-coupled."

    line 12,099.

    The term "y-couped" seems to imply the extravagant fashion of the long-peaked toe: "Milleus, a coppid shoo." ORTUS. In the reign of Edward IV. a statute was passed, by which the higher classes alone were permitted to wear shoes, "galoges," or boots, with a peak longer than 2 inches (Rot. Parl. V. 505, 566; Stat. of Realm. II. 415); but, from certain allusions in ancient romance, it would seem that the fashion was, by the usage of a much earlier period, permitted to none under the degree of a knight. See Sir Degore, 700; Torrent of Portugal, 1193, &c. The curious drawings in Cott. MS. Julius, E. IV. (t. Hen. VI.), one of which, representing King John, has been given in Shaw's Dresses, exhibit the galache in its most extravagant form. "Solea, a shoe called a galage or paten, whiche hathe nothynge on the fete, but onely lachettes." ELYOT. "Gallozza, a kind of wooden patins, startops, gallages, or stilts. Cospi, wooden pattins, or pan∣tofles, shoes with wooden soles, startops or galages," &c. FLORIO. "Galoche, a woodden shoe or patten made all of a peece, without any latchet or ty of leather, and worne by the poore clowne in winter." COTG. See Spenser, Sheph. Cal. Febr. and Sept. In the Wardrobe Book of Prince Henry, A.D. 1607, are mentioned "1 pair of golossians, 6s. 16 gold buckles with pendants and toungs to buckle a pair of golosses." Archaeol. xi. 93.

    Crepitum, crepita, C.F. obstringillus, CATH.
  • Page  185GALAWTE.1. [This word occurs in the Harl. MS. alone, and possibly the correct reading may be GALAWNTE. "Gallaunt, a man fresshe in appareyle." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. ȝal, libidinosus. For lessivus, should probably be read lascivus, i.e. "petulans, luxurians, vel superbe se agens, ioly or wanton." ORTUS.]Lessivus.
  • GALLE of a beeste. Fel, bilis, CATH.
  • GALLE of appulle, or oþer frute (galle, oke appyll, P.) Galla.
  • GALLE, soore yn mann' or beeste. Strumus, marista, C. F.
  • GALEYE, schyppe. Galea.
  • GALYN̄, as crowys or rokys.2. [By Chaucer the nightingale is said to "cry and gale," Court of Love, 1357; in which sense the word may be derived from the Ang.-Sax. ȝalan, canere. Jamieson gives to gale, or gial, to cry with a harsh note, a term applied to the cuckoo; and to galyie, to roar or brawl. According to Forby, to yawl signifies, in Norfolk, to scream harshly, as the cry of a peacock; and Moore gives yalen, to cry as a fretful child. "Japper, to bark or baye like a dog, to yawle, to bawle. Hoüaller, to yawl, wawl, to cry out aloud. Moüaner, to mawle, yawle, or cry like a little child." COTG. Ang.-Sax. ȝyllan, ȝiellan, stridere.]Crocito, KYLW. crosco.
  • (GALYNGALE, idem quod GANYN∣GALE, infra.)
  • GALLYD (gally, S.) Strumosus.
  • GALLYN, or make gallyd. Strumo.
  • GALLYNGE. Strumositas.
  • (GALLOCHE, supra in GALACHE. Callopedium, P.)
  • GALONE, mesure. Lagena, galo, DICC.
  • GALWE TREES (galowe, P.) Furce, plur. vel furca, galofurcium, KYLW.
  • GALTE (or gylte) swyne. Ne∣frendus, CATH.
  • GAME, pley. Ludus, jocus.
  • GAMME of songe. Gamma.
  • GANYNGE, or ȝanynge.3. ["To gane, fatiscere, hiare, inhiscere. To gayne, oscitare." CATH. ANG. "I gane, or gape, I yane, ie baille. He ganeth as he had not slepte ynoughe." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. ȝanung, oscitatio. In the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth the verb to galp occurs, "Par trop veiller hom baille, galpeþ." See also the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 8,214; Cant. Tales, 10,664, 16,984. Horman renders "he that galpeth, oscitans."]Oscita∣tus, KYLW.
  • GANDYR, byrde or fowl. Ancer.
  • GANYNGALE, or galyngale, spyce.4. [Among the spices used in ancient cookery, the powder of galingale is frequently named, as may be seen in the Forme of Cury. It was the chief ingredient in galen∣tine, which, as Pegge supposes, derived thence its name. It was also employed in me∣dicine, as a cardiac and cephalic. In the version of Macer's Treatise on Spices, MS. in the possession of Hugh W. Diamond, Esq. it is stated that "Galyngale resolueþ þe fleume of þe stomak; hit helpiþ þe deiestione; it doþ amende þe sauour and odour of þe mouthe if it be eten." He further attributes to it virtues of a carminative and aphro∣disiac nature. It occurs among spices mentioned in the Household Roll of the Countess of Leicester, A.D. 1265; "pro vj lib. Galingalium, ix. s." (Manners and Expenses of England, p. 14.) Chaucer makes allusion to its culinary use, Cant. Tales, 383. The annual provision of spices for the household of the Earl of Northumberland, A.D. 1512, comprised "Galyngga, j quarteron." According to Parkinson, the real galingale was the root of a Chinese plant, of which he gives a representation; but it appears that the root of the rush called English galingale, Cyperus longus, Linn. was much used in place of it, both as a drug and a condiment.]Galanga.
  • GANNEKER (ganokyr, S.)5. [Ganeo is explained by Ducange to signify "gulosus, popinator, tabernio;" in French, "ganeon; ivrogne, debauché." ROQUEF. The Proclamation of the Mayor of Norwich, on coming into office, set forth "that all Brewsters and Gannokers selle a gallon ale, of the best, be measure a-selyd, for 1d. ob. and a galon of the next for 1d." A.D. 1424. Blomf. ii. 100.]Ga∣nearia, UG. in capio, ganeo, UG.
  • Page  186GANTE, byrde.1. [The bird now called gannet, or Solan goose, sula alba, abounds only on the Bass Island, in the Firth of Forth. In the Exch. Roll of Normandy, A.D. 1180, p. 57, an entry occurs "pro pastu gantarum que venerunt de Angliâ, et pro lx. de illis ducendis ad Argentomum, et lx. ad Burum, vi li. iij so. et ix d." Giraldus mentions the GANTE among the birds of Ireland; "Aucae minores albae (quae et gantes dicuntur) et gre∣gatim in multitudine magnâ, et garrulâ venire solent, in hos terrarum fines rarius adveniunt, et tunc valde rare." Top. Hib. i. c. 18. Ang.-Sax. ȝanot, fulica.]Bistarda, C. F.
  • GAP of a walle. Intervallum, intercapedo, UG. in valeo, et CATH. capedo, C. F.
  • GAPYN̄'. Hio, oscito, UG.
  • GAPYNGE. Hiatus, hiacio.
  • GARBAGE of fowlys (or gyserne, infra.) Entera, NECC. vel en∣teria, C. F. vel exta, NECC. C. F. profectum, UG. V.
  • GAGE, lytylle belle (lytyll bolle, S.)2. [The reading of the Winchester MS. is probably here correct. In Norfolk a gage is, according to Forby, a bowl or tub to receive the cream, as it is successively skimmed off; so called, as he observes, from its use as a gauge, to show when a sufficient quantity has been collected to be churned. The word does not occur in the other MSS.]
  • GAARCE. Scarificacio, NECC. sesura, C. F. inscisio, scissura.
  • GAARCYD. Scarificatus, inscissus.
  • GAARCYN̄'.3. [In a treatise of the seasons, printed with Arnold's Chron. p. 172, it is recom∣mended that in winter "men shulde lete them bloode in ther bodys by garsinge, but not on veynes, but if it be the more nede;" meaning the operation of cupping, called in the Promptorium BOYSTON'. "To garse, scarificare." CATH. ANG. "Caesura, a cut, a garse, an incision." ELYOT.]Scarifico, C. F. UG. V. et KYLW.
  • GARCYNGE. Scarificacio, inscisio.
  • GARDEYNE. Ortus.
  • GARDENERE. Ortolanus.
  • (GARDERE, infra in GARTERE.)
  • GARFANGYL, or elger.4. [The term ANGYLLE, to take wythe fysche, meaning a fishing rod, has occurred already, as also ELYER, or elger, which appears to be an eel-spear. "Contus, an algere, a shaft, a dartt, a polloure. Fuscina, a hoke for fysshe, an algere." MED. MS. CANT. The word GARFANGYL seems wholly obsolete; possibly the first syllable may be traced to Ang.-Sax. ȝar, jaculum, or the implement may be a kind of spear used in taking the GARFYSCHE.]Anguil∣laria, anguillare.
  • GARFYSCHE (or hornkeke, infra.)5. [Sir T. Brown, in his account of the fishes of the Norfolk coast, mentions the gar∣fish, or greenback (Esox belone Linn.) Harrison mentions it among fish usually taken; "Of the long sort are congers, eeles, garefish, and such other of that forme." Descr. of Eng. Holinsh. Chron. i. 224. "Trompette, the needle-fish, garre-fish, horne-beake, horne-fish, or piper-fish. Aiguille, a horne-backe, piper-fish, or gane-fish. Esguille, a small fish called a horne-beake, snacot-fish, gane-fish. Orphie, the horne-kecke, piper-fish, garre-fish." COTG. The appellation is doubtless taken from its peculiar form; Ang.-Sax. ȝar, jaculum. Jamieson states that at Dundee the porpoise is called gairfish.]
  • GARGULYE, yn' a walle.6. [Will. of Worc. uses the term gargyle; Itin. p. 282. This appellation of the quaintly-fashioned water-spouts in the forms of men or monsters with yawning mouths, of which medieval architecture presents so endless a variety, is taken from the French. "Gargyle in a wall, gargoille." PALSG. See also Roquefort, v. Gargoile. Horman says, "Make me a trusse standing out upon gargellys, that I may se about: podium, suggestum, vel pulpitum, quod mutulis innitatur. I wyll haue gargyllis under the beamys heedis: mutulos, sive proceres, &c." Elyot renders "frumen, the vppermoste parte of the throte, the gargyll." A remarkable application of the gargoyle in archi∣tecture occurs on the south side of Notre Dame, at Paris; all the piscinas of the apsidal chapels surroudning the choir on that side being furnished with external gargoyles, which are fashioned like the upper parts of a lion, or dragon, and answer the purpose of the ordinary interior drains, which served to allow the water used in ablutions at the altar to pass into the earth. Their date is of the XIIIth cent. and nothing of a similar kind has been noticed in this country.]Gor∣gona, C. F. gurgulio (gargulio, P.)
  • Page  187GARYTTE, hey solere.

    1. In the Creed of Piers Ploughman is a curious and graphic description of a monas∣tery, with its numerous and stately buildings,

    "With gaye garites and grete,
    And iche hole y-glased."

    line 425.

    A GARYTTE was, in the original sense of the term, a watch tower, or look-out, on the roof of a house, or castle wall, called garita, in French guerite. In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said of the defence of a camp, and keeping watch by night, "it is nat possible algate to haue highe garettes, or toures, or highe places for watche men, therfor it nedethe to haue out watche." B. iii. c. 8. Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, says "of thinges that ben vsed after the hous,—hit behoueth to the cham∣bres, loftes, and garettis, solliers, greniers." Cotgrave explains garitte, or guerite, to be a place of refuge from surprise, made in a rampart; a sentry, or watch-tower; and "tourel à cul de lampe, a small out-juttyng garret, or tower like a garret, on the top of a walle." See SOLERE hereafter.

    Specula, C. F. pergamium, UG. in gamio.
  • GARLEKKE. Allium.
  • GARLONDE. Sertum.
  • GARMENTE. Indumentum, vesti∣mentum.
  • GARMENT of grete valure (or robe, P.) Mutatorium, CATH.
  • GARMENT of clothe, made of dyuers clothys (colours, P.) Panucia, C.F.
  • GARNYSCHE of vesselle (garniche, K.)2. [A garnish signified commonly the set or service of pewter, and likewise, in more stately establishments, of more precious material. Previously to the introduction of fictile ware of an ornamental description in the later part of the XVIth cent. the ordinary service of the tables of our ancestors was on vessels of pewter, the silver plate being for the most part reserved to decorate the cup-board, or buffet. Harrison, in his descrip∣tion of Eng. written about 1580, speaking of the great skill to which English pewterers had attained, says, "Such furniture of household of this mettall, as we commonlie call by the name of vessell, is sold usuallie by the garnish, which dooth conteine 12 platters, 12 dishes, 12 saucers, and those are either of siluer fashion, or else with brode or narrow brims, and bought by the pound, which is now valued at six or seuen pence, or perad∣uenture at eight pence. In some places beyond the sea a garnish of good flat English pewter of an ordinarie making, ... is esteemed almost so pretious, as the like number of vessels that are made of fine siluer, and in maner no lesse desired amongst the great estates, whose workmen are nothing so skillful in that trade as ours." Holinsh. Chron. i. 237. In the inventory of the college of Bishop's Auckland, A.D. 1498, the silver plate having been described, there are enumerated "XX pewder platers, xij pewder dishes, viij salsers, j garnishe of vessell." Wills and Inv. Surt. Soc. i. 101.]Garnitum.
  • Page  188GARNYSCHYD. Garnitus.
  • GARNYSCHYN̄' vesselle. Garnio, garniso, polio.
  • GARNYSCHYN̄' pursys, and oþer lyke.
  • GARSONE, stronge place (gary∣zone, or garzone, strong holde, H. garyson, or garson, P.) Mu∣nicipium, C. F.
  • GARTERE, or gardere. Subligar, C. F. pelliper, CATH.
  • GARTERYN̄'. Subligo (obligo, K.)
  • GARWYNDYLLE (garwyndyl, or ȝarnwyndyl, S. garwyngyll, P.)1. ["A gyrus dicitur gyrgillus, instrumentum femineum, quod alio nomine dicitur volutorium, quia vertendo in gyrum inde fila devoluntur. Filum de colo ducitur in fusum; a fuso in alabrum, vel traductorium; ab alabro in gyrgillum vel devoluto∣rium; a gyrgillo in glomicellum." CATH. "Girgillum, Anglice a haspe, or a payre of yerne wyndle blades." ORTUS. "A garwyndelle, devolutorium, girgillus." CATH. ANG. "Yarne wyndell, tornette." PALSG. "Tournette, a rice, or yarwingle to wind yarne on. Travouil, a rice or a turning reele." COTG. See ȜARNE WYNDEL.]Girgillus, CATH.
  • GASPYN̄'. Exalo, hisco, C. F.
  • GASPYNGE, idem quod GAPYNGE, supra.
  • GATE, or wey. Via, iter.
  • GATE, or ȝate (yate, P.) Porta, foris, fores, CATH. (janua, P.)
  • GATE DOWNE. Descensus.
  • GATE DOWNE, or downe gate of þe sunne, or any oþer planete.2. [Palsgrave gives "At the sonne gate downe, sur le soleil couchant."]Occasus.
  • GATE SCHADYLLE (gateshodel, K. H. gate schodil, P.) Compitum, C. F. clinium, UG. in clino.
  • GATE SCHADYL, yn-to twey weyys. Bivium.
  • GATE SCHADYL, yn-to iij weyys. Trivium.
  • GATE SCHADYL, yn-to iiij weyys (or a carphax, H. P.)

    3. "A gateschadylle, bivium, diversiclivium, compitum." CATH. ANG. From the Ang.-Sax. sceadan, separare, is derived the obsolete verb to shed; "Discrimino, to shedde and departe." MED. MS. CANT. "To shede one's heed, parte the heares euyn from the crowne to the myddes of the foreheed." PALSG. Chaucer says of the Clerk Absolon,

    "Full straight and euyn lay his jolly shode."

    Miller's Tale.

    Hence also seems to be taken the term GATE SCHADYLLE, the division of a road into two or more directions. It appears to be wholly obsolete, and unnoticed by the Glos∣sarists. See Carfax (cartehouse, MS.) above, p. 62.

    Quadri∣vium.
  • GAWDE, or iape.

    4. In the Romance of the Seuyn Sages, the Emperor had given ear to the false ac∣cusation brught against Florentine by his step-mother; but the truth was at length made known.

    "A! Dame, said the Emperowre,
    Thou haues ben a fals gilowre,
    For thi gaudes, and thy gilry,
    I gif this dome that thou sal dy."

    line 3957.

    Mr. Weber has printed the word here gande, to which he gives the sense of a wile or mischievous design. Minot, in his poem on the Battle of Halidon Hill, says,

    "The Scottes gaudes might nothing gain."

    Chaucer uses the word in the signification of a trick, or joke. See Pardonere's Tale, 12,323, and Troil. B. ii. It implies also an ornament or toy of little value. Sher∣wood gives "a gaude, babiole," which Cotgrave renders "a trifle, whimwham, guigaw, or small toy for a child to play withal." See Jamieson, and Nares, v. Gaud.

    Nuga.
  • Page  189GAWDY grene. Subviridis.
  • GAVEL of corne.1. [To gavel signifies in Norfolk, according to Forby, to collect mown corn into heaps, in order to its being loaded. "Iaveler, to swathe, or gavell corn; to make it into sheaves, or gavels." COTG. Moore gives the word likewise as used in Suffolk.]Geluma, ma∣nipulatum, C. F. manipulare, CATH. merges, KYLW.
  • GAVELYN̄' corne, or oþer lyke. Manipulo, CATH. mergito, KYLW.
  • GAWGYN̄' depnesse. Dimentior, CATH.
  • GAWGYNGE of depenesse. Di∣mencionatus.
  • GAWL, fowayle (gavl, or gawyl, wode or fowayl, H. P.)2. [The Myrica gale, Linn. sweet gale, or bog myrtle, grows in boggy places in many parts of England, and before drainage had been carried to any extent in the fenny Eastern counties, it was probably found in sufficient abundance to be commonly used as fuel. Gerarde says that the Myrtus Brabanticus, gaule, sweet willow, or Dutch myrtle, grows plentifully in sundry places, as in the Isle of Ely, and the fenny places thereabouts; "whereof there is such store in that countrey, that they make fagots of it, and sheaues, which they call Gaule sheaues, to burn and heat their ovens." He mentions also that it was used to give an intoxicating quality to beer or ale, as it is still employed in Sweden.]Mirtus, CATH.
  • GAWNCELY, sauce (f)or gose flesche (gawnsely, saunce, K. gavcely, S. gawnly, P.)3. ["Gaunselle, applauda." CATH. ANG. The composition of this sauce is thus given in Arund. MS. 344; printed in Household Ordin. 441; and Warner's Cookery, 65. "Gaunsell for gese. Take floure, and tempur hit with gode cowe mylke, and make hit thynne, and colour hit with saffron; and take garlek, and stamp hit, and do therto, and boyle hit, and sew hit forthe." Caxton says, in the Book of Travellers, "Nycholas the mustard maker hath good vynegre, good gauselyn, gausailliede." The term is evi∣dently derived from "gausse d'ail, a clove of garlick." COTG. The Ortus explains "applauda vel appluda, dicitur sorbitiuncula ex paleis facta, (a gaunselle," MED.) This Latin word properly means chaff of corn, or husks, but here is taken in reference to the gousses, or husk-like covering of the garlic.]Ap∣lauda, KYLW.
  • GAWNT, or lene. Maciolentus, (macer, P.)
  • GAWNTE, or swonge (or slendyr, K.)4. [Ray mentions gant, slim or slender, among South and East country words. Forby gives ganty-gutted, lean and lanky; and Moore says that gant signifies scanty in Suffolk. Ang.-Sax. ȝewant, part. of the verb ȝewanian, tabescere. See SWONGE hereafter.]Gracilis.
  • GEAWNT. Gigas.
  • GEFFREY, propyr name. Gal∣fridus.
  • GEYNE, redy, or rythge forthe (ryȝht forth, S.)5. [In the Eastern counties gain signifies handy, convenient or desirable, and in the North near, as "the gainest road," which seems most nearly to resemble the sense here given to the word. See Brockett, Jamieson, and Hartshorne's Glossary.]Directus.
  • GEYNEBYYN̄', or byyn̄' a-ȝene.6. [In the later Wicliffite version Exod. vi. 6 is thus rendered; "y am þe lord þat schal lede out ȝou of þe prisoun of Egipcians, and y schal delyuere fro seruage, and y schal a-ȝen bie in an hiȝ arm;" in the earlier, "forbigge in an ouerpassynge arme;" "redimam in brachio excelso." Vulg. In the Golden Legend it is said, "We have grete nede of a doctour, or techer, of ayenbyer, of a delyuerer," &c. Compare A-GAYN∣BYER, or a raumsomere, and BYYN' a-ȝen'.]Redimo.
  • GEYNECOWPYN̄', or chasyn', or Page  190 stoppyn̄' in gate (geynstoppyn of gate, K. H. geyne cowpyn, or charyn, S.)1. [Compare CHARYN, or geynecowpyn'. Ray gives among South and East country words, "to gaincope, to go cross a field the nearest way to meet with something." In the Promptorium it signifies opposition, in both instances from Ang.-Sax. ȝean, obviam, adversus, and ceapian, negotiari.]Sisto, CATH.
  • GELDERE of beestys. Castrator.
  • GELDYN̄', Castro, testiculo, CATH. emasculo, CATH.
  • GELDYNGE of beestys, or fowlys. Castracio.
  • GELDYNGE, or gelde horse (gelt horse, K. P.) Canterius, CATH. canterinus, UG. in cavo, et C. F. vel equus castratus.
  • Hic caute attendat lector varia∣ciones soni hujus litere G. cum videlicet E. vel I. sequitur im∣mediata.
  • GELLE, or gelly. Gelidum, C. F. (congelidum, P.)
  • GELLYN̄, or congellyn' (to-gedyr, K.) Gelat, congelat.
  • GELLYD (or congellyd, K.) Con∣gellatus.
  • GELOWS, or geluce. Zelotipus, CATH.
  • GELUSYE (gelowsye, K.) Zelo∣tipia, CATH.
  • GELT. Castratus.
  • GELT MANN. Spado, eunuchus.
  • GEMETRYE. Geometria.
  • GENCYANE, or baldmony. Gen∣ciana.
  • GENDYR. Genus.
  • GENDRYN̄'. Genero, gigno.
  • (GENERAL, K. S. P.) Gen(er)alis.
  • GENTYL. Generosus.
  • GENTYL, of awncetrye (of an∣sware, S.)2. [GENTYL, or awncetrye, MS. of auncetry, K. P. So also, GENTRY, or awncetrye, MS.]Ingenuus, C. F.
  • GENTYL, and curteyse. Comis, CATH.
  • GEYTYLMANN. Generosus.
  • GENTILWOMAN̄. Generosa.
  • GENTYL, be fadyr and modyr. Ingenuus, UG. V. in N.
  • GENTRY. Generositas.
  • GENTRY, of norture and maners (gentilnes, K. gentyll, P.) Co∣mitas.
  • GENTRY, of awncetrye (gentilnes, K. gentry of awncetrye, P.) In∣genuitas.
  • GERFAUCUN (gerfawkyn, K. P.) Herodius.
  • GERMAWNDER, herbe. German∣dra.
  • GERMYYNE, propyr name. Ger∣manus.
  • GERNERE, howse of corne kepynge. Granarium.
  • GERTHE, hors gyrdylle (hors gyrdyng, H. P.) Cingula, CATH. cingulus est hominum, UG.
  • GESSARE (or a soposare, K.) Es∣timator.
  • GESSYN̄', or amyn̄. Estimo, ar∣bitror, opinor.
  • GESSYNGE (or wenyn, K.) Esti∣macio.
  • Page  191Nota in hoc capitulo multiplicem sonum, et soni mutacionem hujus litere G. et ideo bene caveas quod sonat per I. literam.
  • GEST, strawngere. Hospes.
  • GEESTE, or romawnce. Gestio (gestus, CATH. P.)
  • GESTYN̄' yn romawnce.1. [It would hence appear that the recital of gests, the deeds of conflict or gallantry, which was the proper business of the gestour, was accompanied by appropriate action, or gesticulation. "Gestire, i. gestus facere, scilicet diversis modis agitare, gaudere, luxuriari, &c." CATH. Hearne stated erroneously that gests were opposed to romance, Chron. Langt. pref. p. 37; a mistake which Warton has properly corrected. Chaucer uses "to geste," to relate gests; and "to tell in geste;" Cant. T. 17,354, 13,861; and these pasages apparently imply that gests were chiefly written in alliterative verse. He calls the Gesta Romanorum, "the Romain gestes." See Tyrwhitt's notes on Cant. T. 17,354, 13,775, and Warton's Eng. Poetry. "Gest, a tale. Gestyng, bourde, bourde." PALSG.]Gestio, CATH.
  • GESTYNGE, or romawncynge. Ges∣ticulatus, rythmicatus.
  • GESTOWRE. Gesticulator.
  • GET, or gyn' (gett, or gyle, K. gette, or gyty, S.) Machina.
  • GET, or maner of custome.

    2. Palsgrave gives "gette, a custome; newe iette, guise nouvelle." This phrase occurs often in the old writers. In a poem on the dissolute lives of the clergy, in the reign of Edw. II. Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, p. 329, some, it is said,

    "Adihteth him a gay wenche of the newe jet."

    line 118.
    "Yit a poynte of the new gett to telle wille 1 not blyn,
    Of prankyd gownes, and shulders up set, mos and flokkes sewyd wyth in."

    Towneley Myst. 312.

    Chaucer says the gay pardoner thought he rode "al of the newe get," or fashion; and he also uses the word in the sense of crafty contrivance, where he relates the deceit practised by the Alchemist, by means of a stick filled with silver filings.

    "And with his stikke above the crosselet,
    That was ordained with that false get,
    He stirreth the coles."

    Chan. Yem. T. 16,745.
    Mo∣dus, consuetudo.
  • GEETE, or blake bedys (gett for bedys, K. S. P.)

    3. It appears that in former times great virtues were attributed to jet. Alex. Nec∣cham, Abbot of Cirencester, who died A.D. 1217, says in his work De Rerum Naturâ, "Gagates ... aquâ ardet, oleo restinguitur: attritu calefactus applicata detinet, atque succinum: ydropicis illum portantibus beneficium prestat." lib. ii. c. 97, Roy. MS. 12 G. XI. f. 53. The observation of the electric properties of this mineral led him in the succeeding chapter to make some detailed remarks "de vi attractivâ," among which will be found a notice of the use of the magnet by mariners. In Trevisa's version of Barth. de propr. rerum, are the following observations: "Gette hyght gagates, and is a boystous stone, and neuer the less it is precious." It is best and most abundant in Britain, of two kinds, yellow and black, both of which have by friction the power of attracting light substances. It drives away adders, relieves fantasies, and has virtues against the visits of fiends by night. "And so if so boystus a stone dothe so greate wonders, none shuld be dispisid for foule colour without, while the vertu that is hid within is vnknowe." lib. xvi. c. 49. It was also regarded as a test of virginity, and rendering signal aid in parturition; these, and other properties, are noticed in Caxton's "Boke callid Caton," sign. e, viij. Even in the XVIth cent. it was valued for certain medicinal qualities; for Dr. Turner, Dean of Wells, says in his Herbal, 1562, "Miscel burde lyme melteth a swelled milt, if it be sodden, and layd to wyth a gete stone, or the Asiane stone." Beads, used for the reptition of prayers, were frequently formed of this material; thus among the gifts of Philip le Hardi to his daughter, on her marriage with the King of Bohemia, A. D. 1393, occurs, "Item, j paternostres de perles et de jayet, ou il y a xxxvj grosses perles, et ix enseignaulx d'or." Hist. de Bourg. iii. Alianor Duchess of Gloucester bequeaths, A.D. 1399, "un pare de paternostres d'ore, cont' xxx aviez, et iiij gaudes de get, qe fuerent à mon seignour et mari." Royal Wills. See also Testam. Ebor. i. 381. There is evidence that by some persons such beads were superstitiously regarded as gifted with extraordinary virtue; and to this belief Bp. Bale appears to make allusion, Kynge Johan, p. 39.

    "Holy water and bredde shall dryve awaye the devyll;
    Blessynges with blacke bedes wyll helpe in every evyll."
    Gagates, plur.
  • Page  192GETARE of goodys. Adqui∣sitor.
  • GETTARE.1. [Palsgrave gives "Gettar, a braggar, fringuereau. Iettar, a facer, facer, braggart. Iettar of nyght season, brigveur;" and Cotgrave, "Fringuereau, a ietter, spruce minion, gay fellow, compt youth." Compare hereafter SCHAKERE, or gettare: lascivus.]Gestulator, gestu∣osus (gesticulator, K. H. P.)
  • GETEE of a solere (gete, K. H. P.)2. [This term denotes the signular projection of the solars or upper stories in old tim∣bered houses, of which most picturesque specimens are still seen at Chester, and other towns. "Proceres dicuntur capita trabium que eminent extra parietes. Hecteca dicitur solarium dependens parietibus cenaculi." ORTUS. The Catholicon explains menianum to be the same as solarium, so named from Menianus, who made in the Forum certain convenient places for beholding public spectacles. "Meniana, buildings outward in prospectes and galeries, especially when they be so builded that the edifice iutteth out in length from the piller or other part of the house, wherin the building especially resteth; buildings of pleasure hanging and iutting out." COOPER. Horman says that "buyldynge chargydde with iotyes (maeniana aedificia) is parellous whan it is very olde." In Macbeth, act I. sc. vi. Shakespeare makes use of the term "jutty" in this sense, where Banquo commends the position of Macbeth's castle. Florio, in his Ital. Dict. 1598, gives "Barbacane, an outnooke, or corner standing out of a house, a jettie. Sporto, a porch, bay-window, or out-butting, or jettie of a house, that jetties out farther than anie other part of the house." Cotgrave renders "surpendue, a iettie, an outiutting roome. Soupendue, soupente, a pent-house, iuttie, or part of a building that iuttieth or leaneth ouer the rest." Steevens cites an agreement made by P. Hens∣lowe for building a theatre in 1599, with "a juttey forwards in eyther of the two upper stories."]Techa, procer, C. F. meniana, C. F. vel menianum, CATH. (hec∣theca, K. theca, CATH. P.)
  • GETYN̄', or haue be prayere. Im∣petro.
  • GETYN̄' or wynnyn̄'. Lucror, ob∣tineo, C. F. vel optineo, C. F.
  • (GETYN, or begetyn, K. P. Genero.)
  • GETTYN̄'.3. [See IETTYN̄, hereafter.]Verno, lassivo, ges∣ticulo, C. F. gestio, CATH. C. F. gesticulor, UG. V.
  • GETYNGE, or hauynge by wyn∣nynge. Lucrum, adquisicio.
  • GETTYNGE in iolyte. Gestus, CATH.
  • GETTYNGLY. Gestuose, CATH.
  • (GIAWNT, supra in GEAUNT, K.)
  • GYBEE, horse.4. [Festus and Papias state that certain monstrous images that were exhibited in the games of the circus, or on the stage, were termed by the Romans, manduci. Cooper gives "Manduces, images carried in pageantes with great cheekes, wide mouthes, and making a great noyse with their iawes." The Ortus renders "Mandicus, a gaye horse," and Forby gives the following explanation of the term; "Jibby-horse, a showman's horse decorated with particoloured trappings, plumes, streamers, &c. It is sometimes transferred to a human subject." In the MS. the word mandicum is placed under GYBELET; but its proper place is here. See Uguc. Vocab. Arund. MS. 508, f. 141, b.]Mandicus, KYLW. et C. F. mandicum, UG. in mando (manducus, S.)
  • Page  193(GYBBE, infra in KNOBBE yn a beestys backe or breste.)1. [This word seems to be taken from the Lat. gibbus. "Gibbe, a bunch or swelling, a hulch, anything that stands poking out." COTG.]
  • GYBELET, idem quod GARBAGE.
  • GYBELET of fowlys. Profectum, UG. V.
  • GYBET. Patibulum, calafurcium.
  • GYBONN, or Gylberde, propyr name (Gybbon', or Gylbert, S.) Gilbertus.
  • GYDE, or ledare. Ductor, duc∣trix.
  • GYBELOT (gyglot, S.)2. [Compare GYGELO(T) in the next page. The words are retained as found in the MS. and the reading seems here to be an error, which is corrected by the Winch. MS.]Ridax.
  • GYYLDE, or newe ale (gile, K. gyyl, H. gyle of nw ale, S. gyle, P.)3. [Forby gives "gyle, wort. Ang.-Sax. ȝylla, stridere, or Teut. ghijl, cremor cere∣visii." Ray has gail or guile-fat, among N. Country words, and it is given also by Brockett and Jamieson. "A gilefatte, acromellarium." CATH. ANG. In 1341, Thos. Harpham, of York, bequeaths "unam cunam, quae vocatur maske-fat, et ij parvas cunas quae vocantur gyle-fatts." Testam. Ebor. ii. 2. The term occurs repeatedly in the Wills and Invent. printed by the Surtees Soc.; and in the Invent. of Jane Hall, Durham, 1567, a distinction is apparent between the "gile-howse," and the brew-house, the former being perhaps the chamber where the wort was set to cool. See vol. i. 279. In the accounts of the building of Little Saxham Hall, 1507, it is called the "yele house." Rokewode's Suff. 146. See Invent. of Sir John Fastolfe's effects, 1459, Archaeol. xxi. 277; Unton Invent. pp. 3, 13; and Hartshorne's Shropshire Gloss. v. Illfit.]Celium, vel celia, C. F.
  • GYYLDE. Gilda, fraternitas.
  • GYLDE HALLE, dome howse. Pretorium, CATH.
  • GYLDYN̄' wythe golde. Deauro.
  • GYLDYNGE wythe golde. Deau∣racio.
  • GYYN̄', or ledyn̄'. Duco.
  • GYYN̄', or wyssyn̄' (dressyn, S. wysshen, P.)

    4. In medieval Latin guiare signifies to lead or conduct in safety, to instruct, "quasi viare," according to Ducange. In the Ward. Book of 28 Edw. I. there is a payment "pro vadiis unius Lodmanni conducti pro navi guiandâ inter Kircudbirth et Karla∣verok." p. 273. Roquefort gives "guier: mener, guider, conduire à la guerre, gou∣verner," &c. Chaucer uses the verb to gie, Cant. T. 15,604, 15,627. Gower says of the education of Alexander by Aristotle,

    "But yet he set an examplayre,
    His body so to guye and rule,
    That he ne passe mot the rule."

    Conf. Am. lib. vii.

    See also the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 1257. R. Brunne uses both the verb, and the noun "gyour," a leader; and in the Romance of K. Alis. 6023, "divers gyours, and sump∣teris" are mentioned as attending on his Eastern expedition. "Commino, to lede, or to gye." MED. Palsgrave gives the verb, "I gye, or gyde, Lydgate."

    Dirigo.
  • Page  194GYYN̄', or rewlyn̄'. Rego.
  • GYLE, or deceyte. Fraus, decepcio.
  • GYLLE, fowle clothe (fulclothe, H. P.)1. [The explanation of the word Melotes given in the Catholicon will be found in the note on the word BARNYSKYN, which seems to signify a coarse apron.]Melota, velmelotes, CATH.
  • GYLLE, lytylle pot. Gilla, vel gillus, vel gillungulus. Hec ha∣bentur in vitis patrum.
  • GYLLE of a fysche. Branchia, senecia, CATH.
  • GYLLYN̄', or gylle fysche. Ex∣entero, C. F. et UG. in stateo.
  • GYLLYNGE of fysche. Exente∣racio.
  • GYGELO(T), wenche (gygelot, wynch, S.)

    2. Forby derives the East-Anglian appellation gig, a trifling, flighty fellow, from Ang.-Sax. ȝeȝas, nugae. In the North giglet still signifies a laughing girl; the word occurs in "the Northern Mother's blessing," in admonition to her daughter,

    "Go not to the wrastling, ne shoting the cock,
    As it were a strumpet or a giglot."

    "Quo magis fetosa mulier magis luxuriosa, ye fayrare woman ye more gyglott." De Reg. Gramm. Sloane MS. 1210, f. 134. See Junius, v. Giglet. Compare GYBELOT above, a word occurring in the Harl. MS. alone, and probably an erroneous reading.

    Agagula.
  • GYLLOFRE, herbe. Gariophilus (galiofolus, S.)
  • (GYLLOFYR, clowe, K. P. Garie∣pholus.)
  • GYLTE wythe golde. Deauratus.
  • GYLTE, swyne, idem quod GALTE, supra.3. ["A gilte, suella." CATH. ANG. A gilt, or gaut, signifies in the North a female pig that has been spayed; see Grose, Brockett, and Jamieson. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial coll. gives "galts and gilts, boar-pigs and sow-pigs, Bor. from old Dan. gallte, porcus. Sax. ȝilte, suilla." See Yorksh. Dial. p. 39. Any female swine is called a gilt in Staff. Lansd. MS. 1033. See Hartshorne's Shropshire Glossary.]
  • GYLTE, or trespace (gylt, or de∣faute, P.) Culpa, reatus.
  • GYLTY (or defawty, K. fauty, P.) Reus, conscius, culpandus (cul∣pabilis, P.)
  • GYLTLES. Immunis, inculpan∣dus (inculpabilis, P.)
  • GYMELOT. Penetral, UG. V. pe∣netrale, CATH.
  • GYMOWE of a sperynge (gymmew, K. gymew, S. H.)4. [This word is still used in Norfolk, precisely in the sense that it has here. Forby gives "Gimmers, small hinges, as those of a box or cabinet, or even of the parlour door." A sperynge here denotes that by which a place is closed up, as a door or window, the lid of a chest, &c. The derivation of the word is doubtless from the French, gémeaux, twins; and the term applies properly not only to a hinge, composed of two portions, of exactly similar form and size, jointed together, but to anything else which is formed of twin-pieces of like dimension, united in any manner, either as a hinge or otherwise. In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, an expedient is described, to be used in a besieged fortress, against the battreing ram: "Somm hathe an iren, made as it were a peire tonges, i-iemewde as tonges in the myddes," by which the head of the ram is seized, and turned aside. B. IV. c. 23. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. Among the disbursements for building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, under smith's work are mentioned "iij pair of jemews for almerys," or cupboards, as many for portal doors, and a pair for the buttery windows. Rokewode's History of Suff. pp. 146, 149. Ray, among N. country words, gives "Jimmers, jointed hinges, in other parts called wing-hinges;" and the term occurs in the Craven dialect, with the observation, that "being often formed like the letter H, they are called H. jimmers." In the Ortus the term denotes a pair of forceps, "Vertinella est forceps medici, a sclyce, or a gemowe;" and it frequently occurs as the name of a kind of ring formed of two interlinked portions, which could be united into one connected ring, and frequently used as a token of be∣trothal. See Nares, Brand's Popular Ant. and Archaeol. xiv. 7. Palsgrave has "Gymewe of a gyrdell, crochet d'une troussure. Gymell song, jumeau;" and Higgins, in his ed∣tion of Huloet's Dict. gives "Gimow (or gemoll) a little rynge to weare on the fynger. Gimmow (or gemoll) or rynge to hange at one's eare, as the Egyptians have, Stalog∣nium, inauris. Gimmow of a door, Vertibulum, cardo; le gond d'un huis." "Quin∣quaillerie, all kinds of small yron worke, as padlockes, snuffers, gimmers, or hindges for doors, &c. Alliances, gimmoules, or gimmoule rings. Souvenance, a ring with many hoops, whereof a man lets one hang down, when he would be put in mind of a thing. Verge, a plain hoope, or gimmall, ring. Membre d'esperon, the gimmew or ioynt of a spurre." COTG. "Gemmew ring, souvenance." SHERW. "Annulus purus, an hoope ring, a gimmall, a plaine ring without a stone." Junius's Nomenclator, by Fleming.]Vert(i)nella, gemella.
  • Page  195(GYN', idem quod GET, supra.)

    1. A gin signifies, according to the old writers, a cunning or deceitful device, and thence an ingeniously constructed machine of any kind. Chaucer uses the word in both senses; thus the crafty trick of the Alchemist, which is termed "a false get," as has been observed in the note on the word GET, is called also "a false gin." In the Squire's T. it is related that the magical steed of brass would bear its rider at pleasure,

    "And turne again with writhing of a pin;
    He that it wrought, he coude many a gin."

    In the Golden Legend, the wiles of Satan are termed "gynnes of temptacyon." Life of St. Bernard. In the Romance of Coer de Lion warlike machines are termed gins; as they are continually in Trevisa's version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. "Troclea, the gyn, whyche is called a crane." ELYOT. See Hartshorne's Shropshire Glossary. "Exostra, a vice or gin of wood, wherewith such things as are done within, out of sight, are shewed to the beholders, by the turning about of wheeles." Junius's No∣menclator, by Fleming.

  • GYNGELYN̄' in sowndynge. Re∣sono, DICC.
  • GYNGELYNGE of gay harneys, or oþer thyngys. Resonancia.
  • GYNGERE. Zinziber, CATH.
  • GYPCYERE (gypsere, K. gypcer, H. P.)

    2. This word is a corruption of the French "Gibbecière, a pouch, bag, poake, budget," COTG. properly such as was used in hawking, &c. but commonly worn by the merchant, or with any secular attire. Chaucer says of the Frankelein, or country gentleman,

    "An anelace and gipsere all of silke
    Hing at his girdle, white as morrow milke."

    In the Invent. of valuables, the property of Hennry V. A.D. 1423, is enumerated "j gipcer de noier velvet, garniz d'or, pris, 66s. 8d." Rot. Parl. IV. 215.

    Cassidile.
  • GYRDYLLE. Zona, cingulum, CATH. succentorium.
  • GYRDYN̄'. Cingo, succingo, CATH. ubi sic habetur; accingimur bel∣laturi, precingimur ituri, et succingimur ministraturi.
  • GYRDYNGE. Succinctio.
  • GYSE. Forma, modus.
  • GYSERNE (of fowles, P.) idem quod GARBAGE, supra.
  • GYSERNE, wepene (wepone, K. vepne, H.)3. ["A gesarne, gesa." CATH. ANG. "Gesa, gysserne." Roy. MS. 17. C. XVII. Gesa is, according to the Catholicon, "genus armorum quod Gallice dicitur gisarma, a gero, vel cesa, a caedendo: et sunt gese vel cese Gallorum, pila Romanorum." In the curious Dictionary of John de Garlandiâ, printed in the Collection of documents re∣lating to French history, Paris, 1837, there is an enumeration of weapons and engines of war, used at the siege of Toulouse, in 1218: the writer says that he saw "secures, bipennes, cathagesa Gallicorum, catheias et pugiones, cum dolonibus, avelancias Angli∣corum (anelacias, al. MS.) pila Romanorum, &c." The MS. at Rouen gives the fol∣lowing reading, "secures Dachos, jesa Gallicorum." But, although the gisarme seems in these passages to be appropriated as a Gaulish weapon, Wace, in the Roman de Rou, written about 1160, repeatedly describes the English in Harold's army as armed with sharp gisarmes and hatchets, whereas their opponents fought with long lances and swords. See lin. 12,908, 12,928, 13,437. It may be observed, however, that on the Bayeux tapestry the Saxons are represented as combating with the heavy axe, but no weapon appears which resembles the gisarme. In the Royal mandate, 36 Hen. III. 1252, printed by Wats at the end of his edition of M. Paris, the sheriffs are commanded to assemble all persons from the age of 15 to 60, and cause them "jurare ad arma," according to the amount of their lands and chattels; those who were rated under 40 shillings land, or from 40 shillings to 10 marks chattels, "jurati sunt ad falces, gisarmas, cultellos et alia arma minuta." From this document, and the stat. Wint. 13 Edw. I. c. 6, 1285, it is apparent that the gisarme was one of the weapons in ordi∣nary use among the inferior ranks of the English army. See Stat. of Realm, i. 97. A curious description of the conflict of the King of Niniveh, armed with "gysarme and sweord bothe," occurs in the Romance of Kyng Alis. line 2302. See also Havelok, 2553; Ritson's Metr. Rom.; Chaucer, R. of Rose, 5978. The gisarme was used in England as late as the battle of Flodden, 1513; it was of two kinds, according to Sir S. Meyrick, namely, the glaive gisarme, and the bill gisarme; the distinctive mark of the weapon being a spike rising at the back, as may be seen in Grose's Armour, pl. 28, and Skelton's Illustr. of the Armoury at Goodrich Court, ii. pl. 84, 85.]Gesa, CATH.
  • Page  196GYYSTE, balke.1. [This seems to be the same word which is now written joist, derived from the French giste, and denoting a beam, so called from gisir, to rest, to lie along. "Gyst that gothe over the florthe, solive, giste." PALSG. "Trabes, a traho, quia de unâ parte parietis and aliam trahitur, a beme, or balke of a house." ORTUS.]Trabes, trabe∣cula, COMM.
  • GYTERNE.2. [The gyterne, getron, or cittern, Fr. guiterne, was a stringed instrument, which seems, from the repeated mention that is made of it by Chaucer, to have been much in favour, probably as an accompaniment to the voice. In the Lat. Eng. vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. are given "giga, getyrne: gigator, getyrner." f. 43, b. Amngst the curious representations of musical instruments in Sloane MS. 3983, t. Edw. II. f. 13, the harp is called "giga vel lira," but the same is named "arpes," f. 4, b.; with the former there is seen an instrument with five strings, and the head recurved, which perhaps exhibits the form of the gyterne at that early period. In default of any positive information on the obscure subject of the early history of music, it may be stated, conjecturally, that the gyterne is the instrument which was held in an horizontal position, and played either by hand or with a plectrum, as may be seen in almost every representation of the angelic choir, whether in sculpture, painted glass, or illuminated MSS. The minstrels gallery on the N. side of the nave, at Exeter Cath., sculptured in the reign of Edw. III. may be noticed as a remarkable instance. In Hawkins' Hist. of Music, iv. 113, a figure is given of the cittern, from Mersennus, Harmonie Univers∣selle, 1636, which represents an instrument with six strings, differing from the Spanish guitar in the pear-shaped form of the belly. It was little esteemed, and chiefly used in places of lewd resort, or barbers' shops. See Nares, v. Cittern. Elyot renders "fidi∣cula, a rebecke, or a gytterne;" and Fleming, in his version of Junius, gives "lyricus, lyricen, fidicen lyrae, a player vpon the lute or cyterne." "A gitterne, cistre, quiterne, giterne, guiterre. A small gitterne, mandore." SHERW.]Samba, citolla, DICC. quintrena.
  • Page  197GYTONE.

    1. A GYTONE, or guidon, is the name of a sort of banner, or streamer, called in Latin guido, which Ducange derives from guida, a guide. Guidon has been supposed to be a corruption of guide-homme; and is written "guydhome" in Harl. MS. 2258, where it is stated that its length was to be 2½ or 3 yards: "euery standard and guydhome to have in the chief the crosse of St. George, to be slitte at the ende, and to conteyne the creste or supporter, with the posey, worde, and device of the owner." From Harl. MS. 838, it appears that every baronet or superior estate should display a banner, if he were chief captain; every knight a pennon, and "euery squier or gentleman his getoun or standard." It is also directed that both the last should be slit at the extremity, whence probably the getoun was called conscisorium, as given above. In the contempo∣rary poem descriptive of the siege of Rouen, A.D. 1415, it is said,

    "There was many a getoun gay,
    With mychille and great array."

    line 1214.

    See Sir Fred. Madden's note on this line, Archaeol. xxii. 396; and Retrosp. Rev. i. 511, N.S. It appears that a gytone was not only carried in the field, but attached to the mast of a ship; thus, in a bill of expenses for the Earl of Warwick, A.D. 1437, is a charge, "Item, a gyton for the shippe, of viij yardis longe, poudrid full of raggid staves, for the lymmyng and workmanship ij s." Dugd. Warw. In the Will of Joh, Baron de Graystok, A.D. 1436, is this bequest: "lego pro mortuario meo optimum equum cum totâ armaturâ meâ, cotearmour, penon, et gyton's, &c." Wills and Inv. i. 85, Surtees Soc. Palsgrave gives "Guyderne, a baner in a felde, guidon: Gyderne, guidon;" and Cotgrave has "guidon, a standard, ensigne, or banner, under which a troop of men of arms do serve; also he that bears it."

    Conscisorium, KYLW.
  • GYVYS, or feterys of presone (fettirs of prison, P.) Compes.
  • GLACYN̄, or make a þy(n)ge to shyne.2. [This word seems to have implied not only to furbish arms, or armour, but, by means of some kind of varnish, to preserve the polish from rust. Sir John Paston gives the following direction; "As for my byll that is gylt, I wolde it were taken head to; there is von in the town can glaser weel I nowe, and ellys late it be weel oylyd." Palsgrave gives the verb "I glase a knyfe to make it bright; ie fourbis."]Pernitido, polio.
  • GLACYNGE, or scowrynge of har∣neys. Pernitidacio, perluci∣dacio.
  • (GLASINGE in scornynge, H. P. Intulacio.)
  • GLACYNGE, or wronge glydynge of boltys or arowys (glansyng, S. glaunsinge of shetinge, P.) Devolatus.
  • GLAD, or mery. Jocundus, letus, hillaris.
  • GLAD, and gretely mery. Jo∣cosus, gaudiosus.
  • GLADYN̄', or cheryn'. Hillaro, exhillaro, letifico.
  • GLADLY, or bleþely.3. [Bleyely, MS.]Libenter, hillariter, letanter (voluntarie, P.)
  • GLADLY, or ioyfully. Gaudiose, gaudenter.
  • GLADNESSE. Jocunditas, hilla∣ritas, leticia.
  • GLADONE, herbe.4. ["Gladyne, gladiolus, quedam herba." CATH. ANG. The name gladwyn now de∣notes only the Iris foetidissima, Linn., but probably the more common species, Iris Pseud-acorus, may be here intended. In Mr. Diamond's MS. version of Macer, it is said, "Gladen is y-clepid in Englisshe, iris, in Latin, for his floure haþ a colour like þe raynebowe .. Take þe rootis of þis erbe, and kyt hem in rounde gobetis, and ryfe hem vpon a þrede, so þat none of hem touche oþer, if þou wilt drye hem." The virtues of this root are numerous, taken with wine, mead, or vinegar; the following is curious, as a cosmetic. "Do take ij parties of þis pouder of gladen rotys, and þe iij part of þe poudre of ellebre, þat some men clepen cloffynnge, and medele boþe þise poudres to-gider in hony. A plaster of þis wole purge and clense þe face of frekelis, also it wole resolue the pockys, and whelkys of þe face." Elyot renders "Xyphium, an herbe lyke the blade of a sworde, gladen; it is also called Xyris;" and Cotgrave gives "Glayeul, corne-sedge, corn-gladen, right gladen, gladen, glader, sword-grasse."]Gladiolus,Page  198 C. F. accorus, accolus, C. F. iris, C. F.
  • GLADSŪNESSE, idem quod GLAD∣NESSE (gladsunnesse, H.)
  • GLARYN̄', or bryghtly shynyn̄' (bryt shynyn, K.) Rutilo (elu∣cido, elumino, P.)
  • GLASSE. Vitrum.
  • GLASSE WRYTE (glaswrygh, K. wryth, H. wryȝthe, S.) Vitrarius.
  • GLASY, or glasyne, or made of glas (glasyn of glasse, P.) Vitreus.
  • GLASYN' wythe glasse. Vitro, vel vitrio.
  • GLEYME, or rewme.1. [In a medical treatise, Cott. MS. Jul. D. VIII. f. 119, b. a pottage composed of gentian, tormentil, fennel, and honey, is directed to be given "for a gleymede stomak, þat may noȝt kepe mete."]Reuma.
  • GLEYME of knyttynge, or byy(n)d∣ynge to-gedyrs (kuttynge or byndinge, H. cuttinge, P.)2. [Byy(n)dynge to-gedyys, MS. "Viscus, gleme, or lyme." ORTUS. Compare CLAM', or cleymows; where the other MSS. read gleymous. "Visqueux, clammy, cleaving, bird∣lime-like. Iotteux, claggy, clammy, cleaving. Glazeux, clammy, fat, clayish." COTG.]Limus, gluten, glucium.
  • GLEYMOWSE, or fulle of rewme. Reumaticus.
  • GLEYMYN̄', or yngleymyn̄'. Visco, invisco.
  • GLEYMOWS, or lymows. Limosus, viscosus, glutinosus.
  • GLEYMOWSENESSE, or lymow(s)-nesse. Limositas, viscositas.
  • GLEMYN̄, or lemyn̄', as fyyr. Flammo.
  • GLEMYN̄, or lemyn', as lyghte. Radio.
  • GLEMYNGE, or lemynge of lyghte (lyȝth, K.) Conflagracio, flam∣macio.
  • GLEYRE of eyryne, or oþer lyke (gleyere, K. gleyȝyr of eyre, H. gleyȝyer' of eyr', P.)

    3. "La glaire d'un oeuf, the white of an egge. Aubin d'vn oeuf, the white or gleare of an egge." COTG. In the Cant. Tales, the Chanon's yeoman, enumerating the num∣berless requisites employed in alchemy, mentions

    "Unsleked lime, chalke, and gleire of an eye."

    In a curious MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, concerning the craft of limning, is the following recipe. "To couche gold: take gleyere, and safferoun grounde, and couche on thy golde, whyle hit is moyste." Fox relates that one Margery Backster, being accused of heresy, thus declared her opinion of images; "lewd wrights of stocks hew and forme such crosses and images, and after that, lewd painters gleere them with colours." The French word glaire has also, according to Cotgrave, the signification of "gravell, sand, and small pible stones, or sand mingled with stones; also a whitish and slimy soil, in Latin glarea; hence it is said in Caxton's Mirrour of the World, part ii. c. 85, that "by Acres the cyte is founden a maner of sande, and there is founden also of the glayre of the see, whiche ben medled to gydre, and of thyse two myxtyons is made good glasse and clere. Bosworth derives glare from A.-S. ȝlaere, pellucidum quidvis.

    Glarea, C. F.
  • Page  199GLENAR of corne. Spicator, con∣spicator, spicatrix.
  • (GLENE, K. H. P.1. ["Arista est spica, an ere of corne or a glene. ORTUS. "An evene of corne." MED. "A glene, arista, conspica. Gloy, spicamentum." CATH. ANG. A glene seems to be here put for that which is gleaned, from the Fr. glane, the corn left for the gleaner. "A glean, a handfull of corne gleaned and tied up by the gleaner, or reaper. Kent. Bp. Kennett's Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033. The Medulla gives, "Conspico, to glene, or els to gadyre songles. Aristor, i. colligere spicas, to glene, or to gadre songles. MS. Cant. Mr. Wilbraham gives songow, used in this sense in Cheshire.]Spicatum, CATH.)
  • GLENYNGE. Conspicacio.
  • GLYARE, or goguleye (gloyere, or gogyl eye, S. gogyll iye, P.)2. [Gogyrleye, MS. "A gleer, limus, strabo, obliquus. CATH. ANG. Skinner gives the verb to gly as used in Lincolnshire, signifying to squint, or look askance, possibly, he observes, from Ang.-Sax. ȝlowan, candescere, "q. d. incensis et prae irâ flamman∣tibus oculis conspicere. See Jamieson, v. Gley. Compare GOGULEYE, hereafter.]Limus, C. F. strabo, C. F. et CATH. strabus, CATH. straba, hirquicallus, CATH. et UG. V.
  • GLYDARE. Serptor, serptrix, C. F. (graditor, P.)
  • GLYDERYN̄'. Rutilo.
  • GLYDYN̄' Serpo (gradior, P.)
  • GLYDYNGE. Serpcio, gressus.
  • (GLYYNGE, K. H. P. Strabositas.)
  • GLYMERYN̄', Radio.
  • GLYMERYNGE of lyghte (lyȝt, K.) Lucubrum. C. F. et CATH.
  • GLYSTERY, or glystere (glisere, K.) Glisterium, glistere, C. F.
  • GLOFFARE, or devowrare3. [In the Vision of Piers Ploughman the word "glubbere" occurs in this sense, line 5274; "y-glubbed," line 3165, meaning gorged with liquor; and in the Crede, "glop∣pynge of drynke," line 184.]. De∣vorator, vorator, lurcus, UG. in ambrosia.
  • GLOFFYNGE, or devowrynge. De∣voracio, voracio, lurcatus.
  • GLORYFYYN̄'. Glorifico.
  • GLORYYN̄', or wythe onclene þynge defoylyn̄' (wyth ny on-clene thyng defowlyn, S. with foule thinge to defylyn, P.) Ma∣culo, deturpo.
  • GLORYOWSE. Gloriosus.
  • GLORYOWSNESSE. Gloriositas.
  • GLOSARE of textys. Glosator.
  • GLOSAR, and flaterere. Adulator.
  • GLOSE of a boke. Glosa.
  • GLOSE textys, or bookys. Gloso.
  • GLOSYN̄', or flateryn̄'.4. ["To glosse, ubi to fage. To glose, gloare, glosulare." CATH. ANG. The verb to glose occurs in this sense in the later Wicliffite verion, in which Judges xiv. 15 is rendered "glose thin hosebonde (blandire viro tuo. Vulg.) In the earlier version this verse is thus given, "faage to thi man, and meue hym that he shewe to thee what bitokeneth the probleme." This significaion of FAGYN̄' has been noticed above.]Adulor, blandior, CATH.
  • GLOSYNGE, or expownygne. Glo∣sacio.
  • Page  200GLOSYNGE, or flaterynge. Adu∣lacio.
  • GLOTONE. Gluto, CATH. epulus, KYLW. epulo (vorax, nebulo, P.)
  • GLOTONYE. Gula, crapula.
  • GLOVARE. Cirothecarius.
  • GLOVE. Cirotheca.
  • GLOWYN̄', as hoote yryne. Candeo, CATH.
  • GLOWYNGE of hoote fyre, or yryn, or oþer lyke (of hote fyre yron, P.) Candor, CATH. corusca∣cio, CATH.
  • GLU, of festynge. Viscus.
  • GLU, or mynstralcye (glw, K. gle, P.)

    1. Glu, or glee, denotes properly, as Sir W. Scott observes, the joyous science of the minstrel, which was called in Ang.-Sax. ȝliȝ, and the musician ȝliȝman, an appellation that denoted also the player, or joculator. See Bp. Percy's Essay on Minstrels, Sir Tristrem, Havelok the Dane, Jamieson, &c. In the vision of Piers Ploughman a sin∣gular comparison occurs, doubtless used proverbially, as an analogous expression is at the present time. Gloton, having drank deep, till his legs totter, is said to go

    "Lik a gle-mannes bicche,
    Som tyme aside,
    And som tyme arere.

    line 3180.
    Musica, armonia. C. F.
  • GLWYN̄'. Visco.
  • GLUYNGE to-gedyr. Congluti∣nacio, conviscacio, CATH.
  • GLUYNGE MATERE, as paste, or oþer lyke þat gluythe ij thyngys to-geder. Gluten, C. F. glu∣tinum, C. F.
  • GLUMAN̄, or mynstral (glwman, K. gleman, P.) Musicus, musica.
  • GLUSCARE, idem quod GLYARE.2. [GLUSTARE, MS. Forby explains glusky as signifying sulky in aspect.]
  • (GLUSKYNGE, idem quod GLYENGE, K. P. Strabositas.)
  • GNASTE of a candel, infra in KNAST.)
  • GNASTERE (gnachar, K.) Fremitor.
  • GNASTYN̄' (gnachyn, K.)3. ["Strideo, fortiter sonare, horribilem sonum facere, to gnayste. Stridor, gnast∣ynge. ORT. "To gnaste, fremere, est furorem mentis usque ad vocis tumultum ex∣citare; frendere, est proprie dentes concutere. A gnastynge, fremor, est hominum, fremitus bestiarum. CATH. ANG. "To gnaste or gnasshe with the tethe, grincer. Gnastyng of the tethe, strideur, grincement. PALSG. In the Wicliffite version this word is of frequent occurrence.]Fremo, strideo, CATH.
  • GNASTYNGE (gnachynge, K. ) Fremitus.
  • GNAWYN̄', or gnavyn, or fretyn̄' vn∣gentely wythe tetħe (wheten with the tethe, P.) Rodo, corrodo.
  • GNAWYNGE, or fowle bytynge. Corrosio.
  • GOOARE. Ambulator, viator ambulatrix.
  • GOARE on fote, idem quod FOTE∣MANN, supra in F.
  • GOBET, lumpe. Frustrum, massa.
  • GOBET, parte.

    4. The word gobbet formerly imlied not only a lump, but generally a piece or por∣tion of anything. In the Wicliffite version, iv. Kings, 20, 7, is thus rendered; "And Isaie seide, bringe ȝe to me a gobet of figis (massam ficorum, Vulg.); and whan þei hadden brouȝt it, and hadden putte it on his bocche, he was heelid." Among the curious relics that were carried about by the Pardoner,

    "He saied, he had a gobbet of the saile
    That Sainct Peter had, when that he went
    Upon the sea, till Jesu Christ him hent."

    Cant. T. Prol.

    Sir John Maundevile says of the apples of Paradise, growing in Egypt, "and thoghe ȝee kutte hem in never so many gobettes or parties, overthwart, or end-longes, evere∣more ȝee schulle fynden in the myddes the figure of the Holy Cros." p. 60. "Gleba, a gobet of erthe." MED. "Gobbet, a lumpe, or a pece, monceau, lopin, chanteau." PALSG. The derivation appears to be from "Gobeau, a bit, gobbet, or morsell." COTG.

    Pars.
  • Page  201GOBET, of a thynge kutte (of cuttynge, K. P.) Scissura.
  • GOBET, of a broke thynge (of hole thinge, P.) Fragmen, frag∣mentum, C. F.
  • GODDE. Deus.
  • GOODE. Bonus.
  • GODE, idem quod GADE, supra.
  • GODFADYR.1. ["A goffe, ubi a godefader. A gome, ubi a godmoder." CATH. ANG. In the North goff signifies a fool, according to Brockett and Jamieson. Cotgrave gives "commère, a she-gossip, or godmother, a gomme," but the term appears to be now obsolete.]Patrinus, CATH. (patrius, compater, K. P.)
  • GODHED. Deitas.
  • GOODLY. Benignus, benevolus.
  • GOODELY, adv. Benigne, bene∣vole.
  • GOODLYNESSE. Benignitas, be∣nevolencia.
  • GODMODYR. Matrina, materna, CATH.
  • GODDOWTER. Filiola, CATH.
  • GODSON̄', or gossōn' (godsune, or gosson, S. cossone, H.) Filiolus, CATH.
  • GOODE WYNE. Temetum, CATH.
  • GOD ȜATE (Godȝote, K. Goodȝoth, H. Godwolde, P.)

    2. The interjection Goddot, Goddoth, occurs frequently in Havelok the Dane: Sir F. Madden, in his Glossary appended to that curious poem, supposes it to be a corruption of God wot! formed in the same manner as Goddil for God's will, in Yorkshire and Lancashire; a conjecture which appeared to be confirmed by the following passage, where it is related that Havelok made a vow to found a priory,

    "And therof held he wel his oth,
    For he it made, God it woth!"

    line 2527.

    The word, it is further observed, appears to have been limited to Lincolnshire or Lan∣cashire, and a single instance of its occurrence is cited from a poem written in the former county, t. Edw. I. From the form, however, of the word, as it occurs in the Promptorium, the derivation appears to be more obviously from A.-S. ȝeatan, concedere.

    Utinam.
  • GOGULEYE, supra, idem quod GLYARE (gogyleyid, limus, strabo, K. gogelere, S. gogyl iye, P.)3. [This term occurs in the Wicliffite version, Mark ix. 46; "If thin yghe sclaundre thee, caste it out; it is bettre to thee to entre gogil-yghed (luscum, Vulg.) into the rewme of God, than have tweyne yghen" &c. Palsgrave gives among the adverbs, "a goggell, en louchet. Goggle-eyed man, lovche." Junius thinks it may be derived from A. S. sceȝl eȝede, strabo.]
  • GOIONE of a poleyn' (goyvn off a polene, HARL. MS. 2274.)4. [In some parts of England a piece of projecting iron at each end of a roller, which connects it with the frame, is stil called a gudgeon, from the Fr. "goujon, the pin which the truckle of a pulley runneth on; also the gudgeon of the spindle of a wheele." COTG. Among the expenses of Thos. Lucas, Sol. Gen. to Hen. VII. in building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, are these items among smiths' work; "for goions and colars, with ij stireppis for my bruge, weiyng 36½ lb." These were probably for suspending a drawbridge. Rokewode's Suff. p. 150.]Ver∣tibulum, C. F. cardo.
  • Page  202G(O)IONE, fysche. Gobius, gobio. (golnus, P.)
  • GOLDE. Aurum.
  • GOOLDE, herbe.1. [The plant here intended is perhaps the corn marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum, Linn. called in the North, goulans, guilde, or goles, and in the South golds. See Ray and Jamieson. The virtues of "gowlde" are detailed in the curious metrical treatise and Jamieson. The virtues of "gowlde" are detailed in the curious metrical treatise of herbs, sloane MS. 1571, f. 26, b. Dr. Turner says that "Ranunculus is called in English crowfoot or kingeux, or in some places a gollande." Herbal, part ii. Nares states that gold is the cudweed, or mothwort, Gnaphalium Germanicum, Linn.]Solsequium, quia sequitur solem, elitropium, calendula.
  • GOLDEFYNCHE, byrde. Cardu∣elis, KYLW.
  • GOOLDFUYLE, supra (in FULE, gold∣fule, K.) Bratea, in plur. CATH.
  • GOLDSMYTH. Aurifaber.
  • GOLET, or throte. Guttur, gluma, gula, DICC.
  • GOLFE of corne2. [A rick of corn in the straw laid up in a barn is called in Norfolk, according to Forby, a goaf; every division of the barn being termed a goaf-stede: to goave signifies to stow corn therein. See also Ray and Moore. Tusser uses the verb to gove, to make a mow or rick; see August's Husbandry, st. 23. In a short Latin-Eng. Vocabulary of XVth cent. written apparently at Creak, in Norfolk, Add. MS. 12,195, occur "Gelimo, to golue. Ingelimum, golfe." Palsgrave gives "goulfe of corne, so moche as may lye bytwene two postes, otherwyse a baye."]. Archenium, KYLW. et COMM. acervus (ar∣conium, K. arthonium, tassis, P.)
  • GOLYŌN, garment (clothe, P.)

    3. Roquefort gives "goléon, sorte d'habit de guerre;" but in the Promptorium golyon and gown seem to be almost synonymous, both being rendered by the Latin gunellus, a diminutive of gunna. The term is used by Gower, where he relates the exchange of garments made by Hercules and Iole, in order to deceive Faunus.

    "He hath hir in his clothes clad,
    And cast on hir his golion,
    Whiche of the skin of a lion
    Was made."

    Conf. Am. lib. v.
    Gunella, gunellus.
  • GOLVYN̄', or golvon̄'. Arconiso.
  • GOME yn' mannys mowthe (goomys, S.) Gingiva, vel gingive, plur.
  • GOON̄'. Ambulo, pergo, vado, io, gradior (meo, eo, transio, P.)
  • GOON̄ a-bowtȳn', or w(h)yryllyn̄ (wyrlyllyn, S.) Circino.
  • GOON̄ a-forne. Precedo.
  • (GOON aftyr, S. Succedo.)
  • GOON̄ a-wey. Recedo, discedo.
  • GOO be-hynde, or folow (gon be∣hyndyn, or folwyn, K.) Se∣quor (retrogradior, P.)
  • GOO downe. Descendo, CATH.
  • GOO foorthe. Procedo.
  • GOO forthe yn a iurneye. Profi∣ciscor.
  • GOON̄ yn to a place. Introio, in∣gredior.
  • GOON̄ on fote (gon afote, K.) Pe∣dito, C. F.
  • GOON̄ owte. Exio, egredior.
  • GOO slowly. Lento, C. F.
  • GOO to, and be-gyn̄' a dede. Ag∣gredior.
  • GOO to pryvy, or to shytyn̄. Acello.
  • GOO wronge. Devio, deliro.
  • Page  203GOONGE, preuy.

    1. This word occurs in the glosses on G. de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, as the rendering of foreyn, a place retired, a "withdraught," as it was called,

    "Vn maueys vint en ma forere (an heuedlond,)
    Ou par despit fist foreyn hier (gonge.)"

    Hence the term "chambre forene," which is used by Robert of Glouc. In the Seuyn Sages it is related that a father and son went together to commit a robbery, and the father falling into a pit, bid his son cut off his head, that he might not be recognized. He carried the head away to conceal it,

    "But als he com bi a gong,
    Amidde the pit he hit slong."

    line 1315.

    Fabyan gives the following tale, 43 Hen. III. "In this yere fell that happe of the Jewe of Tewkysbury, whiche fell into a gonge vppon the Saterdaye, and wolde not for reuerence of his sabbot day be plucked out; wherof heryng the Erle of Glouceter, that the Jewe dyd so great reuerence to hys sabbot daye, thought he wolde do as myche to his holydaye, whych was Sondaye, and so kept hym there tyll Monday, at which season he was found dede." The Medulla gives "Birsa, cloaca, a gonge;" and Pals∣grave "Gonge, a draught, ortrait." A.-S. ȝonȝ-settl, ȝanȝ-pytte, ȝanȝ-tun, latrina.

    Cloaca, latrina.
  • GOONGE fyrmar (gongefowar, K. H. S. feyar, P.)2. ["Gonge farmer, maister de basses oevures, guigueron, curevr d'ortraitz. I ferme a siege, or priuy, i'escure. Neuer come to your newe house, tyll your seges or priuyes be fermed, tant que vous ayez curé les orttrays." PALSG. Thomas, in his Ital. Gramm. 1548, gives "Piombino, a certein instrument of leade, that the gongfermours use." "Gadouard, a gould-finder, jakes-farmer, feyer of priuies. Maistre phy phy, a jakes feyer, who hath often occasion enough to say, phy." COTG. Bp. Kennett gives the following note in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033: "To farm, to cleanse or empty, Bor. Oxfordshire; as, to farm kine, to farm a stable or cow-house; from Sax. feormian, purgare, whence the cleansers of jakes or privies are in some places called jakes-farmers." Compare FOWAR, FOWYN̄, and FYIN̄.]Cloacarius, latrinarius, COMM.
  • GOO(N)GE hoole. Gumphus, NECC.
  • GORE, or slory.

    3. Flory, MS. Slush and gore are generally mentioned together in Norfolk, as Forby observes, the former expressing the thin, the latter the thick part of the mire. Ang.-Sax. ȝor, lutum. Brockett gives gor, in the Northern Dialect.

    "For gore and fen, and full wast,
    That was out y-kast,
    Togydere they gadered, Y wys."

    Lybeaus disconus, line 1471.
    Limus, tessequa, COMM.
  • GOORD. Cucumer, cucurbita, col∣loquintida.
  • GOORE of a clothe.

    4. Lacinia is explained in the Catholicon to be "vestis lacerata, vel ora sive extre∣mitas vestimenti;" to which the following addition is made in the Ortus, "vel nodus clamidis, a hemme of clothe, or a gore, or a trayne." G. de Bibelesworth says,

    "Car par deuaunt avez eskours (lappes,)
    Et d'encosté sont vos girouns (sidgoren.)"

    This word is used repeatedly by Chaucer, and Tyrwhitt observes that its meaning was not intelligible. It seems, however, to imply a slit in a garment, whereby a piece is either inserted or taken away, so as to widen or contract it; thus the attire of the Car∣penter's young wife is described, who wore

    "A barm-cloth, as white as morwe milk,
    Upon her lendes, ful of many a gore."

    Miller's T. 3237.

    Here it doubtless signifies that her apron was gathered in with numerous plaits, in girding it about her hips. Sir Thopas says, where he relates his dream,

    "An elf-quene shall my lemman be,
    And slepe under my gore."

    Cant. T. line 13,719.

    Here the expression seems to be one of those conventional phrases of romance of which the meaning cannot be closely defined, and implying ample coverings, garments full and rich. In Emare, the Queen of Galys is said to be "goodly unther gore,—wordy unther wede,—comely unther kelle." Rits. Metr. R. ii. 243. "Goore of a smocke, poynte de chemise." PALSG. "Gheroni, the gores of a woman's smocke, or other lyke garment." W. Thomas, Ital. Gramm.

    Lacinia, C. F.
  • Page  204(GORSTYS TRE, or qwyce tre, supra in FYRRYS.)1. [In the North, and other parts of England, the Ulex Europaeus, Linn. or common furze, is called gorse. Ang.-Sax. ȝorst, erica, rubus. See the note on the word FYRRYS, above. "Ruscus, a gorst, or a furse." MED. MS. CANT. In the margin is the addition in Somner's hand, of the Ang.-Sax. words, "cneoholen, fyres." Cotgrave gives "genest espineux, furres, whinnes, gorse, thorne-broom."]
  • GOOSE. Auca.
  • GOSYS GRES, or camoroche, or wylde tanzy.2. [The Potentilla anserina, Linn. or wild tansy, is called in the North, according to Ray, goose-grass, because eaten by geese. The plant, however, most commonly known by the name, is the Galium aparine, or cleavers, which, as Moore observes, is called in Suffolk "guse-grass." Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, 1561, speaks of "Gooshareth or clyuer." Cotgrave gives "Grateron, the small bur called goose-share, goose-grasse, love-man, cleaver, and claver. Riéble, cleaver, goose-grasse, &c." Huloet calls the same plant "goslingweede, rueba (sic, rubea?) minor."]Camaroca, vel tanasetum agreste.
  • GOSHAWKE. Aucipiter, herodius.
  • GOSHERDE. Aucarius, aucaria.
  • GOSELYNGE. Ancerulus.
  • GOSSYP, mann.

    3. GOSSYPMANN, MS. The Baptismal sponsors were formerly called gossips, a term which Skinner derives from Ang.-Sax. God, Deus, and syb, affinitas, as it were "cognati in Deo;" and by the Canon law marriage was forbidden between persons thus allied, as much as between relatives by blood. In the Lay le Freine, it is related that the knight, to whom two sons were born, sent to greet a knight who was his neighbour,

    "And pray him tht he com to me,
    And say he schal mi gossible be."

    It would hence seem that the term comprised not only the co-sponsors, but the parents of the child baptized. Verstegan, in his explanations of ancient words, observes upon "Godsip, now pronounced gossip. Our Christian ancestors understanding a spiritual affinity to grow between the parents and such as undertook for the child at baptism, called each other by the name of Godsib, which is as much to say, as that they were sib together, that is, of kin together through God." p. 175, edit. 1655. Fabyan says of the repudiation of Ingebert of Denmark by Philip Augustus, king of France, "yt was not longe or she were from hym deuorced for cause of alyaunce of gossypred, or other∣wise." Part vii. c. 242.

    Compater, C.F.
  • (GOSYP, woman, S. P. Commater.)
  • GOSPEL. Evangelium.
  • Page  205GOOSTE, Spiritus.
  • GOSTELY. Spiritualiter.
  • GOSTELY mann, or womann. Spi∣ritualis.
  • GOOSTLYNESSE. Spiritualitas.
  • GOSSOMER, corrupcyon (gossum∣myr, or corrupcion, H. P.)

    1. "Lanugo, i. lana super poma, vel flos tribuli qui postquam bene siccatus est levi flatu effertur in aerem." CATH. In the Promptorium an allusion is made to another and strange supposition regarding the production of gossamer, noticed by Skinner, namely, that it was formed from the dew scorched by the morning sun, and thence, as it seems, termed here corruption. It is evident from Chaucer that this phenomenon had exer∣cised the ingenuity of curious observers in ancient times.

    "As sore wondren som on cause of thonder,
    On ebbe and floud, on gossomer, and on mist,
    And on all thing, til that the cause it wist."

    Squiere's T. 10,572.

    An allusion to the anciently received notion occurs in Spenser, who speaks of

    —"the fine nets which oft we woven see
    Of scorched dew."
    "As light and thin as cobwebs that do fly
    In the blew air, caus'd by the autumnal sun,
    That boils the dew that on the earth doth lie;
    May seem this whitish rug then in the scum,
    Unless that wiser men make't the field spider's loom."

    H. More.

    Even Dr. Hooke advances a conjecture that the great white clouds seen in summer might consist of gossamer. Microgr. 202. Dr. Hulse and Martin Lister first observed the real mode of its production by a species of spider. See Ray's Letters, 36, 69; Lister de Araneis; and the interesting relation in White's Hist. Selb. The etymology of the word is very obscure; Skinner suggests gossampine, Fr. gossipium, Lat. the cotton plant. The derivation proposed in the Craven Glossary, from its appelation "summer∣gauze, hence gauze o' th' summer, gauzamer, alias gossamer," is hardly tenable, when it is considerd that the term was probably received in our language long before the in∣troduction of the tissue called gauze. An early instance of its occurrence is in the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth, whose treatise was composed in the time of Edw. 1.

    "Regardet cy la filaundre (gosesomer.)"

    Arund. MS. 220, f. 301.

    "Filiandra, Anglice, gossomer." Lat. Eng. Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. "Gossommer, thynges that flye in sommar lyke copwebbes." PALSG. "Couvrailles, gossymeare, or the white and cobweb-like exhalations which flye abroad in hot sunnie weather." COTG. In N. Brit. according to Jamieson, it is called also sun-dew webs, or moosewebs. In German, unser Frawen Haar, the Blessed Virgin's hair. See Jamieson, v. Garsummer; and Nares.

    Fi∣landrya, lanugo, CATH.
  • GOOT, beste. Hircus, edus, capra.
  • GOTE, or water schetelys (goote, H. water schedellys, S.)2. [The stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 33, after setting forth the decayed state of the fortifi∣cations of Hull, grants certain duties levied on the importation of fish, to repair and maintain the walls, ditches, and banks, as also "other clowes, getties, gutters, goottes, and other fortresses there," for the defence of the town and haven. Stat. of Realm, iii. 872. The stat. 2 and 3 Edw. VI. c. 30, states that the channel of the Camber, near Rye, had become choked up, in part by casting ballast into it, "and partely bycause dyuers mershes inned take in no water to scower the channell, but lett oute ther freshe water at guttes;" so that the road for shipping was much injured. Vol. iv. 72. This word is retained in use in several parts of England; Skinner and Ray give gowts, a word signifying in Somersetshire channels or drains under-ground. Bp. Kennett has the following notes in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033: "A wide ditch, or water-course that empties itself into the sea, is called in Romney Marsh a gut, from old Dan. giota, scrobs: thence gutter, dim. a mill gut, a gote, i. a floud-gate, Northumb. Ang.-Sax. ȝeotan, fundere." In the Craven Dialect gote denotes a channel of water from a mill∣dam, as does goyt in Hallamshire. Jamieson gives goat and got, a small trench or drain. A similar word occurs in old French; "Goute: gouttière, égout." ROQUEF.]Aquagium, sinoglocitorium, C. F.
  • Page  206GOTERE. Aquarium, imbricium, guttatorium, guttera, aqua∣lacium, C. F. aquagium, UG. V.
  • GOTERE vndyr þe grownde. Ca∣taduppa, cataracta, C. F. sed cataracte in plur. sunt fenestre celi, nubes, vel meatus pluvi∣arum, C. F. (cadadirpa, P.)
  • GOTERE, ad purgandum feces coquine. Ruder, CATH.
  • GOOTYS BERDE. 1. [GOOTYS HERDE, MS. berde, S. H. P. "Stirillum, barba capre, et dicitur a stiriâ, quia pendens ad modum stirie, i. gutte." CATH.]Stirillum, CATH. et UG. in stuprum.
  • GOOT HERDE. Capercus, C. F.
  • GOTOWS mann, or womann' (go∣torous, P.) Guttosus.
  • GOTŌN', or had be trawayle (gotyn, or get, P.) Adeptus, adquisitus, assecutus.
  • GOVERNAWNCE. Regimen, gu∣bernacio, gubernaculum.
  • GOUERNOWRE. Gubernator, rec∣tor.
  • GOUERNOWRE of mony yn an howsholde, vndur a lorde or mayster. Massarius, massaria, CATH. in massa.
  • GOVERNYN̄'. Guberno, rego.
  • GOVERNE a towne. Villico, vil∣licor, CATH.
  • GOUERNYN̄', and mesuryn̄' in manerys, and thewys. Moderor, modifico, CATH.
  • GOWLARE, or vserere.2. ["Danista, Danus, a gowlere, an vserere." MED. MS. CANT. The derivation appears obviously to be from gula, in French goule or gole, significative of his rapacious avidity.]Usura∣rius, fenerator.
  • GOWLE, or vsury. Usura, fenus.
  • GOWNDE of þe eye.

    3. Skinner gives the word gound as used very commonly in Lincolnshire, signifying the running or impure secretion of the eyes. It occurs in the glosses on G. de Bibe∣lesworth, Arund. MS. 220, f. 297, b.

    "Vostre regardz est gracious (louelik,)
    Mes vos oeyz sunt saciouz (gundy;)
    Des oeez outez la sacye (þe gunde,)
    E de nees la rupye (þe maldrope.)"

    Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033, has the following note: "Gunded eyes, Westm. Goundy, filthy like running sores, Gower. Gunny eyes, Yorksh. Dial." Ang.-Sax. ȝund, pus, sanies. Skelton describes the "eyen gowndye" of Elynour Rumming.

    Ridda, al∣bugo, C. F. et UG. v.
  • GOWNE, garment. Toga, epi∣togium, DICC. gunellus.
  • GOWTE, sekenesse. Gutta.
  • GOWTON̄', as candelys. Gutto.
  • GRACE. Gracia.
  • GRACELES. Akaris, C. F. vel acaris, C. F. et CATH. ingraciosus.
  • Page  207GRACYOWS. Graciosus, eukaris, C. F. et CATH.
  • (GRAFFE, infra in GRYFFE.)
  • (GRAFFYN̄', infra in GRYFFYN̄'.)
  • GRAYLE, boke (grayȝylle, HARL. MS. 2274.)1. [A grayle is a service book containing the responses, or gradalia, so called because they are sung in gradibus, or by course. It is thus described by Lyndwood: "Gra∣dale—ponitur pro libro integro, in quo contineri debent officium aspersionis aquae benedictae, missarum inchoationes, sive officia, Kyrie, cum versibus Gloria in excelsis, gradalia, Halleluja, et tractus, sequentiae, symbolum cantandum in Missâ, Offertorium, Sanctus, Agnus, Communio, &c. quae ad chorum spectant in Missae solennis decanta∣tione." Provinc. iii. tit. 27. At the synod of Exeter, A.D. 1287, it was ordained that certain books should be provided in every parish, at the charge of the parishioners, among which is named the gradale. Wilkins, Conc. ii. 139. It is likewise included in the constitution of Abp. Winchelsey, to the same effect, A.D. 1305. Lyndw. The stat. 3 and 4 Edw. VI. for abolishing divers books and images, enacts "that all books called antiphoners, missals, grails, processionals, &c. heeretofore used for service of the church, shall be cleerelie and vtterlie abolished, and forbidden for euer to be vsed or kept in this realme."]Gradale, vel gra∣dalis.
  • (GRAME, S. infra in WAYTYNGE to dōn harme.)

    2. This word, which is found in the Winchester MS. only, is frequently used by the old writers.

    "Bithenk hou oft rape wil rewe,
    And turn to grame wel grille."

    Amis and Amiloun, 657.
    "Lordynges, he saide, y am aschamed,
    And sore anoyed, and agramed."

    K. Alis. 3310.

    In Havelok the verb to greme occurs, line 442, and the adjective gram, meaning angry or incensed, line 214. See also Seuyn Sages, 2703; Cant. Tales, 16,871; and Jamieson, v. Gram. Ang.-Sax. ȝrama, molestia, ȝremian, irritare.

  • GRAMARYONE. Gramaticus, gra∣matica.
  • GRAMERE. Gramatica.
  • GRAMERCY. In plurali, has grates, accusativo tantum.
  • GRAPE. Uva.
  • GRAPE of grete quantite. Bu∣masta, CATH.
  • GRATE for brede. Micatorium, DICC.
  • GRATE for gyngure, or oþer lyke. Fricellum, frictellum, ex CATH. in frico.
  • GRATE, or trelys wy(n)dowe (treues wyndowe, p.) Cancellus.
  • GRATE brede.3. [It may be oserved in the Forme of Cury, and all books of ancient cookery, that "myyd," or grated bread, was continually employed in the composition of a variety of dishes. Palsgrave says, "I holde a penny that I shall grate this lofe, or you can grate a rasyn of gynger;" that is, a root, racine.]Mico.
  • GRATE gynger (grate gynjors or oder lyke, HARL. MS. 2274.) Frictico, CATH. (frico, CATH. P.)
  • GRATYNGE of brede. Micacio, micatura.
  • GRATYNGE of gyngure, and oþer lyke. Frictura.
  • GRAVE. Monumentum, sepul∣chrum, tumulus.
  • GRAVE, solempnely made, or gravyn (solenly made and arayyd, K. P.) Mausoleum, C. F.
  • GRAVELLE. Arena, sabulum, eciam sonde.
  • GRAVEL PYTTE. Arenarium.
  • Page  208GRAVE STONE. Cippus, CATH.
  • GRAVYN, or grubbȳn yn þe erthe. Fodio.
  • GRAVYN̄' ymagys, or oþer lyke (imagery, K. P.) Sculpo.
  • GRAVYN̄', or puttyn yn þe grave, or yn þe erthe.1. ["To grave, ubi to bery. To grave, cespitare, fodere, percolere, foditare, pastinare. A graver, cespitator, cultor, fossor. A gravynge, cultura." CATH. ANG. The verb to grave is used by most of the old writers in the signification of digging, and thence of depositing in the grave. Ang.-Sax. ȝrafan, fodere. Sir John Maundevile gives a re∣lation of the legend regarding the origin of the trees of which the cross was formed; that when Adam sent Seth to crave oil of mercy of the angel that kept Paradise, the angel refused to give it, "but he toke him three graynes of the same tree that his fadre eet the appelle offe, and bad hym, als sone as his fadre was ded, that he scholde putte theise three greynes undre his tonge, and grave him so. And of theise three greynes sprong a tree—and bare a fruyt, thorghe the whiche fruyt Adam scholde be saved." p. 14. To grave still signifies, in the North, to break up ground with the spade.]Humo, &c. idem quod BERYYN̄', supra.
  • GRAVYNGE in tymbyr, or metal. Sculptura.
  • GRAVYNGE, or delvynge. Fossio, fossatura,
  • GRAWNSYRE, faderysfadyr (grawn∣cyr, S. grauncer, P.) Avus, C. F.
  • GRAWNEDAME, faderys moder, or moderys moder. Avia, C. F. et CATH.
  • GRAWNGE, or gronge.2. [The primary meaning of the word grangia, in French grange, or grance, seems to have been a repository for grain, or, according to Ducange, a threshing floor; and thence it implied the farming establishment generally, with its various buildings and appliances, as it is accurately defined by Lyndwood, in his annotations on the Constit. of Abp. Mepham, Provinc. lib. ii. tit. i. Spelman cites a MS. in which the name Thomas Atelaþe, that is, at the lathe, or barn, is said to be in French, Thomas de la Graunge. The term has even the more extended sense of a hamlet; that is, probably, the assemblage of dwellings occupied by the dependants of the farm, which, doubtless, forming a nucleus, gave rise to the greater number of villages in ancient times. Pals∣grave gives "graunge, or a lytell thorpe, hameau. Graunge, petit village." Huloet makes the followng distinctions: "Graunge, or manour place without the walls of a citie, suburbanum. Graunge, or little thorpe, viculus, Graunge, where husbandry is exercised, colonia."]Grangia.
  • GRAWNTE, or grawntynge.3. [GRAWNTE, or grawnte. Confessio, MS. grawntynge, K. S. P.]Con∣cessio, stipulacio, annutus, CATH. in annuo.
  • GRAWNTYN̄'. Concedo, annuo, constipulor, CATH.
  • GRAVOWRE. Sculptor.
  • GRAVYN̄', or beryyd (gravon, or biryid, K.) Sepultus, humatus.
  • GRAVYN̄' of a grawowre.4. [GRAVYN̄', or a grawowre, MS. off a gravowre, S.]Sculptus.
  • GRAVYN̄', or dolvyn̄'. Fossus, confossus.
  • GRE, or worthynesse.

    5. Gre is here given only in the sense of promotion to honour or distinction, in which also the term degree is now used at the Universities. In N. Britain gree has still this signification. So likewise in Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose:

    "In thanke thy seruice wol I take,
    And high of gree I wol thee make."

    It occurs frequently in the primary sense of a step, gré, Fr. "Climatum, a goynge fro gre to gre." ORTUS.

    Gradus.
  • Page  209(GRECE, or tredyl, K. H. or steyre, P.1. [The term GRECE seems to be derived from the plural of gre, a step. It is thus used in the Wicliffite version; "þou schalt not stye bi grees (per gradus, Vulg.) to myn auter, lest þi filþe be schewid." Exod. xx. 26. "Forsoþe Esdras þe writere stood on þe grees of tree super gradum ligneum, Vulg.) whiche he hadde maad to speke þeron." Esd. viii. 4. Compare iv Kings, xxiii. 3, and Dedis, xxi. 35. Sir John Maundevile says, in his relation of the state of the great Chan of Chatay, "the grees, that he gothe up to the table, ben of precyous stones, medled with gold." p. 259. And again, "Ves∣selle of sylver is there non, for thei telle no prys there of, to make no vesselle offe, but thei maken ther of grecynges, and pileres, and pawmentes to halles and chambres." p. 263. In the version of Vegecius, which is attributed to Trevisa, among directions how a strong place should be fortified by double walls, the intervening space being filled with earth, it is said that there should be "in the making of the inner walle, at euery fourty or fifty fote of lengthe, esy gresinges fro the playn grounde of the citie up to the walls." Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. f. 100. "Gradus, a grece, a steppe. Grado, to leede, or greys." MED. MS. CANT. "A grece, gradus; gradare, i. gradus facere, vel per gradus ducere." CATH. ANG. "Coclea, turnegrece." Lat. Eng. Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Scamnum, a steppe or grice, whereby a manne gothe vppe into a hygh bedde. Ana∣bathrum, a pulpit or other lyke place, whiche standeth on hyghe, wherunto a man must go vp by a ladder or grises." ELYOT. "Grece to go vp at, or a stayre, degré" PALSG. "Degré, a staire, step, greese." COTG. See Forby's observations on the word grissens, which still signifies stairs in Norfolk; Craven Glossary, v. Grees; and Nares.]Gradus.)
  • GREDY of mete (in mete, K.) Avidus.
  • GREDY in askynge. Procax, C. F. importunus.
  • GREDY, or hasty. Impetuosus, festinus.
  • GREDYNESSE of mete (havinge, K. P.) Aviditas.
  • GREDYNESSE in askynge. Pro∣cacitas, C. F.
  • GREHOWNDE (gresehounde, S.) Leporarius, veltres.
  • GREY of colowre. Gresius, elbus, elbidus, CATH.
  • GREY, beest.2. [This name of the badger, which was taken, probably, from its colour, has pre∣viously occurred as synonymous with BAWSTONE. The gloss on the Equivoca of John de Garlandiâ gives the following explanation: "Taxus, quoddam animal, a brocke or a grey." "Graye, a beest, taxe." PALSG. "Grisard, a badger, boason, brocke, or gray." COTG. "Graio, a gray, a brocke, a badger." FLORIO. See Holland's Pliny, viii. c. 38.]Taxus, melota, CATH.
  • GREY HERYD. Canus.
  • GREYNE of corne. Granum.
  • GREYNE, or croppe of corne3. [Croppe or corne, MS. "Annona est seges unius anni, corne of one yere." ORTUS.] (in the ȝere, K. yere, P.) Annona.
  • GREYNESSE of heere. Canicies.
  • GREYNYS, spyce (spicery, K. P.)

    4. "Grayns, granellum, quoddam species est." CATH. ANG. The aromatic qualities of cardamoms, and grains of Paradise, were anciently much esteemed. Chaucer says of the amorous Absolon, when he prepares to court the carpenter's wife,

    "But first he cheweth grein and licorise,
    To smellen sote, or he had spoke with here."

    Miller's Tale.

    They are again mentioned in Rom. of the Rose. Gerarde and Parkinson give represen∣tations of the Meliguette, greatest sort of cardamoms, Grana Paradisi, or Guinea grains; a pod shaped like a fig, and full of red seed. The true grains of Paradise were brought from the East Indies, but the ordinary larger cardamoms seem to have been likewise so named. "Cardamome, graines, or graine of Paradise; also Ethiopian pepper. Ma∣niguet, melegette, the spice called grains, or grains of Paradise." COTG.

    Granum Paradisi.
  • Page  210GRENE of colowre. Viridis.
  • GRENE PLACE (or herbere, H. P.) Viridium, vel viretum, CATH. viridarium, COMM.
  • GRENEHED, or grenenesse. Vi∣riditas, viror.
  • GRENYN̄', or growe grene. Vireo, CATH. viresco, CATH. et C. F.
  • GRENNARE, or he þat grynnythe. Rinctor.
  • GRENNYN̄' wythe the tythe, as howndys. Ringo, CATH. et C. F.
  • GRENNYNGE. Rictus, CATH.
  • GRENE LYNGE, fyshe (grenlynge, S. grenelynge, P.)1. [The fish here intended seems to be the cod or keeling, Morhua vulgaris, Cuv. which is called the green fish, probably from its colour, but as stated in Willughby's Hist. Pisc. p. 166, from its being taken on the coast of Greenland. It abounds in the Northern seas: a multitude of British and Dutch fishermen are occupied in taking and preparing it for transport to all parts of Europe. It is called also habberdeen, Island fish, or stock-fish. "Moruë, the cod, or green fish. Moruë verte, green fish." COTG. This green variety, called the Scotch cod, is most common towards the North.]
  • GREES, or fetnesse (gres, K.) Sa∣gimen, sagina, CATH. (adeps, P.)
  • GRESSE, herbe (gres, K. S.) Herba, gramen.
  • GRESYN̄', or anoyntyn̄ wythe grese. Sagino.
  • GRESYN̄', as beestys fedy(n)ge wythe gres (beestys in pasture, K. fede thē with gresse, P.)2. [In the Golden Legend, Life of St. Paul, there is a relation that the head of the saint was found by a shepherd, who "set it up by the place where his shepe greased." Palsgave gives "to grease, or grase, as a horse dothe." The word, as usually written, is more in accordance with the derivation, Ang.-Sax. ȝrasian, gramine vesci. Forby gives another signification of the verb to graze, as used in Norfolk, namely, to become covered with the growth of grass; in this sense it is given likewise in the CATH. ANG. "to gresse, herbere, herbescere."]Depascor, carpo, CATH. her∣boniso.
  • GRESYNGE, or a-noyntynge (with grece, P.) Saginacio.
  • GRESYNGE, of beestys fedynge. Pastura, carptura.
  • GRESHOP. Cicada.
  • GRETE, in quantyte. Magnus, grossus, grandis.
  • GRETE HERTYD, and bolde. Mag∣nanimus.
  • GRETE HERTYD, not redy to bux∣umnesse. Pertinax, inflexibilis.
  • GRETE MANN, or worthy (man̄, K. P.) Magnas.
  • GRETE OOTHE. Jusjurandum, C. F.
  • GRETYN̄, or wepyn̄',

    3. "To grete, plorare, et cetera ubi to wepe." CATH. ANG.

    "There was mad muche gredyng,
    Much weoping, much waylyng."

    K. Alis. 7882.

    Hampole in the Prick of Conscience terms the day of final doom

    "þe day of greteyng, and of gouleyng,
    "þe day of sorowe þat neuer salle blyne."

    Harl. MS. 6923, f. 83.

    See also R. Brunne, p. 148; the Vision of P. Ploughm. 1029, 1497; Chaucer, Rom. of Rose; and Jamieson, v. Greit. Ang.-Sax. ȝraedan, ȝraetan, clamare.

    Ploro, CATH. fleo, lacrimor.
  • Page  211GRETYN̄', or salutyn̄'. Saluto, CATH.
  • GRETYNGE, or salutacyon. Sa∣lutacio.
  • GRETYNGE, or wepynge. Plora∣tus, fletus.
  • GRETLY. Valde, vehementer, opido.
  • GRETE TOO of þe fote. Allux, C. F.
  • GREET wythe chylde. Gravidus, impregnatus.
  • GREVAWNCE, or grevowsnesse. Gravamen, nocumentum, te∣dium.
  • GREVAWN(C)E, or offence, or tres∣pace (offence of trespace, K. S.) Offensa, aggra(va)men.
  • GREVYD, or a-greuyd yn wrethe. Aggravatus, attediatus.
  • GREVYN̄'. Gravo, aggravo, in∣festo, noceo, CATH.
  • GREVOWS. Nocivus, tediosus, gravis (nocuus, K.)
  • GREVOWSLY. Graviter, tediose, nocenter.
  • (GREWELLE, infra in GROWELLE.)
  • GRYCE, swyne or pygge.1. ["A grise, porcellus, et cetera ubi a swyne." CATH. ANG. "Marcassin, a young wild boare, a shoot, or grice." COTG. Grys occurs repeatedly in this sense, in the Vision of P. Ploughman, 450, 2182, 4353: in the glossary, Mr. Wright refers to the story of Will Gris in the Lanercost Chron. Skinner cites Gouldman's Dict. as the sole au∣thority for the word grice, and proposes as an etymon Belg. griis, cinereus. The word appears to be now obsolete, or retained only in the diminutive griskin. Bp. Kennett in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033, gives "grice, a pig; Island. griis, vel grys, suc∣cula;" and cites the Yorkshire Dial. p. 42, and Duglas's Virgil. See Jamieson.]Por∣cellus, nefrendis, CATH. et C. F.
  • GRYCE, whyle hyt sokythe. Puber, CATH. in depubis, nefrendis, UG. in frendere.
  • GRYCE, precyowse furrure,2. [Neccham, in his treatise de nominibus utensilium, writes as follows respecting female costume: "Camisia sindonis, vel serici, vel bissi, materiam sorciatur (i. capiat.) Pe∣nula (pane) mantelli sit ex scisimis (gris), vel experiolis (ekureus), sive scurellis, vel ex cuniculis, vel ex laeronibus (leeruns); cujus urla (penule) sit ex sabilino, &c." Cott. MS. Titus, D. xx. with an interlinear French gloss. This kind of fur is mentioned by John de Garlandiâ, in his Dictionary, among the more costly kinds: "Pelliparii—carius vendunt cisimum (al. scimum) et urlas de sabellino;" upon which the following gloss is given, "cisimus est illud quod dicitur Gallice vare, et gris." Docum. Inédits, Paris sous Philip le Bel, App. 591. The esteem in which it was held appears from M. Paris, who states in his account of the honourable reception of the Tartar envoys by Innocent IV. A. D. 1248, "dedit eis vestes pretiosissimas, quas robas vulgariter appel∣lamus, de escarleto praeelecto, cum penulis et fururiis de pellibus variis cisimorum." It is not easy to ascertain with precision what is the animal that supplied this fur; it appears to be described by Gesner as the Mus Ponticus, or Venetus, commonly called varius, and the fur of which was termed by the Germans Grauwerck. The terms gris and vair seem, indeed, to be frequently used as synonymous, but many authorities may be cited from which a distinction is apparent. Much curious information on this subject, and on the use of costly furs in geneal, has been given by Ducange, in the first dissertation appended to Joinville. Chaucer describes the sleeve of the monk as "purfiled at the hond with gris" of the finest quality. Cant. Tales, Prol. 194. Mention occurs of "grey and grys" in Vis. of P. Ploughm. 10,065. See Jamieson, v. Griece. In the Invent. of the Wardrobe of Hen. V. taken 1423, are enu∣merated various garments "furrez de cristigrey;" probably a variety of gris.]Sci∣s(i)mus, NECC.
  • Page  212GRYDYRYNE. Craticula, craticu∣lum, CATH. cratis.
  • GRYFFARE, or graffare. Insertor.
  • GRYFFE, or graffe.1. [An engrafted scion is called in Norfolk a greft, or grift, according to Forby, who proposes as an etymon Ang. -Sax. ȝraeft, sculptile. "Grafte, or gryffe of a tree, ente. I gryffe a gryffe, je ente." PALSG.]Surculus.
  • GRYFFYN̄', or graffyn̄'. Insero.
  • GRYFFYNGE, or graffynge. In∣sercio, insertura.
  • GRYFFOWN, beest.2. [This fabulous animal is particularly described by Sir John Maundevile, in his account of Bacharie. "In that contree ben many griffounes, more plentee than in ony other contree. Sum men seyn that thei han the body upward as an eagle, and benethe as a lyoune, and treuly thei seyn sothe that thei ben of that schapp. But o griffoun hathe the body more gret, and is more strong thanne viij. lyouns, of suche lyouns as ben o this half, and more gret and strongere than an c. egles, suche as we han amonges us." He further states that a griffin would bear to its nest a horse, or a couple of oxen yoked to the plough; its talons being like horns of great oxen, and serving as drinking-cups; and of the ribs and wing feathers strong bows were made. See p. 325. Casley observes that in the Cotton Library there was such a cup, 4 ft. in length, silver-hooped, and inscribed "Griphi unguis divo Cuthberto Dunelmensi sacer;" another curiously mounted as a standing cup, on an eagle's leg of silver, is still preserved in the cabinet of antiquities at Paris, in the King's Library, having been brought, at the Revolution, with the spoils of the treasury of St. Denis. A curious account of it is given by Doublet, in his history of that abbey, p. 343. From an ancient MS. Invent. of the treasury of Bayeux Cathe∣dral, it appears that three such talons were there preserved, and on solemn occasions appended to the altar, as precious rarities. A "corne de griffoun" is mentioned in the Kalend. of Exch. iii. 176. The egg was likewise preserved as a valuable curiosity, and used as a goblet; see the lists of the jewels and plate of Edw. III. 1338, ibid. pp. 171, 172. "Item, j oef de griffon garnis d'agent, od pie et covercle." The griffin was assumed by the Le Despenser family, and the upper part appears as the crest on the helm of Hugh le Despenser, who died 1349, exhibited on his tomb at Tewkesbury. Another strikingly designed representation of this curious animal is seen at Warwick, at the feet of Richard Beauchamp, who died 1439.]Grifo, grifes, C. F.
  • (GRYL, infra in GRYM.)

    3. R. Brunne uses this word in the sense of stern, or cruel. He says of Rufus,

    "To riche men was he grille, of pouer held no tales."

    Langt. Chron. p. 92.

    It is thus used by Chaucer. See also Amis and Amiloun, 1275, 1802; Towneley Myst. p. 137; Covent. Myst. p. 230; Reliqu. Ant. ii. 166; Jamieson, v. Grylle.

  • GRYM, or sterne (storre, K. stoore, H. P.) Austerus, rigidus.
  • GRYM̄, gryl, and horryble. Hor∣ridus, horribilis.
  • (GRYMNESSE, or stornesse, K. stoorenesse, P. Austeritas, rigor.)
  • GRYMNESSE, or horrybylnesse. Horror, horribilitas.
  • GRYNDYN̄'. Molo, CATH.
  • GRYNDYNGE of a mylle. Mola∣tura, multura, UG.
  • GRYNDYNGSTONE, or mylle∣stone. Molaris, UG.
  • GRYNDYNGSTONE, or grynstone. Mola, CATH.
  • GRYPE, byrde.

    4. "A gripe, griphes, vultur." CATH. ANG. This obsolete appellation of the vulture has been derived from Ang.-Sax. ȝripan, rapere, but more probably from the Lat. gryps, or the French. "Grype, a beest, egripe." PALSG. It must, however, be ob∣served that the grype and the griffon are frequently confounded. "Gripho, nomen avis, a grype. Griphes vel gripe, genus animalis, a grype. Vultur est avis magna et rapax: ut dicunt, de aere et non de concubitu concipit, a grype." ORTUS. "Vaultour, a vulture, geire, gripe, or grap; a ravenous bird. Griffon, a gripe or griffon." COTG. Holinshed says in the Hist. of the Conquest of Ireland. B. ii. c. 18, that the "griph or geire is a kind of eagle, but such as is ravenous, and feedeth more vpon carren than upon anie foule of his owne preieng; and for his cowardnesse carieth neither the name nor praise apperteining to the true eagle." The egg of the grype, frequently mentioned as a rarity much valued, and used as a driking-cup, is probably to be referred to the fabulous animal, the griffon, and may have been merely the egg of the ostrich. Gower relates that Albinus kept the skull of Gurmund, which was fashioned as a goblet,

    "And polysshed was eke so clene,
    That no sygne of the sculle was sene,
    But, as it were, a grype's eye."

    Conf. Am. lib. i.

    "Item, un coupe fait d'un gripesei garnisez d'argent endorrez, steant sur un pee de iij. kenettes, et le coverkel enaymellez dedeinz et dehors ove ij. kenetts, pois ij. lb. vj. unc. di." List of crown jewels, &c. delivered 1 Hen. IV. 1399. In the same inventory are named six "hanaps," or drinking cups called "gryppeshey." Kalend. of Exch. iii. 319, 330. In the will of William Gascoigne, Lord Chief Justice, dated 1419, is mentioned "ciphus, vocatus a gryp ey, ligatus cum argento, et deaurato." Testam. Ebor. i. 393. In the Invent. of Fountains Abbey, taken at the dissolution, and given by Burton, occurs the item, "A grype schill, with a covering gilt, 27 oz."

    Vultur.
  • GRYPPE, or a gryppel, where watur rennythe a-way in a londe, Page  213 or watur forowe (a grippull, P.)1. ["Aratiuncula, fossa parva que instar sulci aratur." CATH. The term grype occurs in an award, dated 1424, relating to the bounds of lands of the Prior of Bodmin, as follows: "The bounde that comyth thurgh the doune—goyng don to another stone stondynge of olde tyme in the bank of a grype,—and so the diche (called Kenediche) and the gripe, &c." Mon. Ang. new ed. from Harl. Cart. 57 A. 35. This word is still used in Sussex, and many parts of England. In Norfolk, Forby states that a trench, not amounting to a ditch, is called a grup; if narrower still, a grip; and if extremely narrow, a gripple. See Ray, Brockett, Craven Dial. and Jamieson. A.-S. ȝrep, sulcus.]Aratiuncula, CATH. UG. in aro (aquagium, K. aquarium, P.)
  • GRYPYN̄. Comprimo, rimolo, CATH. (involo, P.)2. [The Winch. MS. agrees here in giving rimolo, a word not found in the Catholicon. Involo is there rendered "in volâ aliquid continere, a volâ quod est media pars manus."]
  • GRYPYNGE wythe þe hande, or oþer lyke. Constrictio, com∣pressio (striccio, P.)
  • GRYSYL. Horridus, terribilis.
  • GRYSTYLLE of the nose. Carti∣lago.
  • GROCERE, marchawnte.3. [Marchanwte, MS. The original meaning of the term grocer is defined in the stat. 37 Edw. III. 1363, respecting "Marchauntz nomez grossers," so called because they "engrossent totes maners des marchandises vendables" and kept them back in order to sell at an improved price. Stat. of Realm, i. 379. In the following century they were established as a distinct trade; see the "Incorporatio Groceriorum Lond." Pat. 7 Hen. VI. and another patent in the year following, "pro custod' misterae Groceriae." Before the early part of the XVIth cent. their dealings seem to have become limited to grocery, as now understood: thus Palsgrave gives "grocer, grossier, espicier." Seplassarius is explained as meaning "negotiator, qui multa venundat." See Ducange.]Gros∣sarius, assecla, C. F. seplesarius.
  • (GROME, S. P.) Gromus.
  • GROMALY, herbe (gromely sede, K. P.)4. ["Grumelle, milium, gramen solis." CATH. ANG. The common gromwell, or grey millet, Lithospermum officinale, Linn. was formerly esteemed as a remedy for the stone, and other diseases; according to the observations of Gerard, Parkinson, Langham, and similar writers. Tusser enumerates "gromwell seed, for the stone," among herbs which ought to be found in the farmer's garden. See March's Abstract. See also a treatise on the virtues of plants, written in XVth cent. Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 76, b. where the following description is given: "Granum solis ys an herbe þat me clepyþ gromel, or lyþewale; thys herbe haþ leuys þat be euelong, and a lytyl white flour, and he haþ whyte seede ischape as a ston that me clepyþ a margery perl." Cotgrave gives "Gremil, grenil, the hearb gromill, grummell, or graymill, peare - plant, liche∣wall;" and lithospermum is thus rendered by Elyot: "an herb which hath sedes like stones, and groweth in corn, some do suppose it to be grummell." The word is derived by Skinner "a granis, sc. lapideis, quae pro seminibus habet, q. d. granile."]Milium solis.
  • Page  214GRONGE, or grange, place. Gran∣gia (grancia, P.
  • GROYNE of a swyne (grony, K. H. P. groney, S. grony, or growynynge lyke a swyne, HARL. MS. 2274.)1. [Chaucer says, in the Persone's Tale, that "the Proverbe of Solomon likeneth a faire woman that is a fool of hire body, to a ring of gold that is worne in the groine of a sowe." See also the Towneley Mysteries, p. 89. In Norfolk, according to Forby, a hog's snout is called the grunny. Compare the Craven Gossary, v. Groon, and Brockett, v. Groin. "Groyne of a swyne, groyng." PALSG. Skinner derives this word from Fr. "Groin de porceau, the snowt of a hog." COTG. Bp. Kennett gives "grun, the upper lip of a beast, Bor. Island. gron, bovis labrum superius." Lansd. MS. 1033.]Rostrum porcinum, scropha porcina, KYLW.
  • GRONY, magry, infra in M.
  • GRONYN̄', as seke menn. Gemo.
  • (GRONYYN, or grochyn, K. gronen or grutchen, P. Murmuro.)
  • GRONYN̄', or grutchyn̄ priuely, quod dicitur (to byd, P.) þe dyvelys pater noster. Mucio, CATH. musso, UG. in mugio.
  • GRONYNGE of seke menn. Ge∣mitus.
  • GROYNYNGE of swyne (gronyinge, P.)2. [See the note on GRUNTON̄', as swyne, hereafter.]Grunnitus.
  • GRONYYNGE, or grutchynge (groching, K.) Murmur.
  • GROPYN̄', or felyn̄' wythe hande.

    3. "Palpo, i. manibus contrectare, to groope. Palpalis, gropeable." MED.

    "Thise curates ben so negligent, and slow
    To gropen tendrely a conscience."

    Sompnoure's Tale.

    "He gropeth unclenly (contractat) children and maydens." HORM. "I grope a thyng that I do nat se, or proue a thynge, ie taste. I grope, as one dothe the wall or place whan he gothe darkelyng, ie vas à taston" PALSG. "Tastonner, to feel, grope, touch, handle, stroke. Fouiller, to grope, search, feele all over." COTG. Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, gives "tentone, gropyngly, as he that goeth in the derke." Ang.-Sax. ȝropian, palpare.

    Palpo.
  • GROPYNGE. Palpacio.
  • (GROPYS of corne, supra in CRAPPE.)4. [The word GROPYS is given as it is previously found in the MS.; but the reading is possibly corrupt. The Winchester MS. instead of CRAPE, or gropys, gives crap, or crappis of corn'. "Acus, chaffe, or craps." MED. MS. CANT.]
  • GROSON̄, or grocyn̄' vp, or take mony (grete, S.) thyngys to∣gedur (or take all, P.) Ingrosso.
  • GROTE of mony. Grossus.
  • Page  215GROTŌN, or ingroton wythe mete or drynke (grotyyn, or ingrotyyn, K.) Ingurgito.
  • GROVE, lytyl wode. Lucus, C. F.
  • GROWELLE, or grewelle.1. ["Puls est cibus ex aquâ et farinâ factus; dicitur a pello, quia pellit infirmitatem, Anglice, gruell or pappe." ORTUS. "Grewelle, puls. Growelle, ubi potage." CATH. ANG. "Grus, gruell, or water wherein any corne is boiled, corne-broth. Orgee, barly gruell." COTG. In Huloet's Dictionary the term is applied to food that is not farina∣ceous. "Grewell, Olus, pulmentum, zomas. Grewell, forcet, or stewed broth, offella, offula.]Li∣gumen, puls, farinacium, C. F. farratum, UG. in frango, grumus, gruellum, COMM.
  • GROVELYNGE, or grovelyngys, adv.

    2. In Norfolk and Suffolk the phrase "to lie grubblings," or with the face down∣wards, is still in use. See Forby and Moore; se also Jamieson, v. Grufeling. "Gru∣felynge, supinus. To make grufelynge, supinare." CATH. ANG. "Grouelyng, couchê à dens." PALSG. In the Towneley Mysteries, where Isaac, about to be sacrificed, quakes for fear of the bright sword that was held over him, Abraham speaks thus:

    "Therfor groflynges thou shalle be layde,
    Then when I stryke thou shalle not see."

    p. 40.

    Horman says that "a full stomacke is digest with watche, and slepynge grouelynge (pronâ in faciem dormitione.)" Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, directs that date-stones should be planted "groveling." In the Romance of Kyng Alis. the word "wombe∣lyng" occurs in a like signification, line 5647. Chaucer uses "groff" repeatedly in the sense of prostrate.

    "And groff he fell all platte upon the ground."

    Prioresse's T. 13,605.
    Suppine (resupine, S.)
  • GROVELYNGE, nom. Suppinus (resupinus, S.)
  • GROWYN̄', or waxyn̄'. Cresco, CATH. orior, UG.
  • GROWYN AGYD. Seneo.
  • GROWE BLYNDE, or lame.
  • GROWE BALLYD. Calvesco.
  • GROWE BLAKE. Nigresco.
  • GROWE BRYGHTE, or clere. Cla∣resco.
  • GROWE ELD, idem quod GROWE AGYD, supra (growe olde, P.)
  • GROWEGRENE, idem quod GRENYN, supra.
  • GROWNEHARDE. Induresco, CATH.
  • GROWE NESCHE. Mollesco.
  • GROWE OLDE, as clothys or oþer thyngys lyke, þat weryn̄' (weryt, K.) Veterasco, CATH.
  • GROWE REEDE. Rubesco.
  • GROWE SOWYR, or sowryn̄'. Acesco.
  • GROWE WHYTE. Albesco.
  • GROWE WOOD, or ma(d)de (wod, K. woode, or madde, or oothe, S.) Furesco.
  • GROWE YONGE. Juvenesco.
  • (GROWE WYLDE, P. Indomesco.)
  • GROWYNGE, or waxynge (or spryngynge, infra.) Crescencia.
  • GROWNDE.3. ["A grunde, fundamentum, fundus, grunda, grundatorium." CATH. ANG. The word ground has in the old writers the sense of the bottom of anything, as the deep or abyss. Ang.-Sax. ȝrund, fundus. Gower uses the expression "a groundless pit," and in the Golden Legend it is related that seven devils were sent to burn the ship in which the relics of St. Stephen were translated, "but the aungell of our Lorde plunged them (the devils) downe in to the grounde of the see." Hence it also signifies the lowest part of a building, the foundation. Robert Brunne speaks of "þe groundwalle þik" of Berwick Castle (Langt. Chron. p. 210.); and in the contract for building Fotheringhay Church, A. D. 1435, the foundations are termed "the ground-werk." Mon. Ang. iii. Sir John Maundevile gives the Greek inscription which was seen on the rock whereon the cross of the Saviour had been set, thus rendered: "Quod vides est fundamentum (〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉) totius fidei hujus mundi, that is to seye, that thou seest is ground of alle the feythe of this world." p. 92. Palsgrave gives "grounde, the botome of a foundation of any thyng, fondation."]Fundum.
  • Page  216GROWNDE, or flore. Area.
  • GROWNDE of byggy(n)ge, or fun∣dament (of a byldyng, S.) Fun∣damentum, fundus, C. F.
  • GROWNYDYD (growndid, K. ground∣ed, P.) Fundatus.
  • GROWNDYN', or sett a grownde. Fundo.
  • GROWYNDYN' yn a mortere (growndyn, K. S. grounden, P.) Tritus, pinsus, CATH. pilatus, CATH.
  • GROWNDYN̄ yn a mylle. Molitus, multus, CATH.
  • GROWNDESOPE of any lycoure (growndynge soppis off lycure, HARL. MS. 2274, grownd sope, S. grounsop, P.)1. ["Grounde soppe in lycoure, pain trempé. Groundes, lyse of any lycour, lie." PALSG. The term appears to imply a sop or sippet, by which the dregs, still called the grounds, may be soaked up.]Fex, sedimen.
  • GROWPE, where beestys, as nete, standyn̄ (grovpe of netys stal, K. groupe of a netys stall, H. P.)2. [A grup or groop signifies in Norfolk a trench, narrower than a ditch, as has been observed in the note on the word GRYPPE. In the North the term retains the signifi∣cation assigned to it above. See Brockett, Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. Bp. Kennett likewise notes this use of the word: "groop, or grupe, a ditch or trench, es∣pecially that which runs across the length of the byer, or cow-house; Bor." Lansd. MS. 1033. Skinner suggests the derivation from Ang.-Sax. ȝroepe, latrina, scobs. "Minsorium, a grope." ORTUS. "A grupe, minsorium." CATH. ANG. Gouldman, in his Dictionary, 1664, gives "a groope in stables and houses, minthorium," from "minthos, dung or ordure." ELYOT. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, stercus. Ugucio gives the same expla∣nation which is found in the Catholicon, "minsatorium, locus and mingendum, quod recipit urinam." The reading of the Winchester MS. agrees with that of the Harl. text, musitatorium, but the word appears to require correction.]Musitatorium, KYLW. bozetaria, UG. V. (musatorium, K. H. mussatorium, P. suffusorium, S.)
  • GROWPE, yn a boorde. Incastratura.
  • GROWPYD, a boordys, or oþer þyn̄gys. Incastratus.
  • GROWPYN̄' wythe an yryn, as gra∣vowrys.3. ["Runco, to grope. Runco, a gropere. Runcina, a wedehoke, and a gropynge yrone." MED. MS. CANT. "Runcina est quoddam artificium fabri lignarii gracile et recurvum, quo cavantur tabule, ut una alteri connectatur; Anglice, a gryppynge yron." ORTUS. "A grupynge yrene, runcina." CATH. ANG. This implement, which, as it has been observed in the note on the word FORMOWRE, was prbably similar to what is now termed a gouge, called by Palsgrave "formour or grublyng yron;" and used to form grooves or incisions. Ang.-Sax. graep, sulcus. Palsgrave gives the verb "I growpe (Lydgate) sculpe, or suche as coulde graue, groupe, or carue: this word is nat vsed in comen spetche."]Runco, CATH. in runcina (incastro, K. P.)
  • Page  217GROWPYNGE. Incastracio, C. F.
  • GROW(P)YNGE or gravynge yryn' (growpinge yron, K. P.) Run∣cina, CATH. scrophina, CATH.
  • GROWTE for ale.1. [In the Ortus agromellum and granomellum are rendered "growte;" and idro∣mellum is explained thus: "potus ex aquâ et melle, Anglicè mede or growte." "Growte, idromellum, agromellum, acromellum, granomellum." CATH. ANG. This term properly implies ground malt, or the first infusion preparatory to brewing, which is thus distin∣guished in Harl. MS. 1002, f. 114. "Worte, siromellum, sed growte dicas agromellum." Ang.-Sax. ȝrut, far, condimentum cerevisiae. In medieval Latin it was called grutum or grudum; see in Rokewode's Hist. Suff. pp. 31, 32, a document in which mention occurs of grudum ordei. In old French malt was called gru, or grust, according to Roquefort; but Palsgrave gives the word "grout that serueth to brewyng, in Fraunce there is none vsed." G. de Bibelesworth, who wrote in the reign of Edw. I. gives a curious account of the mode of brewing, in which "grout" occurs as a gloss on the word "berzize," which is not found in the Glossaries, and may possibly be a barbarous com∣pound of bere, a drink, or ber, barley, and zithum, which, according to Borel, was the Gaulish appellation of beer. The term grout is not used in the detailed account of brewing given by Harrison in the description of England, B. ii. c. 6, Holinsh. i. 169. In the North, according to Coles, Ray, and the Craven Glossary, grout signifies wort of the last running. Bp. Kennett gives the following note: "Grout, growt: in Leices∣shire the liquor with malt infused for ale and beer, before it is fully boiled, is called grout, and before it is tunned up in the vessel, is called wyrt, or wort. A.-Sax. ȝrut, nova cervisia. They have in the West a thick sort of ale, which they call grout-ale, and it is in most places a common proverb, as thick as growt. Kilian, grauwt, condi∣mentum cerevisiae." Lansd. MS. 1033. The term was not, perhaps, exclusively confined to denote farinaceous mixtures for the purpose of brewing; thus land in Addington, Surrey, was held by the serjeanty of making in an earthen pot in the royal kitchen, on the day of coronation, a mess called "diligrout," as stated by Blount, in his Jocular Tenures, p. 50. In the Plac. Cor. 39 Hen. III. it is called "le mess de gyron," or if compounded with fat, it was termed "maupigyrnun"]Granomellum.
  • GRUBBARE in þe erthe, or oþer thynggys (grovblare, H. grow∣blar, P.) Fossor, confossor, fos∣satrix.
  • GRUBBYN̄' yn th erthe. Fodico, CATH. et C. F.
  • GRUBYNGE (grublyng, H. growb∣linge, P.) Confossio.
  • (GRUBBYNGE yrȳn of gravowrys, supra in FORMOWRE, et in GROW(P)YNGE yryn'.)
  • GRUDGYNGE of sekenesse. Sub∣murmur, CATH.
  • GRUTCHARE (gruchar, K.) Mur∣murator, murmuratrix.
  • GRUTCHYD. Murmuratus.
  • GROTCHYNGE. Murmuracio, mur∣mur, CATH.
  • GRUTCHŌN (gruchyn, K.)2. [In the Wicliffite version the following use of this verb is found, Jos. x. 21: "No man was hardi to grucche (eþer to make pryuy noise, mutire, Vulg.) aȝenus þe sones of Israel." Sir John Maundevile speaks of "the welle that Moyses made with his hond in the desertes, whan the people grucched, for thei fownden no thing to drynke." It it said in the Golden Legend, that "when the herte is full of grace, hym oughte not grutche by impacyence." In the Vision of Piers P. and Chaucer's works, the word occurs frequently. "Fremeo, i. murmurare, to grudge. Murmuro, to grutche. Su∣surrium dicitur murmuratio, a grutchynge." ORTUS. "To gruche, dedignari, mur∣murare, mussare, susurrare. A grucher, susurro," &c. CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives the verb "I grutche, groudge, repyne, or murmure against a thyng; ie grommelle, &c. I haue a greater thruste than I was wonte, as sycke folkes that be grutched of an exes. I groudge, as one dothe yt hath a groudgyng of the axes, ie frilonne, and ie fremis. I groyne, I grutche, or murmure agaynst a thyng, ie grongne, ie grommelle." Skinner would seek a derivation from the French. "Gruger, to grudge, repine, mutter." COTG.]Mur∣muro.
  • GRUNTARE. Grunnitor.
  • Page  218GRUNTYNGE. Grunnitus.
  • GRUNTON̄', as swyne.1. ["Grunnio, to groone, as a sowe. "Grunnitus, gronynge." MED. MS. CANT. Ang.-Sax. ȝrunnan, grunnire. Horman says that "swyne wode for loue groyneth (subant) and let passe from them a poyson called aprine." Compare GROYNYNGE of swyne, above. Palsgrave gives the verb "I grunte, as a horse dothe whan he is spored, or as any beest dothe whan he complayneth, ie groigne, and ie gronce, expressed in I grudge."]Grunnio.
  • GRUTE, fylthe.

    2. GURTE, MS. In all the other MSS. as likewise in the printed editions, the word grut is given, which seem sto be the correct reading, as appears also by its place in alphabetical order. Ang.-Sax. ȝreot, pulvis.

    "The toun dykes on every syde,
    They wer depe, and ful wyde,
    Full of grut, no man myghte swymme."

    R. Coer de Lion, 4339.
    Limus.
  • GUGAW,3. [Various etymologies have been proposed of the word gugaw, in its ordinary sense; "Crepundia, toyes or gugawes for children, as rattels, clappers," &c. Junius, by Higins. "Babiole, a trifle, whim-wham, gugaw, or small toy for a child to play withall." COTG. Skinner suggests Ang.-Sax. ȝeȝaf, nugae, or heawȝas, simulachra, or the French word joyau, but gogue or gogaille seems more nearly to resemble it, and signifies, according to Roquefort, "bagatelle, plaisanterie. Gogoyer, se réjouir," &c. It would, however, seem that the word is here given as synonymous with flute, and the inquiry suggests itself whether it had originally denoted some musical instrument, and thence een used in a more general signification. According to Roquefort there was a wind instrument called gigue, and this statement corresponds with the observation of Ferrari, that giga, Ital. may be derived from 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a kind of flute. It is singular that, according to Brockett and Jamieson, a Jew's harp is called in N. Britain a gewgaw, but in that instance, as like∣wise here, in the Promptorium, it seems probable that the term is used merely in re∣ference to that with which idle disport may be taken, like trifles in childhood.]idem quod FLOWTE, pype, supra in F.; et giga, KYLW.
  • GUMME. Gumma, vel gummi, CATH. et C. F. et UG. in gutta.
  • (GUNNE, S. P.)

    4. "A gunne, fundibalum, murusculum. A gunner, fundibalarus, fundibalista." CATH. ANG. written A. D. 1483. The difficulty of ascertaining with precision the period of the introduction of engines from which missiles were propelled by means of gunpowder, arises chiefly from the circumstance, to which allusion is made by Selden, that the term gun, supposed by Somner to be merely a contraction of mango, or mangona, may have been used to denote some engine of war, long before the application of gunpowder to such purpose. Mr. Douce observes that the earliest mention of "gonnes" is found in the Romance of Kyng Alisaunder, line 3268; but in his note on that passage he says that it must not be conluded that they were used with powder, as originally they might have been engines of the catapult kind. Weber, Metr. Rom. iii. 306. The same remark applies to the account of the siege sustained by Kynge Aragus, who

    —"ordeyned hym ful well
    With gonnes, and grete stones rounde
    Were throwen downe to the grounde."

    Syr Tryamoure, 955.

    In the Avowynge of Kyng Arther, a "gunne" is mentioned, the effect of which is compared to lightning, but it is still doubtful whether the term should be understood to imply a projectile impelled by any ignited substance, or merely filled therewith.

    "There came fliand a gunne,
    And lemet as the leuyn."

    St. 65, edit. by Mr. Robson.

    It seems very probable that the missile here intended was a tube filled with Greek fire, or feu volant. In several MSS. of the Practica of John Arderne, a surgeon of emi∣nence t. Edw. III. instructions are found for compounding "fewes Gregois" and "fewes volants:" the latter being a liquid mixture, described as of an oily nature, with which a pipe being filled, and ignited by a match, would fly in any direction. A figure is given in the margin. He proceeds to describe "fewe volant" of another kind. "Pernez j. li. de soufre vif, de charbones de saux, (i. weloghe,) ij. li., de salpetre, vij. li. si les fetez bien et sotelment moudre sur un piere de marbre, puis bultez le poudre parmy vn sotille couerchief. Cest poudre vault à gettere pelottes de fer, ou de plom, ou d'areyne, oue vn instrument qe l'em appelle gonne." See Sloane MSS. 335, 795. A detailed account of passages in ancient documents or chronicles which throw light on this obscure subject has been given by Sir S. Meyrick, in his Crit. Enquiry, and a paper on the history of hand fire-arms, Archaeol. xxii.; and likewise by Mr. Archibald, in his description of ancient artillery discovered on the coast of Lancashire, Archaeol. xxviii. It may here suffice to state that gunpowder was known in Western Europe about the middle of the XIIIth cent.; and that the earliest recorded instance of its use in war, in this country, appears to have been in the first expedition of Edw. III. against the Scots, in 1327, when artillery, termed by Barbour "crakys of wer," was employed. See Jamieson. There can be no doubt that Chaucer uses the term "gonne," to signify an engine charged with gunpowder; as in the following comparison:

    "Swift as a pellet out of a gonne,
    When fire is in the pouder ronne."

    House of Fame, B. iii.

    The Household of Edw. III. as appears by the ordinances which commence 1344, printed by the Ant. Soc., comprised "Ingyners lvij. Artellers vj. Gonners vj." Their daily pay in time of war was 6d. The invention of hand fire-arms is assigned by Sir S. Meyrick, on the authority of Billius, to the Lucquese, in 1430; (Archaeol. xxii. 60) yet a prior use of some weapons of the sort seems to be indicated. In an Inventory of the arms and effects of Sir Simon Burley, taken apparently after his execution, 1388, and now in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, among "petites choses à Baynard Castell," is named "j. petit gonne de feer." In the Pell Records, 1 Hen. IV. 1400, payments appear for "quarell gunnes," at 7s. each; for saltpetre, sulphur, and wadding; and the contemporary evidence of Monstrelet shews that "bastons à feu" were among the arms of the English sent to the relief of the siege of Orleans, in 1428. Hand-guns are named among purchases for the defence of Holy Island, 1446; and were used at the siege of Caistor, in Norfolk, about 1459. Paston Lett. iv. 316. In the version of Vegecius at∣tributed to Trevisa, and completed 1408, in the account of military engines, allusion is made to "grete gonnes that shete now a daies stones of so grete peyse that no walle may with-stonde them; as hathe be wele shewede bothe in the Northe cuntre, and eke in the werres of Wales." B. IV. c. 22, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII.

    Petraria, DICC. et COMM. mangonale, KYLW. mu∣rusculum, C. F. gunna, et idem est fictum (magonale, P.)
  • Page  219GUNNARE, or he þat swagythe a gunne. Petrarius, mangonalius.
  • GURNARD, fysshe. Gurnardus, gallus marinus, COMM.
  • Page  220GUTTE, or tharme. Viscus, sumen.
  • GUTTON̄'. Exentero.