Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, dictionarius anglo-latinus princeps, auctore fratre Galfrido grammatico dicto, ex ordine fratrum Predicatorum, northfolciensi, circa A. D. M.CCCC.XL. Olim ex officina Pynsoniana editum, nunc ab integro, commentariolis subjectis, ad Fidem codicum recensuit Albertus Way, A. M.
Galfridus, Anglicus, active 1440., Way, Albert, 1805-1874, ed., British Library. Manuscript. Harley 221.
  • FABLE, or tale (fabyll, P.) Fabula.
  • FACE. Facies.
  • FACEET, booke (facet, K. faucet, P.) Facetus.
  • FACYN̄', or shewyn̄' boolde face. Effrono, CATH.
  • FACULTE. Facultas.
  • FACUNDE, or fayrnesse of speche.

    1. Chaucer, in the Assembly of Fowls, uses the word facond both as a substantive and an adjective, as in French, "Facond, éloquent; faconde, éloquence." ROQUEF. So also he says of Virginia,

    "Tho she were wise as Pallas, dare I saine,
    (Her facond eke full womanly and plaine)
    No counterfeited termes at all had shee
    To seeme wise."

    Doctor of Physic's Tale.

    In the Golden Legend it is said that "Martha was ryght faconde of speche, and curteys."

    Facundia, eloquencia.
  • FADYN', or lese the colowre. Marceo.
  • FADYR. Pater, genitor.
  • FADYR YN LAWE. Socer.
  • FADYR and modyr yn' one worde. Parens.
  • FADYRKYN̄', or modyrkyn̄' (fadyrs or moderys kin, K.) Parentela.
  • FADYRLESSE chylde. Orphanus, C. F.
  • FADER QWELLARE. Patricida.
  • FADME, or fadyme.2. [The ancient Anglo-Saxon measure of six feet, faeðem, ulna, the space of both arms extended, was, at the time the Promptorium was compiled, still used as a measure of length, and subsequently more exclusively applied to depth. Horman says, that "in a man that is of laufull stature, the lengthe fro the toppe of his heed to his hele, and fro the both toppys of his myddell fyngers, whan he makethe a vadome, is all one."]Ulna, CATH. in brachium, lacerta.
  • FADMYN' (fadomyn, P.) Ulno, CATH. in brachium.
  • FADEMYNGE. Ulnacio.
  • Page  146FAGYN̄', or flateryn̄'.

    1. "To fage, adulari, assentari, blandiri, blandificare, delinire, palpare. A fagynge, blandicia. Fagynge, blandus." CATH. ANG. This word is derived from the Ang.-Sax. faeȝnian, faeȝenian, gaudere, which has also the signification of flattering. Hardyng, relating the guileful practices of Vortigern on the weak King Constaunce, says,

    "Such subtyle meane to fage the Kyng he fande."

    Chron. c. lxvi.

    Coles gives "fage, a merry tale." Palsgrave gives the verb "I fagge from the trouthe (Lydgate); this terme is nat in our comen use." It may be questioned whether Drayton does not use the verb to fadge in this sense; but it is explained by the Glossarists as signifying only to agree, or accord; Ang.-Sax. feȝan, jungere.

    "With flattery my muse could neuer fadge."

    Pastorals, Ecl. 3.
    Adulor.
  • FAGYNGE, or flaterynge. Adulacio.
  • FAGOTT. Fassis, strues, CATH.
  • FAYNARE, or flaterere. Adulator.
  • FAYNE, or fayne (sic.)2. [It would at first sight appear from this reading of the MS. as also from a word that occurs subsequently, FORȜETYN̄, or forȝetyn̄, that the initial ff must have some special power of its own, and not merely represent the capital F. None such, however, can be assigned, and the readings are, probably, in both instances corrupted by the scribe. In the present case the correction appears to be FAYNE, or fawne, and in the second the true reading may be FORȜETYN̄, or forgetyn̄. "Fayne, ubi mery. Alacer, apricus, di∣lectabilis, hilaris. letus." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. faeȝen, laetus. See FAWN'.]Libens.
  • FAYRE yn' bewte. Pulcher, ve∣nustus, decorus, bellus, C. F.
  • FAYRE CHYLDE.

    3. The appellation fair child, bel fils, or BEFYCE, which has occurred previously, was one of endearment or courtesy, afterwards used only to signify a son-in-law. Instances of its use are not infrequent; thus in Piers Ploughman's Vision, when Joseph relates to his father his dream that the sun, moon, and stars "hailsed hym all,"

    "Beau fitz, quod his fader,
    For defaute we shullen,
    I myself and my sones,
    Seche thee for neede."

    line 4819.
    Ephebus, epheba, CATH.
  • FAYRE, mery wedur or tyme (fayir as wedyr, K.) Amenus.
  • FAYRE SPEKAR. Orator, retor.
  • FAYRE SPECHE. Lepos, CATH. C. F. rethorica.
  • (FAYIRNESSE of speche, K. Fa∣cundia.)
  • FAYRNESSE of bewte. Decor, ve∣nustas, pulcritudo, species.
  • FAYRNESSE of wedur, and tyme. Amenitas.
  • FAYTOWRE.4. [A FAYTOWRE was, as it seems, a conjuror, or a quack-salver, so called from the French faiteor, or faiturier, a sorcerer; and thence the name was applied to itinerant pretenders to such skill, to mendicants, and generally to idle livers. "Faitard, faiteor, un parresseux." LACOMBE. The plant called quack-salver's turbith or spurge, the Tithymalus or Esula of the old botanists, Euphorbia, Linn. was much employed in homely physic, as also by the empirics in former times. Its virtues are detailed by Gerarde and Parkinson. See TITYMALLE. The MS. has similator, as also similacio.]Fictor, simulator, simulatrix.
  • FAYTOWRYS gresse, or tytymal (faytours grees, P.) Titimallus.
  • Page  147FAYTERYE (faytre, H. P.) Fictio, simulacio, ficticium.
  • FAYTOWRE, þat feynythe sekenesse for trowantyse (trowandyse, P.) Vagius, UG.
  • FAL. Casus, lapsus, ruina.
  • FALLARE, or he þat oftyn' tyme fallythe. Cadax, CATH. ca∣ducus, cadabundus, UG.
  • FALDYNGE, clothe.

    1. Compare ROW CLOTHE, as faldynge and other lyke, which occurs hereafter. The term faldyng, signifying a kind of frieze, or rough-napped cloth, is derived by Skinner from Ang.-Sax. feald, plica, because coarse wrappers or mantles were usually made of it. Chaucer describes the West Country shipman as clad

    "In a goune of falding to the knee."

    Cant. Tales, Prol.

    Nicholas, the Oxford clerk, had his books, and appliances of science,

    "On shelues all couched at his bed's hed;
    His presse icouered with a faldyng red,
    And all aboue there lay a gay Sautrie."

    Miller's Tale.

    Nich. de Schirburn, an ecclesiastic of York, bequeathed, in 1392, "tunicam de nigro faldyng lineatam;" and Ric. Bridesall, merchant of the same city, makes this devise; "lego patri meo meam armilausam, videlicet faldyng clok." Testam. Ebor. i. 173, 174. "Amphibalus, a sclaveyn, a faldynge or a dudd." MED. GRAMM. "A faldynge, amphibalus. A faldynge, plicacio, convolucio." CATH. ANG. This kind of cloth was supplied, probably, from the North of Europe, and identical with the woollen wrappers of which Hermoldus speaks, "quos nos appellamus Faldones;" Chron. Slav. i. c. l; called by Adam Bremensis "Paldones." Frieze received its name from Friesland, and the rough garments of that country are called by Andrew Borde "dagswaynes," as has been noticed above in the note on that word. The Polonie of Scotland may have re∣ceived its name from its Polish origin; see the curious observations on that word in the Supplement to Jamieson's Dictionary. These garments, as also the Irish mantles, much in request so late as the reign of Charles I. as appears by the Custom-house rates, were, probably, the same as the faldyng; the last were usually imported in pairs, upon which the duty, as rated in 1553, was 5s. and by the Kytson Household Book it appears that in 1573 the price of "a coople of Irish mantells" was 43s. History of Hengrave. "Endromis, vestis villosa de arietis pellibus facta, vel pallium forte villosum, &c. an yrysshe mantell." ORTUS. "Bracca, that kynde of a mantell whiche nowe commeth out of Ireland, or a longe garment made of roughe frise." ELYOT, 1542. Fallin signifies in Irish, according to Lluyd, a mantle, and the term appears to be iden∣tical with that used by Giraldus Camb. in his description of the Irish, composed in 1185; "caputiis modicis assueti sunt et arctis, trans humeros deorsum, cubito tenus protensis, . . . . sub quibus phalingis laneis quoque, palliorum vice, utuntur." Topog. Hibern. 1. iii. c. 10. The fashion of the phalingus is exhibited in marginal drawings in a valuable contemporary MS. of Giraldus, in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps; and it is described by the appellation coccula in the Life of St. Cadoc, MS. Landav. Eccl. as cited by Spelman, under that word. See further Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, and Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland, 267.

    Falinge, amphibalus, C. F. birrus, C. F.
  • FALYYN̄', or faylyn̄'. Deficio.
  • FAYLYNGE, or fawte (falyynge, P.) Defectus.
  • FALLE, or mows trappe.2. [See hereafter MOWSFALLE. "A felle for myse, decipula. A mowse felle, mus∣cipula." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. mus-fealle, muscipula.]Musci∣pula, decipula.
  • FALLYN̄', or ovyr throwyn̄'. Cado, ruo, CATH.
  • Page  148FALLE DOWNE to þe grownde, to dōn' worschyppe. Procido.
  • FALLYN', or happyn'. Accidit, evenit.
  • FALLYNGE downe, idem est quod FALLYNGE evylle, or londe yvelle.1. ["þe falland euylle, epilencia, comicius vel comicialis, morbus caducus, noxa, gerenoxa." CATH. ANG. Epilepsy, or the falling sickness, appears to have been in former times a very prevalent disorder, and had numerous appellations; Cotgrave and Sherwood give the following, in French, "le mal caduque, mal de terre, le mal S. Jean, le gros mal, le haut mal, mal d' Alcide, mal des comices, mal de Mahomet, mal de S. Valentin, maladie de S. Jean, maulubec, malubec." See LONDE IVYL.]Epilencia, vel morbus caducus.
  • FALSE. Falsus.
  • FALSE, and vntrosty. Perfidus.
  • FALSE, and deceyvable, and yvel menynge. Versutus, versipellis, UG. in verto.
  • FALSHEED. Falsitas.
  • FALSHEED yn' boke, for yvel wryt∣ynge. Menda, CATH. C. F. UG.
  • FALSYN', or make false. Falsifico.
  • FALSE MODDER, or wenche.2. [Mawther, in the East Anglian dialect, still signifies a girl, according to Forby and Moore; the explanation of the word carisia given in the Catholicon, has been adopted in the Ortus, "Carisia dicitur lena vetus et litigiosa, unde et fallaces ancille, quia veritate carent, Anglice, false seruauntes." See MODER, servaunte.]Ca∣risia, CATH.
  • FALSE WRYTER. Plastographus, CATH.
  • FALSE WRYTYNGE. Plastogra∣phia, CATH.
  • FALTRYN̄' yn þe tunge. Cespito, vel linguâ cespitare.
  • FALWE LONDE (falowen, P.) Novo, CATH.
  • FALOW, londe eryd. Novale, vel novalis, CATH. (UG. in neos, P.)
  • FAME, or loos of name.3. [See LOOS, or fame.]Fama.
  • FANN to clense wythe cornē.4. ["A fanne, capisterium, pala, vannus, ventilabrum." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. fann, ventilabrum. The ancient form of this implement, explained in the Catholicon to be "instrumentum de vimine factum, in modum scuti, cribrum," has undergone little change during several centuries, as exhibited on the sepulchral brass at Chartham, in Kent, representing Sir Robert de Setvans, or de Septem Vannis, who died in 1306. The fan, or van, here appears both on the armorial surcoat, and the ailettes; the bearing, which is a curious example of the arma cantantia, or armes parlantes, appears to have been, not seven vans, but three, as given in the Roll of Arms, t. Edw. II. Cott. MS. Calig. A. XVIII. A faithful representation of this curious memorial has been given by Messrs. Waller in their valuable Series of Monumental Brasses.]Vannus, CATH.
  • FANE of a stepylle, or oþer lyke.

    5. "A fayne of a schipe, cheruchus, et cetera ubi a wedercoke." CATH. ANG. Ang. Sax. fana, vexillum. Chaucer uses this word repeatedly,

    "O stormy peple, unsad and euer untrewe,
    And undiscrete, and changing as a fane!"

    Clerke's Tale.

    Among the costs of the construction of a dormitory, at Burcester Priory, in 1424, is a charge for "truncis de ferro, cum ij ventilogiis, viz. Vanys de tyn, ponendis super utrumque finem dormitorii;" Kennett's Paroch. Ant. ii., 254; and in the accounts of Thomas Lucas, Solicitor-Gen. to Henry VII. for the building of Little Saxham Hall, in 1507, is the entry, "a vane for my vise (winding stairs); iv vanys for my bruge." Rokewode's Hist of Suff. 151. Chaucer, in the Manciple's Prologue, alludes to the rural sport of justing "at the fan," in some MSS. "van;" which has been explained as sig∣nifying a kind of quintain, so termed from its revolving like the fane of a weather-cock. In the curious version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. a passage occurs, however, which would lead to the supposition that Chauser's allusion refers to a rural conflict, with the winnowing fun, by way of shield; it declares "how olde werriours were wont to iuste ith fannes, and pley with the pil, or the pale;" and that tyros or young sol∣diers ought to have "a shelde made of twigges sum what rounde, in maner of a gredryn, the whiche is clepede a fanne—and therwith they sholde haue maces of tree." B. l, c. xi. See QUYNTYNE hereafter.

    Cherucus, ventilogium.
  • Page  149FANGYN̄, or latchyn̄ (lachyn or hentyn, K. H.)1. [To fang or seize, Ang.-Sax. fang, captura, fangen, captus, is a verb used by R. Brunne, and various writers, as late as Shakespeare. See UNDERFONGYN̄, and LATCHYN̄ hereafter.]Apprehendo.
  • FANNE corne, or oþer lyke. Van∣no, CATH.
  • FANTASY, or fantan̄. Fantasma, fantasia, CATH.
  • FANVN', or fanēn' (fanon̄, P.)2. [The etymology of this appellation of the sacred vestment, termed also the maniple, is uncertain; the Latin pannus has been suggested, the German Fahne, or the Ang. Saxon word of the like signification, fana, vexillum. The resemblance of the maniple to the penon on the lance, called in France fanon, or phanon, is obvious. The word can hardly, however, be of Ang.-Saxon derivation, as in Aelfric's Glossary, written towards the close of the Xth cent. the maniple is termed "manualis, handlin;" and among the gifts of Bishop Leofric to Exeter Cathedral, about 1050, are mentioned "iv subdiacones handlin." MS. Bodl. Auct. D. 2, 16. Leo IV. P.P. towards the middle of the IXth cent. ordained thus, "nullus cantet sine amictu, sine albâ, stolâ, fanone et casulâ;" and a contemporary writer, Rabanus Maurus, says, "quartum sacerdotis indumentum mappula sive mantile est, quod vulgo fanonem vocant." Inst. Cler. c. 18. The original intention and use of the maniple is explained by Alcuin and Amalarius, writers of the same period, as follows: "Mappula, que in sinistrâ parte gestatur, quâ pituitam oculorum et narium detergimus." Shortly after, however, the rich and massy ornament bestowed upon the fanon rendered it unsuitable for its original purpose. A specimen discovered at Durham, in the tomb attributed to St. Cuthbert, is still preserved there; it is elaborately ornamented with needle-work, on a ground woven with gold, and was wrought, as appears by inscriptions upon it, by direction of Aelfleda, Queen of Edward the Elder, for Frithelstan, consecrated Bp. Winchester A.D. 905. It was probably brought to Durham, with other precious gifts, by Athelstan, the successor of Edward, in 934. This fanon measures 32¼ in. exclusively of a fringe at the ends. 1¾ in. deep; and its breadth is 2¼ in. Elaborate drawings of this inte∣resting relic, and of the stole discovered with it in 1827, are in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries. They are both ornamented with figures of saints, by which, and other representations, it appears that the fanon was at that period worn loosely thrown over the back of the hand, as on the Bayeux Tapestry in the representation of Abp. Stigant; but subsequently it was attached closely round the wrist. In a few instances the fanon appears carried on the right, instead of the left hand, an example of which occurs in the Bible of Charles the Bald, MS. of the IXth cent. See Montf. Mon. Franc. 1, pl. xxvi. The fanon was usually of the same suit, de eâdem sectâ, as the stole, and the parures of the amice and the alb; the material of which they were formed was most costly. Among the gifts of Will. de Elintune to Rochester, it is recorded, "dedit stolam et fanum de nigrâ purpurâ—de viride ciclade—de albâ purpurâ," &c. Reg. Roff. 119. They were ornamented with gems, pearls, and goldsmith's work, as appears by the inventories of the treasuries at Old St. Paul's and Lincoln, printed by Dugdale. It must be observed that some distinction seems to have been made in Italy in the XIth cent. between the fanon and the maniple, but its precise nature has not been ascertained. See the account of the gifts of Abbot Desiderius, Chron. Monast. Casin. Murat. iv. 429, 487. "Fannell for a preeste's arme, fanon." PALSG. "Fanon, a fannell or maniple, a scarfe-like ornament worne on the left arme of a sacrificing Priest." COTG.]Fanula, DICC. manipulus, CATH.
  • Page  150FARDELLE, or trusse. Fardellus.
  • FARE, or boost. Jactancia, ar∣rogancia.
  • FARE, or ledynge of lyfe. Valitudo.
  • FARE, of schepemen̄ be þe see. Navigium.
  • FARE MAKERE, or bostowre. Jac∣tator, philocompus, C. F.
  • (FARE WELL, P. Vale, valete.)
  • FARE WELLE, or elle mōn' (sic) (badly, K. P.) Valeo, C. F.
  • FARYN̄' owte of þe cuntre. De∣patrio.
  • FARYN̄' ovyr þe see, or watur (on the see, P.)

    1. To fare, Ang.-Sax. faran, ire, is a verb frequently used by the earlier writers, as R. Brunne, Rob. of Gloucester, Langtoft, and Chaucer.

    "Ten thousand prest and yare,
    Into batail for to fare."

    K. Alisaunder, line 1188.

    Sir Thomas de la More, in his Life of Edward II. relates that at Bristol, on the way to Berkeley Castle, Thomas de Gorney put upon his head a crown made of hay, and the soldiers "ironiâ nimis acerbâ dixerunt, fare forth Syr Kynge." Ed. Camden, p. 602. Minot, speaking of the journey of Edward III. into Brabant, in 1338, says,

    "Unto France fast will he fare,
    To confort hym with grapes."

    Various significations of this verb are given by Palsgrave, "I fare, I go a iournay. I fare with one, or entreate hym well or yuell. I fare, I playe at a game so named at the dyse. I fare, I resemble another thyng in my dealing. I fare, I take on, as one doth yt is in sorowe." Occasionally it is used in the sense of compelling to go; thus, in the Towneley Mysteries, Herod, enraged at the birth of Christ, declares,

    "Under my feete I shalle thaym fare,
    Those ladys that wille (not) lere my lare."

    p. 120.
    Meo, transmeo, navigo.
  • FARCYD, as metys. Farcitus.
  • FAARCE mete (farsen, P.) Farcio, farcino, CATH.
  • FARSURE. Farsura, farsumen.
  • FART. Trulla, bombus, CATH.
  • FARTARE. Pedo.
  • FARTON̄'. Pedo, CATH.
  • FARTYNGE. Peditura, bombizacio.
  • FACELYN̄', as clothys (faselyn, P.)2. [Palsgrave gives the verb "I fasyll out, as sylke or veluet dothe, Ie raule; my sleve is fasylled, rauelée. Fasyll of clothe, cassure." ? Ang.-Sax. faes, fimbria. The term to ravel, now generally used in this sense, thus appears to be derived, not from the verb to reave, or tear away, as it has been supposed, but from the French.]Villo.
  • FASYLLE of a clothe (or other lyke, P.) Fractillus, C. F. (vil∣lus, CATH. P.)
  • FASSYONE, or knowlechynge (fa∣cyon, P.) Fassio, confessio.
  • FASSYONE, or factyone, forme of Page  151 makynge. Forma, formefactura, formefactio.
  • FAST, or bowndyn', or festyd. Vinctus, ligatus.
  • FAST, or festyd be clevynge to, or naylynge. Fixus, confixus.
  • FASTE of abstynence (or fastynge, K.) Jejunium.
  • FASTARE. Jejunator, jejunatrix.
  • FAST GONGE, or schroffetyde, or gowtyde (fastyngon, P.)

    1. "Fastyngange, carniprivium." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives "at fastyns, at Fastyngonge, à Quaresme prenant." Blount, in his Dictionary of Hard Words, 1680, gives "fasguntide" as a Norfolk word, which Forby considers as now obsolete. In the statement made by the citizens of Norwich respecting a riot that occurred in 1441, termed Gladman's Insurrection, they declare that it originated in the circumstance that the said Thomas Gladman "on Tuesday, in the last ende of Cristemesse, viz. Fastyn∣gonge Tuesday, made a disport with his neyghbours, coronned as Kyng of Cristemesse." Blomf. Hist. ii. 111. A detailed account of such local usages at Shrove-tide will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. vol. i. Hardyng, relating the conflict between the Yorkists and Queen Margaret, which closed with the battle of St. Alban's, Shrove Tuesday, Febr. 17, 1461, says,

    "And southward came thei then therfore
    To Sainct Albones, vpon the fastyngange eue (al. fastirne.)"

    Chron. c. 237.

    The term is compounded from Ang.-Sax. faesten, jejunium, and ȝonȝ, iter, or going, the commencement of Lent. "Caresme prenant, Fastnes, or Shrove Tuesday." COTG.

    Carni∣privium (et carnibrevium, P.)
  • FASTYN̄'. Jejuno.
  • FASTYNGE. Jejunus, impransus, C. F.
  • FASTYNGE, idem quod FASTE.
  • FATE, vesselle.2. ["A fatte, cupa, cuva. A fattmaker, cuparius." CATH. ANG. "Cupa, a coupe, or a fatte, or stope." ORTUS. "Fatte, a vessel, quevue. Fatte to dye in, cvuier à taindre." PALSG. "Cuve, an open tub, a fat, or vat." COTG. Ang.-Sax. faet, fat, vas. Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, enumerates "thinges that ben vsed after the hous,—platers, disshes, saussers, sallyers, trenchours; these thinges shall ye fynde of tree, and of erthe. Now after, a disshe fat (esculier) where me leyeth therin the forsaid thinges, and the spones of tree." There was a local measure of grain, called a fat, identical with the cupa, cupus, or cuva, and which contained a quarter, or 8 bushels. The Stat. 1 Hen. V. c. 10, recites that it had been ordained that there should be only one measure, namely 8 bushels to the quarter; but that the purveyors of the Crown were accustomed to take 9, and the merchants and citizens of London take of all sellers the same quantity, as a quarter of wheat, "par un mesure usé deins la dicte Citée, appellé le faat, ove un bussell mys sur le dit faat." The word coupe does not occur in the Promptorium, in the same sense as FATE, but is so given in the Ortus and the Cath. Ang. "A cowpe, cupa. A cowper, cuparius." Caxton says in the Book for Travellers, "Paule the couper maketh and formaketh the keupis (refaict les cuues.)"]Cuva, C. F. cupa vel cupus, C. F. DICC.
  • FAT, or fet. Pinguis.
  • FAT FOWLE, or beste, mestyde to be slayne (masted, P.)3. [See MASTYN̄ beestys, hereafter. Ang.-Sax. maestan, saginare.]Al∣tile, UG. in alo.
  • (FATYN, or lesyn colour, K. Mar∣ceo.)
  • FATNESSE. Pinguedo, crassitudo, adeps.
  • Page  152FAWCETT.1. [Clepsidra is explained in the Ortus to be the same as "docillus, Anglice a perser or a spygote." See DOTTELL, dossell, above. "Faucet, to drawe wyne, faucet, broche à estovper le vin." PALSG. This word is derived from the French, faulcet.]Clipsidra.
  • FAWCHUN, knyfe or swerde.

    2. "A fawchone, rumphea, framea, spata." CATH. ANG. This appellation of a sword with a curved blade is taken from the French fauchon, a diminutive of faux, from the Latin falx. The fauchon is frequently mentioned by Guiart, who wrote at the close of the XIIIth cent. and seems to have been identical with the falso, often named at that period, and the falcio, which is included among weapons that monks were forbidden to bear by the Stat. Cistert. Ord. A.D. 1202. An early instance of the use of this weapon occurs in the curious designs of t. Edward I. discovered in the Painted Chamber at Westminster, given in the Vetusta Monumenta. When Launfal is assailed by the lords of Lombardy, in unequal conflict,

    "Sir Launfal brayde out hys fochon,
    And, as lyȝt as dewe, he layde hem donne."

    Launfal Miles. Cott. MS. Calig. A. II.

    It must be observed, however, that the fauchon and falso seem occasionally to be named with long-handled weapons, and that the falchion may occasionally have been a kind of bill, with the curved or scythe-shaped blade, whence the name was taken. Chaucer uses the word as signifying a sword, and in Piers Ploughman's Vision allusion occurs to St. Paul, keeping the gate of heaven with his "fawchon." Palsgrave gives "Fawchyon, a wepen, marguy baston de ivif;" and Cotgrave, "Malcus, a faulchion, hangar, wood-knife."

    Machera, C. F. et CATH. semis∣pata, UG.
  • FAWKENERE (fawconer, P.) Fal∣conarius.
  • FAWKŌN', hawke. Falco.
  • FAWN', supra, idem quod FAYNE.
  • FAWNYN̄' as howndys. Applaudo, blandior.
  • FAWNYNGE of howndys. Plausus, applausus.
  • FAVORYN̄'. Faveo.
  • FAVOWRE. Favor.
  • FAWTE, or defawte. Defectus.
  • FAWTY, or defawty. Defectivus.
  • FAWTOUR, or meyntynore. Fautor.
  • FEE. Feodus.
  • FEBYLLE, or weyke. Debilis, im∣becillus, BRIT.
  • FEBYLLE, or lytylle worthe. Exilis.
  • FEBYLNESSE, or weykenesse. De∣bilitas.
  • FEBYLNESSE, or lytylle of valure. Exilitas, invalitudo.
  • FEBLYN̄', or make feble (febelyn, P.) Debilito.
  • FEDDE wythe mete. Pransus, pastus.
  • FEDYN' wythe mete. Cibo, pasco, esco, CATH.
  • FEDYNGE, or fode. Pastum, ali∣mentum, alimonia, victus.
  • FEEDE chyldrȳn' wythe pappe mete. Papo, C. F.
  • FEDYR. Penna, pluma.
  • FEDYRFU, or fedyrfoy, herbe. Febriffuga.
  • FEDERYN̄', or feteryn̄'. Compe∣dio, CATH.
  • FEDERYS, or feterys of prysōn' (fettirs, P.) Compes.
  • Page  153FEFFYD. Feofatus (feofactus, P.)
  • FEFEMENT. Feofamentum.
  • FEFOWRE. Feofatus.
  • FETCHE, corne, or tare (fehche, K.) Vicia, UG. in vincio, cro∣bus, C. F.
  • FETCHYN, or fettyn̄'. Affero.
  • FETCHYNGE, or fettynge. Alla∣tura.
  • (FEYAR, or fowar, infra in GOONGE FYRMAR.)1. [The word FEYAR, introduced here on the authority of Pynson's edition, is derived from the verb to fie or fey, used by Tusser, and still known in the East Anglian dialect. "Escureur, a scowrer, cleanser, feyer." COTG. See FYIN̄, and FOWAR.]
  • FEYNARE (feynour, P.) Fictor, simulator.
  • FEYNYD. Fictus.
  • FEYNYD thynge. Ficticium.
  • FEYNYD sleythe of falshede (feyn∣yng, sleithe, H. feyned sleyte, P.) Com(m)entum, CATH. C. F.
  • FEYNYN̄'. Fingo.
  • FEYNYN̄' yn syngynge, or synge lowe.2. [Palsgrave says, "I feyne in syngyng, Ie chante à basse voyx. We may nat synge out, we are to nere my lorde, but lette us fayne this songe."]Succino, CATH.
  • FEYNYNGE. Fictio, simulacio.
  • FEYNT. Segnis.
  • FEYNT HERTYD. Vecors.
  • FEYNTNES of herte, or coward∣nesse (feyntyse of herte, or cow∣ardyse, K. P.) Vecordia.
  • (FEYNTYN, K. H. feynten, P. feōte, J. feyte, W.)3. [In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, it is recommended that the host in marches "be not highely fayntede with iourneyeng of weyes in the hete of the day," but in summer should rest from "vndren' to myde ouernone." B. iii. c. 2.]Fatesco.
  • FEYNTENESSE, or feyntyse (feble∣nesse, P.) Segnicies.
  • FEYNTLY. Segniter.
  • FEYYR, or feyre. Nundine.
  • FEYGHTE, or fyghtynge (feyt, or feytyng, K.) Pugna, certa∣men.
  • FEYGHTARE. Pugnator, certor, certator.
  • FEGHTARE, or baratowre (feyter, P.) Pugnax, C. F.
  • FEYGH̄TYN̄' (feytyn, K. feythtyn, H.) Pugno, CATH. bello, di∣mico.
  • FEYTHE. Fides.
  • FEYTHE BREKE(R), or comnant (breker.) Fidifragus,fidifraga.
  • FEYTHFULLE and trusty. Fidelis.
  • FEYTHEFULNESSE. Fidelitas.
  • FELLE, or fers.4. ["Felle, acer, acerbus, asper, atrox, austerus, ferox, &c. To be felle, barbarizare, sevire. To make felle, ferare. Felly, acriter. A fellnes, atrocitas, rigor, &c." CATH. ANG. "Fell or fierse, as a person is for modynesse. Fyers, fell, rigoreux, fier. Fell, or felonyshe, felonneux. Felnesse, despiterie." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fell, crudelis, felnys, crudelitas.]Severus, ferus, fellitus, ferox (bilosus, felleus, atrox, P.)
  • FELA, or felowe (felawe, P.) So∣cius (consors, P.)
  • FELA, or felow at mete. Sodalis.
  • FELA, or felow yn' travayle. So∣cius.
  • FELA, or felow yn offyce. Col∣lega, CATH.
  • Page  154FELOW yn' walkynge by þe way (in iourney, P.) Comes.
  • FELA, or felow in scole. Consors. Socius in periculo, collega in officio, comes in itinere, consors in premio, sodalis in mensâ, vel in sede; hec UG. in sagio.
  • FELOWYS, y-knytte to-gedyr in wykydnesse. Complices, C. F. complex, UG. in plico.
  • FELOWLY. Socialiter, sodaliter.
  • FELYSCHEPE (felowshepe, P.) So∣cialitas, societas, contubernium.
  • FEELDE. Ager, campus, rus, arvum.
  • FELDEFARE, byrde (felfare, P.) Ruriscus.
  • FELEABLE. Socialis.
  • (FEELABYLL, P. Sensibilis.)
  • FELYN̄'. Sencio.
  • FELYN̄' wythe handys, or gropyn. Palpo.
  • FELLYN̄', or castyn̄' downe (fallen, P.) Prosterno, dejicio.
  • FELONE, soore.1. ["Carbunculus, the felone." ORTUS. "Felon, a sore, entracq." PALSG. "Furun∣culus, a soore called a felon; also a soore callid a cattes hear, whiche breketh out in the fingers with great wheales and moche peyne. Tagax, a felon, whiche happeneth on a mann's fynger." ELYOT. Baret gives "A fellon, vncomme, or catte's haire; a bile or sore that riseth in man's bodie, furunculus; Bossette dure, ou froncle, vng clou. A fellon, or impostumation vnder the rootes of the nailes, paronychia;" and Cotgrave, "Furuncule, a fellon, or whitlaw; Panary, a felon, or whitlaw, at the end of a finger." Gerard recommends as a remedy the Persicaria hydropiper, or arsmart, which, "bruised and bound upon an imposthume in the ioynts of the fingers (called among the vulgar sort a fellon or vncome,) taketh away the paine." Elyot explains the term uncome as follows: "adventitius morbus, syckenes that cometh without our defaute, and of some men is callyd an vncome."]Antrax, C. F. carbunculus, C. F.
  • FELONE, thef. Scelestus.
  • FELONYE. Scelus.
  • FEELTE, or qwylte.2. [The Catholicon explains filtrum to be so called "quia ex filis, i. pilis animalium fiat;" and the Ortus renders "fultrum, illud quod ornat lectum, sive lecti apodia∣mentum." The term felt appears to have signified, at a very early period, a material formed of wool, not woven, but compacted together, suitable even for a garment of defence, so that the gambeson is sometimes termed feltrum. "Centrum vel filtrum, felt." Gloss. Aelfrici. In Norfolk a thickly matted growth of weeds spreading by their roots, as couch-grass, is termed a felt.]Filtrum, CATH. C. F. fultrum, KYLW.
  • FELTRYKE, herbe.3. [This herb is the small centaury, which was called fel terre, and in Dutch Eerdegall, from the excessive bitterness, and possibly the deep yellow colour of its juice, which in some countries was used by women to dye their hair, when yellow hair was the pre∣valent fashion. By modern botanists it is known as the Erythraea centaurium. FEL∣TRYKE appears to be merely a corruption of the Latin name; Cotgrave gives "Sacotin, feaver-wort, earth-gall, common centory."]Fistra, fel terre, centaurea.
  • FELWE of a qwele (whele, P.) Cantus, C. F. CATH. timpanum, CATH. circumferencia.
  • FEMEL, no male. Femella.
  • FEMELLE. Feminius.
  • FEMYNYNE, or woman lyke. Mu∣liebris (femininus, P.)
  • FENNE.4. [FENNE has occasionally, as the Ang.-Sax. fenn, the abstract signification of mire. Thus in the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is related that Scipio bid his Spanish prisoners cleanse and dig ditches, "with this reprouable scorne; ye ben worthy, he saide, to be blottede and spottede, foulede and defoulede with fenne and with drit of water (luto inquinari) and of blode, þat in tyme of werre ne were not, ne wolde nat be bespreynt ne be wette with ennemyes blode." B. iii. c. 10.]Labina, palus, CATH. UG.
  • Page  155FENCE, or defence of closynge (clothinge, P.) Defensio, muni∣cio, defensaculum, UG. in fenso.
  • FENCE, defence fro enmyes. Pro∣teccio, defensio.
  • FENCYD, or defencyd. Defensus, munitus, defensatus, UG.
  • FENSYN', supra in DEFENCȲN'.
  • FEENDE. Diabolus, demon.
  • FENDOWRE, or defendowre. De∣fensor, protector.
  • FENESTRALLE.1. [Before the general introduction of glazed windows, their place was supplied by framed blinds of cloth or canvas, termed fenestralls, which are mentioned in the accounts of the executors of Queen Eleanor, A.D. 1291, as follows: "pro canabo ad fenestrallas, ad scaccarium Reginae apud Westmonasterium, iijd." Household Expenses, presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 135. "Fenestrall, chassis de toille, ou de paupier (papier.)" PALSG. Horman says that "glasen wyndowis let in the lyght, and kepe out the winde; paper or lyn clothe straked acrosse with losyngys make fenestrals in stede of glasen wyndowes. I wyll have a latesse (clathrum) before the glasse for brekynge. I have many prety wyndowes shette with leuys goynge up and downe (canestellae quae attolli et demitti possunt)." Not long subsequently to the time when Horman wrote, glazed windows became so generally in use that the fenestrall was laid aside. Harrison, who wrote his description of England about 1579, speaks of "lattise made of wicker, or fine rifts of oke in chekerwise," formerly much used in country houses instead of glass, as being then obsolete. He speaks of the use of horn, selenite, and berill, for glazing windows, observing that of the last "an example is yet to be seene in Sudleie castell;" and states that glass had become so cheap and plentiful, being imported from Burgundy, Normandy, and Flanders, as well as made in England, of good quality, that every one who chose might have abundance. B. ii. c. 12. Holinsh. Chron. i. 187. Leland noticed "the Hawle of Sudley Castle glased with rownd Beralls." Itin. iv. f. 170, a; viii. f. 74, b.]Fenestrella, fe∣nestrale.
  • FENKYLLE, or fenelle.

    2. "Fenelle, or fenkelle, feniculum, maratrum." CATH. ANG. The numerous virtues of this herb are thus summed up in the King's Coll. MS. of the Promptorium:

    "Bis duo dat maratrum, febres fugat atque venenum,
    Et purgat stomacum, sic reddit lumen acutum."

    Macer gives a detailed account, in which the following remarkable passages occur: "þe edderes wole ete fenel, when her yen dasnyþ, and so she getiþ a-yene her clere sighte; and þer þoroghe it is founde and preved þat fenel doþ profit to mannis yene: þe yen þat ben dusked, and dasniþ, shul be anoynted wit þe ius of fenelle rotis medeled wit hony; and þis oynement shalle put a-way alle þe dasewenesse of hem, and make hem bryȝt." The virtue of fennel, in restoring youth, was a discovery attributed likewise by Macer to serpents; "þis prouiþ auctours and filisoferis, for serpentis whan men (sic) olde, and willeth to wexe stronge, myghty, and yongly a-yean, þei gon and eten ofte fenel, and þei become yongliche and myghty." MS. in the possession of H. W. Diamond, Esq. FENKYLLE is obviously a corruption of the Latin name; this herb is still called in German Fenchel, and in Dutch Venckel. In Piers Ploughman's Vision mention occurs of

    "A ferthing worth of fynkel-sede for fastynge daies."
    Feni∣culum, C. F. vel feniculus, DICC. (maratrum, P.)
  • Page  156FENKYLLE, or fenelle seede. Ma∣ratrum, C. F.
  • FENTE of a clothe.

    1. In the Assembly of Ladies, a poem attributed to Chaucer, Attemperaunce is described as arrayed in a blue gown of cloth of gold, in tabard-wise, purfled, or trimmed with fur, and set with pearls and diamonds.

    "After a sort, the coller and the vent,
    Like as armine is made in purfeling,
    With great pearles full fine and orient,
    They were couched all after one worching."

    The glossarist interprets vent as signifying "the fore-part;" but this does not suffi∣ciently explain the term. In the XIIIth Cent. the fent or vent appears at the collar of the robe, both in male and female costume, being a short slit closed by a brooch, and which served for greater convenience in putting on a dress so fashioned as to fit closely round the throat. This is shown by the effigies at Fontevrault, engraved by Stothard, and especially by those of Queen Berengaria, at the abbey of l'Espan, and of Richard I., recently discovered at Rouen. Archaeol. xxix. pl. xxi. In these instances it is suffi∣ciently apparent why the fent should be termed, as in the Promptorium, fibulatorium; but at a later period being considerably prolonged, the opening of the robe in front ex∣tending often much below the waist, a brooch was no longer sufficient to close it. At the period when Chaucer wrote, the fent was trimmed with rich furs, and the fastenings were ornaments of chased work, jewelled, of a very splendid description. They are termed in inventories "attaches," and exhibited on the effigies of Lady Mohun, and of Joan of Navarre, Queen of Henry IV., at Canterbury. The less richly decorated effigy of Queen Philippa, at Westminster, presents an example of the fent, simply closed by a lace; and the combination of furs and jewels in this part of costume appears in many MSS. which have furnished Strutt with examples, among which may particularly be mentioned Roy. MS. 16 G. V. See Strutt's Dresses, pl. xciv. The propriety of ap∣plying to the fent thus purfled and adorned, the term fimbria, as in the Promptorium, is evident, as likewise limbus, which is given by Ducange, on an ancient authority, as synonymous with fibulatorium. In the Wardrobe of Sir John Fastolf, A.D. 1459, there was "j jakket of red felwet, the ventis bounde with red lether." Archaeol. xxi. 253. "Fente of a gowne, fente." PALSG.

    Fibulatorium, C. F. fimbria.
  • FEER, or ferdenesse. Timor, terror, et cetera in D, drede, dredefulle.
  • (FERDFULL thinge, quat so it be, K. P. Terribilum, C. F.)
  • FER, or fer a-way. Alonge, procul, eminus, longe.
  • FERSSE (feers, P.) idem quod FELLE, supra.
  • FERCEHEDE. Ferocitas, severitas.
  • FERY over a watyr. Pormeus, CATH. UG. in neo.
  • FERYAGE. Feriagium, naulum, potomium, C. F. CATH.
  • FERYALLE. Ferialis.
  • FERYARE. Pormeus, CATH.
  • FERYBOOT. Portemia, C. F.
  • FERYN̄', or make a-ferde.

    2. The use of the verb to fear, in an active sense, is not uncommon.

    "That rybaude fered me with his loke,
    That confort to me coude I none take."

    Castell of Labour, 1506.

    "Absterrere, i. penitus terrere, Anglice, to fayr. Terreo, i. terrorem inferre, to feere." ORTUS. "I feare one, I make hym afrayde. I feare awaye, skarre away, as we do beestes or byrdes, dechasser." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. faeran, terrere. See FESYN̄'.

    Terreo, perterreo.
  • FERY PLACE, idem quod FERY.
  • FEERME, a rent. Firma.
  • FERME, and stabylle. Firmus, Page  157 ratus, unde dicitur in literâ attornatus, ratum et gratum, ferme and stabylle, CATH.
  • FERMERYE. Infirmaria, infir∣mitorium.
  • FERMYN̄', or take a þynge to ferme. Firmo, vel ad firmam accipio.
  • FERMOWRE. Firmarius.
  • FERROWRE, smythe.1. [In the will of the Earl of Essex, 1361, occur bequests "à Mestre Thomas le ferour, v. marcs; à un garson pur le ferour, xxs.; à un garson feurer, i. marc." Royal Wills, p. 50. Elyot renders "veterinarius medicus, a horseleche, or ferror," now called corruptedly a farrier. In the version of Pliny, by Holland, it is related that the Empress Poppaea "was knowne to cause her ferrers ordinarily to shoe her coach horses, and other palfries, &c. with cleane gold." B. xxxiij. c. 11. In the order of the Pageants of the Play of Corpus Christi, at York, 1415, are enumerated among the various trades, "smythes, fevers." Sharpe's Coventry Mysteries, p. 137. This last appellation is taken directly from the old French, fèvre, febvre, or ferre, a black∣smith.]Ferrarius, CATH. ferrator, COMM.
  • FEERTYR (fertyr, K. fert', P. fertur, J.)2. [Among the appliances of a sacred nature, there were feretra of two kinds; first, the bier for carrying the corpse to the grave, "feretrum, baere," Gloss. Aelfric., thus mentioned in the laws of Henry I., "amici extrahant mortuum, deferentes in fere∣trum, et portantes eum ad ecclesiam." By the Constitutions of Will. de Bleys, 1229, and Walter de Cantilupe, 1240, Bishops of Worcester, as also of Abp. Peckham, 1280, among the ornaments and requisites to be provided in every church, at the charge of the parishioners, was included "feretrum competens ad sepulturam mor∣tuorum." Wilkins, i. 623, 666; ii. 49. In its secondary sense feretrum signified a portable shrine, containing the relics of saints, and carried in processions on a frame similar to the ordinary bier; and also stationary shrines of similar fashion, but which it was not customary to display as gestatory ornaments, such as those of St. Cuthbert at Durham, or St. Thomas of Hereford, in the cathedral there. It is recorded in Reg. Roff. 120, that "Willielmus Rex Anglie magnus, in articulo mortis (1087) dedit—feretrum, cum altari gestatorio deargentato, et pallium cum leonibus." In 1355, Eliza∣beth de Clare, daughter of Gilbert Earl of Gloucester, made the following bequest: "Je devise à Seint Thomas de Hereford un ymage de n're dame, d'argent surorré, d'estre taché sur son fiertre." Roy. Wills, p. 31. In the ancient documents relating to the shrine of St. Cuthbert the term feretrum implies, as Mr. Raine states, not the shrine itself, but the quadrangular space or oratory wherein it stood: the keeper had the title of feretrarius. See Raine's Saint Cuthbert. Amongst numerous representations of the feretrum may be mentioned the procession of St. Alban's shrine, in the MS. of M. Paris, with drawings, supposed to be by his own hand, Cott. MS. Nero, D. I.; Strutt's Manners and Customs, i. pl. lxiv. One occasion on which it was customary to carry the feretra in procession, was at the parochial perambulations in Rogation week, a full account of which will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. vol. i. Horman, in his chapter of sacred matters, says, "We two muste beare the feretrum (tensam gestare) a procession in the gange dayes." The term "fertre" occurs in Langtoft's Chronicle; and in the Golden Legend mention is made of the "fyerte," or shrine of St. Alphey, f. 117, b. "Fierte, fiertre, fietre: Châsse, reliquaire, brancard." ROQUEF. The term feretrum in the MS. Ordinar. Ecc. Rotom. signifies the pyxis, wherein the consecrated Eucharist is deposited.]Feretrum.
  • FERVENTE. Fervens, fervidus.
  • FERUENTLY. Ferventer.
  • FERUOWRE. Fervor.
  • Page  158FERTHYN', or ferthynge. Qua∣drans.
  • FESAWNT, byrde.1. [The pheasant was brought into Europe from the banks of the Phasis, in Colchis, according to Martial, by the Argonauts; it was highly esteemed by the Romans, and possibly introduced by them into England. In default of positive evidence as to its existence here in early times, it can only be stated that about the time when the Promp∣torium was compiled, it had become sufficiently abundant in East Anglia. Thus in the Howard Household Book, amongst the costs incurred at Ipswich, in 1467, "whane Syr John Howard and Mastyr Thomas Brewse were chosen knyghtes of the shyre," occurs the item, "xij fesawntes, pryse xijs." Household Expenses, presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 399. "Ornix est gallus vel gallina silvestris, Anglice a fesande or a werkok." ORTUS. "A fesande, fasianus." CATH. ANG.]Fasianus, or∣nix, CATH.
  • FESYN̄', idem quod FERYN̄', supra.2. [R. Brunne uses the word "fesid," which Hearne explains as meaning whipped or beaten (p. 192.) Ang.-Sax. fesian, fugare.]
  • FEST, or teyynge (festnynge, P.) Ligamen.
  • FEST, or teyynge of a schyppe, or bootys (festnynge, P.) Scala∣mus, CATH. pronexium, C. F. restis, C. F.
  • FEESTE of mete and drynke. Fes∣tum, convivium.
  • FEEST, or fedynge of mete and drynke in holy chyrche.3. [The love-feasts, or 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 of the primitive Christians, were held in the churches; but this usage was suppressed by the Council of Constantinople, A.D. 691, and discoun∣tenanced by Gregory the Great, in his Letter to the British converts. It is probable that the author here refers solely to the primitive custom. There is no evidence that the practice of feasting in churches had been retained in any part of England; but it appears probable that the agape of the earlier times gave rise to the church-ale, of which, and of wakes, frequently celebrated near the precinct of the church, a full account will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. See the Hierolexicon D. Macri, Ducange, and Spelman, v. Agape.]Aga∣pes. Nota, de Agape in Jure, distinctione xlij., Si quis; et Raymundus, lib. 3, tit. 4.
  • FESTYD, or fed wythe goode mete and drynke. Convivatus, CATH.
  • FESTYD, or teyyd fast to a thynge. Fixus, confixus.
  • FESTYN', or cleve to. Figo, af∣figo, configo.
  • FESTYN', or byynd to-gedyr. Ligo, alligo (colligo, P.)
  • FESTYN̄' (within a thinge, P.) or knyttyn̄' yn' to a thynge, or gryffyn̄', or oþer lyke. Insero.
  • FESTYN̄', or make feestys, and feede mēn'. Convivor, CATH.
  • FESTYNGE to a thynge (festnyng to, P.) Confixio, fixura.
  • FESTYNGE wythe mete and drynke. Convivatus, convivatorium, CATH.
  • FEESTRYD, as wowndys (as sores, P.) Cicatricus.
  • FEESTRYD wownde. Cicatrix.
  • FEESTRYN', as wowndys, or sorys. Sanio.
  • FEESTRYNGE of wowndys. Cica∣tricatio, cicatricatus.
  • (FESTU, infra in FYSCHELLE.)4. [In Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 6183, where allusion is made to Matth. vii. 3, the mote in the eye, festuca, is termed "festu." The Medulla likewise renders "festuca, a festu, or a lytul mote." The name was applied to the straw, or stick used for pointing, in the early instruction of children: thus Palsgrave gives "festue to spell with, festev." Occasionally the word is written with c or k, instead of t, but it is apparently a corruption. "Festu, a feskue, a straw, rush, little stalk, or stick, used for a fescue. Touche, a fescue; also, a pen, or a pin for a pair of writing tables." COTG.]
  • Page  159FET, or fatte, as flesshe and oþer lyke. Pinguis, crassus, obesus.
  • FETERYD. Compeditus.
  • FETERYN̄', supra (in FEDERYN̄'.)
  • FETYCE, or praty.1. [Chaucer uses the word fetise, and fetisely, in this sense; it is apparently derived from the old French fetis, or faiteis. Palsgrave gives "featysshnesse, propernesse, feactise;" as also the synonymous word "feate, or proper of makyng, godin, godinet, coint, mignon; felty, nycely, coyntement. I haue apted them together the fetlyest (le plus gentiment) that euer you sawe. Feted, fetered, or well shapen of the lymmes, aligné. It is as well fetered a chylde as euer you sawe. You neuer set your eye upon a fayrer fetered woman, mieulx alignée." Horman likewise speaks of "the feat con∣ueyans of a speche that soundeth well to the eare, argutia plausibilis sermonis. She wereth corked slippers to make hir tal and feet."]Parvunculus, elegantulus.
  • FETTYNGE, supra in FETCHYNGE.
  • FETYR (of prison, P.) supra in FETHYR (sic, sed rectius fe∣derys) et pedica, C. F. pedux, CATH.
  • FETYRLOKKE. Sera compedi∣talis (sera compedita, P.)
  • FETTNESSE, supra in FATTENES, et popa, sagina.
  • FEWE. Paucus, pauculus.
  • FEWENESSE (or scassenes, K.) Paucitas, paucedo.
  • FEWTE. Vestigium.
  • (FEWTE, or omage, H. fewtye, or homage, P.

    2. "Homagium, idem est quod fidelitas, a feaute." ORTUS. William Paston writes, in 1454, of Thomas Bourchier, Bp. of Ely, who was translated in that year to Canter∣bury, "My lord of Ely hathe do hys fewthe." Paston Lett. iii. 222. The word is taken from the French "féaulté, féauté; fidélité, foi, constance." ROQUEF. It is commonly taken for the oath of allegiance in the feudal system:

    "When thise Bretons tuo were fled out of this lond,
    lne toke his feaute of alle that lond helde."

    R. Brunne.
    Omagium.)
  • (FEWTE, K. Fidelitas.)
  • FY.3. [In the Wicliffite version occur the following passages: "he that seith to his brother, Fy (al. fugh) schal be gilty to the counsell." Matt. V. 22. "And as thei passiden forth, thei blasfemeden him, movynge her heddis, and seiynge, Vath, thou that distriest the temple," &c. Mark XV. 29.]Vath, racha (vaa, P.)
  • FY(A)L, or fyolle (fyall, or cruet, H. P.) Fiala, CATH.
  • FYDYLL, or fyyele (fyyil, K.) Viella, fidicina, vitula, CATH. in vitulus, et DICC. vidula, KYLW.
  • FYDELARE. Fidicen, CATH. vitu∣lator, UG.
  • FYDELIN̄, or fyielyn' (fetelyn, K.) Vitulor, DICC. CATH. in vitulus.
  • FYFTENE. Quindecim.
  • FYFTY. Quinquaginta.
  • FYGGE, or fyge tre. Ficus.
  • FYGURE, or lykenesse. Figura.
  • FYIN̄, or defyin̄ mete and drynke (fyyn, K. H. P.)

    4. This word, in the MSS. and in Pynson's edition, occurs among the verbs between FYISTYN̄ and FLAPPYN, which is perhaps an indication that it had been originally written FYȜIN. To fie or fey now signifies in East Anglia, as in Craven and Hallam∣shire, to clean out, as ponds or ditches; it is thus used by Tusser, and also to express the cleansing of grain.

    "Choiced seed to be picked, and trimly well fy'd,
    For seed may no longer from threshing abide."

    August's Husbandry.

    "Escurer, to scowre, fey, rinse, cleanse." COTG. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. gives "to fea, fey, feigh or fow, to cleanse or empty, as to fea a pond, a privy, &c. Dunelm. Isl. faegia, mundare, eluere; whence to feag, by metaphor, applied to whip∣ping or correcting, as, He feag'd him off." Lansd. MS. 1033. In the Wicliffite version, Deut. xxiii. 13 is thus rendered, "þou schalt bere a litil stake in þe girdil, and whanne þou hast sete, þou schalt digge bi cumpas, and þou schalt hile wiþ erþe þingis defied out, where þou art releuyd;" in the Vulgate, "egesta humo operies." See DEFYYN', and FEYAR.

    Digero.
  • Page  160FYKIN̄ a-bowte, infra in FYSKIN̄.
  • FYKYNGE a-bowte in ydylnes. Dis∣cursus, vagatus.
  • FYLBERDE, notte. Fillum, DICC.
  • (FILBERDE, tree P. Phillis.)
  • FYLE. Lima.
  • FYLIN̄ wythe a fyle. Limo.
  • FYLYN̄', idem quod FOWLYN, su∣pra in D.
  • FYLL wythe mete. Sacio, sa∣turo.
  • FYLLE, or fylly(n)ge of mete, or drynke. Sacietas, saturatio.
  • FYLLYN̄'. Impleo, repleo.
  • FYLLYNGE. Implecio, replecio.
  • FYLZOFYR (fillosofere, K.) Phi∣losophus.
  • FYLETTE.1. [Johanna domina de Roos bequeaths, in 1394, "unam longam feletam de rosis de per', &c." Testam. Ebor. i. 203. "Nimbus, fasciola transversa ex auro insuta in lintheo, quod est in fronte feminarum, a felet." ORTUS. "Fyllet for a mayden's heed, fronteau." PALSG. "Fronteau, a fillet, frontlet, forehead cloth." COTG. In a letter written about 1465 to Sir John Paston occurs the request of a lady, who "wuld fayne have a new felet." Paston Lett. IV. 176.]Victa, UG. in vincio, philacterium.
  • FYLME of a notte, or oþer lyke. Folliculus, gallicula, C. F.
  • FYLOWRE, of barbowrs crafte (fil∣lour of barborys crafte, K.)

    2. FYLOWRE, or barbowrs crafte. MS. "A filoure, affilatorium; to filoure, affilare." CATH. ANG. The term affilatorium occurs with the signification of a hone, in the Usus Ant. Ord. Cisterc. c. 85. The implement so called seems to have been identical with that now called a steel, in French fusil, which is rendered by Cotgrave "the steele, wherewith a butcher whets his knives." A resemblance in form to the spindle or spoole used in spinning was probably the origin of the appellations FYLOWRE, filarium, and fusil. In the Boke of Curtasye a "fylour" appears to signify a rod, as that upon which a curtain may be hung, moveably, by means of rings. The word occurs in the directions for the grooms of the chambers, regarding making the pallets, and two beds of greater state, for lords,

    "That henget shalle be with hole sylour,
    With crochettes and loupys sett on lyour,
    Tho valance on fylour shalle henge with wyn,
    iij curteyns streȝt drawen withinne."

    Sloane MS. 1986.
    Acutecula, filarium, KYLW. (acutella, K.)
  • FYLTHE. Sordes, spurcicia, lino, CATH. turpitudo, labes, putre∣do, pus.
  • Page  161FYLTHE of mannys nose, snotte. Polipus.
  • FYLTHE of mannys fete. Petor.
  • FYMTERRE, herbe. Fumus terre.
  • FYNCHE, byrde. Furfurio, C. F.
  • FYYNDARE of thynge loste. In∣ventor, inventrix.
  • FYNDE things loste. Invenio, reperio, comperio.
  • FYNDE COSTE. Exhibeo.
  • FYNDIN̄, helpyn', and susteinyn̄' hem þat be nedy (fynde theym that ar nedy, P.) Sustento.
  • FYYNDYNGE of thynge loste. In∣vencio, repericio.
  • FYYNDYNGE, or helpynge in bo∣dyly goodys at nede.1. [The Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VII. comprise an entry in 1493, "to Dr. May for th' exebucon of Thos. Phepo," who appears to have been King's scholar at Oxford; and the allowance is subsequently termed "the finding, 2 li." Exc. Hist. The term exhibition, or allowance of money, taken from the Latin, which in medieval times had the same signification, is used in this sense by Shakespeare and B. Jonson, as likewise still retained at the Universities.]Exhi∣bicio, subvencio.
  • FYNE, or ryght goode (fyyn, P.) Egregius, excellens.
  • FYNE WYNE.2. [The Medulla renders "Falernum, wyn alþurbest." MS. in the Editor's possession.]Falernum, CATH.
  • FYNE, of bondage. Finum.
  • FYNNE of a fysche. Pinna.
  • FYNGYR. Digitus.
  • FYNGYRLYNGE of a glove. Di∣gitabulum, CATH.
  • FYR, tree. Abies.
  • FYYR. Ignis, rogus, focus, pir.
  • FYYR FORKE. Ticionarium, CATH. pala, arpagio; hec in historiâ scolasticâ de vasis templi.
  • FYYR HERTHE. Focarium, CATH. ignearium, C. F.
  • FYYRE YRYN̄', to smyte wythe fyre. Fugillus, CATH. pirici∣dium, DICC. KYLW.
  • FYYR STOK, infra in HERTHE STOKE.
  • FYYR STONE, for to smyte wythe fyre. Focaris, UG. in laos, vel focare, CATH. ignarium, C. F.
  • FIRBOME, supra in BEKENE.3. [The practice of maintaining beacons, to give warning of approaching invasion, is one that may be traced in Britain to the most remote times. The term itself is Anglo∣Saxon, beacen, signum, beacne torr, specula. The right of erecting beacons was one of the exclusive privileges of the Crown; and a tax for their maintenance, termed be∣conagium, was levied upon every hundred. At an early time, as Coke observes, the beacon was merely a stack of combustibles prepared on an elevated spot, or a rock; Ang.-Sax. beacenstan, pharus; subsequently to the time of Edward III. as he states, "pitch-boxes, as now they be, were, instead of those stacks, set up;" that is, a king of large cresset, raised on an upright pole or beam: hence the appellation FIRBOME, Ang.-Sax. beom, trabs. Blount cites the "Ordinatio pro vigiliis observandis a Lynne usque Yarmouth, t. Edw. II. Quod levari et reparari faciatis signa et firebares super montes altiores in quolibet hundredo, ita quod tota patria, per illa signa, quotiescumque necesse fuerit, premuniri potest;" which is rendered by Stowe, "He ordained biken∣ings or beacons to be set up." A.D. 1326. The care with which these signals were at all periods provided, appears by numerous evidences in the public records. In 1415 Henry V. on his departure for France, provides for the safety of the realm, and directs the provision of "signa vocata bekyns in locis consuetis." Rymer, ix. 255. Hall relates that when Richard III. with false confidence, disbanded his forces, he issued strict commands that on the coast, and the frontiers of Wales, strong ward should be kept according to usage; "for the custome of the countreyes adjoyning nere to ye see is (especially in the tyme of war) on euery hill or high place to erect a bekon with a greate lanterne in the toppe, whyche maie be sene and discerned a great space of. And when the noyes is once bruted that the enemies approche nere ye land, they so∣deinly put fyer in the lanthornes, and make showtes and outrages from toune to toune, and from village to village." 3 Rich. III. This kind of signal, of which representations will be found in Archaeol. I. pl. i. XV. pl. xii. was likewise termed a standard: "A bekyn or a standarde, statela." CATH. ANG. It was taken by Hen. V. as a badge, and appears among the sculptures of his chantry at Westminster. "Beakyn, feu au guet." PALSG. The elevation whereon it was placed was sometimes termed a tote-hill; see that word hereafter.]
  • Page  162FYRIN̄, or sette on a fyre, or brin∣nyn. Ignio, CATH. comburo.
  • FYRMAMENT, or walkyn'. Fir∣mamentum.
  • FYRRYS, or qwyce tre, or gorstys tre.1. [Ruscus is properly the plant with sharply-pointed leaves, called butcher's-broom, but that which is here intended appears to be the Ulex Europaeus, Linn. called com∣monly furze or gorse. In the Wicliffite version, Isai. lv. 13 is thus rendered: "A fir tre schal stie for a gorst (eþer firse) and a myrte tre schal wexe for a nettil." Claud. E. II. In 15 Hen. VI. 1436, licence was given to Humfrey Duke of Gloucester to inclose 200 acres of land, "pasture, wode, hethe, virses, and gorste (bruere et jamp∣norum)," and to form thereof a park at Greenwich. Rot. Parl. iv. 498. "Ruscus, Anglice, firsun." Harl. MS. 1002. "Fyrsbusshe, ionmarin." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fyrs, genista, rhamnus.]Ruscus.
  • FYRSTE of alle. Primus.
  • FYRSTE, or be-forne. Primo.
  • FYRSTE BE-GOTŌN'. Primogenitus.
  • FYRSTE BE-GETYNGE. Primoge∣nitura.
  • FYYRE, sharpe brusche (firre, whynne, K. fyir or qwynne, P. whynne, J.)2. [Saliunca has occurred already, as the name of an herb called CALTRAP. Cotgrave renders "chaussetrape, the starre thistle, called also the calthrop;" but although the name may have occasionally been so assigned, from its being hurtful to the foot, yet ac∣cording to Parkinson the herb called land caltrops, tribulus terrestris, was not of the thistle species. The saliunca again is, according to the same author, a kind of spike∣nard, whereas in the Medulla it is stated, "Saliunca dicitur vulgariter in Gallico carr∣kerepe, (? carchiofe, an artichoke,) a qwynne." Harl. MS. 2257. In the Ortus it is rendered "a wynne or grost."]Saliunca.
  • FYSCARE a-bowte ydylly. Dis∣cursor, discursatrix, vagulus vel vagator, vagatrix.
  • FISKIN̄ a-bowte yn ydilnesse.

    3. This word does not appear, by the East-Anglican Glossaries, to be still in use; it occurs, however, in Tusser's lessons for waiting servants.

    "Such serviture, also, deserveth a check,
    That runneth out fisking with meat in his beck."

    "I fyske, ie fretille. I praye you se howe she fysketh aboute." PALSG. "Trotière, a raumpe, fisgig, fisking huswife, raunging damsell." COTG. Compare FYKIN̄ a-bowte, and see Jamieson's remarks on that word. It occurs in R. Coer de Lion, 4749.

    Vagor, giro, girovago.
  • FYSCHE. Piscis.
  • FYSCHARE. Piscator, favissor, CATH. et nota ibi bonam causam.
  • FYSCHARYS BOOTE. Phaselus, COMM. oria, C. F.
  • Page  163FYSCH SELLARE. Piscarius, pis∣caria, UG. in pasco.
  • FYSCHELLE of fyschew, or festu.1. [According to the Medulla the term FYSCHELLE is synonymous with FYSCH LEEP; "Nassa, quoddam instrumentum ex viminibus et cirpis, tanquam rhete, contextum, ad capiendos pisces, a pyche or a fysshelle." So also it is related in the Golden Legend, "Than they put hym in to a lytell fysshell or basket well pytched, and set it in ye see, and abandouned hym to dryue wyder it wolde." f. 99, b. "Fiscelle, petit panier de jonc, fiscella." ROQUEF. Fyschew signifies a reed, or supple rod, as osiers, &c.]Festuca.
  • FYSCHYN̄'. Piscor, CATH.
  • FYSCHYNGE. Piscacio, piscatus.
  • FYSCH LEEP.2. [See hereafter LEEP for fysche kepynge. Ang.-Sax. leap, corbis.]Nassa, C. F.
  • FISSHE PONDE. Vivarium, CATH.
  • FYSYCIAN̄', or leche. Medicus, fisicus.
  • FYSNOMYE. Phisonomia.
  • FYSTE of an hande. Pugnus, CATH. (pugillus, P.)
  • FYYST, stynk. Lirida.
  • FYISTYN̄' (fyen, W.) Cacco, C. F. lirido.
  • FYYSTYNGE. Liridacio.
  • FYT, or mete. Equus, congruus, UG. in grus.
  • FYTŌN', or lesynge (fycōn', K. fyttyn, S. fytyn, P.)3. ["Fytten, mensonge." PALSG. In Wiltshire fitten signifies a pretence.]Mendacium, mendaciolum, CATH.
  • FYVE.4. [FEVE, MS.]Quinque.
  • FYVE HUNDRYD. Quingenti.
  • FYVERE (sekenesse, P.) Febris.
  • FYVERE, agu. Querquera, CATH. et UG. in quero.
  • FYTHIL, supra in FEDYLLE.
  • FLAGGE of þe erthe, vide in T. in TURFE.5. [In Norfolk, according to Kennett, Ray, and Forby, the upper turf pared off to serve as fuel, is termed flaks or flags. The repetition of this word below, FLAGGE, drye wythe þe gresse, is apparently a corrupt reading. In the North such sods of turf are called also flags, or flaws, or flaughter. See Jamieson and Brockett. "A flaghte, ubi a turfe. A flaghte (or flyghte) of snawe, floccus." CATH. ANG. Dan. flager, Teut. vlaeghen, deglubere; Isl. flaga, exscindere glebam.]Terricidium (cespes, CATH. et C. F. S. gleba, P.)
  • FLAYNE, or flawyn̄'. Excoriatus.
  • FLAKE (or hame, K.) Floctus, UG. in flo (squama, P.)
  • FLAKETTE, botelle.6. [This word, as also Ang.-Sax. flaxe, the French flac, or flache, &c. appear to be directly taken from the low Latin flacta, adopted probably from the Greek. In William and the Werwolf a certain clerk is mentioned who came to Rome "wiþ tvo flaketes of ful fine wynes," written also "flagetes," p. 68. "Flacta, a flakette. Obba, genus calicis, a bottell, a flaket." ORTUS. "A costrelle, oneferum, &c. ubi a flakett. A flaket, flacta, obba, uter, &c. ubi a potte." CATH. ANG. "A flaget, flacon." PALSG. The term does not appear to be retained in Norfolk, as in the North. "A flacket, flasket, or flask; bottle made in fashion of a barrel. Bor. Flaskin, a wooden bottle, or little barrel which labourers use for beer. Yorkshire." Kennett's Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033.]Flasco, flasca.
  • FLANKE, or leske. Ylium, KYLW. inguen, CATH.
  • FLAPPE, or stroke. Ictus (fla∣gellum, K.)
  • FLAPPE, or buffett (flap bofet, P.) Alapa.
  • FLAPPE, instrument to smyte wythe flyys. Flabellum, DICC. muscarium, C. F.
  • Page  164FLAPPYN' wythe a flappe. Flabello.
  • FLASSHE, watyr.1. [The term flash, signifying a shallow pool, does not appear to be now retained in Norfolk; but it occurs in names of places, as Flash-pit, near Aylsham. In low Latin flachia, flasca, and flaco, in old French flache or flesque, have the like signification. A supply of water from the locks on the Thames, to assist the barges, is termed a flash, and in Sussex loose water-soaked ground is called flashy. Plot speaks of the "flashy over-watery taste" of some white fruits. Hist. Oxf. 156. See PLASCHE, or flasche where reyne watyr stondythe, and PYT, or flasche.]Lacuna, CATH.
  • FLATT. Bassus, vel planus.
  • FLAGGE, drye wythe þe gresse.2. [This word, placed here out of its proper alphabetical order, whereas FLAGGE of þe erthe has occurred already, has been retained as found in the MS., on account of the uncertainty whether it is an interpolation, or a vitiated reading. Possibly the correct reading may be flawe, a term synonymous with flagge, a sod of turf. Blount, in his Law. Dict. v. Turbary, cites a charter in which "turbaria bruaria—a flaw-turf, or heath-turf," is mentioned. In the North the words flaw and flaughter are still com∣monly used in this sense. See Jamieson and Brockett.]Globa, UG. in globus.
  • FLATERARE, supra, idem quod FEYNARE.
  • FLATERYD. Adulatus.
  • FLATERYN̄'. Adulor.
  • FLATERYNGE. Adulacio.
  • FLATNESSE. Planicies.
  • FLAWE, supra in FLAKE.
  • FLAWYN', supra in FLAYN'.
  • FLAWME, or lowe. Flamma.
  • FLAWNE, mete.

    3. "A flawne, opacum." CATH. ANG. "Flaton, a flawne. Artocira, a flawne, i. cibus factus ex pastâ et caseo. Laganum est latus panis et tenuis oleo linitus, quasi oleo frixus, a pancake, a flawne." ORTUS. "Flaune meate, flanet, flan, flaon. I loue well a flawne, but and it be well surged I loue it the better." PALSG. Caxton says in the Boke for Travellers, "Of mylke and of egges men make flawnes (flans), of mylke soden with the flour men make printed cakes (rastons)." Recipes for making flawnes will be found in the Forme of Cury; "Flawnes for Lentyn," Harl. MS. 5401, f. 193, 202; and "flathons," under the head of "Vyaunde furnez," Harl. MS. 279, f. 42, b. The following directions "for flaunes" are found in the poem entitled "the slyȝtes of cure."

    "Take new chese, and grynde hyt fayre
    In morter wyth egges, wyth out dyswayre;
    Put powder þerto of suger I say,
    Coloure hyt wyth safrone ful wele þou may;
    Put hyt in cofyns þat bene fayre,
    And bake hyt forthe y the pray."

    Sloane MS. 1986, f. 87.

    In the North the word is still in use, as Bp. Kennett noticed in his Glossarial Collec∣tions, Lansd. MS. 1033. "Flaun or flawn, a custard. Bor. As flat as a flawn, prov. Sax. flyna, flaena, artologanum."

    Flamicia, DICC. flato, DICC. COMM. opacus, ar∣tocasius (apacus, S.)
  • FLAX. Linum.
  • FLATHE, or flathe, fysche (flay, or flacch, fysch, S.)4. [This must not be confounded with the general appellation of flat fish; the ray or scate was formerly called FLATHE, or, according to Willughby and Ray, flaire, still retained in the name of the sting-ray, called in some places the fire-flaire. In N. Britain it is known as the fire-flaw, according to Jamieson. Harrison, in his description of England, uses the name flath, evidently as denoting the ray or scate. In the account of fish usually taken upon our coasts, he observes that "the flat are divided into the smooth, the scaled, and the tailed.—Of the third (are) our chaits, maidens, kingsons, flath, and thornbacke;" and the larger species, as he states, were dried, and formed a kind of export into other countries. B. iii. c. 8, Holinsh. i. 224. The correct reading of the word above is probably FLAÞE, or flaye, fysche.] (R)agadies.
  • Page  165FLEE. Pulex.
  • FLEAR of beest. Excoriator.
  • FLEARE, or rennare a-wey. Fu∣gitivus, fugitiva.
  • FLED, or mevyd. Amotus.
  • FLEGGE, infra in S. idem quod SEDGE.
  • FLECCHERE (fletcher, H. P.) Pe∣tularius, flectarius.
  • FLEYKE, or hydrylle (fleke, S. hir∣dell, P.)

    1. "Crates est instrumentum ex virgis, a fleke." MED. "A fleke, cratis, craticula." CATH. ANG. This word is used by R. Brunne, as also the verb to fleke, or cover with hurdles, which occurs in his account of the construction of a temporary bridge.

    "Botes he toke and barges, þe sides togidere knytte,—
    þei fleked þam ouerthuert, justely for to ligge."

    p. 241.
    "Botes and barges ilkon, with flekes mak þam tighte."

    p. 321.

    Hardyng relates the singular escape of Sir James Douglas, who had been hemmed in by Edward III. in Stanhope Park, and by means of hurdles, which, to prevent pursuit, his men drew after them as they went, passed over a quaking and miry moss.

    "But James Douglas their flekes fell dyd make,
    Which ouer the mosse, echeone at others ende,
    He layde anon, with fagottes fell ouer the lake."

    Chron. c. 178.

    In a satirical poem, put forth in 1550 against the liberty of religious discussion, the services and preachers of the Reformed Church, entitled "An old Song of John No∣body," printed in the Appendix to Strype's Mem. of Cranmer, it is said of those who with ignorant assurance set themselves up as expounders of the Gospel,

    "More meet it were for them to mylk kye at a fleyke."

    p. 138.

    Horman says, "Ley this meate in trayes and flekis, conchas sive aludos," (? alucos) where the term may signify a shallow wicker basket, in some parts termed a flasket. "Alucus, vas factum ad modum alvei, a troughe." ORTUS. In the North hurdles are still called flaiks; see Jamieson.

    Plecta, flecta, cratis, C. F.
  • FLEYL. Flagellum, COMM. UG. V. in T. (tribulum, CATH. P.)
  • FLEYL CAPPE. Cappa, DICC. me∣ditentum, COMM. UG. V. in T.
  • FLEYL STAFFE, or honde staffe (handyll, H. P.) Manutentum, CATH.
  • FLEYLE SWYNGYL.1. [Swyngyl fleyle, MS. "A flayle, flagellum, tribulus, tribulum. Versus. Tres tri∣bulo partes, manutentum, cappa, flagellum. Manutentum, a hand staffe, cappa, a cape, flagellum, a swewelle. A swevylle, tribulum." CATH. ANG. See hereafter SWENGYL.]Vigra, DICC. CATH. tribulum, CATH. COMM.
  • FLEYNGE a-way. Fuga.
  • FLEYNGE of beestys. Excoriacio.
  • FLEKERYN̄', as ionge byrdis. Vo∣lito, nideo.
  • FLEKERYN̄', or waveryn̄' yn vn∣stabylle herte (flyker, P.) Nuto, CATH.
  • FLEKERYNGE of byrdys. Volitacio.
  • FLEKERYNGE, or wauerynge yn an vnstable hert. Nutatus, va∣cillacio.
  • Page  166FLEMMYNGE. Flandricus, Flan∣drica (Flamingus, P.)
  • FLEEN, or flee bestys. Excorio.
  • FLEEN̄ enmyes, or grevowsnesse. Fugio, CATH. affugio, confugio.
  • FLEESE of wulle. Vellus.
  • FLESCHE. Caro.
  • FLESCHE FLYE. Musco, CATH.
  • FLESCHE HOOKE. Creagra, fus∣cina, CATH. tridens, CATH. fuscinula.
  • FLESCHY, or made alle wythe flesche. Carneus.
  • FLESCHY, or sum dele made wythe flesche. Carneatus.
  • FLESCHLY. Carnaliter.
  • FLESHLY, or fulle of flesshe. Carnosus, carnulentus, CATH.
  • FLESCHLYNESSE. Carnalitas.
  • FLET, as mylke or oþer lyke (oþer licour, K. flett of mylke, H. P.)

    1. To fleet, or skim the cream, is a verb still commonly used in East Anglia, and the utensil which serves for the purpose is termed a fleeting-dish. "I flete mylke, take away the creame that lyeth above it whan it hath rested." PALSG. "Esburrer, to fleet the creame potte; laict esburré, fleeted milke; maigne, fleeted milke, or whaye." Hollyband's Treasurie. "Escremé, fleeted, as milke, uncreamed." COTG. Ang.-Sax. flet, flos lactis. A celebrated Suffolk cheese, made of skimmed milk, is called flet-cheese. Tusser, in his lesson for the dairy maid Cisley, on bad qualities of cheese, says,

    "Gehazi his sickness was whitish and dry,
    Such cheeses, good Cisley, ye floted too nigh."
    Despumatus.
  • FLEET, þe watyr of þe see comythe and goythe (flete, there water cometh and goth, H. P.)

    2. The term fleet, signifying a channel, an arm of the sea, or water-course, occurs not infrequently in several parts of England, as Northfleet and Southfleet on the Thames, the Fleet-ditch, London, Holt-Fleet on the Severn, near Worcester, Fladbury, an∣ciently Fleotbury, and Twining Fleet, on the Avon. On the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk the name is common, and properly, according to Forby, though not invariably, implies a channel filled by the tide, and left at low water very shallow and narrow. At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, there are several channels so called, as White Friars' Fleet, and Purfleet. The grant of the possessions of the Gild of the Holy Trinity, Lynn, by Edward VI. A.D. 1548, alludes to rents laid out in "repairing of banks, walls, fletes, and water-courses in Lenn." Blomf. IV. 598. "Flete where water cometh, breche." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fleot, sinus. In the North, as Bishop Kennett notices in his Glossarial Collections, fleet signifies water, as in the ancient song over a corpse.

    "This ean night, this ean night,
    Every night and awle,
    Fire and fleet, and candle light,
    And Christ receive thy sawl."

    Lansd. MS. 1033.
    Fleta, fossa, estuarium, C. F.
  • FLETE of schyppys yn þe see. Classis, C. F.
  • FLETYN̄' a-bovin̄ (fletyn, or hovyn, H. houen, P.)3. ["To flete above ye water; his cappe fleteth aboue the water yonder a farre hence." PALSG. "Naviger, to saile, to fleete." Hollyband's Treasurie. Harrison, in his de∣scription of England, speaking of Lyme Regis, Dorset, says, "the Lime water, which the townsmen call the Buddle, commeth ... from the hils, fleting upon rockie soil, and so falleth into the sea." Holinsh. Chron. i. 58. Ang.-Sax. fleotan, fluctuare. See HOVYN, which has a like signification.]Supernato.
  • Page  167FLETYN̄', or skomyn' ale, or pottys, or oþer lycoure that ho∣vythe. Despumo, exspumo, CATH.
  • FLETE mylke only. Dequacco, exquacco.
  • FLETYNGE of lycowre. Spumacio, despumacio, CATH.
  • FLEW, or scholde, as vessell, or oþer lyke (scold, S. flwe, or sholde of vessels, P.)1. [According to Forby, flue, as well as fleet, has in Norfolk the signification of shallow, as a dish, or a pond. In the North, a flaw peat or flow signifies a watery moss; Isl. flaa, palus. See SCHOLD, or schalowe.]Bassus.
  • FLEW, complexyōn' (flewme of com∣pleccyon, K. flwe, P.) Flegma, CATH. et C. F. in ventriculus.
  • FLEWEMATYKE. Flegmaticus, UG.
  • FLEWME, idem quod FLEW, supra, et sperma.
  • FLYARE. Volator.
  • FLYE. Musca.
  • FLY FLAPPE, supra, idem quod FLAPPE. Muscarium, CATH. C. F. et UG.
  • FLYGGE, as bryddys.2. [Margaret Paston in a letter to her husband in 1460, describing the vain hopes ex∣cited amongst the partizans of Henry VI. says, "Now he and alle his olde felaweship put owt their fynnes, and arn ryght flygge and mery, hoping alle thyng is and schalbe as they wole haue it." Paston Letters, iv. 412. "Flyggenesse of byrdes, plumevseté." PALSG. In Norfolk birds ready to fly are still said to be fligged, and in some parts of England are called fliggurs. Ang.-Sax. fliogan, volare, flyge, fuga.]Maturus, volatilis.
  • FLYGNESSE. Maturitas.
  • FLYYN̄', as birdys. Volo.
  • FLYYN̄' A-WEY. Avolo, evolo.
  • (FLIKERYNGE, supra in FLEKER∣YNGE, K.)
  • FLYKKE of bacōn'. Perna, pe∣taso, baco.
  • FLYNT, stone. Silex.
  • FLYGHTE, fleynge a-way. Fuga, effugium, C. F.
  • FLYGHTE of byrdys. Avolatus, evolatus.
  • (FLYTERE, supra in CUKSTOKE.)
  • FLYTIN̄, or chydin̄.

    3. "To flytte, altercari, certare, litigare, abjurgare, catazizare." CATH. ANG. "Li∣tigo, Anglice to stryff or flyte." ORTUS. Ang.-Sax. flitan, certare.

    "In peese thou ete, and ever eschewe
    To flyte at borde, that may the rewe."

    Boke of Curtasye, Sloane MS. 1986.
    Contendo, CATH.
  • FLYTTIN̄, or remevyn̄ (away, P.) Amoveo, transfero.
  • FLYX, or flux, sekenesse. Fluxus, dissenteries.
  • FLODE. Flumen, fluvius, dilu∣vium, fluctus.
  • FLODEGATE of a mylle. Sino∣glocitorium, DICC.
  • FLOKE of bestys. Grex.
  • FLOKE, or heerde of bestys, what so they be. Polia, CATH.
  • FLOKKYN̄', or gadyr to-gedyr. Aggrego, congrego.
  • FLOKKYS of wulle or oþer lyke. Floccus, CATH. (fultrum, P.)
  • FLORE (or grownde, infra.) Area.
  • FLORSCHARE (florissher, P.) Flo∣rator.
  • FLORSCHYN̄' (florisshen, P.) Flo∣reo, CATH. floresco.
  • FLORYSCHYN̄' bokys. Floro, KYLW.
  • FLORSCHYNGE. Floratus.
  • Page  168FLOTYSE, or flotyce of a pott or other lyke. Spuma, CATH. C. F.
  • FLOT GRESE.1. [Gerard describes the Gramen fluviatile, flote-grasse, or floter-grasse, which grows in waters; and Skinner supposes the name to be derived, "q. d. flood grass." It appears to have been also called wreke, or reke. See WREK of a dyke, or a fenne, or stondyng watyr, ulva.]Ulva, C. F.
  • FLOWYN̄', as the see. Fluo, CATH. (venilio, CATH. S.)
  • FLOWYNGE of þe watur (see, P.) Fluxus, venilia, CATH. KYLW.
  • FLOWRE of tre, or herbe. Flos.
  • FLOWRE of mele. Farina, simila, UG. in similis, pollen, CATH. C. F.
  • FLOWRYN̄', idem quod FLORSCHYN, supra, et floro, CATH.
  • FLOWTE, pype. Cambucus, KYLW. ydraula, calamaula. Versus. Pastor sub caulâ bene cantat cum calamaulâ. The scheperd vndyr þe folde syngythe well wythe hys gwgawe þe pype. (Flatorium, K. P.)
  • FLOWTYN̄', or pypyn'. Calamiso, flo.
  • FLWE, nette (flw, K. flewe, P. flowe, W.)2. [The Catholicon explains tragum to be "genus retis piscatorii, quod aliter verri∣culum a verrendo dicitur;" according to the Ortus, "tragum, a draught nette." In 1391 Robert de Ryllyngton, of Scarborough, bequeathed to his servant "j flew, cum warrap et flot," directing his two boats to be sold, and the price bestowed for the wel∣fare of his soul. Testam. Ebor. i. 157. "Flewe, a nette, retz à pecher." PALSG. See TRAMAYLE, grete nette for fyschynge. Tragum.]Tragum, C. F. CATH.
  • FODE. Alimentum, alimonia, victus.
  • FODYNGE, or norschynge (fodin∣ynge, P.) Fomentum.
  • FODDUR, bestys mete, or forage (foodyr, P.) Farrago, CATH. C. F. et UG. in frugo, pabulum.
  • FOOYNE, furrure. Loero, NECC. et DICC. bacre, NECC. et DICC.3. [The FOOYNE appears to have been the same as the polecat or fitchet, or according to Ray the martin was sometimes so called. "Fowyng, beest, foyne. Foyns, a furre, foynnes." PALSG. "Fouinne, foyenne, a foyne or polecat." COTG. Loero is the name of a small animal, called in old French lairon or lerot, the fur of which was highly esteemed. John de Garlandiâ says in his Dictionary, "Pelliparii—carius vendunt urlas de sabellino et laierone," rendered in the gloss "laierone, Gallice lairons." In the Inventory of the wardrobe and jewels of Henry V. taken in 1423, at his decease, are mentioned "gounes de noier damask furrez de sides de foynes et marterons," and the value of this kind of fur is ascertained by the following entry: "iij panes de foynes, chascun cont' c. bestes, pris le pec' xd. xij li. x s.;" the marteron being more costly, "pris le beste xij d." Rot. Parl. iv. 236.]
  • FOOLE. Stultus, fatuus, babur∣rus, babiger, C. F.
  • FOO(L)DE of shepe. Ovile, caula.
  • FOLDE clothys, or other lyke. Plico, CATH.
  • FOLDYN̄' a-bowtin̄ (abowtyn, K. abowte, P.) Circumplecto.
  • FOLDYN̄' in armys. Amplector.
  • FOOLDYN̄', or put beestys in a folde. Caulo, incaulo, inovilo.
  • FOLDYN' VP. Complico.
  • FOLDYNGE of cloþys, and oþer lyke. Plicacio, plicatura.
  • FOLDYNGE (of shepe, P.) or put∣tynge in felde (sic.) Incaulacio.
  • FOLE, yonge horse. Pullus.
  • FOLETT (idem quod FOLTE, infra, Page  169 et FOPPE.) Fatuellus, stolidus, follus, UG. in foveo (bardus, P.)
  • FOOLE HARDY, or to be bolde (foole herdy, or to bolde, S.) Teme∣rarius, CATH. et UG. in audax.
  • FOLE HARDYNESSE. Temeritas, CATH.
  • FOLY. Fatuitas, stoliditas, stul∣ticia.
  • FOLKE. Gens, plebs, populus.
  • FOLTE, idem quod FOLET, supra (et FOPPE, infra.)1. ["A folte, blas, baburrus, blatus, bardus, nugator, garro, ineptus, morio." CATH. ANG. Roquefort gives "foleté, foleton, &c. extravagant, fou, sot, étourdi; volaticus." TOTTE occurs hereafter as synonymous with FOLTE. See also AMSOTTE, and SOTTE.]
  • FOLTYN̄', or doōn as a foole (folyn, K. fooltyn, H.) Stultiso, CATH. infatuor.
  • FOLTRYE. Fatuitas, stoliditas, follicia, UG. in foveo, insipien∣cia, baburra, C. F.
  • FOLWARE, or he that folwythe (folower in steppys of anothir, K.) Sequax, secutor.
  • FOLWARE, or serwānte folowynge hys mastyr, or souereyne. Pe∣dissequus, vel pedissequa, as∣secla, C. F.
  • FOLWARE, yn' manerys, or condy∣cyons. Imitator, CATH.
  • FOLWYN̄'. Sequor.
  • FOLWYN̄', in felaschyppe. Co∣mitor.
  • FOLWYN̄', in maners and condy∣ciōns. Imitor, sector.
  • FOLWYN̄', or suyn̄' yn' purpose. Prosequor.
  • FOLWYNGE of steppys. Sequela.
  • FOLWYNGE of manerys, or con∣dycyons. Imitacio.
  • FOOME of lycoure. Spuma, CATH.
  • FOMAN, or enmy (foo, P.) Inimicus, inimica, emulus, hostis.
  • FOMEREL of an halle.2. [In the Medulla fumarium is rendered "a chymene or fymrel." The term is de∣rived from the Latin, "Fumerale, Anglice a fumerell. Fumeralis, idem est." ORTUS. "A chymney, caminus, epicasterium, fumerium, fumerale." CATH. ANG. The term chimney seems, however, not to have been originally synonymous with fomerel, but to have signified an open fire-place, or chafer, such as the "chymneye with charecole" in the pavilion prepared for the conflict of Syr Galleroune with Gawayne. See the Awntyrs of Arthure. Thus also in the will of Cecilia de Homeldon, 1407, is the bequest, "lego unum magnum caminum de ferro Abbathiae de Durham." Wills and Invent. Surtees Soc. i. 45. In Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, however, composed about the same period, "chalk whyt chymnees" are described as appearing upon the roof of the castle. The FOMEREL was a kind of lantern, or turret open at the sides, which rose out of the roof of the hall, and permitted the escape of the smoke; it had sometimes the appellation of the lover, a word which occurs hereafter; thus Withal, in his Dic∣tionary, mentions the "lovir or fomerill, where the smoake passeth out." Among the disbursements of Thomas Lucas, Solicitor-General to Henry VII., for the erection of Little Saxham Hall, in 1507, occurs a payment "to the plommer for casting and working my fummerel of lede;" and it appears to have been glazed like a lantern, for there is a payment to the glazier "for 50 fete glas in my fummerelle." Rokewode's Hist. of Suff. pp. 149, 150. In the Book of Wolsey's Expenses at Christ Church, Oxford, is an entry relating to the "femerell of the new kitchen." Gutch, Coll. Cur. i. 204.]Fuma∣rium.
  • FOMYN̄'. Spumo.
  • FONDYN', or a-sayyn̄'.

    3. The Medulla gives "Conor, to streyne or fonde," rendered in the Ortus, "to constrayne or fande." "To fande, conari, niti, et cetera ubi to be a-bowte warde." CATH. ANG. Minot relates that David Bruce

    "Said he sulde fonde
    To ride thurgh all Ingland."

    Poems, viii. p. 39.

    The word is used by Rob. Brunne and Rob. of Gloucester in the same sense. Ang.-Sax. fandian, tentare.

    Attempto.
  • Page  170FONDYNGE, or a-saynge. Attemp∣tacio.
  • FONEL, or tonowre.1. [Conowre, MS. See hereafter TONOWRE of fonel. In Norfolk, according to Forby, the term in ordinary use is tunnel, Ang.-Sax. taenel, canistrum. The word funnel ap∣pears to be derived from fundulus, "quasi fundle," as Junius observes. "Infusorium est quoddam vasculum per quod liquor infunditur in aliud vas; vel est vas in quo est oleum quod ponitur in lucernis, a fonell dyshe (al. tonnell dysshe.)" ORTUS.]Fusorium, infusorium, C. F.
  • FOPPE, supra, idem quod FOLET.
  • FORBEDYN̄' (or forfendyn̄'.) Pro∣hibeo, inhibeo, veto, interdico.
  • FORBEDYNGE (or forbode, or fore∣fendynge, infra.) Prohibicio, inhibicio.
  • FOR-BY a place, or oþer þyngys. Per.
  • FOORBYSCHOWRE. Eruginator, DICC.
  • FORBYSCHYD. Furbitus, BRIT. in luna, ut patet ejus versus.
  • FORBYSCHYN̄'. Erugino, CATH.
  • FORBODE, idem quod FORBYD∣DYNGE, supra.
  • FORCELET, stronge place (forslet, H. P.) Fortalicium, munici∣pium.
  • FOORCERE (forcer, K. P.)

    2. Junius thinks that this term was borrowed from the Italian forciere, which is ren∣dered by W. Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, 1548, "a forsette, or a little coafer;" and by Florio, "a forcet, a coffin, a casket, a cabinet, &c." It may be remarked that the most elegant caskets of the Middle Ages, usually of bone or ivory, curiously carved and painted, are, with few exceptions, of Italian workmanship; but as Flanders also furnished these and numerous other ornamental appliances, the origin of the name forcere may perhaps be sought in the Belg. fortsier, a banded coffer. The importation of "ascune manere ware depeinte, forcers, caskettes, &c." was forbidden by stat. 3 Edw. IV. c. 4, A.D. 1463. In William and the Werwolf it is related that the Queen sought by means of a ring to charm the monster.

    "Seþe feiþli of a forcer a fair bok sche rauȝt,
    And radde þer on redli riȝt a long while."

    Chaucer says in "La belle Dame sans Mercie,"

    "Fortune by strength the forcer hath vnshete,
    Wherein was sperde all my wordly richesse."

    v. 65.

    Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, says, "The joyner made a forcer for my loue, her cheste, her scyrne, un forcier, sa luysel, son escrin. Set your jewellis in your forcier, that they be not stolen." Palsgrave gives "fo(r)sar, or casket, escrain; fo(r)cer, a little cofer, cofret," and coffret is rendered by Cotgrave "a casket, cabinet, forset, (sic) &c."

    Cis∣tella, teca, clitella, scrinium, DICC. forcerium, COMM.
  • FOORCYD, as mennys beerdys (or pollyd, infra.) Capitonsus.
  • FOORCYD, as wulle. Tonsus.
  • FOORCYN̄', or clyppyn̄'.3. [This word is taken from the French forces, shears for clipping wool or cloth. Fourceler, to clip or shear. See ROQUEF. The stat. 8 Henry VI. c. 20, forbids the fraudulent practice termed forcing wool, reciting the loss in the customs arising from those who "clakkent et forcent les bones lains du roialme, pur eux carier dehors dicelle en estraunges paiis; ordinez est que nulle estraunger ne face forcer clakker ne barder nulle maner des leins, pur carier hors du roialme," upon pain of forfeiture, with a penalty of double the value, and imprisonment. Stat. of Realm, ii. 256.]Ton∣deo.
  • FOORCYNGE. Tonsura.
  • Page  171FORSYGHTE (forsyȝt, K. forsythȝ, H.) Previsio, previsus.
  • FORCLYD (or fvrclyd, infra; for∣kelyd, P.) Furcatus.
  • FORDŌN', or dystroyn̄'.

    1. This verb, Ang.-Sax. for-don, perdere, occurs in the Vision of P. Ploughman.

    "Allas! that drynke shal for-do
    That God deere boughte."

    line 5284.

    In the Golden Legend it is said in the Life of Becket, that Henry II. "wolde fordoo suche lawes as his oldres hadde vsed to-fore hym." Palsgrave says, "What so euer he do on the one day, on the morowe I wyll fordo it, defaire."

    Destruo.
  • FORDERYN̄', or fortheryn̄', to incres, or a-vantage (fordryn, or forthyn, K.) Promoveo, proveho.
  • FORDERYN̄', in spedynge (forthren, P.) Expedio, accelero.
  • FORE, or forowe of a londe. Sul∣cus, CATH. lira.
  • FORELLE, to kepe yn a boke.2. [Jocelyn de Brakelonda relates in his Chronicle, p. 84, that Abbot Samson ex∣amined the relics of St. Edmund in 1198, and when the shrine was closed up, "positus est super loculum forulus quidam sericus, in quo deposita fuit scedula Anglice scripta, continens quasdam salutaciones Ailwini Monachi," with a memorial of the opening of the shrine, which was subscribed by all who had been present. Foruli, according to Papias, are "thecae vel cistae librorum, tabularum, vel aliarum rerum, ut spatae; dictae, quod de foris tegant;" in French, fourreau, or fourel, has the like meaning. Horman says, "I hadde leuer haue my boke sowed in a forel (consuatur in cuculli invo∣lucro) than bounde in bourdis, and couerede, and clapsed, and garnysshed with bolyens." Jennings, in his Observations on the Dialects of the West, states that the cover of a book is still termed a forrel. Palsgrave gives "coueryng for a book, chemi∣sette," a term which appears to be synonymous with forelle, and which has been ex∣plained by Charpentier, v. Camisia libri. In an Inventory taken at Notre Dame, Paris, in 1492, is mentioned "ung petit messel, couvert de cuir rouge, garni d'une chemisette de chevrotin rouge." Two of the mourners, whose figures are seen around the tomb of Richard Beauchamp, at Warwick, hold each a book, wrapped in the forelle, or chemisette; see Stothard's Monumental Effigies. Its fashion is more clearly ex∣hibited in a picture at Munich, by Schorel, which has furnished the subject of a plate in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations.]Forulus, CATH. BRIT. in forus.
  • FORESTE. Foresta, indago, C. F.
  • FORETTE, or ferette, lytyll beste. Furo, C. F. furetus, vel furun∣culus, C. F.
  • FOR EVYR. Semper, eternaliter, perpetue.
  • FORFENDYN̄', idem quod FOR∣BEDYN̄', supra.3. [This verb is derived from the Ang.-Sax. for, which often gives in composition the sense of privation or deterioration, and fandian, tentare. "God forfende it!" PALSG. To forhinder, signifying to prevent, is retained in the East-Anglian dialect, according to Forby. Many other words similarly compounded have become wholly obsolete, se∣veral of which are given by Palsgrave, as the following; "To forbreake, Lydgate; to forderke, make derke; to fordewe, sprinkle with dewe; to fordreynt, Lydgate, drowne; to fordull, make one dull of wyt; to forlye, as a nouryce dothe her chylde whan she kylleth it in the nyght; to forwaye, go out of the waye, Lydgate; to forwery, &c."]
  • FORFENDYNGE, idem quod FOR∣BEDYNGE.
  • Page  172FORFETYN̄'.1. [Chaucer, Gower, and the early writers generally, use the verb to forfeit in its pri∣mary sense of committing a transgression; in French forfaire has the same significa∣tion. "Forisfacio, id est offendere vel nocere, to forfeyte." ORTUS. "What have I forfayted against you?" PALSG.]Forefacio, delin∣quo.
  • FORFETYNGE, or forfeture. Fore∣faccio, forefactura.
  • FORFETOWRE. Forefactor.
  • FOORGE of smythys. Fabrateria, CATH. fabrica, CATH. COMM.
  • FORGYN̄'. Fabrefacio.
  • FORHED. Frons, sinciput.
  • (FORHELYN, K. H. P. for-hyllyn' cowncel, S.2. [Ang.-Sax. forhelan, celare. See HYLLYN̄.]Celo.)
  • FOR-HUNGRYD, and an-hungryd.

    3. Hardyng relates the honours that were falsely paid to the remains of Richard II.

    "Fro Poumfret brought with great solempnyte,
    (Men sayde forhungered he was) and lapped in lede,
    At Poules his masse was done and diryge."

    Chron. c. 200.
    Famelicus.
  • FORKE. Furca, pala.
  • FOR-LATYN̄', or leve desolate. Desolo.
  • FORLATYN'. Desolatus.
  • FORLATE PLACE. Absoletus, C. F.
  • FORME. Forma.
  • FOORME, longe stole. Sponda, DICC.
  • FOORME of an hare, or oþer lyke. Lustrum, KYLW.
  • FOORMYD. Formatus.
  • FOORMYN̄', or makyn̄'. Formo.
  • FOORMYNGE, or makynge. For∣macio.
  • FOORMYNGE, or techynge, or in∣formynge (or infourmynge of techinge, P.) Instruccio, in∣formacio.
  • FORMOWRE, or grubbynge yrȳn' of gravowrys.4. [The Catholicon gives the following explanation: "A scrobs dicitur scrofina, quod∣dam instrumentum carpentarii, quia herendo scrobem faciat." "Runcina est quoddam artificium fabri lignarii gracile et recurvum, quo cavantur tabule ut una altera alteri connectatur; Anglice, a gryppynge yron." ORTUS. Palsgrave gives the term "for∣mowr, or grublyng yron," which appears to signify a gouge. See GROWPYN̄' wythe an yryn, as gravowrys, runco.]Scrofina, CATH. runcina, C. F.
  • FORNE parte of a thynge (fore part, P.) Anterior pars.
  • FORNE parte of a schyppe, or for∣schyppe. Prora.
  • FOR-SAKYN̄'. Desero, relinquo, derelinquo, renuo.
  • FORSAKYN̄', and denyyn̄'. Abnego.
  • FORSAKYN̄', and refusyn̄'. Ab∣renuncio, refuto, recuso.
  • FORSAKYN', or refusyd. Refutatus.
  • FOR-SAKYN̄', or lefte. Derelictus, relictus, dimissus.
  • FORSAKYNGE, or refusynge. Re∣futacio, C. F. derelictio, desercio, dimissus.
  • Page  173FORSOTHE. Vere, utique, quinimo, profecto, siquidem, Amen.
  • FOR-SPEKYN̄', or charmyn̄'.1. ["Facina, a forspekere, or a tylstere (al. tylyere). Fascino, to forspeke or ouersee." MED. GRAMM. "To forspeke, fascinare, incantare: a forspekynge, fascinacio, facinus." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave says, "I forspeake a thyng by enchauntementes. Some witche hath forspoken hym, quelque vaudoyse la enchanté." W. Turner, in his Herbal, 1562, says that "there are sum date trees in whose fruite is a stone bowyng after ye fasshon of an half moon, and thys sum polyshe with a toothe, with a certayn religion agaynst forspekyng and bewitchyng." The Ang.-Sax. for-spaec has merely the signification of a preface, fore-speca, prolocutor; by Shakespeare and other writers to forespeak is used with the sense of forbidding. The use of the word in the sense of fascinating or charming arose probably from a superstitious belief, which is not extinct at the present time in North Britain, that certain persons had the power of injuring or bewitching others by immoderate praise. See Jamieson's observations upon this word.]Fas∣cino, CATH.
  • FORSTERE, or fostere. Foresta∣rius, indagarius, indago, vel indagator (viridarius, P.)
  • FORSWERERE, or he þat ys oft forsworon̄'. Labro, C. F.
  • FORSWERYN̄'. Perjuro.
  • FORSWERYNGE. Perjurium, per∣juracio, objuracio.
  • FORSWORNE. Perjurus.
  • FORTHYNKYNGE of dede done. Penitudo, CATH.
  • FORTHYNKYN̄'.2. [Richard Earl of Arundel, having made in Parliament certain complaints against John of Gaunt, which were answered by Richard II., the Earl was obliged to make before the House an apology which was enrolled, wherein he thus expresses himself: "Hit forthynketh me, and byseche yowe of your gode Lordship to remyt me your mau-talent." Rot. Parl. III. 314, A.D. 1393. "To rewe, penitere, &c. ubi to for∣thynke. A forthynkynge, compunccio, contricio, penitencia." CATH. ANG.]Penitet, luo, UG.
  • FORTHEGATE. Transitus, pro∣feccio.
  • FORTHEGONE. Profectus.
  • FORTHYRST. Sitibundus, siciens.
  • FORTOPPPE. Aqualium, CATH. calvaria, CATH. et C. F.
  • FORTUNE, or happe. Fortuna, eventus, casus.
  • FORWARDE, or cumnawnt.

    3. In the romance of Richard Coer de Lion it is related that Saladin made a treaty with him that for three years pilgrims should have free access to the holy city.

    "The next day he made forewarde
    Of trewes to the Kyng Richard."

    line 7115.

    In Sir Amadace the White Knight makes an agreement in these terms;

    "Butte a forwart make I with the, or that thou goe,
    That euyn to part be-twene vs toe,
    The godus thou hase wonun and spedde."

    Stanza 42.

    See also the Avowynge of King Arther, stanza 35; Cant. Tales, Prologue, 831, 854. Ang.-Sax. fore-weard, pactum.

    Con∣vencio, pactum.
  • FORWARDE, or more vttyr. Ultra, ulterius.
  • FORWHY (forqwhy, H.) Quin (quia, quoniam, P.)
  • FOR THE NONYS (nones, W.)4. ["For ye naynste, abintento." CATH. ANG. Various are the conjectures that have been made with regard to the derivation of this phrase. See Tyrwhitt's note on Cant. Tales, v. 381; Jamieson's Dict. v. Nanes; and Sir Frederick Madden's glossaries appended to William and the Werwolf, and Syr Gawayn. In the last he retracts the opinion previously expressed, and is disposed to conclude that the original form of the phrase was the Saxon "for than anes." It implies occasion, purpose, or use; thus Palsgrave gives "for the nonest, de mesmes; for the nones, à propos, à escient. C'est un gallant de mesmes, et de fait apence. This dagger is sharpenned for the nones, affillé tout à esciant." Horman says, "he fayned or made hymselfe sicke for the nonis, deditâ operâ. He delayeth the matter for the nonys, de industriâ. It is a false mater deuysed for the nonys, deditâ operâ conficta." Occasionally, as in the following in∣stance, it is used ironically: "You are a cooke for the nones, wyll you sethe these roches, or you haue scaled them? vous estes ung cuisinier de mesmes," &c. PALSG. "He is a popte fole, or a starke fole, for the nonys, homo fatuitate monstrabilis." HORM.]Idcirco, ex proposito.
  • Page  174FORȜETARE (forgeter, P.) Im∣memor, oblitor.
  • FOR-ȜETYLLE, or fretefulle (forget∣full, P.)1. [The word fretefulle seems here evidently a corrupt reading, which is corrected by Pynson. For letenus should probably be read letheus, "i. obliviosus." ORTUS.]Obliviosus (letenus, P.)
  • FORȜETYN̄'. Obliviscor, necligo.
  • FORYETYN̄' lessonys, or other loore and techyngys. Dedisco, CATH. in disco.
  • FOR-ȜETYN̄' or for-ȝetyn̄' (sic.)2. [The correct reading, probably, is here either FORYETYN̄, or forȝetyn̄; or possibly forgetyn̄. See the note on the word FAYNE.]Oblitus.
  • FOR-ȜETYNGE. Oblivio.
  • FOR-YEVYN̄' trespace, or dette (forgeuen, P.) Indulgeo, re∣mitto, condono.
  • FOR-YEVENESSE (forgyuenesse, P.) Venia, remissio.
  • FORYEVYNGE, idem quod FOR∣YEVENESSE, supra.
  • FOORDE, passage ouer a water (forthe or water passinge, P.) Vadum, CATH.
  • FORTHERYNGE, or promocyon (forthe, or fortheringe, P.) Pro∣mocio.
  • FOSTERE, supra, idem quod FOR∣STERE.
  • FOOT. Pes.
  • FOOT BE FOOT. Pedetetim.
  • FOOTE, mesure. Pedalis, CATH.
  • FOTYNGE. Peditacio.
  • FOTYNGE, or fundament. Fun∣damentum.
  • FOT MANN, or he þat goythe on foote. Pedester, pedes, C. F.
  • FOOT STAPPE. Vestigium.
  • FOTE STEPPE, of a mann only. Peda, CATH. et KYLW.
  • FOWAYLE (or fowaly, P.)

    3. See EYLDYNGE, or fowayle. In the Romance of Richard Coer de Lion this word seems to have the more general sense of provisions, or needful supplies. When Richard arrived at Cologne the heads of the city issued the command,

    "No man selle hem no fowayle."

    line 1471.
    Fo∣cale.
  • FOWAR, or clensare.4. [See FEYAR, FYIN̄, and GOONGE FYRMAR. The appellation Fowar occurs as a surname in the Issue Roll of the Exch. 44 Edw. III. "Will. Fowar, falconer."]Mundator, emundator, purgator, munda∣trix, purificatrix.
  • FOWARE, or clensare of donge, as gongys, and oþer lyke. Fi∣marius, oblitor, C. F.
  • FOWER, or fewelere, or fyyr maker (fovwer, H.)5. ["Focarius, a fuelere, or makere of fyre." MEDULLA. See Nares, v. fueler.]Focarius, vel fo∣caria, focularius.
  • Page  175FOWYD, or clensyd. Mundatus, pur∣gatus, purificatus, emundatus.
  • FOWYN̄', or make clene.1. ["I fowe a gonge, ie cure un retraict, or ortrait. Thou shalte eate no buttered fysshe with me, tyll thou wasshe thy handes, for thou hast fowed a gonge late." PALSG. Forby gives the verb to fie, fey or fay, as still used in Norfolk in this sense. See FYIN̄.]Mundo, emundo, purgo, purifico.
  • FOWYNGE, or clensynge. Emun∣dacio, purgacio, purificacio.
  • FOWYR. Quatuor.
  • FOWRE TYMES. Quater.
  • FOWLE, bryd. Avis, volucer.
  • FOWLE, of fylthe. Turpis, vilis, sordidus.
  • FOWL, on-thende, or owte caste (vnthende, P.) Abjectus.
  • FOWLARE. Auceps, avicularius.
  • FOWLYN̄', or take byrdys. Au∣cupor, COMM.
  • FOWLYN', or defowlyn̄' (defylen, P.) Turpo, deturpo, maculo, coinquino, fedo, polluo.
  • FOWLYNGE, of fylthe. Detur∣pacio, pollucio, sordidacio.
  • FOWLYNGE, or takynge of byrdys. Aucupium, UG. in aueo.
  • FOOWNE, beeste (fown, K. H.) Hinnulus, vel innulus, CATH.
  • FOWNDER of a place. Fundator.
  • FOWNDOWRS (fowndowresse, H. foundresse, P.) Fundatrix.
  • FOWNDRYD, as horse.
  • FOWNDERYN̄' (fowundryn, P.)2. [Palsgrave gives the verb "to fownder as a horse, trébucher." Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, 1562, makes use of the term in allusion to ailments of the human body, where he says that Pyrethrum "is excellently good for any parte of the body yt is fundied or foundered." In his treatise of baths and mineral waters, he says that the baths of Baden, in High Germany, "heate muche membres that are foundre or fretished wyth cold, and bringe them to theyr naturall heate agayne;" and that the Pepper bath has virtues to restore "limbs fretished, foundered and made numme wyth colde."]
  • FOWNDRYNGE.
  • FOWRE, supra (in FOWYR.)
  • FOWRE CORNERYD. Quadran∣gulus, quadrangularis.
  • FOWRE FOLDE. Quadruplus.
  • FOWRE FETYD (fotyd, K. foted, P.) Quadripes.
  • FOWRE HUNDRYD. Quadringinti.
  • FOWRE SQUARE (fowre scware, or fowre sware, H.) Quadrus.
  • FOWRE SQUARE STONE. Tessel∣lum, C. F. (peretalum, P.)
  • FOWRTHE, or the fowrte. Quartus.
  • FOWRETENE. Quatuordecim.
  • FOWRE TYMES. Quater.
  • (FOURTY, P. Quadraginta.)
  • FOWRTY TYMES. Quadragesies.
  • FOWRTNYGHT. Quindena.
  • FOX, beeste. Vulpes, CATH.
  • FOXYSHE (foxich, K.) Vulpinus.
  • (FRACCHYN̄', supra in cherkyn̄', as newe cartys; frashin, S.)3. [This word appears to be now only retained in the North Country expression to fratch, signifying to scold or quarrel. It seems to be derived from A.S. freoðan, fricare. Compare Jamieson, v. Frate.]
  • FRAYLE of frute (frayil, K.) Pa∣lata, CATH. carica, CATH. et UG. in copos.

    4. The Catholicon gives the following explanation: "A palus dicitur palata, quia fit de palis, et palate sunt masse que de recentibus ficubus compingi solent, quas inter palas ad solem siccant;" and carica properly signifies dates preserved in a similar manner. In the Romance of Coer de Lion are mentioned, among provision for the army,

    "Fyggys, raysyns in frayel."

    line 1549.

    "A frayle of fygys, palata." CATH. ANG. "Frayle for fygges, cabas, cabache." PALSG. Minsheu would derive the term "a fragilitate," and Skinner from the Italian fragli; but it more closely resembles the old French "Fraiaus, frayel; cabas, panier de jonc." ROQUEF. In Suffolk, according to Moore, a flexible mat-basket is called a frail. See Bp. Kennett's and Nares' Glossaries.

  • FRAYYN̄', idem quod FERYN̄', supra (fraiyn, or afrayn, K. afrayin, P.)
  • Page  176FRAKINE (fraken, K. frakne, H. freken, P.)

    1. Chaucer makes use of this word in his description of the King of Inde.

    "A fewe fraknes in his face y-sprent,
    Betwixen yelwe and blake somdel y-meint."

    Knight's Tale.

    In the gloss on the Equivoca of Joh. de Garlandia it is said, "lenticula est quedam macula in facie hominis, Anglice a spotte or frecon: lenticulosus, fraconed." "Frecken, or freccles in one's face, lentile, brand de Judas." PALSG. Forby observes that the word frekcens is still used in Norfolk. A. S. fraecn, turpitudo.

    Lentigo, C. F. len∣ticula, C. F.
  • FRAKNY, or fraculde (frekeny, P.) Lentigi(n)osus.
  • FRAKNYD, idem quod FRAKNY.
  • FRAME of a worke. Fabrica.
  • FRAMYD. Dolatus.
  • FRAMYD TRE. Assa, UG. et CATH. cadia.
  • FRAMYN̄' tymbyr for howsys (or hewyn, P.)2. [Previously to the XVIth cent. the ordinary mode of constructing houses in the eastern counties, as likewise in other parts of England, was by forming a frame of wood, or skeleton structure, the intervals or panels being afterwards filled up with brickwork, lath and plaster, or indurated earth, by the process called in Norfolk dawbing. Such constructions are usually termed timbered houses, or, in Shropshire, Cheshire, and neighbouring counties, where they are found highly ornamented, black and white houses. Harrison, who wrote his description of England about A.D. 1579, being re∣sident in Essex, observes that "the ancient manours and houses of our gentlemen are yet and for the most part of strong timber, in framing whereof our carpenters haue been, and are, worthilie preferred before those of like science among all other nations. Howbeit, such as be latelie builded are comonlie either of bricke or hard stone, or both." B. ii. c. 12, Holinsh. Chron. i. 188. It is from ths period that a marked change in the costly and ornamental character of domestic architecture in England is to be dated; previously, with the exception of some parts where the abundant supply of stone occasioned a more frequent use of such solid materials, houses were ordinarily of framed work. Palsgrave says, "My house is framed all redye (charpenté), it wanteth but setting up." Among the disbursements for building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, by Thomas Lucas, Sol. General to Henry VII. occur payments "to the joy∣nours for framyng of 6 chambres, 25s. For framyng of my great parlour and great chambre, 10s." Rokewode's Hist. Suff. 147. The stat. 37 Hen. VIII. c. 6, 1545, recites that certain novel outrages had of late been practised, such as "the secret burnynge of frames of tymber prepared and made, by the owners therof, redy to be sett up, and edified for houses." This misdemeanour was made felony.]Dolo.
  • FRAMYNGE of tymbyr. Dolatura.
  • FRAMYNGE, or afframynge, or wynnynge.3. [Forby gives the verb to frame, as meaning in Norfolk to shape the demeanour to an occasion of ceremony. In N. Britain it has the signification of succeeding, and is de∣rived by Jamieson from A. S. fremian, valere, prodesse. In the Craven dialect it im∣plies making an attempt.]Lucrum, emolu∣mentum.
  • Page  177FRANK, kepynge of fowlys to make fatte.1. [The word frank appears to be derived from the old French. Cotgrave gives "Franc, a franke or stie to feed and fatten hogs in;" and Florio renders Saginario, "a franke, or coupe, or penne; a place where beasts or birds are fatned." Ital. Dict. Harrison, in his description of England, speaking of the mode of making brawn, says, "it is made commonlie of the fore part of a tame bore, set vp for the purpose by the space of a whole yere or two, especiallie in gentlemen's houses (for the husband men and farmers neuer franke them for their owne vse aboue three or foure moneths), in which time he is dieted with otes and peason," &c. B. iii. c. i. Holinsh. Chron. i. 222. This verb is used by Shakespeare, and repeatedly by Holland, in his translation of Pliny. See Nares' Glossary.]Saginarium, DICC.
  • FRANKYD. Saginatus.
  • FRANKYNGE. Saginacio.
  • FRANKINCENS. Olibanum, fran∣cum incensum, C. F. (thus, P.)
  • FRANKELEYNE. Libertinus, KYLW.
  • FRAUNCE, londe. Francia (Gal∣lia, P.)
  • FRAWNCHEMUL, puddynge (fraun∣chem, P.)

    2. Lutanca, MS. "A franchemole, lucanica." CATH. ANG. The Catholicon observes, "Lucanica—quoddam genus cibi, et ut dicunt salsucia, quia primo in Lucaniâ est facta." It is a term of French derivation; Cotgrave gives "Franchemulle d'un mouton, a sheepes call or kell," and it seems to have signified a viand much the same as the haggis. Di∣rections for compounding it will be found in the "Kalendare de leche metys," Harl. MS. 279, f. 32. "Nym eyroun with þe whyte, and gratid brede, and chepis talow. Also grete as dyse nym pepir, safroun, and grynd alle to-gederys, and do in þe wombe of þe chepe, þat is þe mawe, and sethe hem wyl, and serue forth." See also the Forme of Cury, p. 95. The following metrical recipe "for fraunche mele" occurs in the "Crafte of Cure," Sloane MS. 1986, f. 85.

    "Take swongene eyrene in bassyne clene,
    And kreme of mylke þat is so schene,
    And myyd bred þou put þer to,
    And powder of peper þou more do.
    Coloure hyt with safrone in hast,
    And kremelyd sewet of schepe on last;
    And fylle þy bagge þat is so gode,
    And sew hyt fast, sir, for þo rode.
    Whenne hyt is soþun þou schalt hyt leche,
    And broyle hyt on gredel as I the teche."
    Lucanica, C. F.
  • FRAUNCHYSE (francheyse, K.) Libertas, territorium.
  • FREE. Liber.
  • FREDĀM. Libertas.
  • FRE HERTYD in yeftys (in ȝiftys, K. free of giftis, P.) Liberalis.
  • FREYL, and brokulle, or brytylle (febyl, K. febyll or brekyll, P.) Fragilis.
  • FREYLNEESSE. Fragilitas.
  • FREYTHE of caryage (freyt, or freythe, K. freight, or carriage, P.) Vectura, nabulum, C. F. et UG. trajectio, CATH.
  • FREYHTE, or feer (freyt, or fer, K. freyth, H.) Timor, pavor, terror.
  • FREYTOWRE. Refectorium.
  • Page  178FRELY. Libere, gratis.
  • FREMANN. Liber, libera.
  • FREMANN, made of bonde (manu∣misyd, K.) Manumissus, coli∣bertus, manumissa, coliberta, C. F. libertus, CATH.
  • FREMYD, or strawnge (frend, or strange, K. fremmed, H. P.)

    1. Fremyde is a word used by most of the older writers.

    "Sal neuer freik on fold, fremmyt nor freynde,
    Gar me lurk for ane luke lawit nor lerd."

    Golagros and Gawane, 1079.
    "Mony klyf he ouer clambe in contrayeȝ straunge,
    Fer floten fro his frendeȝ fremedly he rydes."

    Gawayn and G. Knyȝt, 714.

    It occurs in Rob. of Glouc. and Chaucer; and signifies both strange, as regards country, and alien, as to kindred.

    "Whether he be fremd, or of his blod,
    The child, he seyd, is trewe and gode."

    Amis and Amiloun, 1999.

    "Those children that are nursed by frembde men's fires are, for the most part, more harde and strong then they be which are daintily brought up in their owne fathers houses." Precious Pearle, translated by Coverdale, A.D. 1560. "Fremmyd, exterus, externus. To make fremmyd, exterminare." CATH. ANG. "Exter, the last, frem∣mede, or strange." MEDULLA. "Estrangé, separated from, growne fremme or out of knowledge, and acquaintance. Estrangier, a stranger, alien, outlander, a fremme bodie, that is neither a dweller with, nor of kinne vnto us." COTG. Ang.-Sax. fremed, alienus.

    Ex∣traneus, alienus, externus, UG. V.
  • FREEND. Amicus, amica.
  • FREENDFULLE. Amicabilis.
  • FREENDLY. Amicabiliter.
  • FRENESSE of hert, or lyberalyte. Liberalitas.
  • FRENESY, sekenesse. Frenesis, mania.
  • FRENETYKE (frentyk, K.) Fre∣neticus, maniatus.
  • FRENGE, or lyoure. Tenia, glossâ Merarii (orarium, K.)
  • FRENSCHYPPE (frenchepe, H.) Amicicia, amicabilitas.
  • FRERE (fryer', P.) Frater.
  • FREES, idem quod FREYL, supra (fres, or freel, K. or brokyl, or broyyl, H. broyle, P.)2. [Compare BROKDOL, or frees, where possibly the correct reading should be brokyl; and SPERE, or fres.]
  • FRESCHE. Recens, friscus.
  • FRESCHE, ioly and galaunt (fresshe and gay, P.)3. [Chaucer and Gower use the word fresh in the sense of handsome, or ornamented; Horman says, "the buyldynge is more fresshe than profitable, majoris ostentationis est quam usus. Our churche hath a sharpe steple with a fresshe top, cum ornato fastigio." So likewise Palsgrave gives "fresshe, gorgyouse, gay, or well besene, frisque, gaillart."]Redimitus, CATH.
  • FRESCHLY, and newly. Recenter, noviter.
  • FRESCHLY, or iolyly, and gayly. Gaudiose, friscose, redimite.
  • FRESYN̄', froste. Gelat, C. F.
  • FRESYNGE, or froste. Geliditas, CATH.
  • FRESTE, or to frest yn byynge or borowynge (frest, or frestynge, K.) Mutuum.
  • FRESTYN̄', or lende to freste Page  179 (frestyn, or leendyn, H.)1. [Ray gives among his N. Country words "to frist, to trust for a time." A.S. fyrstan, inducias facere. Jamieson explains it as signifying in the primary sense to delay, or postpone, and thence to give on credit, to grant delay as to payment. Germ. fristen, prorogare tempus agendi. "To friste, induciare." CATH. ANG.]Presto, comodo, accomodo, mutuo.
  • FRETYN̄', or chervyn̄' (choruyn, H.) Torqueo, CATH.
  • FRETYN', or weryn', as metalle be ruste (or knawyn, H. gnawen, P.) Corrodo, demollio.
  • FRETYNGE. Corrosio.
  • FRETYNGE, payne yn' þe wombe. Torcio.
  • FRYYD. Frixus, confrixus.
  • FRYKE, or craske, or yn grete helthe. Crassus.
  • FRYKENESSE. Crassitudo.
  • FRYYN̄' yn a pann'. Frigo, frixo, C. F.
  • FRYYNGE. Frixatura, CATH.
  • FRYYNGE PANN. Sartago, frix∣orium, CATH.
  • FRYSARE, or he þat frysythe clothe. Villator.
  • FRYSE, or frysyd clothe. Pannus villatus.
  • FRYSE clothe. Villo.
  • (FRYSED, as clothe, P. Villatus.)
  • FRYSYNGE of clothe. Villatura.
  • FRYTOWRE, cake. Lagana. (La∣gana sunt latâ panes sarta∣gine plagâ. K.)
  • FRO A-BOWYN̄' (fro abovyn, K. from aboue, P.) Desuper, de∣sursum.
  • (FRO BE-NETHYN, K. H. from be∣nethe, P. Deorsum.)
  • FRO FERE (fro far, P.) Eminus, de longe.
  • FROGGE, or froke, munkys abyte (frok, monkes clothinge, J. W.) Flocus, in Jure, libro vj.
  • (FROKE, monkes habyte, K. P. frogge, H. Cuculla, culla, CATH.)2. ["A froke, cucullus." CATH. ANG. There is much ambiguity in the use of the term froccus, the monastic frock, which occasionally appears to have been confounded with the cuculla, although properly a distinct garment. At the General Council at Vienna, 1312, Clement V. defined the cuculla to be a long, full, and sleeveless garment; the floccus, considered identical with froccus, to be a long habit, with long and wide sleeves. They are evidently distinguished by Ingulph, who states among the ordinances of Egelric, Abbot of Croyland from 975 to 992, "Induit omni anno totum conventum cum sectâ suâ de tunicis, omni altero anno de cucullis, et omni tertio anno de froccis." Rerum Angl. Script. i. 54. The distinction appears likewise to be made by M. Paris, where he speaks of the unbecoming changes in monastic attire, introduced at St. Alban's during the time of Abbot Wulnoth, towards the close of the Xth cent. So also in the enumeration of garments allowed by custom to each monk of Glastonbury, at the latter part of the XIth cent. it is stated, "unusquisque fratrum ij cucullas, et ij froccos, et ij stamina, et ij femoralia habere debet, et iv caligas, et peliciam novam per singulos annos." G. de Malmsb. de Antiqu. Glast. Hearne, ed. Domerham, i. 119. At an early period the cowl appears to have been portion of a sleeveless garment which sometimes was a mere cape, but occasionally reached quite to the heels, and was worn over the long, full, and sleeved habit termed a frock. See the illustrative plates in Murat. Script. Ital. i. part 2, Chron. Vulturnense; Mabill. Ann. Bened. i. 121. At a subsequent time it seems that these garments ceased to be distinct, and the long dress of the monk, having the cowl attached to it, was termed indifferently froccus, frocca, and floccus, or cuculla. Further information on this subject will be found in Ducange.]
  • Page  180FROGGE, or frugge, tode. Bufo.
  • FROHENS forewarde. Amodo, de∣inceps, actenus, decetero.
  • FROHENS (frohethyn, K. fro heyin, H. fro heyine, S. fro heym, P.) Hinc, dehinc (abhinc, K.)
  • FRO NY (or fro nere, K. P.) Co∣minus.
  • FRONT, idem quod FORHED, supra.
  • FROYD custummere þat byythe of a-nother, as ȝerne byers (froth custumnare, þat byyþ off a-noder, as ȝarne byars, S.)1. [A satisfactory interpretation of this word has in vain been sought. The practice of buying up woollen yarn for exportation was carried to a great extent in Norfolk, and other parts of England. It was highly injurious to the interests of the cloth-workers, and occasioned loss to the revenue. Many enactments appear in the statutes to protect both the weavers of Norfolk, and the customs, against the crafty proceedings of merchants, both strangers and denizens, "regrators and gatherers of woll." See particularly stat. 23 Hen. VI. c. 2; 7 Edw. IV. c. 3; 4 Hen. VII. c. 11; 33 Hen. VIII. c. 16. Perhaps froyd may imply the artful diligence with which covetous traders persisted in eluding the statutes, and robbing the staple manufacturers of Norfolk. Jamieson explains "frody" as signifying cunning; Teut. vroed, industrius, attentus ad rem. In the North, ac∣cording to Brockett, froating means anxious unremitting industry.]
  • FROYSE.2. [A pancake is called in the Eastern counties a froyse, a term derived, as Skinner conjectures, either from frixare, or the French froisser, because the substances of which it is compounded are beaten up together. Forby gives, as a Norfolk proverb, the following phrase: "If it won't pudding, it will froize;" if it won't do for one purpose, it will for another. See ancient recipes in the Forme of Cury, p. 96; and the "Kalendare de Leche metys. Froyse out of Lentyn." Harl. MS. 299, f. 36. "Froyse of egges, uovte d'oevfz." PALSG. Voulte d'oeufs is the ancient appellation of an omelet. "Fritilla, a froyse or pancake." ELYOT.]Frixura, CATH. Ver∣sus. Frixa nocent, elixa ju∣vant, assata coartant. Hec C. F.
  • FROKE, or frosche (frosh, K. froske, or frosche, H. S. P. or frogge, W.)3. [A small frog, according to Forby, is called in Norfolk a fresher. The distinction which appears to be here made between FROGGE, tode, and FROKE, or frosche, is pos∣sibly dialectical; they seem properly, however, to be synonymous, the former derived from A.S. frogga, rana, while the latter assimilates more nearly to the Germ. frosch, Dan. frosk, a frog. TOODE, fowle wyrme, occurs hereafter. "Rana, a froske, or frogge." ORTUS. "A froske, agredula, rana, rubeta, ranula." CATH. ANG. In the Golden Legend, in the Life of St. Peter, is a relation of the deceit practised upon Nero by his physicians, when he ordered them, "Make ye me wt chylde, and after to be delyuered, yt I may know what payne my moder suffred: which by craft they gaue to hym a yonge frosshe to drynke, and it grewe in his bely."]Rana.
  • FROST. Gelu.
  • FROTHE. Spuma, CATH. spu∣mula, KYLW.
  • (FROWARDE, S. P.) Contrarius, perversus, protervus.
  • FROWARDNESSE. Perversitas, contrarietas, protervitas.
  • FRO WYTHE YN'. Abinter, deintus.
  • FRO WYTHE OWTE (fro wit owtyn, K.) Abextra.
  • FROWNAR. Fruncator, CATH. in nario, rugator.
  • FROWNCE of a cuppe.4. [This term appears to signify the kind of ornament which in modern goldsmith's work is called gadrooned, from the French "goderonné, a fashion of imbossement used by goldsmiths, and termed knurling." COTG. Fronce implies a wrinkle, crumple, or gather, generally in allusion to dress, as in the Vis. of Piers Ploughm. 8657. "Froun∣syng, froncement." PALSG. Frontinella is not explained by Duc. and in the Ortus is rendered "the pyt in the necke;" it seems, therefore, to mean a wrinkled or irregular depression of surface. Possibly the correct reading may be froncinella. Fronciatus, i. rugatus, Duc.]Fronti∣nella (frigium, P.)
  • FROWNYN̄'. Frunco, CATH. in subsamno, sanno.
  • Page  181FROWNYN̄' wythe the nose. Nasio, CATH.
  • FROWNYNGE. Fruncacio, CATH. in subsamno, rugacio.
  • FROWNT, or frunt of a churche, or oþer howsys. Frontispicium, C. F. CATH.
  • FRUCE, or frute. Fructus.
  • FRUTUOSE, or fulle of frute (fruc∣tuowse, K.) Fructuosus, uber.
  • FRUMPYLLE. Ruga, rugula.
  • FRUMPLYD. Rugatus, rugulatus.
  • FRUNTELLE of an awtere.1. ["A fruntalle, frontale." CATH. ANG. The frontal of an altar is defined by Lynd∣wood to be "apparatus pendens in fronte altaris, qui apparatus alias dicitur Palla." Provinc. 252. The synod of Exeter, A.D. 1287, ordained that in every church the pa∣rishioners should provide "frontellum ad quodlibet altare." Wilkins, ii. 139. Abp. Winchelsey, in his Constitutions, A.D. 1305, prescribes that provision be made of "frontale ad magnum altare, cum tribus tuellis." Lyndw. 252. The frontal must not be confounded with the permanent decoration of the fore-part of the altar, properly termed tabula, or tablementum, which was formed either of sculptured or painted work, and sometimes of the most precious metals, chased, enamelled, and set with gems, as was that in Winchester cathedral, described in the Inventory given by Strype, Life of Abp. Parker, App. 187. The frontal was formed of the most costly stuffs, and often, if not properly by prescribed usage, was of the same suit or colour as the vestments used at the same time in the service of the altar. As there were both the tabula fron∣talis, and superfrontalis, which last seems to have been identical with the retro-tabula, or post-tabula, so likewise there were the pannus frontalis, and superfrontalis, the second being in both cases the decoration placed above the altar, and attached or ap∣pended to the wall or screen against which it was placed. The inventory of sacred or∣naments in the Wardrobe Book of 29 Edw. I. A.D. 1300, enumerates "Duo frontalia broudata majora et minora, de unâ sectâ," p. 350; identical, probably, in purpose with those termed "frontella ij pro altare, unum videlicet superius, et aliud inferius pro eodem," which were purchased by John de Ombresley, Abbot of Evesham, from the executors of Will. de Lynne, Bp. of Worcester, who died in 1373. Harl. MS. 3763. In Pat. 3 Hen. VI. these ornaments are again differently termed. Among various gifts to churches in France delivered by the executors of Henry V. it appears that they sent to St. Denis "unam altam frontellam, et unam bassam frontellam de velvet, rubeas, cum foliis aureis brouderatas." Rym. x. 346. In the inventory of the gifts of Abp. Chicheley to All Souls' Coll. A.D. 1437, there appears to be a distinction between the terms frontale and frontellum, as it enumerates, among many others, "j frontale et suffrontale de blodio velvet operatum cum stellis, patibulo, et salutatione; j frontellum de blodio velvet cum foliis quercinis aureis; vj frontys, et vj suffrontys unius sectae, steynid, pro secundis altaribus," &c. Gutch, Coll. Cur. ii. 262. The precise difference is not apparent, but each secta, or totus apparatus for an altar, comprised, according to this document, the "frontale, suffrontale, frontellum, ij curtinae, j des-cloth, j teca," or corporas case: possibly frontellum may be only a diminutive of the other term. Ducange gives the term "refrontale, apparatus altaris," the same, probably, as the pannus superfrontalis; as likewise the tabula suprafrontalis was, as has been observed termed also retro-tabula.]Fron∣tellus.
  • Page  182(FRUTE, P. Fructus, supra in FRUCE.)
  • FRUTYN̄', or brynge forþe frute. Fructifico.
  • FUL. Plenus, repletus.
  • FUL of wynde. Ventosus.
  • FULLE of wordys. Verbosus.
  • FULLARE. Fullo.
  • FULE of golde, quod dicitur gold∣fule (goldfoyl, K.) Brateum, vel bratea, in plur. CATH.
  • FULFYLLN̄', or fyllyn̄'. Impleo, repleo.
  • FULFYLLYN̄', or make a-cethe in thynge þat wantytħe (makyn a-set for þyngys þat wantun, S.) Supleo.
  • FULFYLLE wythe mete. Sacio, saturo.
  • FULLE clothe. Fullo, CATH.
  • FULLYNGE. Fullatura.
  • FULMARE, best (fulmard, H. P.)1. ["A fulmerd, fetoncrus." CATH. ANG. The polecat is commonly called in the North a foumart. See Jamieson, Brockett, &c. The Acts of James II. King of Scots, A.D. 1424, regulate the export of "fowmartis skinnis, callit fithowis." The foumart appears, however, to be distinct from the fitchew: in the Boke of St. Alban's, among "bestys of the chace of the stynkynge fewte," are named "the fulmarde, the fyches, &c. and the pulcatte." Harrison, speaking of indigenous animals, and the hunting of foxes and badgers, observes, "I might here intreat largelie of other vermine, as the polcat, the miniuer, the weasell, stote, fulmart, squirrill, fitchew, and such like." Descr. of Eng. B. iii. c. 4. Isaac Walton mentions "the fitchet, the fulimart, the polecat," &c. Compl. Angler, i. c. 1. See hereafter POLKAT (pulkat, MS.) idem quod fulmere.]Pecoides, DICC. fetontus, petor.
  • FULNESSE. Replecio, implecio.
  • FULNESSE of mete (or fulsūnesse, infra.) Sacietas, saturacio.
  • FULNESSE of sownde. Sonoritas.
  • FULNESSE or plente (fulsūnesse, K. H. P.) Habundancia, copia.
  • (FULSŪNESSE of mete, K. P. Saci∣etas.)
  • FUMETER, herbe. Fumus terre.
  • (FUMRELL of an hows, K. P. supra in FOMERELL. Fumarium.)
  • FUNDAMENT, or grownde of a byggy(n)ge (byggyn, K. be∣gynnynge, H. P.) Fundamentum.
  • FUNDAMENT, or grownde. Fundus.
  • FUNDELYNGE, as he þat ys fownd∣yn̄', and noman wote ho ys hys fadur, ne hys modyr. Inventi∣cius, inventicia, aborigo, UG.
  • FUNKE, or lytylle fyyr.

    2. Forby gives funk as signifying touchwood. The word may be derived from Germ. funk, Dan. funke, scintilla. R. Brunne uses the phrase "not worth a fonk," seeming to imply a brief existence, evanescent as a spark; Langt. Chron. p. 171. In another passage he relates that King John vowed vengeance upon Stephen Langton, and the monks who had chosen him Archbishop, against the royal pleasure.

    "Be beten alle fonkes, or in prison þam binde."

    p. 211.

    Gower describes the amorous Perithous and Ipotasie as having drunk

    "Of lust that ilke firie fonke."

    Conf. Am. lib. vi.
    Igniculus, foculus.
  • FUNT, or fant. Baptisterium, fons baptismalis.
  • FURBYSCHOWRE, idem quod FORBYSCHOUR, supra.
  • (FURCLYD, supra in forclyd, H. furcled, supra in forcled, P.)
  • FURGŌN' (furgont, K. furgun, or fyre forke, P.)3. ["Furgone for an ouyn, uavldree." PALSG. Cotgrave gives "Fourgon, an oven∣forke, tearmed in Lincolnshire, a fruggin," &c. This word is still in use in the North. See Brockett, v. fruggan. "A frugon, vertibulum, pala, furca ferrea." CATH. ANG.]Rotabulum,Page  183 UG. in ruo, vertibulum, CATH. arpagio. Vide alia in FYRE FORKE.
  • FURRODE (furryd, K.) Furratus.
  • FURRYN̄' wythe furre. Furro, penulo, KYLW.
  • FURRYNGE, Furratura (pelli∣catura, K.)
  • FURLONGE. Stadium.
  • FURMENTY, potage. Frumenti∣cium.
  • FURNEYS. Furnus, fornax, CATH. fornacula, KYLW.
  • FURST, or fyrst. Primus.
  • FURST BEGOTŌN'. Primogenitus.
  • FURSTE frute, or fruce. Primicie.
  • FURWRE, or furrure (furre, K. furwur, H. furrour, or furringe, P.) Penula, DICC. furratura, CATH.
  • FUSTYAN, clothe (or fusteyn, H. P.) Furesticus, DICC.
  • FUTE, odowre.

    1. The fute is the scent of a fox or beast of chace. Compare FEWTE, vestigium, which occurs previously. In Will. and Werwolf, when the monster returns to his den and discovers that the shepherd has carried the child away, he is sore grieved,

    "And as þe best in his bale þer a-boute wente,
    He found þe feute al fresh where forþ þe herde
    Had bore þan barn beter it to ȝeme.
    Wiȝtly þe werwolf þan went bi nose,
    Evene to þe herdes house, and hastely was þare."

    p. 4.

    See also pp. 2, 79; Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt, 1425; the Boke of St. Alban's, and Malory's Morte d'Arthur, B. 18, c. xxi. It seems probable that the term feuterer may be hence derived; but the Glossarists have supposed it to be a corruption of vaultrier, a keeper of the dog called in French "vaultre, a mongrel between a hound and a maistiffe; fit for the chase of wild bears and boars." COTGR. Bp. Kennett no∣tices the term in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033: "A feuterer, a dog-keeper; the word is corrupted from vautrier, Fr. vaultrier, Lat. veltrarius, one that leads a lime-hound, or grey-hound for the chace." In a vocabulary written in the latter part of the XVth cent. Harl. MS. 1002, f. 142, after "haywarde, parcare," &c. occurs "Fede∣rarius, a fewterer." Nares cites several passages in which this term is used.

    Odor, vel odos, olfactus.