Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, dictionarius anglo-latinus princeps, auctore fratre Galfrido grammatico dicto, ex ordine fratrum Predicatorum, northfolciensi, circa A. D. M.CCCC.XL. Olim ex officina Pynsoniana editum, nunc ab integro, commentariolis subjectis, ad Fidem codicum recensuit Albertus Way, A. M.
Galfridus, Anglicus, active 1440., Way, Albert, 1805-1874, ed., British Library. Manuscript. Harley 221.
  • EBBE of the see. Refluxus, sa∣laria, KYLW. ledo, CATH.
  • EBAN', tre. Ebanus.
  • EBBYN̄', as the see. Refluo, sa∣lario, CATH.
  • ECCO, sownde. Ecco.
  • EDGROW, gresse (edgraw, herbe, K. ete growe, gresse, H. P.)1. [The Medulla explains bigermen to be the mixed grain called in the Promptorium MESTLYONE, but it seems here to signify after-grass, or after-math, still called edgrow in some parts of England. Bp. Kennett mentions the word in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033. "Eddish, roughings or after-math in meadows, but more properly the stubble or gratten in corn-fields, from Sax. edisc, quod post messem in campis re∣linquitur. This word is in some southern parts corrupted into ersh, and in Surrey into esh, as a wheat esh, a barley esh. In Cheshire eddgrew, eddgrow, eddgrouth, from the Saxon preposition ed (which in composition denotes allwaie again, as re in the Latin,) and ȝrowan, germinare, crescere." This word is not noticed by Mr. Wilbraham, and it does not appear in the East Anglian Glossaries; in Shropshire, according to Hol∣loway's Provincial Dictionary, the after-grass is called "edgrew," or as stated by Mr. Hartshorne, "headgrove, or headgrow." Salopia Antiqua. The common appellation both in Norfolk and Suffolk is eddish, Ang. Sax. edisc, gramen serotinum, but it is also termed rawings, roughings, or rowen, a word used by Tusser and noticed by Ray, which may be a corruption of the older appellation edgrow. See Forby and Moore. Tusser uses the words eddish and etch to signify a stubble, or land that has produced a crop. In a copy of the Practica of John Arderne, Sloane MS. 56, p. 3, are some names of plants in French and English, among which occurs "weldillone, i. edgrowe." possibly some herb of autumnal growth, abounding in the after-grass. The Medulla gives "frutex, a styke, a yerde, and buske, vnderwode, or eddysche."]Bigermen, regermen.
  • EDDYR, or neddyr, wyrme. Serpens.
  • Page  136EFTE (or also, P.) Eciam.
  • EGGE (edge, P.) Acies.
  • EGGYD TOOLE on bothe sydys. Anceps.
  • EGGYD, as teethe for sowre frute. Acidus, C. F. CATH. stupefac∣tus.
  • EGGYD, or steryd, or entycyd to doōn' a dede (steryd to gode or bad, P.) Instigatus, incitatus.
  • EGGYN̄, as teþe for sowre mete.1. [Horman says, "my tethe edge with eating of these codlynges."]Obstupeo.
  • EGGYN̄, or entycyn̄' to doōn' welle or yvele (eggen, or styre to gode or yll, P.)

    2. The verb to egg, from Ang. Sax. eggian, incitare, occurs in this signification in R. Brunne, Piers Ploughman, and Chaucer, who uses also the substantive;

    "Soth is it, that thurgh womannes eggement
    Mankind was lorne, and damned ay to die."

    Man of Lawe's Tale.
    Incito, provoco.
  • EGYL, byrde. Aquila.
  • EGYR, or egre.

    3. The old writers give to the word eager the significations of sour, and of fierce; the first from the French "aigre, eager, sharp, tart, biting." COTGR. "Exacerbo, to make eygre." ORTUS. Palsgrave gives "Egernesse, bytternesse. Egar, fiers or mody as a wild beest is, fel."

    "He hente a spere with egre mode." Octovian, line 1653.
    "And sclendre wives, feble as in bataille,
    Beth egre as is a tigre yond in Inde."

    Clerke's Tale.
  • EGMENT, or sterynge. Incitamen∣tum, instigacio.
  • EGYRYMONYE, herbe. Agrimo∣nia, C. F.
  • EY (or egge, P.) Ovum.
  • EYE. Oculus, talmus.
  • EYE LEDE. Supercilium, cilium, palpebra.
  • EYLDYNGE, or fowayle (fowaly, K. fewaly, P.)4. [In the dialects of the North, as observed by Ray, any kind of fuel is called eldin, and the term is applied to the brush-wood of which fences are made. See Brockett, the Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. Ang. Sax. aeld, ignis, aelan, accendere. The word is given by Bp. Kennett among his valuable glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033.]Focale.
  • EYLYN̄'. (Obsto, P.)
  • EYMBRE, hote aschys (eymery or synder, hote asshes, P.) Pruna.
  • EYȜTHE (eyght, P.) Octo.
  • Page  137EYȜTENE (eyghtene, P.) Octo∣decim, vel decem et octo, secun∣dum correcciones fratrum pre∣dicatorum.
  • EYȜTHE HUNDRYD. Octingenti.
  • EYȜTY. Octoginta.
  • EYȜTHE TYMYS. Octies.
  • EYȜTYNDELE, mesure (eyhtyndyl, K. eyghtydell, J. W.)1. [Half a bushel is given hereafter as the same measure which is here intended; and the term EYȜTYNDELE seems to be derived from its being the eighth part of a coom, or half quarter, which has already occurred, COWME of corn̄e, cumba. Compare DELE, and HALVUNDEL. Ang. Sax. dael, pars. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, mentions another local name for the same measure, "a tofet, the measure of half a bushel, Kent; some say two fats. Sax. fat, or faet was the same measure as our peck."]Satum, CATH.
  • EYAR, element (eyre, P.) Aer, ether, ethera, CATH.
  • EYYR, or herytage (eyre, P.) Heres.
  • EYTHER, or bothe. Uterque.
  • ELE, fysche. Anguilla.
  • ELBOWE. Cubitus, KYLW.
  • ELDE, or olde, for-weryde (eeld, or worne, P.) Vetustus, de∣tritus, inveteratus.
  • EELDEN̄', agyn̄,2. [Agan̄, MS. The word elde, still retained in the Northern dialect, occurs often as substantive in old writers. Thus in the Wicliffite version, 3 Kings, xv., 23 is thus rendered, "Asa hadde ache in feet in þe tyme of his eelde;" personified, Rom. of Rose. "Senectus, helde; senex, haldman," Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Elde, senecta, senium, annositas." CATH. ANG. In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII., it is said that military exercises "must be vsede before in yongthe, or the body be made slewthefulle by age and elde." B. i, c. 4. Ang. Sax. eld, senectus.]supra in A, et ve∣terasco.
  • EL(D)FADYR. Socer.
  • ELDYR, or hyldyr, or hillerne tre (hillar, K. hyltre, or elerne, H. elder, or hyltre, or elorne, P.)

    3. In Norfolk, according to Forby, the elder tree is still called eldern; "sambucus, an eldrun," Harl. MS. 1002. Gautier de Bibelesworth says,

    "Mes de sueau (of ellern, MS. Phill. hildertre, Arund. MS.) lem fet suheaus,
    Vn manger ke est bons et beaus (wiþ milke.)"

    In Worcestershire the elder is termed ellern, and Piers Ploughman speaks of it thus:

    "Impe on an ellere,
    And if thy appul be swete,
    Muchel merveille me thinketh."

    Vision, line 5471.

    "Un sehu, an ellir tree." Harl. MS. 219. Ang. Sax. ellarn, ellen, sambucus. In the North the alder is called an eller, whence several names of places, as Ellerbeck, Eller∣burn, &c. in Yorkshire, are derived. Ang. Sax alr, alnus. "An ellyrtre, alnus; al∣netum est locus ubi crescunt." CATH ANG. In the Ortus is given another name of the elder, "sambucus, burtre, or hydul tre."

  • ELDE MAN, or woman. Senex, annosus, veteranus, grandevus, longevus.
  • ELD MODYR (elmoder, K. P.)4. ["An elfadyr, socer; an eldmoder, socrus." CATH. ANG. In the North an ell-mother, or eld-moder, signifies a mother in law, or step-mother, but, as Jamieson observes, must have properly denoted a grandmother, from Ang.-Sax. ealde-moder, avia. John Heworth of Gateshead bequeathed, in 1571, his best horse to his father in law, and adds, "Item, I gyve vnto my eldmoder, his wyffe, my wyffes froke, and a read petticote." Wills and Inv. published by the Surtees Soc. i. 352.]Socrus.
  • Page  138ELDWOMANN'. Anus, vetula.
  • ELEBRE, herbe (elebyr, K. P.) Eleborus.
  • ELEFAUNTE, or olyfaunt, beste. Elephas, elephantus, CATH. barrus.
  • ELEMENT. Elementum.
  • ELEUYN̄'. Undecim.
  • ELFE, spryte.1. [The Catholicon explains lamia to be a creature with a human face, and the body of a beast, or, according to a gloss on Isai. xxxiv, 14, a sort of female centaur, which entered houses when the doors were closed, as old wives' tales went, and cruelly used the children, whence the name, "quasi lania, a laniando pueros." The ancient leeches have given in their books numerous charms and nostrums for the relief of children "taken with elvys;" among which may be cited the following from a curious medical MS. of XVth cent. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps. "For a chylde that ys elfe y-take, and may nat broke hys mete, that hys mouthe ys donne (sic.) Sey iij tymes thys verse, Beata mater munere, &c. In the worchyppe of God, and of our Ladi, sey iij pater noster, and iij aueys, and a crede; and he schal be hole." In Sloane MS. 73, f. 125, it is directed to "take þe roote of gladen and make poudre þerof, and ȝeue þe sike boþe in his metes, and in hise drynkis, and he schal be hool wiþinne ix dayes and ix nyȝtis, or be deed, for certeyn." William Langham, practitioner in physic, recom∣mends this same remedy in his Garden of Health, 1579; and orders the root and seeds of the peony to be hung about children's necks, as a charm against the haunting of the fairies and goblins. The term elf is not, however, applied exclusively to mis∣chievous spirits, but to fairies generally. See in Brand's Popular Antiquities detailed observations on the Fairy Mythology. "An elfe, lamia, eumenis, dicta ab eu, quod est bonum, et mene, defectus. Elfe lande," (no Latin word) CATH. ANG. Horman seems to speak of elves as a sort of vampires: "No man stryueth with deed men but elfis, laruae;" and Palsgrave give "elfe, or dwarfe, nain." Ang. Sax. elf, lamia.]Lamia, CATH. et UG. in lanio.
  • ELYER, or elger, fyscharys instru∣ment.2. [This instrument seems to be the same which in East Sussex and Kent is known by the appellation of an eel-shear, but in other parts better known as an eel-spear.]Anguillaris, fuscina, C. F. fragidica dentata, KYLW.
  • ELYCE, propyr name (Ely, K. P.) Helias.
  • ELM, tre. Ulnus, C. F. (ulmus, K.)
  • ELMES, supra in A, ALMES.
  • (ELMESFULMAN, P. Elemosina∣rius, elemosinaria, rogatarius.)
  • (ELMES HOWS, P. Proseuca, CATH.)
  • ELNE, or elle (mesoure, P.) Ulna, KYLW.
  • ELOQUENT, or welle spoke man or woman. Eloquens, dicosus, UG.
  • ELSYN' (elsyng, K.)

    3. This word occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, where a buckled girdle is described:

    "Een isy doyt le hardiloun (þe tunnge)
    Passer par tru de subiloun (a bore of an alsene)."

    "An elsyne, acus, subula." CATH. ANG. "Sibula, an elsyn, an alle, or a bodkyn." ORTUS. In the Inventory of the goods of a merchant at Newcastle, A. D. 1571, occur "vj doss' elsen heftes, 12d. j clowte and ½ a c elson blades, viijs. viijd. xiij clowtes of talier nedles," &c. Wills and Inv. published by the Surtees Society, i., 361. The term is derived from the French alène; "elson for cordwayners, alesne." PALSG. In Yorkshire, and some other parts of England, an awl is still called an elsen.

  • Page  139ELLE WANDE (elwonde, P.) Ulna.
  • EEM, faderys broþer. Patruus, CATH.
  • EEM, moderys brothere.1. [The Anglo-Saxon word eam, avunculus, is commonly used by Chaucer, Gower, and all the earlier writers, and is not yet obsolete in the North of England. It is related in the life of St. Peter of Melane, that "one his eme whiche was an heretyke de∣maunded of his lesson, and the chylde sayd to hym, credo;—his uncle sayd to hym that he sholde no more say so." Legenda Aur. "An eme, avunculus, patruus. Versus, Patruus a patre pendet, avunculus ex genitrice. An eme son or doghter, patruelis, ex parte patris; consobrinus, ex parte matris." CATH. ANG. Bp. Kennett gives in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, the following use of the word eam, noticed likewise by Grose: "Eam, an unkle, Bor. This term in the North is familiarly applied to a gossip, and indeed to any friend or neighbour; so is the word unkle in Worcestershire, and adjoining parts, where mine unkle or my nunkle is a common appellation, as mine eam in the North. Ex ore viri doctissimi G. H."]Avun∣culus, CATH.
  • EMBYRDAY (embyr, or embyrday, H. P.) Angarium, vel quatuor temporum.
  • EMME, propyr name. Emma.
  • EMERAWNTYS, or emerowdys. Emorrois, CATH.
  • EMPEROWRE. Imperator.
  • EMTY. Vacuus.
  • EMTYNGE, or a-voydynge (voyd∣inge, P.) Evacuacio.
  • ENCHESONE, or cause (enchesyn, K. H. enchesen, P.)

    2. This word is derived from the French "acheison, encheison; occasion heureuse, loisir, cause de bonheur, dessein," &c. ROQUEF. "Enchesun, causa, occasio, accio, eventus, casus, racio." Synonym. Harl. MS. 1002. See CHESUN, and CAWSE, or enchesone. It is used by Wicliffe, and many early writers. Occleve says of St. Margaret,

    "But understandeth this, I onely commend her nought,
    By encheson of her virginitie."

    Letter of Cupide.
  • ENCRECYN̄'. Accresco, augmento, augmentor, CATH.
  • ENCRES, or incres. Incrementum, augmentum, augmentacio, ex∣crescencia.
  • EENDE. Finis.
  • ENDE, dooke byrde.

    3. This appellation of a duck, which now seems to be quite obsolete, is the Ang. Saxon ened, anas, in Dutch, eend; it occurs in the glosses on Gautier de Bibelesworth.

    "Zlusi a il ane (enede) et plounczoun, (douke)
    Qen riuere ont lour mansioun (woning.)"

    MS. at Middle Hill.

    And in another passage, "de naturell noyse des oyseaus, it is said,

    "En marreis ane iaroille (enede queketh.)"
  • EENDYD. Finitus, terminatus.
  • EENDYN̄', or makyn̄' a(n) ende. Finio, consummo, desino, CATH.
  • ENDYNGE. Finicio, terminacio.
  • ENDYTYD, or indytyd for trespas (of trespas, P.) Indictatus.
  • ENDYTYD (or indityd, K.) as scrip∣ture and spech̄e.4. [ENDYTYD, or yid . . . . . MS. The scribe has left a blank on account of a defect in the MS. from which his transcript was made; this appears to be supplied by the reading of the King's MS.]Dictatus.
  • ENDYTYN', or indytyn̄' scripture and feyre speche. Dicto.
  • ENDYTYN' or (inditen of, P.) tres∣pace. Indicto.
  • ENDYTYNGE, or indytynge of feyre speche, or scripture. Dictamen.
  • Page  140ENDYTYNGE (or indytinge, K.) or trespace. Indictacio.
  • ENDYVE, herbe. Endivia.
  • ENDLES. Infinitus, interminabilis.
  • ENDE METE, for dookelyngys (end∣mete, H. P. edmette, J. enmotte, W.) Lenticula, KYLW.
  • ENGYNNE, or ingyne. Machina.
  • ENGLYSSHE speche. Anglicum, (ydioma, P.)
  • ENGLYSHEMAN, or woman. An∣glicus.
  • ENGLONDE. Anglia.
  • ENHAWNCYN̄', or ynhawnsyn̄' (in∣haunten, P.) Extollo, exalto.
  • ENYOYĒN', or make ioy (enioyn, K. enioyen, P.) Exulto, gaudeo.
  • ENYYNTYSCHEN, or wastyn̄' (en∣yntyschyn, H.) Attenuo, exi∣nanio.
  • ENYN̄', or brynge forthe kynde∣lyngys.1. [The verb to ean or yean, which is commonly applied only to the bringing forth of lambs, here appears to have had anciently the more general signification of the word from which it is derived, Ang. Sax. eanian, eniti, parturire. See Somner, Nares, and Richardson.]Feto.
  • ENMY. Inimicus, hostis, emulus.
  • (ENMYTE, P. Inimicitia, hostilitas.)
  • ENOYNTYD. Inunctus.
  • ENOYNTYN̄', (or innoyntyn, K.) supra in ANOYNTYN̄'.
  • ENOYNTYN̄', or gresyn̄', or ley yn' to a thynge softe matere. Linio
  • ENOYNTYNGE. Inunctio.
  • ENTYRFERYN̄'. Intermisceo.
  • ENTYRYD, or intyryd, as dede men. Funeratus.
  • ENTYRYN̄' (or intyryn, P.) dede mēn'. Funero, C. F. infunero, C. F.
  • ENTYREMENT, or yntyrment. Funerale.
  • ENTYRME(N)TYN̄' (entermentyn, K. P.) Intromitto (vel inter∣mitto, K.)
  • ENTYRMENTYNGE. Intromissio.
  • ENTYRMENTOWERE (entermetoure, P.) Intromissor, intromissatrix.
  • ENTRE. Introitus, ingressus.
  • ENTRYD, or browȝte yn̄'. Induc∣tus, introductus.
  • ENTRYN̄' yn to a place. Introio, intro.
  • ENVYOWS, or invyowse. Invidus.
  • ERANYE, or spyde(r), or spynnare.2. [In the Latin-English Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. occurs among "nomina vermium, aranea, nerane;" the Medulla gives "muscaraneus, a litelle beste that sleethe the flye, the erayne;" and the Catholicon Angl. "Erane, a spyder or an atter∣copp, aranea." Ray mentions arayn as the name given to the larger sorts of spiders in Nottinghamshire, and the word aran, or arain, is still in use in Yorkshire. See ARAYNYE and SPYNNARE.]Aranea.
  • ERBE. Herba.
  • ERBE IŌN', or Seynt Ionys worte. Perforata, fuga demonum, ypericon.
  • ERBARE.3. [A garden was termed an ERBARE, or herber, from the French herbier, and the appellation must not be here confounded with arbour, the derivation of which is pro∣bably from Ang.-Sax. herberga, mansio. Chaucer, however, seems to use the word herber in both significations. "Viretum, locus pascualis virens, a gresȝerd, or an herber." MED. "An herber, herbarium." CATH. ANG. "Herbarium, an herber, ubi crescunt herbe, vel ubi habundant, or a gardyn." ORTUS. Caxton says, "Richer the carter shall lede dong on my land whan it shall be ered, and on my herber (courtil) whan it shall be doluen." Book for Travellers. Hall describes a curious pageant ex∣hibited at the entry of the Emperor Charles Vth into London, A. D. 1522, part of which was "a quadrant stage where on was an herber full of roses, lyllies, and all other flowers curiously wrought, and byrdes, beastes, and all other thynges of pleasure." Chron. 14 Hen. VIII.]Herbarium, virida∣rium, viridale.
  • Page  141ERCHEBUSCHOPPE. Archiepis∣copus, archipresul.
  • ERCHEDEKENE. Archidiaconus.
  • ERCHEPRESTE. Archipresbyter.
  • ERYE, or erthe (erde, K.)1. [It has been observed under the word BLO ERYE, that the reading of the MS. may perhaps be considered as corrupt, by an error of the scribe, who wrote y for þ; but it must be observed that similar errors are of very rare occurrence in this MS. and that the words are here placed in their proper order, as written with a y, whilst ERTHELY will be found in its place afterwards, the letter þ being in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet usually placed at the end, and in the Promptorium next after w. In an early MS. of the Medulla Grammatice, in the Editor's possession, which is equally free from the use of the character y instead of þ, which towards the later part of the XVth century became very general, occurs the word "gliteus, eryen."]Terra, humus, tellus.
  • ERYYN', or of the erthe. Terrenus.
  • ERTHE QWAKE, or erþe dene (er∣dyn, or erde qwave, K. erthdyn, P.)2. ["Ab erthe dyne, terremotus, or an erthe qvake." CATH. ANG. Mention occurs of "erthequaues" in the Legenda Aur. f. xxv. Ang.-Sax. eorð-dyn, terrae motus, cwacung, tremor. Robert of Gloucester uses the words erþgryþe, and erthegrine, signifying an earthquake.]Terremotus, sisimus, C. F.
  • ERNDE, or massage (erdyn, K. H. erden, P.) Negocium, nuncium.
  • ERE of a beste (man, K.) Auris, auricula.
  • ERE of corne. Spica.
  • ERE of a vesselle. Ansa.
  • ERYSY. Herisis.
  • ERYTYKE. Hereticus, heretica.
  • ERYAR of londe. Arator, glebo, C. F. georgicus, C. F.
  • ERYDAY, or eueryday. Quotidie.
  • ERYYN' londe.3. ["To ere, ubi to plughe." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives the verbs to ere, or to erye land, in the sense of ploughing; "he hath eared his lande, God send hym good innyng. To erye the yerthe, labourer." Harrison, in his description of Britain, B. ii., c. 24, speaking of the numerous antiquities turned up by the plough, says that "in the be∣ginning of the same Kings daies (Henry VIII.) also at Killeie a man found as he eared, an arming girdle harnessed with pure gold," with spurs of gold, and other precious things, of which part were in the possession of one Dr. Ruthall. Holinsh. Chron. i., 217. Ang.-Sax. erian, arare.]Aro.
  • ERYYNGE of londe. Aracio.
  • ERYTAGE. Hereditas.
  • ERLE, lorde. Comes.
  • ERLDĀM. Comitatus.
  • ERLY, or by-tymys yn þe morn∣y(n)ge. Mane (tempestive, P.)
  • EERLONDE (Erlond, K.) Hiber∣nia, Tanatos, C. F.
  • ERMYNE for forowrys (ermyns or furre, P.) Erminius, C. F.
  • ERMYTAGE. Her(e)mitorium.
  • ERMYTE (eremyte, P.)4. [From the Anglo-Saxon times until the Reformation, hermits, as well as anchorites or recluses, were a numerous class in England; many curious particulars regarding them have been brought together by Fosbroke, in his British Monachism, p. 503. The essential difference between the hermit and the ANKYR, or recluse, the terms occurring in the Promptorium, appears to be defined by Giraldus in his epistle to Abp. Langton, where he makes use of the following expression: "Heremitae solivagi—Anachoritae conclusi." Ang. Sacra, ii., 436. They had both, however, a fixed dwelling-place, al∣though differing in certain conditions; the establishment of an hermitage was among those acts which in former times served to testify, in a signal manner, of the piety of the founder, or his gratitude for divine protection. Thus it appears by Pat 1 Hen. IV. that, having landed in Holderness, on his return after many years of banishment, and been seated on the throne, one of the first acts of that sovereign was the precept "de heremitagio aedificando apud quendam locum vocatum Ravenescrosbourne, in quo Rex ultimo suo adventu applicuit." A curious evidence of the high respect and estimation in which recluses and hermits were held at this period, is afforded by the will of Henry, Lord de Scrop, A. D. 1415, whose bequests in their favour are singularly numerous and detailed. Rymer, ix, 275. ]Heremita.
  • Page  142ERNEST, supra in ARNEST, hansale; et . . . . . a(r)ra, arabo, strena.
  • ERNEST, ceryowste (or arnest, K.) Seriositas.
  • ERNESTLY. Seriose.
  • ERNYN̄', as horse (eerne, P.)

    1. The verb to erne or yerne, signifying to hasten, or run as an animal, Ang.-Sax. yrnan, currere, has not been sufficiently distinguished from the verb to yearn, Ang.-Sax. ȝeornian, desiderare, expressive of anxious longing or deep affection. The former occurs in several of the old romances; thus it is related of the wonderful long-legged race that Alexander found running bare-foot in the Indian forest,

    "Every wilde dere astore,
    Hy mowen by cours ernen tofore."

    K. Alis. line 5003.

    So also of the King of Navarre, when he charged forward to meet the Soudan's cham∣pion,

    "Vpon a stede he gan yerne
    With sper and scheld."

    Octouian, line 965.

    See also line 1934, where it is written "erne." It expresses also the strenuous move∣ment of the sailor.

    "The maryners awey gonne skylle,
    And yorne awey, with good wylle
    Well hastily."

    Ibid. line 561.

    In Piers Ploughman's Vision it is used to signify the flow of water, or running of tears.

    "And then welled water for wicked workes,
    Egrely ernyng out of men's eyen."

    Passus 20.

    Laneham, in his curious account of the reception of Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle, in 1575, uses the word in describing the eager course of the stag-hound; "the earning of the hoounds in continuauns of their crie, ye swiftnes of the deer, the running of footmen, the galloping of horsez . . . mooued pastyme delectabyl." Bishop Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. notices the sense of the word to earn, as used in the North, which is given also by Brockett and Jamieson; "to earn, to run as chees doth. Earning, chees rennet, Bor. from Sax. yrnen, currere." Lansd. MS. 1033.

  • ERTARE. Irritator, irritatrix.
  • ERTYN'. Irrito.
  • ERTYNGE. Irritacio.
  • Page  143ERWYGLE (erewygyll, P.)1. [The earwig is still, according to Forby, called eriwiggle in Norfolk, but it appears to be only a local corruption, as the word is usually written more conformably to its Ang. Saxon original, ear-wiȝȝa, vermis auricularis. Thus in a Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, is found "auriolus, Anglice a ȝerwygge;" and Palsgrave gives "Erwygge, a worme." See ARWYGYLL.]Au∣realis, UG. in auris.
  • ERTHELY. Terrene.
  • ERTHLY (or of erthe made, P.) Terrenus, terrestris.
  • EES, fyschys mete on a hoke (or boyght for fisshes, P.)2. [This curious word appears to be a Latinism; but is, perhaps, more directly taken from the old French, "Esche; appât, amorce; esca." ROQUEF.]Esca, escarium, KYLW.
  • ESCHE, tre. Fractinus (fraxinus, P.)
  • ESCH KEY, frute. Clava, C. F. in fractinus.
  • ESE, or cowmfort. Levamen, consolamen.
  • ESE, or reste. Quies (requies, P.)
  • ESY. Quietus.
  • ESY, or soft, as wedyr. Tranquillus.
  • ESY, or softe yn' sterynge. Lentus.

    3. This word is used by Chaucer and Lydgate, who in the Troy Book speaks

    "Of bitter eysell, and of eager wine."

    "Acetum, ayselle or bytter wyne." MED. GRAMM. "Acetum, aysyl, or vinegre." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Acetum, ayesell; Oxigalus, aysell menged." ORTUS. It occurs also in the Forme of Cury. Ang.-Sax. eisile, aisil, acetum.

  • ESYLY. Quiete, tranquille.
  • ESYLY, or sokyngly. Sensim, paulatim.
  • ESYN̄' or charge, or grevowsnesse. Allevio.
  • ESYN̄', or cukkyn', or schytyn̄' (or voydyn as man at priuy place, K. cuckyn, H. kackyn, P.) Ster∣coriso, merdo, egero, CATH.
  • ESYN' yn herte, of hevynesse. Quieto, delinio.
  • ESPE, tre. Tremulus.
  • EST. Oriens.
  • EESTERNE. Pascha.
  • ESTWARDE. Orientalis (orien∣taliter, P.)
  • EST WYNDE. Eurus.
  • ETYN̄'. Manduco, comedo, ves∣cor, CATH. mando, prandeo, edo.
  • ETYNGE. Manducacio, commestio.
  • ETYNGE HOWSE. Pransorium, CATH.
  • ETYNGE appulle tre. Esculus.
  • EWARE.4. [This word usally signifies a vessel for water; "ewer to wasshe with, aiguier," PALSG.; its meaning seems here to be transferred from the ewer to the person by whom it is carried. The Medulla gives "aquarius, aquaria, a waturberere." Ang. Sax. hwer, huer, cacabus. Among the domestics of the Earl of Essex, mentioned in his will. 1361, occurs "Davy, q'est Barber et Ewer." Nichols' Roy. Wills, 53.]Aquarius vel (aqua)ria.
  • EVENYN̄', or make evyn̄'. Equo, coequo, adequo.
  • (EUEN in menynge, or clothynge, P. Uniformis, et inde uni∣formiter.)
  • EVYN', a-lyke. Equus, equalis.
  • EVYNHOODE (evynhede, P.) Equa∣litas, equitas.
  • EVENEHOLDE, or euenelde (even∣olde, K. euyn olde, P.)5. ["Evyn eldes, coetaneus, coevus, colectaneus, equevus." CATH. ANG. "Coetaneus, unius et ejusdem etatis, euen olde." ORTUS. Horman says, "lyke as I se my son do for his frende and euenȝelde (equalis) and help hym in his maters, so it is right that we olde men shuld help and do eche for oder." Ang.-Sax. efen-eald, coevus.]Coevus, coetaneus.
  • Page  144EVENYNGE, þe laste parte of þe day. Vesper, vespera, CATH. sero, UG. in sereno.
  • EVESE, or evesynge of a howse.

    1. The term evesynge, from the Ang.-Sax. evesung, tonsura, evese, margo, occurs in the Gloss on G. de Bibelesworth; MS. at Middle Hill.

    "Et ceueroundel (sparewe net) à la ceuerounde (at þe euesinge)
    Prent le musshoun et le arounde (swalewe)."

    "Seuerunder à la severunde (a serundel at þe eueses)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 301, b. It would seem hence that it was usual to take small birds, as the muskeron, or sparrow, and the swallow, by means of a net adjusted to the house eaves; they probably served, as they do still in Italy and Southern Europe, as articles of food. In Piers Ploughman's Vision are mentioned "Isykles in evesynges;" and in the Creed "Orcheyarde and erbers evesed wel clene;" in which instance the word seems to be used precisely in the sense of the Ang.-Saxon verb efesian, tondere, unless it may signify that the erber, or garden of herbs, was neatly hedged in. The Medulla renders "intonsus, vnevesed. Antipophara, an evesynge." In the North of England the eaves are called easings. "Severonde, the eaue, eauing, or easing of a house." COTGR.

    Stillicidium, imbrex, imbricium, CATH. domicilium.
  • EVERY DAY. Quotidie.
  • EVESTERRE. Esperus, vesper, CATH.
  • EVYDENS. Evidencia.
  • EVYL. Malus.
  • EVYL, or sekenesse. Infirmitas.
  • EVYL HAPPE, or evyl chefe.2. [The word chefe, signifying chance or fortune, has occurred already, but in the MS. is written, as it would seem erroneously, CHEP. It appears to be taken from the French, chef, chief, which, according to Roquefort, implies not only the head, or the commence∣ment of a thing, but the end, issue, or extremity. Chaucer, in the Merchant's second Tale, speaks of "the boncheff and the myscheff;" and in the account of William Thorpe's examination by Abp. Arundel in 1407, published by Fox from a contemporary authority, it is related that he said, "if I consented to you to doo heere after your will for bonchefe or mischefe that may befall me in this life, I deme in my conscience that I were worthy herefore to be cursed of God."]In∣fortunium, diffortunium.
  • EUER LASTYNGE. Sempiternus, perpetuus, perhennis, eternus.
  • EVYRLASTYNGNESSE. Eternitas, perpetuitas, perhennitas.
  • EUERMORE Eternaliter, per∣petue, perhenniter (semper, K.)
  • EX, instrument. Securis.
  • EXAMYN̄', or apposyn̄', or a-sayyn̄ (posyn, H. posen, P.)

    3. The verb apposyn̄', which does not occur in the Harl. MS. in its proper place alphabetically, has here the same signification as that in which it is used by Chaucer, and many of the old writers, namely, of putting to the question, or examining judicially.

    "May I not axe a libel, Sire Sompnour,
    And answere ther by my procuratour,
    To swiche thing as men wold apposen me?"

    Frere's Tale.

    "I appose one, make a tryall of his lernyng, or laye a thyng to his charge. I am nat to lerne nowe to appose a felow, aposer." PALSG.

  • EXAWMPLE. Exemplum.
  • EXAWMPLERE. Exemplar.
  • EXAWMPLYN̄'. Exemplifico, ex∣emplo, CATH.
  • EXECUTOWRE. Executor, exe∣cutrix.
  • EXCESSE, or owterage. Excessus.
  • EXCESSE of drynke. Bibera, UG.
  • EXCESSE of etynge. Peredia, UG.
  • EXCLUDYD, or put owte. Ex∣clusus.
  • EXCLUDYNGE, or puttynge owte. Exclusio.
  • Page  145EXCUSABLE. Excusabilis.
  • EXCUSACYON'. Excusacio.
  • EXCUSYD. Excusatus.
  • EXCUSYN̄'. Excuso.
  • EXEMPTYDE (exempt, P.) Ex∣emptus.
  • (EXEMPCION, K. P. Exempcio.)
  • EXYLYD. Extorris, C. F. UG.
  • EXYLYN̄', or banyshēn'. Bannio, relego, UG. (exulo, K.)
  • EXPERYMENT. Experimentum.
  • EXPERTFULLE, be dede know∣ynge (expert full knowen, K. P.) Expertus.
  • EXPOSYCYON', or expownynge. Exposicio.
  • EXPRESSYN', or spekyn' owte opynly (shewen openly, P.) Ex∣primo.
  • EXTORCYON'. Extorcio, exactio, angaria.
  • EXTORCYONERE. Extortor, ex∣actor, predator, angarius, BRIT.
  • EXULTRE, or ex tre, supra in A, AXILTRE.