Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, dictionarius anglo-latinus princeps, auctore fratre Galfrido grammatico dicto, ex ordine fratrum Predicatorum, northfolciensi, circa A. D. M.CCCC.XL. Olim ex officina Pynsoniana editum, nunc ab integro, commentariolis subjectis, ad Fidem codicum recensuit Albertus Way, A. M.
Galfridus, Anglicus, active 1440., Way, Albert, 1805-1874, ed., British Library. Manuscript. Harley 221.
  • CABAN', lytylle howse. Pretori∣olum, CATH. C. F. capana.
  • CABLE, or cabulle, grete shyppe (cabyl or schyp roop, H. P.) Cur∣cula, CATH. currilia, UG. in curvo, curculia, restis, rudens.
  • CABOCHE. Currulia, UG. in curvo.
  • CASE of closynge. Capsa.
  • CASE or happe (or chaunce, P.) Casus, eventus.
  • CADAS.

    2. Cadas appears to have signified flocks of silk, cotton, tow, or wool, used for stuffing gamboised garments. In the curious poem by Hue de Tabarie, at Middle Hill, en∣titled, "Coment le fiz Deu fu armé en la croyz," is this passage,

    "Pur aketoun ly bayle blaunche char e pure,
    Pur cadaz e cotoun de saunk fu le encusture."

    MS. Heber, No. 8336.

    In the petition against excess of apparel, 1463, it is thus mentioned; "No yoman, &c. to were in the aray for his body eny bolsters, nor stuffe of woole, coton, or cadas, nor other stuffer in his doubtlet, save lynyng accordyng to the same." ROT. PARL. "Cadas or crule, saijette." PALSG. "Cadarce pour faire capiton, the tow, or coursest part of silke, whereof sleaue is made." COTGR. Nares explains caddis to be a sort of worsted lace.

  • CADAW, or keo, or chowghe (ca∣dowe or koo, K. P. ko, H.)3. [Caddow is still the name given to the jackdaw in Norfolk, as Coles and Forby have recorded. Palsgrave gives "Caddawe a byrde, chucas," and Withal renders "Caddow or dawe, nodulus." "Monedula, a choughe or cadess." ELYOT. Keo is from A.S. ceo, cornix. See hereafter COO BYRDE, or schowhe.]Mo∣nedula.
  • CADE of herynge (or spirlinge, K. P.) or oþyr lyke.4. [The quantity of fish contained in a cade is determined by the Accounts of the Cel∣larist of Berking Abbey, MON. ANG. I. 83: "a barrel of herryng shold contene 1000, and a cade of herryng six hundreth, sixscore to the hundreth." Palsgrave renders cade, escade, but the word does not occur in the Dictionaries. In 1511 it appears by the Northumberland Household Book, that the cade of red herring was rated at 6s. 4d. the cade of "sproytts, 2s." The spirling mentioned here was the smelt, called in French esperlan. See hereafter SPIRLYNGE, epimera.]Cada, lacista, KYLW. ligatura.
  • CAGE. Catasta.
  • CAHCHARE, or dryvare (catcher, P.) Minator, abactor.
  • CACHYN' a-way (catchinge away, P.) Abigo.
  • Page  58CHASȲN', or drvye furþe (catchyn or dryue forth bestis, P.) Mino.
  • CAHCHPOLLE, or pety-seriawnte. Angarius, exceptor, UG. C. F.
  • CAHCHYNGE, or hentynge (catch∣inge or takyng, K. P.) Appre∣hencio, decapcio, captura.
  • CAHCHYNGE, or drywynge a-wey or forthe. Minatus, abactio, CATH. in abigo.
  • CAYTYFFE. Calamitosus, dolo∣rosus, UG. BRIT.
  • CAKE, Torta, placenta, colirida, C. F. libum.
  • CAKELYN̄' of hennys. Gracillo.
  • CAKELYNGE, or callynge of hennys. Gracillacio.
  • CAKKYN', or fyystyn'. Caco, CATH.
  • CALAMYNT, herbe. Calamenta, balsamita (balsiata, P.)
  • CALENDIS (calende, J.) Calende.
  • CALENDERE. Kalendarium, KYLW.
  • CALFE, beste. Vitulus.
  • CALFE of a legge. Sura, CATH. C. F. UG. in suo.
  • CALKE or chalke, erye. Calx, creta.
  • CALKYN̄'.1. ["He calketh (vestigat) vpon my natyuyte." HORM. Palsgrave gives the verb "to calkyll as an astronomer doth whan he casteth a fygure, calculer. I dare nat calkyll for your horse that is stollen, for feare of my bysshoppe." See also Paston Letters, i. 114.]Calculo.
  • CALLYN' or clepyn'. Voco.
  • CALLYN' yn', or owte, be name, a-ȝene, to-gedyr, to mete, quere infra in CLEPYN̄'.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge. Vocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge a-ȝene. Revocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge yn to a place. Invocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge to-gedyr. Convocacio.
  • CALLYNGE or clepynge to mete. Invitacio.
  • (CALYON, rounde stone, P.2. [In the accounts of the Churchwardens of Walden, Essex, in 1466, 7, among the costs of making the porch, is a charge "for the foundacyon, and calyon, and sonde." Hist. of Audley End, p. 225. Among the disbursements for the erection of Little Saxham hall in 1505, is one to the chief mason, for the foundation within the inner part of the moat, "to be wrought with calyons and breke, with foreyns and other necessaries con∣cerning the same." Rokewode's Hundred of Thingoe, 141. "Calyon, stone, caliou." PALSG. In the dialect of Northern England a hard stone is termed a callierd.]Ru∣dus. Hic rudus esto lapis, durus, pariterque rotundus.)
  • CALME or softe, wythe-owte wynde. Calmus, C. F. tranquillus.
  • CALME-WEDYR. Malacia, cal∣macia, C. F.
  • CALKESTOKE (calstoke, P.)3. ["A cale stok, maguderis." CATH. ANGL. "Maguderis est secundus caulis qui nascitur in tyrso absciso, vel ipse tyrsus abscisus, a koolestocke." ORT. VOC. "A calstok." MED. In Harl. MS. 1587, occur "maguderis, wortestokk, cauletum, cawlegarthe." "Calstocke, kalstocke, pié de chou." PALSG. In Scotland "castock or kail-castock, the stem of the colewort," according to Jamieson.]Ma∣guderis.
  • CALTRAP, herbe.4. [In the Dictionary of Synonyms of names of plants, in Latin, French and English, Sloan. MS. 5, compiled about the middle of the fifteenth century, occurs "Saliunca, spica Celtica, Gall. spike seltic, Ang. calketrappe." A. Sax, coltraeppe, rhamnus. "Cal∣trops, tribulus, seu carduus stellatus." SKINNER. In French chausse-trappe, according to Cotgrave, signifies both the thistle, and the caltrop used in war.]Saliunca, C. F. CATH.
  • Page  59CALTRAP of yryn, fote hurtynge.

    1. "A calle trappe, hamus, pedica." CATH. ANGL. "Caltrapa, a caltrappe," ORT. VOC. The Catholicon gives the following explanation of hamus. "Dicitur et hamus asser cum clavis quo subtegitur terra in vineis sub arboribus defendendis, vel in domo circa scrinia et thesauros, ut si aliquando fur ingrediatur, ejus pedibus infigatur." In the contemporary poem describing the Siege of Rouen by Henry V. the city is said to have been defended by a deep and wide dike, full of pitfalls, "of a spere of heyth."

    "Also fulle of caltrappys hyt was sette
    As meschys beth made wythinne a nette."

    Archaeol. xxi. p. 51.

    "They hydde pretely vnder the grounde caltroppys of yron to steke in horse or mennys fete, murices ferreos leviter condiderunt." HORM. Chaussetrappe is explained by Cotgrave to be an "iron engine of warre made with four sharp points, whereof one, howsoever it is cast, ever stands upward." Among the "municyons and habyllyments of warre" belonging to Berwick castle, 1539, occur "15 pece of lettes calteroopes." Archaeol. xi. 439. Caltraps are mentioned by Quintus Curtius in the Life of Alex∣ander as having been spread over the ground by the Persians to annoy the Macedonian cavalry. This circumstance is thus described, Kyng Alisaunder, line 6070:

    "And calketrappen maden ynowe,
    In weyes undur wode and bowe,
    Alisaundris men to aqwelle,
    And synfulliche heom to spille."

    Vegetius calls them tribuli. A representation of a caltrap, from the Tower collection, will be found in Skelton's Illustrations of the Armoury at Goodrich Court, ii. pl. 132.

    Hamus, CATH. C. F. UG.
  • CALTRAPPYN'. Hamo.
  • CALVUR as samoon, or oþyr fysshe.2. [The recipe in the Forme of Cury, p. 48, directs for "vyande Cypre of samone, take almandus and bray hem unblaunched, take calwar samone, and seeth it in lewe water," &c. See also p. 75, "salwar salmone ysode." Palsgrave renders "caluer of samon, escume de saulmon." This term appears to denote the state of the fish freshly taken, when its substance appears interspersed with white flakes like curd; thus in Lancashire the fish dressed as soon as it is caught is termed calver salmon, and in North Britain caller or callour signifies fresh, according to Jamieson. "Quhen the salmondis faillis thair loup, thay fall callour in the said caldrounis, and ar than maist delitious to the mouth." Bellend. Descr. Alb. c. 11. Calvered salmon is mentioned by Ben Jonson and Massinger as a delicacy; and Isaac Walton applies the term to the gray∣ling. R. Holme, however, would make it appear that calver was a term applied to fish dressed in oil, vinegar, and spices. See also Nares. The word "caleweis," which occurs in Chaucer, Rom. of Rose, and has been by the earlier glossarists interpreted as calvured salmon, is in the original "poire de caillouel," a sort of sweet pear, called by Roquefort caillos, or cailloel.]
  • CAMAMYLE, herbe. Camamilla.
  • CAMELLE, or chamelle. Camelus.
  • CAMMYD, or schort nosyd.

    3. This word seems to be taken from the French, "camus, qui a le nez court." LACOMBE. Cotgrave renders camus, flat-nosed.

    "Round was his face, and camuse was his nose."

    CHAUC. Reve's Tale.

    Hence also the sea-gull appears to have received a name, which is given by Elyot, "Candosoccus, a sea-gull, or a camose." See Camy, and Camow-nosed, in Jamieson's Dictionary.

    Simus, C. F.
  • CHAMMYDNESSE (cammednesse, P.) Simitas.
  • Page  60CAMPAR, or pleyar at foottballe.1. [Forby and Moore have given ample illustrations of the nature of the game at ball called to this day in Norfolk and Suffolk, camping: the former agrees with Ray, in de∣riving the word from the A. Sax. campian, praeliari. The camping-land appropriated to this game occurs, in several instances, in authorities of the fifteenth century; in Cullum's Hawsted, mention is found, in 1466, of the camping-pightle.]Pedilusor, pedipilusor.
  • CAMPȲN'. Pedipilo.
  • CAMPYNGE. Pedipiludium.
  • CAMPYON, or champyon. Athleta, pugil, campio, CATH.
  • CANCELLYNGE, or strekynge owte a false word. Obelus, C. F.
  • CANCET, soore or kankere (cankyr, K.) Pustula, UG. in puteo, cancer, C. F.
  • CANDYLLE (candell, P.) Candela.
  • CANDELERE.2. [This word seems to be taken from the French chandelier, a candlestick: cande∣larius signifies properly a maker of candles. See hereafter CHAWNDELERE.]Candelarius, can∣delabra.
  • CANDYLRYSCHE (candelrushe, K.) Papirus, CATH.
  • CANDELBEM' (candell beme, P.) Lucernarium.
  • CANDELSTYKKE. Candelabrum, lucernarium, C. F.
  • (CANEL of a belle, K. Canellus.)
  • CANEL, spyce. Cinamomum, amo∣mum.
  • CANEL, or chanelle (in the weye, H. in the strete, P.) Canalis, (aquagium, P.)
  • CANVAS, clothe. Carentinilla, NECC. DICC. canabeus, canalbus, canabus, KYLW. canabasium.
  • CANKER, sekenesse. Cancer.
  • CANKYR, worme of a tre. Teredo, UG. in tero, termus, termes, C. F.
  • CANNYN', or grucchyn' (canyyn or grochyn, K. chanyyn, H. canyen, P.) Murmuro, remurmuro (ca∣niso, P.)
  • CANONYZYDE. Canonizatus.
  • CANONIZACION. Canonizacio.
  • CANOPE.3. ["Canopeum, reticulum subtile factum de canabo. Canopeum, a gnate nette, rete quo culices vel musce excluduntur." DICT. WILBR. The Canope alluded to in the Promptorium, was very probably the Umbraculum under which the Sacred Host was carried in the procession on Palm Sunday. "Canapy to be borne over the sacrament, or ouer a Kynges heed, palle, ciel." PALSG. See the word canapeum in Ducange.]Canopeum.

    4. "Minutal, a lompe of brede, or cantel." ORT. VOC. "Cantel of breddle, cantel or shyuer, chanteau." PALSG.

    "Of Florentys scheld a kantell
    He cleft thonryght." Octouian, line 1113.

    The term occurs also in "the Anturs of Arther at the Tarnewathelan." Hall, in his account of the marriage of the Princess Mary to Lewis XII. at Paris, in 1514, describes the entry of the Dauphin, whose "apparell and bardes were cloth of golde, cloth of syluer, and crymsyn veluet kanteled together." Hall's Chron. 6 Hen. VIII. Roquefort gives "Chantel, un morceau de pain," from cantellus. See Ducange, and Mon. Angl. i. 411. In Norfolk, to cant is to set a thing up on edge; see Forby, Moore, and Nares.

    of what euer hyt be. Quadra, UG. minutal.
  • CANTYN', or departyn'. Partior, divido.
  • CAPPE.5. [The priestly vestment generally known as the cope is here intended. "Capa, a cappe or a cope; caracalla, a sclauyn or a cape." DICT. WILBR. "A cope." ORT. Pilleum, according to the Catholicon, signifies a garment made of skins, but in its more usual sense, a covering for the head. In early times the cappa was an ordinary upper garment worn by ecclesiastics indiscriminately, and Ecgbert, Abp. of York, ordained in the eighth century that none of the clergy should appear in the church "sine co∣lobio vel cappâ." Of the various modifications of this vestment, and the names by which they were distinguished, a detailed account will be found in Ducange. At a later period the cope was a vestment reserved for occasions of ceremony: when worn by prelates and dignitaries, the richest tissues were chosen, and covered with a gorgeous display of jewels, orfrays, and embroidery; but its use was not confined to them, for with the exception of the priest officiating at the altar, who was vested in the sacred garments appropriated to the service of the mass, the cope appears to have been worn by all the assisting clergy, and even the choristers. In A. Sax. the name cappa, or caeppa, was adopted from the Latin, probably as early as the mission of St. Augustine, A.D. 601; and a cappa oloserica, one of the gifts of Gregory the Great, was preserved at Canterbury until the Reformation. See hereafter COOPE, capa.]Cappa, pilleum, CATH. DICC. Campedulum, C. F. (capa, K. caracalla, P.)
  • Page  61CAPPE, or hure, for clerkys.1. [The use of a small cap by the clergy as a covering of the tonsure is one of con∣siderable antiquity, it was usually termed the coif, coypha, and this term occurs here∣after in the Promptorium. This was identical, as Joh. de Athona asserts, with the tenae or infulae, but these appear more properly to have been lappets appended to the coif, and which occasionally were fastened under the chin. At various periods, when the clergy, disregarding strict propriety in demeanour and dress, became assimilated in externals to the laity, the coif was specially decried by the Church. Thus in the Council of London in 1267, the Legate Othobonus ordained that the clergy sould never appear in public with the coif, except in travelling, because thereby the corona, or circlet of hair left by the tonsure, was concealed, and therein "praecipue depositio terrenorum, et regalis sacerdotii dignitas designantur." See Lyndwode, Provinciale, p. 88. Hure, howe, or howfe, are synonymous, and are derived from A. Sax. hufa, cidaris. See hereafter HOWE or hure, heed hyllynge, and HWYR, cappe.]Tena, CATH. C. F.
  • CAPPE of a fleyle.2. ["Cappe of a flaylle, cappa." CATH. ANGL. "Cappe of a flayle, liasse d'un flaiau." PALSG.]Meditentum, COMM.
  • CAPYTLE, or chapytle, or captur (capytyll or chapytyll, P.) Ca∣pitulum.
  • CAPUL, or caple, horse.

    3. This word, which, as Skinner observes, is evidently a corruption of caballus, is used by Chaucer: the Cambridge Scholar exclaims, when the Miller lets his horse loose,

    "Why ne hadst thou put the capell in the lathe."

    Reve's Tale.
    "The knyȝt kacheȝ his caple and com to the lawe."

    Gawayn and the Green Knyȝt, lin. 2175.

    "Capull, a horse, roussin." PALSG. Cotgrave explains roussin to be "a curtall, a strong German horse." Elyot gives "Caballus, a horse; yet in some partes of England they do call an horse a cable."

    Caballus, C. F.
  • CAPVNE or capone. Capo, CATH. gallinacius.
  • CAPTEYN. Capitaneus.
  • CARANYE, or careyn'.4. [This word is written by R. of Gloucester and P. Ploughman caroyne, by Chaucer careyne. In the Wicliffite version likewise, Hebr. iii. 17, is rendered, "Whether not to hem that synneden, whos careyns weren cast doun in desert?" It is taken from the French "caroigne, cadavre." ROQUEF.]Cadaver.
  • CARE-AWEY, sorowles (carawey Page  62 sorweles, H. caraway, P. care∣awaye, W.) Tristicia procul.
  • CARAWAY herbe. Carwy, sic scribitur in campo florum.
  • CARDE, wommanys instrument. Cardus, C. F. discerpiculum.
  • CARDE maker. Cardifactor.
  • CARDYN' wolle. Carpo.
  • CARDENALE (cardynall, P.) Car∣dinalis.
  • CARDYACLE (cardyakyll, P.) Car∣diaca, UG. in Cardyan.
  • CARE. Tristicia, mesticia, dolor.
  • CARE, of hert-besynesse (hertlybe∣synesse, P.) Solicitudo.
  • CARYN' yn' herte. Solicitor.
  • CARRE, carte. Carrus, C. F. currus.
  • CARRE, orlytylle carte þat oone hors drawythe. Monocosmus, CATH.
  • CARYARE. Vector, vectitor.
  • CARYAGE. Vectura, portagium, cariagium.
  • CARYYNGE (cariynge, P.) idem est.
  • CARYN', or cary (caryen, P.) Veho, transveho.
  • CARYYNGE vesselle, or instrument of caryynge. Vectorium, CATH.
  • CARTEHOWSE (carfax, or carfans, H. P.1. [The Harl. MS. gives here CARTEHOWSE, which appears wholly erroneous. The word does not occur in the MS. at King's College. Skinner derives the name of the Carfax at Oxford from the French carrefour, or possibly from quatre faces: another derivation has been proposed, from quatre voies. See an article on the Oxford Carfax, in the Antiq. Repert. iii. 267.]Quadrivium.
  • CARKEYS. Corpus, cadaver.
  • CARLE, or chorle.2. ["Harke howe the fat carle puffeth, le gros vilain." PALSG. A. Sax. ceorl, carl∣man, rusticus.]Rusticus.
  • CARLE, or chorle, bondeman or woman. Servus nativus, serva nativa.
  • CARLOK, herbe.3. [According to Gerarde, carlock, charlocke, or chadlocke, is a sort of wild rape or turnip, rapistrum arvorum, now known as the sinapis arvensis. In Arderne's Practica, however, aubfoyn, which is properly the corn-flower, is rendered karloke, Sloan. MS. 56. A. Sax. cerlice, rapum sylvestre. "Eruca, a coleworm or a carlok." ORT. VOC.]Eruca.
  • CARAL, songe (caroll, P.)4. ["A caralle, corea, chorus." CATH. ANGL. "Carole a song, carolle, chanson de Noël." PALSG. A. Sax. kyrriole, a chanting at the Nativity.]Pali∣nodium, UG. in paluri (psalmo∣dium, psalmodinacio, K.)
  • CAROOLYN', or synge carowlys (carallyn, P.) Psalmodio, (pal∣linodio, P.)
  • CAROLYNGE. Palinodiacio.
  • CARPARE. Fabulator, garula∣tor, garula.
  • CARPYN', or talkyn'.

    5. Palsgrave gives the verb, "to carpe, Lydgate, this is a farre northen verbe, cac∣queter." Gower uses it, Conf. Am. lib. vii.

    "So gone thei forthe, carpende fast
    On this, on that."
    Fabulor, confabulor, garrulo.
  • CARPE, fysche. Carpus.
  • CARPYNGE. Loquacitas, garu∣lacio, collocutio.
  • CART. Biga, reda, quadriga.
  • CARTARE. Bigarius, redarius, auriga.
  • CARTYN', or lede wythe a carte.6. [The Promptorium does not give again the verb to lead, as it is here used, in the signification of to carry. Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, "Richer the carter shall lede dong (mettra) on my land, whan it shall be ered, and on my herber (courtil) whan it shall be doluen."]Carruco, CATH.
  • Page  63(CASARD, netes donge, P. casen, W.1. ["Casings, stercus siccum jumentorum, quod pauperes agri Lincolniensis ad usum foci colligunt; a Teut. Koth, fimus, q. d. cothings." SKINNER. In the North, ac∣cording to Brockett, casings, or cassons, are cow-dung dried for fuel. It is still the usage in the neighbourhood of Lynn to employ cow-dung for this purpose. Richards' Hist. i. 80.]Bozetum.)
  • CAST, or castyd. Jactatus, pro∣jectus.
  • (CASTE DOWNE, K. P. Prostra∣tus, projectus.)
  • CASTYN̄', or brakyn' (as man owt the stomack, K.)2. [The Wicliffite version renders ii. Pet. 2, 22, "The hounde turnyde agen to his castyng." In Sloan. MS. 100, f. 5, b. is given the following prescription: "For castinge, For hem that may not browke her mete. Take centorie, and sethe it in watir, and lete the sike drink it leuc warm iii daies, and he schal be hool, for this medicyn spourgith the brest, and the stomak."]Vomo, evomo.
  • CASTYN' A-VAY. Abjicio, projicio.
  • CASTYN', or throwyn̄'. Jacto, jacio.
  • CASTYN' DOWNE. Dejicio.
  • CASTE for to goōn', or purpose for to dōn' any othyr thynge (caste for to go, or any other thinge done, P.) Tendo, intendo, CATH.
  • CASTE lootte. Sorcior.
  • CASTE warke (werkys, K.) or dys∣posyn'. Dispono, propono.
  • CASTYNGE, or a caste. Jactus, jactura.
  • CASTYNGE downe, or a-wey. Pro∣jectio.
  • CATTE, beste. Cattus, mureligus, pilax, CATH.
  • CATELLE (catal, K.) Catallum, census. CATH.
  • CATYRPEL, wyrm' amonge frute.3. ["Catyrpyllar, worme, chatte pelleuse." PALSG.]Erugo, UG.
  • CATŌN', or Catvn' (propre name, P.)4. [In the middle ages a metrical system of ethics, entitled "Disticha de moribus ad filium," attributed to Dionysius Cato, or Magnus Cato, had attained the highest degree of estimation. It was illustrated by the comments of the most learned men of several centuries, and served as a manual for the instruction of youth. It is not certain who was the author; a translation from the Latin was made about 1480, by Benedict Burgh, Archdeacon of Colchester, for the use of his pupil Lord Bourchier; and in 1483 Caxton published his translation from a French version, entitled "The Booke called Cathon." Chaucer frequently quotes Cato: see Miller's Tale, 3227, Marchaunt's Tale, 9261. Caxton says in the Boke for Travellers, "George the booke sellar hath doctrinals, catons, oures of our Lady, Donettis, partis, accidents." See Warton's Hist. of Eng. Poetry, ii. 166. Dibdin's Typogr. Antiq. i. 195.]Cato, CATH.
  • CAUCYON, or wedde.5. [Caucyon may here signify a pledge, as in Palsgrave, "causion, pledge, caution." See hereafter WEDDE, or thynge leyyd yn plegge. The Catholicon, however, explains cautio to be a simple promise, without oath, pledge, or surety, but idonea cautio, im∣plied those additional securities. It is further interpreted to be a writing, as Papias says "cautio est breve recordationis chirographum. Unde in Evang. Luc.: Accipe cautionem tuam." In the Wicliffite Version this passage is rendered "and he seide to him, take thy caucioun and wryte fifty," Luke xvi. 6.]Cautio, CATH.
  • Page  64CAWDELLE.1. ["Caldarium, a cawdell." ORT. VOC. Palsgrave render it chaudeau, which according to Roquefort was "bouillon qu'on donnoit aux époux le matin du lendemain des noces, calens jusculum." In Caxton's Boke for Travellers, occur as "Potages. Caudell for the seke, chaudel. Growell and wortes." Skinner and Junius interpret it to be merely a spicy drink, but in the ancient terms of cookery cawdel signifies generally anything stewed down to a purée; see in the Forme of Cury, pp. 24, 27, "chykens in cawdel, cawdell ferry;" and in Cott. MS. Julius, D. VIII. f. 100, "Caudelle of samone, caudelle of muskles." See further calenum, in Charpentier.]Vitellium, caldea∣rium, caldellum, et hoc nomen habetur in commentario Johan∣nis de Gara (puls, ofasium, P.)
  • CAWDRON, vesselle (cavdryn, H.) Cacabus, caldaria, lebes, CATH.
  • CAWCEWEY (cavuce, K. H. cawcy wey, P.)2. [Cawcewey is derived directly from the French chaussée, a word taken, as Menage and other writers have observed, from the Latin calciata, so called, as some conjecture, from its being continually trodden, via calcata, but probably rather from the mode of forming such a road, with stones imbedded in mortar, via calceata, from calx, lime. See Spelman, Ducange, and Kennet, under the word calcea. There was a causeway at Lynn leading to Gaywood, on which was situated the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, and among the benefactors to the Hospital of St. John Baptist occurs Ufketel filius sanctimonialis de Sceringes, who grants "totam terram in Linne super calcetam." Mon. Ang. vi. 648, new edit. Palsgrave gives "Causey in a hye way, chausée."]Calcetum.
  • CAWSE (skyll, K.) or enchesone (cause or cawze, H.) Causa.
  • (CAVTELE, or sleyte, K. H. caw∣tele or sleight, P.3. [Cotgrave renders "cautelle, a wile, cautell, sleight, guilefull devise, subtilty." Fabyan relates that in 1448, the town of Pont-de-l'arche was taken by the "cautele" of the Frenchmen, who introduced two men disguised as carpenters; and Hall, speaking of the same occurrence, calls it "a praty cautele and slighte imposture." In Elyot's Librarie occurs "Offuciae, cawtelles, crafty wayes to deceyue."]Cautela.)
  • CEE. Mare, fretum, pontus.
  • CEK, or cekclothe, or poke. Saccus.
  • CEC, or seeke (ceke, or sekenes, P.) Infirmus, eger, languidus.
  • CECHELLE. Saccellus.
  • CECYN'. Cesso.
  • CECYNGE (cecenynge, H. P.) Ces∣sacio.
  • CEEDE (ced, H.) Semen.
  • CEEDE of corne, as kyrnel.4. [See hereafter KYRNEL of frute, granum.]Gra∣num, semen.
  • CEDYN', as corne or herbe. Se∣mento, CATH.
  • CEDYR, drynke. Cisera.
  • CEED LEPE, or hopyr.5. [In Norfolk the basket carried by the sower, is still called a seed-lep. FORBY. A. Sax. saed-leap, seminatoris corbis. See hereafter HOPUR, and SEEDLEP.]Satorium (satitolum, H.P.)
  • CEDYR, tree. Cedrus.
  • CEGE of (for, P.) syttynge. Se∣dile.
  • CEGE of enmyes a-bowte a castelle or cyte. Obsidium.
  • CEGGE, or wylde gladone.6. [See hereafter SEGGE of the fene, or wyld gladone. A. Sax. secȝ, gladiolus. Nares ex∣plains segs to be the water flower-de-luce. "Glayeul de rivière, sedge, water flags." COTGR.]Ac∣corus.
  • CEGGE, or stare.7. [The name sedge is now applied indiscriminately to the genus carex, which probably from the stiffness of its growth was called also stare. In Su. G. it is denominated starr, Isl. stör, "quum herba sit perquam rigida." IHRE. See hereafter SEGGE, star of the fenne, and STARE.]Carix, C. F.
  • Page  65(CEGE, or preuy, P. Latrina, cathacumba.)
  • CEYLE of a schyppe, or mylle. Velum, carbasus.
  • CEYL YERDE. Antenna, C. F.
  • CEYLYN vpon' watyr. Velifico.
  • CEYLYNGE. Velificacio.
  • (CEK, supra in CEC, P.)
  • CEEKENESSE. Infirmitas, egri∣tudo.
  • CEKYN̄', or wexe seke. Infirmor, egroto.
  • CEKYN̄'. Quero, inquiro.
  • CEKYN̄', or serchyn̄'. Scrutor.
  • CEEL (ceall, P.) Sigillum.
  • CEELE, i. solde (celde, H. P.) Ven∣ditus.
  • CEELDAM (celdom, P.) Raro.
  • CEEL, fysche. Porcus marinus.
  • CELE, or ceele, tyme.1. [Ray in his East Country Words, and Forby, have recorded the use of the word seal, signifying time, or season, from A. Sax, sael, opportunitas. BARLYSELE has occurred already in the Promptorium. See hereafter SEEL, tyme.]Tempus.
  • CEELLE, or stodyynge howse (cell or stody hows, P.) Cella.
  • CELER. Cellarium, promptuarium.
  • CELERERE of þe howse. Cellerar∣ius, promus (promptuarius, P.)
  • CELYDONY, herbe. Celidonia.
  • CELYN̄' letters. Sigillo.
  • CEELYN̄' wythe syllure.2. [The Catholicon explains celo to signify sculpere, pingere, and celamen or celatura, sculptured or painted decoration. Lydgate in the Troye Boke uses the word celature to describe vaulted work of an elaborate character. It appears doubtful whether the verb to cele, and the word ceiling, which is still in familiar use, are derivable from coelo, or may not be traced more directly to coelum and the French ciel, signifying not only vaulting or ceiling, but also the canopy or baldaquin over an altar; the hangings of estate over a throne, which are sometimes termed dais, from the throne being placed in the part of the apartment to which that name properly belonged; and lastly the canopy of a bed, "celler for a bedde, ciel de lit." PALSG. Gervase of Dover uses the term in his graphic description of the conflagration of Canterbury Cathedral in 1174, occasioned by sparks having been carried by the wind, and lodged between the roof and the interior vaulting of the church; "coelum inferius egregie depictum, superius vero tabulae plumbeae ignem interius accensum celaverunt." Twysden, Hist. Angl. Script. 1289. Thomas Stubbs, among the benefactions of Aldred, Archbishop of York 1061-1070, records that "totam ecclesiam à presbyterio usque ad turrium ab antecessore suo con∣structam, superius opere pictorio quod coelum vocant, auro multiformiter intermixto mirabili arte construxit." Ibid. 1704. The word had a still further signification, de∣noting, not merely the decoration of the vaulting or roof of a chamber, but also the wainscot-work upon the walls. Thus Horman says, "These wallys shal be celyd with cyprusse. The rofe shal be celed vautwyse and with cheker work." See hereafter SYLURE of valle, and SELYN wythe sylure.]Celo.
  • CELLYN'. Vendo.
  • CELLYNGE. Vendicio.
  • CELWYLLY, infra quere in SEL∣WYLLY. Effrenatus.
  • CEEM, of a clothe (or other lyke, P.) Sutura.
  • CEME, or quarter of corne. Quar∣terium.
  • CEMELY, or comely yn syghte. Decens.
  • CEMELY, or on seemely wyse (comly wyse, P.) Decenter.
  • Page  66CEMELYNESSE. Decencia.
  • CEMY, or sotelle (subtyll, P.) Subtilis.
  • CEMELY, or sotely. Subtiliter.
  • CEMELYN', or lykyn' (cemlyn, H. cemblen, P.) Assimulo.
  • CEMYN, schowyn or apperen̄'. Ap∣pareo.
  • CEMYN, or becemyn. Decet.
  • CEMYNGE, or a cemys (or cemys, P.) Apparencia.
  • CEMYNGE, or hope(n) schowynge (opyn, K. H. open, P.) Apparens.
  • CENSE, or incense, or rychelle. Incensum, thus.
  • CENSERE. Thuribulum, ignibu∣lum, CATH.
  • CENSYN', or caste þe sensere. Thurifico.
  • (CENSINGE, P. Thurificatio.)
  • CENDEL. Sindon.
  • CENDYN' by massage. Mitto.
  • CENDYNGE. Missio.
  • CENE, or besene. Apparens, ma∣nifestus.
  • CEENE of clerkys.1. ["A seyne, sinodus, est congregacio clericorum." CATH. ANGL. Ceene or a synod is from the French "senne, assemblée de gens d'Eglise; de coenaculum, lieu d'assem∣blée, suivant Barbazan." ROQUEF. Sené is explained by Cotgrave to be "a Synod or assembly of curates before their Ordinarie or Diocesan." "Cene of clerkes, con∣uocation." PALSG. In the Legenda Aurea mention is made of the "Ceene of Calcydone." f. xxvi.]Sinodus, CATH. (A sancto sinodo redeunt burse sine nodo, P.)
  • CENGYLLE (cengylly, H. P.) Sin∣gularis.
  • CENY, or tokyn. Signum.
  • CENY, or tokyn of an in or ostrye.2. [Tessera is rendered in the Ortus "a dyce," and texera has the same meaning; the Catholicon, however, gives another explanation, "Texere dicuntur lapides quadrati ad modum talorum, unde pavimenta sternuntur." There can be little doubt that the token of an inn, here referred to, is the ancient sign of the chequers, scaccarium, the chess∣board or playing tables. It has been questioned whether this symbol denoted in England, as it did where it occurs at Pompeii, a house of entertainment where play was practised, or rather had its origin in the painted lattices at the doors and windows, which, as has been affirmed, were part of the external indications of an hostelry as late as 1700; the ordinary use of such lattices is mentioned by Harrison in his description of England. "Of old time our countrie houses in steed of glasse did vse much lattise, and that made either of wicker or fine rifts of oke in checker-wise." B. ii. c. 12, in Holinshed. Among the deeds and benefactions of Thomas Chillenden, Prior of the church of Canterbury from 1390 to 1411, it is recorded in the obituary, "in civitate Cantuariae unum Hospitium fa∣mosum, vocatum le Cheker, nobiliter aedificavit; in eadem civitate Hospitium de la Crowne." ANG. SACRA, i. 143. The "red lattice" is a term often used to signify an ale hosue; Shakespeare alludes to it, Hen. IV. pt. ii.; it occurs in Marston, Chapman, and other early dramatists, and Massinger speaks of the "red grates next the door" of a tavern. Of this and other inn-signs see Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 247, Gent. Mag. xl. 403, lxiii. 531, lxiv. 797.]Texera, CATH. tessera, C. F.
  • CENTENCE. Sentencia.
  • CEPTYR, or mace. Ceptrum, clava.
  • CEERCLE. Circulus, girus, C. F.
  • CERCLE, clepyd the snayle, as of pentys, and other lyke.3. [The term helix was applied to denote the volute of a capital, but here it seems pos∣sible that the term relates to a spiral or newel-staircase. There was however, a military engine, a variety of the testudo, used in battering walls, to which the name of the snail is given in the curious version of Vegecius, made at the bidding of Sir Thomas of Berkeley, 1408. "The gynne that is clepede the snayle or the welke, is a frame made of goode tymber, shaped square, keuerede and hillede alle a-boute wythe rawe hides, or wythe feltes and heyres, for drede of brynnyng. This gynne hath wythe in hym a grete beme meuabely hangede wythe ropes, the whiche beme may wythe draughte of men wythe-in be drawe bacward, and let fle wythe his owene pais forewarde to the walle, and so astoyne and shake the walle. This gynne is cleped þe snaile, for righte as þe snaile hath his hous ouer hym where he walkethe or restethe, and oute of his hous he shetethe his hede whan he wolle, and drawethe hym inne a-yene, so doth this gynne." B. IV. C. xiv. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. f. 105.]Spira, UG. in spacium.
  • Page  67CERGYN, supra in CEKYN̄'. Scru∣tor, rimor.
  • CEERCHYNGE (cergyn, K. cerg∣ynge, H. P.) Scrutinium, per∣scrutacio.
  • CERIAWNT. Indagator.
  • CERIAWNT of mace. Apparitor, angarius, CATH.
  • CERYN̄' and dryyn', as trees or herbys. Areo, marceo.
  • CEREIOWRE (ceriore, K. ceriowre, P.) Scrutator, perscrutator.
  • CERYOWS. Seriositas.
  • CERTAYNE, or sekyr. Certus, se∣curus.
  • CERTENLY. Certe.
  • CERVAWNTE. Servus, vernaculus.
  • CERUYCYABLE (ceruysable, P.) Servilis.
  • CERUYCYABLE, or redy alle waye. Obsequiosus.
  • CERUYCE. Servicium, obsequium.
  • CERUYN̄'. Servio, famulor.
  • CESSYONE. Cessio.
  • CESTERNE, or cysterne. Cisterna, C. F.
  • CESUN', or tyme. Tempus.
  • CESONE in londe, or oþyr go(o)d takynge. Seisina.
  • (CESYN, supra in CECYN, P.)
  • CESYN̄' (cesun, P.) or welle aray mete or drynke. Tempero.
  • CESUN̄, or yeve sesenynge yn londe, or other gooys. Cesino.
  • CESONYD, yn tyme (cesynde in tyme, or other suche lyke, P.) Tempestus, tempestivus, UG.
  • CETTE, or putt. Positus.
  • CETTYN', or puttyn' (plantyn, P.) Planto.
  • (CETTYN, or putten, P. Pono.)
  • CETTYNGE, leynge, or puttynge. Posicio, collocacio.
  • CETTYNGE, or plantynge. Plan∣tacio.
  • CETEWALE, herbe (cetuall, P.) Zedorium, DICC.
  • CETHYN̄' mete. Coquo, decoquo.
  • CEWARE at mete.1. [See hereafter SEWARE, SEW, and SEWYN.]Depositor, dapifer, sepulator.
  • CEWE. Sepulatum.
  • CEWYN̄' (yn halle, P.) Cepulo.
  • CEVENE, numbyr. Septem.
  • CEVYN HUNDRYD. Septingenti.
  • CEVYNTENE. Septemdecem.
  • CEVYNTYE. Septuaginta.
  • CEVENTYMES. Septies.
  • CEXE. Sex.
  • CEX HUNDRYD. Sexcenti.
  • CEXTY. Sexaginta.
  • CEXTENE. Sedecim.
  • CEXTEYNE (cyxten, J. N.) Sa∣crista, CATH.
  • CEXTRYE. Sacristia. Page  68 Quere plura vocabula haben∣cia in primâ sillabâ hunc so∣num C, in S litterâ, ubi E sequitur immediate S.
  • CHACE of tenys pley, or oþyr lyke. Sistencia, obstaculum, obiculum (fuga, P.)
  • CACCHYN̄' a-way (chas away, P.) Fugo, agito, abigo, effugo.
  • CHACYNGE a-wey. Fugacio, abac∣tio, effugacio.
  • CHAFFE. Palea.

    1. Chaffare or merchandise is a word derived by Lye from the Alamannic chauphen, emere. See Junius. Gautier de Bibelesworth says,

    "La lyure (a pound) sert en marchaundye, (chaffare)
    Mais le lyure (þe bok) nous aprent clergy."

    Arund. MS. 220.

    It occurs not unfrequently in Chaucer and Gower. In 1441 a complaint was made by the King's tenants of the forest of Knaresborough, that the Archbishop of York pre∣vented their coming to Ripon, "so that none might utter their caffer, wherewith to pay his (the King's) farme att tearmes accustomed." Plumpton Corresp. p. liv. "Chaffre, ware." PALSG.

    Mercimonium, mer∣catum, commercium.
  • CHAFFARYN̄'. Negocior, mercor.
  • CHAFFERYNGE. Mercacio, mer∣catus, negociacio, negocium.
  • CHAFFENETTE, to take byrdys. Reciaculum, COMM.
  • CAFFYNCHE, byrde (chaffynche, K.) Furfurio, C. F.
  • CHAFYN', or hetyn'. Calefacio, frico.
  • (CHAFYN, or rubbyn, K. H. P. Frico, confrico.)
  • CHAFYNGE. Confricacio.
  • CHAFOWRE, panne (to make hot handys, H.) Scutra, CATH.
  • CHAFOWRE, to make whote a thynge as watur. Calefacto∣rium.
  • CHAYERE (chayȝer, H.) Cathe∣dra.
  • CHALAUNGE, or cleyme (chalenge, P.)2. ["Calenge, dispute, contradiction, contestation." ROQUEF. "Chalenge or cleyme." PALSG. In the Wicliffite version, Jerem. vii. 6 is rendered, "If ye maken not fals caleng to a comelyng, and to a faderless child, and to a widewe."]Vendicacio.
  • CHALENGYN', or cleymyn̄'. Ven∣dico.
  • CHALENGYN', or vndyrtakyn̄'.3. [The distinction is here clearly made between the two significations of the verb to challenge. Thus also Cotgrave explains "Chalanger, to claime, challenge, make title unto: also to accuse of, charge with an offence." Robert of Gloucester, Brunne, and Chaucer use the word in the former sense. "To chalange, vendicare, calumpniari. A chalange, calumpnia." CATH. ANGL. "Calanger, accuser, disputer, demander, être en conquerance." ROQUEF. "The tribune dredde lest the iewis wolde take him bi the waie and sle him, and aftirward he myght be chalengid as he hadde take money." Wicliffite version, Dedis, c. 23.]Re∣prehendo, deprehendo.
  • CHALANGYNGE, or vndurnemynge. Improperium, vituperium.
  • CHALYS. Calix.
  • CHALKE, supra in CALKE (cals, K.)
  • CHALUN (or chalone, K. H.) bedde clothe.

    4. Chalo or chalonus is explained by Ducange to be "pars supellectilis lecti, straguli species." In the Mon. Angl. ii. 720, chaluns are thus mentioned, "aut pannos pictos, qui vocantur chaluns, loco lectisternii." The word occurs in Chaucer, Reves Tale.

    "And in his owen chambre hem made a bedde,
    With shetes and with chalons faire yspredde."

    Tyrwhitt thinks they were probably so called from having been made at Chalons. "A chalone, amphitapetum." CATH. ANGL. In an Inventory taken at the Hospital of St. Edmund, Gateshead, 1325, there occurs, "In Choro, Unum frontale de Chalonns." Wills and Invent. Surtees Society, i. 22.

    Thorale, chalo.
  • Page  69(CHAMELL, best, K. P. Camelus.)
  • (CHAMPYON, or campyon, K. P. Campio, atleta, pugil.)
  • (CHAMLOT, clothe, P.)
  • CHANELLE (or canell, P.) of a strete. Canalis, aquagium, C. F.
  • CHANONE. Chanonicus.
  • CHAPE of a schethe (sheede, K. schede, H.)1. ["Chape of a knyfe, vomellus." CATH. ANGL. "Chape of a shethe, bouterolle de gayne. To chape a sword or dagger." PALSG. The word is derived from the French chappe, which Cotgrave explains to be "the locket of a scabbard," but Skinner more correctly "vaginae mucro ferreus." The chape of a sword was a badge assumed by the De la Warr family, in memorial of the part taken by Sir Roger de la Warr, at Poitiers, 1356, in the capture of John King of France, when he took possession of the royal sword.]Spirula.
  • CHAPELL. Capella.
  • CHAPELEYNE. Capellanus.
  • CAPELET (chapelet, K. H.) Ca∣pellus.
  • (CHAPYTTYL, K. chapytle, H. cha∣petyll, P.2. ["A chapitrye, capitulum." CATH. ANGL.]Capitulum.)
  • CHAPMAN.3. ["A chapman, negociator, et cetera ubi a merchande. A chapmanry, negociacio. A chapmanware, vendibilis. To chappe, mercari, nundinari, negociari." CATH. ANGL. "Chapman, marchant, challant." PALSG. Ang. S. ceapman, mercator.]Negociator, merca∣tor.
  • CHAPMANHODE. Mercatus, UG.
  • CHARCOLE (or charkole, P.) Carbo.
  • CHARE.4. [The term chare seems to have been the earliest appellation in England, of vehicles used to convey persons of distinction. It has been derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyran, vertere, but probably we derived both the vehicle and its appellation from France, where, as early as 1294, the use of the char had become so prevalent that it was for∣bidden to the wives of citizens by an ordinance of Philippe le Bel. A description of the rich chare prepared for the Princess of Hungary, will be found in the Squyr of low degree, Ellis's Specimens, vol. i.; and is beautifully illustrated by an illumination in the Louterell Psalter, executed in the reign of Edward II. See Mr. Rokewode's valu∣able paper in the Vetusta Mon. vol. vi. plate xx. A variety of representations are also given by Mr. Markland, with his remarks on the early use of carriages in England, Archaeol. xx. 443. The appellation chare continued in use in the 16th century. Horman says, "the quyene came in a chare, pilento. He came in a chare or a wagen." It occurs in Hall and Fabyan; and in Strype's Memoirs, Edward VI. 1557, is men∣tioned a "chair drawn by six chariot horses."]Currus, quadriga, pe∣torica, C. F. pilentum, C. F. bel∣giga, COMM. (reda, P.)
  • CHARGE. Cura, onus.
  • CHARGYD wythe byrdenys, or oþyr lyke. Onustus, oneratus.
  • CHARYAWNT. Onerosus.
  • CHARGYN wythe byrdenys, or oþyr þyngys. Onero.
  • CHARGYN̄', or gretely sett a thynge to herte. Penso.
  • Page  70CHARGYN', rekkyn' or yeve tale (reckyn or ȝeuyn tale, H. rechen, or gyue tale, P.) Curo.
  • CHARYETT, supra in CHARE.1. ["Basterna, est theca manualis vel itineris, a carre, or a chareot, or horslytter." ORT. VOC. In the Catholicon Basterna is explained to be "vehiculus itineris, quasi vesterna, quia mollibus vestibus sternitur, et a duobus animalibus trahitur, ubi nobiles femine deferuntur." "Charryet, chariot, branlant." PALSG.]
  • CHARYETTER. Aurigarius, qua∣drigarius, CATH. redarius.
  • CHARYN a-way, supra in CAC∣CHȲN'.2. ["To chare, ubi to chase." CATH. ANGL. A. Sax. cerran, vertere.]
  • CHARYN, or geynecopyn' (aȝen∣stondyn, K.) Sisto, CATH. obsto.
  • CHARYOWRE, vesselle.3. ["Parapsis, discus, sive vas ex omni parte habens latera equalia, a platter, or a dobler, or a charger. Lanx, latus discus, a charger." ORT. VOC. "Charger, a great platter, ung grant plat." PALSG. "One swanne is ynoughe to fyll a charger. This fysshe fylleth a charger, namozanum opplet." HORM.]Cati∣num.
  • CHARYTE. Caritas.
  • CHARKYN', as a carte, or barow, or oþyr thynge lyke.

    4. Gower uses this word to express the creaking of a door, Conf. Am. lib. iv.

    "There is no dore, which maie charcke."

    Compare CHYRKYN̄, sibilo, CHERKYN̄, or chorkyn̄, or fracchyn̄ as newe cartys or plowys, strideo. Ang. Sax. cearcian, stridere.

    Arguo, UG. alii dicunt stridere.
  • CHARLET, dyschemente.5. [In the Forme of Cury, p. 27, will be found directions for making "charlet, and charlet yforced." It appears to have been a kind of omelet, sometimes compounded with minced pork. Pegge derives the term from the French chair. Pepo is explained, however, in the Ortus, as "herba quedam, i. melo, or mortrews, et est similis cucur∣bite."]Pepo, KYLW.
  • CHARLYS, propyr name. Carolus.
  • CHARME. Incantacio.
  • CHARMYD. Incantatus.
  • CHARMYD, or bygylyd, or for∣spekyn. Fascinatus, CATH.
  • CHARMYN̄'. Incanto.
  • CHARMȲN', begylȳn', or for∣spekȳn'. Fascino.
  • CHARMYNGE, idem quod CHARME.
  • CHARNEL, or chernel. Carnarium.
  • CHARTERE. Carta.
  • CHAASTE. Castus.
  • CHASTYZED. Castigatus.
  • CHASTYZYN̄'. Castigo.
  • CHASTYSYNGE. Castigacio.
  • CHASTYSOWRE. Castigator.
  • CHASTYSOWRE þat beryth an instrument of chastysynge, to make pees. Castifer.
  • CHASTYTE. Castitas, pudicicia.
  • CHATERYN̄'. Garrio.
  • CHAVYLBONE, or chawlbone (chaule bone, P.)6. ["A chafte, a chawylle, a chekebone, maxilla, mala, faux, mandubila, mandula, mola." CATH. ANGL. "Chawe bone, machovere." PALSG. In the Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 140, occurs the word "brancus, a gole, or a chawle."]Mandibula.
  • CHAWMBYR, or chambyr. Ca∣mera, thalamus.
  • CHAWMBYRLEYNE. Camerarius, cubicularius.
  • CHAWNCE, or happe. Eventus, casus.
  • Page  71CHAUNCEL. Cancellus, CATH.
  • CHAUNCELER. Cancellarius.
  • CHAUNCEMELE (chavncemely, K.)1. ["Subtelaris, vnder the hele." ORT. VOC. A similar explanation is given in the Catholicon, with this addition, "Sotular autem vel sotularis nihil aliud est, ut dicit Magister Bene. sed aliqui contrarium dicunt."]Subtelaris, C. F. CATH.
  • CHAUNCEPE, or schoynge horne (chaucepe, P.)2. [The Catholicon gives the following explanation, "Parcopollex, i. tramellum," which is properly a thimble: chauncepe appears to be a corruption of the French chaussepied.]Parcopollex, CATH.
  • CHAUNCERYE. Cancellaria.

    3. Of the office of the chandeler in the household of a great lord, see the curious poem appended to the Boke of Curtasye, written about the time of Henry VI. Sloane MS. 1986, f. 46, b.

    "Now speke I wylle a lytulle whyle
    Of the chandeler wyth-outen gyle,
    That torches and tortes and preketes con make,
    Perchours, smale condel, I vndertake."

    Chandler signified not only the maker of candles, but the candlestick, from the French chandelier. Thus in the Legenda Aurea mention occurs of a "chaundeler or candyl∣stycke," f. vii. b. See above CANDELERE, and the word chandler in Jamieson.

    Cerarius, CATH.
  • CHAWNGYN̄'. Muto, permuto.
  • CHAWNGYN', or roryn', supra in BARTERYN', et infra in RORYN'.
  • CHAWNGYNGE. Mutacio, per∣mutacio, commutacio.
  • CHAWNGYNGE, or yeuynge (ro∣ryng, K. H. roringe, P.) oone thinge for a-nothere.4. [See hereafter ROORYN̄ or chaungyn̄ on chaffare for another, cambio.]Cambium, DICC.
  • CHAWNIORE of money (chaungere, P.) Cambitor, camsor (camp∣sor, P.) trapezeta, DICC.
  • CHAWNTERYE. Cantaria.
  • CHAWNTYNGE.5. [It has been stated that the usage of chanting in the English churches was intro∣duced by Osmund, Bishop of Sarum, 1090; but we learn from Bede that Benedict, Abbot of Weremouth, brought Abbot John, the arch-chanter, from Rome to this country, about A.D. 678, at which period Archbishop Theodoric, a Greek by birth, made a visitation of the whole island, and caused instruction to be given in the art "sonos cantandi in ecclesiâ," until then known only in Kent. Bede states even that at an earlier period in the same century Paulinus left at York James the Deacon, who was "cantandi in ecclesiâ peritissimus," and who "magister ecclesiastice cantionis juxta morem Romanorum, seu Cantuariorum multis caepit existere." Bede, lib. ii. 40. See also lib. iv. 3, and v. 20, and the appendix, edit. by Smith, p. 719. The most impor∣tant treatises on the subject of Church Music are those of St. Nicetus in the VIth cen∣tury, and Aurelian in the IXth, subsequent to the great change introduced by St. Gregory. A curious notice of the ancient system of notation has been given among the "Instructions du Comité Historique. Collection de documents inédits." 1839. Chanting or "deschaunt" was among the practices violently opposed by Wickliffe, as was all Church-melody by the innovators of a later period.]Discantus, can∣tus organicus.
  • CHAWNTŌN'. Discanto, organiso.
  • CHAWNTOWRE. Cantor.
  • CAWEPYS, or chavepys, or stran∣gury, sekenesse. Stranguria.
  • CHEP, or hap (chefe, P.) For∣tuna, eventus.
  • CHEFE, or princypale. Precipuus.
  • CHEK. Scactifactio, scaccatus.
  • Page  72CHEKE. Maxilla, fans, gena, mala.
  • CHEKEBONE, supra in chavylbone.
  • CHEKENYD, or qwerkenyd (chowk∣ed or querkened, P.) Suffoca∣tus, strangulatus.
  • CHEKENYNGE (chowkinge, P.) or qwerkenynge. Suffocacio.
  • CHEKYN̄', or qwerchyn̄' (querken, P.) Suffoco.
  • CHEKKYN̄' (checken, P.) Scacti∣fico, KYLW.
  • CHEKKYNGE (checkynge, P.) Scac∣catus, supra.
  • CHEKYR. Scaccarium.
  • CHEKRYE, as cloþys and oþyr thynge (chekered, P.) Scacca∣riatus.
  • CHEKYR, tabulle. Scaccarium, stipadium, CATH.
  • CHELYNGE, fysche.1. ["A kelynge, morus, piscis est." CATH. ANGL. "Morus, quidam piscis, a hadok, a kelynge, or a codlynge." ORT. VOC. At the inthronization feast of Abp. Nevill, 1464, there was served "Kelyng, codlyng, and hadocke boyled." Leland Coll. vi. 6. Ac∣cording to Ray, the keeling is the same as the cod-fish.]
  • CHEYNE (chene, P.) Cathena, boia.
  • CHEYNYN̄', or put yn cheynys. Catheno.
  • CHEEP (chep or pryse, K. chepe, P.) Precium.
  • CHEPYN'.2. ["To chepe, taxare. Chepe, precium." CATH. ANGL. In Caxton's Boke for Tra∣vellers a servant who is sent to market is thus directed, "So chepe for us of the ve∣nyson, si nous bargaigne." Palsgrave gives the verb "To bargen, chepe, bye and sell, marchander. Go cheape a cappe for me, and I wyll come anone and bye it." Ang. Sax. ceapian, negotiari. The following use of the substantive occurs in the Will of Sir John Lumley, 1420, "I wille þat my brothre William haue þe landes and rentys bettir chepe þen any othir man, by a reasonable some." Wills published by the Surtees Society, i. 63. Caxton in the Boke for Travellers says, "he byeth in tyme and at hour, so that he hath not of the dere chepe, du chier marchiet."]Licitor, UG. in liceo, prepalmito.
  • CHEPYNGE, or barganynge. Li∣citacio, stipulacio.
  • CHEERE. Vultus.
  • CHERY, or chery frute. Cerasum.
  • CHERISTONE. Petrilla, cerpeta (ceripetra, P.)
  • CHERYTRE. Cerasus.
  • CHERYN̄', or make good chere. Hillaro, exhillaro, letifico.
  • CHERELLE, or charle (churle or carle, P.) Rusticus, rustica∣nus.
  • CHERLYCHE or charlysche (chur∣lisshe, P.) Rusticalis.
  • (CHERLICHLY, K. cherlyschely, H. churlisshly, P. Rusticaliter.)
  • CHERLYCHE, or charlyche preste (churlisshe prest, P.)3. ["Ut dicit Papias, Egones sunt sacerdotes rustici." CATH. In the Glossary of St. Isidore of Seville, who lived in the VIIth century, occur "Econes, sacerdotes rustici. Egones, sacerdotes rusticorum." The compiler of the Promptorium was a Friar-Preacher, and the insertion of this word may possibly be attributed to the contentious feeling which subsisted between the monastic orders and the secular clergy. The illi∣terate condition, however, of the rural or "uplandish" clergy brought them generally into contempt, and occasioned their receiving the nick-name "Sir John," and other appellations of invidious obloquy.]Ego, CATH. vel eco, C. F.
  • Page  73CHERSYDDE (cheryschyd, H. cherisshed, P.) Fotus, nutritus.
  • CHERSYN̄'.1. ["To cherische or dawnte, blanditractare." CATH. ANG.]Foveo.
  • CHERSYNGE (cherschyng, H. che∣risshinge, P.) Focio, nutricio.
  • CHERVELL, herbe. Cerifolium, apium risus.
  • CHERWYN̄', or tetyn' (chervyn or fretyn, H. cheruen or freten, P.) Torqueo, CATH.
  • CHERVYNGE, or fretynge in þe wombe. Torcio, C. F.
  • CHESE. Caseus.
  • CHESSE.2. [See above CHEKYR.]Scaccarium.
  • CHESEBOLLE.3. [Papiever, MS. "A chesse bolle, papaver, cinolus." CATH. ANG. The Promp∣torium gives also CHYBOLLE, cinollus. "Papaver est herba somnifera, anglicè a che∣bole." ORT. VOC. "Cheese bowls, flores papaveris hort. a similitudine aliquâ vasculorum caseaceorum sic dicti." SKINNER. See the words Chasbol and Chesbow in Jamieson.]Papaver, tadia, C. F.
  • CHESEKAKE. Ortacius, ortoca∣turia, UG. in tigro (artocaseus, artocira, P.)
  • CHESEFATTE. Casearium, fiscina.
  • CHESYN̄'. Eligo.
  • CHESYN', or cullyn' owte. Elicio.
  • CHESYNGE, or choyse. Electio.
  • CHESYPYLLE (chesible, P.)4. ["A chesabylle, casula, infula, planeta." CATH. ANG. "Casula, a chesuble." ORTUS. At the Reformation there was still preserved at Canterbury among the vest∣ments supposed to have been sent by St. Gregory to Augustine A.D. 601, "casula oloserica purpurei coloris aureâ texturâ, et lapidibus superius a parte posteriori ornata." Bede, App. p. 691.]Ca∣sula.
  • CASTANY, frute or tre, idem. (chesteyne, P.) Castanea.
  • CHESTE. Cista.
  • CHESUN, or cawse (chesen, P.)5. [The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. gives in relation to suits at law, "Causa, occasio, pretextus, cheson." See hereafter ENCHESONE, or cause. "Acheison, encheison, occasion heureuse, plainte, querelle." ROQUEF. In low Latin "acheso, occasio, lis contra jus intentata." DUC.]Causa (occasio, P.)
  • CHETE for the lorde. Caducum, C. F. confiscarium, fisca.
  • CHETYN̄'. Confiscor, fisco, UG.
  • CHETYNGE. Confiscacio.
  • CHETOWRE. Confiscator, cadu∣carius, CATH.
  • CHEUERELLE, leddare (cheueler lether, P.)6. [In Sloan. MS. 73, f. 211, will be found directions "for to make cheuerel lether of perchemyne," by means of a solution of alum mixed with yolks of eggs and flour; and also "to mak of whit cheuerel, reed cheuerell," the colour being given by a compound of brazil. "Cheuerell lether, cheverotin." PALSG.]
  • CHEUETUN, or ledar, or capteyn' (chefteyne, P.) Capecerius, capitaneus, stratiles, C. F.
  • CHEVYN̄', or thryvyn'.

    7. The verb to cheve is used by R. Gloucester and R. Brunne, and likewise in Piers Ploughman,

    "The poore is but feble,
    And if he chide or chatre,
    Hym cheveth the worse."

    Vision, line 9375.

    Roquefort gives "Chevir, agir, posseder, jouir, en bas lat. cheviare." "To cheve, brynge to an ende, aschieuer." PALSG.

  • CHEW METE. Mastico.
  • Page  74CHEWYNGE of metys or oþer þynngys. Masticacio.
  • CHEW the cood, of bestys (as bestis done whan the rest, P.) Rumino.
  • CHEVESAUNCE.1. [This word is used by Piers Ploughman, Chaucer, and Gower. "Schift, cheue∣saunce, cheuesance." PALSG.]Providencia.
  • CHEVYSTYN̄', or purveyn̄' (chevy∣schen, H. cheuesshen, P.)2. [In the Legenda Aurea, f. 64, b. it is related of Becket, "and the nexte nyght after he departed in thabyte of a brother of Sympryngham, and so cheuyssed yt he wente ouer see." Fabyan states that Rufus said of the Earl of Poytiers, "I woll assaye to haue hys Erldom in morgage, for welle I knowe he must cheuyche for money to per∣fourme that journey" (to Jerusalem).]Pro∣video.
  • CHYBOLLE, herbe. Cinollus, KYLW.
  • CHEKYN'. Pullus.
  • CH(EK)YN' WEDE, herbe (cheken∣wede, P.)3. ["Chekynwede, herbe, movron." PALSG. In Norfolk the alsine media according to Forby is called Chickensmeat. Ang. Sax. cicena mete, alsine. ELFRIC.]Hospia, vel hospia major, et minor dicitur oculus Christi, morsus galline (hispia, P.)
  • CHYDAR. Intentor (contentor, P.) litigator.
  • CHYDYN', or flytyn̄'.4. [See hereafter FLYTIN̄, or chydin̄. The Cath. Ang. gives "To chyde, litigare, certare, et cetera ubi to flyte."]Contendo, CATH. litigo.
  • CHYDYNGE. Contencio, litigacio.
  • CHYKKYN̄, as corne, or spyryn̄, or sp(r)owtyn̄.'5. [To chick signifies still in Norfolk and Suffolk to germinate, as seeds in the earth or leaves from the bud. FORBY.]Pulilo (pupulo, P.)
  • CHYKKYN̄', as hennys byrdys (chycke, as henne byrdes, P.) Pipio, pululo.
  • (CHICKYNG, or spyryng of corne, K. sprowtinge of corne, P. Ger∣minacio, pululatus, pululacio.)
  • CHYKKYNGE, or wyppynge of yonge byrdys (chickyng or ȝip∣pyng of bryddys, K. H. yeppinge, P.) Pupulatus, KYLW. pupu∣lacio.
  • CHYLANDER, or chylawndur.6. [Chilindrus, in French chilandre, PALSG. was a name of Greek derivation, applied to some venomouos kind of water-serpent.]Chyndrus (chillindrus, K. P.)
  • CHYLDE. Puer, infans.
  • CHYLDE, whyle hyt can not speke. Proles, soboles.
  • CHYLDE BEDDE, or women whan þey haue chyldryn' (childyng or bringyng forthe of childryn, K. H.)7. [The English gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth explains "gysine, childing." "There was a woman with chylde grete vpon her delyueraunce, and at ye tyme of chyldynge she myght not be delyuered." Leg. Aurea. "Partus, puerperium, chyldyng." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII.]Decubie, C. F. puer∣perium.
  • CHYLDEHODDE. Infancia, pue∣ricia.
  • CHYYLDYN̄', or bryngyn̄' furthe chylde.8. ["To childe, parturire, eniti, fetare parere. Femina vult parere, sed non vult illa parere." CATH. ANG. The Wicliffite version renders Levit. xii. 2, "If a wōman childiþ a knaue child, sche schal be vncleene bi vii daies." Cott. MS. Claud. E. II.]Pario.
  • Page  75CHYLDYNGE, or woman wythe chylde.1. [Ang. Sax. cildiung-wif, a child-bearing woman.]Pregnans.
  • CHYLDYS BELLE. Bulla, BRIT. C. F. nola.
  • CHYLDYSCAPPE. Calamacium, UG.
  • CHYLLE, herbe. Cilium vel psil∣lium.
  • CHYLLYN̄', or (for, P.) colde. Frigucio.
  • CHYLLYNGE of tethe or oþer lyke. Frigidor, CATH.
  • CH(Y)MME BELLE (chyme, H. P.) Cimbalum.
  • CHYMYN̄', or chenken̄' wythe bellys (clynke bell, P.) Tintillo.
  • (CHYMER, K. H. P. Abella, K. obella, H. P.)
  • CHYMERYNGE, or chyuerynge, or dyderynge. Frigutus.
  • CHYMNEY. Fumarium, CATH. ca∣minus, epicaustorium.
  • CHYN'. Mentum.
  • CHYNCHYN, or sparyn' mekylle (chinkinge or to mekyl sparyn, H.) Perparco, CATH.
  • CHYNCHYR, or chynchare (chynche, H. P.)

    2. "A chinche, tenax, &c. ubi cowatus. Chinchery, tenacitas, &c. ubi cowatyse." CATH. ANG. "Tenax, a toughe halder, or chinche." MED. Chaucer says in the Tale of Melibeus, "men blamen an avaricious man, because of his scarcitee and chincherie."

    "Bothe he was scars and chinche."

    Sevyn Sages, 1244.

    R. Wimbelon said in his Sermon at Paul's Cross, A.D. 1389, "forsoth wete ye, that euerych auouterer, or vncleane man, that is gloton, other chynch, shal neuer haue heritage in the realme of Christ and of God." Fox, Acts and Mon. The word is occa∣sionally written chiche, as by Chaucer, Rom. of R. In French, "chice, mesquin; chicheté, avarice, vilenie." ROQUEF.

    Perparcus, CATH.
  • CHYNCERY (chincherye, P.) or scar(s)nesse. Parcimonia.
  • CHYNE, of bestys bakke. Spina.
  • CHYNGYL, or chyngle, bordys for helyngys of howsys (shingill, howsehillinge, P.)3. [Shingles of wood, a covering both light and durable, were probably still, at the time the Promptorium was compiled, in very general use for roofing houses, although the regulations for the dimension of the various kinds of tiles are a proof of their being likewise employed to a considerable extent. See Stat. 17 Edw. IV. c. 4. A.D. 1477. The term seems derived from the French eschandole, or Latin scindula, and is occasionally written shindles. See Holland's Pliny, B. xvi. c. 10. Piers Ploughman terms Noah's ark a "shynglede shup," an expression that seems to bear some analogy to the Ang. Sax. scide-weall, murus de scindulis congestus. ELFRIC. See SCHYNGYL.]Sindula.
  • CHYPPE. Quisquilie, UG. CATH. assula, UG. C. F. astula.
  • CHYPPYNGE of ledyr, or clothe, or other lyke. Succidia, UG. in cedo, presigmen, C. F.
  • CHYRCHE. Ecclesia (basilica, P.)
  • CHYRCHEȜARDE (churcheyerde, P.)4. [In the Seuyn Sages, line 2625, the chirche-hawe is spoken of, Ang. Sax. haȝa, agellus, or heȝe, septum. In Cath. Ang. it is termed "a kyrke-garthe." Ang. Sax. ȝeard, sepes.]Cimitorium (poliandrum, P.)
  • CHYRCHEHOLY.5. ["Encenia dicuntur nova festa, vel dedicationes ecclesiarum." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cyric-halgung, church hallowing.]Encennia, in plur.
  • CHYRCHYN̄, or puryfyen̄'. Purifico.
  • Page  76CHYRKYN̄'.1. ["And kisseth hire swete, and chirketh as a sparwe with his lippes." Sompnoures Tale. "To chyrke, make a noyse as myse do in a house." PALSG.]Sibilo.
  • CHERKYN̄', or chorkyn̄', or frac∣chyn̄', as newe cartys or plowys.

    2. See above CHARKYN, as a carte. Ang. Sax. cearcian, stridere. Chaucer uses the term to express generally a disagreeable sound.

    "All full of chirking was that sory place."

    Knightes Tale.
  • CHYRKYNGE. Sibilatus.
  • CHYRNE, vesselle. Cimbia, cumbia.
  • CHYRNE botyr. Cumo.
  • CHYRNYNGE.3. [CHYRRYNGE, MS.]Cumbiacio.
  • C(H)YRPYNGE, or claterynge of byrdys (chirkinge or chateringe, P.)4. [Thomas, in his Italian Gramm. 1548, gives "Buffa, the dispisyng blaste of the mouthe that we call shirping."]Garritus.
  • CHYSEL, instrument. Celtis.
  • CHYSEL, or grauel.

    5. The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy MS. 17 C. XVII. gives "arena, grawell, sabulum, sande, glaria, chesylle," f. 37, and again, f. 56. "nomina lapidum, glaria, chesylle." The etymology of the name Chesil Bank, in Dorsetshire, a singular bank of pebbles, which extends nearly seven miles S.E. from Abbots∣bury, and abuts at Chesilton on the isle of Portland, is here clearly ascertained. See prefixed to Holinshed's Chron. the description of the Chesill, by Harrison, Descr. of Brit. p. 58. Harrison speaks also of the Chesill at Seaton in Devonshire, where he says "the mouth of the Axe is closed by a mightie bar of pibble stones," p. 59, and copies the account given by Leland, 1tin. iii. f. 42, "the men of Seton began of late day to stake and make a mayne waulle withyn the Haven—and ther to have trenchid thorough the chisille, and to have let out the Ax, and receyvid in the mayn se. But this purpose cam not to effect. Me thought that nature most wrought to trench the chisil hard to Seton Town, and ther to let in the se." In this instance the term chisel seems to accord with the explanation given in the Medulla, "Glarea, argilla, vel primum lapides quos aqua fluviatilis trahit." Harl. MS. 2257. It implies, however, in a more general sense the pebbles on the shore; thus in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 56, is the following paraphrase of Genes. xxii. 17.

    "As sond in the see dothe ebbe and flowe,
    Hath cheselys many unnumerable."

    In the Wicliffite version this passage is rendered "gravel which is in þe brink of þe see." Ang. Sax. ceosel, glarea, sabulum. Teut. kesel. In Norfolk chizzly signifies dry and harsh under the teeth, which Forby derives from Teut. kiesele, gluma. The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 147, gives among "pertinencia pistrine, Cantabrum, anglicè chycelle."

    Acerua (arena, P.) sabulum.
  • (CHYST, supra in CHEST, P.)
  • CHYTERYN̄' as byrdys, supra in CHATERYNGE.
  • CHYTYRLYNGE.6. ["Chiterlynge, hilla." CATH. ANG. "Chyterling, endoile." PALSG. Horman says, "let us have trypis, chetterlyngis, and tryllybubbys ynough, suppedita aulicoctia ad satietatem." Skinner derives the word from Teut. kutteln, intestina.]Scrutellum, scru∣tum, KYLW.
  • CHYUALRY, or knyghtehoode. Mi∣licia.
  • CHYVERYN̄', supra in CHYLLYN̄'.
  • (CHYUERYNG, or qwakyng for cold, supra in chymeryng, H. P.)7. [Chaucer writes in the Blake Knyght, "I chiver for defaut of hete," and Gower uses the verb to chever. "Chyueryng as one dothe for colde in an axes, or otherwise, frilleux." PALSG.]
  • Page  77CHOYSE. Electio.
  • CHOSUN. Electus.
  • CHOWEN, supra in CHEWEN.
  • CHOWYNGE (or chewynge, P.) Masticacio.
  • CHOFFE, or chuffe, charle, or chutt (chuffe, cherl or chatte, H. chel, or chaffe, supra in carle, P.)1. [Chuffy, as Forby observes, does not in Norfolk now signify clownish, but merely fat and fleshy, particularly in the cheeks. French, jouffu.Palsgrave gives "chuffe, bouffe," which is explained by Cotgrave as "a swollen or swelling cheek; Bouffé, puffed, blown."]Rusticus, supra.
  • CHORLYSCHE, or carlysche. Rus∣ticanus, rusticacio.
  • CYBBE, or kyn, or lye (akyn, H. of kyn, P.)2. [See hereafter SYBBE and SYBREDE.]Affinis.
  • CYBREDE. Banna, in plur. C. F.
  • CYYD, as clothys þat be thredbare (cyd, H.)3. [See hereafter SYYD, as clothys. Talaris. This term, which is retained in Norfolk, implies commonly merely the length of a garment, "syde as a gowne, defluxus." CATH. ANG. from Ang. Sax. sid. amplus, latus. The reason of its special application here to clothes that are threadbare is not apparent, unless it were, that garments in such con∣dition, losing the swelling folds that new stuffs would form, and hanging close to the sides, give the figure a lengthy and lean appearance.]Talaris.
  • CYYDE of a mann, or beste. Latus.
  • CYFTYN̄'. Cribro.
  • CYFTYNGE. Cribracio.
  • CYTHE. Quere in S literâ.
  • CYYNGE DOWNE, or swownynge (cyghinge or swonynge downe, P.) Sincopacio.
  • CYKYLLE. Fassilla, vel fassicula (falcilla, falcicula, falx, P.)
  • CYKYR, fro harme. Securus, tutus.
  • CYKYR or (of, P.) sothefastenesse. Certus.
  • CYKYRLY. Tute.
  • CYKYRNESSE. Securitas.
  • CYLLABLE. Sillaba.
  • CYLKE. Sericum (serica, P.)
  • CYLKE WORME. Bombex, C. F.
  • CYLKE WOMAN. Devacuatrix (aurisceca, P.)
  • CYLTE, soonde. Glarea, C. F.
  • CYLUER. Argentum.
  • CYLLOWRE (cylere, P.)5. [See CEELYN̄ with syllure, and hereafter SYLURE of valle, and SELYN̄. Cotgrave gives "Draperie, a flourishing with leaves and flowers in wood or stone, used especially on the heads of pillers, and tearmed by our workmen drapery or cilery."]Gla∣tura (celatura, P.)
  • CYLUERDE (cyluryd, H. cylered, P.) Celatus.
  • (CILUERYN, K. H. P. Argento.)
  • CYMNEL, brede.6. [See BREDE twyss bakyn as krakenelle, or symnel, and hereafter SYMNEL.]Artocopus.
  • CYMPYLLE. Simplex.
  • CYMPYLNESSE. Simplicitas.
  • CYM, propyr name (Cymund, H.P.) Simon.
  • CHYNCHONE, herbe (cynchone, H. P.7. [In a curious MS. herbal of the XVth century, in the possession of Hugh Diamond, Esq. the virtues of this plant are detailed. "Grondeswyle, we clepen in latin seneceon," p. 61. It was used as a plaster for "bolnyngs" and sores, "hit wole staunce þe hoote potagre, and alle manere greues of þe leggys." By most leeches it was thought dan∣gerous to use it internally, although so recommended by Pliny; however, "þis erbe algreene, if it be dipped in vynegre, and so y ete—wole abate þe fretyng of þe wombe;" and the touch of the root was accounted a specific for the tooth ache.]Ceneceon, camadroos.)4. [See hereafter SYYNGE downe.]
  • Page  78CYNDYR of þe smythys fyre. Casuma, C. F. cochiron, RIC.
  • CYNE of (or, P.) a tokyn'. Signum.
  • CYNAMUM. Cynamomum.
  • CYNAMUM, TRE Sinamus, vel sinamomicus, CATH.
  • CYNNE. Peccatum, piaculum, crimen.
  • CYNFULLE. Criminosus, peccosus.
  • CYNFULLY. Criminose.
  • CYNNYN̄'. Pecco.
  • CYNNYNGE. Peccamen.
  • CYNGYN̄'. Cano, canto, psallo.
  • CYNGYNGE, or (of, P.) songe. Cantus.
  • CYNGYNGE of masse (messys, P.) Celebracio.
  • (CYNKE of a lawere, P.1. [The drain of a lavatory seems to be here alluded to, such as that with which the lavacrum or piscina on the south side of the altar was invariably supplied, which allowed the water that had served for washing the sacred vessels, and for the ablutions during the service of the altar, to sink into the earth: or generally in reference to such provisions for cleanliness as are to be observed in most monastic establishments, as especially the lavatories in the cloisters at Chester and Worcester Cathedrals. Mer∣gulus, however, usually signifies the sink of a lamp, wherein the wick was placed.]Mergulus.)
  • CYNKYN̄'. Mergo, submergo.
  • CYNKYNGE. Dimersio, submercio.
  • CYNTER or masunry (cyynt of masonrye, P.) Cintorium.
  • CYNEW, or cenu, of armys, or leggys (cynows, P.) Nervus.
  • CYPPYN̄', or drynkȳn' lytylle. Bi∣bito, subbibo, CATH.
  • CYPPYNGE, of drynke. Subbibi∣tura, CATH. in bibo.
  • CYPRESSE, tre. Cipressus.
  • CYRCUMSYCYON'. Circumsicio.
  • CYYR (cyre, or syr, P.) Dominus, erus.
  • CYSMATYKE. Cismaticus, cis∣matica.
  • CYSOWRE. Forpex.
  • CYSTYR, by þe faderys syde oonly. Soror, CATH.
  • CYSTYR, by þe modurys syde. Germana.
  • (CYTE, P.) Civitas, urbs.
  • CYTEZEYNE (cytesyn, P.) Cives (urbanita, P.)
  • CYTYR, tre.2. [The citron was probably introduced into Europe with the orange by the Arab con∣querors of Spain, and first received in England from that country. By a MS. in the Tower it appears that in 1290, 18 Edw. I. a large Spanish ship came to Portsmouth, and that from her cargo Queen Eleanor purchased Seville figs, dates, pomegranates, 15 citrons, and 7 poma de orenge. See the introduction to the valuable volume on House∣hold Expenses in England, presented to the Roxburghe Club, by B. Botfield, Esq. p. xlviii.]Citrus.
  • CYTTYN̄'. Sedeo.
  • CYTTYNGE. Sessio, sedile.
  • (CYTTINGE place, or cete, P. Sedile, sedes.)
  • CYVE, (or cifte, P.) for corne clansynge. Cribrum, cribellum.
  • CYVE, for mele. Furfuraculum, C. F.
  • CYUEDYS, of mele, or brynne (cy∣uedus, W.) Furfur, cantabrum, CATH.
  • CYVER, or maker of sevys (cyvyer, H. maker of cyues, P.) Cri∣brarius.
  • CYVYS, herbe (cyues, P.)
  • Page  79CYVN' of a tre. Surculus, vitu∣lamen, CATH.
  • CYYD, (cyued, P.) or cythyd and clensyd, as mylke, or oþer lyke (licoure, P.)1. ["Colum, a mylke syhe, or a clansynge syfe." MED. See hereafter SYYNGE, or clensynge.]Colatus.
  • CYFTYN' (cyuyn, P.) or clensyn̄'. Colo, CATH.
  • CYTHYNGE (cyynge, H cyuynge, P.) or clensynge. Colatura.
  • Quere plura vocabula similem sonum istis habencia in S literâ, ubi I vel Y sequitur hanc literam S immediate.
  • CLADDE, or clothydde. Vestitus, indutus.
  • CLAM', or cleymows (gleymous, K. H. P.)2. ["Clammy, as breed is not through baken, pasteux." PALSG. See hereafter GLEY∣MOWS or lymows. In Norfolk meat over-kept is said to have got a clam; and to clam signifies to stick together by viscid matter. FORBY. Ang. Sax. clam, lutum, claemian, linere.]Glutinosus, vis∣cosus.
  • CLAMERYN̄' (or crepyn, P.) Repto.
  • CLAMERYNGE, or clymynge. Rep∣cio, reptura (reptacio, K.)
  • CLAPPE, or grete dynne (dynt, P.)3. ["They that serche the ende of a mannys lyfe by nygrymanciars be payed at a clappe, clade involvuntur." HORM.]Strepitus, frangor.
  • CLAPPARRE (clat, H. J. clappe, P.) Percussorium.
  • CLAPPE, or clakke of a mylle (clat, H. clatte, P.) Taratan∣tara, UG. in tardo, CATH. ba∣tillus, DICC. C. F.
  • (CLAPYR of a bell, K. H. P. Ba∣tillus, C. F. DICC.)
  • CLAPPYN̄', or knokkyn̄'. Pulso.
  • CLAPPYN̄' hondys to-gedyr for ioy, or for sorowe. Complodo, C. F.
  • (CLAPPYNGE, H. P. Percussio.)
  • CLAPPYNGE, or clynkynge of a belle. Tintillacio.
  • CLARET of a tunne (cleret, P.) Ductilium.
  • CLARET, or cleret, as wyne. Se∣miclarus.
  • CLARET, wyne (clarey, K. clarry, P.)

    4. The French term claré seems simply to have denoted a clear transparent wine, but in its most usual sense a compounded drink of wine with honey and spices, so delicious as to be comparable to the nectar of the Gods.

    "For of the Goddes the vsage is,
    That who so him forsweareth amis,
    Shall that yeere drinke no clarre."

    Chaucer, Rom. of Rose.

    In the original Romance pigment, claré, and vin parée are named together, and in the Merchant's Tale Januarie is said to indulge in consoling spiced drinks, "Ipocras, clareie and vernage." Barth. Anglicus gives a description of the mode of compounding claret, lib. 19, de propriet, rerum, c. 56; and recipes "ad faciendum claretum" occur in Sloan. MSS. 1986, f. 14, b. and 3548, f. 105. The following directions are found in Sloan. MS. 2584, f. 173. "To make Clarre. Take a galoun of honi, and skome it wel, and loke whanne it is i soden þat þer be a galoun; þanne take viii galouns of red wyn, þan take a pounde of pouder canel, and half a pounde of pouder gynger, and a quarter of a pounde of pouder peper, and medle alle þese þynges to geder, and þe wyn; and do hym in a clene barelle, and stoppe it fast, and rolle it wel ofte siþes, as men don verious, iii dayes." Palsgrave gives "Clarry wyne, cleré." In Norfolk at the pre∣sent time any kind of foreign red wine is called claret.

  • CLARYFYYN̄'. Clarifico.
  • CLARYN̄' wythe a claryone (clary∣yn, K. P.) Clango.
  • Page  80CLARINE, trumpett (claryon trumpe, P.)1. ["Clarine, cleron." PALSG. Horman says that "a trumpette is streyght, but a clarion is wounde in and out with an hope." This instrument received its name from its shrill sounds: it was called in low Latin clario, and Knyghton mentions "clarriones et tubae," as sounding the onset at Cressy, and speaks of them also in his account of the siege of Paris, by Edward III. A.D. 1360.]Lituus, sistrum, C. F.
  • CLARYOWRE, or clarenere (clario∣nere, K. H. P.) Liticen, bellicrepa.
  • CLAW, or cle of a beste. Ungula.
  • CLAWYN̄', or cracchyn̄' (scratche, P.)

    2. The verb to scratch, derived by Junius from the Danish, kratse, or the Flemish, kratsen, was formerly written cracche: see hereafter CRACCHYN̄. Chaucer speaks of "cratchinge of chekes," and Piers Ploughman says,

    "Al the clergie under Crist
    Ne myghte me cracche fro helle,
    But oonliche love and leautee."

    Vision, 6866.
    Scalpo, scrato, grado, CATH.
  • CLAWYNGE. Scalpitacio.
  • CLAWSE, or poynte (or clos, P.) Clausula (clausa, P.)
  • CLAVSURE, or clos (clawser, P.)3. [This term is derived from the Latin, or more directly, perhaps, from the French, "closier, petit clos fermé de haies." ROQUEF. Horman says, "these byrdis muste be kepte in with a rayle, or a closer latis wyse, clathro," See CLOSERE of bokys or oþer lyke.]Clausura.
  • CLEY. Argilla, glis.
  • CLEYSTAFFE (cleyke staffe, K.H.P.)4. [Cambuca is rendered in the Medulla Grammatice, "a buschoppys cros, or a crokid staf." See hereafter CROCE of a byschope. The term CLEY-STAFFE seems to be taken from the similarity of the head of the pastoral staff, in its simplest form, resembling the ancient lituus, to the claw of an animal, which here, as by Gower, is written cle. "Cley of a beste, ungula." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk the pronunciation cleyes is still retained.]Cambusca (cambuca, C. F. H. P.)
  • CLEYME, or chalaunge. Vendi∣cacio, clameum.
  • CLEYMARE. Vendicator.
  • CLEYMYN̄, supra in CHALENGYN̄'.
  • CLEYMYNGE, supra in CLEYME.
  • CLEYPYTTE. Argillarium, C. F.
  • CLENCHYDDE (clenched, P.) Re∣tusus, repansus, CATH.
  • CLENCHYN̄'. Retundo, repando, CATH.
  • CLENCHYN' a-ȝen' (in wraw speche, K.) or chaueryn' a-ȝen', for prowde herte.5. [Chaueryn may be here the same as CHARYN, or geynecopyn, which occurs pre∣viously.]Obgarrio, CATH.
  • CLENCHYNGE. Retuncio, repancio.
  • CLENE.6. [Clean formerly signified, not merely external, but also intrinsic purity. "He gave a senser, and a shyp of clene syluer, argento puro." HORM.]Mundus, purus.
  • CLENNESSE. Mundicia, puritas.
  • CLENSYD, as lycoure (or tryid, K. syyd, H. fyed, P.) supra in CYEDD.
  • CLENSYD, or made cleene. Mun∣datus (purificatus, P.)
  • Page  81CLENSYN̄', or make clene. Mundo, purifico (purgo, depuro, K. P.)
  • CLENSYN̄', supra in CYFTYN̄'. (Colo, P.)
  • CLENSYNGE, or powregynge (pur∣chinge, P.) Purificacio.
  • (CLENSYNGE, or cyyinge, H. cif∣tinge, P. Colatura.)
  • CLENZON', or declenson' (clensen, P.) Declinacio.
  • CLEPYN̄', (or callyn, K.)1. [The verb to clepe is commonly used by Robert of Gloucester, Chaucer, Gower, and other ancient writers; but as early as the commencement of the XVIth century it ap∣pears to have become obsolete, for Palsgrave gives "I clepe or call, je huysche. This terme is farre Northern." Ang. S. cleopian, clamare. Forby gives the word as still in use in Norfolk.]Voco.
  • CLEPYN̄' be name. Nuncupor, nuncupo.
  • CLEPYN' A-ȜENE (ageyne, P.) Re∣voco.
  • CLEPYN' yn to a place. Invoco.
  • CLEPYN owte. Evoco.
  • CLEPYN̄' to-gedyr. Convoco.
  • CLEPE to mete. Invito.
  • CLEPYNGE, or callynge. Vocacio.
  • CLEPPYN̄', or clynchyn̄' (clippyn or clynkyn, P.) Tinnio, UG.
  • (CLEPYNG, K. cleppynge, or clyn∣gynge of a bell, H. clinkinge, P. Tintillacio.)
  • CLERE, as wedur ys, bryghte (or brygth, K.) Clarus, serenus.
  • CLERE, as watur, or oþer licour. Limpidus, perspicuus.
  • CLERE of wytt, and vndyrstond∣y(n)ge. Perspicax, C. F.
  • CLERGY, or cumpany, or (of, P.) clerkys.2. ["A clerge, clerus, clerimonia." CATH. ANG.]Clerus, clericatus, clerimonia.
  • (CLERGE, or conyng of offyce of clerkys, K. clergie, or office of clerkes, H. clergie of office, P.

    3. The word clergy, signifying erudition suitable to the office, in the sense given to the word in the King's Coll. MS. of the Promptorium, is thus used also in Piers Plough∣man's Vision,

    "I asked hir the high way where that clergie dwelt."

    See the word clargie, in Jamieson. "Clergie, science, littérature, savoir." ROQUEF.

  • (CLERGYSE, K. P. Clerimonia.)
  • CLERYN̄', or wex (clere or, P.) bryghte, as wedur. Sereno, cla∣reo.
  • CLERYN̄' fro drestys. Desicco (defico, K. P. CATH.)
  • CLERYN̄', or make clere a thynge þat ys vnknowe (was vnknowen, P.) Clarifico, manifesto.
  • CLERKE. Clericus.
  • CLERKE of cowntys (a cownt, P.) Competista.
  • CLERKELY. Clericaliter.
  • CLERELY. Clare (perspicue, P.)
  • CLERENESSE. Claritas, perspi∣cacitas.
  • CLERENESSE of wedyr. Sere∣nitas.
  • CLYTE, or clote, or vegge (clete or wegge, K.) Cuneus, C. F.
  • CLYFFE, or an hylle (clefe of an hyll, P.) Declivum.
  • CLYFF, clyft, or ryfte.

    4. Clift occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, to denote what is termed the fork of the human figure, in the following passage, Arund. MS. 220.

    "Quisses (þeȝes) nages (bottokes) oue la fourcheure (þe clift)
    Fount graunt eyse pur chiuauchure (vor ridinge)."

    Clough, a deep fissure or ravine, is a name still retained at Lynn, at a spot described by Forby. Ang. Sax. clouȝh, fissura ad montis clivum. See also cleuch and cleugh in Jamieson, and Brockett's Northern words.

    Sissura, rima.
  • Page  82CLYKETT.

    1. "A clekett, clavis." CATH. ANG. "Clyket of a dore, clicquette." PALSG. The French term cliquet, in low Latin cliquetus, seems properly to have signified a latch, "pessulus versatilis, Gall. loquet." DUC. Thus the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth renders it.

    "Par cliket et cerure, (lacche and lok)
    Ert la mesoun le plus sure."

    Arund, MS. 220, f. 302, b.

    Chaucer, however, uses the word in the sense that is here given to it, "clavicula, a lytel keye." ORTUS. Thus in the Merchant's Tale,

    "—he wold suffre no wight bere the key,
    Sauf he himself, for of the smal wiket
    He bare alway of silver a cliket."
    Clitorium, clavicula, CATH.
  • CLYMARE. Scansor.
  • CLYMYN̄'. Scando.
  • CLYMYNGE. Scansio.
  • CLYNGYN', or styrkyn̄' (shrynke, P.) Rigeo, C. F. CATH.
  • CLYNYN̄', or declynyn̄'. Declino, CATH. (vario, P.)
  • (CLYNE, or bowe downe, P. Declino, inclino.)
  • CLYNKYN̄, supra in CLYPPYN̄' (clynkyn, supra in chymyn, K.)
  • CLYNKYNGE of a bell, supra in CLAPPYNGE (clyngkynge, K.)
  • CLYPPARE. Tonsor, tonsatrix.
  • CLYPPYN̄'. Tondeo.
  • CLYPPYNGE.2. ["A clippynge, tonsura. A clippynge howse, tonsorium." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk to clip signifies now to shear sheep, and the great annual meeting at Holkham was commonly termed the Holkham clip, or clipping. FORBY.]Tonsura.
  • CLYPPYCE of þe sonne or money (clypse, K. P.)

    3. "þe clippys of þe sone and moyne, eclypsis. To make clippys, eclipticare." CATH. ANG. Chaucer, comparing the course of love to that of the moon, says that it is like the planet,

    "Now bright, now clipsy of manere,
    And whilom dimme and whilom clere."
  • CLYVYN̄' or parte a-sundyr, a(s) men doone woode. Findo (scindo, P.)
  • CLYUYNGE, or departynge (cleu∣ynge, P.) Scissura (fissura, P.)
  • (CLYUE, or ryue by the selfe, P.4. [The verbs from CLYUE, to COWRYN, are omitted in the Harleian MS. and are here given chiefly from the MS. at King's College, Cambridge, and Pynson's edition.]Rimo, risco.)
  • (CLIUYN to, K. cleve to, P. Ad∣hereo.)
  • CLYUYNGE to, or fastenynge to a þynge (cleuynge, P.) Adhesio.
  • CLOKERRE, or belfray supra (clo∣cherre or bellefrey, K. clocher, P. clocke hous, W.5. [This term is derived from the French clocher, or the low Latin clocherium. It occurs in the accounts of the Chamberlain of Norwich, among charges for the celebra∣tion of the exequies of Henry VIII. A.D. 1547, where a payment appears "to the Clarks of Cryste Churche, for ryngyng the clocher bells." Blomf. Hist. ii. 155.]Campanile, K. classicum, P.)
  • Page  83CLODDE.1. ["A clotte, cespis, occarium. To clotte, occare. A clottynge malle, occatorium." CATH. ANG. "Occo, glebas frangere, to clotte." ORTUS. In the Medulla, Harl. MS. 2257, occur "glebarius, a clotte maller. Gleba est durus cespes cum herbâ, an harde klotte." Palsgrave gives the verb to clodde as signifying the formation, and not the breaking up of clods. "To clodde, go in to heapes, or in to peces, as the yerthe dothe, amonceler. This yerthe clotteth so faste that it must be broken. To clodde, figer, fortier, congeler." Compare CLOTERYN.]Gleba.
  • (CLODDYN, or brekyn cloddes, K. Occo.)
  • CLOGGE. Truncus.
  • CLOYSTYR. Claustrum.
  • (CLOKKYN as hennys, K. clocke, P. Crispio, frigulo.)
  • CLOKKYNGE of hennys. Crispi∣atus, C. F. in crispat.
  • CLOKKE. Horisonium, horologium, CATH.
  • CLOOKE (cloke, P.) Armilausa, (collobium, P.)
  • CLOOS, or boundys of a place (clos, P.) Ceptum, ambitus.
  • CLOOS, lybrary. Archyvum, C. F.
  • CLOOS, ar yerde (or, P.) Clausura.
  • (CLOSYN, or schettyn, K. shette, P. Claudo.)
  • (CLOSYN streytly, K. Detrudo.)
  • (CLOSYN ABOWTYN, K. aboute, P. Vallo.)
  • (CLOSYN IN, K. Includo.)
  • (CLOSYN OUTE, or schettyn owt, K. Excludo.)
  • CLOSETT. Clausella, clausicula.
  • (CLOSED. Clausus, P.)
  • CLOSYD, clausyd, or closyd yn'.2. [A note, copied by Hearne from a copy of the Promptorium, states that the com∣piler of the work was "frater Ricardus Frauces, inter quatuor parietes pro Christo inclusus." See Hearne's Glossary to Langtoft's Chron. under the word Nesshe. If, however, it had been true that he had belonged to the order of Anchorites, who were called inclusi, or reclusi, it seems probable that some indication of the fact would have here occurred. The dwelling of the Anchorite, domus inclusi, or clusorium, ap∣pears to have often immediately adjoined the church, and is doubtless in many instances still to be distinguished. The ritual for his benediction will be found in Martene, Antiq. Rit. lib. iii. c. 3. Palsgrave gives the verb "to close up in a wall, or bytwene walles, emmurer. Cannest thou fynde in thy herte to be an Anker, to be closed up in a wall?" See hereafter RECLUSE.]Inclusus.
  • CLOSYD owte. Exclusus, seclusus.
  • CLOSPE. Offendix, firmaculum, signaculum, CATH.
  • CLOSERE (closure, P.) of bokys, or oþer lyke.3. [Compare CLAUSURE, or clos. Jamieson gives closeris, enclosures, and closerris, which he conjectures may signify clasps. In Norfolk Forby observes that the cover of a book is called clodger, which he supposes to be derived from the French, closier, as the term codger is corrupted from cosier, a cobler.]Clausura, coo∣pertorium.
  • CLOTE, herbe. Lappa bardana, C. F. lappa rotunda (glis, P.)
  • (CLOTERYN, as blode, or other lyke, K. cloderyn, P. Coagulo.)
  • CLOTHE. Pannus.
  • CLOTHE woudōn' (wouyn, K. H. P.) with dyuers colours. Stroma, vel pannus stromaticus, CATH.
  • CLOWCHYN', or clowe (clowchun, Page  84 H. clewe, P.) Glomus, globus, DICC. glomicillus, UG. in garma.
  • CLOWDE of þe skye (clowde, or skye, K. H.)1. [Compare hereafter SKYE, nubes. The word skye is thus used both by Chaucer and Gower, to signify a cloud. Ang. Sax. skua, umbra, Su. G. sky, nubes.]Nubes, nubecula.
  • CLOWDY, or fulle of clowdys (skyys, K.) Nubidus.
  • CLOWE of garlykke (cloue of gar∣lek, or other lyke, P.) Costula.
  • CLOWE, spyce. Gariofolus.
  • CLOWYS, water schedynge (clowse, watyrkepyng, K. clowze, H. clowse, water shettinge, P.)2. [CLAWYS, MS. "A clowe of flodeȝate, singlocitorium, gurgustium." CATH. ANG. The term clowys appears to be taken from the French écluse. See the word clouse, in Jamieson.]Sinogloatorium.
  • CLOWTE of clothe (cloute or ragge.) Scrutum, panniculus, pannucia.
  • CLOWTE of a schoo.3. ["A clowte of yrne, crusta, crusta, ferrea, et cetera ubi plate." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk the terms cleat and clout signify an iron plate with which a shoe is strengthened. FORBY. Ang. Sax. cleot, clut, pittacium, lamina. Palsgrave gives the verb "to cloute, carreler, rateceller. I had nede go cloute my shoes, they be broken at the heles."]Pictasium, UG.
  • (CLOWTYN, K. Sarcio, CATH. re∣brocco, repecio.)
  • (CLOUT disshes, pottes, pannes, P. Crusco.)
  • CLOWTER, or cobelere. Sartorius, rebroccator (pictaciarius, P.)
  • CLOWTER of clothys. Sartorius, sartor, sartrix.
  • CLOWTYD, as clothys. Sartus, repeciatus.
  • CLOWTYD, as shoone, or oþer thyngys of ledyr. Pictaciatus, rebroccatus.
  • CLOWTYNGE of clothys. Sartura.
  • CLOWTYNGE, or coblynge. Re∣broccacio.
  • (CLOWTYNGE of shone, K. Pic∣tacio.)
  • (CLOTHYN, K. Vestio, induo.)
  • (CLOÞID, supra in CLADDE, K. H.)
  • CLOTHYNGE, dede. Induicio.
  • CLOTHYNGE, or garment. Indu∣mentum, vestimentum.
  • CLUBBYD staffe (clubbe, staffe, H. P.) Fustis, CATH.
  • CLUBBYD, or boystows. Rudis.
  • CLEWE, supra in CLOWCHYNGE.4. ["To wynde clowys, glomerare." CATH. ANG. A. Sax. cleow, glomus.]
  • CLUSTYR of grapys (closter, P.) Botrus, racemus, UG.
  • COO, byrde, or schowhe.5. [The chough or jackdaw, called in the Eastern counties a caddow. See before CADAW, or keo, or chowghe, and hereafter KOO, bryd, or schowghe. "Monedula, COO." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "A ka, monedula." CATH. ANG. "Nodulus, a kaa." ORT. VOC. Ang. Sax. ceo, cornix.]Mone∣dula, nodula.
  • COBLER, supra in CLOWTERE.
  • COBYLLSTONE, or cherystone. Pe∣trilla (ceripetra, lapis cerasi∣nus, ceramus, P.)
  • COCATRYSE. Basiliscus, coco∣drillus.
  • COCUR, boote (cokyr bote, H. P.6. [The coarse half-boot used by rustics was called a cocur, and the term cocker is still used in the North of England, but properly signified gaiters or leggings, and even coarse stockings without feet, used as gaiters. In a MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's possession, Culponeus is rendered "a carl stoghe," (in the Ortus "a chorles shoo,") with this additional explanation, "vel a Cokyr, ut dicit Campus florum." Piers Ploughman speaks of his "cokeres," Vision, line 3915, and they may be seen in the curious drawing in a MS. of the Poem in the Library Trin. Coll. Cant. an engraving from which is given in Shaw's Dresses. Elyot gives "Carpatinae, ploughmen's bootes made of vntanned lether, they maye be called cokers. Peronatus, he that weareth rawe lether shoen, boteux, or cokars lyke a ploughman." Librarie, 1542.]) Ocrea, coturnus, KYLW. C. F.
  • Page  85COKERYNGE, or grete chers∣chy(n)ge (ouer greate cherys∣shinge, P.) Focio, nutricio, carefocus (carifotus, P.)
  • (COKERYN, P. Carifoveo.)1. [Junius compares this word with the Dutch, kokerillen, celebrare hilaria, but Lye is inclined to trace its etymology to the Welsh, cocr, indulgens. The use of the term is fully illustrated by Palsgrave. "To coker, cherysshe to moche, mignotter. This boye canne never thriue, he is cokered so moche. To coker, bring up with daynty meates, affriander, affrioller. Coker hym up thus in his youthe, and you shall haue a fayre caulfe of hym shortly." See below, COOKERYNGE METE.]
  • (COKYRMETE, K. H.2. [This singular term was given most erroneously in the printed editions of the Promp∣torium; Pynson printed it Ckyrmete, Julian Notary Chyimete, and W. de Worde Chy∣mette. It appears to relate to the kind of rustic boot called here a cocur, and cokyr; but the whimsical application of such a term to clay is wholly unaccountable.]Cenum, lutum, CATH.)
  • CODDE, of frute, or pesecodde. Siliqua.
  • CODDE, of mannys pryuyte (preuy membris, P.) Piga, mentula (testiculus, fiscus, P.)
  • CUDDE, of bestys chewynge (cod of bestys, or chewynge, P.) Ru∣men.
  • CODE, sowters wex (coode, H. P.)3. [Among numerous substances, resin, grease, and herbs, mentioned in the curious di∣rections for making a good "entreet," or plaster to heal wounds, occurs "Spaynisch code." Sloan. MS. 100, f. 17.]Coresina (cerisina, P.)
  • CODDYD CORNE (coddis, P.) Lu∣gumen.
  • CODLYNGE, fysche. Morus, et nota quod sic dicitur quia morose nature fertur.
  • CODULLE, fysche.4. [Elyot renders "Sepia, a fyshe called a cuttell. Loligo, a fyshe whiche hath his head betwene his feete and his bealy, and hath also two bones, oone lyke a knyfe, the other lyke a penne." The Sepia officinalis, which is found commonly on the coasts of Britain, is not properly a fish, but belongs to Cuvier's great division of Molluscous animals, and the class of Céphalopodes. Ang. Sax. cudele, sepia. See hereafter, COTULL.]Sepia, UG. bel∣ligo (lolligo, P.) UG. in lolium.
  • COFYN'.5. [The primary meaning of the word cofyn seems to have been, as in Latin and French, a basket, and is thus used in the Wicliffite version, which renders Matt. xiv. 20, "Thei token the relifis of broken gobetis, twelve cofyns full." Elyot renders "Tibin, a bas∣kette or coffyn made of wyckers or bull rushes, or barke of a tree; such oone was Moyses put in to by the daughter of Pharao." The term also implied a raised crust, as for a pie, or a custard, and occurs in this sense in Shakespeare. See also the Forme of Cury, pp. 72, 83, 89. Palsgrave gives "Coffyn, grant boiste."]Cophynus, C. F.
  • COFUR. Cista.
  • COGGE of a mylle. Scarioballum, (DICC. P.)
  • (COGGYN a mylle, P. Scario∣ballo.)
  • Page  86COGBOOTE (cokbote, P.) Scafa.
  • COY, or sobyr. Sobrius, modestus.
  • COYFE, supra in CAPPE1. ["A coyfe, pillius, pilleolus, apex, galerus. Versus, Pillius est juvenum, peregri∣numque galerum." CATH. ANG. See above, the note on CAPPE, or hure.]Tena, corocallum (carocallum, P.) capicella, COMM. KYLW.
  • COYLY, or sobyrly. Modeste.
  • (COYYN, K. P.2. [Chaucer uses the verb to "acoie," in the sense of making quiet; in Spenser it sig∣nifies to caress, and also to daunt. Palsgrave gives "to coye, styll, or apayse, ac∣quoyser." The derivation is evidently from the French quoi, quietus, now written coi.]Blandior.)
  • COYNGE, or st(y)rynge to werkyn' (sterynge to done a werke, K. styringe, P.) Instigacio.
  • COYTER, or caster of a coyte. Pe∣treludus (petriludarius, K. P.)
  • COYTE. Petreluda.
  • (COYTYN, K. Petriludo.)
  • COKKEBYRDE. Gallus.
  • COOKE (coke, K. P.) mete dytare. Cocus, coquinarius.
  • COKKROWYNGE, tyme (cokcrow, tyme, K.) Gallicinium, galli∣cantus, UG. in castrio.
  • COK BELLE. Nola, campanella, bulla, BRIT.
  • COKNAY (cokeney, K.)3. ["A coknay, ambro, mammotrophus, delicius. Versus, Delicius qui deliciis a matre nutritur." CATH. ANG. The term coknay appears in the Promptorium to imply simply a child spoiled by too much indulgence; thus likewise in the Medulla, "Mam∣motrophus, qui diu sugit. Mammotrophus mammam longo qui tempore servat, Kokenay dicatur, noster sic sermo notatur." There can be little doubt that the word is to be traced to the imaginary region "ihote Cokaygne," described in the curious poem given by Hickes, Gramm. A. Sax. p. 231, and apparently translated from the French. Compare "le Fabliaus de Coquaigne." Fabl. Barbazan et Méon. iv. 175. Palsgrave gives the verb "To bring up lyke a cocknaye, mignotter;" and Elyot renders "delicias facere, to play the cockney." "Dodeliner, to bring vp want only, as a cockney." Hollyband's Treasurie. See also Baret's Alvearie. Chaucer uses the word as a term of contempt, and it occasionally signifies a little cook, coquinator. See further in Douce's Illustrations, King Lear; and Brand's Popular Antiquities, notes on Shrove Tuesday.]Cari∣fotus, cucunellus, fotus, C. F. delicius, et sunt nomina deri∣sorie ficta, et inventa (lauticius, carenutus, coconellus, K. lu∣cimellus, P.)
  • COKYR, botew, supra. Cocurus.
  • COKERELLE. Gallus (gallimellus, gallulus, CATH. gallinacius, P.)
  • COOKERYNGE METE.4. [This word occurs here as a substantive. See above, COKERYNGE.]Carificio.
  • COCLE, fysche (cokyll, P.) Coclea.
  • COKYLLE, wede.5. ["Cokylle, quedam aborigo, zazannia." CATH. ANG. It would seen that Chaucer considered the term Lollard as derived from lollium. See hereafter, LOLLARDE.]Nigella, lol∣lium, zizannia, CATH. (gitt, P.)
  • COKOLDE. Ninerus.
  • COKKYS combe. Cirrus.
  • COLLEGE. Collegium.
  • COOLDE (colde, P.) Frigidus.
  • COOLDE, substantyfe. Frigus, algor.
  • COOLDER, schuldere (coldyr, K. H. P.) Petrosa, petro.
  • COLE of fyre, brynnynge. Pruna.6. [Colder in the dialect of Norfolk signifies "broken ears of corn mixed with frag∣ments of straw, beaten off by the flail;" and in Suffolk the "light ears and chaff left in the caving sieve, after dressing corn, "are termed colder, or cosh." See Forby, and Moore. Petro signifies the clippings of stone. "Petrones sunt particule que abscin∣duntur de petris." CATH.]
  • Page  87COLE, qwenchyd. Carbo, CATH.
  • COOLDE (cole, P.) or sum-what colde. Algidus, C. F.
  • (COLE, or sumwhat colde, K. P. Algor.)
  • (COLYN, or kelyn, K. Frigefacio.)
  • COLLERE. Collare, collarium.
  • COLLER of howndys. Millus, CATH. in millo.
  • COLLER of horsys. Epiphium.
  • COLLER of a garment. Patagium, CATH. UG. in pateo.
  • COLLER, or lyue(rey) (of leuery, K. of lyvery, H. P.)1. [The usage of distributing year by year a robe, or some external token of adherence to the service or interests of the personage by whom such general retainer was granted, appears to have commenced during the XIIIth century. The gift, whether a robe, a hood, or other outward sign, was termed a livery, liberata, and the practice was carried to so pernicious an extent, that various statutes passed in the reigns of Edward III. Ri∣chard II. and Henry IV. by which the use of liveries was restricted or regulated. Mr. Beltz, in his curious article on the Collars of the King's Livery, Retrosp. Review, N. S. ii. 500, states that the first instance on record of conferring such marks of distinction in England is in 1390, when Richard II. distributed his cognisance of the white hart, but the assertion copied from Anstis, that it was pendant from a collar of broom-cods, does not appear to rest on any authority. This collar was, however, presented in 1393 to Richard II. and his three uncles by Charles VI. King of France, whose cognisance it was. Such a "colare del livere du Roi de Fraunce" is mentioned in the Inventories of the Exchequer Treasury, vol. iii. 357. See Mr. J. G. Nichols's interesting observations on the Effigies of Richard II. and his Queen, Archaeol. xxix. 46. The earliest notice of collars of livery, that has been observed, occurs in Rot. Parl. iii. 313, where it ap∣pears that when John of Gaunt returned in 1389 from the wars in Spain and Gascony, Richard took his uncle's "livere de coler" from his neck, and wore it himself; that it was also worn by some of the King's retinue; and that Richard declared in Parliament that he wore it in token of affection, as likewise he wore the liveries of his other uncles. It is not improbable that this livery of the Duke of Lancaster's was the collar of letters of SS, subsequently adopted by Henry IV. as his livery, the origin of which is still involved in obscurity. This device had been in use many years before his accession, and as early as 1378 Sir John de Foxle, whose will is preserved in Bishop Wykeham's Register at Winchester, bequeathed "Monile auri, cum S literâ sculptâ et amelitâ in eodem." The livery of Henry V. during the life-time of his father, was a swan, adopted doubtless in token of his descent from the Bohun family; the Stat. 2 Hen. IV. c. 21, contains a clause "que Monseigneur le Prince purra doner sa honorable liveree del Cigne as seigneurs et a ses meignalx gentilx;" and such were probably the "Colers d'argent de la livere du Roy," which are enumerated in the Inventories of the effects of Henry V. taken at his decease, 1423. Rot. Parl. iv. 214. Henry VI. used a collar formed of broom-cods and the letter S alternately, and Edward IV. adopted as his li∣very a collar of suns and roses, to which a white lion was appended. There is no evi∣dence that collars of livery were ever distributed by subjects, excepting the Princes of the blood.]Torques.
  • COLLERYDE. Torquatus.
  • COLETTE, propyr name (Collet, P.) Colecta.
  • COOLYD, of heete. Frigefactus.
  • COLYKE, sekenesse. Collica pas∣sio.
  • COLYER, or colyfere (colyȝer, H. coler, P.) Carbonarius.
  • COOLYNGE. Frigefaccio, refri∣geracio, refrigerium.
  • Page  88(COLYSSHE, disshe mete, P.)1. ["A culice, morticium." CATH. ANG. In the collection of Recipes, dated 1381, printed with the Forme of Cury, will be found one "for to make a Colys," which was a sort of invigorating chicken broth. See p. 94, and Peface, p. xvii. where will be found references for further informatin on the subject. The term is French. Cotgrave gives "Coulis, a cullis or broth of boiled meat strained, fit for a sick body." See the words collice in Junius, and cullis in Nares' Glossary.]
  • COLYTTE.2. [Of the minor orders in the Christian church, the fourth is that of acolyte, suc∣ceeded immediately by that of subdeacon, the first of the greater orders. The functions of the acolyte, consisting chiefly in attendance on the services of the altar, will be found detailed by Martene, or Ducange. By the writers of the XVIth century the orders of "benet and colet" are mentioned not infrequently together. See above BENETT, ordyr, Exorcista. "Accolitus, serviens in missâ habens ordinem, a collect. Acholitus Grece, ceroferarius Latine, a colet." ORTUS.]Accolitus, cerofera∣rius, CATH.
  • COLMOSE, byrde.3. ["A collemase, alcedo." CATH. ANG. "Alcedo est qudam avis que ceteris avibus sedulius alit pullos. Anglice, a seemewe." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. colmase, parula.]Alcedo.
  • COLLOPPE. Frixatura, UG. in frigo, assa, NECCH. carbona∣cium, KYLW. carbonella, UG.
  • COLOWRE. Color.
  • COLORYD. Coloratus.
  • (COLORYN, K. colowren, P. Coloro.)
  • COOLE RAKE (colrake, H. P.)4. ["A colrake, trulla, verriculum." CATH. ANG. Elyot gives "Rutabulum, a coole rake to make cleane an oven." See Comenius, orbis sensualium, by Hoole, p. 113.]Restellum, batillum, CATH. C. F.
  • COLTE (or fole, P.) yonge horse. Pullus.
  • COLWYD (colowde, P.)5. ["To colowe, make blacke with a cole, charbonner." PALSG. Forby gives the verb to collar, as used in Norfolk in the same sense. In other parts of England the expres∣sion to collowe or colly is retained. Shakespeare in Mids. Night's Dream applies the epithet "colly'd" to the night. See Nares.]Carbonatus.
  • COLWYNGE (colowynge, P.) Car∣bonizacio.
  • COLUMBYNE, herbe. Columbina.
  • COLUMNE of a lefe (of a boke, P.) Columna.
  • COMBE, for kemynge. Pecten.
  • COMBE, or other lyke of byrdys, supra in COKKYS.
  • COMBE, of curraynge, or horse combe. Strigilis, C. F.
  • COMBE, of hony. Favus.
  • (COMAWNDYN, or byddyn, K. Mando, jubeo, impero, hortor.)
  • COMMAWNDEMENT. Mandatum, preceptum.
  • COMMAWNDEMENT of a kynge. Mundiburdium, C. F. (edictum, P.)
  • COMMAWNDOUR. Preceptor, man∣dator.
  • (COMBYNYN, or copulyn, K. coplyn, P. Combino, copulo.)
  • COMELY, or semely in syghte. Decens.
  • COMELY, or semely, or well far∣ynge in schappe. Elegans.
  • COMELYD, for colde.6. [See above the note on A-COMELYD for coulde. Cumbled still signifies in Norfolk cramped or stiffened with cold; cumbly-cold denotes great severity of weather. See Forby, and the word cumber, or benumbed with cold, in Jamieson. In the Wicliffite ver∣sion a-clumsid occurs in the same sense: "We herden þe fame þerof, our hondis ben a-clumsid, tribulacioun haþ take us," Jerem. vi. 24; and the expression "thou clom∣sest for cold" is found in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, line 9010. "Clumsyd, evi∣ratus. Cumbyrd, ubi clumsyd." CATH. ANG. In the curious translation of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that a fleet should not venture to sea after the au∣tumnal equinox, when "the see is looke and shit up, and men bethe combered and clommed with colde." B. IV. c. 39.]Eviratus.
  • Page  89COMELYDNESSE. Eviracio.
  • COMLYNESSE, or seemelynesse. Decencia, elegancia.
  • COMELYNGE, new cum man or woman.1. [In the Wicliffite version the following passages occur: "A comelynge which is a pilgrim at ȝou." Levit. xviii. 26; "Most dere I biseche you as comelingis and pilgryms." 1 Pet. ii. 11. The following expression occurs in Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon, in reference to the use of the French language in Britain; "the langage of Normandie is a comlynge of another lande," in the original "adven∣titia." "Accida, Anglice a comlynge." ORTUS. "Accola, advena, a comelinge." MED. GRAMM. "A cumlynge, advena." CATH. ANG. Ang. Sax. cumling, advena.]Adventicius, inquilinus.
  • (COMENDYN, or gretyn, K. recōm∣ende, P. Recommendo, com∣mendo.)
  • (COMENDYN, or preysyn, K. Lau∣do, commendo.)
  • COMERAWNCE. Vexacio.
  • (COMEROUS, P. Vexativus, vexu∣lentus.)
  • COMET sterre, or blasynge sterre. Cometa, vel stella comata.
  • COMYN', SEEDE. (Ciminum, P.)
  • COMYNGE TOO. Adventus.
  • COMYS, of malte (cōmys, P.)2. ["Cummynge as malte, germinatus." CATH. ANG.]Paululata, KYLW. (pululata, K. P.)
  • (COMUNYN, or make comowne, K. comon or make comon, P. Com∣munico.)
  • (COMOUNE, or talke with another in cumpany, or felawshepe, H. comon, P. Communico.)
  • COMOWNTE (comnavnte, K. coue∣naunte, P.)3. ["A commontye, vulgus, populus, gens, plebs." CATH. ANG.]Communitas.
  • COMOWNE. Communis.
  • COMOWNLY. Communiter.
  • COMOWNE, pepylle. Vulgus.
  • COMOWNE þynge, or comown goode. Res publica.
  • COMPERE, falawe (compyre, P.) Compar, coequalis.
  • COMPLAYNTE. Querimonia, COMM. querela.
  • COMPLEXIONE. Complexio.
  • COMMUNYONE (the, P.) sacrament. Communio.
  • (COMPOSTYN, or dungyn, P. Stercoro.)
  • CONABLE, accordynge.4. [Jamieson derives the word from the Latin conabilis, what may be attempted with prospect of success.]Compe∣tens.
  • CONABLY, or competently.4. [Jamieson derives the word from the Latin conabilis, what may be attempted with prospect of success.]Com∣petenter.
  • CONCEYTE. Conceptus.
  • (CONCEYUYN, K. Concipio.)
  • CONCEYUYNGE. Concepcio.
  • (CONIECTEN, P. Mollior.)
  • CONSENT, or grawnte. Assensus (consensus, P.)
  • (CONCENTYN, or grawntyn, K. Consencio, assencio.)
  • CONSCIENCE. Consciencia.
  • CONDYCYONE. Condicio.
  • Page  90(CONYN, or hauyn conynge, K.1. ["To cone, to cunne, scire." CATH. ANG. "Cognoscere, scientiam habere, to conne." ORTUS. To conne is used in this sense by Chaucer, and in the Wicliffite ver∣sion, 1 Cor. ii. 2, is rendered thus, "I deeme not me to kunne ony thing." Caxton remarks in the Boke for Travellers, "It is a good thyng to conne a good craft, scavoir." So likewise in the Legenda Aurea, f. 92, b. "O who sholde conne shewe hereupon the secretes of thyne herte!" Palsgrave gives "to konne, learne or knowe, scavoir. I can konne more by herte in a day, than he can in a weke;" and "to conne thanke, or can one good thanke, scavoir bon gré." "Thou shalt kun me thanke." HORM. See Jamieson. Ang. Sax. connan, scire.]Scio.)
  • CONFESSYONE. Confessio.
  • CONFECTYON' of spyces (confexion, H. P. spysery, K.) Confeccio.
  • CONFLYCTE of verre (or werre, K. P.) Conflictus.
  • CONFUSYONE, or schame. Confusio.
  • (CONGELLYN, K. Congelo.)
  • CONY. Cuniculus.
  • CONYYS hole. Cunus, CATH. (cania, P.)
  • CUNNYNGE, or scyence.2. ["A connynge, scientia, facultas." CATH. ANG. "Connynge is of that thou haste lerned the memory or mynde, and reteyneth that thou sholdest forgete." Legenda Aurea, f. 53. Ang. Sax. cunning, experientia.]Sciencia.
  • (CONYNGE, or wytt, K. wytty, P. Sciens.)
  • CONNYNGERE, or connynge erthe.

    3. This word is used by Lydgate in the Concords of Company, Minor Poems, p. 174.

    "With them that ferett robbe conyngerys."

    Among the Privy Purse expenses of Henry VII. is a payment in 1493, "for making of the Conyngerthe pale." Horman observes that "warens and conygers and parkis palydde occupie moche grounde nat inhabitaunt, leporaria sive lagotrophia." Elyot gives "Vivarium, a counnyngar, a parke;" and Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, 1548, uses the word to denote a pleasance, or enclosed garden, "Horti di Venere, the womans secrete connyngers." "Cony garthe, garenne. Cony hole or clapar, tais∣niere, terrier, clappier." PALSG. In the Paston Letters, iv. 426, the term "konyne closse" occurs in the same sense. In almost every county in England, near to ancient dwelling-places, the name Coneygare, Conigree, or Coneygarth occurs, and various con∣jectures have been made respecting its derivation, which, however, is sufficiently obvius. See Mr. Hartshorne's observations on names of places, Salopia Antiqua, p. 258.

  • COONYONE, or drowtly (conione or dwerhe, K. conione or dwerwe, H. congeon or dwerfe, P.)

    4. Coinoun, or konioun, occurs in Kyng Alisaunder, and is explained by Weber as signifying coward, or scoundrel, from the French coion, which has that meaning.

    "Alisaundre! thou coinoun wode."

    line 1718.
    "Pes! quoth Candace, thou konioun!"

    line 7748.

    Here, however, the word seems merely to signify a dwarf. See hereafter DWEROWE.

  • COYNOWRE, or coynesmytare.5. [The first record of a mint at Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, occurs in 9th John, 1208, but there was possibly one in earlier times, and the name occurs on the coins of Edgar. Parkins supposes that it fell into disuse about 1344, 18 Edw. III.; and he states that the Bishop of Norwich had also a mint there, but the fact is ques∣tionable. See Blomefield's Hist. Norf. iv. p. 582, and Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, ii. 198.]Nummularius.
  • CONIURACYON', or coniurynge. Conjuracio.
  • Page  91(CONQUERYN, K. Conquero, CATH.)
  • CONQUESTE, or conquerynge. Conquestus.
  • CONSTYTUCYONE. Constitucio.
  • (CONSTREYNYN, K. Compello, cogo, coarceo, arto, urgeo.)
  • CONSTREYNYNGE. Coaccio, ar∣tacio, compulsio.
  • CONSTRUARE. Constructor.
  • CONSTRUCCYON', or construynge. Construccio.
  • (CONSTRUYN, K. H. Construo, CATH.)
  • CONTAGYOWS, or grevows to dele wythe. Contagiosus.
  • CONTEMPLACYONE. Contempla∣cio.
  • (CONTEYNYN, hauyn or kepyn wit-innyn, K. kepe within, P. Contineo.)
  • CONTEYNYD (or within holdyn, H. holde, P.) Contentus.
  • CONTEYNYNGE. Continencia.
  • CONTRARYOWS. Contrarius.
  • CONTRARYOWSNESSE. Contra∣rietas.
  • CONTRYCYON, or sorow for synne. Contricio.
  • CONTYNUALLY, or allway (con∣tynuyngly, P.) Continuo.
  • CONTYNUYD, kepte wythe-owte cessynge (brekynge, P.) Con∣tinuatus.
  • (CONTYNUYN, lestyn, or abydyn, K. Continuo.)
  • CONTYNUYNGE. Continuacio.
  • COPPE, or coper of a other thynge (top of an hey thyng, K. coppe of an hye thinge, P.)1. [The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1587, gives "summitas, coppe," namely, of a steeple. In the Wicliffite version, Luke iv. 29 is thus rendered, "And they ledden him to the coppe of the hil, on which her cytee was bildid, to cast him down." The crest on a bird's head likewise was thus termed, "Cop, cirrus, crista, est avium ut galli vel alaude." CATH. ANG. The gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth ex∣plains "geline hupée, coppede hen;" and Elyot gives "Stymphalide, a coppe of fethers, whiche standeth on the head of a byrde." In Norfolk, the term copple-crown still has this meaning. Horman says, "Somtyme men were coppid cappis like a sugar∣lofe," and uses the term "a cop heedyd felowe, cilo," which is explained by Elyot as having a great round forehead; and again, "Homer declaryng a very folysshe and an haskard felowe under the person of Thersyte, sayth that he was copheeded lyke a gygge, vertice acuminato." Cotgrave renders "pignon, a finiall, cop, or small pinnacle on the ridge of a house." The epithet is applied to the pointed shoe, or poleyn, in fashion in the XVth century. "Milleus, a copped shoo." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cop, apex.]Cacumen.
  • COOPE (cope, K. H. cape, W.)2. [See above CAPPE, capa; this sacred vestment commonly called a cope, the wearing of which has fallen into disuse, excepting at coronations, is by the Canons of the Re∣formed Church directed to be worn at the celebration of the communion in cathedral and collegiate churches. See Queen Elizabeth's Advertisements, A.D. 1564, Wilkins' Conc. IV. p. 248, and the Ecclesiastical Constitutions, or Canons, A. D. 1604, ibid. p. 383.]Capa.
  • COPEROSE. Vitriola.
  • COPORNE, or coporour of a thynge (coperone, K. H. coperum, P.)

    3. The Catholicon explains capitellum as signifying merely the capital of a column, but in the Medulla it is rendered "summa pars capitis;" and in this sense, coporne signifying the apex or pinnacle, the work with which a tower, or any ornamental con∣struction, is crowned, may perhaps be regarded as a diminutive of coppe. The term occurs in a curious description of a castle, written about the time of Richard II.

    "Fayre fylyoleȝ that fyȝed, and ferlyly long,
    With coruon coprounes craftyly sleȝe."
    Gawayn and the Grene Knyȝt,

    line 797.

    A round tower appears to have had the appellation of a fyell, a phioll, or fylyole, not as Ruddiman conjectures, from fiola, a vial, but from phala. "Fala, a tour of tre." MED. GRAMM. In the description of Belshazzar's feast, in another poem of the same time, cited by Sir F. Madden in his notes on Sir Gawayn, it is said of the covered cups which were fashioned like embattled castles,

    "The coperounes of the canacles, that on the cuppe reres,
    Wer fetysely formed out in fylyoles longe."

    Cott. MS. Nero, A. x. f. 77.
  • Page  92COPY of a thynge wretyn'. Copia.
  • (COPYYN, K. Copio.)
  • COPYYD. Copiatus.
  • COPYOWSE, or plentevows. Co∣piosus.
  • COPYR, metalle. Cuprum.
  • CORAGE, or craske (cranke, P.)1. [See hereafter CRASKE, or fryke of fatte, a word which seems to be derivable as a corruption from crassus, or the French cras. Crank, which occurs here in the printed editions of the Promptorium, usually signifies sickly or feeble, but in Kent and Sussex it has the sense of merry or brisk; the reading is, however, questionable, as the word crank does not occur in these editions subsequently, but craske, as in the MSS.]Crassus, coragiosus.
  • CORAGENESSE, or craskenesse (co∣ragiowsnesse, or cranknesse, P.) Crassitudo.
  • CORALLE, stone. Corallus.
  • CORALLE, or drasse of corne (coralys or drosse, K. P. coralyys, or dros, H.)2. ["Acus, coralle." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "Curailles de maisons, the dust, filth, sweepings, or cleansing of houses." COTG. See DRAFFE hereafter.]Acus, UG. C. F. rusculum, ruscus vel ruscum, UG. in ruo, CATH.
  • CORBELL of a roffe. Tigillus, KYLW.
  • CORCET, or coote. Tunica, tu∣nicella, C. F.
  • CORCY, or corercyows.3. ["Corsy, corpulentus." CATH. ANG. "Corcyfe, corpsu. Corsyfe, to full fatnesse, corsu, corpulent." PALSG. Elyot gives "Pinguis, he that is fat, corsye, unweldye."]Corpu∣lentus.
  • CORCYOWSE, or grete belyydde. Ventricosus.
  • CORCYOWSNESSE. Corpulencia.
  • COORDE, roope. Cordula.
  • CORDYD, or accordyde. Concor∣datus.
  • CORDWANE, ledyr (cordwale le∣thir, K.)4. [Chaucer, in the Rime of Sir Thopas, mentions "his shoon of cordewane;" and in the Boke for Travellers Caxton speaks of "hydes of kyen whereof men make lether; of fellis of gheet, or of the bukke make men good cordewan; of shepes fellis may be made the basenne." The kind of leather to which this name was applied was originally prepared at Corduba, and thence, according to Junius and Menage, received the ap∣pellation.]Aluta.
  • CORDWANER. Alutarius.
  • COORDONE (cordone, P.)5. [The Medulla gives "Nicetrum, tokene of overcomynge." Harl. MS. 2257. The Catholicon gives the following explanation, "dicuntur Niceteria filateria, quae ges∣tabant athletae, facta de summitatibus armorum, quae a victis acceperant." See Du∣cange.]Nicetri∣um (nicetorium, P.) amteonites,Page  93 C. F. victoriale. C. F. dicit sic, Nicetoria, sunt . . . . . et victo∣rialia nicetoria sunt ornamenta.
  • CORE, of frute. Arula.
  • CORY, schepherdys howse.1. [In N. Britain a temporary building or shed is called a corf, or corf-house, signi∣fying, as Jamieson observes, a hole or hiding place, Ang. Sax. cruft, crypta, or perhaps approaching most nearly to Isl. korbae, tuguriolum. The floating basket used on the Suffolk coast to keep lobsters, is called, as Forby states, a corf or coy; and it seems possible that this appellation may have been given to the shepherd's hut, from its being formed with wattles, like a rudely-fashioned basket. Caxton, in the Boke for Tra∣vellers, calls a basket a "corffe, or mande."]Ma∣gale, mapale, CATH.
  • CORYOWRE. Coriarius, cerdo.
  • CORYOWSE, of crafte. Curiosus, (artificiosus, P.)
  • CURYOSTE, or curyosite (coriouste, P.) Curiositas, artificiositas.
  • CORKTRE. Suberies, UG. in suo.
  • CORKBARKE. Cortex, UG. in suo.
  • CORMERAWNTE. Corvus mari∣nus, KYLW. cormeraudus, mor∣plex, C. F.
  • CORMUSE, pype (cornymuse, P.)

    2. A distinction seems to be made in the Promptorium between the CORMUSE and the BAGGE-PYPE, panduca, a word which has occurred previously. Chaucer speaks of the great multitude that he saw in the House of Fame,

    "That made loud Minstralcies
    In cornmuse and shalmies."

    Book iii.

    In the Romance of the Rose he describes the discordant sounds produced by Wicked Tongue "with hornepipes of cornewaile," evidently identical with the cornmuse. Palsgrave renders "Bagge-pype, cornemuse," in low Latin, "cornemusa, vox ab Italis et Hispanis usurpata, uter symphoniacus." DUC. Hawkins has given in the Hist. of Music, vol. ii. 453, a representation of the cornamusa or bagpipe, copied from the Musurgia of Luscinius, published at Strasburg, 1536. Dr. Burney observes that "the cornmuse was the name of a horn or Cornish pipe, blown like our bagpipe." Vol. ii. 270. This instrument appears to have been in favour as an accompaniment of the dance. Roquefort gives it another appellation, estive; and in the list of Minstrels who played before Edward I. in 1306, when Prince Edward was knighted, are found Hamond Lestivour, and Geffrai le Estivour. See the volume presented to the Rox∣burghe Club by Mr. Botfield, on Manners and Household Expenses in England, p. 142.

  • CORNE. Granum, gramen.
  • CORNE, whyle hyt growythe. Seges.
  • (CORNE, that is grene, P. Bla∣dum.)
  • COORNE, or harde knott in þe flesche. Cornicallus.
  • (CORNEL, H. P. Frontispicium.)
  • CORNERE (or hyrne, H. P.) An∣gulus.
  • CORNERYD. Angulatus.
  • CORONALLE. Corolla, COMM. CATH. coronulla, UG.
  • COROWNE (corone, K.) Corona.
  • COROWNYDE. Coronatus.
  • (COROWNYN, K. P. Corono.)
  • COROWNYNGE, or coronacyon. Coronacio.
  • CORPHUN (corpchun herynge, H.P.)
  • CORPORASSE, or corporalle.3. [The term corporas, corporalis palla, denotes a consecrated linen cloth, folded and placed upon the altar in the service of the mass, beneath the sacred elements. Its symbolical import, allusive to the fine linen in which the body of Christ was wrapped, is fully explained by Durandus. See Lyndwood's Observations on the Constitutions of Abp. Walter Reynold, 1322, p. 235. The Constit. of the Bishops of Worcester in 1229 and 1240, required that in every Church should be provided "duo paria corpo∣ralium," and the Synod of Exeter in 1287, ordained that in every Church should be "duo corporalia cum repositoriis." Wilkins, Conc. i. 623, 666, ii. 139. The reposi∣torium, or case wherein the corporas was enclosed, when not in use, was richly, em∣broidered, or adorned with precious stones; it was termed likewise theca, capsa, or bursa corporalium. See the inventories of the gorgeous vestments and ornaments at St. Paul's, 1295, Mon. Angl. iii. 321. "Corporale, alba palla in altari, Anglice, a corporalle." ORTUS. "A corparax, corporale." CATH. ANG. "Corporas for a chales, corporeau." PALSG.]Cor∣porale.
  • Page  94COORS, dede body (corse, K.) Funus.
  • COORS of sylke, or threde (corce, P.)1. ["Corse of a gyrdell, tissu. Corse weauer, tissutier." PALSG. See hereafter SEYNT, or cors of a gyrdylle.]Textum.
  • CORSOURE of horse.2. ["A coyseyr of hors, mango. To coyse, alterare, et cetera ubi to chawnge." CATH. ANG. To cose signifies in N. Britain, according to Jamieson, to exchange or barter. In Octovian a dealer in horses is termed a "corsere." See Weber's Metr. Rom. iii. 191. Horman says, "Corsers of horses (mangones) by false menys make them loke fresshe." "He can horse you as well as all the corsers in the towne, courtiers de chevaulx." PALSG.]Mango, C. F.
  • COWRTE. Curia.
  • COORTYOWRE. Decurio, CATH. curialis, curio, UG. in cordia.
  • CORUUN, or kutte (corvone, K. corued, P.) Scissus (sculptus, P.)
  • COOTE, lytylle howse (cosh, K. cosche, H. cosshe, P.)3. [As COOTE occurs hereafter in its proper place, the reading of the Harl. MS. ap∣pears here to be corrupt. "Cosshe, a sorie house, cavere." PALSG. In the Cavern dialect cosh still has this signification.]Casa, tugurrium, capana (gurgus∣tium, teges, K. P.)
  • COOSYN', or emys sone (cosyng, K. cosyne, P.) Cognatus, cog∣nata.
  • COSYN, of ii systerys, awntys son' or dowgh̄tur. Consobrinus, con∣sobrina, UG. in sereno.
  • COSYNAGE. Cognacio.
  • COSYNES, brederys chyldrynne. Fratruelis, C. F. (fraternalis, P.)
  • COSCHYNE. Sedile, RIC.
  • COOSTE, or costage. Expense, sumptus, impendium, CATH.
  • (COSTYN, or do cost or spendyn, K. Exspendo, impendo.)
  • COOSTE, herbe.4. [Of the various virtues of coste, which is the root of an Indian plant, the early writers on drugs give long details, and Parkinson has represented it at p. 1582 of his Herbal. In Mr. Diamond's curious MS. on the qualities of plants and spices, two kinds of coste are described, both brought from India: "þe oone ys heuy and rede, þe toþer is liȝt and noȝt bittere, and somedel white in colour;" and it is recommended to make an ointment of coste ground small with honey, excellent to cleanse the face of the freckles, and "a suffreyn remedie for sciatica, and to þe membris þat ben a-stonyed."]Costus (coosta, P.) cujus radix dicitur costum, C. F.
  • COSTE of a cuntre. Confinium, ora.
  • COSTARD, appulle. Aniriarium (quiriarium, K. P.) quirianum, KYLW.
  • COOSTRE of an halle (costere, H.)5. [The Catholicon explains auleum as "cortina, quia in aulis extendi solet." The hangings with which the side-walls of a hall were garnished, previously to the more general use of wainscot, appear to have been termed costers. The name was applied likewise to hangings, either in a church at the sides of the choir, or in a hall near the high table, as a kind of screen, or even to the curtains of a bed. In the Register of the ornaments of the Royal Chapel at Windsor, taken 1385, 8 Ric. II. under the head of "Panni," several are enumerated. "Duo costers panni magni de Velvetto, pro prin∣cipalibus diebus, rubei et viridis coloris, cum magnis imaginibus stantibus in taberna∣culo." Mon. Ang. T. iii. part 2, p. 81. Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, bequeathed in 1424 to his wife a third part of his estate, "cum uno lecto de Arras operato cum auro, cum costeris eidem pertinentibus et concordantibus;" and to his son Richard another bed of Arras, "cum costeris paled de colore rubeo viridi et albo, qui solebant pendere in magnâ camerâ infra castrum de Sherifhoton." Madox, Formul. p. 432.]Subauleum, CATH. in auleum.
  • Page  95COSTELEWE (costfull, K. costlew, H. costuous, W.)1. [Chaucer, in the Persones Tale, makes great complaint of the "sinneful costlewe array of clothing," occasioned by the extravagant fashions of the time of Richard II. In the Stat. 3 Henry VII. c. 2, against murderers, it is stated that "he that will sue eny appell must sue in propre persone, which sute ys long and costlowe (costeouz, Fr.) that yt makyth the partie appellant wery to sue." The Cath. Ang. gives "costy, sumptuosus," and Palsgrave, "costyouse, sumptueux."]Sumptuosus.
  • (COSTYN ouyr þe cuntre, K. coos∣tyn on the countre, P.

    2. Chaucer uses the verb to costeie in the sense of the French costoier, to pass along∣side; as in the complaint of the Black Knight, line 36.

    "And by a riuer forth I gan costeie."

    Palsgrave gives the verb "to coste a countrey or place, ryde, go, or sayle about it, costier or costoyer. To hym that coulde coste the countray, there is a nerer way by syxe myle."

  • COSTRED, or costrelle, grete bo∣telle (costret, or botel, K.)3. [Chaucer, in the Legend of Hypermestre, relates that her father Danao gave her "a costrell" filled with a narcotic, in order to poison her husband Lino. "A cos∣trelle, oneferum, et cetera ubi a flakett. A flakett, flacta, obba, uter, et cetera ubi a potte." CATH. ANG. A MS. of the XIVth century, which gives the explanation of words that occur in the Missal, contains the following interpretation: "Uter, Anglice a botel, sed collateralis, Anglice, a costrelle. De cute dicis utres, de ligno collaterales." M. Paris gives a curious relation of poison discovered in the year 1258, concealed in certain vessels, "quae costrelli vocantur." Costerellum or costeretum, in old French costeret, signified a certain measure of wine, or other liquids; and a costrell seems to have been properly a small wooden barrel, so called because it might be carried at the side, such as is carried by a labourer as his provision for the day, still termed a costril in the Craven dialect.]Onopherum, DICC. C. F. aristo∣phorum, CATH.
  • COOTE, byrde (cote, brydde, K.) Mergus, fullica, UG. MER.
  • COTE ARMURE.4. [Baltheus, which properly implies the girdle or mark of knightly dignity, the cingulum militare, is here used as signifying a kind of military garment. Compare hereafter DOBBELET, garment, baltheus. The Cath. Ang. gives "a cotearmour, insignium." The usage of wearing an upper garment, or surcote, charged with armorial bear∣ings, as a personal distinction in conflict, when the features were concealed by the aventaille, commenced possibly in the reign of John, but was not generally adopted before the time of Henry III. A portion of the armorial surcote of William de For∣tibus, Earl of Albemarle, who died 1260, still exists, and an engraving of it is given in the Vetusta Monum. VI. plate 18. Among the earliest representations may be men∣tioned the effigies at Salisbury of William Longespee, who died 1266, and of a knight of the De l'Isle family at Rampton, Cambridgeshire. See Stothard's Monumental Effi∣gies. Sir Thomas de la More relates that the Earl of Gloucester was slain at Bannock∣burn, 1314, in consequence of his neglecting to put on his insignia, termed in the Latin translation "togam propriae armaturae." Chaucer relates that the heralds after the conflict distinguished Arcita and Palamon by their "cote armure," as they lay in the "tas" severely wounded. Knight's Tale, 1018. An early instance of the use of the term coat-armour occurs in the Close Roll, 2 Edw. III. 1328, where the King commands the keeper of his wardrobe to render up "omnes armaturas, tam cotearmurs quam alias," which had belonged to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, deceased, for the use of Giles his son, to whom the King had given them. Rymer, iv. 371. During the reign of Edward III. the surcote gave place to the jupon, and this was succeeded, about the time that the Promptorium was compiled, by the tabard, the latest fashion of a garment armorially decorated, and the prototype of that which is still worn by the heralds and pursuivants.]Baltheus, C. F. UG.
  • Page  96COOTE, lytylle howse, supra.
  • COTERELLE.1. [The inferior tenants, or occupiers of cottages, are termed in the Domesday Book cotarii or coscets, in Ang. Sax. cotsaeta, casae habitator, in French cotarel, or costerel. Ducange and Spelman make no distinction between cotarelli and cotarii, but Bp. Ken∣nett thinks there was an essential difference, and that the coterelle held in absolute villenage. See his Glossary, Paroch. Ant.]Gurgustinus, tugur∣rinus, tugurrina, gurgustina, coterellus, coterella, et hec duo nomina ficta sunt.
  • COTELERE. Cultellarius.
  • COTHE, or swownynge.2. [Sir Thomas Browne mentions cothish among words peculiar to Norfolk, and Forby gives cothy as the word still used, signifying faint or sickly. In Bishop Kennett's Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, is given "cothish, morose. Norf." Ang. Sax. cothe, morbus.]Sincopa, sincopes, C. F.
  • (COTUL, fisshe, K. H. cotull or codull, fisshe, P.3. [See above CODULLE, fysche. Sepia.]Cepia.)
  • COTUNE (coton, P.) Bombicinum.
  • COWE, beste. Vacca.
  • COWARD, hertlesse. Vecors, iners.
  • COWARDNESSE (cowardise, K.) Vecordia, inercia, CATH.
  • COWCHE. Cubile, grabatum, C. F. mediâ productâ; grabatum, me∣diâ correptâ, Anglice a barme, or lappe, unde versus, Pro gre∣mio grabatum, pro lecto pone grabatum.
  • (COWCHYN, or leyne in couche, K. lye in cowche, P. Cubo.)
  • (COWCHYN, or leyne thinges to∣gedyr, K. Colloco.)
  • COWDE.4. [This word appears to signify a piece or a lump of meat; congiarium is in the Catholicon explained to be "frustum carnis undique equatum." Minsheu states that "cowde is an old English word, signifying a gobbet, morcell, or peece of any thing cut out," but he appears to have taken it from the Promptorium, and Skinner gives it on his authority. Possibly COWDE may have some analogy with cud, which in the Promptorium is written cood. See above CHEW the cood. Ang. Sax. cud, rumen.]Frustrum, congiarium, UG. (frustum, P.)
  • COVEY of pertrychys (coue, or couy, H. P.) Cuneus, vel cohors.
  • (COWEYTYN, K. Cupio, opto, glisco, concupisco, CATH.)
  • COVETYSE. Cupiditas, cupido.
  • COVETYSE of ryches (coveytyce, H.) Avaricia.
  • COVETOWSE. Cupidus.
  • COVETOWS of (great, P.) worldely Page  97 goodys, or other ryches (werdli good, K. wordly, P.) Avarus, cupidinarius, C. F.
  • COVETOWS of worldely ryches (wordli worchyp, K. worldly worshippes, P.) Ambiciosus.
  • COOVENT (couente, P.)1. ["A couent, conventus, conventiculus." CATH. ANG. The derivation of the word is here evidently from the French, couvent, and not from the Latin: and the orthography of the name Covent Garden thus appears to have the sanction of ancient authority.]Conventus.
  • COUERCLE (coverkyl, H.) Oper∣culum, cooperculum.
  • COUERTOWRE. Coopertorium.
  • COGH̄E (cough or horst, P. cowhe, or host, H. W.)2. [Among the virtues of "horhowne," as stated in a translation of Macer's Treatise on Plants, MS. XVth Cent. belonging to Hugh W. Diamond, Esq. is the following; "þis erbe y-dronke in olde wyne helpiþ þe kynges hoste, and þe comone coghe eke." In another place a decoction of roots of "skyrewhite" is recommended to heal "þe chynke and þe olde coghe." Skinner says the hooping-cough was termed in Lincoln∣shire kin-cough, and derives the word from the Belg. kicnkhost, and the verb kinchen, difficulter spirare. See hereafter HOOSE, or cowghe, and HOSTYN̄.]Tussis.
  • (COWYN, or hostyn, K. cowhyn, H. cowghen, P. Tussio, tussito, CATH.)
  • COWHERDE. Vaccarius, vaccaria (bubulcus, P.)
  • COUERLYTE, clothe. Coopertorium.
  • COOWLE to closyn mennys fow∣lys.3. ["Coupe or coule for capons, or other poultrie ware, caige aux chappons." PALSG. The name was probably assigned in consequence of a supposed similarity to a monk's cowl, whence likewise the name has been given to the covering of a chimney. Ang. Sax. cuhle, cuculla. Elyot gives "scirpea, a dounge potte, or colne made with roddes."]Saginarium, cavea, CATH.
  • COWLE, vesselle (for to sette ves∣sell, P.)

    4. The cope was originally worn with a hood, which at a subsequent time was repre∣sented only by embroidery on the back. Hence, probably, this garment was sometimes termed a cowle. Chaucer repeatedly termes the monastic habit a cope. See the descrip∣tion of Huberd the Frere, who was not like a "cloisterere,"

    "With thredbare cope as is a poure scolere.
    Of double worsted was his semicope.
    That round was as a belle, out of the presse."
    Tina, CATH.
  • COWLE, or coope (cope, H. coupe, P.)5. ["Tina, vas vinarium amplissimum." ORTUS. In the accounts of the church∣wardens of Walden, in Essex, occurs a charge in 27 Hen. VI. 1448, for a "cowle pro aquâ benedictâ, x. d." Hist. of Audley End, by Lord Braybrooke. In Essex the term cowl is applied at the present time to any description of tub. See Kennett's Glossary, under the word cowele; he supposes it to be derived from cucula, a vessel shaped like a boat.]Capa.
  • COWLE, munkys abyte. Cuculla, cucullus, C. F.
  • COWLE TRE, or soo tre.6. ["Phalanga est hasta, vel quidam baculus ad portandas cupas, Anglice a stang, or a culstaffe." ORTUS. "Courge, a stang, pale-staffe, or cole-staffe, carried on the shoul∣der, and notched for the hanging of a pale, at both ends." COTGR. In Caxton's Mir∣rour of the World, c. 10, A.D. 1481, it is related that in Ynde "the clustres of grapes ben so grete and so fulle of muste, that two men ben gretly charged to bere one of them only vpon a colestaff." In Hoole's translation of the Orbis sensualium by Comenius, 1658, is given a representation of the cole-staff (aerumna) used for bearing a burden between two persons, p. 135; and again at p. 113, where it appears as used by brewers to carry to the cellar the newly-made beer in "soes," or tubs with two handles (labra), called also cowls. In Brand's Popular Antiquities, ii. 107, will be found an account of the local custom of riding the cowl-staff, or stang.]Fa∣langa, vectatorium, CATH.
  • COWME of corn̄e. Cumba.
  • COW(M)FORY, herbe (cowmfory, Page  98 K. P.) Consolida major, et minor dicitur daysy (dayseys, P.)
  • COMFORTE. Consolacio, confor∣tacio, consolamen.
  • COMFORTOWRE (confortoure, P.) Consolator (confortator, K.)
  • (COWMFORTYN, or cumfortyn, K. conforten, P. Conforto, consolor.)
  • COWNSELLE. Consilium.
  • COWNSELLE, or preuey thynge to know. Secretum, C. F. misterium.
  • COWNSELHOWSE. Concionabu∣lum, consiliabulum, CATH.
  • COW(N)SELLOUR. Consiliarius.
  • (COWNSELYN, or aske counsell, or gyue counsell, K. Con∣sulo.)
  • (COWNTYN, K. Computo.)
  • COWNT ROLLARE (countrolloure, P.) Contrarotulator.
  • COUNTESE. Comitassa.
  • COWNTYNGE. Computacio.
  • COWNTYNGE BORDE, or table. Ta∣pecea, tapeceta, UG. in torreo (trapecea, P.)

    1. At the period when the Promptorium was compiled, calculations were usually made by means of the abacus, or counting-board, and counters, which were chiefly the pieces of base metal to which the name of Nuremburgh tokens has commonly been given. The "augrim stones" mentioned by Chaucer in the Miller's Tale, where he describes the clerk of Oxford's study, probably served the same purpose. Palsgrave gives "counters to cast a count with, iect, iecton." The science of calculation termed algorism had, however, been partially introduced. See above AWGRYM. The term counter signified also the table on which such accounts were cast, and even the counting-house, in which last sense it occurs in Chaucer, where it is related that the Merchant's wife went to call her husband,

    "And knocketh at his countour boldely."

    Shipman's Tale.

    A curious representation of the counter-table occurs in drawings of the time of Edward II. in Sloane MS. 3983. In a letter from Margaret Paston to her husband, about 1459, regarding some alteratios in his house, is the following passage: "I have take the measure in the draute cham'yr, as ye wold yor cofors and yor cowntewery shuld be sette for the whyle, and yr is no space besyde the bedd, thow the bedd wer remevyd to the dore, for to sette bothe yor bord and yor kofors ther, and to have space to go and sytte besyde." Paston Letters, iii. 324. At a later time there appears to have been a piece of ordinary furniture in the hall of a mansion termed a counter, probably from its re∣semblance to the table properly so called. In the Inventories printed by the Surtees Society, mention frequently occurs of the counter and the counter-cloths; as likewise of "doble counters, counters of the myddell bynde, Flanders counters with their car∣pets." Wills and Invent. i. 133, 154, 158.

  • Page  99(COWNTINGE HOWS, P.1. ["A cowntynge place, libratorium." CATH. ANG.]Com∣putoria.)
  • COWNTYSE (cownte, K. count, P.) Compotus (racio, P.)
  • COWNTYRFETE, what so hyt be. Conformale.
  • (COWNTYRFETYN, K. Configuro, conformo.)
  • COWNTYRFETYNGE. Conformacio.
  • COWYNTYRPEYCE (peys, K. poys, P.) Hostimentum, libramentum.
  • COWNTYRTALY.2. ["A cownter, anticopa." CATH. ANG.]Anticopa, CATH.
  • COWNTERE (countour, P.) Com∣putarius (computatorium, P.)
  • (COUNTER', P.

    3. See above CLERKE of cowntys. The appellation which occurs in Chaucer's de∣scription of the Frankelein was placed by Tyrwhitt among his words not understood.

    "A shereve had he ben, and a countour."

    Cant. Tales, Prol.

    A countour appears to have been one retained to defend a cause or plead for another, in old French, conter. See the Stat. 3 Edw. I. c. 24, against deceit or collusion by pleaders, "serjaunt, contour, ou autre," who being convicted, should suffer imprison∣ment, and never again be heard "en la Court le Rey, a conter pur nulluy." It may, however, be questionable whether Chaucer used the term in this sense, and it seems possible that escheator may be meant; the office like that of sheriff was held for a limited time, and was served only by the gentry of name and station in their county.

    Computator, com∣potista.)
  • (COWNTRYN songe, K. in songe, P. Occento, C. F.)
  • COWNTERYNGE yn songe. Con∣centus, C. F. (occentus, K.)
  • COWPARE. Cuparius.
  • COWPE, or pece4. [See hereafter PECE,cuppe.]. Crater (cuppa, P.)
  • COWPYLLE, of ij thynggys. Co∣pula (cupla, P.)
  • (COWPLYN, K. Copulo.)
  • COWPLYD. Copulatus.
  • (COWRYN, or strechynge, K. curyn, or astretchyn, P. aretchyn, J. N. Attingo, CATH.)
  • COW(R)CER, horse (cowsere, K. courcer', P.) Succursarius, gra∣darius, CATH.
  • COWRSE. Cursus.
  • COWRSE of mete. Missorium, UG. in fero, vel cursus ferculorum.
  • COWURS of frute yn þe ende of mete (cowrs, K.) Bellarium, CATH. collibium, imponen∣tum.
  • COWSLOPE, herbe (cowslek, or cowslop, P.) Herba petri, herba paralisis, ligustra, KYLW. (vac∣cinia, P.)
  • COWRS of ordyr, or rewe. Series.
  • CRABBE, fysche. Cancer.
  • CRABBE, appulle or frute. Maci∣anum.
  • CRABBE, tre. Acerbus, macianus, arbutus.
  • CRABBYD, awke, or wrawe (wray∣warde, W.)5. [See above AWKE, or angry, and hereafter WRAW, froward.]Ceronicus, bilosus, cancerinus.
  • (CRACCHE, or manger, supra in CRYBBE.)
  • CRACCHYN̄', supra in CLAWYN̄' (cramsyn, P.)6. [See above the note on CLAWYN̄', or cracchyn̄'. In the history of St. Eutrope it is related that "she ran to hym yt had slayne her broder, and wolde haue cratched his eyen out of his heed." Legend. Aur. f. 51, b. Palsgrave gives the verb "to cratche violently with ones nayles, gratigner." "He crached me cursedly about the chekis, unguibus laceravit." The Promptorium gives also CRAMZYN̄' in the same sense.]Scalpico.
  • CRACCHYNGE (cratchinge, P.) Sculptura.
  • Page  100CRAFTE. Ars, artificium.
  • CRAFTY. Artificiosus (artatus, P.)
  • CRAFTYNESSE. Industria.
  • CRAFTYLY. Artificiose, arcite.
  • CRAGGESTONE (crag stone, P.) Rupa, scopula, cedico, CATH. saxum.
  • CRAKKE, or dyn. Crepitus, fra∣gor, C. F.
  • CRAKENELLE, brede.1. [The kind of biscuit which still bears this name was in France called craquelin; Skinner gives also Belg. craeckelinck. "Pastilla, a cake, craknel or wygge." ORTUS. See above BREDE twyys bakyn, as krakenelle, or symnel.]Creputel∣lus, fraginellus (artocopus, K.)
  • CRAKKYN̄', as salt yn a fyre, or oþer lyke. Crepito.
  • CRAKKYN̄', or schyllen nothys (shill notes, P.) Excortico, enuculo, enucleo, KYLW.
  • CRAKKYNGE. Crepor, C. F.
  • CRAKYNGE, or (of, P.) boste.2. ["Jacto, id est gloriari, erogare. Anglice, to boost, or crake. Jactor, a craker." ORTUS. "Craker, a boster, bobancier. To make auaunte, boste or crake. When he is well whyttelled, he wyll crake goodly of his manhode; quand il a bien beu, il se vante gorgiasement." PALSG. Forby gives this word as still in use in Norfolk. See Jamieson's Dictionary.]Jac∣tancia, arrogancia.
  • CRAMPE. Spasmus, CATH.
  • CRAMZYN̄', supra in CRACCHYN̄' (cramsyn, supra in clawyn, H. P.)
  • CRAMSYNGE, supra in CRACCH∣YNGE (cratchinge, P.)3. [CRANSYNGE, supra in CRECCHYNGE, MS.]
  • CRANE, byrde. Grus.
  • CRAYNE, or crayues (crany or craues, P.) Rima, rimula, riscus, CATH.
  • CRANYYD. Rimatus.
  • CRANYYN̄'. Rimo.
  • CRANKE, instrument.4. [Girgillus signifies a kind of reel for winding thread. "Girgillum, Anglice, a haspe, or a payre of yerne wyndle blades." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cranc-staef, a weaver's instru∣ment.]Cirillus (girgillus, K. H. P.)
  • CRANKE of a welle. Haustrum, haustra.
  • CRAPPE, or gropys of corne.5. [In low Latin the word crappae is used in this sense, "abjectio bladi, ut crappae—recolligatur." Fleta, lib. ii. c. 82. Ducange gives also crapinum, which he derives from Belg. krappen, excidere. "Crappes, acus." CATH. ANG. "Crapin, criblure, le bled qui tombe du van." ROQUEF.]Acus, CATH. criballum, C. F.
  • CRASCHYN̄', as tethe (crayschyn, H. crasshen teethe, P.)6. ["To crasshe with my tethe togyther, grincher. To crasshe, as a thynge dothe that is cryspe or britell bytwene ones tethe, cresper." PALSG.]Fremo, frondeo (strideo, P.)
  • CRACCHYNGE of tethe, or grynn∣ynge (crashynge, K. craskinge, P.) Stridor, fremitus.
  • CRASKE, or fryke of fatte (crask, or lusty, K.)7. [This word is given by Skinner among the ancient words, "Crask, Authori Dict. Angl. apud quem solum occurrit, ex. pinguis, obesus, q. d. crassius, a Lat. crassus." It is perhaps more directly corrupted from the old French word cras, which has the same signification.]Crassus.
  • Page  101CRAUARE. Procax, pecultus, peculta, CATH.
  • CRAUAS, supra in CRANY.
  • CRAWE, or crowpe of a byrde, or oþer fowlys. Gabus, vesicula, CATH.
  • CRAWYN̄' (cravyn, K.) Proco, procacio, rogito, CATH.
  • CRAWYNGE. Procacitas.
  • CRACOKE, relefe of molte talowe or grese (crauche, K. crawke or crappe, H. P.)1. [In a MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's possession cremium is rendered "a cra∣conum of grece or talwhe." "Extrema crematio cepi, vel illud quod relinquitur ustum in frixorio." ORTUS. "A crakane, cremium." CATH. ANG. The term cracklings, which occurs in the Scotch Acts, James VI. is explained by Jamieson as signifying the refuse of melted tallow; Su. G. and Isl. krak, quisquiliae, from krekia, to throw away. Tallow craps has a like meaning in the Craven dialect.]Cremium (quod restat in frixorio, K.)
  • CREDE. Symbolum, CATH.
  • CREDEL, or cradel. Crepundium, cunabulum, cuna, crocea, C. F.
  • CREDEL BONDE, or cradel bonde. Fascia, fasciale, CATH. quicia (inicia, P.)
  • CREKYN̄' (as hennes, P.) supra in CLOKKYN̄'. Gracillo (crispo, P.)
  • CRELLE (creke, H. P.) baskett or lepe.2. [Creel is given by Moore as a word not frequently used in Suffolk; Forby does not mention it, but it occurs in the Craven dialect, and signifies an ozier basket, or crate. See Jamieson's Dictionary. Roquefort explains creil as signifying a hurdle, craticula. LEPE occurs hereafter.]Cartallus, sporta.
  • CREME of mylke. Quaccum, UG. C. F.
  • CREMYN̄', or remyn̄', as lycour. 3. [See hereafter REMYN̄', as ale, or other lycoure.]Spumat.
  • CREMMYD, or crammyd, or stuffyd. Farcinatus.
  • CREMMYN̄', or stuffyn̄'. Farcino, repleo, CATH.
  • CREMMYNGE, or crammynge. Far∣cinacio.
  • CREPERE, or he þat crepythe. Reptor.
  • CREPYN̄'. Repo, UG.
  • CREPYNGE. Repcio, reptura.
  • CREPAWNDE, or crapawnde, pre∣cyous stone (crepaud, P.)4. [Precyoustone, MS. "Crapaude, a precious stone, crapaudine." PALSG. Cotgrave explains crapaudine as signifying the stone chelonitis, or the toad-stone. The precious stone found, as it was asserted, in the head of a toad, was supposed to possess many virtues, and especially as a preservative against poison. On some of these stones, ac∣cording to Albertus Magnus, the figure of the animal was imprinted; these were of a green colour, and termed crapaudina, being possibly the kind here called smaragdus, a name which properly denotes the emerald. These stones were known also by the appellations borax, brontia, chelonitis, nise, batrachites, or ceraunia. In the Metrical Romance entitled Emare is described a rich vesture, thickly set with gems, rubies, topaze, "crapowtes and nakette;" the word is also written "crapawtes." More de∣tailed information on this subject will be found in Gesner, de quadrup. ovip. ii. G. See also Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, As you like it, Act 2, Sc. I.; and the word toad-stone in Nares' Glossary.]Sma∣ragdus.
  • CRESE, or increse (cres, or incres, K. P.) Excrescencia (incremen∣tum, P.)
  • Page  102CRESYN̄', or encresyn̄'. Accresco.
  • CRESSAUNT.1. ["A cressent a-bowte ye nek, torques, torquis, lunula." CATH. ANG. Lunula is explained in the Ortus to be an ornament for a woman's neck, shaped like the moon. "Anglice, an ouche, or barre."]Lunula, CATH. UG.
  • CRESSE, herbe. Narsturcium.
  • CRESSE, seede. Gardanum.

    2. "Batulus, a cressed, quoddam vas in quo ponuntur prune." ORTUS. "A cressett, batillus, crucibulum, lucubrum. A crosser, crucibulum, lucubrum." CATH. ANG. A curious representation of the cresset of the time of Henry III. occurs in one of the subjects from the Painted Chamber, engraved in the Monum. Vetusta, vol. vi. where Abimelech is pourtrayed attempting to set fire to the tower of Thebes. Gower relates that in Gideon's little troop every man had

    "A potte of erthe, in which he tath
    A light brennyng in a cresset."

    Conf. Am. lib. viii.

    This word is derived from the French, "crasset, lampe de nuit." ROQUEF. See Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, and the representations of ancient cressets there given. Hen. IV. Part I. In Queen Elizabeth's Armoury at the Tower, there is one affixed on a long spear-headed pole. "Cresset, a lyght, flambeau, fallot." PALSG. "Falot, a cresset light (such as they use in Playhouses) made of ropes wreathed, pitched, and put in small and open cages of iron." COTGR.

    Crucibollum, C. F.
  • CRESTE, on an hede. Crista.
  • CRESTE, or a werke.3. ["Anaglypha dicuntur eminentes picturoe, sicut sunt in frontispiciis ecclesiarum, et in aliis altis locis. Anglice, borde of painters." ORTUS. The finishing which sur∣mounts a screen, roof, or other ornamented part of a structure, was called a crest, such as is seen at Exeter Cathedral on the high-ridged roof. The Stat. 17 Edw. IV. c. 4, comprises an enactment respecting the manufacture and dimensions "de tewle, ap∣pellez pleintile, autrement nosmez thaktile, roftile, ou crestile," the prescribed length of the last being 13 in. the thickness five-eighths, with convenient deepness accordyng. Crest-tiles, pierced with an ornamental open pattern, were to be seen on the roof of the ancient hall of the Templars, at Temple Balsall, Warwickshire. In Hall's Chron. are described "crestes karued wyth vinettes and trailes of sauage woorke," which orna∣mented the Banqueting-house prepared at Greenwich in 1527. Reprint, pp. 606, 722. "Crest of a house, coypeau de la maison." PALSG. The Glossary of Architecture cites several authorities, in which the use of the term crest occurs.]Anaglipha, C. F.
  • CRESTE, of a byrdys hede. Cirrus.
  • CREYSTE, of londe eryyde (of a londe erryed, P.)4. [See above BALKE of a londe eryd. "Porca est terra illa que eminet inter duos sulcos." ORTUS.]Porca, CATH.
  • CRESTYN̄', or a-rayyn̄' wythe a creste (or sette on a creest, P.) Cristo.
  • CREUES, supra in CRANY.
  • (CREVEYS, fysshe, K. creues, P.5. [In the Medulla polipus is rendered "a schrympe," and in the Ortus "a lepeste," or lobster; but the fish here intended is probably the craw-fish, Cancer Astacus, Linn. which still bears the name in the North of England, and Jamieson gives it the ap∣pellation crevish. "Creues, a fysshe, escreuice." PALSG.]Polipus.)
  • CRYE. Clamor, vociferacio.
  • CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd Page  103 haue howe (halowe, P.)1. ["Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, ut heuylaw romylawe." ORTUS. See hereafter HALOW, schypmannys crye.]Ce∣leuma, C. F.
  • CRYE, or grete noyse a-mong the peple (in the people, P.) Tu∣multus.
  • CRYAR, he þat cryethe yn a mer∣ket, or in a feyre. Declamator, preco, C. F. (proclamator, P.)
  • CRYYN̄'. Clamo, vocifero.
  • CRYBBE, or cracche, or manger (cribbe or bose, K.)2. [In the Legenda Aurea the manger in which our Saviour was laid is termed a crybbe or racke; in the Wicliffite version it is called a cratche, Luke xi. 7. "Cratche for horse or oxen, créche." PALSG. "Creiche, a cratch, rack, oxe-stall, or crib." COTG. See Nares's Glossary. BOOC, or boos, occurs previously.]Prese∣pium, presepe.
  • CRYKE of watyr. Scatera.
  • CRYKKE, sekenesse (or crampe, H. P.) Spasmus, secundum medicos, tetanus, UG. in teter.
  • CRYKETTE. Salamandra, cril∣lus, COMM. (grillus, P.)
  • CRYMPYLLE, or rympylle. Ruga.
  • CRYMPLED, or rympled. Rugatus.
  • CRYMPLYN̄', or rymplyn̄'. Rugo.
  • CRYPYLLE (cripil, K. crepyll, P.) Quadriplicator, CATH. claudus, contractus.
  • CRYSME (holy, P.) oyle. Crisma.
  • CRYSPE, as here, or oþer lyke.3. ["Cryspe as ones heer is that curleth, crespe, crespeleux." PALSG. In the Cath. Angl. is given "A cryspyngeyrene, acus, calamistrum."]Crispus, KYLW.
  • CRYSPHEED, or cryspenesse. Cris∣pitudo, CATH.
  • CRYSTE (Criyst, XP̄C, K.) Cristus.
  • CRYSTALLE, stone. Cristallus.
  • CRYSTYNDAME.4. [Horman uses this word in the sense of the common term Christening; "I was called Wyllyam at my Christendome, die lustrico." So likewise in the Cath. Angl. "A crystendame, baptismus, baptisma, Christianitas."]Cristianitas, Cristianismus.
  • CRYSTEN manne or womanne. Cristianus, Cristiana.
  • CROCE of a byschope.5. [The pastoral staff with a curved head, to which the appellation CLEYSTAFFE has been given previously in the Promptorium, was called croce, crosse, croche, or crutch, words derived from the French croce or croche. "Croce, lituus, ce nom vient de croc, pource qu'une croce est crochue." NICOT. In Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 5089, it is said that Do-best "bereth a bisshopes crosse," with one extremity hooked: and at the con∣secration of a church, according to the Legenda Aurea, "the bysshop gooth all aboute thre tymes, and at euery tyme that he cometh to that dore, he knocketh with his crosse," in the Latin original, "baculo pastorali." Chaucer uses the word croce. "Crosse for a bysshoppe, crosse." PALSG. "Pedum, croche." Vocab. ROY. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Cambuca, a crutche." ORTUS. "A cruche, cambuca, pedum." CATH. ANGL. A costly "cruche" occurs in the Inventory taken at Fountains Abbey, and published by Burton. In Ang. Sax. cruce signifies both a cross and a crook, and from similarity of sound between cross and croce, words perfectly distinct in their derivation, some con∣fusion of terms has arisen, especially as regards the usual acceptance of the word crosier, which has been supposed to be incorrect. Crosier, however, properly signifies the pas∣toral staff, or croce, the incurved head of which was termed in French crosseron, part of the insignia of Bishops: thus in Brooke's Book of Precedents it appears, that at the marriage of Philip and Mary in 1554, the Bishops present had their "crosiers carried before them." Lel. Coll. IV. 398. Fox says that Bonner, who was then Bishop of London, at the degradation of Dr. Taylor in 1555, would not strike him with his "crosier-staff" upon the breast, lest he should strike again. Minsheu says that "croce is a shepherd's crooke in our old English; hence the staffe of a Bishop is called the crocier or crosier."]Pedum,Page  104 KYLW. DICC. cambuca, C. F. KYLW. crocea.
  • CROCERE.1. ["A croser, cruciferarius, crucifer," CATH. ANG. In the relation of the mar∣tyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury it is said that "one Syr Edward Gryme, that was his croyser, put forthe his arme with the crosse to bere of the stroke, and the stroke smote the crosse on sonder." Legenda Aur. At the first progress of Henry VII. after his coronation, during the solemnities at York, the Archbishop's "suffragan was croyser, and bar the Archebisshops crosse." Lel. Coll. III. 192. It appears, however, by the Promptorium, that the appellation CROCERE denoted also the bearer of a pastoral staff, or crosier. In this sense Higins, in the version of Junius' Nomenclator, 1585, renders "lituus, a crosier's staffe, or a Bishop's staffe."]Crociarius, cambu∣carius, crucifer, CATH. peda∣rius, KYLW. cruciferarius.
  • CROCHETT of songe. Semimi∣nima (simpla, P.)
  • CROKE, or scheype hoke (crotche, H. P. croche, W.) Pedum, C. F. UG. cambuca (podium, P.)
  • CROKYD, or wronge. Curvus, (reflexus, tortus, P.)
  • CROKYD (or lame, P.) supra in CRYPYLLE (claudus, tortus, K.)
  • CROKYN̄', or makyn̄' wronge. Curbo (curvo, K.)
  • CROKYNN̄' (cromyn, K. H. P.) Unco, CATH. (vinco, K.)
  • CROMBE, or crome (crowmbe, P.)2. [This word, signifying a staff with an hooked end, is still retained among the pro∣vincialisms of Norfolk and Suffolk, and is traced by Forby to the Belg. crom, uncus. Tusser speaks of a "dung-crome," and Jamieson gives crummock, or crummie-staff, a stick with a crooked head. Ang. Sax. crumb, curvus.]Bucus, C. F. (unccus, K. P.) arpax, C. F.
  • CRONYCLE, or cronykylle. Cro∣nica, historia.
  • CRONYCLERE. Cronicus, histo∣ricus, C. F. (historiagraphus, K.)
  • CROPE, supra in CRAWE of a byrde. (Cabus, vesicula, K.)3. [Forby gives crop, as the name applied to the craw of a bird, Teut. krop, stomachus; according to Jamieson it signifies the same in N. Britain, and also the human stomach. Ang. Sax. cropp, gutturis vesicula.]
  • CROPPE of an erbe or tree.

    4. "A croppe, cima." CATH. ANGL. Chaucer uses this word repeatedly, signifying the topmost boughs; so likewise Gower, alluding to the confused state of affairs in the latter part of the reign of Richard II. says,

    "Nowe stante the croppe vnder the rote,
    The world is chaunged ouerall."

    Conf. Am. Prologue.

    Crap has the same signification in the North, as given by Jamieson. Ang. Sax. crop, cima.

    Cima, coma, capillamentum, CATH. C. F.
  • CROPPE of corne yn a yere (ȝere, K.) Annona.
  • Page  105CROPPERE, or crowpyn' (croper, K. P.) Postela, subtela, CATH.
  • CROPŌN' of a beste (croupe or cropon, H. P.) Clunis.
  • CROSSE (cros, K. H.) Crux.
  • CROSSYDDE. Crucesignatus.
  • CROPPE of a tre or other lyke (crote of a turfe, K. H. P.) Glebi∣cula, glebula, CATH. glebella.
  • CROWDE, instrument of musyke.1. [The crowde appears to have been a six-stringed instrument resembling a fiddle, called in Wales crwth, and in Scotland cruit. Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, who wrote at the close of the VIth century, enumerating the kinds of music peculiar to different countries, uses this expression, "Chrotta Britanna placet." Carm. lib. vii. c. 8. In the Wicliffite version, Judges xi. 34 is thus rendered, "Forsoþe whanne Iepte turnede aȝen—his oon gendrid douȝter cam to him wiþ tympans and croudis." The word occurs again, Luke xv. 25. "Coralla, a crowde. Coraldus, a crowdere." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "A crowde, corus, lira; Corista, qui vel que canit in eo." CATH. ANGL. "Croude, an instrument, rebecq. Croudar, iouevr de rebecq." PALSG. The English interpretation of the Equivoca of Joh. de Garlandia gives "chorus, crouthe."]Chorus.
  • CROWDE, barowyr. Cenivectorium. Nota supra in BAROWE.
  • CROWDE wythe a barow.

    2. Of the barrow, called in the Romance of Sir Amiloun a "croude wain," and still called in the Eastern Counties a crud-barrow, some notice has been taken under the word BAROWE. The use of the verb occurs in the following passage, after the descrip∣tion of the leprous knight being placed in the barrow,

    "Then Amoraunt crud Sir Amiloun
    Thurch mani a cuntre vp and down."

    Amis and Amiloun.

    Moore gives the verb to crowd as signifying in Suffolk to push or shove.

  • CROWDYN̄', or showen (xowyn, H. shoue, P.) Impello.
  • CROWDYNGE, caryynge wythe a barowe. Cenivectura.
  • CROWDYNGE, or schowynge. Pres∣sura, pulsio.
  • CROWE, byrde. Corvus.
  • CROWEFOTE, herbe. Amarusca, vel amarusca emeroydarum, pes corvi.
  • CROWEN, as cokkes. Gallicanto.
  • CROWKEN, as cranes. Gruo.
  • CROWKEN, as todes, or frosshes (froggis, P.)3. [This term, as well as several others of synonymous meaning, appear to be onoma∣topeias, and to be traced to their similarity of sound to the noise which they express. The Medulla explains coax to be "vox ranarum, croudynge of padokys." Palsgrave gives "to crowle, crouiller. My bely crowleth, I wene there be some padokes in it." Horman says, "his bely maketh a great crowlynge, patitur bothorygmon." In N. Britain to croud, according to Ruddiman, signifies the noise of frogs. See Jamieson.]Coaxe.
  • CROWNE, or corowne. Corona.
  • CROWNERE, or corownere. Co∣ronator.
  • C(R)OWPER, supra in CROWPŌN'.
  • CROWSE, or cruse, potte (crowce, or crwce, P.) Amula, C. F.
  • CURDE (crudde, K. H. P.)4. ["A crudde, bulducta, coagillium." CATH. ANGL. "Cruddes of mylke, mattes." PALSG.]Co∣agulum.
  • CRUDDYD. Coagulatus.
  • CRUDDYN̄'. Coagulo.
  • CRUEL, man or beste. Crudelis, severus, truculentus.
  • CRUEL min(i)ster. Satelles, UG.
  • CRUELTE. Crudelitas, severitas.
  • CRUETT.5. [The vessels which contained the wine and water for the service of the altar were called cruets, in Latin phialae, urceoli, amululae, in French burettes, chennettes, &c. The Constitutions of Walter de Cantilupe in 1240 require that in every church there should be "duae phialae, una vinaria, altera aquaria;" and at the Synod of Exeter in 1287 it was ordained that there should be "tres phialae." Wilkins, Concil. i. 666, ii. 139. Among the costly bequests of the Black Prince in 1376 to our Lady's altar at Canterbury, are mentioned "deux cruetz taillez taillez come deux angeles, pur servir à mesme l'autier perpetuelement." Horman, under the head of things sacred, says, "Have pure wyne and water in the cruettes, amulis."]Ampulla, phiola.
  • Page  106CRUMME. Mica.
  • CRUMM' brede, or oþer lyke (crum∣myn, K. H.) Mico.
  • CRUSCHYLBONE, or grystylbone (crusshell, P.)1. [In Norfolk, according to Forby, crish or crush signifies cartilage, or soft bones, and in Suffolk crussel or skrussel has a similar meaning. Ang. Sax. gristl-ban.]Cartilago.
  • CRUSCHYN̄, or quaschyn̄'. Quasso.
  • CRUSSHYN̄' bonys. Ocillo, UG.
  • CRUSKYN', or cruske, coop of erþe.2. [This term is derived from the old French word creusequin, which signifies a drink∣ing cup. In a MS. Inventory, dated 1378, 1 Ric. II. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, are enumerated "Un petit cruskyn oue le pee et le couercle d'argent enorre et eym'. Un cruskyn de terre garnis d'argent, &c. Un pot d'argent blanc au guyse d'un cruskyn, oue le couercle sanz pomelle. Un cruskyn de terre couere de quir bende en la sumete d'or et le couercle d'or." Among the "pertinencia promptuario," in Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002, occur "cornua, horne cuppe, picarius, cruskyn."]Cartesia.
  • CRUSTE. Crustum, UG.
  • CU, halfe a farthynge, or q. (cue, P.)3. [The smallest Anglo-Saxon coin was the styca, of which two were equal to a far∣thing. Ruding observes that the stycas appear identical with the "minuta," Domesd. i. f. 268, and the passage rendered in the Saxon Gospels, "tweȝen stycas," is in the Wickliffite version, "tweie mynutis, that is a farthing." Mark, xii. 42. See MYNUTE hereafter. In Duncombe's Hist. of Reculver is given a mortmayn grant, dated 13 Henry VI. 1435, in which half a farthing is named as a portion of rent paid to the Hospital of Herbaldowne, namely, "xxv schelynges, and the halfin dell of an fferdyng of rente, and rente ȝeldynge of a quat' of berr', and an henne and a half, a certell (sar∣cella) and þe iij parte of a certell," &c. Bibl. Top. i. 151. At the time however that the Promptorium was compiled it does not appear that there was actually a coin of this value; the mite, as well as its equivalent, called here a CU, were merely terms retained in calculation, and the latter was commonly used at Oxford at a much later period. It is thus explained by Minsheu, who completed his first edition in that University. "A cue, i. halfe a farthing, so called because they set down in the Battling or Butterie bookes in Oxford and Cambridge the letter q. for halfe a farthing, and in Oxford when they make that cue or q. a farthing, they say, Cap my q. and make it a farthing, thus qa. But in Cambridge they use this letter, a little s. for a farthing, and when they demand a farthing bread or beare, they say a seize of bread or beare. Latin, calcus, a cue of bread." The abbreviation q. did not, it plainly appears, always stand as at present for quadrans, a farthing, but denoted a value of only half that amount; and it seems possible that cue or q. may have been an abbreviation of "calcus, quarta pars oboli." ORTUS. The term cue occurs in Beaumont and Fletcher. See Nares's Glossary.]Calcus, C. F. minutum, CATH.
  • CUFFE, glove, or meteyne (mytten, P.) Mitta (ciroteca, J.)
  • CUKKOW, byrde (cukhew, bryd, K.) Cuculus.
  • CUKKYNGE, or pysynge vesselle. Scaphium, UG. in scando.
  • CUKSTOKE, for flyterys, or schy∣derys Page  107 (cukstolle, K. cucstool, H.)1. ["Terbichetum, a cokstole." ORTUS. "Cokestole, cuckestole, selle a ricaldes." PALSG. The earliest mention of this mode of punishing female offenders occurs in the laws of Chester in the time of Edward the Confessor, as stated in Domesd. i. f. 262, b. The fine for using false measures was fixed at 4 shillings; "similiter malam cervisiam faciens, aut in cathedrâ ponebatur stercoris, aut iiij sol. dabat prepositis." It was called in Ang. Sax. "scealfinȝ-stol, sella urinatoria, in quâ rixosae mulieres sedentes aquis demergebantur." SOMNER. The pillory for male offenders, and cucking-stool for females, were essentially appendant to the view of frank-pledge, or Leet: inquest was ordered to be made respecting the sufficient provision of both, by the Stat. assigned to 51 Hen. III. c. 6; and among the "Capitula Escaetrie," one of the duties of the Escheator is declared to be inquiry "de pilloriis et tumbrellis sine licentiâ Regis le∣vatis." Stat. of Realm, i. 201, 240. It was termed, perhaps from its resemblance to a warlike engine so called, trebuchet, or trebuchetum. See hereafter TREBGET for werre. By Bracton it is spoken of as tymborella, and in the Statutes tumbrellus, appellations likewise derived from its construction. An instance of the jealousy with which any un∣authorized assumption of this manorial right of punishment was repressed, occurs in the Chron. of Jocelin de Brakelond, p. 38, where it is related that about 1190 certain encroachments were made on the privileges of the Abbot of St. Edmund's Bury, in the manor of Illegh; "levaverunt homines de Illega quoddam trebuchet ad faciendam justi∣ciam pro falsis mensuris panis vel bladi mensurandi, unde conquestus est abbas." This punishment was chiefly inflicted in early times on brewers, who are spoken of always as females, for any transgression of the assize of ale, "Braciatrix (paciatur) trebuchetum vel castigatorium;" in Scotland it was used in like manner. Stat. of Realm, i. 201, and Skene's Reg. Majest. It became subsequently the punishment of scolds, and women of immoral or disorderly life; thus in the town of Montgomery such offenders were adjudged to suffer the penalty "de la Goging-stoole," as appears by a MS. cited in Blount's Tenures; in the Leet Book of Coventry mention occurs in 1423, of the "cokestowle made apon Chelsmore grene to punysche skolders and chidders, as ye law wyll:" and items of account are found so late as 1623, which show that the punish∣ment still continued to be used in that city. Of the "coke-stool" at Norwich, which was to be provided by the gild of St. George, see Blomf. Hist. ii. 739; an account of expenses connected with another at Kingston-on-Thames is given in Lysons's Env. i. 233; and in Lord Braybrooke's Hist. of Audley End, p. 261, are mentioned payments so late as the year 1613, at Saffron Walden, where the scene of such punishments at the end of the High Street is spoken of in 1484 as the "cokstul hend." In 1555 Mary Queen of Scots enacted that itinerant singing women should be put on the cuckstoles of every burgh or town; and the first Homily against contention, part 3, published in 1562, sets forth that "in all well ordred cities common brawlers and scolders be pun∣ished with a notable kind of paine, as to be set on the cucking-stole, pillory, or such like." An original cucking-stool, of ancient and rude construction, was preserved in the crypt under the chancel of St. Mary's, Warwick, where may still be seen the three-wheeled carriage upon which was suspended by a long balanced pole a chair which could readily be lowered into the water, when the cumbrous vehicle had been rolled into a convenient situation. This chair is still in existence at Warwick. Another cucking-stool, differently contrived, may be seen at Ipswich in the Custom House; it appears to have been used by means of a sort of a crane, whereby the victim was slung into the river, and is represented in the Hist. of Ipswich, published 1830, and Gent. Mag. Jan. 1831. More detailed information on this curious subject will be found in the Glossaries of Ducange, Spelman, Blount, and Cowel; as also in Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 441. The term flyterys, here applied to contentious persons, does not occur again in the Promptorium, but only the verb FLYTIN̄ or chydin̄. See hereafter KUKSTOLE.]Turbuscetum, cadurca.
  • CULLYN̄' owte. Segrego, lego, separo (eligo, K.)
  • CULLYNGE, or owte schesynge (owtclesyng, K. chesyng, H. chosinge owte, P.) Separacio, segregacio.
  • Page  108CULME of a smeke (of smeke, H. P.) Fuligo.
  • (CULPOWN, K. culpyn, H. P.)

    1. Culpon, derived from the Latin colpo, or the French coupon, a shred, or any por∣tion cut off, is a term not uncommon in the early romances.

    "Al to peces thai hewed thair sheldes,
    The culpons flegh out in the feldes."

    Ywaine and Gawin, 641.

    Hoveden, speaking of the livery allowed to the King of Scotland at the court of King Richard in 1194, says he had "40 grossos longos colpones de dominicâ candelâ Regis." Chaucer says of the long hair of the Pardoner, which hung "by vnces" on his shoulders,

    "Full thinne it laie, by culpons one and one."

    Cant. Tales, Prologue.

    "Culpon that troute" is given as the proper term of the art, in the "Boke of Kerving," 1508. "Culpit, a large lump of any thing." FORBY.

    Culpum, scissura.
  • CULRACHE, smerthole, herbe (cul∣ratche, H. P.)

    2. The Persicaria hydropiper, Linn. was called culrage, from the French, "curage, culrage, the hearbe water-pepper, arse-smart, killridge or culerage." COTGR. Its aphrodisiac properties are thus alluded to by Piers of Fulham,

    "An erbe is cause of all this rage
    In our tongue called culrage."

    Hartshorne, Metr. Tales, 133.
  • (CULTER' for a plowe, P. Cultrum.)
  • CUM, or come (cvmnyn, K. cvmne, H.) Venio.
  • CUM AFTER, or folow (cvmnyn aftyr, K. cvmne, H.) Succedo, sequor.
  • CUM DOWNE. Descendo.
  • CVM̄ YN. Ingredior, introeo.
  • CVM' TOO. Advenio.
  • CUMLY (or semely, P.) supra in COMELY.
  • COMLY, or cumlywyse. Decenter.
  • (CUMLINGE, or newe come, K. P. 3. [See COMELYNGE. Sir Ywaine, when he had long time left the lady whom he had espoused in a foreign land, is called by her messenger, "an unkind cumlyng." Ywaine and Gawin, 1627. "Komelynge" occurs in Rob. of Gloucester; "comlyng," R. Brunne.]Adventicius, UG. inquilinus.)
  • (COMMAWNDEMENT, K. H. P. Man∣datum, preceptum.)
  • CUMNAWNTE (comnawnt, K. cū∣naunt, P.)

    4. Cumnawnte or comenaunt are perhaps corruptions of the French convenant. In Sir John Howard's Household Book, entries frequently occur of agreements made with domestics or artificers, always expressed by the term comenaunt at Fressefeld with . . . . Carpenter, yt he schalle be wyth hym this xii monyth, and he shalle have in mony xxxs. and a gowne, and his comenaunt begynnith the iiii. yer of the Kynge, and the next Monday before myhelmesse." Household Expenses in England, presented to the Rox∣burghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. Palsgrave gives "comnant, appoyntment, conuenant. To comnaunt, conuenancer; that that I comnaunt with you shall be parfourmed." Compare BREKE cōuenant above, p. 50, in which instance, if the correct reading be conuenant, it will accord perfectly with the French word. In the Romance of Sir Amadas, "conande" occurs in the sense of a covenant:

    "The conande was gud and fynne."

    Weber, Metr. Rom. line 700.

    In Mr. Robson's edition the word is printed "couand," possibly a contraction of "couenand," which is found in the context. See stanzas 63, 64, the Anturs of Arther, st. 16, and Avowynge of King Arther, s. 38, where occurs the same word "couand."

    Pactum, fedus, convencio.
  • (CUMNAWNTE brekere, K. Fidi∣fragus.)
  • CUMNAWNTYN̄', or make a cum∣nawnte. Convenio, pango.
  • CUMPANY. Comitiva, agmen, turba, turma, conturbernium, cetus (conventiculum, proprie malorum, P.)
  • Page  109COMPANYABLE, or felawble, or felawly. Socialis.
  • (CUMPAS, or sercle, P. Girus.)
  • CUMPASSE, instrument. Circi∣nus, circulus, machina.
  • CUMPASSYN̄' (cvmpacyn, K.) Cir∣cino.
  • CUMPLYNE.1. [Compline, called in Latin Completorium, completa, or complenda, "quod caetera diurna officia complet et claudit," DUC. is the service with which in monastic estab∣lishments the day closed, after which, by the rule of St. Benedict, all converse was forbidden. It was called in Ang. Sax. niht-sanȝ, vespertina cantio, completorium, and Abbot Aelfric speaks of it in his pastoral Epistle translated from Latin into the lan∣guage of England, by order, as he states, of Abp. Wulstan. The seven canonical hours, that the four synods had appointed for daily services of praise to God, are in this epistle stated to be matins with the after song appertaining thereto, prime, tierce, sext, none, vespers and compline (niht-sanȝ). Ancient Laws and Institutes, ii. 377. See also the Regularis concordia Angl. nationis monachorum. Amalarius says, "comple∣torium ideo dicitur quia in eo completur quotidianus usus cibi vel potus, seu locutio communis." De Eccl. Offic. lib. iv. c. 8. The hour of compline is stated by Fuller, in his Church History, B. vi. 278, to have been at 7 o' clock, but in Davies' rites of the Church of Durham, it is fixed at an earlier hour.]Completorium.
  • CUNDYTE of watyr. Conductus, aqueductus, aquagium, C. F.
  • CUNE, or money (coyne of mony, K.) Nummisma, assarium, C. F.
  • CUNNE, or to haue cunnynge (cun, supra in cone, P.) Scio.
  • (CUNNYNGE, K. P. Sciencia,)
  • CUNGE, or yeve leve (cungyn̄, or zeue leue, K. H. P.)2. [CUNTE, MS. The verb cungyn̄ is evidently derived from the low Latin congeare, and French congéer, signifying to send away, to give license to depart.]Licencio.
  • CUNGYR, fysche. Congrus, COMM.
  • CONIURYN̄', or cuniowryn̄'. Con∣juro, adjuro, exorcizo.
  • CUNIURYD, or con(iu)ryd. Con∣juratus.
  • CUNIURYNGE, or coniurynge. Conjuracio.
  • CUNSTABLE. Constabularius.
  • CUNTENAWNCE (or chere, P.) Vultus.
  • CUNTRE. Patria.
  • CONTREMANN, or womann'. Compatriota (patriota, K. P.)
  • CUPPE. Ciphus, patera, cuppa.
  • (CUPPE of erthe, P. Carthe∣sia.)
  • CUPBURDE.3. [In the Commentary on the Equiv. Vocab. Interpret. of Joh. de Garlandia abacus is explained to be the marble table whereon, in the feasts of the ancients, the cups were placed, "apud modernos fit de aliis lapidibus, sive de lignis artificiose conjunctis, et vocatur a cupborde." The cupboard was, in the more common sense of the word, an open buffet, whereon a rich display of plate was made, such as Hall and other chron∣iclers describe frequently. It was also sometimes closed with doors, as usual at the present time; such as in the will of Elizabeth Drury, in 1475, is called a "cupbord with two almeries." Rokewode's Hund. of Thingoe, 284. The livery cupboard, often mentioned in accounts and ordinances of household, was open, and furnished with shelves, whereon the ration called a livery, allowed to each member of the household was placed; and in well ordered families every dormitory appears to have been supplied nightly with a substantial provision. In the contract for building Hengrave Hall, in 1538, is the following clause; "the hall to have ii. coberds, one benethe at the sper (screen) with a tremor, and another at the hygher tables ende without doors." Pals∣grave gives "cupborde of plate, or to sette plate upon, buffet: cupborde to putte meate in, dressouer. Methinke my cupborde is ungarnysshed, nowe I wante my salte celler." Cotgrave renders "Buffet, a court-cupboard, or high standing cupboard; also a cup∣board of plate. Dressoir, a court cupboord (without box or drawer)."]Abacus, C. F.
  • Page  110CURRAYYN̄' horsys, or oþer lyke. Strigillo.
  • CURRAYYN̄' ledyr. Cociodio, KYLW. (corradio, P.)
  • CURSER, or cow(r)ser. Equus caballus.
  • CURATE. Curatus.
  • CURE, or charge. Cura.
  • CURFU.1. [The origin of the curfew in England is generally ascribed to the Conqueror, by whom it was imposed in token of servitude, but the assertion seems to rest on no suf∣ficient authority, and no mention of the usage occurs in the Stat. de nocturnis custodiis. Ancient Laws and Instit. i. 491. Dr. Henry observes that the custom prevailed, at the time of the Conquest, in France, and probably in all the countries of Europe, and was intended merely as a precaution against fires, at a time when cities were con∣structed chiefly of wood. It has been stated also that the custom was abolished by Henry II. The Statutes of the City of London, 13 Edw. I. enjoin that no one shall be found in the streets "apres coeverfu personé à Seint Martyn le graunt." Stat. of Realm, i. 102. Couvre feu, or carfou in France was rung at 7 in the evening, but in some places at a later hour in summer, and there was also a bell at daybreak. See Pasquier, iv. 18, and Menage. In England the hour of ringing the curfew was eight, Wats, however, gives nine as the hour in summer; that hour is so named in "the Merry Devil of Edmonton," and it was the customary time in Scotland, as appears by Act Parl. 13 James I. 1419, but subsequently was altered to ten. The usage of the curfew is still retained in the Universities, and many towns and villages in England, as is likewise the custom of ringing a bell at day-break, or four o' clock. At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, the largest bell of the principal churches is still tolled at six, both morning and evening, and serves as a signal to labourers and artizans. The salutatio angelica, commonly called the angelus, was recited daily morning and evening, "ad pulsationem ignitegii," an institution ascribed to St. Bonaventure, but more probably, as Ducange observes, to Pope John XXII. at the Council of Sens, 1320. In the Statutes of Lichfield Cathedral, it is ordered as follows: "Est autem ignite∣gium quâlibet nocte per annum pulsandum horâ septimâ post meridiem, exceptis illis festis quibus matutinae dicuntur post completorium." In the Institutions of Guarin, Abbot of St. Alban's, who died 1195, the curfew is called pyritegium. Matt. Paris. The Medulla renders "ignitegium, a coure feu," in the Ortus "a fyrepanne," alluding perhaps to such an implement for extinguishing the fire, as is represented in Antiqu. Repert. i. 89, and which was afterwards in the possession of Horace Walpole at Straw∣berry Hill. "Courefewe, a ryngyng of belles towarde euenyng, couurefev." PALSG. In the Romance of the Seuyn Sages the word is repeatedly written "corfour bell." VIth Tale. "Curfur, ignitegium." CATH. ANGL. See curfure in Jamieson. Spelman gives the Ang. Sax. curfu-bell, but it is not found in Lye. See further on this subject Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 136, and Barrington on the Anc. Stat. 133.]Ignitegium.
  • CURYN̄', or hyllȳn' (cuueren, W.) Operio, cooperio, tego, velo, CATH.
  • CURYN̄', or heelyn' of seekenesse (holyn, K. H.) Sano, curo.
  • CUVERYNGE, or hyllynge, or thynge þat hyllythe (curyng, Page  111 K. H.) Operculum, velamentum, velamen, tegimen.
  • CURYNGE, or heelynge of seke∣nesse. Curacio, sanacio.
  • CURYNGE, or recurynge of seke∣nesse. Convalescencia.
  • CURLYD, as here. Crispus.
  • CURLYNGE of here. Crispitudo.
  • CURLEW, byrde. Coturnix, or∣togameter, ortogametra, C. F.
  • CURCE. Excommunicatio, ana∣thema, maledictio.
  • (CURSYD, K. Excommunicatus, maledictus.)
  • CURSYN̄'. Excommunico, ana∣thematizo, cateziso, maledico.
  • CURTEYSE. Facetus, urbanus, curialis.
  • CURTESY. Facecia, urbanitas, curialitas.
  • CURTEYNE. Curtina.
  • CURTLAGE, or gardeyn'. Olera∣rium, curtilagium.
  • CUS, or kysse. Osculum, basium, C. F.
  • CUSCHONE (cusshyn, P.) Cus∣cina, supinum.
  • CUSTUM, or vse. Consuetudo, ritus.
  • CUSTUM, kyngys dute. Custuma, (usucaptio, P.)
  • CUSTUMABLE. Solitus, consuetus.
  • CUSTUMABLY. Consuete, solite.
  • CUSTUMMERE. Custumarius, usu∣captor, C. F. consuetudinarius.
  • CUTTE a-sundere. Scissus.
  • CUT, or lote. Sors.
  • CUTTYN̄' (cutte, or cutton, P.) Scindo, seco, CATH.
  • CUTTYYN̄' a-way. Abscindo, reseco, amputo.
  • CUTTE vynes. Puto, C. F.
  • CUTTYNGE of vynys. Putacio.
  • CUTTYNGE. Scissura.
  • CUTTYNGE, or a-voydaunce yn any materyalle thynge, (mater', P.) or refuse. Resecamen, putamen.
  • CUTTPURS. Burscida, et inde burscidium, actus ejus, cucufri∣dramus.
  • (CUT PURSINGE, P. Burcidium.)