Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, dictionarius anglo-latinus princeps, auctore fratre Galfrido grammatico dicto, ex ordine fratrum Predicatorum, northfolciensi, circa A. D. M.CCCC.XL. Olim ex officina Pynsoniana editum, nunc ab integro, commentariolis subjectis, ad Fidem codicum recensuit Albertus Way, A. M.
Galfridus, Anglicus, active 1440., Way, Albert, 1805-1874, ed., British Library. Manuscript. Harley 221.
  • LABBE, or he that can kepe no counsel (that can not kepyn non consel, K.)

    1. LABLE, MS. labbe, H. S. P. Compre BLABBE, or labbe, wreyare of cownselle; BEWRAYER of counsel, and DYSCURER of cownselle. This word is used by Chaucer:

    "Quod tho this sely man, I am no labbe,
    Ne, though I say it, I n'am not lefe to gabbe."

    Miller's T. 3506.

    Compare the Dutch labben, Belg. lapperen, to blab, or gossip. Labb, Dialect of Exmoor.

    Anubicus, anubica, CATH. futilis, CATH. et UG. in fundo.
  • LABELLE.2. [It is not obvious in what sense this word is here to be taken: the Ortus follows the explanation given in the Catholicon, "labellum, i. parvum labrum, a lyttelle lyppe." It appears from citations given by Ducange that labellus, lambellus, or lablellus, denoted a pendant ornament of dress, or the heraldic label, in which sense it occurs in the grant of a crest, 1324, Rym. vii. 763. See the observations of Upton on the differences of arms termed by him lingulae, or labellae; Mil. Off. iv. p. 255. Fortescue describes the habit of the Serjeant-at-law as consisting of "roba longa, ad instar sacerdotis, cum capitio penulato circa humeros ejus; et desuper collobio, cum duobus labellulis, quales uti solent doctores legum in Universitatibus quibusdam." Laud. Legum Angl. V. 51. This hood with labells, as it is called by Dugdale, appears in illuminations copied from Roy. MS. 19 C. IV. and Harl. MS. 4379, in Strutt's Dresses, ii. pl. 80, 112; and in the latter, the hood being brought up over the head, the use of the labels, which are attached together under the chin, is apparent. There was also a furred hood with long labels, worn by ecclesiastics, representations of which are supplied by the Missal of Philippe le Bon, Harl. MS. 2897, the figure of Will. de Rothwell, Archdeacon of Essex, who died 1361, given by Messrs. Waller, in their beautiful series of Sepulchral Brasses, and other examples. Horman says, in the chapter "De fortunâ iratâ," of misfortunes and perils, f. 129, "I wyll recompense the with a labell, reponam appendice quâdam;" and Palsgrave gives "labell, hovppe." "Houppe, a tuft, or topping; a tassell or pretty lock. Lambeau, a labell." COTG. "A labell hanging on each side of a miter, infula. Labelles hanging down on garlands, or crownes, lemnisci." HULOET.]Labellum.
  • Page  283LABOWRE. Labor (vel labos, S.)
  • LABOWRERE. Laborator, labo∣ratrix.
  • LABORYN̄'. Laboro.
  • LACE. Fibula, laqueum, DICC. (laquear, K.)
  • LACE of an howserofe.1. [In the Ortus laquear, laqueare, and laquearium are explained as signifying "Con∣junctio trabium in summitate domus, a seelynge of a howse."]Laque∣area, COMM.
  • LACYD. Laqueatus, fibulatus, C. F.
  • LACYN̄, orspere wythe a lace. Fibulo.
  • LACYNGE. Laqueacio, fibulacio.
  • LADDE, or knave. Garcio.
  • LADDE, thwonge (thounge, K. thang, S.) Ligula.
  • LADDYD. Ligulatus.
  • LADY. Domina, Hera.
  • LADYLLE, pot spone. Concus, DICC. coclear, NECC.
  • LADYN̄', wythe byrdenys. Onus∣tus, oneratus.
  • LADYN̄', or chargȳn' wythe bur∣denys. Onero, sarcino, UG. in sarcos.
  • LADYN̄', or lay water (say water, S. lauyn water, P.)2. ["I laade water with a scoup, or any other thyng out of a dytche or pytte, Ie puyse de l'eaue. I lade, I take in water, as a shyp or bote that is nat staunched, Ie boy de l'eaue." PALSG. This verb is used by Shakespeare, Hen. VI. pt. 3, Act ii. In Sussex and Hants, to lade means to take water from a vessel or pond by a scoop or pail, and in Somersetshire the utensil employed for this purpose is termed a lade∣pail. Ang.-Sax. hladan, haurire.]Vatilo.
  • LAGGYD, or bedrabelyd (or be∣laggyd, supra.) Labefactus, paludosus, CATH.
  • LAGGYN̄', or drablyn̄'.3. [Compare BE-LAGGYD. Ang.-Sax. laȝu, aqua. Horman says, "there is rysen a fray amonge the water-laggers, amphorarios." In the Northumberland Household Book, 1511, it appears that the "laggs" of wine, when the cask ran low, were to be made into vinegar. See Jamieson, v. Laggerit.]Palustro (labefacio, P.)
  • LATCHE, or snekke (lahche, K. lach, S.)4. [Compare CLYKETT, clitorium; and SNEKKE. "Lache, or snecke of a dore, locquel. Latche of a dore, clicquette, locquet. Sneke latche, locquet, clicquette. I latche a doore, I shytte it by the latche, Ie ferme à la clicquette." PALSG.]Clitorium, vel pes∣sula, NECC. (pessulum, KYLW. S.)
  • Page  284LATCHESSE, or tarryynge (lahches, or teryinge, K. lahchesse, S. latche, P.)

    1. In the Vision of P. Ploughman this word signifies negligence, Fr. lachesse.

    "The lord, of hus lacchese, and hus luther sleuthe,
    By nom hym al that he hadde."

    See also line 4973. Chaucer says in the Persone's Tale, "Then cometh lachesse, that is, he that whan he beginneth any good werk, anon he wol forlete and stint it;" and uses the adjective "lache," sluggish or dull; Boec. B. iv. Gower observes that the first and chief point of sloth is "lachesse," which has this property, to leave all things in arrear. Conf. Am. B. IV. See Jamieson, v. Lasche. Palsgrave gives the verb "I latche, I lagge, I tary behynde my company, Ie tarde, and Ie targe."

    Mora, tarditas.
  • LACHET of a school. Tenea, UG. V. in T.
  • LATCHYD, or speryd wythe a leche (sic, lahche, K. S. sperd with a laspe or latch, H.) Pessulatus.
  • LATCHYD, or fangyd, or hynt, or cawȝt (lahchid, or takyn, K. fangyd with handes, or other lyke, P.) Arreptus, C. F.
  • LATCHYN̄', idem quod FANGYN̄, supra in F.

    2. To latch, signifying to seize or catch, is a verb the use of which occurs in R. Brunne, p. 120; the Vision of P. Ploughm. 1279; Crede, 934; Cov. Myst. p. 29, &c. Chaucer speaks of a "nette or latch," set by Love to snare birds. In Will. and the Werwolf it is used in the sense of embracing:

    "Certes Sire þat is soþ, see Will'm þanne,
    And lepes liȝtli him to, and lacches him in armes."

    p. 163.

    See also p. 25. In Arund. MS. 42, f. 17, b. it is related how the wood of aloes is obtained, which grows on the mountain tops, near a lake beyond Babylon, and falling into the water, either from age and decay, or blown by the wind, the "folk þat dwellen in þat countre, or nere, casten nettys, or oþer sleyȝtes, and lacchyn it, and so it is had." Palsgrave gives the verb "I latche, I catche a thyng that is throwen to me in my handes, or it fall to the grounde, Ie happe. If I had latched the potte betyme, it had nat fallen to the grounde." Forby gives to latch as used in Norfolk in this sense; and Brockett states that it is still retained in the Northern dialect. Ang.-Sax. laeccan, prehendere.

  • LATCHYN̄, or snekkyn̄. Pessulo.
  • LATCHYNGE, or sperynge wythe a lacche. Clitura, pessulatus.
  • LAY HARPE.

    3. Cithara is rendered, in the Medulla, "a harpe," in the Ortus "a lewte;" and in the latter occurs "cithariso, to synge with a harpe." LAY HARPE seems here to denote the instrument in its use as an accompaniment to the voice. Thus Chaucer says,

    "Thise old gentil Britons in hir dayes
    Of diuers auentures maden layes,
    Rimeyed in hire firste Breton tonge
    Which layes with her instrumentys they songe."

    Cant. T. 11,022.

    See Tyrwhitt's observations on the derivation of the world lay. Ang.-Sax. ley, canticum. As, however, sambuca is defined by Papias, and other glossarists, to have the sense of "cithara rustica," lay harp may, possibly, imply the instrument used by the vulgar. The instrument called symphonia, according to Uguitio, was a tamburine.

    Sambuca, KYLW. (cithera, symphonia, melos, S.)
  • LAKYN', or thynge þat chyldryn̄' Page  285 wythe.1. [Laking, signifying a child's toy, is a word still used in the North, as Brockett observes. In the Towneley Myst. Mak tells the shepherds that his wife brings him every year "a lakan," and some years twins. The verb to layke, Ang.-Sax. lacan, ludere, and the substantive layke, disport, occur frequently in the old writers. See Sir F. Madden's Glossaries to Will. and the Werwolf, and Gawayn; Seuyn Sages, 3310; Minot, p. 10; Vision of P. Ploughm. line 341; Townel. Myst. pp. 96, 102, 141. The local use of the verb is noticed in the Cheshire and Craven Glossaries, as likewise by Brockett. Skinner remarks that it is commonly heard throughout the North, a cir∣cumstances which he is disposed to attribute to the Danish occupation. Dan. leeger, ludo. Bp. Kennett gives "Leikin, a sweet-heart, Northumb. ab A.-Sax. lician, placere." Lansd. MS. 1033.]Ludibile, UG. lu∣dibulum, adluricum, UG. in adri vel adros.
  • LAY, londe not telyd.2. [The Gloss on G. de Bibelesworth gives "terre freche, leylond;" in the MS. in Sir Thos. Phillipps' collection, "leyȝe." "Rus, a leylonde. Ruricola, a tyleare of leylonde." MED. MS. CANT. "Selio, a lee lande." ORTUS. "Novale, falowe. Sellio, Anglice leye." HARL. MS. 1002, f. 148. "A leylande, selio, frisca terra. Ley, is∣calidus, isqualidus." CATH. ANG. "Iscolidus, a felde untylde." MED. "Lay lande, terre novuellement labovrée." PALSG. "Rudetum, lande which hath leyen leye, and is newly put in tylthe." ELYOT. In the poem entitled the Hunttyng of the Hare, it is related how the hare escaped, "and feyr toke up a falow ley," no more to be seen by her pursuers. Ed. Weber, 152. Lay-land, according to Bailey, is fallow or un∣ploughed land, and there are many places which have thence derived the name. Ang.-Sax. ley, terra inculta, novale. Forby observes that in central Suffolk a caorse old pasture is called a lay. Compare SOMYR laylond. Novale.]Subce∣tinum, C. F. (subsennum, KYLW. S.)
  • LAY, man or woman, no clerke. Illiteratus, laicus, agramatus, C. F.
  • LAK, or defawte. Defectus, defeccio.
  • LAKE, or stondynge watur. Lacus, C. F. et CATH.
  • LAKKYN̄', or blamyn̄' (dyspresyn, S.)

    3. Compare DYSPREYSYN', or lackyn̄'. "Vituperium, blame or lacke." ORT. To lakk, depravare, &c. ubi to blame." CATH. ANG. In the Vision of P. Ploughman, Envy says that when his neighbour met with a customer, whilst he sold nothing, he was ever ready

    "To lye and to loure on my neghebore,
    And to lakke his chaffare."

    2736.

    Chaucer uses the word precisely in the same sense, in Rom. of Rose. Fabyan, in "Lenuoy" of his viith part, excuses himself as unable to adapt his Chronicle to the liking of every reader,

    "And specyally to suche as haue theyr delyghtynge
    Euer wyth dysclaunder moste wryters to lacke,
    And brake whyle they maye, to sette good wryters a backe."

    "I lacke a thynge, I fynde faute at it, Ie trouue à redire. I lacke, I wante a thynge, I'ay faulte. I lacke a penne." PALSG. Compare Dutch laecken, minuere, deterere. Lydgate uses the substantive lack in the sense of dispraise. See his poem to put in re∣membrance of virtue and vice, of the diligent and the indolent. (Minor Poems, p. 84.)

    "Of whiche the reporte of both is thus reserved,
    With lawde, or lack, liche as they haue deserved."
    Vitupero, culpo.
  • Page  286LAM, or loom, yonge scheep. Angus
  • LAME.1. [Lame was formerly used in a more general sense than at present. In the Golden Legend it is related that a poor man came to St. Loye, "that hadde his honde styffe, and lame." "Lame of one hande, manchet. Lame of all ones lymmes, perclus. Lame∣nesse, mehaygneté." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. lam, claudus.]Claudus.
  • LAMYN̄, or make lame. Acclau∣dico (claudico, K.)
  • LAMMESSE.2. [On the calends, or first of August, the festival of St. Peter ad vincula, it was cus∣tomary in Anglo-Saxon times to make a votive offering of the first-fruits of the harvest, and thence the feast was termed hlaf-maesse, Lammas, from hlaf, panis, and maesse, missa, festum. In the Sarum Manual it is called Benedictio novorum fructuum. "Lammas, a feest, la Sainct Piere aux liens." PALSG. See Brand's Popular An∣tiquities.]Festum agnorum, vel Festum ad vincula Sancti Petri.
  • LANE. Lanella, viculus (venella, K. S.)
  • LANERE.

    3. Compare THOWNGE, or lanere. "Ligula, a laynere, et fascia. Corrigia, a thong of lethur, or a layner." MED. "Ligula, a leynerde." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. "A lanȝer, ligula, ligar. To lanȝere, lingulare." CATH. ANG. "Lanyer of lether, lasnière." PALSG. "Lanière, a long and narrow band, or thong of leather." COTG. Magister Joh. de Garlandiâ, speaking in his Dictionary of the trades of Paris in the XIIIth cent. says that the Merchants who dwelt on the great bridge sold "capistra, et lom∣baria, vel lombanaria, ligulas et marsupia de corio porcino vel cervino;" where the gloss is as follows: "ligulae, lanières, vel formechaz." In the accounts of Lucas le Borgne, tailor of Philippe de Valois, printed by Leber, is the item, in 1338, "ij. livres de soie de plusieurs couleurs, pour faire lanières pour le Roy." Charles VI. in 1398, in consequence of a change in the fashion of nether garments, granted licence to the chausettiers of Paris to sell "chausses garnies d'aiguilettes ou lanières." Leber, Invent. 467. Laniers, usually called points, from the tags with which they were tipped, were much used in ordinary dress, and for attaching the various portions of armour: when so employed they were termed arming points. Archaeol. xvii. 296. In Chaucer's bril∣liant picture of the preparations for a tournament, the following duties appear to have pertained to the esquires:

    "Nailing the speares, and helmes bokeling,
    Gigging of shields, with laniers lacing."

    Knight's Tale.

    In Norfolk the lash of a whip is called the lanner, or lanyer, which in Suffolk denotes only the leathern lash. See Forby, and Moore, v. Lanna.

    Ligula, UG. in ligo.
  • LANGAGE, or langwage. Idioma, lingua.
  • LANGDEBEFE, herbe. Buglossa, CATH. lingua bovis.
  • LANGELYD, or teyyn̄' to-gedyr. Colligatus.
  • LANGELYN̄, or byynd to-geder.4. [In the North to langel signifies to hopple, or fasten the legs with a thong. "Lanyels, side-lanyels, hopples for horses. Yorksh. Dial. p. 44" Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033. See Grose, Craven Dialect, and Jamieson. To langle, in Norfolk, implies to saunter slowly, as if it were difficult to advance one foot before the other.]Colligo (compedio, P.)
  • LANGURYN̄' yn sekenesse (lan∣geryn. K.)5. [Sesekenesse, MS. R. Brunne says that Adelard, King of Wessex, abdicated in favour of Uttred his cousin, "and died in langoure;" p. 6. Chaucer speaks of Damian as one that "langureth for loue." Merch. Tale, 9741. Fr. langourir, ROQUEF.]Langueo.
  • LANRET, hauke. Tardarius, KYLW.
  • Page  287LANTERNE. Lanterna, vel la∣terna, lucerna.
  • LAPPE, skyrte (lappe, barme, K.)

    1. The word lap, according to many ancient writers, signified the skirt of a garment. Thus G. de Bibelesworth says,

    "Car par deuant avez eskours (lappes,)
    Et d'en costé sont vos girouns (sidgoren.)"

    It denoted likewise the hinder skirt, as in Seuyn Sages, 899, where the herdsman is described as picking haws, and filling with them first his "barm," and afterwards "his other lappe." In Emare also, v. 652, Egarye, being cruelly exposed with her child, conceals her face "with the hynther lappes" of her large and wide surcote. See moreover Amis and Amiloun, 988; Chaucer, Clerk's Tale, 8461. In the Life of St. Dominic, in the Golden Legend, it is related that on a certain occasion, when the friars had little bread, there came two young men, "whiche entred into the refectorye or fraytour, and the lappes of theyr mantells yt henge on theyr necke were full of breed," which they gave to the Saint. "Lappe, or skyrt, gyron." PALSG. "Gabinus, a garment with two lappes, wherof the one cast backward," &c. ELYOT. Ang.-Sax. lappa, fimbria The word is also used, by analogy, to denote the lower part of the ear: "A lappe of ye ere, cartilagia, legia." CATH. ANG. Horman says that "yf the lappe of the eare wax redde, there is somewhat amysse. Labo rubescente aliquod peccatum est."

    Gremium (birrus, C. F. S.)
  • (LAPPE of the ere, infra in TYPPE. Pinnula, C. F.)
  • LAPPYN̄', or whappyn̄' yn cloþys (happyn to-gedyr, S. wrap to∣geder in clothes, P.)2. ["Plico, to folde, or lappe. Volvo, to turne or lappe." MED. "Obvolvo, to lappe about. Involutus, i. circumdatus, lapped or wrapped. Involutio, a lappynge in. Epiphio, i. equum totaliter ornare, lappynge of a horse." ORTUS. "To lappe, volvere, convolvere. To lapp in, intricare, involvere. A lappynge in," &c. CATH. ANG. This verb is used most commonly in the sense of wrapping, as a garment. See Cheuelere Assigne, p. 101; Wicl. Version, Math. xxvii. 59; Gower, Conf. Am.; Cov. Myst. p. 125. In the Wicliffite version it is written repeatedly "wlappe," as in Isai. xxxvii. 1, "Whanne Kyng Ezechie hadde herd, he to rent hise cloþis, and he was wlappid in a sak (obvolutus est sacco," Vulg.) See also Job, iii. 5.; Mark, xv. 46. John Paston writes to his wife, about 1490, for a plaster of her "flos unguentorum," to be applied to the knee of the Attorney-general, to whom he was under obligation; and bids her write "whethyr he must lape eny more clothys aboute the playster to kepe it warme, or nought." Paston Letters, V. 346. To bi-lappe signifies to surround, or close in. Sir Amiloun in a dream saw his brother Amis "bilappid among his fon." Amis and Amil. 1014. Hampole uses the compounded word "umbilape" (Ang.-Sax. umbe, ymb, circum), as in the Prick of Conscience, where he says amongst the pains of hell, that the "vermyne salle vmbelape þaim all abowte." Harl. MS. 6923, f. 94. Latimer, in his Vth sermon on the Lord's Prayer, says, "Note here that our Saviour biddeth us to say, us; this us lappeth in all other men with my prayer." Palsgrave gives the fol∣lowing phrases: "Lappe this chylde well, for the weather is colde, enuelopez bien, &c. Lappe this hoode aboute your head, affublez vous de ce chaperon." "Plisser, to plait, fould, lap up, or one within another, whence also to plash." COTG. To lap is still used in the sense of wrapping, in Warwickshire. Compare WAPPON̄, or hyllyn̄ wythe clothys: Tego; and WAPPYN̄, or wyndyn a-bowte yn clothys: Involvo.]Involvo.
  • LAPPYN̄', as howndys. Lambo.
  • LAPPYNGE of howndys. Lambitus.
  • (LAPPYNGE, infra in WAPPYNGE.)
  • Page  288LAPWYNKE, or wype, byrde (lappe∣wynge, K. lapwhyng, S.) Upipa.
  • LARDE of flesche. Larda, vel lardum,C. F.
  • LAARDERE. Lardarium.
  • LAARDYD. Lardatus.
  • LARDYN̄ flesche, or other lyke. Lardo.
  • LAARDYNGE. Lardacio.
  • LARGE, hey, longe, and semely. Procerus, CATH.
  • LARGYN, or make large. Amplio, Amplifico.
  • LARGELY. Largiter.
  • LARGENESSE. Largitas.
  • LARKE, byrde. Alauda.
  • LASCHE, stroke. Ligula (fla∣grum, P.)
  • LASCHE, or to fresche, and vn∣savery (laysch, H.)1. [Lash, or lashy, signifies in Norfolk soft and watery, as applied to fruits. Forby derives the word from Fr. lâche. A lash egg is an egg without a fully-formed shell. Palsgrave gives only "lashe, nat fast, lache. Lasshnesse, lascheté." In the North cold and moist weather, when it does not actually rain, is called lasche. Brockett.]Vapidus, CATH. insipidus.
  • LASSCHYN̄' (lashyn, supra in betyn, K.) Ligulo, verbero.
  • LASCHYNGE, or betynge. Verber (verberacio, P.)
  • LASTE of alle. Ultimus, novissi∣mus, postremus, extremus.
  • LASTE, save one. Penultimus.
  • LATE, not redyly. Tarde.
  • LATE, tyme passyd. Nuper.
  • LATE fruite. Sirotinus.
  • (LATEN, or laton, metall, P. Au∣ricalcum, electrum.)
  • LATENERE, or latennare (latonere, S. Erarius CATH. aurical∣carius.
  • (LATHE, supra in BERNE.)2. ["Horreun est locus ubi reponitur annona, a barne, a lathe. Grangia, lathe or grange." ORTUS. "Orreum, granarium, lathe." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "A lathe, apotheca, horreum." CATH. ANG. This word is used by Chaucer, Reve's Tale, 4086. Harrison, speaking of the partition of England into shires and lathes, says, "Some as it were roming or rouing at the name Lath, do saie that it is derived of a barn, which is called in Old English a lath, as they coniecture. From which speech in like sort some deriue the word Laistow, as if it should be trulie written Lathstow, a place wherein to laie vp or laie on things." Descr. of Eng. Holinsh. Chron. i. 153. Skinner gives Lath as most commonly used in Lincolnshire, and derives it from to lade, because it is loaded with fruits of the earth. Bp. Kennett notices it aslo as a Lincolnshire word, and gives the derivation Ang.-Sax. ȝelaðian, congregare fruges. Lansd. MS. 1033. It is retained in the dialect of the North. See Hallamshire Glossary.]
  • LATHE, for howsys (latthe, K. P. laththe for howsynge, S.) Tig∣nus, vel tignum, COMM. C. F. latha, KYLW. et NECC, tigillum, C. F. et NECC.
  • LATTHYN̄.3. [Latchyn̄, MS. This verb occurs after LATE blod; and is not found in the other MSS.]Latho, KLYW.
  • LATTYN̄, wenyn̄', or demyn̄'.4. [The verb to lete of, signifying to take account of or esteem, is used by R. Brunne, as in the phrases, "þer of wel he lete—þei lete of him so lite." Langt. Chron. p. 45. In the Vision of P. Ploughm to lete occurs repeatedly in the same sense, as in the line "all that men saine, he lete it soth." See also v. 4132, 9595, &c. Jamieson, under the word Lat, has cited several passages where it is used by the poets of the North. Ang.-Sax. laetan, putare, admittere. Compare the provincial use of the verb to lete, or leeten, to pretend or make a show of, given by Junius and Mr. Wilbraham as retained in Cheshire. See also Jamieson, v. Lait and Leet.]Puto, reor, opinor (reputo, P.)
  • LAATYN to ferme (or fermyn, P.) Loco, C. F.
  • Page  289LAATYN̄' huly (latyn haly, K. H. S. P. or asemys, H. P.)1. [Compare HALY, or behatyd, Exosus. "Huly, peevish, fretfull. When a man is not easily pleased, or seems captious and froward, he is said to be huly, and a huly man; Dunlem." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033.]Indignor, dedignor.
  • LATȲN', or levyn̄ (leuyn or letyn, P.) Dimitto, relinquo, derelinquo.
  • (LATYN, or demyn in word, or hert, S. Arbitror, reor.)
  • LATYN̄, or sufferyn̄ a thynge to beēn (to be doon', S.) Permitto.
  • LATE blod. Fleobotomo, UG. et KYLW. flegbotomo, KYLW.
  • LATYNE (spech, S.) Latinum (Romanum, P.)
  • LATONERE, or he þat vsythe latyn' speche (Latonyster, or he þat spekyþ Latyn, S.)2. [Selden remarks that acquaintance with the Latin tongue was considered such an attainment that Latinista, Latinator, or Latinarius, became significant of an interpreter in general. Hugo Latinarius is mentioned in Domesday. Latinier, as Roquefort ex∣plains it, signified commonly an interpreter, truchement, or dragoman. He cites the Roman de Garin, where mention occurs of a Latinier, whose attainments extended to speaking "Roman, Englois, Gallois, et Breton, et Norman." Sir John Maundevile, speaking of the routes to the Holy Land, says of the one by way of Babylon, "And alle weys fynden men Latyneres to go with hem in the contrees and ferthere beþonde, in to tyme that men conne the langage." Voiage, p. 71. In R. Coer de Lion, 2473, 2491, K. Alis. 7089, the words latymer, latimeris, as printed by Weber, have the same sense.]Latinista.
  • LATŌN', metal (laten or laton me∣tall, P.)3. [Latten, a hard mixed metal much resembling brass, was largely used in former times, especially in the formation of sepulchral memorials. The precise nature of its composition does not appear to have been accurately ascertained. It is repeatedly mentioned as a metal of a bright and golden colour; Chaucer uses the comparison that Phoebus "hewed like latoun." Gower speaks of it as distinct from brass, as it seems properly to have been, although occasionally confounded therewith, and even with copper. "Auricalcum, i. fex auri, laten or coper." ORTUS. "Auricalcum, Anglice goldefome; Electrinum, latyne." Harl. MS. 1002, f. 149. "Latyn metall, latn." PALSG. Latten was probably obtained from Germany. In the covenants for the work∣manship of the effigy of Richard Beauchamp, 1454, by Thos. Stevyns, copper-smith of London, the metal is described as "latten," or "Cullen plate," (Cologne?) the value of which was 10d. a pound. The remote derivation of the word is very obscure: it was probably adopted in England from the German Letton, or French laiton. Compare Dutch lattoen, Isl. laatun, Ital. ottone, lattone, Span. alaton, laton. Plate tin had also the appellation latten. See Forby and Brockett, and the remarks of Nares and Jamieson.]Auricalcum, UG. in aer, electrum, C. F.
  • LAWE. Jus, lex.
  • LAWE brekare. Legirumpus.
  • LAW of Godde. Phas, unde versus; Phas le divina, jus est humana potestas.
  • LAWFULLE. Legitimus, juri∣dicus, legalis.
  • Page  290LAVENDERE, herbe. Lavendula.
  • (LAUENDER, wassher, P. or lawn∣dere, infra.1. [This term is used by Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, Prol. 358, and is taken from French. "Lau(e)ndre, a wassher, lauendière. Laundre that wassheth clothes," id. PALSG. "Candidaria, lotrix pannorum, a wasshere, and a lavyndere." MED. "Al∣batrix, candidaria, blecherre, or lawnderre." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "A lawnder, candidaria, lotrix." CATH. ANG. Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, "Beatrice the lauendre shall come hethir after diner, so gyue her the lynnen clothis." W. Thomas, in his Rules of Ital. Grammar, gives "lauandaia, a launder that wassheth cloathes." See Jamieson, v. Layndar.]Lotrix.)
  • LAWERE, or lawþer. Legista, jurista, legisperitus, jurispe∣ritus, scriba.
  • LAWHYN̄' (lawyn, K. laughen, P.) Rideo.
  • LAWHYN̄ to skorne (lawyn, K. lawghen, P.) Derideo, irrideo.
  • LAWGHYNGE (lawhinge, K.) Risus.
  • LAWMPE. Lampas (lampada, P.)
  • LAWMPE of glas. Ticendulum, C. F.
  • LAWMPERY. Murena, lampreda.
  • LAWMPEROWNE (lamprun, P.) Lampredula, murenula.
  • LAWNCEGAY.2. [The precise nature of this weapon, as likewise the etymology of its name, is still questionable; it was probably adopted in this country from the French, but the deri∣vation from the name of an Eastern or Morrish weapon, called zagaye, arzegaye, or assagay, seems more reasonable than that which has been proposed, lance aigüe. That it was a missile weapon is apparent from Guill. de St. Andrè, who wrote about the middle of XIVth cent. and speaks of throwing "dardes, javelots, lances-gayes;" but Guiart seems to mention the "archegaie" as a thrusting weapon, rather than a mis∣sile. Carré gives a comparison of the Lance-guaye, or archegaye, of the Franks, with the Oriental zagaye, and considers them as missiles. Armes des Français, p. 198. From "the Rime of Sire Thopas," which describes him as going forth to ride with "a launce∣gay" in his hand and long sword at his side, it appears to have been a weapon carried for occasional defence, rather than a proper part of equipment for war or the tourna∣ment." Cant. T. 13,682. The stat. 7 Ric. III. c. 13, confirming the stat. of North∣ampton, 2 Edw. III. c. 3, against riding, or appearing in public assemblies, with force and arms, ordains "qe desoremes nulle homme chivache deinz el Roialme armez—ne ovesque lancegay deinz mesme de Roialme; les queux lancegayes soient de tout oustez deinz le dit Roialme, come chose defendue par nostre seigneur le Roi, sur peine de forfaiture dicelx lancegaies, armures, et autres herneys quelconges." Compare stat. 20 Ric. II. c. 1; Stat. of Realm, ii. 35, 92. In the Rolls of Parl. V. 212, there is a petition for vengeance by the widow of a person who had been murdered in 1450 by a gang of men "arraied in fourme of werre, with jakkes, salettez, longe swerdes, long∣debeofs, boresperes, and other unmerciable forbodon wepons." one of whom "smote him with a launcegay thorough the the body, a fote and more." In 1459 there were found in the Great Hall of Sir John Fastolfe, at Caistor, Norfolk, cross-bows, a boar∣spear, a target, "xxj. speris: Item, j. launcegay." Archaeol. xxi. 272. "Launce gay, iaueleyne." PALSG.]Lancea.
  • LAWNCENT, or blode yryne (lawn∣set, K. Lawncot, S.) Lanceola, C. F.
  • LAWNCHE, o(r) skyppe. Saltus, UG.
  • LAWNCHYN̄, or skyppyn̄ ouer a dyke, or oþer thyngys lyke (ouer a dyche, P.)3. [Perconito, MS. perconto, P.; a verb apparently derived from contus, a pole. "To launch, to take long strides. That long-legg'd fellow comes launching along." FORBY.]Perconto, persalto.
  • LAWNCYN, or stynge wythe a Page  291 spere, or blode yryne (lawnchyn, K. S.) Lanceo.
  • (LAUNDE clothe, P.)
  • LAWNDE of a wode.1. [Camden, in his Remains, explains laund as signifying a pain among trees. Thus in the account of the hunting expedition, Ipomydon, 383, the Queen's pavillion was pitched at a "laund on hight," whence she might command a view of all the game of the forest. Compare Vision of P. Ploughm. 5028, 10, 248; Chaucer, Compl. of Black Knyght; Shakespeare, Hen. VI. pt. i. III 1. In Cullum's Hawsted a rental dated 1509 makes mention of "9 acres in campo vocato le lawnde." "Indago, a parke, a huntyng place, or a lawnde." ORTUS. "A lawnde, saltus." CATH. ANG. "Launde a playne, launde." PALSG. "Lama, a launde or playne. Landa, id." W. Thomas, Ital. Gr. "Lande, a land or launde, a wild untilled shrubbie or bushyplaine." COTG.]Saltus, UG. in salio.
  • LAWNDE KEPARE. Salator, KYLW.
  • LAVOWRE (lawowre, K. lavre, H. lawere, S.) Lavatorium.
  • LA(U)RYOL, herbe (lawryal, K. lawryol, S.) Laureola.
  • LAWNDERE (or lavendyre, K. la∣vunder, H.) Lotor, lotrix.
  • LEE of threde.2. [Compare LEGGE. Forty threads of hemp-yarn are termed in Norfolk a lea. The "lea" by which linen yarn was estimated at Kidderminster, contained 200 threads. Stat. 22 and 23 Car. II. c. 8.]Ligatura.
  • LABBARDE (lebbard, K. S. P.) Leopardus.
  • LEECE, or lees, of howndys.3. ["A lese, laxa." CATH. ANG. "Lesshe for a grehounde, lais, lesse." PALSG. In the note on the word FUTE, p. 183, it was suggested that the term feuterer might thence be derived; Sir F. Madden likewise, in his Glossary to Gawayn, had explained "Vewter," Gawayn and Grene Knyþt, 1146, as denoting the huntsman who tracked the deer by the fewte or odour. It seems probable, however, that the derivation given by Blount, Bp. Kennett, and other glossarists, is more correct. The Gaulish hounds, of which Martial and Ovid speak, termed vertagi, or veltres, appear to have been grey∣hounds, and hence the appellations veltro, Ital. viautre, vaultre, Fr. Welter, Germ. The Promptorium gives GREHOWNDE, veltres, p. 209; and from the practice of leading these dogs in couples, the leash appears to have received the name veltrea, here given, a word unnoticed by Ducange. The "ministerium de Veltrariâ" is mentioned in Rot. Pip. 5 Steph. In the Household Constitutions of Hen. II. Liber Niger Scacc. i. 356, amongst the stipends assigned to the different officers connected with the chace, is the statement, "Veltrarii, unusquisque iij. d. in die, et ij. d. hominibus suis; et uni∣cuique leporario ob. in die." Blount has cited the Tenure of Setene, in Kent, by the service of providing one veltrarius, to lead three greyhounds, when the King should go into Gascony, as appears by Esch. 34 Edw. I. and Rot. Fin. 2 Edw. II. where the word is written vautrarius. Various details regarding the duties of the "foutreres," and their fee, or share of the produce of the chace, will be found in the Mayster of Game, Vesp. B. XII. f. 99, 104, b. Of the dogs termed veltres, veltrahi, vertragi, &c. see further in Ducange, v. Canis. At a later time the vaultre was a mongrel hound, used in hunting bears and boars, as Nicot observes, "C'est une espèce de chien entre allant et mastin, dont on chasse aux ours et sangliers." The feuterers appear to have been at a later period termed "children of the lesh:" they were four in number, in the household of Hen. VIII. 1526, as appears by the Ordinances of Eltham.]Laxa, KYLW. veltrea.
  • LECHE, mann or woman.4. [Compare FYSYCLAN̄', or leche, p. 163. "A leche, aliptes, empiricus, medicus, cirur∣gicus. A leche house, laniena, quia infirmi ibi laniantur." CATH. ANG. "Leche, a surgion, servrgion. I leche, I heale one of a sore wounde as a cyrurgyen dothe. Ie gueris." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. laec, medicus. The appellation was used to denote those who professed any branch of the healing art, as well as the ladies, who frequently supplied the place of the regular practitioners. Amongst the innumerable treatises of the ancient herbalists few afford a more curious insight into the practices of leech-craft, about the period when the Promptorium was compiled, than Arund. MS. 42. The author, who had a herb-garden at Stepney, states that he "knew a lady, þe lady Sowche, þe beste Godys leche of Bryþth∣lond, in women," and recounts her practice in preparing a nostrum, termed "neural." f. 22. The fourth, or ring finger, was called the leech finger, from the pulseation therein found, and supposed to be in more direct communication with the heart, as in the tract attributed to Joh. de Garlandiâ, under the title of Distigius, Harl. MS. 1992, f. 115, it is said, "Stat medius (medylle fyngure) medio, medicus (leche fyngure) jam convenit (accordyt) ergo." In another line the fingers are thus enumerated: "Pollex, index, medius, medicus, auricularis." CATH. ANG. See Brand's Popular Antiquities.]Medicus, medica.
  • LECHE, wy(r)m of þe watur Page  292 (wurme, H.) Sanguissuga, hirudo.
  • LECHE of flesche, or oþer mete.1. [The term leche, which occurs frequently in connectionwith ancient cookery, had two distinct significations. It denoted such viands as it was usual to serve in slices, probably for the sake of convenience, before the general use of forks. "Lesche, a long slice, or shive of bread, &c." COTG. The nature and variety of dishes thus to be served may be learned from Harl. MS. 279, where recipes are given for 64 different "Leche vyaundys;" and where the meaning of the verb to leche is evident from such directions as the following: "Brawn in comfyte—leche it fayre wyth a knyff, but not to þinne, and þan þif þou wolt þou myþt take þe rybbys of þe bore al bare, and chete hem en∣longys þorw þe lechys, an so serue forth a leche or to in euery dysshe." f. 27, b. Compare the use of the verb to "leshe," Forme of Cury, pp. 36, 56, 57; "yleeshed," p. 18. Compare the "leyched beefe" as ordered for supper in the dietary of the Prin∣cess Cecill, with the item "beefe sliced," in the Ordinances of Eltham, Househ. Ord. pp. *38, 181. R. Holme gives this signification, iii. p. 78, and another sense, namely, "a kind of jelly, made of cream, isinglass, sugar, and almonds." p. 83. "White leach, gelatina amigdalorum." BARET. "Leche made of flesshe, gélée." PALSG. One leche∣meat appears to have formed an ordinary portion of every course, as may be gathered from the bills of fare at various great festivities, Harl. MS. 279, f. 44, and from the accounts of the installation feasts of Abp. Nevill, 1466, Lel. Coll. vi. 6; of Abp. Morton, 1478, Arnold's Chron. 239; and the coronation banquet of Elizabeth, Queen of Hen. VII. 1487, Lel. Coll. iv. 226. The various kinds of "leche" named in these documents appear to have ranged with "suttleties," such as "leche Lumbart gylt, partie gelly, leche porpul damaske, reiall, ciprus, rube, Florentine," &c. See further the Roll of Cookery appended to the Household Ordinances; the Liber cure cocorum, Sloane MS. 1986; and Cott. MS. Jul. D. VIII. Skinner interprets brawn lechyd, which is men∣tioned in the St. Alban's Book, as signifying "aper medicatus, aromatis conditus;" as if the term had some connection with Ang.-Sax. laece, medicus.]Lesca.
  • LEED, metalle. Plumbum.
  • LEEDARE, or plummare (plum∣bare, S.) Plumbarius.
  • LEDARE, or gyde. Ductor, di∣rector.
  • LEEDYD. Plumbatus.
  • LEEDYN̄' wythe leed. Plumbo.
  • LEDYN̄', or wyssyn̄. Duco, con∣duco, perduco.
  • LEDYN̄' A-WEY. Abduco.
  • LEDYN̄ A-ÞEN. Reduco.
  • LEDYN̄ YN̄. Induco, introduco.
  • LEDYN̄ OWTE. Educo.
  • (LEDEN OUER, P. Transduco.)
  • Page  293LEDYN̄ TO. Adduco.
  • (LEDE wythe a carte, supra in CARTYN'. Caruco, CATH.)1. [An instance of this use of the verb to lead has been already given in the note on CARTYN', p. 65. Sir John Maundevile uses it in the sense of carrying, generally, as in the following passage: "That arke or hucche, with the relikes, Tytus ledde with hym to Rome, whan he had scomfyted alle the Jewes." Voiage, p. 102. In the Liber Niger Regis Edw. IV. an ordinance is given that no seller of wheat for the use of the King's house "be compelled to lede or carrye his wheete, pourveyed for this household, towards the Kinges garner," more than the distance of 10 miles at his own cost. Household Ordin. p. 68. A municipal regulation, cited in Beesley's Hist. of Banbury, p. 233, prescribed in 1564, "that no maner of person shall feche, leed, or cary any donge or mucke furthe of the towne, but betwene the fyrst day of May and the feest of Seint Michell th' Arckangell." Among the trades enumerated in the order of the pa∣geants of the play of Corpus Christi at York, 1415, occur "water leders." Drake's Hist. App. "I lede a man or thynge aboute a towne vpon a hardell, or after a horse, Ie trayne." PALSG.]
  • LEEDYNGE wythe leed. Plum∣bacio.
  • LEDYNGE, or wyssynge (wysynge in the way, K. gydinge, P.) Du∣catus.
  • LEDYR, or leþyr, or lethyr (leyre, or leþyre, S. leddyr, or lethyr, P.)2. [The marked distinction made by the author, in this and several other instances, between the Saxon character þ and the equivalent expression th, is deserving of notice. It is probable that the reading of the MS. HERTYS LETHYR, or lethyr, as it has been printed, p. 238, is faulty, and the following correction may be suggested,—leþyr, or lethyr. Ang.-Sax. leþoer, corium. Bp. Kennett gives "leer, leather, hence Banda∣leers. Leer, corium. Kilian." Lansd. MS. 1033.]Corium.
  • LEDDERE, or ladder. Scala.
  • LEDDYR stafe.3. [The explanation of scalare given in the Catholicon defines it as signifying "lignum transverso in scalâ positum, quod et hoc interscalare dicitur." "A ledder staffe, scalare." CATH. ANG. The transverse bars are more commonly termed the rounds or rungs of the ladder. Chaucer speaks of the "ronges" of a ladder, Miller's T. 3625.]Scalarium, sca∣lare, CATH.
  • LEEF of a book, or a tre, or oþer lyke. Folium.
  • LEEFE of a vyne. Pampinus, UG. in pando.
  • LEFE, and dere.4. [Lefe, or lief, beloved, is a word which occurs in most of the old writers. Chaucer and Gower use it as a substantive. Ang.-Sax. leof, dilectus. "Lefe, lyefe, dere, cher. Lefenesse, chereté. Lefe or yuell." PALSG.]Carus.
  • LEFTE, or forsakyn̄'. Dimissus, derelictus, relictus.
  • LEFT, or thynge þat ys on the lyfte syde. Sinister.
  • LEFT hande. Sinistra, leva.
  • LEFT hande man (handid man, K. S.) Mancinus, CATH.
  • LEFULLE, or lawfulle. Licitus.
  • LEG. Tibia.
  • LEG harneys. Tibialia.
  • LEGGE, ouer twarte byndynge (ouer wart, S. ledge, P.)5. [In Norfolk a bar of a gate, or stile, of a chair, table, &c. is termed a ledge, accord∣ing to Forby. "Ledge of a dore, barre. Ledge of a shelfe, apvy, estaye." PALSG.]Li∣gatorium.
  • LEGENDE (boke, S.) Legenda.
  • LEGISTER. Legista, jurista.
  • LEGYŌN' (or legivn', S.) Legio.
  • LECHERY (lehcherye, K. lechchery, Page  294 S. letchery, P.) Luxuria, me∣chia, fornicacio, Venus.
  • LECHOWRE (lehchour, K.) For∣nicator, lectator, leno, fornica∣trix, lectatrix, mecha, lena (le∣cator, P.)
  • LEYARE, or werkare wythe stone and mortere.1. [In the accounts of works at the palace of Westminster and the Tower during the XIVth cent. preserved amongst the miscellaneous records of the Queen's Remem∣brancer, mention is made continually of "cubatores," or stone layers. See also the abstracts of accounts relating to the erection of St. Stephen's Chapel, in the reign of Edw. III. printed in Smith's Antiqu. of Westm. In the contract for building Fother∣inghay Church, 1425, the chief mason undertakes neither to "set mo nor fewer free∣masons, rogh setters ne leye(r)s," upon the work, but as the appointed overseer shall ordain. Dugdale, Mon. iii. 164, Collegiate Churches.]Cementarius.
  • LEYD, or put. Positus.
  • LEY for waschynge (or lye, infra, leye, K. lye for wesshynge of heddys, S.)2. [Lixinum, MS. and S. Uguitio gives lixen, aqua, whence "lixinum, quia sit ex aquâ et cinere." Arund. MS. 508. The early romances and Chaucer's poems afford evidence that yellow or light-coloured hair was in special esteem. The fashion prevailed at a very early period, as appears from the writings of Tertullian, who reproaches Christian women with an affectation of seeking to resemble in this respect those of Germany and Gaul. The art of producing this colour artificially was termed crocuphantea, and is condemned by St. Cyprian and St. Jerome as a sinful vanity, and by Galen as preju∣dicial to health. At the time when the Promptorium was compiled this fashion con∣tinued in full force, and numerous artificial expedients had been devised for supplying the defect of nature, by means of some vegetable decoction or lie, whereby, with sub∣sequent exposure to the sun, the hair might be made to assume the desired colour. The herbals and medicinal treatises of the XVth cent. indicate a great variety of processes which were adopted for colouring or preserving the hair. In Arundel MS. 42, f. 82, the decoction of madder is recommended to make it red, and the juice of sage applied in the hot sun to make it black; f. 77, b. The virtues of the lily are commended for making hair to grow again, and the oil of hazel nuts as infallible against "mowtynge of here," f. 59; and an effectual depilatory "for-doyng here" is given at f. 35. The strangest substances were in request for such purposes: thus in Jul. D. VIII. f. 79, b. "lixivium de cinere fimi columbi" is recommended as an approved remedy against the falling of hair. The extent to which such artificial aids were made available at a later period appears from the numberless prescriptions given by Gerarde, Parkinson, Langham, in his Garden of Health, 1579, and similar writers. See the satirical ob∣servations of Bulwer on this subject, in the Artificial Changling, 1653. Horman, who wrote at the commencement of the reign of Hen. VIII. says that "maydens were sylken callis, with the whiche they keepe in ordre theyr heare made yelowe with lye; comas lixivio ruffatas sive rutulatas. Women chaunge the naturall colour of theyr heare with crafty colour and sonnyng. Some cherisshe theyr busshis of heare with moche kymbeynge and wesshynge in lye. He maketh his heare yelowe bycause he wolde seme lustye; rutilat capillos ut vegetus appareat. His heare was lyght ambre." Vulgaria, 1519. To such practices allusion in perhaps made in the Promptorium by the word HEED WASCHYNGE, which will be found above, p. 232. "Lee, lixivium, locium." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives only "lye to wasshe with, lessiue." Ang.-Sax. leah, lixivium.]Lixivium, C. F. et UG. in luxos.
  • LEYYNGE of a thynge. Posicio.
  • LEYN̄', or puttyn̄ (to, S.) Pono, depono (repono, S.)
  • LEYN̄ eggys, as hennys (eyryn, K. eyre, S.) Ovo, C. F. pono.
  • Page  295LEYN̄ TO, or put to (leyn to, or ley to, S.) Appono.
  • LEYN̄, or leye waiowre. Vadio, CATH.
  • LEYN̄ to wedde. Pignoro, im∣pignoro.
  • LEYNYN̄' (lenyn, or restyn, K.) Podio, appodio.
  • LE(Y)NYNGE.1. [Levynge, MS. lenynge, K. S. P.]Appodiacio.
  • LE(Y)NYNGE staffe.2. [Podium is explained in the Catholicon and Ortus to be "baculus super quem innitimur, cum quo sepe terram ferimus, a lene." Ducange cites the Usus Ord. Cisterc. c. 68, where by this term is implied "pars formae monachicae, cui monachi, cum procumbunt, inni∣tuntur;" and it seems possible that allusion is here made by Friar Geoffrey to the staff which, according to the usage in some establishments, served to give an occasional support during the long services of the choir, an object which was more usually attained by means of the misericorde, or formella. In some of the German churches the use of the leaning staff is still retained, and a remarkable specimen, apparently of German workmanship, now preserved in the De Bruges collection at Paris, was intended, as Lenoir supposed, to answer this purpose. The curious character of its ornaments in∣dicates its having been fashioned for some sacred use, and the lion statant, by which it is surmounted, gives it, in some measure, the form of the Tau staff, as it has been termed. Hist. des Arts en France, pl. xxxvii. "Leanyng stocke, appuial." PALSG.]Calopodium, podium, C. F. CATH.
  • LEYSERE. Oportunitas.
  • LEEK, or garleke. Alleum.
  • LEEK, or porret. Porrum, CATH. C. F.
  • LEEK pottage. Porrata, Cath.
  • LEEM, or lowe (lawe, H.)3. [Leme, a shining light, Ang.-Sax. leoma, jubar, is a word not uncommonly used by the old writers; see R. Glouc. p. 186; Vision of Piers P. 12,324; Cant. Tales, 14,836. "Fulgus, lemynge þat touchethe. Fulgur, lemynge þat brennethe. Casma, brennynge of the leeme of the fyre." MED. MS. CANT. In the Abbbreviata Chronica printed by the Camb. Antiqu. Soc. from the MS. at Caius Coll. it is recorded, A. D. 1402, "hoc anno apparuit, stella comata, Anglice vocata lemyng sterr, prognosticans bellum futurum, vid. bellum Salopie." Fabyan relates that in 7 Will. Rufus "grysly and vncouth syghtes were sene, as hostes of men fightyng in ye skye, and fyre lemys and other." Compare GLEMYNGE, or lemynge of lyghte, p. 198. See also hereafter STEEM, or lowe of fyre, and STEMYNGE, or lemynge of fyyr. Bp. Kennett notices leam as signifying a flash or blaze of fire, in Durham; Lansd. MS. 1033; and Brockett gives leam, as retained in the Northern Dialect.]Flamma.
  • LEMMAN̄.4. [Junius derives this term from Ang.-Sax. leof, dilectus, and man, denoting the human species generally, without distinction of sex. Hickes in his A. S. Grammar gives leue-mon, amasius, Norm.-Sax.; by R. Glouc. the word is written lefmon, p. 344; and in the Winchester MS. of the Promptorium leefman' is given as synonymous with SPECYAL, concubyne, the man. The editor of the Towneley Mysteries would deduce an argument for the antiquity of that work from the fact that lemman occurs therein solely in the primary and simple sense of a person beloved. It is thus used also by R. Burnne, p. 236; but it more commonly denotes one loved illicitly, or with mere gallantry, as the word is used by Chaucer and Gower, and applied to either sex. "Bassaris, a mylche cowe, or a prestys lemmande." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. "A leman, amasius, amasia, concubina, focaria, pelex; pelignus, peligna, filius vel filia ejus; multicuba, multi∣gamus, polidamas. A lemanry, concubitus, concubinatus." CATH. ANG. "Amasius, qui intemperate amat, a lemman, or a louer. Amasia, i. mulier qui amat sine lege, a lemman. Ancuba, i. concubina, vel succuba, a lemman. Concubina est que ad usum Veneris non legitime tenetur, a lemman." ORTUS. "Lemman, concubine, amovrevse." PALSG. Horman remarks that "some loue theyr lemmans (pallacas) better than theyr true wyfe." Compare SPECYAL, hereafter.]Concubina, amasia.
  • Page  296LEMYN̄', or lowyn̄ as fyyr (as lowe of fyre, K. H. P.)1. [Compare GLEMYN̄, or lemyn̄, p. 198. See Gawayn and the Grene Knyþt, 591, 1137, &c.; Vision of P. P.; Townel. Myst. p. 92. Ang.-Sax. leoman, lucere.]Flammo.
  • LEMYNGE, or lowynge of fyyre. Flammacio.
  • LENDARE, or he þat (lendythe, H. S.) a thynge. Fenerator, creditor.
  • LEEND, lym of a beeste (or ludd∣ok, infra, lende, K. P.)2. [In the later Wicliffite version Job xl. 21 is thus rendered: "His (i. Behemot) strengþe is in his lendis, (lumbis, Vulg.) and his vertu in the naule of his wombe." See also Judith viii. 6; Luke xii. 35. Chaucer describes the milk-white and well plaited "barm-cloth" or apron, worn by the carpenter's wife "upon hire lendes." Miller's Tale, 3238. "A lende, lumbus." CATH. ANG. "Lumbus, a leynde, vel idem quod ren, a nayre. Lumbifractus, broken lended." ORTUS. Ang.-Sax. lendenu, lumbi.]Lumbus.
  • LEENDYN̄. Presto, fenero, CATH. feneror, CATH. mutuo (concedo, H. credo, P.)
  • LENDYNGE. Mut(u)acio.
  • LENE, not fet. Macer, macilen∣tus.
  • LENESSE, or lennesse (sic, S. lene fleshe, K.) Macies, ma∣credo, macritudo, CATH.
  • LENYN̄, or make lene. Macero.
  • LEENGE, fysche.3. [Caxton, in the Boke of the fayt of armes, ii. c. 16, speaking of things with which a garrison ought to be well supplied, mentions "grete foyson of ling fysshe, and ha∣burden." In Sir John Howard's Household Book the following item is entered by his steward, A. D. 1465: "My mester payde at Yipswyche viijss. ivd. for xxxij. leenges;" and in the provision for Hengrave in 1607 the item occurs, "bought at Sturbige fayre of great organ lynge, xxj." Rokewode's Hengrave, 210. "Lynge, fysshe, colin." PALSG. The ling, Asellus longus, received its name from the length of the fish, as Skinner and Willughby suppose; it was supplied from the Northern seas, and probably retained the name by which it was known to the fishermen in those regions. Teut. linghe, Dutch, lëng, piscis ex asellorum genere. Keeling is doubtless of cognate deri∣vation; compare also GRENE LYNGE, above, p. 210.]Lucius ma∣rinus (longenus, P.)
  • LENGTHE. Longitudo.
  • LENTE, holy tyme. Quadragesima.
  • LEEP, or baskett (lepp, K.)4. [In the later Wicliffite version the following passage occurs: "Whanne sche myȝte not hele, þanne sche took a leep of segg, (fiscellam scirpeam, Vulg.) and bawmede it with tar and picche, and puttide the yong child wiþinne." Exod. ii. 3. Compare Dedis ix. 25; ii. Cor. xi. 33. See also Towneley Myst. p. 329. "A lepe, canistrum, cophinus, corbis, &c. ubi a baskyt. A lepe marker, cophinarius, corbio." CATH. ANG. "Cartallum, a basket or a lepe. Cofinus, vas vimineum ad opus servile deputatum, a hande basket. Cofinulus, a lytyll lepe. Corbulus, a lytell lepe or basket." ORTUS. "Lepe, or a basket, corbeille." PALSG. See Jamieson, v. Lippie. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, has the following observations on this word: "Leap, in Yorkshire a large osier basket bore between two men, for the use of carrying corn to be winnowed, &c. called commonly a wheat-leap. Sax. leap, calathus, speciatim seminatoris corbis. A seed leap, or seed lip; Wilts. A leap, a weel to catch fish; Lancashire. An ozier basket borne between two men for the use of carrying chaff out of a barn is called in Northamptonshire and Bucks a bear-leap. Isl. laupur, scrinium quo lanifices linum servant. A leap or lib, half a bushel; Sussex. A seed leap, or lib, a basket to carry corn on the arm to sow; Essex. Lepa, 31 Edw. I. est tertia pars duorum bussellorum. Ext. Man. de Terring, com. Sussex." Forby gives lep, or lepe, a large deep basket, and seed lep, a basket for the use of the sower, or car∣rying chaff to feed horses. Moore mentions lib, doubting whether the word is still in use in Suffolk. Grose gives leap as a North=country word. Plot speaks of the "cubb or beer-lip" used to make a cavity in a rick, to prevent heating. Hist. Oxf. p. 256. Compare CRELLE, baskett, or lepe, above, p. 101, and BARLYLEPE, p. 25.]Sporta, calathus, corbis, CATH. et C. F. canistrum.
  • Page  297LEEP, for fysshe kepynge, or takyn̄ge.1. [This term occurs in the later Wicliffite version, in the description of Behemoth: "Shul marchaundis departe him? wher þou shalt fille nettis wiþ his skin, and a leep of fishis (gurgustium piscium, Vulg.) wiþ his heed?" Job xi. 26. "A lepe for fysche, fiscella, gurgustium." CATH. ANG. "Nassa, quoddam instrumentum ex viminibus tamquam rhete contextum, ad capiendos pisces, a pyche or a fyshe lepe. Fiscina, a chesefat, or a fysshe lepe." ORTUS. "Lepe to take fysshe, nasse à prendre poyson. Thou cannest nat bringe this leepe (nasse) downe to the botome, except thou tye a stone to it." PALSG. "Nasse, a wicker leap, or weel for fish." COTG. "Leaps to take eeles, caudecae." GOULDM. The stat. 4 Will. and Mary, c. 23, forbids all persons not owners of fisheries to keep "any net, angle, leap, piche, or other engine for the takeing of fish." Stat. of Realm, vi. 415. Bp. Kennett observes that the term is in use in Lancashire and in Leicestershire. Ang.-Sax. leap, nassa. Compare FYSCH LEEP, above, p. 163.]Nassa, CATH. et UG. in no.
  • LEEP, or styrt (lepp, or skypp, K. sterte, S.) Saltus.
  • LEPARE, or rennare. Cursor.
  • LEPARE, or rennar a-wey. Fugax, fugitivus.
  • LEPYNGE, or rennynge. Cursus.
  • LEPYNGE a-wey. Fuga.
  • LEPYR, or lepre (seke, K. P.) man, or woman, or beeste. Leprosus.
  • LEPYR, or lepre, sekenesse.2. [It has been affirmed that leprosy was brought into Europe by the crusaders; in the Ang.-Sax. vocabulary, however, which has been attributed to Aelfric, occurs the word "leprosus, hreofliþ, oþe licþrowera." Jul. A. 11. f. 123. In the Assisa de Forestâ, which is of uncertain date, but is assigned by Manwood to 6 Edw. I. it is enacted that if any beast of chase be found wounded or dead, "caro mittatur ad domum leprosi, si qua prope fuerit," or otherwise given to the infirm and poor. Stat. of Realm. i. 244. In Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, there were several spital houses, or hospitals of lepers. The most ancient, the hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, was founded in the reign of Stephen by Petrus Capellanus for a prior and twelve brethren, of whom three were to be lepers. See Parkins' account of Lynn, Blomf. Norf. iv. 608. Mackarell, in his Hist. of that town, p. 255, mentions a bequest to the leprous men and women in 1408; and Parkins records the devise of Stephen Guybon to every house of lepers about Lynn, in 1432, namely at West Lynn, Cowgate, Herdwyk, Setchehithe, Mawdelyn, and Geywode. The number of these charitable institutions in England was considerable; permission had been granted by Pope Alex. III. in 1179, that leprous persons, being excluded from all communion with their fellow-men, might, wherever they should form a congregation, have a church for themselves. These hospitals were of the Augustine order, and included amongst the religious houses which were surren∣dered 26 Hen. VIII. The formalities with which the seclusion of lepers was effected, and the restrictions imposed upon them, may be learned from the Manuale ad usum Sarum. Hentzner, who visited England during the reign of Elizabeth, speaks of the English as vey subject to the disease of leprosy. "A lepyr, lepra, elefancia, missella. A leprus man, leprosus, misellus." CATH. ANG. Horman says, "He hath made a leper, or a lasar house; hierocomion condidit." "Lepar, a sicke man, lasdre. Lasar, id. Lypre, the sickenesse, lasderie," PALSG. The term mesel is very commonly used to de∣signate a leprous person, and appears to be directly taken from the French mesel; some writers have, however, supposed a distinction to have existed between mesellerie and ladrerie. See MASYL, hereafter.]Lepra..
  • LERARE, lernare, or techare. Doc∣tor, instructor, informator.
  • LERARE, or lernare, or he þat re∣ceyvythe lore (þat takyt infor∣macyon, K. takethe lernynge, P.) Discipulus.
  • LERYN̄, or receyue lore ofa-nothere Page  298 (betawt of another, K. lerne or be taught, P.)

    1. The double signification of the verb to lere occurs in most of the old writers; R. Glouc., R. Brunne, and Minot use it in both senses; Chaucer uses it in that of learning, Frnakel. T. 1106; and it signifies teaching, Vis. of Piers P. 4742, 9551; Townel. Myst. p. 38, &c. Ang.-Sax. laeran, docere. A rhyming epitaph, inscribed on brass, is found at Grundisburgh, Suffolk, dated 1501, to the memory of a person,

    "Which decessyd, as yee shall lere,
    The vj. day off September."
    Disco, CATH. addisco.
  • LERYN̄', or techyn̄ a-nother. Do∣ceo, instruo, informo.
  • LERYNGE, or lernynge, or lore (teching, K.) Doctrina, in∣structio, informacio.
  • LEES, or false.2. [Les is used by R. Glouc. as an adjective; as a substantive, lees, a falsehood, occurs more frequently. Lese, Gawene and the Carle, 7, 265; "Withouten lees," Chaucer, Rom. of Rose, 3904; les, leasse, Townel, Myst. Cov. Myst. Ang.-Sax. leas, falsus.]Falsus.
  • LEES, for howndys, idem quod LE(E)CE, supra. (Laxa, letra, P. sic, pro veltrea?)
  • LESARDE wy(r)m (worme, S.) Lacertus, C. F.
  • LESSE. Minus, adv.
  • LESYN̄, or lese. Perdo.
  • LESSYN̄, or make lesse. Minuo, diminuo, minoro.
  • LEESYNGE, or lyynge (or gabbynge, supra; leþynge, S. liynge, P.)3. ["Nuga, a scorne, a lesynge, a bourde, a trifulle. Nugicanus, a singer of lesinges. Feria, lesing, or chirche-werk." MED. "A lesynge, mendacium, &c. ubi a lee." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. leasunþ, mendacium.]Mendacium.
  • LESYNGE berare. Mendifer.
  • LESYNGE, or thyngys loste (of thynge loste, S.) Perdicio.
  • LESYNGE, or losynge of a thynge bowndyn̄ (boounde, S.) Solucio.
  • LESKE (or flanke, supra.)4. ["A leske, ipocundeia," CATH. ANG. ("Ipocundie, i. coste molles." MED.) "No∣mina membrorum, mes flanks, my laskes." Harl. MS. 219, f. 150. "Leske by the belly, ayne." PALSG. Bp. Kennett gives "Lisk, that part of the side which is between the hips and the short ribs. Yorkshire." Lansd. MS. 1033. Skinner gives lesk as most commonly used in this sense in Lincolnshire; see also Brockett and Jamieson, v. Lisk. Compare Dan. and Swed. liuske, Belg. liesch, inguen.]In∣guen, C. F.
  • LESSONE. Leccio.
  • LESTE, sowtarys forme. Formula,Page  299 CATH. formipedia, DICC. calo∣podia, C. F.
  • LESTE, nowmbyr, as heryngys, and other lyke.1. [The stat. Hen. III. de mensuris, and the stat. 31 Edw. III. de allece vendendo, ordained that a last of herrings should be accounted by ten thousand, and the hundred by six score, the highest price being fixed at 40s. the last. Stat. of Realm, i. 354. In "the Costis for to make hering at the Coeste," printed with Arnold's Chron. p. 263, it is stated that to make a last "ye shal bye fresh hering out of the ship, x. m.; vj. score, and iiij. heringis for the c. xij. barellis ful packed is a last of white hering, and xx. cadis rede hering is a last, v. c. in a cade, vj. score iiij. heringis for the c." Of "Rede sprottis—x. cades maketh a last, xij. c. in euery cade." In the summary of the office of the Celleresse of Barking is the "Memorandum, that a barrell of herring shuld contene a thousand her∣rings, and a cade off herryng six hundreth, six score to the hundreth." Mon. Angl. i. 83. "Last of fysshe, xij. barelles, lay." PALSG. A last of unpacked herrings, ac∣cording to Coles, is 18 barrels. See Ducange, v. Lasta.]Legio.
  • LEEST of alle. Minimus.
  • LESTAGE of a shyppe.2. ["A lastage, or fraghte of a schippe, saburra." CATH. ANG. Saburra signifies the ballast of a ship. "multitudo lapidum, vel inutilis sarcina navis, que solet esse de la∣pidibus et arenâ." CATH. "Lestage, the balast of a ship." COTG. "A last or lastage, onus, saburra. To lastage, vide balast." GOULDM. The stat. 21 Ric. II. c. 18, re∣citing that the beacons and outworks of the town of Calais were decayed, in consequence of the rages of the sea, ordains that ships coming thither from England "portent ovesque eux tout lour lastage des bones piers convenables pur l'estuffure de les Beeknes," &c. Stat. of Realm. ii. 108. See Ducange, v. Lastagium. Of the custom exacted for freightage, termed lestagium, see Spelman's Glossary. Ang.-Sax. hlaest, onus navis, behlaestan, onerare. Belg. lastagie, ballast.]Saburra, CATH. et COMM.
  • LESTYN̄, or induryn̄'. Duro, perduro.
  • LESTYNGE, or yndurynge (du∣rynge, K. P.) Perduracio.
  • LEEST wurthy. Eximius (sic, P. exilimus, S.)
  • LETANYE. Letania.
  • LETTE GAME, or lettare of pley. Prepiludius, C. F. in prepedio.
  • LETTYN̄'. Impedio, prepedio.
  • LETTYNGE. Impedimentum.
  • LETTYNGE, or longe tarrynge, and a-bydynge. Mora.
  • LETTYR. Littera, grama.
  • LETTERYD. Litteratus.
  • LETERONE, or lectorne, deske (lectrone, K. letrone, or lectrun, H. P. leteron, or letervn, S.)3. [The lectern is not named amongst the appliances of sacred use enumerated by Aelfric, Cott. MS. Julius, A. II. f. 126, b.; in the Regula Bened. mention, however, occurs of the raedinȝ-scamol. The various uses of the lectern in cathedral or collegiate establishments may be gathered from the ancient rites of Durham, in which it appears that there was a pelican "lettern" of brass at the north side of the high altar, where the Epistle and Gospel were sung; a second lower down in the choir, in the form of an eagle of brass, used at mattins, or other times when the legends were read; and there was also a "letterne" of wood, like a pulpit, standing and adjoining to the organ over the door of the choir. It seems highly probable, as Mr. Rudge sup∣poses, that the white marble desk discovered in 1813 near the site of the abbey church of Evesham, formed part of the lectern that was erected about 1218 by Thos. de Mar∣leberg, at that time sacrist, and subsequently Abbot, according to the following record: "Fecit lectricium retro chorum, quod prius non erat factum in ecclesiâ Eveshamensi, et legebantur lectiones juxta tumbam S. Wilsini." Cott. MS. Vesp. B. XXIV. This lectern is represented in Archaeol. xvii. pl. 23. A lectern of marble, resembling such as is quarried in Derbyshire, exists at Crowle, in Worcestershire; it appears to be a work of the XIIth cent. Another beautifully-sculptured specimen is preserved in the ancient abbatial house at Wenlock, Salop. In the former instance alone, the arrange∣ment whereby the desk was supported on small columns may be ascertained. Of the moveable lecterns of a later period numerous specimens have escaped the ravages of the XVIth and XVIIth centuries. Carved lecterns of wood exist at Bury, Huntingdonshire, date about 1300; at Ramsey; Swanscombe, and Lenham, in Kent; Hawsted, in Suffolk; and in many other churches. Those of brass are mostly of the XVth cent. or later date. At Rouen Cathedral an ancient lectern of iron may be seen, which, being hinged together like a faldistorium, and furnished with a socket for a candle on one side, might be folded up when not in use, and laid aside, so as not to encumber the area of the choir. The lectern was adorned with a covering, frequently termed the "des-cloth," of rich material conformable to the suit, or complete vestment, of which it formed a part. In the Inventory of the Church of St. Faith, in the crypt at St. Paul's, 1298, is mentioned "pannus de pal ad lectrinium." In the Wardrobe Book 27 Edw. I. amongst the furniture and ornaments of the royal chapel, occurs "unum manutergium curtum, sutum de auro et serico, pro lectrone." p. 352. John of Gaunt bequeathed, 1399, a richly-embroidered vestment of white satin to the high altar at St. Paul's, the "cou∣verture pour la letteron" forming an item in the description, as likewise in that of a vestment of red cloth of gold, wrought with gold falcons, devised by him to the "Mous∣tier de N. Dame de Nicole." Test. Ebor. i. 227, 228. "Lectrinum, lectrum, et legium pro eodem, scilicet pro pulpito; et dicuntur a lego, a pulpyt, or a lectrone." ORTUS. "A lettrone, ambo, descus, lectrinum, orcista." CATH. ANG. "Lecterne to syng at, levtrayn." PALSG. See further in Ducange.]Lectrinum, lectorium, pluteum, C. F. lectrum, C. F. (pulpitum, C. F. discus, secundum li. equi, P.)
  • Page  300LECTURE (letture, K. lettrure, H. P.) Lectura (litteratura, P.)
  • LETUARYE. Electuarium, CATH.
  • LETUCE, herbe. Lactuca.
  • LEVE. Licencia.
  • LEVECEL be-forne a wyndowe, or other place.

    1. The etymology and precise meaning of this word are exceedingly obscure: it is used by Chaucer, in the tale of the Cambridge scholars, who came to the Miller of Trump∣ington to have their grain ground, and left their horse under a pent-house or out-building, instead of putting him into the "lathe;" the Miller, to play them a shrewd trick, slipped off the bridle, and let the horse run.

    "He looked up and doune, till he had yfound
    The clerkes horse, there as he stood ybound,
    Behind the mill, under a lessel."

    Reve's Tale, 4059.

    Tyrwhitt prints the word "levesell," and its meaning here is less obscure than in a passage in the Persone's Tale, where it again occurs. Chaucer defines the difference between pride in the heart of man, and pride shown in external show and costly array: "But nathelesse, that one of these spices of pride is signe of that other, right as the gaye leuesell at the taverne is signe of the wine that is in the seller." Speght, who had here consulted the Promptorium, explains the word as signifying a bush, or a hovel, which is repeated by Skinner, with the suggestion that it may be derived from the French "lais, vepres, virgulta, additâ term. dim. ell." This derivation seems little to the purpose. According to Cotgrave lais, or layes, are trees left as marks in cutting a copse wood. Tyrwhitt in his notes says confidently that the word is derived from Ang.-Sax. lefe, folium, and setl, sedes, but afterwards confesses himself dissatisfied with that explanation; yet still holds to the notion that in the second passage allusion is made to the bush, the ancient sign of a wine-shop, and cites Chatterton's Elinour and Juga, attributed to Rowley, where the hunter is said to rouse the fox from "the lessel." In the Editor's MS. of the Medulla, umbraculum is rendered "an oumbrelle;" in the Canterbury MS. "an amerelle;" in Harl. MS. 2270, "an vmbrelle."

    Umbraculum, C. F.
  • LEVE(Y)NE of dowe (leveyn, or dowe, S. P.) Frumentum, zima, C. F. (fermentum, H. S. P.)
  • Page  301LEVEL, rewle. Equicium, (C. F. regula, P.)
  • LEVEL, rewle.1. [LEVER, MS. and S. "Leuell, a ruler, niueav." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. laefel, libella.]Perpendiculum.
  • LEVENE, or lygħtenynge (levyn, H. S.)2. [The lightning, or any sudden gleam of light, is frequently termed by the old writers levene, a word which has been derived from Ang.-Sax. hlifian, rutilare. See Lye, and Jamieson, v. Levin. R. Brunne, describing the engines devised by Richard Coeur de Lion, to throw wild-fire and stones, at the siege of Acre, says that "as leuen þe fire out schete." Langt. Chron. p. 174. Compare Havelok, 2690; Ywaine and Gawin, Rits. Metr. R. i. p. 17; Cant. Tales, 5858; Gower, Conf. Am.; Townel. Myst. pp. 39, 116; Cov. Myst. 156. Fabyan relates that in 7 Hen. I. "was sene an vncouth starre, whyche nyghtely appered at one howre, and continued so by the space of xxv. days; and fore agaynst that, oute of the Eest parte, appered a great leuyn or beme of bryghtnes, whyche stretched towarde the sayde starre." Spenser uses the word "levin" repeatedly. "Fulgar, leuenynge that brenneth. Fulgetrum, a shynynge of leuenynge that brenneth. Fulmen, leuenynge, or lyghtnynge." ORTUS. "To levyne, or to smyte wyth lewenynge, casmatisere, fulgore fulminare. A levenynge, casma, fulgur, fulmen, fulgetrum, ignis. A levenynge smyttynge, fulgoratus." CATH. ANG. In the Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. are given "Fulgor, fulmen, lewenynges. Fulgurat, (it) lewnes." Palsgrave gives the verb it "leueneth as the lyghtenyng dothe, il esclere. Dyd you nat se it leuen right nowe?" "Leving, vide lightning." GOULDM.]Fulgur, coruscacio, fulmen.
  • LEVENESSE, or belevenesse. Fides.
  • LEVENESSE, or grete troste (leve∣neste, or grette tryst, S. leue∣nesse or trust, P.) Confidencia.
  • LEVYN̄', or belevyn̄'.3. [The verb to leve is used in this sense by R. Glouc. p. 30; it occurs repeatedly in the Vision of P. Ploughman. See also Chaucer, Tale of Melib.; Gower, Conf. Am. iii. Ang.-Sax. lyfan, concedere, leafnes, venia.]Credo, CATH.
  • LEEVYN̄', or forsakyn̄' (levyn, or blevyn, K. H.) Relinquo, de∣relinquo, dimitto, desero.
  • LEEVYN̄', sesyn̄', or be stylle. Dimitto, desisto.
  • LEWDE, not letteryd. Illitteratus, agramatus, C. F. (incipiens, P.)
  • LEWDE, vnkunnynge, or vnknow∣ynge yn what so hyt be. In∣scius, ignarus (laicus, K. P.)
  • LEWDENESSE of clergy.4. [Clergy, as it has been remarked in the note, p. 81, signifies erudition, precisely according to the sense of the French clergie; and the word is thus to be understood in the term "benefit of clergy." See Barrington's observations on stat. 4 Hen. VII. The use of the word in this acceptation is, however, a striking evidence of the general ignorance that prevailed amongst all classes, churchmen alone excepted, so that the community might be classed under two great divisions, clerks and "lewede," R. Glouc. p. 471; or "lered and lewed," R. Brunne, p. 8. It is needless to cite instances of the frequent use of the word lewd in its primitive signification by the old writers. Ang.-Sax. laewd, lewed, laicus. "Lewde, agramatus, illiteratus, laicus, mecanicus. Vnlettyrde, ubi lewde." CATH. ANG. "Leude of condycions, maluays, villayn, maul∣graneux. Leude worde, entresayn. Leude frere, bourdican." PALSG. Horman says, "I am not so leude (adeo sum iners) but I knowe or spye what thou goest about. This matter is utterly marred by thy leudnes (ignaviâ.) I make as though I sawe nat thy leude paiantis (conniveo tuis ineptiis). Here is leude or naughty wyne (illaudatum vel spurcum)."]Illitte∣ratura.
  • LEWDENESSE of on-conynge Page  302 (vnknowynge, P.) Insciencia, ignorancia.
  • LEWKE, not fully hote.1. ["Lewke, tepidus. To make lewke, tepifacere. To be lewke, tepere." CATH. ANG. "Leuke warme, or blodde warme, tiède." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. wlac, tepidus.]Tepidus.
  • LEWKENESSE. Tepor.
  • LEWTE, cuppe.2. [Culusus is given only in the Harl. and Winch. MSS. The word is not noticed by Ducange, and possibly is erroneously written for culullus, which, according to Papias, is calix fictilis. "Fidelia, olla vel ciphus, or a cherne." MED. Ang.-Sax. lið, poculum.]Culusus, COMM.
  • LEWTE, pot or vessel of mesure. Fidelia, CATH.
  • LEWTE, or lytylle feythe. Fide∣cula, CATH.
  • LETHY, or weyke (or screte, infra; leyth, S.)3. ["Lentus, slowe and febulle, or lethy, moyste." MED. MS. CANT. "Lentesco, to waxe slowe or lethy, i. tardum esse." ORTUS. Nich. Munshull also gives in his verbale, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 131, "lentesco, to wex lethy." "Lethi" occurs in the Vision of P. Ploughm. 5979, and is explained by Mr. Wright as signifying hateful, but its precise meaning is not obvious. In a Treatise on Obstetrics, of the later part of XVth cent. Add. MS. 12,195, particular instructions are given "at what age a maydyn may vse of drwrery," and it sets forth the evils arising from the anticipation of the age of puberty, "for trewly and sche vs þat deduyt or þat tyme, on of þes iij. thynges, or elles alle schalle falle to her: owder sche xalle be baren, or her brethe schalle haf an yll savore, or sche xalle be to lythy, or lauy of her body to oþer þan to here hosbonde; but for þe ij. fyrst ȝe xalle fynde medysignus here after, and þe iij. is vnne curabylle." "Lethe, delyuer of ones lymmes, souple." PALSG. Lathy is given by Moore as a Suffolk epi∣thet, signifying thin in person. Ang.-Sax. lið, tener. Compare LYTHE, hereafter.]Flexibilis.
  • LYARE, or gabbare. Mendax, mendosus.
  • LYBERALLE, or fre in yevynge (gyuynge, P.) Liberalis, mu∣nificus.
  • LYBERALYTE, or frenes of herte. Liberalitas.
  • LYCHE, dede body.4. [Leik, Havelok, 2793, and liche, Vision of P. Ploughm. signify a living body, as in line 5599, where Dame Studie is described as "lene of lere, and of liche both:" it is so used likewise in K. Alis. 3482. This is perfectly in accordance with the signification of the Ang.-Sax. etymon lice, corpus, a body, either living or dead. The latter seems, however, to have been the more usual sense of the word. Chaucer, in the Knight's Tale, 2960, speaks of the "liche-wake" at the burning of the corpse of Arcite. In the North the custom of watching the corpse, termed lyke-wake, is not entirely laid aside: see Brockett, v. Lake-wake, and Jamieson, v. Lyk-waik. It is by corruption termed late-wake; Pennant, Tour in Scotl. i. 112. The term is evidently derived from Ang.-Sax. lic, cadaver, and waecce, vigilia. A full account of the usages and abuses customary on these occasions will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. and Ducange, v. Vigiliae. In the Invent. taken 1421, church of St. John Baptist, Glastonbury, printed by Warner, are mentioned "iij. lyche bells;" in the Invent. of St. Dunstan's, Can∣terbury, 1500, termed "bells for mortuarys." G. Mag. vol. viii. N. S. In the ordinance of Abp. Peckham, 1280, which sets forth the articles to be provided by the parishioners, these bells are designated as "campanae manuales pro mortuis." Wilk. Conc. ii. 49. Of the local use of the term lich-gate, signifying the outer gate of the cemetery, beneath which the corpse is placed, whilst awaiting the officiating minister, see the Glossary of Architecture, Cheshire and Shropshire Glossaries. In the West, the path by which the corpse is carried to the grave is known as the leach-way; in Cheshire it is called the lich-road. Coles gives "lich fowles, carcass bird, scritch-owls, night-ravens."]Funus, ga∣bares, C. F. et UG. in Gabriel dicit gabaren, vel gabbaren.
  • LYCHE, lady or lorde (lysch to Page  303 lady or lorde, S.)1. [The term liege is commonly used by the old writers in the two-fold sense which is here given to it, denoting both the chief and the subject, as bound by the ligantia, or bond whereby they were reciprocally connected. Palsgrave gives only "Lege lorde, souerayn, liege." See Spelman and Ducange, v. Ligius.]Ligius (do∣minus ligius, P.)
  • LYCHE, man or womann. (Ligius, P.)
  • LYCORYCE (or lycuryce, P.) Li∣quericia, C. F. (lingricia, licori∣cia, P.)
  • LYCURE (lycowre, S.) Liquor.
  • LYCURE, or brothe of fysche, and oþer lyke. Liquamen, CATH. C. F.
  • LYDE, wesselle hyllynge (lyde, or lede, P.) Operculum.
  • LYDER, or wyly (liyire, or wily, K. lydyr, H. ledyr, S. lydir, P.)2. [LEDER, MS. Lither, or lidder, has in the North the signification of idle or sluggish. In the Vis. of P. Ploughman the expression "luther sleuthe" occurs; and "lithere" in King Estmere. One of the evils of the times enumerated in the curious lines, Roy. MS. 7 A. VI. f. 38, b. is that "Lex is layde, and lethyrly lukes." Tusser speaks of the unprofitableness of the "litherly lubber." Lyndsay uses the word "lidder" in the sense of backward or shy, which approaches more nearly to that assigned to it in the Promptorium. "Desidieux, idle, lazie, lither, slouthfull. Ignave, lazy, lither," &c. COTG. "Lither, fingard, festard, faineant, nice, oisif, paresseux." SHERW. See Brockett, v. Lither, and Jamieson, v. Lidder.]Cautus, et alia infra in WYLY (cautulosus, P.)
  • LYDRŌN, or lyderōn (lydrun, or lyderyn, H. P. lyderon, or lydron, S.)

    3. In the description of the march of Alexander's army the poet describes the various classes of which the host was composed, high and low, knight and knave,

    "Mony baroun, ful wel y-thewed,
    Mony ledron, mony schrewe,"

    K. Alis. 3210.

    Weber explains the word ledron as signifying here a leper, or any mean person. Skelton uses the word, in the poem entitled Sclaunder, and false detractions.

    "But my learning is of an other degree,
    To taunt theim like lyddrons, lewde as they be."

    "Laideron, somewhat ugly, pretty and foule." COTG. It must, however, be observed that as lidorus has not been found in the Latin glossarists, it cannot be asserted posi∣tively that LYDRŌN is to be taken in this sense in the Promptorium.

    Lidorus. Hec quedam glosa super correctione Biblie.
  • LYE, supra in LEYE.
  • LYE, or lyes of wyne (lyȝe, S. P.) Lia, C. F. tartarum, C. F.
  • LYFE. Vita.
  • LYYF, hooly. Devotus, sanctus.
  • LYFTYN̄'. Levo.
  • LYFTYN̄' VP. Sublevo, pendo, CATH.
  • (LYGGYN̄, infra in LYYN̄.)
  • LYTHE, idem quod LYM (or membre), infra.

    4. The term "lithes," occurring in Havelok, 2163, is explained by Sir F. Madden as signifying the toes, the extreme articulations. In the Grene Knight, 56, the expression "wounded both lim and lighth" is found; and in Syr Gawene and the Carle, 190, "lyme and lythe." The usher of King Arthur's court is described as repulsing Sir Cleges with these discourteous words,

    "I schall the bette euery leth,
    Hede and body, wythout greth,
    Yf thou make more pressynge."

    Sir Cleges, 292.

    See also Cant. Tales, 14,881; Townel. Myst. 327; and the citations given by Jamieson. Ang.-Sax. lið, artus. "Oute of lythe, dislocatus, luxus." CATH. ANG. It should be noticed that the order of the Harl. MS. has been here left unaltered; possibly the word was written by the first hand LYGTHE, as would appear by the alphabetical arrangement. In the other MSS. as likewise in the printed editions, this and the succeeding nouns and adjectives, as far as LYGHTESUMNESSE, or bryghtenesse, are placed differently, being found after LYSTLES-HEDE, as if written LYTHE, &c. In all the MSS. and the printed editions the verbs are placed between LYSPYN̄ and LYVYN̄, as if written LYTENYN̄, LYTYN̄, &c.

  • Page  304LYTHE fro lythe, or lym fro lym. Membratim.
  • LYGHTE, or bryghtnesse (liht of brytnes, K. lythȝ, H. light, P.) Lux, lumen.
  • LYGHTE, or wyghte (liht of wyhte, K. light of weight or mesure, P.)1 Levis.
  • LYGHT of knowynge, or werkynge. Facilis.
  • LYGHTE, or þat þynge þat yevythe lyghte, as sunne, and candel, and oþer lyke. Luminare.
  • LYGHTE FOOTE (liht fotyd, K.) Levipes, UG. in alo, alipes, C. F. acupedius, UG. in acuo.
  • LYGHTE HANDYD. Manulevis, alicirus.
  • LYGHT HERTYD. Letifer.
  • LYGHTEYN̄', or kyndelyn̄' fyyr or candelys (or lyȝtnyn candelys, or odyr lyhtys, S.) Accendo.
  • LYGHTYN̄ chargys or byrdenys (or wyhtys, K. wettys, S.) Deonero.
  • LYGHTEYN̄', or make wyghtys more esy (lightyn burdens, heuy weightis, P.) Allevio.
  • LYGHTELY, or sone. Leviter.
  • LYGHTLY, or esyly. Faciliter.
  • LYGH̄TENYN̄', or leuenyn̄' (lithnyn, as levyn, K. lyhtyn, S.) Co∣ruscat, fulmino.
  • LYGHT(E)NYNGE (or leuene, P.) Coruscacio, fulgur, fulmen.
  • LYGHTESUM, or fulle of lyghte. Luminosus.
  • LYGHTESUM, or esy (lihtsum, K.) Facilis.
  • LYGHTESUMNESSE, or esynesse. Facilitas.
  • LYGHTESUMNESSE, of bryghte∣nes (or lyht, S.) Luminositas.
  • LYYN̄, or lyggyn̄ (lyin, or ligyn, K.) Jaceo, CATH.
  • LYYN' YN̄, or yn chylde bedde (liyn in of childe in childe bed, P.) Decubo, C. F.
  • LYYN̄, or make a lesynge (lyȝyn, or gabbyn, H.) Mentior.
  • LYKE. Hoc instar.
  • LYKE, in lykenesse. Similis.
  • LYKDYSSHE. Scurra, C. F. et CATH. papas, UG. in popa.
  • LYKEROWSE. Ambroninus, de∣licatus, deliciosus.
  • LYKEROWSNESSE. Delicacia.
  • LYKYN̄', or haue lyste (or plesyn, K. P. lykyn or lystyn, S.) De∣lector.
  • LYKYNGE, or luste (lyste, S.) Delectacio.
  • LYKYNGE, or lusty, or craske. Delicativus, crassus (delecta∣tivus, S.)
  • Page  305LYKENARE, or he þat lykenythe. Assimilator, assimilatrix.
  • LYKENESSE. Similitudo, effigies, assimilacio, instar, CATH.
  • LYKENESSE, fygure, or forme (fi∣gure off forme, S.) Figura, forma.
  • LYKENYD. Assimilatus.
  • LYKNYN̄'. Similo, assimilo.
  • (LYKNYNGE, S. Assimilacio.)
  • LYKKARE, or he þat lykkythe. Lecator, UG. (lambitor, P.)
  • LYKKYN̄, as beestys wythe tongys. Lingo, CATH.
  • LYKKY(N)GE of howndys, or oþer beestys. Lictus, licacio, vel lica∣citas : hec omnia UG. in lingo.
  • LYKPOT fyngyr.1. ["A lykpotte, index, demonstrativus." CATH. ANG.]Index.
  • LYLY, herbe. Lilium.
  • LYM, or membre (or lythe, supra.) Membrum.
  • LYME, or mortare. Calx.
  • LYME, to take wythe byrdys. Viscus.
  • LYME ȜERDE. Viminarium, COMM. viscarium (virga viscilenta, S.)
  • LYMYN̄ wythe bryd lyme. Visco.
  • LYME wythe lyme, idem quod WHYTON̄ wythe lyme, infra in W.2. [—idem quod whyly, infra in M. MS. See WHYTON̄ wythe lyme. Calcifico, decalceo.] (lymyn or whytlymyn, K. qhythlymyn, H. qwytyn, S.)
  • (LYMOWS, supra in GLEYMOWS. Limosus, viscosus, glutinosus.)
  • LYNCENT, werkynge instrument for sylke women (lyncet, a werkynge stole, K. H. P.)3. [This word may perhaps be read LYNCEUT. An entry occurs in the Household Book of Sir John Howard, 1465, "for a lynset, viij.d." P. 483. "Licia, be thredes, whych sylk women do weaue in lyncelles or stooles." ELYOT.]Li∣niarium, KYLW.
  • LYYNDE, tre. Tilia, C. F.
  • LYNE, or rope. Corda, funiculus (cordula, P.)
  • LY(N)GE of the hethe (lynge, or hethe, K.)4. [Compare HETHE, or lynge, fowaly, p. 238. This name of the Calluna vulgaris, Linn. occurs in the Tale of Robin Hood, Hartsh. Metr. T. 189. It is still retained in the North, according to Brockett; but Jamieson states that in Scotland various species of grass growing in mossy ground are called ling. In Arund. MS. 42, f. 23 b. it is said that "in Wilteshire nere Shaftesbery, is an heth þat groweþ ful of þat (Junipere femel) and of lynk, and þe lynk is heyere þan þat, and is faste by an heyh wey." "Erica, brya silvestris, sweete-broome, heath, or linge." Junius, by Higins. Skinner gives ling as the common appellation of heath in Lincolnshire. Moore says that in Suffolk it signifies the turf of heath or heather. Dan. lyng; Isl. ling, frutex, species ericae.]Bruera, vel brueria, C. F. mirica, secundum multos, et timus secundum extraneos altellos (aliarum terrarum, P.)
  • LYYNGE, or gabbynge. Mendacium.
  • LYYNGE, or lyggynge. Jacencia.
  • LYYNGE YN, of chylde bedde. Decubie, C. F.
  • LYNE, or lynye. Linea.
  • LYNEAGE, or awncetrye. Effe∣mum, C. F. (escenium, S.)
  • Page  306LYNYD, as clothys. Duplicatus, liniatus, garnitus.
  • LYNYN̄' clothys. Duplo, duplico.
  • LYNYNGE of clothe. Deploys (duplicatura, P.)
  • LYNYNE clothe, or cloþe of flax. Lineus.
  • LYNYOLF, or inniolf, threde to sow wythe schone or botys (lynolf, H. P. to sew wyth shon', or bokys, S.)1. [Lignioul, or lignel, signifies, according to Roquefort, the strong thread used by shoemakers or saddlers. "Lignoul, ligneul, shoomaker's thread, or a tatching end." COTG. Brocket gives liniel as a word still in use in the North. Compare Lingan and Lingel, which have the like meaning; Jamieson. "Lyngell that souters sowe with, chefgros, lignier. Lynger to sowe with, poulcier." PALSG. This term denotes also a thong or strap. "Lingula, a lachet or lingell. Cohum, a thonge or lyngell, wher∣with the oxe-bowe and the yoke are bounden together." ELYOT. "A lingel, lingula, ligula." GOULDM. See Nares.]Indula, C. F. lici∣nium, DICC. et KYLW.
  • LYNKE, or sawcistre.2. [Forby gives "link, a sausage; we call two together a latch of links. In some counties a far more correct expression is used, a link of sausages." Links have the same meaning in Suffolk, and Ray speaks of black-puddings, or links, as a term used in the South. See Rops, North C. words. "Andouille, a linke, or chitterling; a big hogs-gut stuffed with small guts, cut into small pieces, and seasoned with pepper and salt. Friquenelles, slender and small chitterlings, or linkes." COTG.]Hilla, hirna, C. F. utrumque UG. in hirquus, salcia, UG. ibidem.
  • LYNT, schauynge of lynēn clothe. Carpea, secundum sururgicos et C. F.
  • LYONE (or lyvn', S.) Leo.
  • LYONESSE. Leonissa (vel lea, S.)
  • LYOWRE, to bynde wythe precyows clothys.

    3. Compare FRENGE, or lyowre. Tenia. In the third book of the Boke of Curtasye, de Officiariis in curiis dominorum, it is said that the garciones, or grooms, were to make pallet beds, and beds for lords,

    "That henget shalle be with hole sylour,
    With crochettes and loupys sett on lyour."

    Sloane MS. 1986.

    That is, with hooks and eyes sown to the binding of the bed-furniture. In the House∣hold Book of Sir John Howard payments appear, in 1465, to "the bedmaker at London for x.li. lyere for the grete costere, v.s." for canvas, and making the "costeres." Househ. Exp. in England, presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 486. In the Wardrobe accounts of Edw. IV. edited by Sir H. Nicolas, a delivery appears in 1480, for the office of the beds, of 55lb. "corde, and liour for liring and lowping" of certain hangings of arras. See further in the Indexes to those accounts, and the Privy Purse Expenses of Eliz. of York, 1503.

    Ligatorium, redimi∣culum, CATH. et C. F. (vitta, P.)
  • LYPPE, Labium, labrum; et nota quod labium est hominis, et labrum vasis: hec UG. V. in L.
  • LYQUYDE, or moyste. Liquidus, liquus, C. F.
  • LYSPARE. Blesus, blesa, sibilus, sibila, CATH.
  • LYSPYN̄ yn speche. Sibilo.
  • (LYSPYNGE, K. S. P. Sibilatus, ble∣sura, CATH.)
  • LYST, or lykynge (or talent, infra.) Delectacio.
  • Page  307LYST, or fre wylle. Arbitrium, libitum.
  • LYSTARE, clothe dyynge (or ly∣taster of cloþ dyynge, S. lytstar, P.)1. ["Tinctor, a litster, or heuster." MED. Sir Thos. Phillipps' MS. "Tinctor, tinc∣trix, a lyster." ORTUS. "A littester, tinctor, tinctrix." CATH. ANG. Walsingham relates that the Commons made a rising in the Eastern Counties, in 1380, at the time of Jack Straw's rebellion, their leader in Norfolk being "quodam tinctore de Norwico, cujus nomen erat Johannes Littestere," who called himself King of the Commons, and was beheaded by the Bp. of Norwich: ed. Camd. 263. In the Paston Letters, iii. 424, mention occurs of another Norwich "lyster." The word occurs also in the Towneley Mysteries. At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, the continuation of Broad Street, otherwise Websters Row, is called Lister Gate Street. See Jamieson.]Tinctor.
  • LYYST of clothe. Forago, CATH.
  • LYYST, or lysure. Strophium (CATH. S.)
  • LYYSTE, lysure, or schrede, or chyppyngys, what so euer hyt be. Presegmen, C. F.
  • LYSTY (or lusty, infra.) Delec∣tabilis.
  • (LYSTYLY, infra in LUSTYLY.)
  • LYYSTERRE (lystyr, H. lystore, S. listyr, P.)2. [The reader, who occupied the second place in the holy orders of the Church, is probably here intended. In the Vision of P. Ploughman mention is made of "lymi∣tours and listres;" 2747. Mr. Wright, however, supposes that the word signifies deceivers.]Lector (delec∣tor, S.)
  • LYSTYN̄, or herkyn̄'. Asculto.
  • (LYSTYN, or lykyn, supra in LYKYN, S.)
  • LYSTLES. Desidiosus, segnis.
  • LYSTLES-HEDE. Segnicies, de∣sidia, CATH. pigricia.
  • (LYSURE, supra in LYST, S.)3. [The term "liser" occurs in the Vision of P. Ploughman, 2891, in connection with the "drapiers," or weavers of cloth. "Lisière, the list of cloth, or of stuffe; the edge, or hem of a garment." COTG. Palsgrave gives also "Lyste of clothe, lisière. I lyste a garment, or border it rounde aboute with a lyst, ie bende d'une lisière. I haue lysted my cote within to make it laste better, am nat I a good housebande? Lyste on a horse backe, raye. Lyste of the eare, mol de l'oraylle." Compare SCHREDE, and STEMYNE, or stodul, or stothe yn a webbyshonde (in a webbys eend, S.) Forago.]
  • LYTERE of a bed.4. [The process of making "litere" for beds is set forth in the chapter on the duties of the grooms, "garcionum." Sloane MS. 1986. Boke of Curtasye, ed. Halliwell, p. 19.]Stratus, stra∣torium, C. F.
  • LYTERE, or strowynge of horse, and other beestys. Stramentum, subsisternium.
  • LYTERE, or forthe brynggynge of beestys. Fetus, fetura, C. F.
  • (LITH, liht, lihtnynge, lihtsum, lihtsumnesse, &c. K. H. S. P. vide supra.)5. [In the other MSS. the words from LYTHE to LYGHTESUMNESSE, given above, pp. 303, 304, are placed here. They are not, however, in all cases written in conformity with this position in the alphabetical arrangement, being mostly in the King's Coll. MS. written Liht, Lihtsum, &c.; in Sir Thos. Phillipps' MS. Lythȝ, or bryghtnesse, &c.; and in the Winch. MS. Lyth, Lyȝth, Lyhth, Lyhtsum. These irregularities are to be attri∣buted to the second hand, who, writing by ear, vitiated the spelling of the original MS.]
  • Page  308LYTYL, or sumwhatt. Parum, modicum, adv.
  • LYTYLLE, not grete yn quantite. Parvus, modicus (paucus, P.)
  • LYTYLLE BETTER. Meliusculus.
  • LYTYLLE CHYLDE. Puerulus, pusius, CATH. parvulus, pusio, pusillus, C. F.
  • LYTYL FEYTHE (or lewte, supra; litil feyȝt, K. lytyll in feyth, P.) Fidecula, CATH.
  • LYTYLLE LYARE. Mendaculus, CATH. mendacula.
  • (LYTYLL MAYDEN, P. Puella.)
  • LYTYLLE MANN. Homuncio, ho∣mullus, homunculus.
  • LYTYLLE MANN, of dwerfe (litil∣man or dwarw, K. dwerwe, H. S. dwerue, P.) Nanus, C. F. ses∣sillus, CATH.
  • LYTYLLE THYNGE. Recula.
  • LYTYN̄' clothys (littyn, K. P. lytyn, or lete, S.)1. ["Tingo, to dye, to coloure, or to lytte." MED. "To litte, colorare, inficere, tingere, tinctare. A littynge, tinctura." CATH. ANG. Ray gives "to lit, to colour or dye: a linendo, sup. litum." N. Country words. It is also given by Jamieson, but is not noticed by Brockett, or the other Northern Glossarists. Isl. lita, tingere.]Tingo.
  • LYTYN̄', or longe taryyn̄'.2. [In the Vis. of P. P. 12,067, the good Samaritan is described as hastily quitting the dreamer, saying, "I may no lenger lette." See also 11,524. A.-Sax. latian, tardare.]Moror.
  • LYTYNGE of clothe (littinge, K. P.) Tinctura.
  • LYTYNGE, or longe tarrynge. Mora, morositas.
  • (LYTSTARE, supra in LISTARE, S.)
  • LYVELY, or qwyk, or fulle of lyyf (liyfly, ful of liyf, K.) Vivax.
  • LYVELY, or qwykly (liyfly, K.) Vivaciter.
  • LEVELYHEEDE, or qwyknesse (liyf∣lines, K.) Vivacitas.
  • LYVELODE, or lyfhode (liyflode, K.)3. [—lyshode, MS.]Victus.
  • LYFLODE, or warysone (liyflode, K. lyuelode, H. P.)4. [Compare WARYSON. Donativum, possessio. The term here implies a pension for services; a largess in money or grain; a dole given to veteran soldiers. "Dona∣tivum, yifte of knyghte. Emericio est liberacio ab officio cum remuneracione, a ware∣sone." MED.]Donati∣vum.
  • LYVEREY of clothe, or oþer ȝyftys.

    5. A livery denoted whatever was dispensed by the lord to his officials or domestics annually, or at certain seasons; whether money, victuals, or garments. Even in the Saxon times there appears to have been a distribution of this nature, the ȝafol-hwitel, saga vectigalis, of the Laws of Ina, which was, as Spelman observes, a kindy of livery. The term chiefly denoted external marks of distinction, such as the roba estivalis, and hiemalis, given to the officers and retainers of the Court, as appears by the Wardrobe Book, 28 Edw. I. p. 310, and the Household Ordinances. The practice of distributing such tokens of general adherence to the service or interests of the individual who granted them, for the maintenance of any private quarrel, was carried to an injurious extent during the reigns of Edw. III. and Rich. II. and was forbidden by several statutes, which allowed liveries to be borne only by menials, or the members of gilds, &c. See Stat. of Realm, ii. pp. 3, 74, 93, 156, 167. The "liverée des chaperons," often mentioned in these documents, was an hood or tippet, which, being of a colour strongly contrasted to that of the garment, was a kind of livery much in fashion, and well adapted to serve as a distinctive mark. This, in later times, assumed the form of a round cap, to which was appended the long liripipium, which might be rolled around the head, but more commonly was worn hanging over the arm, and vestiges of it may still be traced in the dress of civic livery-men. The Stat. 7 Henry IV. expressly per∣mits the adoption of such distinctive dress by fraternities, and "les gentz de mestere," the trades of the cities of the realm, being ordained with good intent; and to this pre∣valent usage Chaucer alludes where he describes five artificers of various callings, who joined the pilgrimage, clothed all "in o livere of a solempne and grete fraternite." Prol. v. 365. By the same Stat. lords, knights, and esquires were allowed, in time of war, to distinguish their retainers by similar external marks, the prototypes of military uniforms. In the metrical paraphrase of Vegecius, entitled "Of Knyghthode and Batayle," Cott. MS. Titus, A. XXIII. f. 22, it is said that ancient usage had ordained three kinds of signs in an army, vocal, semivocal, as trumpet or clarion, and a third which is noiseless,

    "And mute it hight, or dombe, as is dragoun,
    Or th'egil, or th'ymage, or the penoun,
    Baner, pensel, plesaunce, or tufte, or creste,
    Or lyuereys on shilder, arm, or breste."

    In this passage the collar is evidently one of the liveries to which allusion is made. It was much in fashion at the time when the Promptorium was compiled. See COLLER, or lyuerey, p. 87; and the curious dissertations on collars of the royal livery, by Mr. J. G. Nichols, Gent. Mag. 1842. Much information respecting external distinctions, as the original of uniforms, will be found in the Traité des marques nationales, by Beneton de Peyrins. "A lyveray of clothe, liberata; hic et hec liberatalis." CATH. ANG. "Lyueray gyuen of a gentylman, liuerée." PALSG. See Douce's Illustr. of Shakesp. Taming of the Shrew, Act IV.

    Liberata (liberatura, P.)
  • Page  309LYVERESONE.1. ["Corrodium, a lyuerey in a abbaye." MED. Harl. MS. 2257. "A lyveray of mete, corrodium." CATH. ANG. Conredium, corredum, or corrodium, implied gene∣rally an alimony or allowance, "praebenda monachi vel canonici." DUC. Thus in the Custumal of Evesham it is directed that for a whole year after the decease of an abbot or monk, his entire "conredium" should be allowed, to be given to the poor, for the good of his soul." Mon. Ang. i. 149. The term "livrere—liueray" occurs in this sense of a daily pittance for food, Amis and Amil. 1640, 1659; in the Household Ordinances the daily allowance of meat and drink received by each individual is com∣monly termed his livery, and the livery cupboard was the buffet appointed in apart∣ments of greater state to receive this provision at certain times. The term corrody implied also more particularly a kind of pension, either for life or in reversion, with which a monastery was charged, granted by the founder of a kinsman or retainer, or by the house for service rendered, or some valuable consideration. The Sovereign instituted corrodies in favour of royal dependants, and Spelman observes that 119 monasteries, charged with one, and in some cases two such corrodies, were, as it may thence be supposed, of royal foundation. The injurious practice by heads of monasteries, who made traffic in such pensions for their own advantage, was restricted by the Constitutions of the Legate Othoboni, in 1267, which forbade them to sell and charge their estab∣lishments with "liberationes seu corrodia," especially when granted in perpetuity. See further the notes of Joh. de Athona, Constit. Legatin. p. 150, ed. 1679; and Ducange, v. Conredium.]Corrodium, UG. V.
  • LYVYN̄', or havyn̄' lyyf. Vivo, dego, CATH.
  • LYVYR, wythe-yn beestys body (lyuyr or leuyr, P.) Epar.
  • LYVYR WORTE, herbe. Epatica.
  • Page  310LYYE, or lythe, stylle and softe (lyþe, stille, K. light, P.)

    1. The different significations of the word LYTHE here given are to be deduced from the Ang.-Sax. lið, tener, mitis. As applied to the elements it occurs in Emare.

    "The wynde stode as her lust wore,
    The wether was lythe on le."

    833; Ritson, Metr. R. ii.

    In the Seuyn Sages, 2517, when the caldron, which was discovered boiling with seven "walmes," had been stilled by the directions of Merlin, it is said that the water "bicom faire and lithe." In the sense of soft to the touch lythe is used by Chaucer, Dream, 953; H. of Fame, i. 119. "Lyȝth, or sotylle, agilis, levis, efficax." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Lethe, delyuer of ones lymmes, souple. Lythenesse, de∣lyuernesse, souplesse." PALSG. "Mol, soft, supple, tender lithe, limber." COTG. Bp. Kennett gives lithe as used in the North in the sense of soft or flexible; see likewise Craven Dial. and Jamieson. The compound word lith-wake is also used there; Ang.-Sax. liðewac; Gloss, Aelfr. Jul. A. II. Bp. Kennett cites Davies' Rites of Durham, 105, where it is related that the body of St. Cuthbert was found uncorrupted, flexible, and "leath-wake;" and remarks "potius lith-wake, a Sax. lið, membrum, et wace, flexibilis. A lith-wake man, a clever, nimble fellow. Durham." Lansd. MS. 1033. Compare Craven Dial. "Lith wayke, flexibilis." CATH. ANG. The word occurs in the Hymn to the Holy Ghost, by W. Herebert; MS. in the possession of Sir Thos. Phillipps.

    "Ther oure body is leothe-wok, ȝyf strengthe vrom aboue."

    Rel. Ant. i. 229.

    The verb to lithen, Ang.-Sax. liðian, lenire, is used by Chaucer, Troil. iv. 754; in Arund. MS. 42, f. 42, b. one of the virtues of bardana is stated to be that "it lyþyn nayles þat ben scabbe and sore;" and of "squylle—if it ben etyn with hony, it lytheþ wombe." f. 53, b.

    Tran∣quillus.
  • LYTHE, and softe yn felynge. Mollis, lenis, cum n. non cum v. Anglice, smothe.
  • LYTHE, wythe-owte wynde, and calme (lyye, or lythe, S.) Cal∣mus, C. F.
  • LYYE, or lythe, and calme wedyr. Malacia, C. F.
  • (LYTHE, and not sharp in taste, S. Suavis.)
  • LOBURYONE, blake or wyghte snayle. Limax.
  • LOCE, or loos, vnbowndyn̄'. So∣lutus.
  • LOCHE, or leche, fysche.2. ["Alosa, i. fundulus, a loche." ORTUS. Cobitis barbata, Linn. "Loche, the loach, a small fish. Lochette, a groundling, or small-bearded loach. Locher, to shog, shake, shock, wag." COTG. It has been suggested that this fish may have been so named in allusion to its singularly restless habits.]Fun∣dulus, C. F.
  • LOCCHESTER, wyrm, idem quod LOKEDORE, infra (loccester, or lokcester, S.)3. ["Loche, the dew snaile, or snaile without a shell." COTG. Menage remarks, "peut-être d'eruca. Eruca, ruca, luca, loche."]
  • LOODE, or caryage. Vectura.
  • LODYSMANNE.4. ["Plaustrum, vehiculum duarum rotarum, a lode, or a wayne." ORTUS. The Lodesman seems to be here the carrier, Ang.-Sax. ladman, ductor. Compare the use of the verb LEDE wythe a carte, p. 292. Possibly, however, the etymon hlad, onus, may be preferred, as expressive of the burden conveyed by him. Lodesman generally signifies the leader of a ship,—a pilot, as the term is used by Chaucer, Legend of Hip∣siphile, and by Gower. In the Wardrobe Book 28 Edw. I. p. 273, a payment appears "pro vadiis unius lodmanni conducti pro nave guiandâ," apparently bringing supplies to Karlaverok. "Lodesman of a shippe, pilotte." PALSG. "Lodesman, a guide, perductor." GOULDM. See Jamieson v. Ledisman. In Stat. 31 Edw. III. c. 2, a fishing vessel is named, termed a "lode ship."]Vector, lator, vehicularius.
  • LOOF of brede. Panis.
  • Page  311LOOFT, or soler. Solarium.
  • LOGGE, or lytylle howse. Teges, CATH. casa (tega, P.)
  • LOGGE yn an hylle (lodge of a wareyne, H. P.) Pergulum, CATH. UG. in rege.
  • LOGGYN̄', or herberwyn̄', or ben herbervyd (lodgyn or harbor∣owen, P.) Hospitor.
  • LOYTRON̄', or byn ydyl. Ocior.
  • LOK of schyttynge, or sperynge. Sera.
  • LOK of hey, or oþer lyke. Vola.
  • LOK of here. Cincinnus, KYLW.
  • LOK of wulle. Floccus, UG. in flo.
  • LOKE, sperynge of a dore or wyndow (loke of sperynge, as dore or wyndowe, K.)1. [An evident distinction is here made between LOKE, meaning apparently the leaf of a door, or shutter, and lock of a door, in its ordinary sense. In both cases the term is taken from Ang.-Sax. loc, claustrum, sera. In the Register of W. Curteys, Abbot of Bury, now in the possession of Edm. Woodhouse, Esq. an Indenture is pre∣served, dated 1438, for the performance of certain carpenter's work in the chapel of St. John at Hille, Bury, by John Heywod, of Ditton, Camb. in which the following clause occurs: "And to eythir dore of the same chapel he shal do maken a louke of estriche borde competent." It seems here to denote what is commonly called the wicket, or hatch of a door; valva is rendered in the Medulla "a wyket;" and this signification is more clearly defined in the Ortus: "Valva est ostium, vel porta parva in majori ex∣istens." In the Promptorium wicket is given as synonymous with a little window.]Valva.
  • LOKE, or palme of wulle. Palma.
  • LOKDORE, wyrme (or locchester, supra.)2. [In the Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. under Nomina vermium, f. 55, b. is given "Multipes, lugdorre." Jamieson states that the Lumbricus marinus, Linn. a worm which is dug out of the sand, and used for bait, is called a lug. The name dor denoted a beetle or chafer, but more properly a drone. A.-Sax. dora, fucus.]Multipes, C. F. (et UG. P.)
  • LOKE, or lokynge of þe eye. Visus, aspectus, inspeccio.
  • LOKERE. Cistella, cistula, cap∣cella, COMM.
  • LOKYN̄', or seene. Video, respicio, aspicio, intuor, contemplor.
  • LOKYN̄ A-BOWTE. Circumspicio.
  • LOKYN̄' YN a thynge. Inspicio.
  • LOKYNGE, idem quod LOKE, supra.
  • LOKKYN̄', or schette wythe a lokke. Sero.
  • LOKKYN̄', or barryn̄'. Obsero, UG. in sereno.
  • LOKSMYTHE. Serefaber.
  • LOLLARDE.3. ["Apostaticus, i. perversus, a renegate or a Lollarde. Hereticus, errans in fide, an heretyke, or Lollarde." ORTUS. "Lollar, heretique." The sect of Lollards ap∣pears to have arisen in Germany as early as 1309, according to Hocsemius, and the rise of Lollardy in this country during the reign of Richard II. was probably due to the influence of his alliance with Anne of Bohemia. Knyghton states that the "Wyc∣liviani, qui et Lollardi dicti sunt," flourished and increased about 1387; and gives a summary of their peculiar opinions. Ed. Twysden, col. 2706. The derivation of the name has been much discussed; some with Chaucer, Lyndwode, and Fox tracing it to lolium, as comparing them to the darnel among the wheat—others to the name of an early promoter of the heresy. The suggestion, however, of Ducange, that it was taken from Lollaerd, mussitator, seems most reasonable. Gower speaks in his Prologue of "this newe secte of Lollardye."]Lollardus, Lollarda.
  • Page  312LOMBE, yonge schepe. Agnus, agnellus.
  • LOOME, or instrument (loombe, S.) Utensile, instrumentum.
  • LOOME of webbarys crafte (of webstare, K. P.) Telarium.
  • (LONCHE, supra in DUNCHE.1. [In the Harl. MS. this word seems to denote only a sudden or boisterous noise; but the King's Coll. MS. gives Dvnche, and Pynson's edition Dunchinge, or lunchinge, as signifying tuncio, percussio. In Norfolk, according to Forby, to lunge signifies to lean forward, to throw one's whole weight on anything, to thrust with full force, possibly from the Fr. allonger. Mr. Wilbraham gives lungeous, ill-tempered, disposed to do some bodily harm by a blow or otherwise. Cheshire Glossary. See also Grose; Heref. and Shropshire Glossaries. A violent kick of a horse is termed a lunge. Dunsh, sig∣nifying a shove or punch, is a word used in Suffolk and N. Britain. See Moore and Jamieson. Compare Teut. donsen, pugno in dorso percutere; Su. Goth. dunsa, impetu et fragore procedere.]Sonitus, strepitus.)
  • LOND. Terra, tellus (solum, P.)
  • LONDYD, or indwyd wythe lond. Terradotatus.
  • LONDE fro schyppe, and water. Appello, CATH. applico, CATH.
  • LONDYD fro schyppe, and watur. Applicitus, applicatus.
  • LONDYNGE fro schyppe, and watur. Applicacio, CATH. in plico.
  • LOND IVYL, sekenesse (londe euyll, P.)2. [See FALLYNGE downe, or fallynge yvelle, p. 148. Epilepsy was termed likewise in French le mal de terre, evidently because those afflicted therewith fell and rolled upon the ground. "Caceria, mala vexacio, the londe yuelle." MED. MS. CANT. "Mau de terre, the falling sickness." COTG.]Epilencia.
  • LONE, or lendynge. Mut(u)acio, accommodacio.
  • LONG, yn quantyte of bodyly thyngys. Longus.
  • LONGE, yn doynge, or werkynge. Prolixus.
  • LONGE, yn tarrynge, or mevynge (yn abydyng, K.) Morosus.
  • LONGE, yn tyme (or long tyme, K.) Diutine, diu, diuturne.
  • LONGYN̄', or desyryn̄'. Desidero, opto, affecto.
  • LONGYN̄', or belongyn̄ to a thynge (belongyn to a-nother, K. P. been longyn, S.) Pertineo, consto, CATH. attineo.
  • LONGYNGE, hertyly desyry(n)ge (hertely desyre, S.) Desiderium, optacio, CATH.
  • LOYNE of flesche (lony, S.) Lum∣bus, elumbus, UG. V. in N. literâ.
  • LORDE. Dominus, herus, kirius.
  • LORDLY, Dominativus.
  • LORDLY. Dominanter (domina∣tive, P.)
  • LORDLYNESSE. Dominacio, he∣rilitas.
  • LORDSCHYPPE. Dominium, pre∣dium, C. F. et BRIT.
  • (LORDSCHYPPYN, or been lorde, S. Dominor.)
  • Page  313LOORE, techynge. Doctrina, dog∣ma, instructio, informacio.
  • LOREL, or losel, or lurdene (lor∣dayne, S. lurdeyn, P.)

    1. Compare LURCARE, lurco; and see the note on LURDEYNE, p. 317. Verstegan defines a losel to be "one that hath lost, neglected, or cast off his own good, and so is become lewde, and careless of credit and honesty." Names of Contempt, p. 262. Lorel has been derived from Ang.-Sax. leoran, as likewise losel from leosan, perdere. Both occur repeatedly in the Vis. of P. Ploughman; Chaucer, in his version of Boethius, B. i. renders "perditissimum—lorell," and uses the word in the Wife of Bath's Prol. 5855, and Plowman's Tale, ed. Speght, 1601, f. 91. See also Ly beaus disconus, 259, "lorell and kaytyf." In Rich. C. de Lion, 1864, 1875, and French King speaks of the English as cowards and "losards." In the Boke of Curtesy, t. Hen. VI. the youth sitting at the table of a great man is admonished thus:

    Ne spit not lorely for no kyn mede,
    Before no mon of god, for drede."

    Sloane MS. 1986, p. 21.

    Holinshed terms Wat Tyler "a naughtie and lewd lozzell." Chron. iii. 432. Skelton uses the word "loselry," and both "lorrell" and "lozell" occur in Spenser, and other later writers. "Lorrell or losell, fetart, loricart." PALSG. "Loricard, a luske, lowt, lorell, slow-backe. Maschefouyn, a chuffe, bore, lobcock, lozell; one that's fitter to feed with cattle, then to converse with men. Vastibousier, a lusk, lubber, loggarhead, lozell, hoiden, lobcock. Aujourd'huy Seigneur, demain singe ord, Prov. To day a goodly lord, to morow an ouglie lozell." COTG. "Lorel, or lossel, i. clown; also fraudulent." GOULDM.

    Lurco, C. F.
  • LORYEL, or lorel tree (loryȝer, H. loryȝell, P.) Laurus, CATH. laurea, CATH.
  • LOS, or lesynge. Perdicio.
  • LOOS, or fame.2. [Tooke considers this word as derived evidently from the past part. of Ang-Sax. hlisan, celebrare: it is, however, more probable that it was taken from the French, los, loz, which seems to be always used in a good sense, whereas the English word signifies either praise or dispraise,—renown on account of vice, as well as of virtue. In the sense of praise it occurs, R. Glouc. p. 189; R. Brunne, p. 25; Vis. of P. Ploughm. 7164; Cant. T. 16,836; Gower, Conf. Am. In the Tale of Sir Gowghter, 186, it is said that, in consequence of his outrageous and sacrilegious acts, "his lose sprong ful wide;" see also the tale of the King of Calabria, Seuyn Sages, 1586; and Ritson, Met. Rom. ii. 2. Sir John Maundevile uses the word in the like secondary sense, "ȝe schulle undirstonde that in that time there weren iij. Heroudes of gret name and loos for here crueltee." Voiage, 108. Chaucer uses the expression "name of badde loos," Test. of Love, i. 278. "Defamo, to mislose. Fama, a loos. Infamia, wikkud loos. Infamis, losud." MED. "Fama, good lose, or fame." ORTUS. Compare FAME, or loos of name. p. 148.]Fama.
  • LOOS, or bad name. Infamia.
  • (LOOS, on-bowndyn, supra in LOCE, S.)
  • LOSANGE, or spancle (spangyl, K. S. P.)3. [Compare SPANGLE, or losangle (sic). Lorale. In the Ortus Lorale is rendered "a lorayne, a brydell," but lorum implies any strap or band of leather; and as at the period when the Promptorium was compiled the fashion of attaching pendant orna∣ments to the girdle and the baldrick, the reins and the trappings of horses, was sin∣gularly prevalent, it may perhaps be concluded that LOSANGE, or spangle, here denotes these decorations, which were occasionally, but not invariably, of a lozenge form.]Lorale, DICC.
  • LOSYN̄', or vnbyndyn̄'. Solvo.
  • Page  314LOSYN̄', or slakyn̄. Laxo, relaxo.
  • LOT. Sors.
  • LOTHE, or vnwylly. Involunta∣rius, inspontaneus.
  • (LOTHELY, onwilli, K. H. vnwilly, P. Involuntarie.)
  • LOTHLY, Abhominabilis.
  • LOTHSUM, idem quod LOTHLY.
  • LOW, or lowe. Profundus.
  • LOW, or ny þe grownde. Bassus.
  • LOVEACHE, herbe. Levisticus.
  • LOVARE. Amator, dilector, ama∣trix, dilectrix.
  • LOWCE, wyrme. Pediculus, sex∣cupes, C. F. et CATH.
  • (LOWSI, K. Pediculosus.)
  • LOWDE yn voyce, or noyze. Altus.
  • LOWDE, or yn lowde maner. Alte.
  • LOWDENESSE. Altitudo.
  • LOVE. Amor, dilectio.
  • LOVELY, or able to be lovyd. Amabilis, diligibilis.
  • LOVELY, or yn lovely vyse (or frendly, S.) Amicabiliter.
  • LOVYN̄ (or love, S.) Amo, diligo.
  • LOWE, or softe yn voyce (or styll in voyce, P.) Submissus.
  • (LOWE, or meke, H. S. Humilis.)
  • (LOWE, or ny the drestis, H. P. dressys, or lyys, S.) Bassus.
  • LOW of fyyr (or leem, supra, or steem, infra; lowre, S.)1. [Flamma, þe leye of fuyr. Flammesco, to belewe. Flammiger, beringe lowe." MED. "A lowe of fyre, flamma." CATH. ANG. This word occurs, Awntyrs of Arthure, vii. 5; it is written "leye" in the Vis. of P. Ploughman, lines 11,783, 11,921. Gower uses "loweth," signifying kindleth. In the Dialect of the North a blaze is called a low, and the verb to low, or flame, is still in use. See Craven Dial.; Brockett, and Jamieson. Ray gives lowe as a N. country word, and laye as signifying in the South and East flame, or the steam of charcoal, or any burnt coal. Compare Ang.-Sax. leȝ, Dan. lue, Germ. Lohe, flamma.]Flam∣ma.
  • LOWELY, or softe yn voyce. Sub∣misse.
  • LOWELY, or mekely. Humiliter.
  • LOUELY, or semely. Decens.
  • LOWNESSE, or mekenesse. Hu∣militas.
  • LOWNESSE, and goodnesse in speche (goodlynesse, K. S. P.) Affabilitas.
  • LOWNESSE, or depnesse (with owtyn heythe, K. H.) Pro∣funditas.
  • LOWNESSE, ny the grownde. Bas∣sitas.
  • LOWYSTE. Infimus.
  • (LOVON, and bedyn as chapmen, S.2. [Brito observes that taxo signifies "licitari, imponere precium rei que venditur:—ponitur pro licitari, quia licitatores in foro venalia considerantes dicunt, hoc valet tantum." Summa Britonis, Add. MS. 10,350, f. 37. "To lowe, ubi to prase. To prayse, preciari, appreciari, liceri, licitari." CATH. ANG. "Licitor, to sett pryce; et addere, vel diminuere precium rei. Licitacio, lykynge, or batynge, or bergeynynge." MED. MS. CANT. "I alowe, or abate vpon a reckenyng, or accompte made, Ie aloue, Ie abats—coniugate in I beate downe." PALSG. Bp. Kennett gives "to lothe, to offer in sale, or allow a thing at such a price, as, I'le lothe it you for so much money; Cheshire. A. S. laðian, invitare." Lansd. MS. 1033. Jamieson states that to low has the signification of to higgle about a price; according to the Craven Glossary it is used as an abbreviation of to allow, to grant or give. In the Townl. Myst. p. 177, Pilate bargaining with Judas to betray Jesus, says, "Nou, Judas, sen he shalbe sold, how lowfys thou hym?" Dutch, looven, Flem. loven, estimare.]Licitor, BRIT. in duntaxat.)
  • Page  315LOWYN̄, or mekyn̄' (or make lowe, or meke, K. H. P.) Hu∣milio.
  • LOWYN̄, or make lowe to the grownde (or botme, S.) Basso, CATH.
  • LOWYN̄', or flamyn as fyyr. Flammo.
  • LOWYN̄', or cryyn̄', or bellyn̄, as nette. Mugio.
  • LOWYNGE, or lemynge of fyyr. Flammacio.
  • LOWYNGE, or cryynge of nette. Mugitus.
  • LOVEDAY. Sequestra, CATH. vel dies sequestra.
  • LOVEDAY MAKERE.1. ["Dicitur sequester reconciliator, qui discordes pacificat, et qui certantibus medius intervenit," &c. CATH. The term loveday occurs in the Vis. of P. Ploughm. v. 3327, 5634; Cant. Tales, Prol. v. 261; Test. of Love, i. f. 274, ed. 1602; Cov. Myst. p. 111. See also Rot. Parl. 13 Hen. IV., and Bracton, V. f. 369, where a day fixed for an amicable settlement is termed "dies amoris." In the Paston Letters, V. 346, the following passage is found: "My lord Skalys hath made a lofeday with the p'or and Heydon, in alle materys except the matere of Snoryng," &c. "He is more redy to make a fraye, than a loue daye." HORM. "Loueday to make frendes, appointement." PALSG.]Sequester, CATH.
  • LOVER of an howse.

    2. The received derivation of this term is that suggested by Minsheu, from the French l'ouverte, the open turret or lantern on the roof of an house which permitted the escape of smoke. In the article on dialects in the Quart. Rev. lv. 373, the Icelandic lióri, foramen pinnaculi domus, is proposed as an etymon; the sort of cupola with a trap∣door which, in the Northern countries, serves the double purpose of a chimney and a sky-light, is called in Norway liore, in W. Gothland liura. Lodium, a word unnoticed by Ducange, who gives only lucanar in the same sense, is explained in the Ortus as signifying "a louer; dicitur de lux et do, quasi dans lucem." In the Latin-English Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. are given "Lodium, lucare, impluviare, lowere;" f. 27. "Fumarium, a chymeney or a lovyre. Imbricium, a gotyre, or a lovyre." MED. MS. CANT. In the edition of the Ortus in Mr. Wilbraham's library, lucanar is thus rendered, "A sloghe, a potte, a louer." "A luvere, fumarium, fumerale, lucar, lodium." CATH. ANG. In a roll of purchases for works in the Royal palaces, 2-5 Edw. I. amongst the miscellaneous records of the Queen's Remembrancer, the item occurs repeatedly, "pro bordis ad louere cum corantis," &c, In the Treatise entitled Femina, MS. Trin. Coll. Cant. B. 14, 40, it is said in the chapter ad edificandum domos, that it is fitting to make a "good louer (lamueire) and wyndow:"

    Louer (amueire) and almarye (ameire) me haþ,
    At þe louer fume goþ out.
    þat en Fraunce ys amueyre namede,
    þat here louer ys apelyt, i. nominatus."

    Horman says, "Moche of the showre fell into the louer (impluvium), but moche more into the barton (cavedium.)" "Louer of a hall, esclére." PALSG. "Dosme, a flat round louer, or open roofe to a steeple, banketting house, pigeon house, &c. Tourne∣vent, a horse, or mouable louer of mettall on the top of a chimney or house. Trottouër, the boord in the louer of a doue-coat for pigeons to alight on." COTG. "A loouer, or tunnell in the roofe, or top of a great hall to auoid smoke. Fumarium, spiramentum." BARET. Whital gives among "the parts of housing—The lovir or fomerill, infumi∣bulum," &c. This word is used in the Vis. of P. Ploughm. and by Spenser in the sense of an aperture for giving light, F. Q. vi. c. 11. In the Craven Dialect of chimney is still termed the love, or luvver. Compare FOMEREL of an halle, p. 169.

    Lodium, NECC. umbrex.
  • Page  316LOWMYSHE.1. [LOWNYSHE, MS. lowmysshe, K. H. S. P. The following explanation is given in the Catholicon: "Ab ardeo dicitur hic ardelio, i. leccator, quia ardens est in leccaci∣tate;" the Ortus gives "Ardelus, inquietus; qui mittit se omnibus negociis, a medler of many matters." "Ardelio, one full of gesture, a busie man, a medler in all matters, a smatterer in all things." MOREL. Jamieson gives loamy, slothful, inactive. "Lome, vetus Holl. tardus, piger." KILIAN. Dan. Lummer, a long lubber, a looby, a tony.]Canicus (ardulio∣sus, C. F. S.)
  • LOWMYSCHENESSE. Canicatus (ardulitas, S.)
  • LOWMISMAN, or woman, S. Ar∣dulio, C. F.)
  • LOWPYNGE, or skyppynge.2. ["A lopynge, saltacio, saltus. A lope, saltus; a loper, to lope," &c. CATH. ANG. See Jamieson v. Loup. Ang.-Sax. hleapan; p. part. hleop; hleapanȝ, saltatio.]Saltus.
  • LOWRYN̄', or mornyn̄'. Mereo, CATH. merere est cum silentio dolere, secundum UG.
  • LOWRYN̄', or fade coloure, and chere (or castyn lowre, S.) Tabeo, BRIT.
  • LOWRYN̄, or scowlyn̄'. Oboculo, KYLW.
  • LOWRYNGE. Mestus, tristis.
  • LOWRYNGE. Tristicia, mesticia.
  • (LOWS, supra in LOWCE, S.)
  • LOWSYN̄'. Pediculo.
  • LOWTYN̄'.3. [The verb to lout occurs frequently in the old writers as signifying to bow down, to bend to, or stoop. See Sir F. Madden's Glossary to Gawayn; Syr Tryamoure, 1062; Vis. of P. Ploughman; Cant. T. 14,168, 15,654; Gower, Townl. Myst. p. 18, &c. In the earlier Wicliffite version, Numb. xxii. 31 is thus rendered: "Anoon the Lord openyde the eyen of Balaam, and he lowtide hym redi to the erthe;" in the later version, "worschipide hym lowli in to erthe." In the Liber Festivalis it is said of the Virgin Mary, "She lyued so clene and so honestly yt all her felawes called her quene of maydens; and whan ony man spake to her, mekely she lowtyd with her head, and sayd, Deo gracias." Ed. Rouen, 1499, f. 144, b. "I lowte, I gyue reuerence to one, Ie me cambre, Ie luy fais la reuerence. It is a worlde to se him lowte and knele." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. lutan, inclinare. Compare BOWYN', or lowtyn', p. 46; and BEK, or lowte, p. 29. In the North to bow in the rustic fashion is still termed to lout. See Brockett and Jamieson.]Conquinisco, C. F. UG. obstipo, CATH. inclino.
  • LOWTYNGE. Conquiniscia, C. F. in conquinisco, inclinacio (con∣quinacio, P.)
  • LOTHYN̄' (loþin, or lothyn, S.) Abhominor, horreo, detestor.
  • LOTHYNGE (loþynge, or lothynge, S.) Abhominacio.
  • LUCE, fysche. Lucius.
  • LUCE, propyr name. Lucia.
  • LUDDOK, or lende.

    4. "A luddok, femen mulieris, femur viri, lumbus." CATH. ANG. The word occurs in Townl. Myst. p. 313.

    "His luddokys thai lowke like walk-mylne clogges."
    Lumbus.
  • (LUKCHESTER, worm', supra in LOCHESTER, S.).
  • LUKRE, or wynnynge (luk, K. S. P.) Lucrum.
  • LUMBRYKE.5. [Numerous remedies may be found in the Treatise on the virtues of Herbs, Arund. MS. 42, "for lumbrikes." See f. 23, 40, 72, b. 84, &c. "Lumbricus, an earthly worm, also the belly-worm, or maw-worm." GOULDMAN.]Lumbricus, KYLW.
  • Page  317LULLYN̄', or byssyn̄'. Sopio, CATH. (nenior, lallo, UG.)
  • LULLYNGE of yonge chylder (ȝong chyldryn, K.) Neniacio.
  • LULLYNGE SONGE. Nenia, CATH. fescennia, C. F. (fescennina, S. fascennina, P.)
  • LYMNYD, as bookys (lvmynid, K.) Elucidatus.
  • LYMNORE (luminour, K.) Elu∣cidator, miniographus, CATH. aurigraphus, UG. in aer, mini∣ator, UG. alluminator, illumi∣nator, KYLW.
  • LUMPE. Frustrum (sic, P.)
  • LUNGE (lunche, K.) Pulmo.
  • LURCARE (lurcard, S.P.) Lurco.
  • LURDEYNE, idem est (supra in LORELL, P.)1. [Fabyan, in his Chron. part vi. c. 197, suggests the fanciful etymology of this term, which is likewise given by Boethius, in his Hist. Scot. published in 1526, lib. x. s. 20, and adopted by Verstegan, in his remarks on names of contempt, c. x. namely, that a Dane being quartered as a spy in every family in England, was, from his tyranny, called Lord Dane, "quhilk is now tane for ane ydyll lymmer that seikis his leuyng on other mennis laubouris," as Bellenden expresses it in his version. The immediate de∣rivation is, however, evidently from the French; "Lourdin, lourdayne; blunt, some∣what blockish; a little clownish, lumpish, rude; smelling of the churle, or lobcock." COTG. "Lourdein: idiot, lourdaud, maladroit, sot; en bas Lat. Lurdus." ROQUEF. R. Brunne says that Sibriht, King of Wessex, when driven from his realm, "as a lordan gan lusk;" p. 9. The word occurs in the Vision of P. Ploughman, lines 12,278, 14,302; Townl. Myst. pp. 60, and 308. "A lurdane, ubi a thefe." CATH. ANG. "Lur∣dayne, lovrdavlt. It is a goodly syght to se a yonge lourdayne play the lorell (loricarder) on this facyon." PALSG. "A lourdon, or sot, bardus." GOULDM. It denotes a vile person, a sot or blockhead, a clownish churl, or a sluggard. Andrew Boorde, in the Breviary of Health, 1573, quaintly observes at the close of his directions regarding fevers, "The 151 chapiter doth shew of an euyll feuer the which doth comber yonge persons, named the feuer lurden," with which many are sore affected now a days, from bad education, or natural habit. In the last case he pronounces it incurable, but offers the following nostrum: "There is nothing so good for the feuer lurden as unguentum baculinum, that is to saye, Take a sticke or wan of a yeard of length and more, and let it be as great as a man's fynger, and with it anoint the backe and the shoulders well morning and euening, and doo this xxj. dayes; and if this fever will not be holpen in that time, let them beware of wagging in the galowes; and whiles they do take their medicine, put no Lubberwort into their potage, and be(w)are of knauering about their heart; and if this will not help, send them to Newgate, for if you wyll not, they wyll bryng them selfe thether at length." In c. 262 he speaks also of "luskeshnes, brother to the feuer lurden." See Brockett and Jamieson.]
  • LURE for hawkys. Lurale, COMM.
  • LURKYN̄'. Latito, lateo.
  • LUSCH, or slak. Laxus (rarus, K. P.)
  • LUSCHBURUE (lushburue, S. Pa∣pirus.)

    2. Counterfeit sterlings, closely resembling the pennies of the English coinage, but of in∣ferior value, appear to have been largely introduced during the reign of Edward III. and were probably, as Skinner suggests, termed Lushborows from their having been issued at Lutsenborgh, or Luxemburgh, a fact sufficiently evident from the word LVCEMBOR., LV∣SENBOR., or LVSEBVRGENSIS, forming part of the legend which occurs on many of these pieces. H. Knyghton thus records their importation in 1347: "Eodem anno defertur in Angliam per alienigenas et indigenas mercatores falsa moneta quae lussheburue appellata est; unde apud Londonias multi mercatores et alii plures tracti sunt et suspensi, et quidam magno precio vitam redemerunt." Chron. Cott. MSS. Claud. E. III. f. 253; Tib. C. VII. f. 152. vo. In the margin is written "moneta loysburues." It appears by the Rolls of Parliament, vol. ii. 160, that early in that year (20 Edw. III.) a petition had been presented by the Commons, which set forth that merchants and others exported the good sterling coin, and "de jour en autre reportent diverses fauxes monoies ap∣pellez Lusshebourues, dont la livre poet estre achaté par dela pur oyt souldz, ou pur meyns," with which the country was filled. The King's pleasure was that such offenders should be judged according to law, as "faux moneours." In the year following the Commons again petitioned "pur ce qe la fauxe monoie de Lusshebourues encrest de jour en autre," an evil attributed to the infrequency and short duration of the sittings of the judges of assize, praying for "plus aspre remedie." Rolls of Parl. ii. 167. In 1351 these false sterlings are again mentioned in the petition that declaration should be made by the King as to what offences should be adjudged treason, of which one was the importation of false coin, "sicome la monoie appellé Lusseburghe," or other resembling the coin of the realm, as fully declared in the Stat. 25 Edw. III. c. 2, where the word is written "Lucynburgh." Compare Rolls of Parl. ii. 239, and Stat. of Realm, i. 320. The fallacious monies are named in the Vision of P. Ploughman, which was com∣posed, as it is conjectured, about 1362.

    "As in lussheburwes is a luther alay,
    And yet loketh he lik a sterlyng,
    The merk of that monee is good,
    Ac the metal is feble."

    v. 10,322.

    In the Cant. Tales, which, according to Tyrwhitt, were written subsequently to 1382, allusion occurs to "Lusheburghes," as coins of base alloy; Monks Tale, v. 13,968: as likewise in Piers of Fulham, p. 128, ed. Hartshorne,

    "No lussheborues, but money of fyne assay."

    It must be observed, that in Twysden's edition of Knyghton, as likewise in the printed text of the Rolls of Parliament, the term has been given as Lussheburne, ap∣parently in consequence of its origin having been forgotten; it seems, however, evident that the true reading should be Lussheburue, which is merely a variation from Lusshe∣burwe, or Lucynburgh. See further on this subject Ruding, i. 222; Snelling's Plates of counterfeit Sterlings, and the Blätter für Münzkunde, 1839. The import of the word Papirus in relation to base coin is obscure. It is found in the Winchester MS. only. The coins of the Byzantine emperors, called perpari, and the Italian paparini, were monies of considerable value, but there was a base coinage in France during the XIVth cent. of pieces of bad alloy, called parpilloles. See Charpentier.

  • LUSCHLY. Laxe (rare, K. P.)
  • LUSTE. Voluptas.
  • LUSTE of synne. Libido.
  • LUSTY, fulle of luste (lustyful, S.) Voluptuosus.
  • LUSTY, or lysty. Delectuosus (de∣lectabilis, voluptuosus, K.)
  • Page  318LUST(Y)LY (lustili, K.) Voluptuose.
  • LUSTYLY, or lystyly. Delectabi∣liter.
  • LUTE, instrument of musyke (lute of mynstralcy, K. P.) Viella, samba, lambutum (citella, K. citolla, H. P. sambuca, S.)
  • (LUTYN, P.)