The Brut, or The chronicles of England. Edited from Ms. Raw. B171, Bodleian Library, &c., by Friedrich W. D. Brie, with introduction, notes, and glossary ...
Brie, Friedrich W. D., b. 1880.


[How King Dioclisian wedded his 33 Daughters to 33 Kings whom they afterwards murderd; and how these Widows came to England, & had children by the Giants of the land.]

[MS Douce 323 1a] IN the noble lande of Surrye ther was a noble kyng and myghty, & a man of grete renoun, þat me called Dyoclician, þat wel and worthily hym gouernede, & rewlede thurgh his noble chiualrye, so þat he conquered alle þe landes abowte hym, so that almoste all þe kynges of þe world to hym were entendaunt. ¶ Hyt befell thus, þat this Dioclician spousede a gentyl damysele þat was wondyr fayr, þat was hys Eemys doughter, Labana; & sche loued hym as reson wolde, so þat he gate vpon here xxxiij doughtres, of þe which þe eldest me called Albyne. And þese Damysels, whan þey comyn in-to Age, bycomen so fayre þat it was wondyr. ¶ Wherfore this Dioclician anon lete make A sompnyng, & comaundid by his lettres þat Alle þe kyngys þat heldyn of hym schulde come at A certayn day, as in his lettres was conteyned, to make A ryal feste. At which day, þedir þey comyn, & brought with hem Amyralles, Prynces & Dukes, & noble Chiualrye. þe feste was ryally Arayd; & þere þey lyved in ioy and merthe y-now, that it was wonder to wete.

¶ And hit befelle þus, þat þis Dioclician þoughte maryen his Doughtres among all þo knyghtys þat tho were at that solempnite;Page  2 and so they speken & dede, that Albyne, his eldest doughter, & alle here sustres, richely were maryed vnto xxxiij kynges that wer lordes of gret honour, & Also power, at þis solempnite. And whanne þe solempnite was done, euery kyng nome his wyf, & lad hem into here owne cuntre, and there maad hem quene. ¶ And hit byfelle þus aftyrward, þat þis dame Albyne bycome so stoute & so sterne, þat sche told litel prys of her lord, And of hym hadde scorne and dyspite, and wolde not done his wylle, but wolde haue here owne wyll in diuerses maners. And all her other sustres, eche on bere hem so euel a-yens here lordes, þat it was wonder to wete. ¶ And for-as-mych as hem thought þat here housebondes were not of so hye parage comen as here fadyr. ¶ But tho kynges þat were her lordes, wolde haue chastysed with fayr speche & byhestes, & also for ȝiftes, and warnyd hem in fayr maner vpon all loue and frenschipe þat þei scholde Amende hir lithir condicions; but al it was for nouȝt, for they deden her owne wil in all þyng þat hem lykede & hadde of power. wherfore þo xxxiij kynges, vpon A tyme, and oftyn-tymes, beten here wyfes, for þey wende that þei wolde haue Amended here tacches and here wykkyd thewes; but of such condicions þei were þat, for fayr speche & warnyng, þei deden the [MS Douce 323 1b] wors, & for betynges eft-sone mych wors. Wherfore þe kyng þat hadde wedded Albyne, wrote þe tacches & þe condicions of his wyf Albyne, & þe lettre sent to Dioclician, her fader. ¶ And whenne þe other kynges herde that Albynes lord had sent lettre to Dioclician, anon þey sente lettres enseled with here seeles [of] þe condicions and þe tacches of here wyfes. ¶ Whanne þe Kyng Dioclician saw & herde so many pleyntes of his doughters, he was sore a-schamed, & bycome wonder Angry & wroth to-ward his doughters, & þought boþe nyght & day how he þo myghte amende hit þat þey so mysdede. ¶ And anon sente his lettres vnto þo xxxiij kynges, þat þey schulde come to hym, & brynge with hem here wyfes, euerychon at a certayn day, for he wolde þere chastise hem of here wikkydnes, if he myghte in eny maner wyse. So þat þe kynges comen All at þe day & tyme þatPage  3 þo was sette bytwen hem; & þe Kyng Dioclician hem vndir-fenge with mychel honour, & made A solempne feste to all þat were vndir his lordschipe. And þe thrid day of þat solempnyte, þe kyng Dioclician sente for his xxxiij doughtres, þat þei schulde come & speke with hym in his chambre. & whenne þey were comen, he spak vn-to hem of here wikkydnes & of here cruelte, & dispitously hem reproued And vndirnam, & to hem he sayde þat, ȝif þei wolde not be chastised, þei schulde his loue lese for euermore. ¶ And whanne þe ladyes herd al this, þei becomen abasshed & gretly a-schamed; & to here fadir þey seyd þat þei wolde make al amendes; & so þey departed out from here fadres chambre. and Dame Albyne, þat was þe eldest suster, lad hem all into her chambre, & þo made voide al þat were þerin, so þat no lyf was among hem but sche & here sustres y-fere. þo saide þis Albyne ¶ "My fair sustres, ful weel ȝe knowiþ þat þe kyng oure fadir, vs hath reprouyd, schamed & dispised, for encheson to make vs obedient vn-to oure housbandes; but certes þat schal y neuere, whiles þat I lyve, seth þat I am come of a more hyere kynges blod þan my housband is." & whan sche had so seyd, all here sustres seyd þe same. ¶ And þo seyd Albyne: "ful wel y wot, fayr sustres, þat oure housbandes haue playned vnto owre fadir vpon vs, wherfore he hath þus vs foul reproued & dispised. wherfore, sustres, my counseil is þat, þis nyght, when owre housbandes ben abed, all we with on assent cutten here throtes, & þan we mow be in pees of hem, & better we mowe do þis þing vndir our fadres power þan elles-where." & anon All þe ladyes [MS Douce 323 2a] consentid and graunted vnto þis counceil. ¶ And whan nyght was comyn, þe lordes & ladies wente to bedde, & anon as here lordes were in slepe, þei cutte all here housbandes throtes, & so they slowen hem all.

¶ whan þat Dioclician her fader herd of þis þing, he by-come hugely wroth A-ȝens his Doughtres, & anon wolde hem all haue brent; but Alle þe barouns & lordes of Sirrye conceilyd hym not so for-to don suche sternys to his owne doughtres, but onlych schulde voide þe land of hem for euermore, so þat þei neuere schulde come aȝen; & so he dede. ¶ And anon Dioclician, þatPage  4 was here fadir, commaundid hem to gon in-to schipe, & deliueryd to hem vitailles for half a ȝeer. and when þis was don, all þe sustryn went in-to Shipe, & saylled forth in þe See, & be-toke alle her frendes to Appolyn, þat was her god. And so long þey sailled in þe See, til at þe laste þei come & aryued in an yle þat was all wyldernes. ¶ And when dame Albyne was come to þat land, & all her sustres, þis Albyne went ferst owt of þe shipe, & sayde to here oþer sustres: "for-as-mich," quod sche, "as I am þe eldest suster of all þis cumpanye, & ferst þis land haue takyn, & for-as-meche as myn name is Albyne, y wil þat þis land be called Albyon, after myn owne name;" & anon all here Sustren her graunted with a good wylle.

¶ Tho wenten owt all þe Sustres of þe Shippe, & tokyn þe lond Alybyon, as here Suster called hit; & þere þei wente vp and doun, and founde neiþer man ne woman ne child, but wylde bestes of diuers kyndes. ¶ And whan here vitaill were dispendid, & hem faylled, þei fedde hem with erbes & frutes in seson of þe ȝeer, & so þey lyued as þei beste myght. And after þat, þei tokyn flessh of diuers beestys, and bycomen wondir fatte, and so þei desirid mannes cumpanye and mannys kynde þat hem faylled; and for hete they woxen wondir coraious of kynde þat hem faylled, so þat þey desirid more mannys cumpanye þan eny other solas or merthe.

¶ Whanne þe Deuyll that perceyued and wente by diuers contres, & nome bodyes of þe eyre & likyng natures shad of men, & come in-to þe land of Albyon and lay by þe wymmen, and schad tho natures vpon hem, & they conceiued, and after þei broughten forth Geauntes, of þe which on me called Gogmagog, and anoþer Laugherigan, & so þei were nompned by diuers names; & in þis manere they comen forth, and weren boren horrible Geauntes in Albion; & þey dwellyd in Cauys & in hulles at here will, & had þe lond of Albyon as hem liked, vn-to þe tyme þat Brut Arryved & come to Tottenesse, þat was in þe Ile of Albyon. and þere þis Brut conqueryd & scomfyted these [MS Douce 323 2b] geaunteȝ aboueseyd.

Here endeth þe prolog of Albyon, þat þo was an Ile. and herkeneth now how Brute was geten, & how he slow,Page  5 ferst his Modir, & Afterward his fadir; & how he Conquered Albyon þat After he nepned Brytaigne, after his name, þat now is y-called Engelond, After þe name of Engist of Saxoyne. Capitulo Primo.

In the noble Cyte of gret Troye, þer was a noble knyght & a myghty, & a man of gret power, þat me callyd Eneas. And whan þe Cytee of Troye was lost & dystroyed thurgh hem of Greek, þis Eneas, with al his mayn fled thens, & come in-to Lumbardye, þat þo was lord & gouernour of þat land a kyng þat me called Latyme, and another kyng þo was þat me called Turocelyn, þat stronglich werred vpon þis Kyng Latyme, þat often-tymes ded hym moche sorowe & myche harm. ¶ And whan þis Kyng Latyme herde þat Eneas was come, he vndirfonge hym with myche honour, and hym withhelde, for-as-myche as he had herd of hym, and wyst wel þat he was a noble knyght, & a worthy of body and of his dedes. ¶ This Eneas helpe Kyng Latyme in his werre; & schortly for-to telle, so weel & worthyly he ded, þat he slogh Turocelyn, & descomphyted all his peple. And whan al this was don, kyng Latyme ȝaf al þat land þat was Turocelyns, & ȝaf it to Eneas in mariage with Lamane, his doughter, the moost fayr creature þat eny manne wiste; & so þei louede to-gider in ioy & myrthe all here lyvys tyme.

¶ Hit bifel thus, þat Eneas dide, as God wolde. & whanne that he was ded, Asquanius his Sone, þat come with hym from Troye, vndirfenge þe land, and helde it al his lyvys tyme. ¶ And after, he weddid A wyf, & vpon here begate A Sone þat me callyd Sylveyn. And this Sylveyn, whan he conde some reson of man, vnwetyng his fadir, & aȝens his wyl, aqueynted with a damysell þat was Cosyn to Lamane þat was Kyng Latymes doughter, the quen þat was Eneas wyf, and brought þe damysell with Chylde. ¶ And whan Asquanius his fader yt wyste, anon he lete enquere of the wysest maystres, & of þe grettest Clerkys, what child þe damysele schulde bryng forth. & þey Answered & seyde þat sche schuld bryng forth a Sone þat schuld qwelle boþe fader & moder; & so he dede; for his modir dyde in beryng ofPage  6 hym. ¶ And whan þis Child was born his fadir lete calle hym Brut; and þe maystres sayd þat þe Child schulde do mych harm & sorowe in many diuers places; & after, he schulde come to gret honour and worschipe. ¶ This Kyng Asquanius deide whan god wolde; & Sylveyn his sone receyued þe land, & made hym wonderlich wel be-louyd among his puple. [MS Douce 323 3a] And whan Brut, þat was Sylveynes sone, was xv ȝeer olde, he went vpon A day with his fadir to pley & solace; & as this Brut schulde schete vnto an hert, his Arwe mys-happed & glacede; And so there Brut quelled his fader.

How Brut was dryue out of þe land, & held hym in Greke. Capitulo ij.

And whan this myschaunce byfalle was, þe people of þe land made sorowe ynow, & were an-Angryd; & for encheson þerof þei dreven Brut out of þe land, & wolde not suffre hym among hem. and he Saw þat he moste not Abyde, & went fro thens in-to þe Greek; & þer he fonde vijMl men þat were of þe lynage & kynrede of Troy, þat weren come of gret blod, as þe story telleth as of men and wommen & childryn, þe wheche weren all holden in thraldom and bondage [by] ¶ the Kyng Pandras of Greek, for the deth of Achilles, þat was betrayed and slayn at Troye.

This Brut was a wondir fair man, & a strong, & A huge of his Age, & of glad chere semblaunt, and also worthy of body, & was wel beloued among his puple. This Kyng Pandras herde speke of his goodnesse & his condicions, & anon made hym dwell with hym, so þat Brut be-come wondir þryve & mych belouyd with þe kyng, so þat longtyme Brut dwellyd with þe kyng. ¶ So at last þei of Troy & Brut spoken to-gedre of kynrede & of lynage & of Aqueyntaunce, & þer pleyned hem vnto Brut of her sorowe & her bondeage, & of meny other schames þat þe [Kyng] Pandras hem don. & to Brut þei seyde vpon A tyme: "ȝe ben A lord of ourePage  7 lynage, & A strang man & a myghty. be ȝe oure Avowe & oure lord, & we wyl become ȝoure men, & ȝoure comandementes done in alle maner thyng; and brynge ȝe vs out of this wrechidnes & bondage, & fyght we with þe kyng; for thurgh þe grace of þe grete god we schul hym ouercome; & we schul make ȝou kyng of þe land, & to ȝow done homage, & of ȝow we schullen holde euer-more."

Brut hadde þo gret pyte of hir bondage þat þei were brought Inne, And pryvyly went hym from þe kynges Court; & all þo þat were of Troy went & put hem in-to wodes and Into Mounteynes, and hem helde, & sent to Kyng Pandras þat he schulde ȝeue hem leue safely for-to wende out of þe londe, for þei nolde no lenger dwelle in his bondage. ¶ The Kyng Pandras wax so sore anoyed, & þo swore that he wolde sle hem echon, & ordeyned a gret power, & wente towardes hem all for-to fight. but Brut & his men anon manly hem defended, & fersly foghten & quelled all þe kynges men, þat non of hem, Ascaped, & took þe kyng, & hym helden in pryson, & ordeyned [MS Douce 323 3b] counceyl betwen hem what þei myght do. Sum seyd þat he schuld be put to deth, & summe seyd þat he schulde be exyled out of þe land, & summe seyd þat he schulde be brent. ¶ And þo spak a wyse knyght þat me cleped Menprys, & seyd to Brut & to all þo of Troy: "yf Kyng Pandras wold ȝelde hym, & haue his lyf, y counceyl þat he ȝeue vnto Brut, þat is our Duke & oure souerayn, his doughter Gennogen to wyf, & in Mariage with here an hundrid Shippes wel arayed, & al his tresour of gold & of syluer, of corn, of wyn, & as myche as vs nedith for to haue of o thing & of oþer; & þan go we out of þis land, & ordeine we vs land elles-wher; for we, ne non of our kynrede þat comen after vs, schuld neuer haue pees in þis land amonges hem of Grek; for we haue sleyn so meny of her knyghtes & of oþer frendes, þat euermor werre & contect schuld be Amonges vs." ¶ Brut þo, & his folk, consentyd wel to þis counceyl; & þis þing þei tolden to Kyng Pandras. ¶ And þe kyng, for-to haue his lyf, graunted as meche as þei axed, & anon ȝaf vn-to Brut, Gennogen his Doughter, to wyf, & þe hundredPage  8 sheppes, with as myche as hem neded of all vitalles, as byfore was ordeyned.

Brut þo toke his wyf, & all his men þat forsoke þe lond of Greek, & wenten hem vnto þe see & hadden wedir at wyll & comen þe þrid day in-to An Ile þat me calleþ Loegers. ¶ Brut anon sent of his men a land, for-to aspye þe maner of þe Cuntre. & þey founden an olde Cyte al wasted & forlete, þat nas þer-in nor man ne woman, ne no thing dwellynge; & In þe Myddyl of þis Cytee þey founden an olde Temple of a fayr lady þat me called Diane þe Goddesse. and þei comen aȝen vnto Brut, & told hym what þei had seyn & founden, & counceyled hym to go & do sacrifice to Dame Diane, for she was wont to ȝeue answere of what þing þat euere men prayed here, & namely vn-to hem þat her honoured with sacrifice. ¶ Brut went to þat ymage, & seyd: "Dyane, noble goddes, lady þat al þing hast in myght & in þy power, wyndes, watres, wodes, feldes, & al thinges of þe world, & al maner bestes þat þer-In ben! to ȝow y make my prayer, þat ȝe me counceyle & telle where & in what place y schal haue a conuenable dwellynge for me & for my peple; & þer y schal make, in honour of ȝow, a wel fayr temple, & a noble, wheryn ȝe schul euermore be honoured." ¶ When he had don his prayer, Dyane Answerid in this manere: "Brut," quod sche, "go euenforth þy wey ouer þe see in-to Fraunce, toward þe west, & þer ȝe schul fynde an Ile þat is called [MS Douce 323 4a] Albyon; and þat Ile is bycompassed al with þe see, & no man may come þer-In but it be by schippes; and in þat lond were wont to be Geauntȝ but it is not so, but al wyldirnesse; and þat lande to ȝou is destynyed, & ordeigned for ȝow & for ȝoure peple."

How Coryn bycome Brutes man, & how Kyng Goffar was discomfited. Capitulo iijo.

Whan Brut herde þis Answere of Dyane þe Goddes, anon he lete þe Ancres wynd vp, & sayled in-to þe hye see. & whan he & his men had sayled xx dayes & more, þei founden fast bysyde a coste of þe see thre hundred men of þe lynage & kynrede of Troy, & her souerayn & her mayster of all, men Called Coryn.Page  9 ¶ And when Brut wyste whens þei were, he þo vndirfong hem with mychel ioy in-to his Shepys, & hem lad forth with hym. This Coryn þo bycome Brutes man, & to hym dede fewte & homage. & so long þei sayled forth þan in þe See tul they come to Gascoign; & anon þei arryued in þe hauene of Liegers, & þer þei dwellidde viij dayes, hem for-to rest, & her sayles to Amend, þer as nede was.

Tydyng sone come to Kyng Goffar, þat was lord of þe land, how þat myche folk of straunge land weren Arryued in his land in þe hauene of Liegiers; wher-fore he was sore Angred & anoyed þat þey comen & aryued in his land withoute leue. and anon he ordeigned power hem to dryven owt, & to shende; but Kyng Goffar was discomfyted, & al his folk, & hym-self fledde in-to ffraunce to seche help & socour. ¶ And in þat tyme regned in Fraunce xij kynges; & þe elleueneth assembled a gret power for-to helpe Goffar for-to fight aȝens Brut. Goffar dwelled with hem of Fraunce half a ȝere & more. And Brut in þe mene-tyme, & his cumpanye, destroyed al þe land of Gascoigne, & lete take al þe tresour þat Kyng Goffar hadde, & lete brynge it in-to his Shippes. And þis Brut fonde in þat lond a fayr place & a couenable; & þer Brut made a fayr Castell & a strong. whan þat was don, Kyng Goffar come fro Fraunce, & xj kynges with hym, & broughten xx Ml men for-to fight with Brut & his cumpanye. And Brut hadde but vij Ml men & thre hundred. Netheles, whan þe to ostes metten to-gider, Brutes folk—thurgh help of hym-self, & of Turyn his Cosyn, & of Coryn þat wel & manly hym defended & fought; so þat in litil tyme þei hadde quelled of þe Frenssh-men to Ml & mo; & þo þat were lyue fledden away. ¶ And in this batayle Turyn, þat was Brutes Cosyn, was sleyn, & Brut lete hym entere worthyly, [MS Douce 323 4b] whan he had space & leyser, in þe Castell þat he had made, & þo lete [calle hit] Castel Tours after his owne name þat þere was entered. & ȝit in-to þis day þer is a noble Cytee þat is called Tours.

Whan Kyng Goffar wiste þat Turyn was ded, he come aȝen with his men, & after ȝaf a strong battaylle vn-to Brut; but Brut & his men were so wery of fyghtynge þat þey myghte no lengerePage  10 endure; but maugre hym & al his, Brut & his men went in-to his Castell with all his men, and made þe ȝates fast for-to saue hem-self, & for-to take counceill amonges hem what were best to done. ¶ Brut & Coryn nome counceill, & ordeigned þat Coryn pryuyly shuld gon out at a Posterne of þe Castell, with half his men, & schuld go & bussh hem in A wode til amorowe, so þat in þe mornyng, whan Brut schuld fyght with his enemyes, Coryn schulde come with hes folk in þat o syde, & sle and do all þe harme þat he myght. And amorow in þe dawnenge, Brut went out of þe Castell, & faught with his enemyes, & þey hem fersly defendid. but with-Inne a litil tyme Brut & his folk hadden slayn viij C of Goffars men; And þo come Coryn fro þe busshement, & smote to grounde, he & his Cumpanye, al þat wold stande or Abyde, so þat Kyng Goffar & his folk were discomfited, & faste they gunne to fle. ¶ And Brut & Coryn, with here companye, fresshly hem pursued, & quelled of hem mo in fleyng þan þei dede in batayll. And in þat manere Brut hadde þe victorye. And neþeles Brut made myche sorowe for his Cosyn Turyn, þat þer was slayn, & for oþer also þat he had lost of his men, þat is to seyne, vij C and xv, þe which [he] noblich lete entere in þe Castell of Tours, þer þat he had entered Turyn his Cosyn.

How Brut Aryued at Tottenes in þe Ile of Albyon; & of þe Bataylle þat was betwen Coryn & Gogmagog. Capitulo quarto.

Whan al þis was done, Brut wolde no lengere þer dwelle for to fight, ne mo lese of his peple, for Kyng Goffarys peple myght euery day encrece mo & mo, & Brutes lassen; & therefore he nome all his men, & went vnto þe See, & hadde wynd & wedir at wille. and þe v day afterward they aryued in an hauene of Totnesse, & comen in-to þe Ile of Albion; & þer þey founde neiþer man ne woman, as þe story telleþ, but Geauntz; & þey woned in hulles and in Caues. Brut saw þe land was fayr, & at his likynge, & good also for hym & for his folk, as Dyane þe goddes had hym behyght. þo was Brut wonder glad, & lete assemble vpon a day al his folk, to make a solempne sacrifice & a gret feste in honourPage  11 & reuerence of Dyane, þurght whas counceill he was come in-to þat land.

And whan they had her solempnyte maad, as þey vpon a day were at mete, þer come yn vpon hem sodenly xxx Geauntȝ, & quellyd of Brutes men xxx. Brut & his men anon stertyn vp, & his men [MS Douce 323 5a] foughten with þe Geauntȝ, & quellyd hem euerychon but o Geaunt, þat was Mayster of hem all, þat me called Gogmagog, þat was strenger & heyer þan eny of þe other Geauntȝ; & Brut kepte hym, & sauyd his lyf, for encheson þat he schulde wrastle with Coryn, for Coryn was grettere & hugere þan eny of Brutes men fro þe gerdel stede vpward. ¶ Gogmagog & Coryn vndirtook to wrastelyn y-fere; & so to-gider þey wrasteled long tyme, but at þe last Gogmagog helde Coryn so fast þat he brak ij rybbys of his syde, wherfore Coryn was sore agreuyd, & nome þo Gogmagog betwene his Armes, & cast hym doun vpon a roche, so þat Gogmagog brak al to peces, & so he dyde in evill deth; & þerfore þe place is called ȝit in-to þis day 'þe sawte of Gogmagog.'

& þo ȝaf Brute al þat Cuntre to Coryn; & Coryn called [hit] after his name 'Cornewayle'; & his men he called 'Cornewayles' & [so] schul men of þat Cuntre be called for euermore. And in þat Cuntre dwellyd Coryn & his men, & made Tounes & houses, & enhabited þe land at her wylle.

How Brut made London & Called þis land Brytaigne, & Scotland Albyne, & Walys Camber. Capitulo quinto.

BRut and his men wenten forth & sought aboute in diuers places wher they myghte fynde a good place & a couenable þat þey myghte [make] in a Cytee for hym and for his folk, so at þe laste þey come by a fayr Ryuer þat is called þe Tamyse; & þer Brut be-gan a fayre Cyte for hym & for his folk, & lete calle it 'þe new Troye,' in mynde & remembraunce of þe gret Troye, for which place all her lynage was comen. ¶ And þis Brut lete felle adoun wodes, & lete erye & sowe londes, & done mow medes for sustinaunce of hym & of his peple. & he departed þe land to hem, so þat eche of hem had a certayn place for to dwelle vpon. AndPage  12 Brut lete Calle al þis land Britaigne, after his owne name, & his folk he lete calle Britouns. ¶ And þis Brut had geten on his wyf Gennogen iij sones þat were worthy of dedes: þe firste me callyd Lotryn, þe secounde Albanac, & þe thryd kambyr. ¶ And Brut bare Crowne in þe Cyte of newe Troye xx ȝeer after tyme the Cyte was made; & ther he made þe lawes þat þe Britouns holdeþ: & þis Brut was wondirly weel byloued among all men; & Brutes Sones also loueden wonderly wel to-gydere.

¶ And whan Brut had sowte all þe lond in lengthe & brede, he fonde A land þat ioyned to Brytaigne in þe north; and þat land Brut ȝaf to Albanac his sone, and he lete calle yt Albanye after his name, þat now is called Scotland. ¶ And Brut fonde anothir Cuntre toward þe west; & þat he ȝaf to Cambre his other [MS Douce 323 5b] sone, & he lete calle yt Cambre aftyr his name, & now is called Walys. And whan Brut had regnyd xx ȝeer, as byfore is sayd, he dyde in þe Cytee of newe Troy, & þere his Sones hym entered with mychil honour. And Lotryn, Brutes sone, was Crowned kyng with myche solempnyte of all þe land of Brytaigne. And after, whan he was Crouned, Albanak & Camber, his too brethryn, went aȝen in-to here owne Cuntre, & leuedyn with myche honour, & Lotryn here brother regned & was kyng and gouerned þe land wel & wysely, for he was a good man, & wondir wel belouyd of all his land.

¶ And it befel so þat Albanac dwelde in his owne land with myche honour & worschepe.

And so come Kyng Humbar of Hunland with a gret power & strengthe, & Arryved in Albanye, & wolde haue conqueryd þe land, & bygan to werre vpon Albanak, & hym quelled in bataylle. Whan Albanac was slayn, þe folk of þe land flye vn-to Lotryn, & told hym, for he was Kyng of Brytaigne, how þat his brother was slayn, & prayed hym of help for-to Auenge his brotherys deth. Lotryn anon lete asemble all þe Brytouns of Kent, of Douorre, vn-to Derewent, of Northfolk & Southfolc, of Kestefen & of Lyndeseye; & whan they were all Assembled, þei spedde faste toward her enemyes for to ȝeue hem bataylle. ¶ Lotryn had sent to Camber, his Brother, þat he schuld come also to hym with all þe power that he myght, hym for-to helpe; & so he dede, with goodPage  13 will. So þei comen all to-gedres, & nome her wey priuyly for to seche Humbar wher þey myghte hym fynde. ¶ And so it byfel þat þis Humbar was besides a water þat was a gret Ryuer, with his folk, hym for to dysport; and þo come Lotryn & Camber his brother, with all his folk sodeynly, or þat eny of þat oþer it wyste.

¶ And whan Humbar saw hem come, he was sore adrad, forasmyche as his men wist it not, & also þey were vnarrayed. And anon Humbar for drede, lept in-to þe water & drenchyd hymself, & so deide: he & his men weren all y-slayn, þat non of hem ascaped. And þerfore is þat water called Humbar, & euermore schalbe, for encheson þat Kyng Humbar was þer-In drenched.

¶ And after þat, Lotryn wente to here shippes, & toke þer gold & siluer, and as myche as he fand vn-to hym-self; & all þat other pylfre he ȝaf vn-to other folk of þe ost. & þei founden in oon of þo shippes A fayr Damysell þat was Kyng Humbarys doughter, & me called her Estrilde. ¶ And whan Lotryn saw here, he took here with hym for here fayrnesse, and for here, was on taken for loue, & wolde haue weddid here. [MS Douce 323 6a] Þis tydynges come to Coryn: anon he thought to Auenge hym vpon Lotryn, for-as-meche as Lotryn had made couenaunt for-to spowsen Corynys doughter, þat me called Guentolen. ¶ And Coryn in haste wente to hym, vn-to þe Newe Troye, & þus sayd to Lotryn: "¶ Now certes," quod he, "ȝe rewarden me ful euel for all þe paynes þat I suffryd & hadde many tymes for Brut, ȝoure fader; & therfore I wyl now Auenge me vpon ȝow;" & drow his fauchon an hye, and wold haue slayn Lotryn, but þe Damysell went be-twen hem, & made hem acorded in þis manere, þat Lotryn schuld spouse Guentolen, þat was Corynys doughter; and so Lotryn dede, and neþeles, þei he had spoused Corynys doughter pryuylich, he come to Estrilde, & brought here with childe, & gate on here A doughter þat me called Abraham. ¶ hyt byfel anon after, þat Coryn dide; & anon as he was ded, Lotryn forsook Guentolen his wyf, & made Estrylde quene. And Guentolen went þens al in wrathe in-to Cornewaylle, & seised all þe land in-to her hand, for-as-myche as sche was here Fadrys eyr, & vndirfonge feautes & homages of all þe men of þe land, and afterPage  14 Assembled a gret oste & a gret power, for-to be vpon Lotryn auenged, þat was her lord, and to hym come, & ȝaf hym A Strong bataill. & þer was Lotryn slayn, & his men descomfited, þe v ȝeer of his Reigne. ¶ Guentolen lete take Estrilde, and Abraham here dougter, and bynde boþe hondes and fete, & caste hem in-to a water; & so þey were drenchyd; wherfore þat water was euermore called after, 'Abraham,' after þe name of þe damysell þat was Estrildes doughter; & englissh-men called þat water Seuerne, & Walsshmen called þat water Abraham, into þis day. ¶ And whan þis was don, Guentolen lete Crowne her quene of þat land, & gouerned þe land ful well & wysely vnto þe tyme þat Madhon her Sone, þat Lotryn had begete vpon here, wer of xx ȝer Age, þat he myght be kyng; so þat þe qwen regned xv ȝeer; & þo lete she crowne here sone; & he regned & gouerned þe land wel & honourably; & sche wente in-to Cornewaill, & þer sche dwellid al her lyves tyme.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 1b] Of Kyng Madhan, how he regnede in pees al his lif, and of Menpris and of Manlyn his sones; and how Menpris slough Manlyn his broþer, and how wolfes drow him al to peces. ¶ Capitulo Sexto.

WHen Madhan hade regnede xxxti ȝere, he deide, and liþ [MS Rawlinson B 171 2a] at newe Troye, and he hade ij sones: þat on me callede Menpris, and þat oþere Manlyn; and þise ij breþerne, after here fadres deth, stryuen faste for þe lande; and Menpris, for enchesoun þat he was eldest, wolde haue hade al þat Londe; and Manlyn wolde nouȝt suffren him, so þat þai token a day of loue and of accorde; and at þis day Menpris lete quelle his broþer þrouȝ tresoun, and him-self afterward helde þe lande, and anone lete croune him kyng, and regnede, and after, he bicome so luþer a man þat he destroyede in a while alle þe men of his lande. ¶ and at þe last he bicome so wickede and so leccherous, þat he forsoke his owen wif, & vsede þe synne of Sodomye; wherfore almighty God was wroþ, and oppon him toke vengeance. ¶ ffor vppon a day, as he went in a wode in huntyng, he loste his folc, and wentPage  15 allone vp and doun criyng after his men; and þere come wolfes, and alto-drowe him into pecis; and þo he hade regnede xxiiij ȝer. and when his peple wist þat he was dede, þai made ioye ynow, and anone made Ebrak his sone kyng; and he regnede with michil honour.

Of Kyng Ebrac, how he conquerede ffraunce, and bigate xxti sones and xxiij douȝtres. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Septimo.

THis Ebrac regnede .lx. ȝer, and stronge man was, & miȝty, and þis Ebrac, þrouȝ his miȝt, and helpe of his Britons, conquerede al ffraunce, and wan þere so miche golde and siluer þat, when he come aȝeyne into þis lande, he made a noble citee, and after his name lete calle it Ebrac, after his name, þat now is callede Euerwik. and þis king Ebrac made þe castel of Maydenes þat now is clepede Edenburght. This kyng hade xx sones and xxiij douȝ [MS Rawlinson B 171 2b] tres, be diuerse wymmen geten; and þe sones were callede as ȝe shul hure; Brut Greneshal, Margand, Seisel, Morghwith Flenghan, Bladud, Iakyn, Kymbar, Rocelyn, Spadogh, Godeherl, Thormnan, Eldaugh, Iorkanghut, Haybor, Ketyn, Rother, Kaier, & Assaruth. ¶ And þe doughtres highten as ȝe shul hur after: Elegyne, Ymmogen, Oghdas, Guenbran, Guardiche, Angarel, Guentolde, Tangustel, Gorghon, Michel, Medham, Mailour, Ondur, Cambredan, Rogan, Reuthely, Neest, Cheghem, Scadud, Gladus, Heberhyn, Abalaghe, and Blandan: and þise were þo xxiij douȝtres; and þe breþerne bicome gode knyȝtes and worþi in meny contres.

Of þe Kyng Brut Greneshal, þe ferste sone of Ebrac the kyng. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Octauo.

After þe deth of Kyng Ebrac, regnede Brut Greneshel, his sone xxx ȝer, þat was Ebrakes ferst sone, þat wel and noblye regnede. and when tyme come, he deide, and ¶ liþ at Ȝork.

Of kyng Leyl. ¶ Capitulo. ¶ Nono.

ANd when Brut Greneshal was dede, regnede his sone Leil xxij ȝere; and he made a faire toune, and lete calle it Karleil after his name, and was a worþi man, and miche bilouedePage  16 of his people, and when he hade regnede xxij [years] he deide, and liþ at Karleil. ¶ And in his tyme renede Kyng Salamon in Jerusalem, þat made þe noble temple; and to him come to Ierusalem, Sibille, Quene of Saba, for-to hure and see if it were soþe þat men spoken of þe grete noblee and wisdome, and of witte of Kyng Salamon: and she founde it soth þat men hade here tolde.

Of Kyng Lud Ludibras, þat was Kyng Leiles sone. ¶ Capitulo xmo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 3a] ANd after þis Kyng Leil, regnede his sone Lud Ludybras, þat made þe citee of Kaunterbery and of Wynchestre; and he regnede xiij ȝere, and deide, and lith at Wynchestre.

Of þe kyng Bladuc, þat was Ludybras sone, regnede, and was a gode man and a nygromancer. Capitulo ximo.

ANd after þis Lud Ludebras, regnede Bladud his sone, a grete nigromancer; and þrouȝ his crafte of nigromancie he made þe meruailous hote bathe, as þe gest telleþ, & he regnede xxj ȝere, and he lith at þe newe Troye.

Of Kyng Leir, and of þe ansuere of his ȝongest douȝter, þat graciousely was mariede to þe Kyng of Fraunce. C. xij.

After þis Kyng Bladud, regnede Leir his sone; and þis Leir made þe toune of Leycestre, and lete calle þe toune after his name; and he gouernede þe lande wel and [nobly]. ¶ þis kyng Leir hade iij doughtres: þe ferst highte Gonorille, þe secunde Rigan, and þe þridde Cordeile; and þe ȝongest doughter was fairest and best of condiciouns. ¶ þe king here fader bicome an olde man, and wolde þat his doughtres were mariede or þat he deide. but ferst he þougt assaye whiche of ham louede him most and best; for she þat louede him best shulde best bene mariede. and he axede of þe ferst dought[er] how miche she louede him; and she ansuerede and saide, 'bettre þan here owenPage  17 lif.' "Now certes," quod þe fader, "þat is a grete loue." ¶ Þo axede he of þe secunde doughter, how miche she him louede; and she saide, 'more, and passing al þe creatures leuyng of þe worlde.' "ma foy," quod þe fader, "y may no more axen." ¶ And þo axede he of þe þridde doughter, how miche she him louede. "certes, fader," [MS Rawlinson B 171 3b] quod she, "my sustres haue tolde ȝow glosyng wordes; but for-soþe y shal tel ȝow treuþ: for y loue ȝow as miche as me oweþ to loue my fader; and forto bryng ȝow more in certeyne how loue goþ, I shal ȝow telle, for-as-miche as ȝe bene worþe, as muche shal ȝe bene louede." ¶ The kyng here fader wende þat she hade scornede him, and bicome wonder wroth, and swore by heuen and erþe þat she shulde neuer haue goode of him; but his douȝtres þat louede him so miche shulde be wel auauncede and mariede. and þe ferste dougter he mariede to Mangles, King of Scotlande; And þe secunde he mariede to Hanemos, Erl of Cornewaile; and so þai ordeynede and speke bituene ham þat þai shulde departe þe reaune bituene ham too, after þe deþ of Leir her fader, ¶ So þat Cordeil his ȝongest doughter shulde noþing haue of his lande. but þis Cordeil was wonder faire, and of so goode condicions and maners, þat þe Kyng of Fraunce, Agampe, herde of here speke, and sent to þe Kyng Leir, he[r] fader, for to haue her vnto wif, and prayede him þerof. And Kyng Leir here fader sent him worde þat he hade departede the lande to his ij oþere douȝtres, and saide he nade no more lande wherwiþ her forto marie. ¶ And when Agampe herde þis ansuere, he sent anone aȝeyne to Leir, and saide þat he axede noþing wiþ here, but oneliche heir cloþing and oneliche heir body; and anone Kyng Leire here fader sent here ouer þe see to þe Kyng of France; and he resceyuede here wiþ michel worship and wiþ michel solempnite, & made here Quene of Fraunce.

Page  18

How Kyng Leir was dryuen out of his lande þrouȝ his owen folye; and how Cordeil his ȝongest doughter halpe him in his nede. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Terciodecimo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 4a] THus it bifel afterwarde, þat þo ij eldest doughtren wolde nouȝt abide til þat Leir here fader were dede, but werrede oppon him whiles þat he leuede, and miche sorwe and shame him dede: wherfore þai binome him holly þe reaume, and bituene ham hade ordeynede þat one of ham shulde haue Kyng Leir to soiourne al his lif tyme, with xl knyȝtes and heir squyers, þat he might worshipfully gone & ryde whider þat he wolde, and into what contre þat him likede, to playe and to solacen. ¶ So þat Managles Kyng of Scotlande, hade Kyng Leir with him in þe maner þat is aboue-saide, and, or oþere half ȝere were passede, Corneil his eldest douȝter, þat was Quene of Scotland, was so annoyed wiþ him and wiþ his peple, þat anone she and here lorde spoken to-gederes, wherefor his knyȝtes half, and his squyers, fram him were gone, and nomo lefte but oneliche xxx. And when þis was done, Leire biganne forto make miche sorwe, for enchesoun þat his state was enpeirede, and men hade of him more scorne and despite þan euer þai hade biforne; wherfore he nyst what forto done; and at þe last þouȝt þat he wolde wende into Cornewaile, to Rigan his oþere doughter. ¶ And when he was comen, þe erl and his wif, þat was Leires doughter, him welcomede, and with him made miche ioye; and þere he duellede with xxx knyȝtes and squyers. And he nade nought duellede þere scarsly tuelf moneþ, þat his doughter of him nas ful, and of his company; and her lorde and she, of him hade scorne and despite, so þat fram xxx knyȝtes þai brouȝten vnto x, and afterwarde v; and so þere lefte wiþ him nomo. ¶ Þo made he sorwe ynow, and [MS Rawlinson B 171 4b] saide, sore wepyng, 'allas þat euer he come into þat Lande!' and saide, 'ȝitte hade me bene bettre forto haue duellede with my ferst doughter [and anon went þens aȝeyne to his ferst douȝter].' But anone as she saw him come, she swore by God and his holy names, and by as miche as she might, þat he shulde haue nomo wiþ him but one knyȝt, if hePage  19 wolde þere abide. ¶ Þo bigan Leir aȝeyn to wepe, and made muche sorwe, and saide þo: "allas! now to longe haue y leuede, þat þis sorwe and meschief is now to me falle; for now y am poer, and some tyme y was ryche; but now haue y no frende ne kyn þat me wil do eny maner goode. ¶ But when y was ryche, alle men me honourede and worsshepede; and now euery man hath of me scorne and despite! and now y wote wel þat Cordeil, my ȝonge doughter, saide me treuþ when she saide 'as michel as y hade, so michel shulde y be louede'; and all þe while þat y hade goode, þo was y belouede and honourede for my rychesse; but my ij doughtres me glosede þo, and now of me þai sette litel pris, and soþ tolde me Cordeil, but y wolde nouȝt bileue it, ne vnderstonde, and þerfore y lete here gon fro me as a þing þat y sette litel pris of; and now wote y neuer what forto done, seþ my ij doughtres have me þus desceyuede, þat y so michel louede; and now moste me nedes seche here þat is in an opere lande, þat lighly y lete here go fro me without eny reward of ȝiftes; and she saide þat 'she louede me as miche as she outh here fader, bi al maner resoun'; and þo y shulde haue axede of here no more; and þo þat me oþere-wise bihiȝten þrouȝ here faire speche, now haue me desceyuede!"

¶ In þis maner Leir longe tyme him bigan to make his mone; and at þe last he shoope him to þe see, and passede ouer into France, and axede and aspiede wher the Quene myȝt be founde; and men tolde where þat she was. [MS Rawlinson B 171 5a] ¶ And when he come to þe citee þat she was in, priueliche he sent his Squyer vnto þe quene, to tel her þat heir fader was comen to her for grete nede. ¶ And when þe squyer come to þe quene, he tolde her euery dele of heir sustres fram þe bigynnyng vnto þe ende. ¶ Cordeil þe Quene anone nome golde and siluer, grete plente, and toke it to þe squyer, in conseile þat he shulde go and bere it vnto here fader, and þat he shulde go into a certeyn Citee, and him arreyen, baþen and wesshen,Page  20 and þan come aȝeyne to her, and bryng with him an honest company of knyȝtes, xl. at þe leste, with here meny; and þenne he shulde sende to here lorde þe kyng, and sayen þat he was comen forto speke with his douȝter, and him to seene. ¶ And when þe kyng and þe quene herde þat, wiþ michel honour þai comen, and him resceyuede. Þe kyng of Fraunce lete sende þo þrouȝ al his reaume, and commandede þat alle men to him shulde bene entendaunt, to Leire, þe Quenes fader, in al maner þing as it were to him-self. ¶ when Leir hade duellede þere a monþe and more, he tolde to þe kyng and to þe Quene his doughter, how his ij eldeste douȝtres hade him seruede. ¶ Agampe anone lete ordeyne a grete hoste of Fraunce, and sent it into Britaigne with Leir, þe Quenes fader, forto conquere his lande aȝeyne, and his kyngdome; and Cordeil also come with her fader into Britaigne, forto haue þe reaume after her fadres deth. And anon þai went to shippe, and passede þe see, and come into Britaigne, and fauȝt wiþ þe felons, and ham scomfitede & quellede. And Leir þo hade his lande aȝeyne, and after leuede iij ȝere, and helde his reaume in pees, and afterwarde deide; & Cordeil his doughter him lete entere wiþ michel honour at Leycestre.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 5b] How Morgan and Conenedag þat were Neveus to Cordeil, werrede oppon here, and put here into prison. C. xiiij.

WHen þat Kyng Leir was dede, Cordeil his ȝongest douȝtre helde and hade þe lande v ȝere; and in þe mene tyme deide here Lorde Agamp, þat was Kyng of Fraunce; and after his deth she lefte widue. ¶ And þo come Morgan and Conenedag, þat were Cordeiles sustres sones, and to here hade enuy, for-asmiche þat her aunt shulde haue þe lande; so þat bituene ham þai ordeynede a grete power, and vppon here werrede gretlich; andPage  21 neuer þai rest til þat þai hade here taken, and put her vnto deth. ¶ And þo Morgan and Conenedag seisede al þe lande, and departede bituene ham, and þai helde it xij ȝere. ¶ And when the xij ȝere were gone, þere bigon bituene ham a grete debate, so þat þai werrede strongely in-fere, and eueryche of ham dede oþere miche disese, ffor Morgan wolde haue hade alle þe lande fram biȝende Humber, þat Conedag helde; but he come aȝeynes him with a strong power, so þat Morgan derst nouȝt abide, but fley awaye into Walys; and Conenedag pursuede him, and toke him, and quelde him. ¶ þo come Conenedag aȝeyne, and seisede al þe lande into his hande, and helde hit, and regnede after, xxxiij ȝere, and þo deide, and liþ at New Troye.

Of Rynallo, þat was Conedagus sone: how he regnede after his fader; and in his tyme it raynede bloode iij daies, in tokenyng of gret deth. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Quintodesimo.

ANd after þis Conenedag, regnede Rynallo his sone, an Wise knyȝt, and an hardy and curteise, þat wel and nobly gouernede þe lande, and wonder wel made him bi [MS Rawlinson B 171 6a] louede of al maner folc. and in his tyme it raynede bloode þat lastede iij dayes, as God wolde; and sone after þere come a gret deth of peple, for hostes with-out noumbre of peple fouȝten til þat þai were dede, Wherof no man myȝt ham lette til þat almiȝty God þerof tok mercy and pitee; and tho gan it cesse. and þis Raynolde regnede xxij ȝere, & deide, & ¶ liþ at Ȝork.

How Gorbodian regnede in pees, þat was Rynallo sone; and after, he deide, and liþ at Ȝork C. xvjo.

After þis Ryuallo, regnede Gorbodyan his sone xv ȝere, and deide and lith at Ȝork.

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How Gorbodian hade ij sones, & how þat on slough þat oþere, forto haue þe heritage; & how Ydoyne her moder quellede þat oþere, wherfore þe lande was destroiede. ¶ Capitulo ¶ xvijmo.

When þis Gorbodian was dede, his ij sones þat he hade, bicome stoute men and proude, & euer werrede to-geder for þe lande: þat one, men called Ferreȝ, and þat oþere Porrex; and þis Ferreȝ wolde haue hade al the lande, but þat oþere wolde nouȝt suffren him. Ferreȝ hade a felounes hert, and þouȝt þrouȝ tresoun slee his broþere; but priuely he went into Fraunce, and þere abode with þe kyng Syward til oppon a tyme þat he come aȝeyne, and fauȝt wiþ his broþer Ferreȝ; but ful euel it hapede þo, for he was slayn ferst. ¶ When Ydoyne, here moder, wist þat Porrex was dede, she made grete sorwe, for enchesoun þat she louede him more þan þat oþere, and þouȝt him forto quelle. priuely she come to here sone oppon a nyȝt wiþ ij knyfes, and þerwiþ cotte his þrote, and þe body also into smale pecis. Who herde euer soche a cursede moder, þat quellede with here [MS Rawlinson B 171 6b] owen hondes here owen sone! and Longe tyme after Laste þe reprofe & shame to þe moder þat, for enchesoun of þat o sone, mordrede þat oþere, and so loste ham bothe.

How iiij kynges curteisely helde al Britaigne; and whiche beth here names. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Octodesimo.

WHen þise ij breþerne were so dede, þai nade Lefte bihynde ham noo sone ne doughter, ne none oþere of þe kynrede þat might haue þe heritage. & for-asmiche as þe strongest men dryuen and descomfitede þe feblest, and token al here landes, so þat in euery contre þai hade grete werre and stryfe. ¶ But amonge alle oþere þinges, þere were amonges ham in þe contre þat ouercome alle þe oþere; and þrouȝ heir strengþ and myȝt þai nomen and token al þe landes; and eueryche of ham tok a certeyne contre; and in his contre lete calle him kyng. ¶ And on of ham, menPage  23 callede Stater; and he was Kyng of Scotland; and þat oþere me callede Dunwal, and he was Kyng of Loegers, and of alle þe landes þat was Lotrynes, Brutes sone. ¶ þe þridde, men callede Rudak, and he was Kyng of Walys; and þe iiijte me callede Cloten, and he was Kyng of Cornewaile. ¶ But þis Cloten shulde haue hade al þe lande, be resoun for þere was no man þat wist none so ryȝthful heire as he was; but þo þat were strongest sette litel by ham þat were of lasse estate, and þerfor þis Cloten hade no more lande amonges ham þan onliche ¶ Cornewaile.

Of Kyng Donewall, þat was Cloteneȝ sone, and how he hade wonne þe lande. ¶ Capitulo xixo.

THis Cloten hade a sone þat me clepede Donewal, þat, after þe deth of his fader, bicome an hardy man, and a faire and a curteise, so þat he passede alle þe kynges of Britaigne of fairenesse and of worþinesse. ¶ And as he was knyght, he [MS Rawlinson B 171 7a] Wiste wel when his fader leuede he was moste ryghtful heire of al þe lande, and shulde haue hade it by resoun; but oþere kynges þat were of more strengþ þan he, binome him his lande. ¶ And afterwarde þis Donebande ordeynede him powere, and ferst conquerede al þe lande of Loegers; and after he wolde haue conquerede al Scotland and Walys; and Stater wiþ his men come, and ȝaf him bataile; and Rudak come aȝeyne wiþ his Walshemen forto helpe him; But so it bifel þat Rudak was slayn, and Skater also, in pleyn bataile; and so Donewal hade þe victorye, and conquerede al þe lande, and wel mayntenede it in pees and quyete, þat neuer bifore it was so wel mayntenede.

How Donewal was þe ferst kyng þat euere Werede crone of golde in Britaigne. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Vicesimo.

THis Donewal lete make him a crone of golde, and werede þe croune oppon his heuede, as neuer kyng dede bifore; and he ordeynede a statute þat, hade a man done neuer so michePage  24 harme, and he might come into þe temple, þere shulde no man him misdo, but gone þerin sauf and in pees, and aftre gone into what contre þat he wolde, withouten eny harme; and if eny man sette hande oppon him, he þan shulde lese his lif. ¶ And þis Donewal made þe toune of Malmesbury, and þe toune of þe Vise; & when he hade regnede wel and nobly .xl. ȝere, he deide, & liþ at newe Troye.

How Brenne and Belyn departede bituene ham þe lande, after þe deth of Donewal, hir fader; & of þe werre. Capitulo xxjo.

ANd after þat þis Donewal was [dede], his sones þat he hade, departede þe lande bituene ham as her fader hade ordeynede; so þat Belyn, his eldest sone, hade al the lande a þis halfe Humber, and his broþer Brenne hade al [MS Rawlinson B 171 7b] þe lande fram Humber vnto Scotland; but for-asmich as Belyn hade þe better parte, Brenne þerfor wax wroþ, and wolde haue hade more of þe lande; and Belyn his broþer wolde graunt him nomore; Wherfor contak and werre aroos bituene ham ij. But Brenne þe ȝonger broþer hade no myȝte ne strengþ aȝeynȝ Belyn; and þerfor Brenne, þrouȝ conseil of his folc, went fram þens into Norway, to þe Kyng Elsinges, and prayede him of helpe and of socoure forto conquere al þe lande of Britayn vppon Belyn his broþer, oppon þat couenaunt, þat he wolde haue his douȝter to wyf; and þe Kyng Elsinges him grauntede. ¶ Belyn, anone as his broþer was gone to Norway, he seisede into his hande al þe lande of Northumberland, and toke al þe castelles, and lete ham arraie, and also kepe þe costes of þe see, þat Brenne shulde nouȝt arryue in no side but þat he were take. ¶ The Kyng Elsinges lete assemble a grete hoste, and delyuerede his doughter to Brenne, and alle þe peple þat he hade ordeynede. And þis damisel, Samye, hade longe tyme louede a kyng þat me callede Gutlagh; and to him she tolde al here counseil, how þat Brenne shulde here haue, and here lede wiþ him for euermore, and so he shulde her lese, but if þat she myȝt forsake Brenne. ¶ AndPage  25 when Gutlagh herde þise tydynges, he lay forto aspie Brenne, wiþ alse meny shippes as he myȝt haue, so þat þo ij fletes metten to-gederes, and longe tyme foughten, so þat Brenne and his shippes turnede aȝeyne, and were descomfitede; and Kyng Gutlagh toke Samye, and put here into shippe, and Brenne shamefully fleye þens as a man descomfitede. ¶ And Gutlagh wolde haue went into his countree; but þere come oppon [MS Rawlinson B 171 8a] him a stronge tempest, þat .v. dayes Laste, so þat þrouȝ þat tempest he was dryuen into Britaigne with iij shippes, and wiþ no mo. and þo þat kepte þe costes of þe see token Gutlagh and Samye, and alle his folc, and ham presentede vnto Belyn, and he put ham into prisoun.

How Belyn delyuerede out of þis lande Kyng Gutlagh of Dennemarc, and Samye. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Vicesimo Secundo.

HIt was nouȝt longe after, þat Brenne ne come aȝeyne with a stronge meny, and sent to his broþer Belyn, þat he shulde ȝelde aȝeyne his lande to his wif and to his folc, & his castelles also, or elles he wolde destroye his lande. Belyn drade no þing his manace, and wolde no þing done after þat he saide. Wherfore Brenne come with his folc, and fauȝt with him; and Brenne was descomfitede, and his folc slayne, and him-self fleede wiþ xij men into Fraunce. ¶ And þis Belyn, þat was Brennes broþere, went þen vnto Ȝork, and toke counseil what he myȝt done, wiþ Kyng Gutlagh; for Kyng Gutlagh proferede to bicome his man, and to holde his lande of him, ȝeldyng by ȝere Ml li of siluer for euer-more; and for sikernesse of þis couenaunt to bene holde, Gutlaghe shulde bryng him gode hostages, and to him shulde done homage, and al his folc, and ȝitte he shulde suere oppon the book þat þise couenauntes shulde nouȝt bene broken ne falsede. ¶ Belyn þo, by counseil of his folc, grantede him his axing; and so Gutlagh bicome his man; and Belyn vnderfonge of him his homage by othe, and by wrytyng þe same couenauntȝ ¶ And opponPage  26 þis Couenant King Gutlagh tok Samye and his folc, and went þennes, and turnede aȝeyn [MS Rawlinson B 171 8b] to Dennemarc. ¶ Euermore after were the couenauntes Halden, and þe truage paiede, til þe tyme þat Hauelok was Kyng of Denmarc, and also of þis lande, þrouȝ his wif Gildeburghe, þat he hade spousede, for she was þe ryȝt heire of þis lande. ¶ þis Belyn duellede þo in pees, and worshepliche him helde amonges his barons; and he made iiij real waies, one fram þe Est into West, and þat was callede Watlyngstrete; and anoþere fram þe North into þe South, þat was callede Ikenyle strete; and ij oþere waies he made in bossinge þrouȝ-oute the lande: þat one is callede Fosse, and þat oþere Fossedik; and he mayntenede wel þe gode Lawes þat Doneband his fader hade made and ordeynede in his tyme, as bifore is saide.

How accorde was made bituene Brenne and Belyn, through Cornewenne, hire moder. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Vicesimo Tercio.

BRenne, that was Belynes broþer, hade longe tyme duellede in Fraunce, and þere hade conquerede a grete lordeship þrouȝ mariage, for he was Duc of Burgoyne þrouȝ þe douȝter of þe duc Fewyn þat he hade spousede, þat was right heire of þe lande. and þis Brenne ordeynede a grete power of his folc and also of Fraunce, and come into þis lande forto feight with Belyn his broþer. and Belyn come aȝeynes him with a stronge powere of Britons, and þo wolde haue ȝeue him bataile; but heir moder Cornewenne, þat tho Leuede, herde þat þe o broþer wolde haue destroyede þat oþere, and went bituene here sones, and ham made accordede wiþ miche peyne; so þat at þe laste, þo ij breþerne, with miche blisse, went to-geder into newe Troye, þat now is callede London, and þere þai duellede al a ȝere; and after, þai toke [MS Rawlinson B 171 9a] Heire conseile forto go conquere al Fraunce; and so thai deden, & brent tounes, and destroyede all þe lande boþe in lengþ and in Brede. and þe Kyng of Fraunce ȝaf ham bataile wiþ his powere; but he was ouercomen, and ȝaf truage vnto Belyn and to his broþer. ¶ AndPage  27 after þat, þai went forþe to Rome, and conquerede Rome, and al Lumbardy and Germayne, and toke homages and feautees of þe folc of þe Erles, barons, and alle oþere; and after, þai comen into þis lande of Britaigne, and duellede with here Britounes in ioye and reste. and þo made Brenne þe toune of Bristow; and siþ he went ouer þe see into his owen lordeshippe, and þere duellede al his lif. and Belyn duellede atte Newe Troye; and þere he made a faire gate þat is clepede Billyngesgate, after his owen name. and when þis Belyn hade regnede noble xj ȝere, he deide, & ¶ liþ at newe Troye.

How Kyng Corinbatrus quellede þe Kyng of Dennemarc, for enchesoun þat he wolde nouȝt paye him his truage. ¶ Capitulo xxiiijto.

ANd after þis Belyn, regnede his sone Corinbatrus, a gode man and a worþi. and þe Kyng of Denmarc wolde nouȝt paye him his truage, þat is to seyn, Ml li, as he hade sworne by oth forto paye hit, and also be writyng of recorde, Belyn his fader. wherfore he was euel paiede and wroþ and assemblede a grete hoste of Britons, and went into Dennemarc and slough þe Kyng Gitclagh, and brouȝt þe lande in subieccioun al new, and toke of folc feautes and homages, and after went aȝeyne into his lande. ¶ And as he come forthe bi Orkeneye, he fonde xxx shippes ful of men and of wymmen, bisides þe coste of þe see, and þe kyng axede what þai were. an Erl, that was maistre of ham alle, curteisely ansuerede vnto the kyng, and saide þat þai were exilede oute of Spaygne, [MS Rawlinson B 171 9b] and so þai hade trauailede half ȝere and more in þe see, to weten if þai myȝt fynde eny kyng, or eny lorde, þat of ham wolde haue pitee or mercy, to ȝeue ham eny lande in eny contre wherin þai might duelle and haue reste, and bicome his liege men, and to him wolde done homage and feautes whiles þat he leuede, and to his heires after him, and of him and of his heires holde þat londe for euermore. ¶ And when þe kyng þisPage  28 herde, he hade pite of ham, and ȝaf ham an Ile al wildernesse, þere þat noman was duellyng, saf oneliche wilde bestes. and þe Erl þankede miche þe kyng, and bicome his man, and dede him feaute and homage, and tok alle his folc, and went into þe same Ile. and þe Erl me callede Irlanyal; and þerfore he lete calle þe lande Irlande, after his owen name. ¶ The kyng þo, Corinbatrus, come aȝeyne into þis Lande, and regnede xxv ȝere; & after, he deide, and liþ at newe ¶ Troye.

How þe Kyng Guentolen regnede in godenesse, & wel gouernede þe lande al his liftyme. ¶ Capitulo vicesimo Quinto.

ANd when Corinbatrus was dede, regnede Guentolen his sone, a man of goode condiciouns, and well bilouede; and he gouernede þe lande wel and wiseliche, and he regnede xxvj ȝere, and after, deide, and lith at newe Troye.

How Kyng Seisel regnede, and wel gouernede þe lande after Guentolen. ¶ Capitulo xxvjto.

ANd after þis Guentolen, regnede his sone Seisel wel and worþely, and wel gouernede þe lande as his fader hade done biforne him; and regnede xv ȝere, and after, deide, and lith at newe Troye.

How Kymore regnede after Seisel his fader; and he bigate Howan, þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 10a] regnede after him. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Vicesimo ¶ Septimo.

ANd after þis Seisel, regnede his sone Kymor wel and nobly xix ȝere in pees; and Howan his sone x ȝere, and deide, and liþ at Herbaldoun.

How Kyng Morwith deide þrouȝ meschaunce, þrouȝ a beste for his wickednesse. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Vicesimo ¶ Octauo.

ANd after þis Howan, regnede Morwith; and he bicome wickede, and so sterne, til at þe laste, grete vengeaunce come to him; for as he went on a tyme bi þe seeside, he mette a gretePage  29 beste, þat was blac, and horrible and hidouse; and he wende þat it had bene a whale of þe see, and bent an Arweblast, and wolde haue slayne þat best wiþ a quarell; but he miȝt nouȝt smyte hit. and when he hade shotte alle his quarelles, þe beste anone come to him in grete haste, and him deuourede alif; and so he deide for his wickednesse, þrouȝ vengeance of Gode, after þat he hade regnede ix ȝere.

Of Grandobodian, þat was Morwitheȝ sone, þat made the toune of Cambruge. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Vicesimo Nono.

After þis Morwith was dede, þe Britouns cronede Grandobodian his sone; and þis Grandobodian longe tyme regnede in godenesse, and made temples and tounes; and þis Grandobodian made þe toune of Cambrugge and þe toune of Grantham, and was wel bilouede of ryche and of pore, for he honourede þe riche and halpe þe poer. ¶ This Grandobodian hade iiij sones, Artogaile, Hesider, Higamus, and Petiter, and when he hade regnede xj ȝere, he deide, & liþ at newe Troye.

Of Artogaile, þat was Grandobodianus sone: how he was made kyng, & siþ put adoune for his wickednesse. ¶ Capitulo Tricesimo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 10b] After Grandobodian, regnede his sone Artogaile v ȝere; and he bicome so wickede and so sterne, þat þe Britons wolde nouȝt suffre him to bene kyng, but put him adoune, and made Hesider his broþer kyng and he bicome so gode and mercyable þat men him callede 'kyng of pitee.' and when he hade regnede v ȝere, he hade so [miche] pitee of his broþer Artogaile, þat was kyng bifore; and anone he forsoke his dignite, and toke his broþer þe crone aȝeyne, and made him kyng aȝeynes al þe barons wille of Britaigne. and afterwarde, þis Artogaile bicome so gode of condiciouns þat he was wel bilouede of al þe lande; for he bicome so debonoure and free, and dede right and resoun to alle maner man; and he regnede vj ȝere, and deide, and lith at Grauntham.

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How Hesider was made kyng after þe deth of Artogaile his ¶ broþer. Capitulo xxxjo.

After þe deth of Artogaile, the Britounes crounede an-oþer tyme Hesider; but his ij breþern Higamus and Petite haden of him grete despite, and eke scorne, and ordeynede ham helpe forto werre oppon þe kyng her broþer. and so þai token him and put him into prisoun, the secunde ȝere of his regne; and þai departede al Britaign bituene ham ij. but Higamus leuede but vij ȝere; and þo hadde Petitur al þe lande; and he made þe toune of Pikeryng, and after deide, þe secunde ȝere of his regne, & liþ at Pikeryng,

How þe Britouns token Hesider oute of Prisoune, and made him kyng þe þridde tyme. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Tricesimo Secundo.

ANd when þis Petitur was dede, the Britons toke anone right Hesider, and made him kyng þe þridde tyme, and þo regnede he in pees xiiij ȝere, & after deide, and liþ at Karleil.

How xxxiij kynges regnede in pees, eche after oþere, after [MS Rawlinson B 171 11a] þe deth of Hesider. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Tricesimo Tercio.

After þe deth of Hesider, regnede xxxiij Kynges, eche after oþere, in pees; and wiþout eny longe tariyng y shal tel ham alle, and how longe euery of ham regnede, as þe story telleþ. ¶ The ferste kyng of þo xxxiij me clepede Gorbodia and he regnede xij ȝere. ¶ and after him regnede Morgan ij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Eigamus vj ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Idwalan viij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Rohugo xj ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Voghen xiij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Katil xv ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Porrex ij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Cheryn xvij ȝere; [; & after him regned Coil xij ȝer] ¶ and after him regnede Sulgenis xiiij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Esdad xxti ȝerePage  31 ¶ And after him regnede Andragie xviij ȝere; ¶ And after him regnede Vran v ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Elind ij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Eldagan xv ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Claten xij ȝere; ¶ & after him regnede Quirgund viij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Morian vj ȝere; and after him regnede Bledaghe iij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Caph j ȝere; ¶ and after him regned Gen ij ȝere; ¶ and after him regnede Seisel and Kyng Bled xxj ȝere; ¶ and Kyng Grabreth xj ȝere; ¶ and Archinal xiiij ȝere; and Erol xxx ȝere; ¶ And Rodengu xxxij ȝere; and Herter v ȝere, ¶ and Hampir vj ȝere, And Carpoir vij ȝere, ¶ and Digneile iij ȝere, ¶ and Samuel xxiiij ȝere, ¶ and Rede ij ȝere, ¶ and Ely vij mouneþs; and þis Ely hade iij sones, Lud, Cassabilam, and Enymyon.

How Lud was made kyng after þe deþ of Ely his fader. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Tricesimo ¶ Quarto.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 11b] After þe deþ of Ely, regnede Lud his sone, and gouernede wel þe lande, and miche honourrede gode folc, and temprede and amendit wickede folc. ¶ This Lud louede more to duelle at Troye þan at eny oþere place of þe lande; Wherfore þe name of Troye was lafte, and þo was callede þe citee of Ludstan; but now þat name is chaungede þrouȝ variance of lettres, and now is callede London. ¶ and þis kyng made in the citee a faire gate, and callede it Ludgate, after his name; and þe folc of þe citee lete hight Loundres, and when he hade regnede xj ȝere, he deide, and liþ at London. and he hade ij ȝonge sones, Andraghen and Gormace; but þai couþ neiþere speke ne go, for ȝeugeþ; & þerfore þe Britons crounede a stronge knyȝt þat me called Lud, þat was Cassibalamus broþer, and made him kyng of Britagne.

How þe Britons grantede to Cassibalam, þat was Ludes broþer, þe land: in whas time Iulius come ij tymes forto conquere þe lande. ¶ Capitulo Tricesimo ¶ quinto.

After þe deþ of Kyng Lud, regnede his broþer Cassibalam, and bicome a goode man, and miche bilouede of his Britons, so þat, for his godenesse and curtesye, þai grantede him þe reaume foreuermore,Page  32 to him and to his heires. ¶ And the kyng, of his godenesse, lete norisshe worþiliche boþe his broþeres sones, þe childerne of Lud; And after, made þe eldeste sone Erl of Cornwaile, and þat oþere Erl of London. ¶ And while þis kyng Cassibalam regnede, come Iulius Cesar, þat was Emperoure of Rome into þis lande, with a power of Romayns, and wolde haue hade þis lande þrouȝ strengþ; but Cassibalam him ouercome in bataile, þrouȝ helpe [MS Rawlinson B 171 12a] of þe Britons, and drof him oute of þis Lande; and went aȝeyne to Rome, and assemblede grete power anoþer tyme, and come aȝeyne into þis lande forto ȝeue bataile to Cassibalam; but he was descomfitede þrouȝ strengþ of þe Britons, and þrouȝ helpe of þe erle of Cornwaile, and þe Erl of london, his broþer, and þrouȝ helpe of Gudian, Kyng of Scotland, and of Corbande, Kyng of north Wales, and of Bretaile, Kyng of Southwalys. and in þis bataile was slayne Nemion, þat was Cassibalamus broþer, wherfore he made miche sorwe; and so went Iulius Cesar oute of þis lande with a fewe of Romayns þat were lefte a-lif; And þo Cassibalam went aȝeyne to London, and made a fest vnto alle his folc þat þo hade him holpen; and when þe fest was done, eche man went into here owen contree.

Of þe debate þat was bituene Cassibalam and þe Erle of London; & of þe truage þat was payede to Rome. ¶ Capitulo xxxvjto.

ANd after, hit bifelle þus oppon a day, þat þe gentil-men of þe kynges householde and þe gentelmen of þe Erles householde of London, after mete went in-fere forto playe; and þrouȝ debate þat arose amonges ham, Enelyn, þat was þe erles broþer of London, quellede Irenglas þat was þe kynges cosyn; wherfore þe kyng swore þat Enelyn shulde bene honget; but þe Erle of London, þat was Enelynes lorde, wolde nouȝt suffren hit; wherfore þe kyng was wroth towarde þe Erl, and þouȝt him destroye. and priuely þe Erl sent lettres to Iulius Cesar þat he shulde comePage  33 into þis lande forto helpe him, and helpe avenge him [MS Rawlinson B 171 12b] oppon þe Kyng, and he wolde helpe him with al his myȝte. ¶ And when þe Emperoure herde þis tydynges, he was ful glade, and ordeynede a stronge power, and come aȝeyne þe þridde tyme into þis land; and þe Erl of Londone halpe him wiþ vij Ml men. and at þe þridde tyme was Cassibalam ouercomen and descomfitede, and made pees to þe Emperoure for iij Mlli of siluer, ȝeldynge by ȝere for truage for þis lande for euermore. and after half ȝere passede, the Emperoure went to Rome, and þe Erl of London wiþ him, for he derste nouȝt abide in þis lande. and after, Cassibalam regnede xvij ȝere in pees, and þo deide, þe xxvij ȝere of his regne, and lithe atte Ȝork.

How þe lordes of þe lande, after þe deth of Cassibalam, for encheson þat he hade none heire, made Andragen kyng. Capitulo ¶ xxxvijmo.

After þe deth of Cassibalam, for-asmiche as he hade none heire of his body, þe lordes of þe lande, by commune assent, cronede Androgen, Erl of Cornewaile, and made him kyng; and he regnede wel worthely, and was a gode man, and wel gouernede þe lande. and when he hade regnede viij ȝere, he deide, & liþ at London.

Of Kymbalyn, þat was Andragenus sone, a gode man, and wel gouernede þe lande. Capitulo xxxviij.

Natiuitas Christi

After þe deth of Andragen, regnede Kembelyn his sone, þat was a gode man, and wel gouernede þe lande in miche prosperite and in pees al his lifes tyme. ¶ And in his tyme was born Ihesus Crist oure saueoure, of þat swete virgine Marie. ¶ þis Kyng Kembelyn hade ij sones, Ginder and Armoger, gode knyȝtes and worthi. [MS Rawlinson B 171 13a] And when þis Kyng Kembelyn hade regnede xxij ȝere, he deide, and liþ at London.

Of Kyng Gynder, þat was Kembalynes sone, þat wolde nouȝt paye þe truage to Rome for the lande þat Cassibalam hade grantede; & how he was slayne of a Romayne. Capitulo xxxixo.

Page  34ANd after þe deþ of þis Kembalyn, regnede Ginder his sone, a gode man and a worþi; and he was of so hie hert þat he wolde nouȝt paye to Rome þat truage þat Kyng Cassibalam hade grantede vnto Iulius Cesar; wherfore þe Emperoure þat was þo, þat me callede Claudius Cesar, was sore annoyede, and ordeynede a grete power of Romay[n]s, and come into þis lande forto conquere þe truage þrouȝ strengþ, and haue it of þe kyng; but þe kyng Gynder, and Armoger his broþer, gadrede a grete hoste ifere of Britouns, and ȝaf bataile to þe Emperour Claudius, and quellede of Romains grete plente. ¶ The Emperour hade a Stiwarde þat me clepede Hamon, þat saw þat her peple was faste slayne: priuely he caste awai his owen armes, and toke the Armes of a dede Briton, and armede him wiþ his armure, and come into þe bataile to þe kyng, and saide in þis maner: "Sire, beth of gode hert, for Godes loue, for þe Romayns þat beþe ȝour enemys anone shullen bene slayn and descomfitede euerychon." ¶ and þe kyng ȝaf no kepe ne rewarde to his speche, for encheson of þe armes þat he hade oppon him, and wende it hade bene a Britoune; but þe traitoure euer helde him nexte þe kyng, and priueliche, vnder þe shulders of his armure, he smote þe kyng Wherfore he was dede anone, and fel doune vnto þe erþe.

When Armoger saw his broþer dede, [MS Rawlinson B 171 13b] he caste away his Armeȝ, and toke to him his broþeres Armes, and come into þe bataile amonge þe Britons, and bade hertly forto fyght, and faste laide adoune þe Romaignes. and for þe armes, þai wende it hade bene Kyng Gynder, þat arst was slayne, þat þai wist nouȝt, and þo gonne þe Britons hertly feiȝten, and quellede þe Romayns; so at þe last þe Emperour forsoke þe felde, and fley as faste as þai miȝt into þe citee of Wynchestre. and þe false traitour Hamonde, þat hade quellede þe kyng, faste anone gane forto flee in al þe haste þat he miȝt; and Armoger, þe kynges broþer, pursuede him ful fersly wiþ a ferse herte, and drof him vnto þe water, and þerePage  35 he toke him, and anone smote of boþe heuede, hendes, and feete, and hewe þe body halto pecis, and þo caste it into þe water; Wherfore þat water was callede Hamondeshauen; and after, þere was made a faire toune þat ȝitte [standeth] þat is callede Southampton. ¶ And afterwarde, Armoger went to Wynchestre forto seche [MS Rawlinson B 171 14a] Claudius Cesar þe Emperour; and þere Armoger him toke.

¶ And Claudius þe Emperour; þrouȝ conseil of his Romayns þat with him were lefte alyf, made pees wiþ Armoger in þis maner as ȝe shulleþ hure, þat is to seyne, how þat Claudius þe emperour shulde ȝeue to Armoger, Gennen his douȝter, forto haue to wif, so þat þis lande fro þat tyme afterwarde shulde be in þe Emperoureȝ power of Rome, oppon suche couenant, þat none Emperour of Rome shulde take none oþere truage of þis lande, but oneliche feaute; and so þai were accordede. ¶ And oppon þis couenant, Claudius Cesar sent to Rome for his douȝter Gennen; and when she was comen, Claudius Cesar ȝaf her to Armoger to Wif; and Armoger spoused here at London with michel solempnite and merþe; and þo was Armoger cronede, and made Kyng of Britaigne.

Of Kyng Armoger, in whas tyme seynt Peter prechede in Antyoche, wiþ oþere apostlis in diuerses contres. Capitulo xl.

THis Kyng Armoger regnede wel, and worthely þe lande gouernede, and Claudis Cesar, in remembrance of þis accorde, and for reuerence and honour of his doughter, made in þis lande a fare toune and a faire castel, and lete calle þe toune after his owen name 'Claucestre,' þat now is callede Gloucestr. and when þis was al.done, þe Emperoure toke his leue, and went aȝeyne to Rome; and Armoger was þo kyng, and gouernede þe lande wel and nobli al his lif tyme. ¶ and this Armager gete a sone on his wif, þat was callede Westmere. andPage  36 whiles þat þis Armoger regnede, seynt Peter prechede in Antioche; and þere he hade made a noble cherche, in þe whiche he satte ferste in his chier, and þere he duellede vij ȝere. after, he went to Rome, and was made Pope, til þat Nero þe Emperour lete him martre. & þo prechede openly al þe Apostlis, in diuerses landes, þe ryȝt fay. ¶ And when Armoger hade regnede xxiiij ȝere, he deyde, and lith at London.

How Kyng Westmer ȝaf to Berynger an Ilande forlete; and þere þis Beringer made þe toune of Berwik. Capitulo xlj.

ANd after þis Amoger, regnede his sone Westmer, a gode man, and a worþi of body, and wel gouernede þe lande. ¶ Hit bifelle so þat tydynges come to him oppon [MS Rawlinson B 171 14b] a day, þat þe Kyng Rodrik of Gascoigne was comen into þis lande wiþ an huge noumbre of peple, and was duellyng in Steynesmore. and when Kyng Westmer herde þo tydyngus, he lete assemble a grete host of Britons, and come to þe Kyng Rodrik, and ȝaf him bataile. and Kynge Westmer quellede Rodrik wiþ his owen hondes in pleyne bataile; and when þat kyng Rodrikes men saw þat here Lorde was dede, þai ȝolden ham alle to þe Kyng Westmer, and bicome his men for euermore; and he ȝaf ham a contre þat was forlete, wher-in þai myȝt duelle; and þider þai went, and duellede þere al here lifes tyme; and ix C men þere were of ham, and nomo lefte alif at ȝat bataile. Here gouernour and her prince, me callede Berynger; and anone he biganne a toune, þat þai myȝt þerein duelle and haue resceyt, and lete calle þe toune Berwik vp Twede; and þere þai duellede, and bicome riche. but þai nade no wymmen amonges ham, and þe Britons wolde nouȝt ȝeue here douȝtres to þo Straungers; Wherfore þai went ouere þe see into Irland, and brouȝt with ham Wymmen, and ham þo spousede; but þe men couþe nouȝt vnderstonde þe langage ne þe speche of þe wymmen, neyþer þe wymmen of þe men, and þerefore þai speken to-gederes as scottes; and aftirwarde, þrouȝ chaungeyng of herPage  37 langages, in al Fraunce þei were callede þo Scottes: and so þai shal be callede for euermore.

How Kyng Westmer Lete arere a stone in þe entryng of Westmerland, þere þat he slouȝt Rodrik; & þere he biganne ferste Housyng. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Quadragesimo ¶ Secundo.

ANd after this bataile þat is aboue-saide, when Rodrik [MS Rawlinson B 171 15a] Was dede, Kyng Westmer, in remembraunce of his Victorie, lete arere þere, bisides þe way, a grete stone in hye,—& ȝitte it standeþ, and euermore shal stande,—and Lete graue in þe stone lettres þat þus saide: 'The Kyng Westmere of Britaigne quellede in þis place Rodrik his enemy.' ¶ And þis Westmere was þe ferst man þat made tounes and hous in Engeland. and at þat stone bigynneth Westmerland, þat Westmer lete calle after his owen name. and when Westmer hade so done, he duellede al his Lif tyme in þat contre of Westmerland, for he louede þat contre more; and when he hade regnede xxv ȝere, he deide. & liþ at ¶ Karleile.

Of Kyng Coil, þat was Westmeres sone, þat helde his lande in pees his lif-tyme. ¶ Capitulo xl Tercio.

After þis Kyng Westmer, regnede his sone Coil, a goode man and a worþi, and of gode condicions, and wel gouernede his lande, and of alle men he hade loue and pees; and in his tyme was neuer contak, debate, ne werre in Britayn; and he regnede and was kyng in pees al his lif-tyme. & When he hade bene kyng xj ȝere, he deide, and liþ at Ȝork.

How Kyng Lucye regnede after Coel his fader, þat was a gode man; and after, he bicome cristen. ¶ Capitulo xl ¶ Quarto.

After Kyng Coel, regnede Lucie his sone, þat was a gode man to God and to al þe peple. he sent to Rome, to Apostle Eulenchie, þat þo was, and seide þat he wolde bicome a cristen man, and resceyue baptisme in þe name of God, and turne to þePage  38 ryȝt bileue. ¶ Eulenchie sent ij legates, þat me callede Pagan and Elibrayne, into þis lande, and baptisede þe kyng and alle his menye, and after went fro [MS Rawlinson B 171 15b] toune to toune, and baptisede þe peple til al þat Lande was baptisede, and þis was in þe c. lvj ȝere after þe Incarnacion of Ihesu Crist. and þis kyng Lucye made þo in þis lande ij erchebisshoppes, on at Kaunterbery and anoþere at Ȝork, and oþere meny bisshopes þat ȝit bene in þis lande. ¶ And when þise ij legates hade baptisede al þe lande, þai ordeynede prestes forto baptisen childern and forto make þe Sacrament; and after, þai went aȝeyne to Rome, and þe kyng duellede in his lande, and regnede with michel honour xiij ȝere, and after deide, and liþ at Gloucestre.

How þis lande was longe wiþouten a kyng; and how þe Britons chosen a kyng. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Quadragesimo. ¶ Quinto.

This kyng Lucie hade none heire of his body bigeten, þat was afterwarde grete harme and sorwe to þe lande; ffor, after þis kyng Lucies deth, none of þe grete lordes of þe lande wolde suffren an-oþere to bene kyng, but leuede in werre and debate amonges ham l. ȝere wiþoute kyng. but þo it bifel aftirwarde þat a grete Prince come fro Rome into þis lande þat me callede Seuerey; nouȝt forto werr, but forto saue þe ryght of Rome. ¶ But noþeles, he nade nouȝt duellede half ȝere in þis lande, þat þe Britons ne quellede him. when þo of Rome wiste þat Seuerey was so slayn, þai sent anoþere grete lorde into þis lande, þat me callede Allec, þat was a stronge man, and a myȝty of body, and duellede in þis lande Longe tyme, and dede miche sorwe to þe Britons, so þat after, for pure malice, þai chosen ham a kyng amonges ham, þat me callede Astlepades, and assemblede a grete host of þe Britouns, and went to London to seche Allec; and þere þai founde [MS Rawlinson B 171 16a] him, and quellede him and alle his felawes þatPage  39 were wiþ him, but one of his felawes, þat me clepede Waloun, defendet him fersly, and fauȝt longe with þe Britouns, but at þe laste he was descomfitede; and þe Britons token him, and bounde him Hondes and feete, and caste him into a water; wher-fore þat water afterwarde was clepede euermore Walbroke. ¶ Þo regnede þis Astlepades in quiete, til one of his erles þat me callede Coel, made a faire toune aȝeynes þe kynges wille, and lete calle þe toune Colchestre after his name, wherfore þe kyng was ful wroth, and þouȝt destroie þe erle, and bigan to werre vppon him, and brouȝt grete power, and ȝaf bataile to þe erl. and þe erl defendede him fersly with his power, and slough þe kyng him-self in þat bataile; and þo was Coel cronede, and made kyng of þis land. ¶ þis Coel regnede and gouernede þe lande wel and nobly, for he was a noble man, and wel bilouede amonges þe Britons. ¶ When þo of Rome herde þat Astlepades was slayne, þai were wonder glade, and sent anoþere grete prince of Romayns, þat me callede Constance; and he come to þe Kyng Coil forto chalange þe truage þat was wont to bene paiede to Rome; and þe kyng ansuerede wel and worþely, and saide þat he wolde paye to Rome al þat ryȝt and resoun wolde, wiþ godewil; and so þai accordede þo wiþ goode wil, and wiþouten eny contak; and boþe þai duellede togeder in loue. ¶ The Kyng Coel ȝaf his douȝter Elyne to Constance, forto haue here for his spouse, þat was boþe faire, wise, and gode, and wel lettrede: and þis Constance spousede here þere with michel honour. and it bifelle sone afterwarde, þat þis kyng Coel [MS Rawlinson B 171 16b] deide in the ȝere of his regne xiij, & Lith at Colchestre enterede.

Of Kyng Constance, þat was a Romayn, þat was chosen kyng after þe deth of Coel, for-asmiche þat he hade spousede Elyn, þat was Kyng Coeles douȝter. Capitulo xlvjo.

After þis Kyng Coel, Constance was made kyng, and cronede, for-asmiche as he hade spousede Kyng Coeleȝ douȝter, þat was heire of þe lande. þe whiche Constance regnede and worþelyPage  40 gouernede þe lande; and he bigate on his wif Elyn, a sone þat me callede Constantyn. and þis kyng bare trew fay, and trewly dede to ham of Rome al his lif. & when he hade regnede xv ȝere, he deide, and liþ atte Ȝork.

How Constantyne, þat was Kyng Constanceȝ sone, & þe sone of seynt Elyne, gouernede and rewlede þe lande, & was Emperour of Rome. ¶ Capitulo xl Septimo.

After Kyng Con[s]tanceȝ deth, Constantyne, his sone of seynt Elyne, þat founde þat croice in þe holy londe, and how Constantyne bicome Emperoure of Rome. ¶ Hit bifel so in þat tyme þere was an Emperour atte Rome, a sarasyne, a tyraunt, þat me callede Maxence, þat put to þe deth alle þat bileuede in God, and destroide holy cherche by alle his power, and slought Cristen men þat he myȝt fynde; and amonge alle oþere, he lete martre Seynt Kateryne, and meny oþere cristen peple þat hade drede of deth, þai fledden and comen into þis lande to Kyng Constantyne, and tolde him of þe sorwe þat Maxence dede to al cristiente. Wherof Constantyn hade pite, and grete sorwe made, and assemblede a grete hoste and grete power, and went ouere see to Rome, and toke þe citee, and quellede al þat þerin were mescreaunt, þat he myȝt fynde. ¶ And þo was he made Emperoure, [MS Rawlinson B 171 17a] And was a gode man, and gouernede him so wel, þat al þe Landes to him were entendaunt forto be vnder his gouernaile. ¶ And þis deuel tyraunt Maxence, þat þo was in þe lande of Greke, when he herde þis tydynges, he bicome wode, and sodeynely deide, and so he endede his lif.

When Constantyne went fro þis land to Rome, he toke wiþ him his moder Elyn, for þe michel wisedome þat she couþe, and þre oþere grete lordes þat he moste louede: þat one me callede Hoel, anoþere me callede Taberne, and þe þridde Morhyn; and toke al his lande to kepe vnto þe Erl of Cornwaile, þat men callede Octouyan. ¶ anone as þis Octouian wiste þat his lorde was duellyng at Rome, he seisede al þe lande into his honde, and þerwiþPage  41 dede al his wil amonges heye and law, & þo helde him for kyng. ¶ when þis tydyng come to Constantyne þe Emperoure, he woxe wonder wroþe towarde þe Erl Octouyan, and sent Taberne with xij ml men forto destroye the erl for his falsenesse, and arryuede at Portesmouthe. ¶ And when Octouyan wiste þat, he assemblede a grete power of Britons, and descomfitede Taberne. ¶ And Taberne fledde þens into Scotlande, and ordeynede þere a grete power, and come aȝeyne into þis lande forto ȝeue bataile anoþere tyme to Octouyan. ¶ When Octouyan herde telle þat, he assemblede a grete power, and come towarde Taberne as miche as he myȝt, so þat þo ij hostes metten oppon Staynesmore, and strongely smyten to-gederes. and þo was Octouyan descomfitede, and fledde þens into Norwaye; and Taberne seisede al þe lande into his hande, Tounes, castelles, and as mich as þai þere hade. ¶ And siþenes Octouyan come aȝeyne fro Norway wiþ a grete power, & slough Taberne, & seisede al þe lande aȝeyne into his honde, & drof oute alle þe Romayns, [MS Rawlinson B 171 17b] and was þo made Kyng, and regnede.

How Maximian, þat was þe Emperoureȝ cosyn of Rome spousede Octouyaneȝ douȝter, and was made kyng, ¶ Capitulo xlviijo.

THis Kyng Octouian gouernede þis lande wel and nobly; but he nad none heire, saf a douȝter þat was a ȝonge childe, þat he louede as miche as his lif. and forasmiche þat he wax sike, and was in poynt of deþ, and myȝt no lenger regne, he wolde haue made one of his Neveus to haue bene kyng, þe whiche was a noble knyȝt and stronge man, þat me callede Conan Merchedok, and he shulde haue kepte þe kynges douȝter, & haue mariede her when tyme hade bene; but þe lordes of þe lande wolde nouȝt suffre hit, but ȝaf here conseile to bene mariede to some hye man of great honour, and þan myȝt she haue al her wille at þe conseile of þe Emperoure Constantyne, here Lorde. and at þis conseile, þai accordede and chose þo Cador, Erl of Cornewail, forto wendePage  42 to þe Emperour to done þis message. and he toke þe way, and went to Rome, and tolde þe Emperour þis tydynges wel and wiselich. and þe Emperoure sent þo into þis lande with him his owen cosyn, þat was his Vncles sone, a noble knyȝt and stronge, þat me callede Maximian; and he spousede Octouyanus douȝter, and was cronede kyng of þis lande.

How Maximian, þat was þe Emperourres cosyn, conquerede the Lande of Amorican, and ȝaf it to Conan Meriedok. ¶ Capitulo xlixo.

THis Kyng Maximian bicome so real, þat he þouȝt conquere þe lande of Amorican for þe grete richesse þat he harde telle þat was in þat lande; so þat he ne lefte [MS Rawlinson B 171 18a] man þat was of worþinesse—knyȝt, squyer, ne none oþere man—þat he ne toke ham with him, to grete damage and harme to al þe lande, but nome ham with him fram þis lande, xxx Ml knyȝtes þat were doughty mennes bodyes, and went ouer into þe lande of Amorican, and þere slough þe kyng þat me callede Imbal, and conquerede al þe lande. ¶ And when he hade so done, he callede Conan, and saide: "For-asmiche as þe Kyng Octouyan wolde haue made ȝow kyng of Britaigne, and þrouȝ me ȝe were lette and destourblede, þat ȝe were nouȝt kyng, I ȝeue ȝow al þis lande of Amorican, and ȝow þerof make kyng. ¶ And for-asmiche as ȝe beth a Britoun, and ȝoure men also, and bene comen fram Britaigne, I wille þat þis lande haue þe same name, and nomore bene callede Amorican, but bene callede 'litel Britaigne'; and þe lande fro whens ȝe beþe comen shal bene callede 'michel Britaigne'; and so shul men know þat one Britaigne fram þat oþere." Conan Meriedok þankede him hendeliche; and so was he made kyng of litel Britaigne. and when al þis was done, Maxence went þens to Rome, and þere was made Emperour after Constantyne. ¶ Conan Meriedok duellede in litel Britaigne with michel honour, and lete ordeyne ij MlPage  43 ploughmen of þe lande forto erie þe lande, to harwe it and sowe, and feffede ham alle rychely, after þat þai were. ¶ and for-asmiche þat Kyng Conan, ne none of his knyȝtes, ne none of his oþere peple, wolde nouȝt take wifes of þe nacion of Fraunce, he þo sent into grete Britaig[n]e, to þe Erl of Cornewaile þat me callede Dionotho, þat chees þrouȝ-oute alle þe lande xj Ml [MS Rawlinson B 171 18b] of maydenes, þat is to seyne, viij Ml for the mene peple, and iij Ml for þe grettest lordes þat schulde ham spouse. ¶ And when Dionotho hade tak þis commandement, he lete þo seche þrouȝ-out al grete Britaigne as meny as þe nombre come to, for noman derst wiþstande his commandement, for-asmichel as al þe lande was taken him to warde and kepe, to do al þing þat him þo likede. ¶ And when alle þe maydenes were assemblede, he lete ham comme bifore him to London, and lete ordeyne for ham shippes hastely, as miche as ham nedet to þat viage, and toke his owen doughter þat me callede Vrsula, þat was þe faireste creature þat eny man wist, and wolde haue sent her to Kyng Conan, þat shulde haue spousede here, and made here quene of litel Britaigne; but she hade made priuely to God a vow of chastite, þat here fader wiste it nouȝt, ne noman elles þat was leuyng oppon erþe.

How Vrsula, and xj Ml of maydenes þat were in here company, went towarde litil Britaigne, & al were martrede at Coloigne. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Quinquagesimo.

THis Vrsula chees into her company xj Ml maydenes þat of al oþere she was lady and maistres; and alle þai went into þe shippis at on tyme, in þe water þat me calleþ Tamise; and commandede her kyn and alle her frendes to almyȝty God, and sailede forþ towarde litel Britaigne. But when þai were comen in þe hye see, a stronge tempest arose, as it was Goddes wil; and Vrsula, wiþ her shippis and here company, was dryuen, and þo xj Ml maidenes, toward Hundelande, þrouȝ tempest, and arryuede in þePage  44 hauen of [MS Rawlinson B 171 19a] þe citee of Coloigne. ¶ The kyng of þe lande, þat me callede Gowan, was þo in þe citee; and when he wist þo tydynges, þat so meny faire maydenes were þere arryuede, he tok Elga his broþer, and oþere of his householde, wiþ him, and went to þe shippes to see þat fair company. and when he sawe ham so faire, he and his company wolde haue ham ouerlayne, and bynome here maydenhode. ¶ but Vrsula, þat gode mayde, conseilede, prayede, warnede, and tauȝte ham þat were here felowes, þat þai shulde defende ham wiþ al her myȝt, and raþer suffre deth þan suffre here bodyes bene defoulede. ¶ So þat alle þe maydenes bicome so stedefast in God, þat þai defendede ham þrouȝ his grace, so þat none of ham hade power to done ham eny shame; wherfore þe kyng was so sore annoiede, þat he, for wraþ, lete slee ham euerychon anone ryght; and so were alle þe maidenes martrede for þe loue of God, and ligget at Coloyn.

How Kyng Gowan come forto destroye þis lande; and how aman of grete power, þat me callede Gracian, defendede þe lande. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Qui[n]quagesimo ¶ Primo.

WHen al þis was done, Kyng Gowan, þat was a sarasyn, callede his broþer Elga, and saide to him þat he shulde gone to conquere þe lande þat alle þo faire maydenes were borne in. and he ordeynede þo a grete power of Peihtes, of Denmarc, of Orkeneye, and of Norwaye, and þai comen into þis lande, and brent tounes, and slough folc, and caste adone cherches and houses of religioun, and robbede the lande in lengh and in brede, and put to deth alle þo þat wolde noght forsake þe ryght bileue and cristendome, for-asmiche as þere was none souerayne in the lande þat myȝt ham helpe or [MS Rawlinson B 171 19b] defende. ¶ For þe Kyng Maximian hade taken wiþ him alle þe worþi men, when he went to conquere litil Britaigne. and in þe same tyme þat ȝe hure now telle, was Seynt Albone martrede þrouȝ þe wode tyraunt Diodician in þe same place, wherin is now an Abbay made of Seynt Albone, whiles þat he was a paynyme. ¶ But he conuertede him towarde God, þrouȝ þe predicacioun of a grete clerc and a wyse, þat me callede Ancibell, þatPage  45 was herburghede a nyght in his house; and þis was after þe Incarnacion of Ihesu Crist .ij C. iiijxx. vj ȝere. and men shullen vnder stonde þat Seynt Albone soffrede his martredome bifore þat Seynt Edmunde was martrede; and þerfore is seynt Albone callede þe ferst martre of Engelande. ¶ This Gowanus broþer, & his folk, þat were Sarasynes, went þrouȝ-oute þe Lande, and destroyede al þing þat þai fonde; and no þing þai ne sparede. ¶ When þis tydyng come to Rome, how þat Kyng Gowan hade bigonne forto destroye þis lande, þe Emperour and þo of Rome sent a stronge man, and of grete power, þat me callede Gracian, w[ith] xxiiij Ml men wel feightyng, forto caste oute Sarasynes of þis lande, and alle þai arryuede at Portesmouthe. Maximian myȝt nouȝt come him-self, for-asmiche as he was chosen Emperoure after þe deþ of Constantyn, þat was Seynt Elynes sone. ¶ When þis Gracian was arryuede wiþ his host, he lete aspie priuely wher þe Kyng Gowan myȝt bene founden; and he come vppon him sodeynly, as þai Lay in her beddes, and descomfitede ham, and sloughe [MS Douce 323 17a] echeon, þat non of hem Ascaped saf Gowan, þat fledde with mych sorowe in-to his cuntre. Sone aftir yt byfel þat Maximian was slayn at Rome, þurgh treson; And when Gracian wyst þe tydynge, he let Croune hym kyng of þis land.

How Gracyan made hym kyng whan Maximian was slayn; & after, þe Brytouns quelled hym for his wikkydnesse. Capitulo quinquagesimo ijo.

This Gracian, when he gan forto regne, he bycome so wykked & so sterne, & so mych sorow wrought to þe Britouns, þat þey slow hym amonges hem. ¶ Tho Kyng Gowan had vndirstande þat Gracian was do to deth, he Assembled a gret power, & come aȝen in-to þis land; & yf he had arst don a grete harme, þo dede he mych more; for þo distroyed he al this land, & al Crysten peple þat was in Myche Brytaigne, so þat no man was so hardy for-to nempne God; & ho þat dede, anon he was put to strong deth.Page  46 ¶ But þe bysshop of London þat was þo, þat me called Gosselyn, scaped, & went þens to hem of Rome, to seche socour for-to helpe dystroye þe Saraȝins þat had dystroyed þis land. ¶ And þe Romayns seyde þat þey hadde be so ofte anoyed for her sendyng after folk in-to Brytaigne, al for-to helpe þe Britouns, & þey wold no more so do. And so þe Bysshop Gosselyn went þens with-oute ony Socour or helpe; & þo went he to þe Kyng of litil Brytaigne, þat me called Aldroye, & þis was þe iij kyng after Gowan Meridiok, as bifore is sayd. The bysshop prayed this Kyng Aldroye of socour & of helpe. the kyng hadde herd how þe bysshop fledde, & how þat þe Crystene men were slayn in gret Brytaigne þurgh Paynyms & Saraȝins, & he graunted hym Constantyn his broþer, hym for-to helpe, with Poer of folk, & hem dede arraye hors armure, & schippes, & al thing þat hem neded to þat viage. and when al thing was redy, he called þe bysshop, & to hym seyd: "I take ȝou here to helpe & socour Constantyn my broþer, vpon this couenaunt, þat ȝif God ȝife hym grace, þe Paynems & Saraȝins to schende & discomfite, þat þanne ȝe make hym kyng of þe land": & þe bysshop yt graunted with good wyll. ¶ Constantyn & þe bysshop nome leue þo of þe Kyng Aldroye, & by-took hym to God, & nome her men xij Ml, & went in-to her schippes, & sayled toward þe gret Brytaigne, & Arryued in Tottenesse. whan þe Britouns herd þe tydyng þat to hem come socour, þey were stronglich holpyn, & ordeigned hem an huge nombre of peple, [Ms Douce 323 17b] & come to hem, & hem vndirfongen with mychel honour. ¶ Gowan, anon as he wyste of this þyng, he Assemblyd all þe Saraȝins, & come aȝens hym, & ȝaf batayll. And Constantyn slow hym with his owne hand; & all þe othere Saraȝins were discomfited & slayn, þat non aschaped but þo þat were conuerted vnto God.

How Constantyn, þat was þe kynges broþer of litel Britaigne, was Crouned kyng, for his worþines, of mych Bretaigne. Capitulo liijo.

Anon, aftir þe batayll, alle þey went to London, & crowned þere Constantyn, & made hym kyng of þis lond. And þe bysshop Gosselyn sette þe Croune vpon his hed, & anoynted hym, asPage  47 falleth to A kyng for-to be; & þo bygan Crystendom. This Constantyn, whan he was Crouned, anon aftir he spoused his wyf þurgh counceil of þe Britouns; & he begate iij Sones on her: þe ferst me called Constaunce, þat other Aurylambros, & þe iij Vter. ¶ Constance, þe eldest brother, when he come to Age, made hym a monke at Wynchestre. Constantyn here fadir was slayn þurgh treson; for it byfell vpon a tyme þat a Pohete come to hym vpon a day, in Message as yt were, & seyd þat he wolde speke with þe kyng pryuyly in Counceyl. The kyng lete voyde his Chambre of þo men þat were with-Inne; & þo Abide þere nomo but þe kyng & þe Pohete, & made a Contenaunce as þey wolde speke to-gidere in his ere; & þere he qwelled hym with a long knyf; & after, went qweyntly out of þe Chambre in-to anoþer Chambre; so at þe laste no man wyst wher he was bycome. ¶ When þe kynges men it wyste, þat here lord was so ded, þei made so mych sorowe þey nyst all what for-to done, for-as-mych as his ij sones, Aurylambros & Vter, weren so yenge þat non of hem myght be kyng; & þe iij broþer was monke at Wynchestre, as I sayd before. ¶ But Vortiger, þat was Erl of Westsex, þought pryuyly in his herte, thurgh queyntise, to be kyng; & went to Wynchestre þer þat Constaunce was monk, & to hym seyde: "Constaunce," quod he, "ȝoure fadir is ded, & ȝour ij breþerin þat ben with Gosselyn, þe bysshop of London, to noryssh, beth so yeng, þat non of hem may be kyng; wherfore y counseyle þat ȝe forsake ȝoure Abyte, & come with me, & I schal do so to þe Brytouns þat ȝe schul be made kyng."

Of Constaunce, þat was Constantynus sone, þat was Monk at Wynchestr; & how he was made kyng after his faders deth, þurgh Counceill of Vortiger, þat was Erle of Westsex, for-as-mych as Aurilambros & Vter, his ij breþerin, were but of younge age, & was slayn. Capitulo liiijo.

This Vortiger counceyled þis Constaunce so mych tyl he forsook his Abyte, & went with hym. & anon aftir, he was Crouned and made kyng by Assent of þe Brytouns. This kyng Constance,Page  48 whan he was crouned & made kyng, he wyst ne knew but litil of þe world, ne cowde no thing as knyghthood axed, he made Vortiger his maister & his chef Counceillour, & yaf hym all his power, for-to ordeigne & do as myche as to þe reaume perteyned, so þat hym-self no þing entrauelled, but only bare þe name of kyng ¶ Whan Vortiger saw þat he had al þe land in his warde & gouernayle, at his owne wyll, he þought A pryue Treson, & þought to sle Constance þe kyng, þat he myght hym-self be Crouned & made kyng & regne, & lete sende after a C knyghttes of Pehetes, þe worthiest of þe land, & hem helde with hym, to duelle wiþ him, and [MS Rawlinson B 171 20a] to bene Kepers of his body, as he wolde wende þrouȝ þe lande to ordeyne þinges þat perteynede to a Kyng. ¶ And þis Vortiger honourede so miche þo C knyȝtes, and so miche ȝaf ham of golde and siluer, & so ryche rewell, robes, hors, and oþere noble plente, wherfore þai helde him more lorde þan þai deden þe kyng. ¶ And Vortyger tolde ham, if þat he moste bene kyng, he, as it were þrouȝ tresoun, he wolde make ham richest of þe lande. so at the laste, þrouȝ grete ȝiftes þat he hade ȝeue largely, þai crieden þrouȝ þe court þat Vortiger were better worþi ben kyng þan Constance; wherfore Vortiger made semblant as þauȝ he hade bene wroþ, and departede þens fro þe court, and saide he most gone elles-where for þing þat he hade to done; and so þe traitoure ȝede for enchesoun þat þai shulde slee him, þat is to seyne, Constance. ¶ When þis Vortiger was gone, hit bifelle sone after þat þo C knyȝtȝ of Peightes breken þe dores of þe kynges chambre, and þere þai him slough and smoten of his heuede, and bare it to Vortiger þere þat he duellede. and when Vortyger saw þat heuede, he wepte ful tenderly wiþ his eye; and noþelese he was some dele glade of his deth, and anone lete take þo C knyȝtes of Peightes, & bonde here hondes bihynde ham, and lade ham to London; & þere þai were dampnede to dethPage  49 as false traitoures. ¶ and anone after, al þe britons of þe lande, by commune assent, cronede þere Vortiger, & made him kyng of þe lande.

How þe wardeynes þat hade þo ij childerne to kepe, þat were [MS Rawlinson B 171 20b] Constantines sones, lade ham to litel Britaigne, for the tresoun and falsenesse of Vortiger. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Quinquagesimo ¶ Quinto.

THis kyng Vortyger, when he was cronede, þo þat hade þe ij childerne in kepyng, Aurilambros and Vter, þrouȝ ordenance of Gosselyn, þat was bisshop of London at his deþ, derst nouȝt duelle in the lande wiþ þe childerne, but lade ham to þe kyng of litel Britaigne, forasmiche as he þo wiste þe tresoun of Vortiger, þat þo was made Kyng, þrouȝ wham Constance here broþer was slayn, wherfore þo C knyȝtes of Peightes were put to þe deth, and bare al þe blame, as þeiȝt Vortiger hade nouȝt wiste þerof, noþer þerto consentede; and so þe Kepers of þo ij childerne drade laste Vortiger wolde put ham to deth, þrouȝ his tresoun and falsenesse, as he hade done her broþer biforne; and þerfor þai wer ladde ouer into litel Britaigne, and þe kyng ham resceyuede wiþ michel honour, and lete ham to norisshe; and þere þai duellede til þai bicome fair knyȝteȝ, & st[r]ong and ferse, and þouȝt euer to bene avengede of & þe deth of Constantyne here broþer, when þai saw here tyme; and so þai deden, as þe shul hur aftirward.

¶ Hit was nouȝt long after, þat þe tydynges ne come ouer þe see, to þe kynrede of þe C knyȝteȝ of Peightes þat were dampnede and put to þe deth þrouȝ Vortiger in þis lande; þerfore þai weren wonderly wroþe, & sworen þat þai [would be avenged of her kins death,] and comen into þis lande wiþ a grete power & robbeden in meny places, & slouȝ, & dede al þe sorw þat þai myȝt. ¶ When Vortyger hit wiste, he [MS Rawlinson B 171 21a] made sorw ynow andPage  50 sore was annoyede; and in a-noþer partie also tydynges come þat Aurilambros & Vter ordeynede ham, and assemblede a grete hoste forto come into michel Britaigne, þat is to seyne, into þis lande, to bene avenged of Constance deþ her broþer; so þat in one half and in þat oþer he was brouȝt into so miche sorwe þat he nyst whider to wende.

How Engist and xj Ml men come into þis lande, to whom Vortiger ȝaf a place þat is callede Thongecastell. Capitulo lvjto.

ANd sone after þis sorw, tidynges come to Vortiger, þat a grete nauye of straungers were arryuede in Kent; but þai wist nouȝt whens þai were, ne wherfore þai were comen. ¶ The Kyng sent anone messagers þider, þat somme of ham shulde come and speke wiþ him, forto wete what folc þai werne, and what þai axede, and into what contre þai wolde gone. ¶ þere were ij breþerne, Prynces and maistres of þat straunge company: þat on me callede Engist, and þat oþere Horn. Engist went þo to þe kyng, & tolde to him encheson wher-fore þai were þere arryuede in his lande, and saide: "sire! we beth of a contre þat is callede Saxoyne, þat is, þe Lande of Germayn, wherin is so miche sorw, þat þe peple is so myche þat þe lande may nouȝt ham sustene ne suffice. ¶ The maystres & Prynces þat haueþ þe lande to gouerne and rewele, shul done come bifore ham men and wymmen, þe boldest þat bene amonges ham and best mowen trauaile into diuerseȝ londes; and so þai [MS Rawlinson B 171 21b] shal ham ȝeue Horse and harneyse, armure, and al þing þat ham nedeþ; and after þai say to ham þat þai go into anoþer contre, wher þat þai mowen leue, as here auncestres deden biforne ham. and þerfore, sire kyng, if ȝe haue ouȝt toPage  51 done wiþ oure company, we bene comen into ȝoure lande; and wiþ gode wille ȝow wil serue, and ȝour lande helpe, kepe, & defende fram ȝoure enemys, if þat ȝow nedeþ." ¶ when Vortiger herde þis tydynges, he saide he wolde gladeliche wiþhalde ham, oppon soche couenant, if þai myȝt delyuer his lande of his enemys, he wolde ȝeue ham resonable landes, wher þai shulde duelle for euermore. ¶ Engist þankede him godeliche; and in þis maner he and his company, ¶ xj. Ml men, shulde duelle wiþ þe Kyng Vortiger; and so miche þai deden þrouȝ here boldenesse, þat þai delyuerede þe lande clene of here enemys. ¶ þo praiede Engist þe Kyng, of so miche lande þat he myȝt make to him a citee, for him and for his menye. ¶ The kyng ansuerede & saide, 'it was nouȝt forto done wiþouten conseile of his Britons.' ¶ Engist prayede him eftesones of as miche place as he myȝt compasse wiþ a twonge of a skyn, wher-oppon he myȝt make him a maner, and for his to duelle in; and þe kyng grantede it frely. ¶ þo tok Engist a bole skyn, and cotte it as smale as he myȝt, al into a twonge al rounde, & þer-wiþ compassede as miche lande as he compassede; wher-oppon he made a faire castel. and when þis castel was ymade, he lete calle it Twongecastel, for-asmiche as þe place was merkede wiþ a twonge.

Of Ronewenne, þat was Engistes doughter [MS Rawlinson B 171 22a] and how Kyng Vortyger [spou]sede her for here beaute. C. lvijmo.

WHen þis castel was makede, and ful wel arraiede, Engist priuely sent bi lettre into þe contre þat he come of, after an hundrede shippis fillede with strange men þat were bolde and wel feiȝtyng in alle batailes; and þat þai shulde bryng wiþ ham Ronewenne, his douȝter, þat was þe fairest creature þat eny man myȝt see. ¶ And when þe peple was comen, þat he hade sende after, he toke ham into þe castel wiþ michel ioye; and him him-self, vppon a day, went vnto þe kyng, and prayede him derworly þat he wolde come and see his new maner, þat he hade made in þe place þat he hade compassede wiþ þe twong of þePage  52 skyn. þe kyng anone grantede him frely, and wiþ him went þider, and was wel payede wiþ þe castel & wiþ þe faire werk; and togederes þere þai eten and dranken wiþ michel ioye. ¶ And when nyȝt come, þat þe kyng shulde go into his chambre forto take þere his nyȝtes reste, Ronewenne, þat was Engistes douȝter, come wiþ a coupe of golde in here honde, and knelede bifore þe kyng, and saide to him "Whatsaile!" and þe kyng wist nouȝt what it was forto mene, ne what he shulde ansuere, for-asmiche as himself ne none of his Britons ȝitte couþe none Englisshe speke, ne vnderstonde it, but speken þo þat same langage þat Britons ȝitte done. ¶ Noþeles, a Latymer tolde þe kyng þe fulle vnderstondyng þerof 'whatsaill'; and þat oþer shulde ansuere 'drynkehaile': and þat was þe ferst tyme þat 'whatsaile' and 'drynkehaile' come vp into þis lande; and fram þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 22b] tyme into this tyme it Haþ bene wel vsede. ¶ The Kyng Vortiger saw þe fairenesse of Ronewenne, and his armes layde aboute here nek, and þries swetely cussede hir; and anone ryȝt he was vnarmerede oppon hire, þat he desirede to haue here to wyf, and axede of Engist hir fader. and Engist grantede, oppon þis couenaunt þat þe kyng shulde ȝeue him al the contre of Kent, þat he myȝt duelle in, and al his peple. þe kyng hym grantede priuely with a gode wille; and anone after he spousede þe damisell. þat was miche confusion to himself; and þerfor al þe Britouns bicome so wroþ, for enchesoun þat he hade spousede a womman of mysbileue, wherfore þai went al from him, and noþing to him toke kepe, ne helpe him in þinges þat he hade to done.

How Vortymere, þat was Vortigers sone, was made kyng, & Engist dryuen oute; & how Vortymer was slayn þrouȝ Ronewenne. ¶ Capitulo lviijo.

THis Engist went into Kent, and seisede al þe lande into his hande, for him and for al his men; and bicome in a litel while of so grete power, & so miche peple hade, þat men wist nouȝt in litel tyme, whiche were þe kynges men, & whiche werePage  53 Engistes men. wherfore al Britaigne hade of ham drede, and saide amonges ham þat, if þai ne toke oþere counseil bituene ham, al þe lande shulde be bitrayede þrouȝ Engist and his peple. ¶ Vortyger þe kyng hade bigeten on his ferst wif iij sones: þe ferst me callede Vortymer; þe secunde, Catagren; and þe þridde, Passent. þe Britons, euerychon by one assent, chosen Vortymer forto bene here lorde, & here souerayne, and hir conseiler in euery [MS Rawlinson B 171 23a] bataile, and cronede him, and made-him Kyng, and Wolde soffre Vortiger no longer to regne, for enchesoun of þe alliance bituene Engist and him. ¶ þe Britons ordeynede a grete host to drif out Engist and his company of þe lande, and ȝaf him iij batailles: þe ferst was in Kent, þere þat he was lorde; þe secunde was att Tetteford; and þe þridde was in a shire a þis half Cool, in a more. & in þis batail ham mette Cattegren and Horn, Engistes broþer, so þat eueryche of ham slouȝ oþer; but for-asmiche as þe contre was ȝeuen longe bifore to Horn, þrouȝ Vortyger, þo he hade spousede his cosyn; þere he hade made a faire castel þat me callede Horncastel, after his owen name. ¶ And Vortymere was so annoiede for his broþeres deþ, Cattegren, þat he was dede in soche a maner; wherfore anone he lete felle þe castel to þe grounde, and after þat, he ne lefte nyȝt ne day til he hade dryuen out Engist and all his peple of þe lande. ¶ And when Engist was dryuen away, Ronewenne his douȝter made sorwe ynow, and queyntly spake to ham þat were nexte þe kyng Vortymere, and priueest wiþ him. and so miche she ȝaf ham of ȝiftes, þat he was apoysenede, & deide at London þe iiij ȝere of his regne; & þere he lith.

How þe Britons chosen a-noþere tyme Vortyger to bene here king; and Engist come into þis lande aȝeyne, & þai fouȝten to-gedres. ¶ Capitulo lixo.

After Vortymeres deþ, þe Britons, by here commune assent, Eftesones made Vortyger here kyng, vppon þis couenaunt, þat he shulde neuer after soffren Engist, ne none of his, eftesones shulde come into þis lande. ¶ And when al þis was done,Page  54 Ronewenne þe Quene sent priuely by lettre to Engist, that she hade enpoisenede Vortymer, and þat Vortyger her lorde [MS Rawlinson B 171 23b] aȝeyne bare þe croune and regnede, and þat he shulde come aȝeyne into þat lande, wel arraiede wiþ miche peple, forto avenge him vppon þe Britons, and to wynne his lande aȝeyne. ¶ of þis tydyng Engist made grete ioye, and apparailede him hastely wiþ xv Ml men þat were douȝty en euery batail. And when Vortyger herde telle þat Engist was comen aȝeyne wiþ a grete power into þis lande, he assemblede his Britons, and þo went aȝeyns Engist forto haue ȝeue him bataile, and his folc; but Engist drade him sore of þe Britons, for þai hade descomfitede him biforn-hand, and dryuen him out by strengþ; wherfore Engist prayede him of a loue-day, and saide he was nouȝt comen forto fiȝt, but forto haue his lande aȝeyne of Kent, if he might accorde wiþ þe Britons, and of ham haue grace. ¶ The Kyng Vortiger, þrouȝ conseile of his Britons, grauntede a loue-day; and þus it was ordeynede þrouȝ þe Britons, þat þilk loue-day shulde ben holden faste bisides Salesbury, vppon an hull; and Engist shulde come þider wiþ iiijc knyȝtes, wiþouten mo, and þe kyng wiþ as meny of þe wisest of þis lande. ¶ And at þat day þe kyng come wiþ his conseil, as it was ordeynede; but Engist hade warnede his knyȝtes priueliche, and ham commandede þat eueryche of ham shulde put a Longe Knyf in his hose; and when he saide, "faire sires! now is tyme forto speke of loue and pees," eueryche anone, eueryche shulde draw his knyf & slee a Britoun. & so þai quellede xxx Ml & lxj of knyȝtes; and wiþ miche sorwe meny of ham ascapede; and Vortyger him-self was taken [MS Rawlinson B 171 24a] and Lade to Twongecastell, and put into prisoun; and somme of Engistes men wolde þat þe kyng hade bene brent al quyk. ¶ And Vortiger þo, to haue his lif, grauntede ham as miche as þai wolde axen, and ȝaf vp all þe lande, tounes and castelles, citees and Burghes, to Engist and to his folc. and alle þe Britons fledde þenns into Walys, and þere helde ham stille. and Engist went þrouȝ þe lande, and seisede alle þe lande with ffraunchises; and in euery place lete caste adounePage  55 chercheȝ and houses of religioun, and destroyed Cristendome þrouȝ þe lande, and lete chaunge þe name of þe lande, þat no man of his were so hardy after þat tyme to calle þis lande Britaigne, but calle it Engistes lande; and he departede alle þat lande to his men, and þere made vij kynges forto strengþ þe lande, þat þe Britons shulde neuer after come þerin. ¶ The ferst kyngdome was Kent, þere þat Engist him-self regnede, and was lorde & maystre ouer al þe oþere; ¶ Anoþere kyng hade Southsex, where now is Chichestre; ¶ The þridde kyng hade Westsex; The ferþe kyng hade Essex; ¶ The v kyng hade Estangle, þat now is callede Northfolc, Southfolc, Merchemeriche, þat is to seynt, þe Erldome of Nichol; ¶ þe sixte hade Leycestreshire, Northamptonshire, Hereford and Huntyngdoune; ¶ The vij hade Oxenford, Gloucestr, Wynchestre, Warwik and Darby-shire.

How Vortiger went into Walis, and biganne þere a castel, þat wolde nouȝt stande wiþouten morter temprede wiþ mannes blode. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Sexagesimo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 24b] WHen Engist hade departede al þe lande in this maner bituene his men, he delyuerede Vortiger out of prison, and soffrede hym frely to gone whider þat he wolde. and he toke his way, and went into Walys, þere þat his Britons duellede, for-asmiche as þat lande was strong and wikkede to wynne. and Engist neuer come þere, ne knew neuer bifore þat Lande. ¶ Vortiger helde him þere wiþ his Britons, and axede conseil what him was best al forto done; and þai ȝaf him conseil to make a stronge castel þat he myȝt him-self þerin kepe and defende if it nede were. Masounes in hast þere were fette, and bigonne þe werk oppon þe hull of Breigh; but certes þus it bi-felle, þat al the werk þat þe masounes made aday, adoune it felle anyȝt; and þat ferede so iij tymes or iiij, wherof þai hadden grete wonder what it myȝt bene; & þerof þe kyng was sore annoiede of þat chaunce, and wist nouȝt what to done; wherfore he lete sende after þe wisest clerkes, and also lewede men þat weren þrouȝ-out Walys, þat myght bene fonde, for þai shulde telle wherfore þePage  56 foundement so failede vnde[r] þe werk, and þat þai shulde him telle what was best to done. and when þe wisest men longe tyme hade studiet, þai saide to þe kyng þat 'he shulden done sike a childe borne of a woman þat neuer hade wiþ man to done, & þat childe he shulde sleen, & temper wiþ his blode þe morter of þe werk, & so shulle þe werke endure euermore wiþouten ende.'

How þe kyng lete seche Merlyn þrouȝ al Walys forto speke wiþ him. Capitulo lxjo.

WHen þe kyng herde þis, he commandede his messagers anone to wende þrouȝ-out al Walys, to seche þat childe if þai myght him fynde, and þat þai shulde [MS Rawlinson B 171 25a] brynge him forthwiþ ham vnto him. and in recorde and witnesse of þis þing, he toke ham his lettres, þat þai ne were destourblede of no man, ne lette. ¶ And so faste spede ham the messagers, þat þai come vnto a toune þat me callede Kermerdyn; and as þai passede fourth in here way, þai fonden ij childerne of xiiij ȝere age chiddyng togeder wiþ hastif wordes; and one of ham saide to þat oþer "Donebat," quod he, "ȝe done al wronge to chide or strif wiþ me, for ȝe haue no witte ne resoun as I haue." ¶ "Certes, Merlyn," quod þat oþere, "of ȝoure witte and of ȝour resoun y make no forse, for men telleþ communeliche þat ȝe haue no þing of god, siþ ȝe hade neuer fader, but alle men weten wel ho is ȝoure moder. ¶ The kynges messagers, when þai herde þis strif bituene þo ij gromes, þai axede of men þat stoden bituene ham, whens þat Merlyn was born, & who him norisshede; and þe folc ham tolde þat a grete gentilwoman him bare in Kermerdyne, þat me callede Adhan, but neuere myȝt men wete who was þe childes fader. ¶ When þe messagers herde þis tydynges, þai went anone to him þat was wardeyne of þe toune, and tolde him þe kynges wille and his lettres, wherfore þai were comen þider. ¶ Merlyn and his moder anone were sent bifore þe wardeyne of þe toune, and he commandede ham þat þaiPage  57 shulde gone to þe kyng, as hit was ordeynede by his messagers. ¶ Merlyn and his moder come vnto þe kyng, and were vnderfonge wiþ michel honour; and þe kyng axede of þat lady 'if þat childe were her sone, and who him bigate.' ¶ The lady ansuerede, ful tender wepyng, and saide she hade neuer company of man [MS Rawlinson B 171 25b] worldely'; "but, sire," quod shee, "as y was a ȝonge maiden in my faderes chambre, and oþere of grete lynage were in my company, þat ofte were wont to playe and to solacen, I belefte allone in my chaumbre of my fader, & wolde nouȝt gon out, for brennyng of þe sone. ¶ And oppon a tyme þere come a faire bachiler, and entrede into my chaumbre þere þat I was allone; but how he come into me, & wher, I wiste neuer, ne ȝitte wote, for þe dores were fast barrede; and wiþ me he dede game of loue, for I nade noþer myȝt ne power him to defende fro me; and ofte he come to me in the forsaide maner, so þat he bigate one me þis same childe; but neuer; myȝt y wete of him what he was, ne whens he come, ne what was his name."

Of þe ansuere of Merlyn, wherfore þe kyng axede whi his werk myght nouȝt stande þat he hade bigonne, myȝt nouȝt proue. Capitulo lxijo.

When Merlyn hade herde al þat his moder hade saide, he spake to þe kyng in this maner: "sire, how y was bigeten, axe ȝe no more, for hit falleþ nouȝt to ȝow ne to none oþere forto wete; but telle me þe enchesone wherefore I ame to ȝow brouȝt, and wherfore ȝe haue sent after me." ¶ "Certes," quod þe kyng, "my wise concelers hauen done me to vnderstonde þat þe morter of a werk þat I haue done bigonne biheueþ, ben temperede wiþ ȝour blode, or þe fundement shal faile for euermore." ¶ "Sire," quod Merlyn, "wille ȝe slee me for my blode forto temper wiþ ȝoure morter?" "Ȝe," quod þe kyng, "or elles shal neuer my castel stonde, as my conselers done me to vnderstonde." ¶ Þo ansurede Merlyn to þe kyng: "sire," he saide, "late ham come bifore [MS Rawlinson B 171 26a] me, þo wise conselers, and I wil proue þat þai sayPage  58 nouȝt wel ne trewely. and when þe wise were comen, Merlyn axede if his blode were þe enchesoun to make þe werke stande to endure. Alle þise wise were abasshede, and couþ nouȝt ansuere. ¶ Merlyn þo saide to þe kyng: "sire, I shall telle ȝow þe encheson wherfore ȝour werk þus faileþ and may nouȝt stande. þere is vnder þe mountaigne þere þat ȝe haue bigonne ȝour tour a grete ponde of water; and in þe botume of þe ponde, vnder þe water, þere beþ ij dragons,—þat one is white, and þat oþere rede,—þat feiȝten to-geder ageyne ȝoure werk. Doþ myne depe til ȝour men come to the ponde, and doth ȝour men take away þe water al out, and þan ȝe shul see þe dragons, as I haue ȝow tolde, þo togederes feiȝten ageyne ȝour werk; and þis is þe encheson, certes, wherfore ȝour fundement faileþ." ¶ the kyng anone lete degge vnder, til þat men come to þe ponde, & lete do away al þe water; and þere þai fonde ij dragons, as Merlyn hade tolde, þat egrely fouȝten togederes; þe white dragoun egrely assailede þe rede, and laide on him so strong þat he myȝt nouȝt endure, but wiþdrowe him, & hidde him in the same Cafe, and restede. ¶ And when he hade awhile restede, he went bifore, and assailede þe rede dragoun angrely, and assailede him so sore þat he myȝt nouȝt aȝeynes him endure, but with-drow him and restede. And after come aȝeyne þe white dragoun, and strongely fouȝt wiþ þe reede dragoune, and bote him euel, & him ouer-come, þat he fley þens, and nomore come aȝeyne.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 26b] Of þe significacions of þe ij dragounes þat were in þe botume of þe ponde, þat fouȝten togederes. Capitulo Sexagesimo tercio.

THe Kyng Vortiger and his men, þat saw þis bataile, hade grete mervaile, and praede Merlyn to telle him what it myght bitoken. "Sire," quod Merlyn, "y shal ȝow telle: the rede dragoun bitokeneþ ȝoure-self, & þe white bitokeneþ þe folc of Saxoine, þat ferst ȝe toke and helde in þis lande, þat now feiȝten aȝeines ȝow,Page  59 and ȝow haue dryuen and enchacede. ¶ But þe Britons þat bene of ȝour lynage ouercome ham, and dryuen ham awhile; and siþen, at þe comyng aȝeyne of þe Saxoynes, þai recouerede þis lande, and helde hit for euermore, and dryuen oute þe Britouns, and dede wiþ þis lande al her wille, & destriede cristendome þrouȝoute þis lande. ¶ Ȝe hade ferst ioye of here commyng, but now it is turnede to ȝow grete damage & sorwe; ffor þo ij breþerne of Constance þat was kyng, þat ȝe lete slee, shul comen bifore a Quinȝime passede wiþ a grete power fram litel Britaigne, and shul avenge þe deþ of hire broþer: þai shal brenne ȝow ferst wiþ sorwe, & after þai shul sle a grete partie of þe Saxoynes, and shul dryue al þe remanent oute of the lande; and þerfore abide ȝe no longer to make no castell ne none oþere werk, but anone gone elleȝ-where, ȝoure lif forto saue. to God I ȝow bitake, for treuþ I haue I-saide to ȝow of þing þat shal bifalle. And vnderstonde wel þat Aurilambros shal bene kyng, but he shal bene enpoisenede, and litil while regne."

Of Kyng Aurilambros; how he pursuede Vortiger and Engist, and how þai deiden. Capitulo Sexagesimo Quarto.

MErlyn and his moder departede fro þe kyng, and turnede aȝeyne [MS Rawlinson B 171 27a] to Kermerdyn. and so after tydynges come to þe Britons þat Aurilambros and Vter his broþer were arryuede at Tottenesse wiþ a grete host, and þe Britouns anone assemblede ham, & went to vnderfong Aurilambros and Vter wiþ grete nobleye, & ladde ham to London, and cronede þere Aurylambros, and made him kyng, and deden to him homage. and he axede wher Vortiger þat was kyng myght bene founden, for he wolde bene avengede of his broþereȝ deþ, and after he wolde werre oppon paynymes: and þai tolde him þat Vortiger was in Walis; and so þai ladde him þiderward. ¶ Vortiger wist wel þat þo ij breþerne come him to conquere, & fleye þens into a castel þat mePage  60 callede Generth, þat stode vppon an hye mounteyne, & þere him helde. ¶ Aurylambros, and Vter his broþer, and hire folc, hade bisegede þe castel longe tyme, for þe castel was stronge and wel arraiede; so at þe laste þai cast wilde fire, and brent hous and men, and al here arraye, & as miche as was wiþin þe castel, so þat Vortiger was brent amonge alle oþere; and so deide he with michel sorwe. ¶ þo was Engist in Kent, and regnede þere, and herde þis tydynges and anone fledde, and wolde haue wende into Scotland forto haue hade socour, but Aurilambros and his men mette wiþ him in the North contre, and ȝaf him bataile, & Engist and his men ham defendede whiles þai myght, but he and his folc were descomfitede and slayn, and Otta his sone fley vnto Ȝork, & Aurilambros him folwede egrely. Otta, a litel while aȝeynes him stode, but afterwarde he put him to his mercy, and Aurilambros vnderfonge him; & to him and to his men he ȝaf þe contre of Galway in Scotland, and þere þai duellede. ¶ The Kyng Aury [MS Rawlinson B 171 27b] lambros went þo þrouȝ þe lande, and put awaye þe name of Engistes lande, þat E[n]gist, after his owen name hade callede bifore, þo lete he it calle aȝeyne Grete Britaigne, and lete make aȝeyne cherches, houses of religioun, castelles, citees, and burghes and tounes þat þe Saxoynes hade destroiede, and come to London, and lete make aȝeyne the Wallis of þe citee, whiche Engist & his folc hade caste adoune. ¶ þe Britons ladde him to þe mount of Anbrian, wher some tyme was an house of religioun þat þo was destriede þrouȝ paynemys, whe[re]of a knyght þat me callede Anbry, þat some tyme was foundour of þe hous, and þerfor þe hulle was callede þe mount of Bryan, and after was callede Ambresbery, and shal for eueremore.

How Aurilambros dede redresse þe lande of Grete Britaigne, þat was destroiede þrouȝ Saxoynes. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Sexagesimo ¶ Quinto.

THe Kyng Aurilambros lete amende and redresse þe hous of Ambresbery, and þerin put monkes, but now þere beth nonnes; a litil fram þe place þat me calleþ Salesbury, þere þatPage  61 þe Britouns were quellede in þat place þat Vortiger & Engist shulde haue made a loueday, in whiche place þere were slayne xxx Ml knyȝtes þrouȝ tresoun of Engist. ¶ þe kyng þerof hade grete pitee, & þouȝt to make, in mynde of ham, a monument of stone þat myȝt endure to þe worldes ende. and of þis þing þai tok here conseile what þerof was best to done. ¶ Þo spake to þe kyng þe bishop of London þat me called Ternekyn, þat he shulde enquere after Merlyn, for he couþe best telle how þis þing miȝt bene made. and merlyn after was souȝt and founde, & come to þe kyng; and þe kyng tolde him his wille of þe monument þat he wolde haue made. ¶ þo ansuerede Merlyn to þe kyng, [MS Rawlinson B 171 28a] and saide: "þere beþ grete stones in Irlande, and longe vppon the hulle of Kyan þat men calleþ þe geant caroll; and if þai were put in þis place as þai beþ þere, here þai wolde endure euermore, in remembraunce of þo knyghtes þat here beþ enterede." "Par ma foy," quod þe kyng, "as herde stones beth in my londe as beth in Irland" "soþ," quod Merlyn, "but in all ȝour lande beth non soche, for Geaunteȝ sette ham for grete gode of hamself, ffor atte euery tyme þat þai were wonded, or in eny maner hurt, þai wasshen þe stones wiþ hote water, & þan wosshen ham þerwiþ, and anone þai were hole."

How þe Britons went forto seche þe grete stones in Irland. Capitulo lxvjto.

WHen þe Britons hade herde of þis þing, þai went and sworen ifere amonges ham, þat þai wolde gone to seche þe stones; and toke wiþ ham Vter, þe kynges broþer, to bene here cheueteyne, & xv Ml men; and Merlyn conseilede ham forto gone into Irlande, and so þai deden. ¶ And when þe Kyng of Irland, þat me callede Guillomer, herde telle þat straungers were arryuede in his lande, he assemblede a grete power, and fouȝt aȝeyns ham; but he & his folc were descomfitede. the Britons went fourþ til þai come to þe mount of Kylyan, and clymede vnto þe mount; but when þai saw þe stones, and þe maner how þai stoden, þai hadden grete mervail, and saide bituene ham þat 'noman shuldePage  62 ham remeve, for no strenghe ne engyne, so huge þai weren, and so long.' But Merlyn, þrouȝ his crafte and queyntise, remevede ham, and brouȝt ham into hire shippis, and come aȝeyn into þis lande. and Merlyn sette þe stones [MS Rawlinson B 171 28b] þere þat þe Kyng wolde haue ham, and sette ham in þe same maner as þai stoden in Irland. and when þe kyng saw þat it was made, he þankede Merlyn, and rychely him rewardede at his owen wille; & þat place he lete calle Stonhynges for euermore.

How Passent, þat was Vortigerȝ sonne, & þe Kyng Guillomer, come into þis land; and how a traitoure þat me callede Coppa, enpoisenede þe Kyng Aurilambros. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Sexagesimo Septimo.

ANd men shul vnderstonde þat Passent, þat was Vortigers sone, leuede in þe same tyme, and come into þis lande wiþ a grete power, and arryuede in þe Northcontre, & wolde bene avengede of his fadereȝ deþ Vortiger, and stronglich trust vppon þe company þat he hade brouȝt wiþ him oute of þe lande of Germayne, and hade conquerede al þe Northcontre vnto Ȝork. ¶ And when Kyng Aurilambros herde þis, he assemblede a grete power of Britons, and went forto feiȝt wiþ him; and Passent and his peple were descomfitede. But Passent ascapede þens, wiþ some of his folc, and fledde þennes into Irland, and come to Kyng Guillomer, and praede him of helpe and socoure. ¶ The kyng grantede him wiþ gode wil, and saide: "I wolde helpe ȝow oppon þat couenaunt, þat I my-self moste gon wiþ ȝow wiþ al my power into Britaigne, and I wolde me avenge vppon þe Britons, for þai comen into my londe. and token þe stones wiþ strengþ þat is callede Geant Caroil." þe Kyng Guillomere lete ordeyne his shippis, and went to þe see wiþ xv Ml men, and arryuede in Walis, and bigonne to robbe and miche sorwe to done. hit bifelle so þat Kyng Aurilambros lay sike at Wynchestre, and myght nouȝt helpe [MS Rawlinson B 171 29a] himself, so þat he sent in his name Vter his broþere, with a grete power, forto help Walys; and þiderwarde he went as miche as he myȝt. ¶ þePage  63 Kyng of Irland, and Passent, herde telle þat Aurylambros was sik; and to ham come a sarasine þat me clepede Coppa, and saide: "sireȝ, duelle ȝe here al in pees wiþ ȝoure hoste, and y bihote ȝow, þrouȝ my queyntise, þat I shal slee þe Kyng Aurylambros þat liþ sike." "If ȝe do," quod Passent, "y shal ȝow richely auaunce." ¶ This traitoure Coppa put oppon him an habite of religioun, and lete shaue him a brode crone, and come to þe kynges court, and saide þat he was a gode ffisician, and saide þat he wolde hele þe kyng of his malady. ¶ Tho saide þe traitour Coppa vnto þe kyng: "sire, beþ of gode comfort, for y shal ȝeue ȝow soche a medecyne þat ȝe shulle swete anone ryȝt, and softe slepe, and haue gode reste." & þe traitour ȝaf him soche a poysoun þat he slepte anone ryght, and deide in his slepyng. and þe traitoure saide þat he wolde gone oute into þe felde til þe kyng were awakede; and so scapede he away, for noman to him hade suspesion, for enchesoun of his habit þat he was in cloþede, and also for his brode crone. ¶ But when þe kynges meny wist þat he was dede, þai bicome wonder sory, and fast souȝt þe traitour; but þai miȝt nouȝt hem fynde, for Coppa turnede aȝeyne to þe host fro whens that he come.

When Aurilambros was dede, a sterr in the morne was seyne with a clere light; & at the bouȝte of þe beeme was seye þe heuede of an horrible Dragoun. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Sexagesimo ¶ Octauo.

WHen the Kyng Aurilambros was þus dede & enpysenede [MS Rawlinson B 171 29b] at Wynchestre, a morn, after þat he was dede, aboute þe tyme of prime, þere was seyn a sterr grete and clere; and þe beeme of þe sterr was brighter þan þe sone; and at þe bouȝt of þe beeme apperede a dragounes heuede, and oute of his mouþ comen ij huge liȝteȝ þat were as liȝt as eny fire brynnyng. ¶ And þat o beeme went towarde Fraunce, and strauȝt ouere þe see þiderward; and out of þat beem comen vij beemes ful clere and longe, as it were þe liȝt of fire. ¶ þis sterre was seyne of meny man; but none ofPage  64 ham wist what it bitokenede. ¶ Vter, þat was þe kyngus broþer, þat was in Walys wiþ his hoste of Britouns, saw þat sterre, and þe grete liȝt þat it ȝaf. he wondrede þeron gretly, what it myȝt bitoken; he lete calle Merlyn, & praiede him forto telle what it myȝt bitokene.

Of þe bitokenyng of þat sterr. ¶ Capitulo Sexagesimo ixo.

MErlyn saw þat sterre, and bihelde hit longe tyme, and siþenes he quok and wepte tenderly; & saide: "allas, allas! þat so noble kyng and worþi is dede. and I do ȝow to vnderstonde þat Aurilambros, ȝour broþer, is enpoysenede, and þat I se wel in þis sterre. and ȝoure-self bitokeneþ bi þe heuede of þe dragoun þat is seyne at þe bouȝt of þe beeme: þat is ȝoureself, þat shal bene kyng, and regne. and by þe beem þat stode towarde þe Est, is vnderstonde þat ȝe shal geten a sone þat shal conquere al Fraunce and alle þe landes þat beþ longeyng to þe Kyng of Fraunce, þat shal bene a worþier Kyng, and more of honoure þan euer was eny of his ancestres. ¶ And by þe beem þat stracchet towarde Irland, is bitokenede [MS Rawlinson B 171 30a] þat ȝe shul bigete a douȝter þat shal be quene of Irland; and þe vij beemes bitokenes þat ȝe shul haue vij sones; and eueryche of ham shal bene kyng, and regne wiþ michel honououre. and abide ȝe no longer here, but go and ȝif batail to ȝoure enemys, and feiȝt wiþ ham boldely, for ȝe shul ouercome ham and haue þe victorie." Vter þankede hertly Merlyn, and tok his men, and went towarde his enemys; and þai fouȝten togeder mortaily; and so þai descomfitede his enemys alle, & destroiede ham; & him-self quellede Passent, þat was Vortigerȝ sone; and his Britons quellede Guillomer, þat was Kyng of Irland, and alle his men. and Vter anone after þat bataile tok his way toward Wynchestre fort[o] done entier Aurilambros kyng, þat was his broþer; but þo was þe body born to Stonhynge wiþ michel honoure, þat he hadePage  65 done made in remembrance of þe Britons þat þere were slayn þrouȝ tresoune of Engist, þat same day þat þai shulde haue bene accordede; & in the same place þai enterede Aurilambros, þe secunde ȝere of his regne, wiþ al þe worship þat myght bene longyng to soche a kyng, of whos soule God haue mercy!

Of Vter Pendragoun; and wherfore he was callede so, after ȝe shal here; & he was ouertake for þe grete loue of Igerne, þat was þe Erles wif of Cornwaile. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Septuagesimo.

After þe deth of Aurylambros, Vter his broþer was cronede, and regnede wel and worþily; and in remembraunce of þe dragons þat he was likenede to, he lete make ij dragounes þrouȝ conseile of his Britouns: þat one to bene borne bifore him when he went into bataile, & þat oþere to abide at [MS Rawlinson B 171 30b] Wynchestre in the bisshoppes cherche; And for þat enchesoun he was callede euermore after, Vter Pendragoun. ¶ And Octa, þat was Engistes sone, commendet litil Vter þat was made newe kyng, and aȝeynes him biganne forto meve werr, and ordeynede a grete company of his frendes & of his kynne, and of Ossa his broþer, and hade take al þe lande fro Humber vnto Ȝork; but þo of Ȝork helde strongely agayne ham, and nolde soffre ham come into þe toune, neyþer to ȝelde þe citee to ham; and he bisegede þe toune anone ryȝt, and ȝaf þerto a stronge assaut, but tho of þe citee ham keped wel and strongely. ¶ And when Vter herde þerof, he come þider wiþ a stronge power forto helpe and rescue þe toune, and put away þe sege, & ȝaf a stronge bataile; and Octa & his company ham defendede as wel as þai myȝt, but at þe last þai were descomfitede, and þe moste part of ham quellede; and Octa & Ossa were taken, and put into prisoun at London. ¶ And Vter him-self duellede awhile at Ȝork, and after, he went to London. and at Ester after sewyng, he wolde bere crone, and helde a solempne feste, and lete sompne alle þe Erles and barons, þat þai shulde come to þatPage  66 feste; and alle þai comen at þe kynges commandement, as þai were commandede. ¶ The feste was richely holden, and alle worþely sette to þe mette after þat þai were of state, so þat þe Erl of Cornewaile & Igerne his wif setten alþer next þe kyng. and þe kyng saw þe fairenesse of þat lady þat she hade, and was rauisshede for here beaute; and after, he made towarde here nyce semblant in lokyng and leiȝhyng. so at þe laste þe Erl perseuede þe priue [MS Rawlinson B 171 31a] lokyng and Laughing, and þe loue bituene ham, and arose vp fram þe table al in wraþ, and tok his wif, and callede to him his knyȝtes, and went þens al in wraþ, wiþouten takyng Leue of þe Kyng. þe kyng anone sent after him þat he shulde come aȝeyne, & go nouȝt þens in despite of him; and þe Erl wolde nouȝt come aȝeyne in no maner wise. ¶ Wherfor þe kyng was ful wroþ, & in wraþ him defiede as his dedelich enemy. and þe Erl went þens into Cornewaile wiþ his wif, into þe castel of Tyntagell. and þe kyng lete ordeyne a grete host, & come into Cornewaile forto destroie þe erl, if he myȝt; but he hade put him in soche a castel þat was stronge and wel arraiede, of Tyntagell, and wolde nouȝt ȝelde him to the Kyng. ¶ The kyng anone bisegede þe castel, & þere duellede xv daies, þat neuer myȝt spede, and euer þouȝt so miche of Igerne, and oppon her laide so miche loue, þat he nyst what to done. ¶ So at þe laste he callede to him a knyȝt þat me callede Vlfyne, þat was priue wiþ him, and tolde him al hes conseile, and axede of him what was best to done. ¶ "Sire," quod he, "doþ sende after Merlyn, for he can telle ȝow þe best consel of eny man leuyng." Merlyn anone was sent after, and come to þe kyng, and þe kyng tolde him al his wille. "Sire," quod Merlyn, "I shal do so miche þrouȝ crafte þat I can, þat I shal make ȝow come þis nyȝt into þe castel of Tyntagell, & shal haue al ȝoure wille of þat Lady."

How Vter bigate on Igerne, þat was þe Erleȝ wif of Cornewaile, Arthure þe kyng. ¶ Capitulo Septuagesimo primo.

Page  67MErlyn, þrouȝ crafte þat he couþe, chaungede þe kyngus [MS Rawlinson B 171 31b] figure into þe likenesse of Vlfyne his chaumberleyn, and to þe figure of Iordan þat was þe erleȝ chaumberleyn, so þat eche of ham was transfigurede into oþere likenesse. and when Merlyn hade so done, he saide to þe kyng: "sire, now may ȝe gone sodeynely to þe castel of Tyntagel, and axen entre þere, and haue ȝoure wille." the kyng tok priuelich, al þe host to gouerne & lede, to a knyȝt þat he miche louede, and toke his way toward þe castel; and wiþ him went Vlfyne and Merlyn. and when þat he come þider, þe Porter wende þat it hade bene his owen lorde. and when tyme come forto gone to bedde, the kyng went to bedde wiþ Igerne, þe Erleȝ wif, and dede wiþ her al his wille, and þo bigate on here a sone þat me clepede Arthure. ¶ Oppon þe morwe þe noble myȝty kyng toke his leue of þe lady, and went aȝeyn to his hoste. and þe same nyȝt þat þe kyng lay by Igerne in bedde ifere wiþ þe erleȝ wif, þe kynges men ȝaf a strong assaute to þe castel. and þe Erl and his men manliche ham defendede; but at þe laste hit bifelle so þat at þat assaut þe erl him-self was slayn, and þe castel was taken. and þe kyng anone turnede aȝeyne to Tyntagell, and spousede Igerne wiþ michel honoure, & made hir Quene. & sone after, tyme come þat she shulde bene delyuerede, and bare a sone þat was callede Arthure. and after he gate on here a douȝter þat me clepede Amya; and when she come to age, she was nobly mariede to a noble Baroun þat me callede Aloth, þat was lorde of Leones.

¶ When Vter longe tyme hade regnede, þere come vppon him a grete sikenesse, as it were a sorwe. & in þe mene [MS Rawlinson B 171 32a] tyme þo þat haden to kepe Octa, þat was Engistes sone, and Ossa his broþer, þat þo were in prisoun, men lete ham gone for grete ȝiftes þat þai ham ȝaf, and went wiþ ham. ¶ And when þo ij breþerne were ascaped, and comen aȝeyne into hier owen contre, þai ordeynede ham a grete host & a grete power, & bigon to werre eftesones vppon þe kyng.

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How Kyng Vter chees Aloth to kepe þe lande of Britaigne whiles þat he was sik. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Septuagesimo ¶ Secundo.

ANd for-asmiche as Kyng Vter was sik, and myȝt nouȝt helpe him-self, he ordeynede Aloth, þe sone of Elyne, þat þo was to bene wardeyne and chyueteyne of al his folc; & he anone, and his Britons, assemblede a grete host, & ȝaf bataile to Octa and to his folc; but Octa at þe laste was descomfitede. ¶ Hit bifelle þus afterwarde, þat þise Britons haden indignacioun at þis Aloth, & wolde nouȝt to him bene entendant; wherfore þe kyng was annoyede wonder sore, and lete put him in a liter in þe hoste amonges his folc; and þai ladde him to Veroleyne, þat þo was a faire citee, þere þat seynt Albone was martrede; and after was þat citee destroiede þrouȝ paynemys & þrouȝ werre. and þider went Ossa and Octa & her peple, & entrede into þe toune, and lete make faste þe ȝates, & þere þai helde ham. & þe kyng come, and ham bisegede, & made a stronge assaut; but þo þat were wiþin, manliche ham defended. ¶ The kyng lete ordeyne his gunnes & his engynes forto breke þe wallys; & þe wallis were so stronge þat noþing myȝt ham misdo. ¶ Octa & his peple hade grete despite þat a kyng liggyng in a liter [MS Rawlinson B 171 32b] ham hade bisegede, & þai token conseil amonges ham, forto stande vp in þe morwe, & come oute, and ȝeue bataile to þe kyng; and so þai deden. and in þat bataile were boþe Octa & Ossa slayne; & al þe oþere þat ascapede alif, fledde þens into Scotland, and made Colegryne her cheueteyne. & þe Saxoynes þat were alif, and ascapede fro þe bataile, brouȝt aȝeyne a grete strengþ, & amonges ham saiden þat, if the Kyng Vter were dede, þai shulde wel conquere þe lande; and amonges ham þai þouȝt enpoysone þe kyng, and ordeynede men forto done þis dede, & ȝaf ham of ȝiftes grete plente, þis þing to done. & þai ordeynede ham þiderward þere þat þe kyng wasPage  69 duellyng, & cloþede ham in pore wede, þe bettre forto spede hire luþer purpos; but noþelesse, for al her falsenesse & queyntise, þai myȝt neuer come ney þe kyng. But at þe laste þai aspiede þat þe kyng drank none oþere licoure but oneliche water of a clere welle þat was neyȝ bisides; and þise false traitoures vppon a day priueliche went to þat wel, and put þerin poisoun, so þat al þe water was enpoysenede. And anone after as þe Kyng hade dronke of þat water, he biganne to swelle, & sone after deide; & alse meny as drank of þat water deide also. And anone as þis falsenesse was aspiede folc of þe toune lete stoppe þe welle for euermore. ¶ When þe Kyng was dede, his folc bare him to Stonehynge wiþ grete solempnite of bisshoppȝ and barons þat were þere, þat buriede him bisides Aurilambros his broþer; and after turnede aȝeyne þo euerycheon, & lete sende after Arthure his sone; and þai made him Kyng of þe lande wiþ [MS Rawlinson B 171 33a] michel reuerence, after his faderes deþ, þe xvij ȝere of his regne.

How Arthure, þat was þe sone of Vter, was cronede after his faderes deþ; & how he drof Colegryn & þe Saxoynes, and Chelduc of Almayne, out of þis lande. Capitulo lxxiijo.

WHen Arthure was made kyng of þe lande, he was but ȝonge, of xv ȝere age, but he was faire, and bolde, & douȝti of body, & to meke folc he was gode & curteise, & to prout folc he was stout & sterne; & also he was gentil and curteise, and large of spendyng, & made him wel bilouede of al men þere þat it was nede. And when he biganne to regne, he swore þat Saxones neuer shulde haue pees ne reste til þat he hade drif ham out of his lande. & he lete assemble a grete host, & fauȝt wiþ Colegrin, þat, after tyme þat Octa was dede, þe Saxones mayntenede. And þis Colegryne was descomfitede, & fley to Ȝork, & tok þe tone, & þere helde him. And þe Kyng bisegede þe tone; but he miȝt noþing spede, for þe toune was so strong, & þai wiþinPage  70 kepte þe toune wel & horpedly. ¶ And in þe mene tyme Colegryne lete þe toune to Bladulf, & fley him-self to Cheldrik, þat was Kyng of Almaigne, forto haue of him socour. and þe Kyng assemblede a grete power, and come & arryuede in Scotland wiþ v. C.. shippis. & when Arthure wist of þis tydyngus, þat he hade nouȝt power ne strengþ ynow to feiȝt aȝeyne Sheldrik, he lete bene þe sege, and went to London, and sent anone his lettres to þe Kyng of Litil Britaigne, þat me callede Hoel, his neveu, his sustres sone, þat he shulde come to him wiþ [MS Rawlinson B 171 33b] al þe power þat he myȝt. And he assemblede a grete hoste, & arryuede at Southampton. ¶ And when Kyng Ar[t]hure hit wiste, he was glade ynow, & went aȝeynes ham, & ham resceyuede wiþ michel honour, so þat þo ij hostes ham assemblede, and toke her way euen to Nichole, þat Cheldrik hade bisegede but nouȝt ȝitte taken. And þai comen vppon Cheldrik & vppon his peple or þai hit wiste, þere þat þai werre, and ham egrely assailede. Þe Kyng Cheldrik and his meny defendede ham manly by here power, but Kyng Arthure and his men quellede so meny Saxones, þat neuer er was seyne soche a slauȝter; and his men þat were lefte alif, fledden away, and Arthure ham pursuede, and drof ham into a wode þat þai miȝt no ferþer passe. ¶ Cheldrik and his men saw wel þat þai were brouȝt into miche disesse, & ham ȝolden to Arthure in þis maner wise, þat he shulde take here horse and Here armure, & al þat þai hadde, þat þai most oneliche gone on fote to here shippes, and so þai wolde gone into here owen lande, & neuer come aȝeyne into þis lande. And vppon assuraunce of þis þing, þai ȝeuen him gode hostages; and Arthure, þrouȝ conseile of his men, grauntede þis þing, and resceyuede þe hostages. & oppon þis, þise oþer went vnto here shippes: and when þai werne in þe hye see, hir wille chaungede, as þe deuel it wolde, & þai retournede hire nauye, & come aȝeyne into þis land, & arryuede at Tottenesse, & went out of here shippis, & toke þe lande, & clene robbede hit, & michel peple slouȝ, & token [MS Rawlinson B 171 34a] al þe Armure þat þai myȝt fynde; & so þai wenten forthe til þai comen to Bathe; but þe men ofPage  71 þe toune shitten faste here ȝates, and wolde nouȝt suffren ham come þer in þe toune, and þai defendede ham wel and horpedly aȝeynȝ ham.

How Arthure ȝaf bataile to þe Saxones when þai comen aȝeyne, and bisegede þe toune of Baþe, & ham ouercome. ¶ Capitulo lxxiiijto.

WHen Arthure herde þis tydynges, he lete honge anone þe hostages, & lefte Hoel of Britaigne, his nevew, forto kepe þe Marche toward Scotland wiþ half his peple, and him-self went helpe rescue þe toune of Bathe. And when he come þider, he ȝaf a strong batail to Cheldrik, and quelde almost al þe peple þat he hade; for no man myȝt him wiþstande, ne endure vnder þe stroke of his swerde; and þere boþe were slayn, Colegrin and Bladud his broþer. ¶ And Cheldrik fledde þens, and wolde haue gone to his shippis; but when Arthure hit wist, he tok xv Ml knyȝtes to Cador, þat was erl of Cornewaile, forto lette and stoppe his commyng; and Arthure him-self went aȝeyne towarde þe Marche of Scotland, ffor messagers tolde him þat þe Scottes hade bisegede Hoel of Britaign þere þat he lay sike; and þerfore he hastede þiderward; & Cador pursuede after Cheldrik, & toke him or þat he myȝt come to his shippis, & quellede Cheldrik & his peple. And when Cador hade done þis viage, he hastede him aȝeyne, as faste as he myȝt, towardes Arthure, and founde him in Scotland þere þat he hade res [MS Rawlinson B 171 34b] cuede Hoel of Britaigne. But þe Scottes were al feire wiþin Mounref, and þere þai helde ham awhile; but Arthure ham pursuede, and þai fledde þens fourþ into Lymoigne, þat were in þat contre lx Iles, & grete plente of briddes, & grete plente of Egles, þat were wont to crie and feiȝten to-gederes, and make grete noise when folc come to robbe þat lande, and weren as miche as þai miȝt; and so þai deden, for þe Scottes were so grete rauenours þat þai token al þat þai myȝt fynde in þe lande of Lymoigne wiþ-outen eny sparyng; and þerwiþ þai chargede aȝeyne ȝe folc, into Scotland forto wende.

Page  72

How Kyng Arthure axede of Merlyn þe aventures of vj the laste kynges þat weren to regne in Engeland, and how þe lande shulde ende. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Septuagesimo ¶ Quinto.

"SIre," quod Merlyn, "in þe ȝere of Incarnacioun of oure Lorde Ihesu Crist Ml CC xv þere shal come a lambe oute of Wynchestre þat shal haue a white tong and trew lippis, and he shal haue wryten in his hert 'Holynesse.' ¶ This lambe shal make meny Goddes house, and he shal haue pees þe most parte of his lif, & he shal make one of þe faireste places of þe worlde þat in his tyme shal nouȝt fully ben made an ende. And in þe ende of his lif, a wolf of a straunge lande shal do him grete harme; but at þe ende þe lambe shal be maistre, þrouȝ helpe of a rede Fox þat shal [MS Rawlinson B 171 35a] come out of þe Northwest, and him shal ouercome; and þe wolfe shal dye [in] water; and after þat tyme þe lambe shal leue no while þat he ne shal dye. ¶ His sede þan shal bene in strange lande, and þe lande shal bene wiþout a gouernoure a litil tyme. "ANd after him shal come a dragoun mellede wiþ mercy and ek wodenesse, þat shal haue a berde as a goot, þat shal ȝeue in Engeland shadewe, and shal kepe the lande from colde and hete; and his o foote shal be sette in Wik, and þat oþere in London; and he shal vnbrace iij habitacions, and he shal oppen his mouþ toward Walys, and þe tremblyng of þe hidure of his mouþe, his heres shal strecche towarde meny habitaciouns and contres, and his breþ shal bene ful suete in straunge landes; & in his tyme shal ryuers renne wiþ bloode and wiþ brayne, & he shal make in places of his lande, walles, þat shal done miche harme to his seede after his tyme.

¶ Than shal þere come a peple out of þe Northwest duryng his regne, þat shal bene lade þrouȝ an wickede hare, þat þe dragoun shal done crone Kyng, þat afterwarde shal flee ouer þe see wiþout comyng aȝeyne, for drede of þe dragoun. ¶ In þat tyme þe sonne shal bene also rede as blode, as meny men shul see þrouȝ al þe worlde: þat shal bitoken grete pestilence, and deþ of folc þrouȝ dent of swerde; and þis peple shal bene faderles til þe tyme þat þe dragon shal dye þrouȝ an hare þat shal meve aȝeynes him werrPage  73 in þe ende of his lif, þat should nouȝt bene fulliche endede in his tyme. ¶ This dragoun shal bene holden in his tyme þe best body of al þe worlde; & he shal dye bisides þe Marche of a straunge lande; and þe lande shalle [MS Rawlinson B 171 35b] duelle fade[r]lesse, wiþouten a gode gouernoure; and me shal wepe for his deþ fram þe Ile of Shepe vnto þe hauen of Marcill; wherfore, 'allas' shal bene þe commune songe of faderles folc, þat shal ouerleuen in his land destroiede. "ANd after þis dragone shal come a gote oute of a Kar, þat shal haue hornes & berde of siluer; and þere shal come out of his noseþrelles a drop þat shal bitoken hunger & sorw, & grete deþ of þe peple; and miche of his lande in þe bigynnyng of his regne shal be wastede. ¶ This goot shal go ouer into Fraunce, & shal oppon þe floure of lif and of deþ. In his tyme þere shal arise an Egle in Cornewaile þat shal haue feþeres of golde, þat of pride shal bene wiþouten pere of alle þe lande; and he shal despise lordes of blode; and after, he shal flee shamefully by a Bere at Gauersiche; and after shal bene made brigges of men oppon þe costes of þe see; and stones shal falle fram castelles, and meny oþere tounes shal ben made pleyne; and a bataile shalle bene done vppon an Arme of þe see in a felde ordeynede as a shelde; and at þat bataile shal dye meny white hedes; wherfore þat bataile shal bene callede 'þe white bataile.' ¶ And þe forsaide Beere shal done þis goote michel harme, and it shal bene oute of þe Southwest; & of his bloode þan shal þe goote lese miche of his lande til at þe tyme þat shendeship shal him ouercomen; & þan shal he cloþen him in a lyoneȝ skyn; and þan shal he wynne þat he hade loste, and more þerto, ffor a peple shal [MS Rawlinson B 171 36a] come out of þe northwest þat shal make þe goot sore to bene adrade; and he shal avenge him oppon his enemys, þrouȝ conseil of ij oweles, þat ferst shal bene in peril forto bene vndone; but þe olde owel shal wende ouer þe se into a st[r]aunge lande, and þere he shal duelle vnto a certeyne tyme; and after, he shal come aȝeyne into þis lande. ¶ þise ij oweles shullen do grete harmePage  74 to meny on; and so þai shullen counseil þe gote þat he shal arere werre aȝeynes þe forsaid bere; and at þe last, þe goot and þe oweles shullen come atte Bur vp Trent, and shullen wende ouer; and for drede, þe Bere shal flee, and a swan wiþ him, for his company, to Bur towarde þe North, & þere þai shal bene wiþ an harde shoure. And þan þe swan shal bene slayne wiþ sorwe, and þe Bere taken & biheuedede, alþer nexte his neste, þat shal [stand] vppon a broken brigge, vp wham þe sone shal caste his beemes; and meny shal him seche, for vertu þat fro hym shal come. ¶ In þat same tyme shal dye, for sorwe and care, a peple of his lande, so þat meny shal bene oppon him þe more bolder afterward. And þo ij oweles shullen do miche harme to þe forsaide floure of lif, and here shul lede in distresse, so þat she shal passe ouer into Fraunce, forto make pees bituene þe gote & þe flour delice; and þere she shal duelle to a tyme þat her sede shal come to seche here; and þere þai shul bene stille til a tyme þat þai shul ham cloþe with grace: and þai shul seche [MS Rawlinson B 171 36b] the Owelyn, and put ham vnto despitous deþ. And after shal þis goot bene brouȝt to disese; and in grete anguisshe and sorwe he shal leue al his lif. "Aftre þis goote, shal come out of Wyndesore a Boor, þat shal haue an heuede of witte, a lyons hert, a pitouse lokyng; his vesage shal be reste to sike men; his breþ shal bene stanchyn of þerst to ham þat bene aþreste þerof shal; his worde shal bene gospelle; his beryng shal bene meke as a Lambe. In þe ferste ȝere of his regne he shal haue grete payne to iustifien ham þat bene vntrew; and in his tyme shal his lande bene multipliede wiþ Aliens. ¶ And þis Boor, þrouȝ fersenesse of hert þat he shal haue, shal make wolfes bicome lambes; & he shal bene callede þrouȝ-oute þe worlde 'Boor of holynesse and of fersenesse, of nobeleye and of mekenesse,' and he shal do mesurabli al þat he shal haue to done vnto þe Burgh of Ierusalem; and he shal whet his teiþ vppon þe ȝates of Parys, and vppon iiij landes. Spayne shal tremble for drede of him; Gascoyne shal swete; in Fraunce he shal put his wynge; his grete taile shal reste in Engeland softely; Almayn shal quake for drede of him. ¶ þis Boor shalPage  75 ȝeue mantels to ij tounes of Engeland, and he shal make þe ryuer rynne wiþ blode & wiþ brayn, and he shal make meny medowes reede, and he shal gete as miche as his auncestres deden; & er þat he bene dede he shal bere iij crones; and he shal put on lande into gret subieccioun; and after hit shal bene releuede, but nouȝt in his tyme. ¶ This Boor, after þat he is dede, [MS Rawlinson B 171 37a] for his douȝtynesse shal bene enterede at Coloigne, and his lande shal bene þan fulfillede wiþ al goode. "After þis Boor shal come a lambe, þat shal haue feete of leede, an heuede of bras, an hert of a loppe, and a swynes skyn, and herde; and in his tyme his land shal bene in pees. þe ferst ȝere of his regne he shal do make a citee, þat al þe worlde shal speke þerof. þis lambe shal lese in his tyme a grete parte of his lande þrouȝ an hidouse wolf; but he shal recouer it, an ȝif an Lordeship to an Egle of his landes; and þis Egle shal wel gouerne hit, til þe tyme þat pride shal him ouergone,—allas þe sorwe!—for he shal dye þrouȝ his broþeres suorde. and after shal þe lande falle to þe forsaide lambe, þat shal gouerne in pees al his lifes tyme; and after, he shal dye, and þe lande bene fulfillede wiþ al maner gode. "After þis lambe shal come a Moldewerpe acursede of Godes mouþ, a caitif, a cowarde as an here. he shal haue an elderliche skyn as a goot; and vengeance shal fal vppon him for synne. In þe ferst ȝere of his regne he shal haue of al gode grete plente in his lande, and toward him also; and in his lande he shal haue grete praising til þe tyme þat he shal soffre his peple lyuen in to miche pride wiþouten chastisyng, wherfore God wil ben wroþ. ¶ Than shal arisen vp a dragoun in þe North, þat shal bene ful fers, and shal meve werre aȝeynes þe forsaide Moldewerpe, and shal ȝeue him bataile vppon a ston. þis dragoun shal gadre aȝeyne into his company a wolf þat shal come oute of the West, þat shal bygynne werre aȝeynes þe forsaide Moldewerp in his side; & so shal þe dragoun and he bynde here tailes to-geder.

"¶ þan shal come a lyon oute of Irlande, þat shal fal in company wiþ ham; and þan shal tremble þe lande, þat þan shal bene callede Engeland, as an aspe lef, and in þat tyme shalPage  76 castelles bene fellede adoune vppon Tamise; and it shal semen þat Seuerne shal bene drye, for þe bodyes þat shal fallen dede þerin. ¶ Þe iiij chief flodes of Engeland shal rynne in blode; and grete drede shal bene, and anguisshe, þat shul arisen after þe Moldewerpe shal fle for drede; and þe dragoun, þe lyoun and þe wolf, him shal dryuen away, and the lande shal bene wiþout ham, and þe Moldewerpe shal haue no maner power, saf onely a shipp wherto he may wende; and after þat, he shal come to lande when þe see is wiþdraw. ¶ And after þat he shal ȝeue þe þride part of his lande forto haue þe ferþe part in pees & reste; and after he shal leue in sorw al his lif-tyme; and in his tyme þe hote baþes shullen bicome colde; and after þat shal þe Moldewerp dye aventurly and sodeynely,—allas þe sorwe!—for he shal bene drenchede in a flode of þe see, his seede shal bicome pure faderles in straunge lande for euermore, and þan shal the lande bene departede in iij parties, þat is to seyn, to the Wolf, to þe dragoune, & to þe lioun; and so shal it bene for euermore. And þan shal þis land bene callede 'þe lande of conquest,' & so shal þe riȝt heires of Engeland ende."

[MS Rawlinson B 171 38a] How Arthure ouercome Guyllomer þat was Kyng of Irland & how þe Scottes bicomen his men. Capitulo lxxvjto.

WHen Guillomer, þat was Kyng of Irlande, hade tidynges þat Kyng [Arthur] was entrede at Glastenbery, he ordeynede a grete power of Irisshemen, & come to þe see wiþ his Yrisshe peple, and so come into Scotteland ouer þe see, and arryuede faste by þere þat Kyng Arthure was wiþ his hoste. and anone as he herde þerof, he went towarde him & ȝaf him bataile, and ouercome him anone ryȝt; and Guillomer fledde wiþ his men aȝeyne into Irland, and when þis scomfiture was done, Arthure turnede him aȝeyne þere þat he was, into þe place þat he hade lefte þe Scottes, & wolde haue ham al slayne. But þe bisshoppes, Abbotes, & oþere folc of þe contre, and Ladies, openheuedede, comen bifore Kyng Arthure, and criede him mercy, & saide:Page  77 "sire, gentil kyng & myȝty, haue mercy & pitee of vs! and as ȝoure-self is of þe riȝt lawe, to holde and mayntene cristendome, ful grete dishonour it shulde be to quelle ham þat leueþ in almyȝty Gode as ȝe done. & for Godes loue haue mercy and pitee of vs, and suffren vs forto lyuen, for we haue hade michel sorwe and pyne; for þe Saxones hauen meny tymes þrouȝ oure lande passede; but þat is nouȝt ynouȝt to ȝow; for often-tymes þai haue done vs miche sorwe & disese. ¶ ffor oure castelles þai hauen taken, & oure bestes slayne & eten, & mich harme þai hauen vs done; and if ȝe wolde vs now quelle, hit were [MS Rawlinson B 171 38b] none Honoure to a Kyng to quelle ham þat crien him mercy; for ynow ȝe haue y-done vs, & vs ouercomen euerycheon; &, for þe ¶ loue of God, soffre vs forto lyue, & haueþ mercy of Cristen peple þat bileueþ in God as ȝe done!" ¶ when Kyng Arthure herde þis sorwe, he hade pite of ham, and ȝaf ham lif and lyme; and alle þai felle adoune to his feete, and bicome his lege men, and he toke of ham homages. ¶ And after þat, Kyng Arthure turnede aȝeyne wiþ his host, and come aȝeyne to Ȝorke, and þere he abode duryng þat Viage. ¶ And þo ȝaf he al Loegers to Loth, þat hade spousede his sustre, and oþere ȝiftes grete plente. and þo was Gaweyn, his cosyn, but ȝong of age; and to alle his oþere men þat him hade seruede in his werr, he ȝaf riche ȝiftes, & he þankede ham miche of here gode seruise.

How Kyng Arthure spousede Gunnore, þat was Cadoreȝ cosyn, Erl of Cornewaile; & after he conquerede of Guillomer all Irland. ¶ Capitulo Septuagesimo ¶ Septimo.

WHen Arthure hade brouȝt his lande in pees and reste, & in gode state, & reste was in euery contre, þo toke he and wedede a wif þat me callede Gunnore, & made here quene, a faire lady and a gentil, þat Cador þe erle of Cornewail hade longe tyme norisshede in his chaumbre, þat was his owen cosyn; but neuer þai haden childe to-gedres, and noþelesse Kyng Arthure louede her wonder wel and derlich. ¶ And anone as wynter was passede, he lete assemble a grete hoste, & alle his barons, and saidePage  78 þat he wolde wende into Irland forto conquere [MS Rawlinson B 171 39a] the Lande; and he tarede nouȝt ful longe þat he ne passede ouer into Irland. ¶ And Guillomer, þe Kyng of Scotland, lete assemble a grete hoste, and ȝaf batail to Kyng Arthur; but Guillomer was descomfitede, & ȝelde him to þe Kyng Arthure, and bicome his man, and to him dede feaute & homage, and of him helde al þat lande fro þat tyme forward. and after passede Kyng Arthur ferþer, and conquerede Gutland and Irland, and toke homages of folc of þe lande, and þere duellede xij ȝer in pees, & regnede wiþ ioye and merþe, & werrede vppon no maner man, ne no man vppon him. ¶ And he bicome so curteys and large, and so honourable, þat þe Emperoureȝ court of Rome, ne none þrouȝ-out al þe worlde, was none acountede to Kyng Arthures, þat eny man wist, ne none so preisede; and þerefore þe beste knyȝtes of al maner landes comen to him forto duelle, & ham resceyuede wiþ gode wille and reuerence; and alle þe knyȝtes weren so gode þat no man knew þe werst; and þerefore Kyng Arthure made þe rounde table, þat when þai shulde sitte to þe mete, alle shulde bene aliche hye, and euenlich seruede at þe table, þat none myȝt maken auant þat none were hyer þan oþere. and Kyng Arthure hade at þat table ¶ Britons, Fraunchemen, Normannes, Flemynges, Burgoyners, Mansers, Loherinȝ, and of alle þe landes a þis half þe mount of Gorie, and of his lande of Britaigne, and of þe grete Cornwaile, of Walys, & of Irland, & of Scotland; and shortely to telle, of alle þe landes þat wolde worshipe and chyualry seche, comen to Kyng Arthurus court.

How Kyng Arthure come into Fraunce, & conquered þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 39b] londe of Froll, þat was a Romayn, & him quellede. Capitulo lxxviijo.

SIth hit bifelle þat Kyng Arthure, þrouȝ conseile of his barons and lordes, wolde gone to conquere al Fraunce, þat þo was clepede Galle, þrouȝ Romayns þat þo helde þat lande in here powe[r] & in here lordeshipe. and þe Romayns hade take þatPage  79 lande to a noble knyȝt, and a worþi of body, þat me calle Frolle. and when he wist þat Arthure come, he ordeynede an host & grete power, & fauȝt wiþ þe kyng; & he & his folc weren descomfitede; and þens þai fledde vnto Parys, and entrede þe toun, & closede þe ȝates, & þere ham helde. Arthure wist þat Froll was gone to Parys, he pursuede after, & come þider, & him bisegede; but þe citee was so strong and wel arraied; & þo þat were wiþin defendede ham wel and manliche. ¶ Kyng Arthu[r]e duellede þere more þan a mounþe; & þere was so miche peple in þe citee, & hade despendede al her vitailes þat were wiþin, & so grete hunger bicome amonges ham, þat þai deide wonder þik wiþin the citee for hunger, and comen to Froll, & prayede him to bene accordede wiþ Kyng Arthure forto haue pees; & þai wolde ȝelde ham to him, & þe toun also. ¶ Froll saw þat no longer he myȝt holde þe toun aȝeynes her wille, and truste greteli oppon his owen strengþ, & sent to Kyng Authure þat he shulde come to feiȝt wiþ him, body for body, and so þai shulde departe Fraunce bituene ham ij. ¶ Kyng Arthure anone graunte hit, and wolde þat none of his peple vndertoke þe batail for him. ¶ And oppon þe morwe, boþe comen wel armede wiþouten Parys, þere þat þai shulde fiȝt; and anone þai smyten togederes so fersely; and so wel, þai fouȝten in boþe si [MS Rawlinson B 171 40a] des, þat no man couþe deme þe bettre of ham. and so Hit bifelle þat Froll ȝaf Arthure soche a stroke þat he knelede to þe grounde, wolde he nolde he. & as Froll wiþdrow his suerde, he wonded Kyng Arthure in þe forheuede, þat þe blode felle adoune by his eyen and face. ¶ Arthure anone sterte vp hertly, when he felede him hert, as a man þat semede almoste wode; & he toke Tabourn, his gode suerde & drowe it vp an hye, & ȝaf Froll soche a stroke þat þerwiþ he cleuede his heuede doun to þe shuldres, so þat his helme myȝt nouȝt bene his warant; & so he felle adoun dede þere in þe place, and þo of þe citee maden grete sorwe for Froll; and anone euerycheon ȝelde ham to Kyng Arthure, & þe toune also, andPage  80 bicome his men, and deden to him homage & feaute, & he vnderfonge ham & toke of ham gode hostages. & Kyng Arthure, after þat, went forþe wiþ his host, and conquerede Angon & Aungers, Gascoigne, Peihto, Nauerne, Burgoyne, Bery, Loherne, Turyn and Peihters; and alle þe oþere landes of Fraunce he conquerede hollich. and when he hade alle conquerede, & taken bi homages & feautes, he turnede aȝeyne to Parys, & þere duellede longe tyme, and ordeynede pees ouer al the contrey, & þrouȝ-out al Fraunce. ¶ And when pees was made oueral, þrouȝ his noble knyȝthode þat he hade, & also for his owen worþynesse, and no man, were he neuer so grete a lorde, derst nouȝt meve werre aȝeynes him, noþer to arise and forto make þe lande of Fraunce in quiete & pees, he wonede þere ix ȝere, & dede þere meny grete wonders, & reprouede meny prout men & luþer tyraunteȝ, & ham chastisede after her deseruise.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 40b] How Kyng Arthure auauncede alle his men þat hade trauailed in his seruise. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Septuagesimo Nono.

ANd after, hit bifelle þus at Ester, þere he helde a feste at Parys; richely he gan auaunce his knyȝtes for here seruise þat him hade holpen in his conquest; he ȝaf to his stywarde þat men cleped Kay, Angon & Angers, and to Bedeler his boteler he ȝaf Normandye, þat þo was callede Neustrie; and to Holden his chaumberleyn he ȝaf Flaundres and Mance; and to Dorell his cosyn he ȝaf Boloyne; and to Richard his Nevew he ȝaf Pountif; And to alle oþere he ȝaf largely landes & fees after þat þai were of state. ¶ And when Arthur hade þus his knyȝtes feffede, at April after nexte sewyng he come aȝeyne into Britaigne, his owen lande. And after, atte Whitsontide next sewyng, by conseil of his barons, he wolde bene cronede Kyng of Glomergon, and halde a solempne fest, & lete sompne Kynges, Erles and barons, þat þai shulde come þider euerycheon. Ther was Skater, kyng of Scotland; Cadwere, kyng of South-walys; Guillomer, king of North Walys; Madede, kyng of Irland; Malgamus, kyng ofPage  81 Gutland; Achilles, kyng of Ikeland; Aloth, kyng of Denmerc; Gonewas, kyng of Norweye; and Hoel his cosyn, kyng of Dorkeneye; Cador, kyng of litel Britaigne; ¶ Morwiþ, erl of Cornnewaile; Mauran, erle of Gloucestr; Guerdon, erl of Wynchestre; Boel, erl of Herford; Vrtegi, erl of Oxenford; Cursal, erl of Bathe; Ionas, erl of Chestre; Eueral, erl of Dorcestre; Kymar, erl of Salesbury; Waloth, erl of Kaunterbery; Igern, erl of Checestre; Aral, erl of Leycestre, & þe Erl of Warwik, & oþere riche [MS Rawlinson B 171 41a] Lordes. Britons also þere were ynow, þat is to seyn, Dippon, Donand, Genuȝ; and meny oþere þat beþ nouȝt here nempnede weren at þat fest; and meny anoþere faire feste Kyng Arthure hade holden biforn, but neuer none soche, ne so solempne; and þat laste xv dayes wiþ michel Honoure and merþe.

Of þe lettre þat was sent fram þe Citee of Rome for pride to Kyng Arthure ¶ Capitulo ¶ Octogesimo.

THe þridde day, as kyng Arthure satte at his mete amonges his kynges, & amonges ham þat seten at þe fest biforne ham, come in xij elderne men of age, rychely arraiede, and curteisly saluede þe kyng, and saide þat þai come fro Rome, sent messagers fram þe Emperour, and tok to him a lettre þat þus miche was to vnderstounde: ¶ "Gretely vs mervailes, Arthure, þat þow art on so hardy, wiþ eyen in þi heuede, to maken oppen werr and contak aȝeyns vs of Rome, þat owen al þe worlde to deme; for þow haste neuer ȝitte bifore þis tyme prouede ne assaiede þe strengþ of þe Romayns, and þerfor, þow it shalt in litil tyme. For Iulius Cesar conquerede al þe lande of Britaigne, and tok þerof truage, and oure folc longe tyme haue it hade; and now, þrouȝ þi pryde, þow hit witholdes; wherfore we commande þe þat þow ȝelde aȝeyne. ¶ and ȝitte haste þow more folye done, þat þow hast slayn Froll, þat was oure baron of Fraunce, al wiþ wrong, and þerfore alle þe communes of Rome warnen and commanden þe, oppon lif and Lyme, þat þow in haste bene atPage  82 Rome, amendes to make of þe misdedeȝ that þow haste done; and if hit so be þat þow come nouȝt, [MS Rawlinson B 171 41b] we shul passe þe hull of Ioye wiþ strengþ, and we shul þe seke wher-euer þow may ben founde, and þow shalt nouȝt haue a foote of lande of þyn owen þat we ne shal destroy; and aftirward wiþ þi body we shal done oure wille." ¶ When þis lettre was rade, & alle men hit herde, þai were annoyede, alle þat were at þe solempnite; and þe Britons wolde haue slayne þe messagers, but Arthure wolde nouȝt soffre hit, and saide þat þe messagers shulde haue none harme, and mow by resoun none deserue; but he commanded hem to bene worþely seruede. and after mete he toke conseil of kyngus, Erles and Barons, what ansuere me myȝt ȝeue to þe messagers; and þai conseilede at ones þat he shulde assemble a grete power of alle þe landes of þe whiche he hade lordeshipe, & manliche avenge him oppon þe Emperour, of þe despite þat he hade sent to him soche a lettre; and þai suoren bi God and by his names þat þai wolde him pursue & brenne in-alsemiche as þai myȝt, & saide þat þai wolde neuer faile Kyng Arture, and raþere to bene dede: and þai lete writen a lettre to sende to þe Emperour by þe same messagers in þis maner:

Of þe bolde ansuere þat Kyng Arthure sent to þe Emperour of Rome & to þe Romayns. Capitulo ¶ iiijxx primo.

"UV[n]derstondes amonges ȝow of Rome, þat I am kyng Arthure of Britaigne, and frely hit holde, and shal holde; and at Rome hastely y shal be, nouȝt to ȝeue ȝow truage, but forto axen truage; ffor Constantyne, þat was Elynus sone, þat was Emperour of Rome [MS Rawlinson B 171 42a] and of al þe honour þat þereto bilongede; ffor Maxinian conquerede al Fraunce and Almaigne, & mount Ioye passede, & conquerede al Lumbardye; and þise ij were myn ancestres; and þat þai hade and helde, I shulde haue, þrouȝ ¶ Godes wille."

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Of þe reuerence þat Kyng Authure dede to þe Emperourreȝ messagers of Rome. Capitulo ¶ iiijxx Secundo.

WHen þis lettre was made and enselede, Kyng Arthure to þe messagers ȝaf grete ȝiftes; and after þat, þe messagers toke here leue, & went þens to þe court of Rome aȝeyne, and tolde þe Emperour how worþely þei were vnderfonge, & whiche real company he [K. Arthur] hade him forto serue, & how he was more really seruede þan þe Emperour, or eny kyng leuyng in þe worlde. ¶ And when þe Emperour hade seyne þe lettre of Arthure, & herde what was þerin, and saw þat Arthure wolde nouȝt bene rewelede by him, he lete assemble & ordeyne an huge hoste forto destroie Kyng Arthure if he myȝt. and Kyng Arthure, as tochyng his partye, ordeynede his power of knyȝtes of þe rounde table.

Of þe kynges & lordes þat comen to helpe Kyng Arthure aȝeyneȝ þe Emperour of Rome. Capitulo Octogesimo ¶ Tercio.

THe kynges of Scotland, & of Irland & of Gutland, of Denmarc and of Almaigne, eueryche of ham hade x Ml of men. ¶ Thei of Normandye, Gascoigne & Spaigne, Flaundres & Pehito, & of Boloigne, hade iiijxx Ml. Geryn of Chartres hade x Ml; Hoel of Britaigne hade xij Ml, and him-self [Arthur] [MS Rawlinson B 171 42b] hade of his owen Londe xij Ml, & of Arblasters and of Archires, & of oþere folc on foote, þat noman couþe ham nombre. and when þai weren al redy forto wende, Kyng Arthur, his lande & Gunore his wif, he bitoke to one of his Nevewes þat was a wise knyȝt, & an herdy, þat me callede Mordrede; but he was nouȝt al trewe, as ȝe shul here afterwarde. Kyng Arthure toke al his reame to þis Mordrede, saue oneliche þe crone. ¶ And after þat, kyng Arthure tok his host and went to Southampton, þere þat þe shippes were brouȝt. and þe folc assemblede, and þai deden ham to þePage  84 see, and hade gode wynde & weder at wille. and as sone as þai myȝten, þai arryuede at Berflete, & wenten oute of here shippis, and spraden al þe contreye.

How Kyng Arthure fauȝt wiþ a Geaunt in Spaigne, þat me callede Denabȝ, þat quellede Elyne, þat was Kyng Hoeleȝ Cosyne, of litel Britaigne. Capitulo iiijxx iiijto.

KYng Arthure hade duellede in þe contre but a litil while, þat men ne tolde him þat þer was comen a grete Geaunt into Spayne, and hade rauesshede faire Elyne, þat was cosyn to Hoel of Britaigne, & hade brouȝt here vppon an hull þat is clepede þe Mount of seynt Barnard; & þere was noman in þat contre so bolde, ne so hardy, þat derst wiþ him to feiȝt, ne come neyȝ þe place þere þe Geaunt duellede; and men callede him Dynabȝ, þat miche sorwe dede in þe contre. ¶ When Kyng Arthure herde þis tydynges, he callede Kay & Bedewer, & commaundede ham þat þai shulde gon [MS Rawlinson B 171 43a] pryuely, and aspie Where þe Geaunt myȝt bene founde. and þai come to þe Ryuage þere þat men shulde gon to þe mount, þat was al enclosede about wiþ water, and ȝit is and euer shal be; and þai saw a brynnyng fire oppon þe Hull; and þere was also anoþer hull neyȝ, þat þere was oppon anoþere fire brynnyng. ¶ Kay and Bedewer comen to þe nexte hull, and founden a widowe openheuede, sittyng bisides a tounbe, sore wepyng, & grete sorwe made; and ofte she saide "Elyn! Elyn!" and Kay & Bedwere axede what her ailede, & wherfore she made so miche sorwe, & who lay in þat tombe. ¶ "O," quod she, "what sorwe and what mysauenture, faire lordes, make ȝe here? for if þe Geant may ȝow here fynde, ȝe worþ dede anone." "ben stille, gode wif," quod þai, "þerof dismai þe nouȝt, but tel vs þe soþe whi þow makes so myche sorwe & wepyng." ¶ "Sires," quod she, "for a damiselle þat I norisshede wiþ my brest, þat me calledePage  85 Elyne,—þat was nece to Hoel, Kyng of litel Britaigne, and here liþ þe bodye in þis tombe,—þat to me was bitaken to norisshe. so þere come a deuel, a Geaunt, & rauasshede here, & me Also, & lade vs boþe away; and he wolde haue forleyn þis maide þat was so ȝonge & tendre of age, but she myȝt hit nouȝt soffren, so grete and so huge þe Geant is. and if he now come as he was wont to done, certes he wille ȝow quelle, boþe ij; and þerfore faste wende ȝe hens." "and wherfore," saide þai, "go ȝe nouȝt hens?" ¶ "Certes, Sires," quod she, "When þat Elyne was dede, þe Geaunt made me to abide, [MS Rawlinson B 171 43b] to done and haunt his wille, and me most nedes it soffren. and God hit wote, I do hit nouȝt wiþ my gode wille, for leuer me were to bene dede þan wiþ him to dele, so miche payne I haue when he me forleiȝ." ¶ When Kay and Bedwere hade herde al þat þis woman hade tolde, þa turnede aȝeyne, and comen to Kyng Arthure, & tolde him al þat þai hade seyne & harde. ¶ Arthure anone toke ham boþe with him, and went priuely by nyȝt, þat none of his hoste it wiste, and come on þe morne to þe Geaunt, and fauȝt wiþ him strongely, and at þe laste him slouȝ. and Arthure bede Bedwere smyte of hes heuede, and bryng it to þe hoste to shewe ham for a wonder, for it was so grete & so huge. ¶ When þai comen aȝeyne to þe hoste, þai tolde wherfore þai hade bene out, and shewede to ham þe heuede; & euery man was glade & ioyful of þe worþi dede þat Kyng Arthure hade done, her lorde. ¶ And Hoel was ful sorweful for his nece þat was so loste; and after, when he hade space, he lete make a faire chapel of oure Lady ouer Elyneȝ Tumbe.

How Kyng Arthure ȝaf bataile to þe Emperour, in þe whiche bataile þe Emperoure was slayn. Capitulo Octogesimo vto.

ARthure and his peple hade tydynges þat þe Emperour hade assemblede grete power, as wel of Sarasynes and of paynemys as of Cristen men, Wherof þe noumbre was iiijxx Ml of horsemen and of fote men. Arthure and his peple ordeynedePage  86 ham fast forþ in [MS Rawlinson B 171 44a] here Way towarde þe Emperour, and passede Normandy & Fraunce vnto Burgoyne, and wolde euen haue gone to þe host, for men tolde him þat þe Emperoureȝ host was comen to Lucye. ¶ The Emperour and his host, in þe byginning of August, remevede fram Rome, and come fourth ryȝt þe way toward þe host. ¶ tho comen Kyng Arthures aspieȝ, and saide, if þat Arthure wolde, he shulde fynde þere faste bisides, þe Emperour; but þai saiden þat þe Emperoure hade so grete power wiþ him of kynges of þe lande, & of Paynemys yfere, & also cristen peple, þat it were but grete folie to Kyng Arthure forto mete wiþ him, for þe espies tolde þat þe Emperour hade v men or vj aȝeynes one of his. ¶ Kyng Arthure was bolde and hardy, and for noþing him dismaiede, & saide: "go we forþ in Goddes name aȝeynes þe Romayns, þat wiþ ham ledeþ Sarasines & Paynemes þat no maner truste þai hauen to God, but oneliche oppon here strengþ! Go we now, and seche ham sharpely in þe name of almyȝty God, and slee we þe paynemys and Cristen men þat bene enemys wiþ ham forto destroe Cristen men; and God shal vs helpe, for we haueþ the ryȝt, & þerfore haue we gode trust in God; & done we so þat þe enemys þat bene to Cristendome & to Gode mow bene dede & destroiede, & þat men mow recorde þe worþinesse of knyȝthode!" ¶ When Kyng Arthure hade þus saide, þai criden al wiþ an hye voice, "God, fader almiȝty, [MS Rawlinson B 171 44b] Worsheppede be þine name Wiþouten ende, Amen! and grant vs grace wel to done, and to destrie oure enemys þat beþ aȝeynes Cristendome! In þe name of þe fader & of þe sone and of þe holy gost, Amen! And God ȝeue ham neuer grace ne worshipp in the worlde, ne mercy of him to haue, þat þis day shal feynten wel forto smyte, and egrely!" and so þai riden softly, and ordeynede her wenges wel and wisely.

¶ The Emperoure herde telle þat Kyng Arthure & his folc were redy arraiede forto feiȝt wiþ him; and þider þai comen, wher he ordeynede his wenges in þe best manere þat he myȝt, and morePage  87 trust oppon his strengþ þan in God almyȝty. and þat was seyn afterward, ffor when þo ij hostes metten, the Emperour loste soche foure of his folc as dede Kyng Arthur; and so meny were slayne, what in o side and in þat oþere, þat hit was grete pite to wete and to seen. ¶ In þis bataile were slayn þrouȝ Kyng Arthure, v kyngȝ of paynemys, & of oþere, Wonder miche peple. ¶ And Kyng Arthures men fouȝten so wel, þat þe Romaines and paynemys hade no more power ne strengþ to wiþstande ham, þan xx shepe aȝeynes v. wolfes. ¶ And so hit bifelle þat in þis bataile, in a shoure þat was wonder herde and longe duryng, in þat o side and in þat oþere, þe Emperour, amonges ham þere was slayn; but noman wist forsoþ who him slouȝ.

How Kyng Arthure lete entere his knyȝtes þat he hade Loste in bataile; and how he sent þe Emperourreȝ body [MS Rawlinson B 171 45a] to Rome, þat þere was slayne in bataile. Capitulo Octogesimo vjto.

WHen þe Romayns wist þat þe Emperour was dede, þai forsoke þe felde, and þe paynemys also; and Kyng Arthure after ham chasede til it was nyȝt, and so meny of ham quellede þat hit was wonder to telle; and þo turnede Kyng Arthure aȝeyne when it was nyȝt, and þankede almyȝty God of his Vittorie. And on þe morwe he lete loke & seke al þe felde for his knyȝtes þat he hade þere lost, þat is to seyne, Borell, erl of Maans; Bedwere & Kay, and Lygers, Erl of Boloigne; Vrtegi, erl of Baat, Aloth, erl of Wynchestre; Cursale, erl of Chestre; and Holdeyn, erl of Flaundres: þise were þe grete Lordes þat Kyng Arthure Loste in þat bataile amonges oþere worþi knyȝtes; and somme he lete entere in Abbayes by þe contre, and some he lete bene borne into here owen contre; and þe Emperourres body he lete take and put oppon a bere, & sent hit to Rome, and sent to say to þe Romaynes þat 'as for Britaigne & Fraunce whiche þat he helde, oþere truage he wolde none paie; and if þai axend him eny oþere, riȝt suche he wolde ham paye.' ¶ Kyng Arthur letePage  88 bere Kay to Kenen, his owen castel, and þere he was enterede; and Ligers was born to Boloyne, þere þat he was lorde; and Holdeyn was borne to Flaundres, & þere he was enterede; and alle the oþere he lete entier wiþ michel honour in Abbayes & in houseȝ of Religioun in þe contrey þere þat þai were dede. ¶ And Arthure him-self soiournede þe same ȝere in Burgoigne [MS Rawlinson B 171 45b] wiþ his host, and þouȝt þat. same ȝere follewyng passe þe mount Ioye, & haue gone to Rome, forto haue take þe citee, and haue put þe Romayns in subieccion; but þe wickede tiraunt Mordrede him lettede, as after ȝe shul here.

How Mordrede þe traitour to whome Kyng Arthure tok his lande to kepe, and his castelles, and helde hit aȝeynes him. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Octogesimo ¶ Septimo.

WHen Kyng Arthure hade taken to Mordrede his reaume to kepe, and was gone aȝeynes þe Emperoure of Rome, & was passede þe see, Mordrede anone toke homages and feautes of al ham þat were in þis lande, and wolde haue hade þe lande to his owen vse, and toke castelles about, and lete ham arraie; and after his falsenesse he dede anoþere grete wrong, ffor, aȝeynes þe law of Cristiente, he toke his owen Emes wif, as a traitour shulde, and ordeynede him a grete hoste aȝeynes Arthures comyng, to halde the lande aȝeyns him wiþ strengþ for euermore, and to slee Kyng Arthure yf he myȝt; and lete sende by þe Cee and lande, and lete assemble Paynymes and cristen peple; and he sent to Saxones and to Danoys forto help him. and also Mordrede sende to Cheldrik, to done men come to him out of Saxoyne, þat was a worþi Duc, and bihiȝt him, if þat he brouȝt wiþ him peple, he wolde graunt him al þe lande fram biȝonde Humber vnto Scotland, and al þe lande þat Engist hade [MS Rawlinson B 171 46a] of Vortigers ȝifte, When þat he hade spousede his douȝter. And Cheldrik come wiþ grete strengþ and power of Peple: and Mordrede him assemblede also in his half, þat þai hade xl Ml of stronge knyȝtes when þat þai hade nede.

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How Arthure enchacede Mordrede þe traitour, and how he was slayne, and Kyng Arthure also wondede to þe dethe. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Octogesimo ¶ Octauo.

WHen þis tydynges come to Kyng Arthure þere þat he was in Burgoyne, he was ful sore annoiede, and toke al Fraunce to Hoel forto kepe, wiþ haluendele his men, & praiede him þat he wolde hit kepe til þat he comen aȝeyne, ffor him-self wolde wende into Britaigne and avenge him oppon Mordrede þat was his traitoure; and fourþ went his waye, and come to Switsand, & made his men to gone into shippe, & wolde haue arryuede at Sandewiche, and brouȝt wiþ him an grete hoste of Fraunce also wiþ his owen lande. but er þat he myght come to lande wiþ his peple þat were comen out of þe shippis, Mordrede was comen wiþ all his power, and ȝaf a stronge bataile, so þat Kyng Arthure loste meny a man er þat he miȝt comen to land; ffor þere was Gaweyn his Nevewe slayne, and Anguissel þat helde Scotland, and meny oþere, wherof Kyng Arthure was ful sory. ¶ But after þat þai were comen to lande, Mordrede myght nougt aȝeynes him endure, but anone was [MS Rawlinson B 171 46b] descomfitede, and flede þens þat same nyȝt Wiþ his men, and oppon þe morwe come to London; but þo of the citee wolde nouȝt soffre ham come in; and fro þens he fledde to Wynchestre, and þere helde him wiþ his peple þat with him come. Kyng Arthure lete take þe body of Gaweyn his cosyn, & þe body of Anguissel, and lete ham bene borne into Scotland into her owen contre, and þere þai were enterede.

¶ And anone after þat, Kyng Arthur toke his wey to destroie Mordrede; and he fledde fro þens into Cornewaile. ¶ The Quene Gunnore, þat was Kyng Arthures wif, þat þo soiournede at Ȝork, and herde þat Mordrede was fledde þens þat he was, and miȝt nouȝt endure aȝeynes Kyng Arthure, she was sore adrade, and hade grete doute, and wist nouȝt what was best al forto done, for she wiste wel here lorde Kyng Arthure wolde nouȝt of her hauePage  90 mercy, for þe grete shame þat she to him hade done; and toke her wai priuely wiþ iiij men and wiþ no mo, & come to Kerlioun, and þere she duellede al her lifes tyme, þat neuer was seyn amonges folc, her lif duryng. ¶ Arthure wist þat Mordrede was fledde into Cornewail. he lete sende after his men into Scotland, & into Northumberland vnto Humber, and lete assemble folc wiþout noumbre, & come fro þens into Cornewaile to seche and pursue after Mordrede. and Mordrede hade assemblede al þe folc of Cornwayle, and hade peple wiþoute nombre, & wist þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 47a] Arthure Was comyng. he hade leuer to Dye and tak his chaunce, þan lenger flee, and abode and ȝaf an harde bataile to Kyng Arthur & to his peple, so þat so miche peple was slayn,— What in þat one halfe and in þat oþer,—þat noman wiste who þat hade þe better partie. ¶ But so hit bifelle at the laste, þat Mordrede was slayn, and al his folc, and al þe gode chiualry þat Kyng Arthure hade gaderede and norisshede of diuerseȝ landes; and also þe noble Knyghtes of þe rounde table, þat so miche were preisede þrouȝ al þe worlde, weren þere slayn; and Arthure himself was wondede to þe deth. but he lete him bene born in a liter to Auyoun, to bene helede of his wondes; and ȝitte þe Britons supposen þat he Leueþ in a-noþere lande, and þat he shal come ȝit and conquere al Britaigne; but certes þis is þe prophecie of Merlyn: he saide þat his deþ shulde bene dotous; and he saide sothe, for men þerof ȝitte hauen doute, and shal for euermore, as me saiþ, for men weten nouȝt wheþer þat he leueþ or is dede. ¶ Arthure was born to Auyoun þe xxij ȝere of his regne After þe Incarnacioun of oure lorde Ihesu Crist v. C and xlvjti ȝere.

How Kyng Arthure delyuerede þe reame to Constantyn, þe sone of Cador, his nevew. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Octogesimo ¶ Nono.

WHenne Kyng Arthure wist þat he miȝt no longer regne, he lete come bifore him Constantyne, þat was Cadoreȝ sone, erl of Cornwail, his cosyn, and to him bitoke al his reaume, and toPage  91 him saide, & bade him þerof to bene Kyng til þat he come aȝeyne, for-asmiche as he hade none heire of his body bigeten: and grete harme was hit þat soche a noble Kyng, and so doughty, hade none childe of his body bigeten; [MS Rawlinson B 171 47b] but al þing þat God wil haue done, moste bene done, Whos name ben blessede wiþouten ende! Amen.

How Kyng Constantyne was werrede of Mordredus ij sones. Capitulo Nonogesimo.

THis Constance was a noble knyght and a worþi of body; and þo ij sones þat Mordrede hade bigeten, hade grete en[u]y to Constantyne, þat þo was cronede kyng; and so þat þai bigonne to meve werr aȝeynes him, and assemblede a grete hoste of ham þat were to-fore wiþ Mordrede, and hade bene dryuen away. þai deden miche sorwe þrouȝ al þat lande: þat o broþer ordeynede him to London forto take þe citee, and þat oþere to Wynchestre; but Constantyn come to London and slough him þat was þere; and after, he went to Wynchestre, and slough him þat þere was also, so þat boþe his enemys were dede. and when Constantyn had regnede worþely iiij ȝer, he deide, & liþ at London.

Of þe Kynges Adelbright and of Edelf. Capitulo Nonogesimo primo.

After Kyng Constantynus deth þere were ij kynges in Britaigne: þat on me callede Adelbright, þat was a Danoys, þat helde þe contre of Northfolc and Southfolc; þat oþere hiȝt Edelf, and was a Britoun, þat helde Nichole, Lyndeseye, and al þe lande vnto Humber. ¶ þise ij kynges faste werrede to-gederes, but afterwarde þai were accorded, and louede to-geder as þai haden bene borne of o body. ¶ The Kyng Edelf hade a sustre þat me callede Orewenne, and he ȝaf here þrouȝ grete frendeship to Kyng Adelbright to wif, and he bigate on here a doughter þat me callede Argentill. and in þe þridde ȝere after, him come vppon a strongePage  92 [MS Rawlinson B 171 48a] sikenesse, þat nedes he moste dye; and he sent to Kyng Edelf his brother-in-lawe, that he shulde come and speke with him; & he come to him with gode wille. ¶ Tho praiede he the [king], and coniurede also in the name of God, þat after when he were dede, he shulde tak Argentill his douȝter, & þe lande, & þat he kepte here wel, and norisshede in his Chaumbre, and when she were of age he shulde done here bene marede to þe strongest and worþieste man þat he myȝt fynde, and þan he shulde ȝelde vp her lande aȝeyne. Edelf hit grauntede, and by oth hit confermede at his power. ¶ And when Adelbright was dede and enterede, Edelfe toke þe damisel Argentil, and norisshede her in his chaumbre, and she bicome þe faireste creature þat eny man myȝt fynde.

How þe Kyng Edelf mariede þe damisel Argentil to a knaue of his Kechyne. Capitulo iiijxx & xijo.

THis Kyng Edelf, þat was Vncle to the Damisel Argentil, biþouȝt how þat he myght falseliche haue þe lande fram his nece for euermore; & falsely, aȝeynes his oth, þouȝt to desceyu þe damisell, and mariede here to a knaf of his kechyne þat me callede Curan; and he bicome þe worþiest man & strongest of body þat eny man wiste in eny lande þat þo leuede; and to him he þouȝt here shendefully haue mariede forto haue hade hir lande afterward; but he was clene desceyuede. ¶ ffor þis Curan was Hauelockes sone, þat was Kyng of Kirkelane in Denmark; and þis Curan conquerede his wifes landes, and slough Kyng Edelf þat was his wifes Vncle, & hade al here lande as [MS Rawlinson B 171 48b] in anoþer stede hit telleþ more oppenly; and he ne regnede but iij ȝere, for Saxoynes and Danoys him quellede; and þat was grete harme to al Britaigne; and Britons bere him to Stonehynge, and þere þai him enterede wiþ michel honoure and solempnite.

Of Kyng Conan. Capitulo Nonogesimo Tercio.

After þis Curan, regnede Conan, þat was his cosyn, þat was a wonder proude knyȝt and regnede. he couþe haue no maner loue, but euer he was medlyng wiþ his owen peple, and tokePage  93 his Vncle wiþ werre, and helde his ij childerne. ¶ The Saxoynes werrede aȝeynes him oftetymes, but he ham ouercome at þe laste; & so he was in pees al his lifes tyme; and he regnede xiiij ȝere, and after, he deide, and ¶ liþ at London.

Of Kyng Certif; and of Gurmonde, þat come þrouȝ paynemys into Britaigne. Capitulo Nonogesimo Quarto.

After þis Conan, regnede his cosyn Certif, þat was bihatede of all his peple, and noþing bilouede. and þis Certif loste al Britaigne þrouȝ werre. And in his tyme felle þat grete meschief in Britaigne, þat Cristendome was destroede, and alle þe Britons were dryuen oute, & þe lande loste wiþouten eny recoueryng; but afterwarde lefte þe lande to Saxoynes, as ȝe shul afterwarde hure. ¶ For in þat tyme þere was a paynyme þat me callede Gurmonde, þat was þe Kynges sone Daufrik, of þe Paynymes folc, þat hade þe reaume after his fader, and was kyng, saf he biquaþ & ȝaf hit to his broþer, and saide þat he wolde neuer bene kyng but if he might conquere and gete a reaume in a straunge contrey; for he was bolde, and ek stronge of body. & of him [MS Rawlinson B 171 49a] prophecied Merlyn, and saide þat 'he shulde bene a wolf of þe see'; and lete assemble paynymes wiþout nombre, and lete apparaile shippis, and went by meny londes, and toke homages and feautes of meny. and so he went by þe see fram lande to lande, & conquerede diuerses landes, so þat he come to Irland, and conquered þat lande, þat ofte-tymes werrede vppon Britaigne, and Britons vppon ham; and often wonnen, & ofte losten, and ȝeuen hostages to Britons. and so þai senten to Gurmond, þere þat he was in Irland, þat he shulde come into Britaigne, and helpe ham aȝeynes þe Britons, to helpe ham deliuere þat lande of ham; and þai wolde him holde gladly for her lorde; for he was a paynyme, and þai were paynemes, and þe Britons were cristen: wel auȝt him þan ham forto helpe, so asPage  94 þai weren of on law. ¶ When Gurmond herde þis praier, he hastede him as miche as he miȝt, and arryuede in Scotland, and come into Northumberlond þere þat þe Saxones were duellyng; & þai confermede þe couenaunteȝ bituene ham, þat were made by oþes and by hostages, forto beren him trew fay, & halde him for lorde, and paye to him truage by ȝere. ¶ Tho bigonne þe Saxoynes & þe Aufricans to destroye, robbe and brenne tounes, and destroye al þing, as michel as þai myȝt, and sparede neiþere man, woman, ne childe, Lewede ne lernede, þan alle þai quellede, & caste adoun tounus, & castelle, & cherches, & so put þai al þe lande to grete destruccioun. And as sone as the Britons myȝt [MS Rawlinson B 171 49b] flee, þai fledde þens, as wel poer as ryche, Bisshoppis, Abbotes, Chanons, & alle oþere, grete and smale; somme into litel Britaign, & some into Cornwail; alle þo þat shippis miȝt haue.

How Kyng Gurmonde drof þe Kyng Certif to Chichestre, and quellede þe Britons, & þrouȝ quey[n]tise ¶ gete the toune. [Capitulo nonagesimo quinto.]

SErtif þe kyng, fleye þens into Chichestre, þat þo was a gode cite and a strong, and þere helde him xx daies. and þis Gurmonde hit bisegede; but þe citee was so strong þat he miȝt nouȝt hit gete be no maner engyne þat he myȝt done. þo biþouȝt þai oppon a grete queyntise forto brenne the toune: þai maden engynes of glew and of nettes, and token peces of tunder & fire, and bonde to sparwe feet, & afterward lete ham flee; and þai fley anon ryȝt, and loggede ham in þe toune þere þat her nestes were, and in stackes & in euesynges of house; & þe fire biganne anone to tende and brenne al þe toune. and whenne þe Britons saw þe toune brenne on euery side, þai hiede ham out, and fauȝt; but anone þai were slayn & descomfitede. and whiles þe bataile durede, þe kyng priuely hud him, & stale away into Walys, & men wiste neuer where he bicome; & so was þe tounPage  95 of Chichestre taken & destroiede. and after, went Gurmonde, & destroiede citees & tounes þat neuer were afterward made aȝeyne, as it is seen ȝitte in meny stedes.

How þis lande was clepede Engeland for þe name of Engist; and how meny Kynges were [MS Rawlinson B 171 50a] made after in þe Londe. ¶ Capitulo Nonogesimo Sexto.

WHen Gurmonde hade wastede and destroiede al þe lande þrouȝ-out, he ȝaf þe londe to þe Saxones; and þai toke hit wiþ gode wille, for þe Saxones longe tyme hade desirede hit, for-asmiche as þai were of Engistes Kynrede, þat first hade al þe lande of Britain; and þo lete ham bene callede Englisshemen, for-asmiche as in his tyme hit was callede Engistes lande, when he hade conquerede it of Vortiger þat hade spousede his douȝter. but fram þe tyme þat Brut come ferst into Engeland, þis land was callede Britaigne, & þe folc Britons, til þe tyme þat þis Gurmond eftesones conquerede hit & ȝaf it vnto Saxonus, and þai anone riȝt chaunged þe name, as bifore is saide. ¶ And when þis was done, Gurmond passede ouer into Fraunce, & þere conquered meny londes, & destroed all cristen peple þere þat he come. and þe Danois duellede in þis lande, & bigonne faste hit inhabit at here owen wille; and þai wolde haue made newe kynges and lordes, but þai myȝt neuer assenten to haue onelich o kyng, forto bene to him entendaunt: and þerfore þai maden meny kynges in diuerses shires, as hit was in Engistes tyme. ¶ The ferst kyngdome was Kent, and þat oþere Southsex, and þe þridde Westsex, and þe ferþ Estsex, and þe fifte Northumberland, and þe sixte Estangle, þat is to seyn Northfolc & Southfolc, and þe seueneþ Merchenoroth, and þat is þe Erl [MS Rawlinson B 171 50b] dome of Nichole, Huntyngdon and Hereford, Gloucestre, Wynchestre, Warrwyk and Darby; and so departede þe Englisshe-men al Engeland into vij parties. ¶ And after, hitPage  96 bifelle þat þo kynges werrede to-gederes ofte-tymes; and euer he þat was strongest binome ham þat were feblest; & so hit was longe tyme þat þai nade no kyng cronede amonges ham, ne no cristen men was þo amonges ham, ne cristendome neiþere, but were paynemys l. ȝere, til þat seynt Gregori was pope of Rome, þat hade seyne childerne of þe nacioun in þe citee of Rome, þat were wonder faire creatures, & hade grete wille and desire ham forto biholde, and axede of þe marchauntes whens þai were, & of what nacioun; & men tolde him þat þai were of Engeland, & Englisshe þai were callede; but þai and all þe peple of Engeland were paynemes, & bileuede nouȝ in God. ¶ "Allas," quod seynt Gregori, "wel mow þai bene callede Englissh, for þai haue þe visages of Angeles; and þerfor wel auȝt ham þen ben cristen men." And for þis enchesoun seynt Gregor sent seynt Austyne into Engeland, and xl. goode men wiþ him, þat were of gode lif, and holy men, to preche and teche, and to conuerte þe Englisshe peple, and ham turne to God: and þat was in þe vj ȝere þat seynt Gregor hade bene Pope, þat is to seyne, after þe Incarnacioun of oure Lorde Ihesu Crist, v. C. iiijxx and vij ȝere, as þe cronicles telleþ.

How Seynt Austyne baptisede & conuertede Kyng Adelbright, and ij bisshopis þat he callede his felawes. Capitulo iiijxx xvijo.

WHen Seynt Austyne come ferst into Engeland, he [MS Rawlinson B 171 51a] arryuede in þe Ile of Tenet, and so passede fourth, & come vnto Kaunterbery, and þere soiournede. And Kyng Adelbright of Kent, þat was of þe lynage of Engist, faire vnderfong seynt Austyn & his felowes wiþ michel honour, & ham fonde al þat ham nedede; & ferþermore he ȝaf ham a faire place þat now is callede þe Abbay of seynt Austynus, in whiche place he liþ him-self shrinede. ¶ This Kyng Adelbright was a gode man, and wiþ godewel herde seynt Austynus predicaciouns, and ȝaf him leue toPage  97 preche þrouȝ al his lande of Kent, to tourne & to conuerte to him al þe peple þat he miȝt. ¶ Hit bifelle so afterwarde, þrouȝ Goddes grace, þat in litel tyme þe kyng him-self was conuertede to Gode, and all his peple of his lande was baptisede. And in the mene-while þat þe peple turnede ham to God, seynt Austyn come to Rochestre, and þere prechede Goddes worde. þe paynemys þerfor him scornede, and caste on him righe tailes, so þat al his mantel was hongede ful of righe tailes; and for more despite þai caste oppon him þe guttes of ryghe & of ffisshe; wherfore þe gode man seynt Austyn was sore agreuede, and prayede to God þat alle þe childerne þat shulde bene borne afterwarde in þat citee of Rouchestre moste haue tailes. ¶ And when þe Kyng herde and wist of þis vengeance þat was falle þrouȝ seynt Austynus praier, he lete make an house in þe honoure of God, wher-in wymmen shulde haue childerne at þe bruges ende, in whiche hous wymmen ȝit beþ delyuere of childe. ¶ When seynt Gregory hade herde tel þat þe Englisshe-men were turnede to Gode, and conuertede, He sent to seynt Austyn his Pallyoun, by a bisshop þat me callede Paulyn, and made him primate & Erchebisshop [MS Rawlinson B 171 51b] of al Engeland, And sent him worde þan þat he shulde make bisshopis in þe land. And anone as seynt Austyn hade þe Pallioun of þe dignite of þe erchebisshop, he made ij bisshoppes of his felawes þat come wiþ him fram Rome: on þat me callede Mellite, & he duellede at London, And þat oþere me callede Iustyn, þat helde þe dignite of Rouchestre. ¶ And þis bisshop Mellyt went to preche into Essex, & baptisede þe kyng of þe contre, þat me callede Sicwith, þat was Kyng Adelbrightȝ cosyn, his sustres sone. ¶ This Iustyne went to preche in Southsex, & turnede miche of þe peple to god; and seynt Austyne went him-self prechyng þrouȝ-oute þe lande.

Page  98

How seynt Austyne went into Walys, þere þat þe Britouns were; & how þai nolde nouȝt bene obedient to þe Erchebisshop of Kanterbury. Capitulo iiijo xx xviijo.

WHen al Engeland was baptisede and turnede to God, seynt Austyn went into þat lande þere þat þe Britons were, and forto kepe ham fro Englisshe-men, þat is to seyn, into Walys, & þere he founde monkes & Abbayes, & vij bisshoppes; for þe Britons destroiede alwai þe cristen peple þat seynt Austyne hade baptisede, & saide to þe bisshoppes þat 'he was a legate of Rome, & primat of al Engeland, & þat þai shulde by al resoun to him bene obedient.' And þai saide þat; 'þai nolde but to þe Erchebisshop of Kerlyoun'; & saide 'þai nolde neuer, for no maner þing, bene obedient vnto þe Englisshe-men'; "ffor þe Englisshe-men," þai saide, "beþ oure aduersaries & oure enemys, and hauen dryuen vs out of oure owen contre; & we beþ Cristen men, and euer haþ bene; & þe Englisshe-men [MS Rawlinson B 171 52a] haueþ euermore bene Paynymes, but now late þat þai beþ conuertede." ¶ Seynt Austyne myȝt of ham none oþere ansuere haue, but saide apertely þat 'þai nolde neuer ham meke to him ne to þe peple of Rome.' And seynt Austyne turnede þo aȝeyne to Kyng Adelbright, þat was kyng of Kent, and tolde him þat þis folc wolde nouȝt to no man bene obedient but to þe Erchebisshop of Kerlyoun. and when þe Kyng herde þis, he was sore annoiede, and saide þat he wolde ham destroye, & sent to Elfride, Kyng of Northumberland, þat was his frende, þat he shulde come to him wiþ al þe power þat he myȝt, & þat he wolde mete him at Leycestre, and fro þens þai wolde gone into Walys, & destroye þe Erchebisshop of Kerlyoun, & alle þo þat hade refusede seynt Austyn.

Page  99

How Kyng Adelbr[i]ght and þe Kyng Elfride quellede Brecyual, þat was a Kyng of Britons þat helde þe contre of Leicestre. Capitulo Nonogesimo ixo.

HIt bifelle so þat þere was a Kyng Britoun þat helde þe contre of Leycestre, and al þe cuntre aboute him, of Brecyual. And þis Kyng Briton herde telle þat þo ij Englisshe kyngȝ wolde mete þere at Leycestre, forto wende into Walys. The lete ordeyne al þe power þat he hade, forto feiȝt wiþ þise ij kynges; but litil hit availede him, for his folc þat he hade was slayn, & him-self fledde, & loste his landeȝ for euermore. ¶ And þise ij kynges, Adelbright and Elfride, duellede awhile at Leycestre, & departede þe lande amonges ham, & toke homages & feautes of þe folc of þe cuntree; and after, þai wenten towarde Walys, & [MS Rawlinson B 171 52b] þo of Walys hade herde telle of þe scomfiture of Brecyual hade at Leycestre, and were wonder sore adrade of þo ij kynges, and toke and chose amonges ham gode men & holy, of heremytes, monkes and prestes, and oþere folc grete plente, þat wenten bare-fote and wolward, forto haue mercy of þo ij kynges. ¶ But þo kynges were so sterne and so wickede þat þai nolde neuer speke with ham, but quellede ham euerychon—Allas þe sorwe!—for þai ne sparede ham nomore þan þe wolfe doth þe shepe, but smyten of þe heuedes of euerychon; & so al were þere martrede þat to ham come, þat is to vnderstonde, vc. & xl. ¶ And after, þo ij kynges went to Bangor, forto quelle al þo þat þai myȝt þere fynde of þe Britons. And when þe Britons þat herde, þai assemblede & ordeynede al here power forto fiȝt wiþ ham. ¶ þo was þere a Britoun in Walys, þat me callede Bledrik of Cornwaile, þat somme-tyme was lorde of Deuenshire, but þe Kyng Adelbright hade dryuen him into Walys, and ȝeue him bataile; and at þat bataile was Kyng Adelbright slayne, & Elfride woundede sore, & forsoke þe felde, & þe most parte of his folc slayn; and Elfride fleye into Northumberland, þat was his owenPage  100 lande; and afterwarde þe peple of Leycestreshire made wiþ strengþ Cadwaladre, þat was Brecyualeȝ sone, Kyng of Leycestre, & he after regnede nobli & wiþ grete honoure.

How Cadewaladre, þat was Kyng of Leycestre, and Elfride, Kyng of Northumberland, weren frendes; & of þe debate þat after was bituene Edwyne & Cadewalayn, þat were boþe here sones. Capitulo Centesimo.

ANd after þat þis bataile was done, þe Britons [MS Rawlinson B 171 53a] assemblede ham, and went þens, and come vnto Leicestre, & made Cadwaladre, þat was Brecyuales sone, kyng of Leicestr and of all þe contre. and he toke homages & feautes of þe folc of þat contre; and after þat, he assembled a grete hoste, and saide 'he wolde go into Northumberland forto destroi Kyng Elfride, & slee him, if þat he myght.' and when he was comen þider, frendes went so bituene ham, & made ham accordede in þis maner, þat Elfride shulde holde al þe lande fram Humber vnto Scotlande, and Cadwalader shulde halde al þe lande aþis half Humber vnto þe South; and after þat þai bicome gode frendes al here lif duryng, & louede to-gedre as [they] hade bene ij breþerne. ¶ And þis Elfride hade a sone þat me callede Edwynne, þat hade and helde al þe lande of Northumbreland after his fadres deth, as his fader hade holde al his lif-tyme. ¶ And Cadwaladre hade anoþere sone þat me callede Cadwalayn, þat helde his fadres lande as he it helde while he was alif; and þai louede to-gedre as þai hade bene breþern. and þe loue laste bituene ham but onely ij ȝere, and after biganne debate bituene ham þrouȝ a luþer eneuious cosyne of Cadwalayn, þat men callede Briens, so þat þai assemblede a grete hoste in boþe parties; & at þe laste hit bifelle þat Cadewalayn was descomfitede, & Edwyne him pursuede, and drof fram place to place. so at þe laste he fleye into Irlande; and þis oþere destroiede his lande, & caste adoune his castelles, and brennede his maneres, and departede al Cadwalaynes lande amonge his frendes. ¶ And longe tyme after come CadwalaynPage  101 aȝeyne fram Irlande, with a stronge power, and in pleyn bataile [MS Rawlinson B 171 53b] quellede Edwynne and alle his frendeshippes, & namely þo þat wiþhelde his landes þrouȝ Edwynes ȝifte.

How Kyng Oswolde was quellede þrouȝ Kyng Cadwaleyne and Peanda; & how Oswy, þat was seynt Oswoldesȝ broþer, regnede after him, & quelde Peanda. Capitulo Centesimo primo.

WHen þat Edwynne was slayn, Offris his sone vnderfonge þe werr aȝeyns Cadwaleyn his Eme, so þat þis Offris deide duryng þe werre. and after þe deþ of Offris, þo regned a gentile Cristen man þat miche louede God,—þat hade all þe lande of Northumberland by herytage,—þat me [called] Oswolde, and he was kyng of al þat lande. but for-asmiche as he was frende to Edwyne, and helde a grete parte of þe lande of Cadwalyn, þe same Cadewalyn werred oppon him, and drof him toward Scotland. and when Cadwalyn saw þat he wolde nouȝt abide, Cadwalyn wolde no longer him pursue, but toke some of his folc to Peanda, his broþer-in-law, & praiede Peanda to pursue Oswolde til þat he were take and slayne; and Cadwalyn turnede þo home aȝeyn. ¶ When Oswolde herde þe tidynges þat Cadwaleyn turnede home aȝeyne, he wolde no longer flee, but abode Peanda, & ȝaf him betaile; & Peanda was descomfitede and fley, and come aȝeyne to Cadwaleyn, & saide þat 'he wolde neuere holde a foote of lande of him but if it were so þat he wolde avenge him oppon Oswolde.' Cadwaleyne lete assemble a grete host forto fiȝt wiþ Oswolde; so þat he and Peanda come into Northumberland, [MS Rawlinson B 171 54a] and ȝeuen bataile vnto Oswolde; and in þat same bataile was Oswolde slayn, & his heuede smyten of; & after he was enterede at þe Abbay of Berdeneye, in whiche place God haþ wrouȝt for him meny a faire miracle, boþe þere and elles-where.

¶ And anone Oswy his broþer seisede into his hande al þe lande þat was Oswoldes; & þe folc of Northumberlande louede him wonder wel, and helde him for here lorde; but he hade men of his kyn worþi ynow þat wolde haue departede þe lande; & þaiPage  102 werrede to-gedre. & for-asmiche as þai were nouȝt stronge ynow, þai come to Peanda, & praiede him of helpe and socour, & bihight him of þat lande largely, oppon þat couenant þat he wolde ham ghye, helpe, & conseile. ¶ Peanda herde her praier, & so spake wiþ þe Kyng Cadwalyn þat he shulde ordeyne a grete hoste, and faste ordeyne him into Northumberland forto fiȝt wiþ Oswy. and Oswy was a meke man, & miche louede pees and charite, & prayede Peanda of loue and pees, & proferede him of golde & siluer grete plente. ¶ And þis Peanda was so proude þat he wolde graunt him no pees for no maner þing, but for al þing h[e] wolde wiþ him feiȝt. so at þe laste þere was sette a day of ba[ta]ille; and Oswy euere hade truste oppon Gode, & þis Peanda triste to miche oppon his pride & oppon his host þat he hade. and to-gedre þai smyten egrely; but Peanda anone was descomfitede & slayn. And þat was after þe Incarnacioun of oure lorde Ihesu Criste V. C. & lv. ¶ And þis Oswy þo regnede xxviij ȝere. [MS Rawlinson B 171 54b] And a kyng þat me callede Oswyn, þat was Peandaeȝ cosyn, werrede oppon Kyng Oswy, and to-gedre fouȝten; but Oswy hade þe victorie; and Oswyne was descomfitede & slayn, and lith at Tynnemouthe.

Of Kyng Ossa, þat was souereyne of alle þe kynges of Engeland; & how eueryche werrede oppon oþere in his tyme. Capitulo Centesimo Secundo.

HIt bifelle so þat alle þe kynges in þat tyme þat were in þe londe, as þo of Westsex, Mercheneriche, Est Angle, of Kent, & of Southsex & of oþere costes, eueryche werrede oppon oþere; and þai þat were moste myȝtiest toke þe lande of ham þat were moste feblest. ¶ But þere was a kyng amonges ham þat me callede Ossa, þat was seynt Oswoldes broþer. þis Ossa conquerede alle þe kynges of þe lande, & regned aboue ham alle. ¶ And so grete was þe werr in euery contre bituene kyngus, þat no man myȝt wete how þe lande went. But Abbotes, prioures, & men of religioun, writen þe lifes and dedes of kynges, & howPage  103 longe eueryche hade regnede, & in what contre; & in what maner eueryche kyng deide, and of bisshoppis also, and þerof made grete bokes, & lete calle ham þe Cronicles: and þe goode Kyng Alurede hade þat boke in his warde, and lete brynge hit to Wynchestre, & lete hit faste bene tackede to a piler, þat men myȝt hit nouȝt remeve ne bere þenns, so þat euery man miȝt hit see and þereoppon loke, for þerin beþ þe lifes of alle þe Kynges þat euer wer in Engeland.

How þe Kyng of Northumberlond, Osbright, forleye þe wif of Buerne Bocard þrouȝ strengþ; & after þis Buerne conquerede þe Kyng wiþ stronge power. Capitulo Centesimo tercio.

ANd þus hit bifelle in the same tyme, þat þere was a kyng in [MS Rawlinson B 171 55a] Northumberlond þat me callede Ossebright, & soiournede in Ȝork, and þis kyng wente him oppon a day into a wode, him forto desporte; and when he come aȝeyne, he went priuely into a gode manus house þat me callede Buerne Bocard. & þe gode man of þat place was gone þat tyme to þe see, for ofte-tymes he was wonede þere aspie þeues & robboures, þat ofte-tymes were wont to come into þe londe to robbe & brenne and slee. ¶ þe lady þat was þis Buernes wif, was a wonder faire woman, and welcomede þe Kyng wiþ michel honour, and worþely him seruede in al þing. ¶ When þe Kyng hade eten, he toke þe lady by þe hande, and lad her into chaumbre, & saide þat he wolde speke wiþ here a counsele. and al þe folc fram þe chaumbre he made voyede, saf onely þe lady and he. but þe Lady wiste nouȝt wherfore he it dede, til þat he hade done wiþ here his wille. and when he hade done þis dede, he turnede aȝeyne to Ȝork, & þe lady he lefte þere wonder sore wepyng for þe dede þat he hade ydone. ¶ And when here lorde was come home, & saw here wepe, and soche mornyng make, he axede of here what she hade done, & whi she made soche sorwe. ¶ "Sire," quod she, "queyntly andPage  104 falsely þe Kyng Osbright me haþ done shame and vilonye, aȝeynes my wille"; and tolde him treuþe, How the kyng hade her forleyn wiþ strengþ; wherfore she saide she hade leuer to dye þan leue. ¶ "Faire leef, bistille," quod he, "for aȝeynes strengþ [febleness] is litel worþ; & þerfore of me shal yow neuer þe lesse bene Louede, and namely for yow haste tolde me treuþe. and if Almyghty God grant [MS Rawlinson B 171 55b] me lif, y shal þe wel avenge."

¶ This Buerne was a gret man and a miȝty lorde, and was wel bilouede, & grete frendes hade, and lete sende for þe greteste lordes of þe lande, & to ham made his compleynt of þe despite þat þe kyng to him hade done, & saide þat he wolde bene avengede how þat euer it were. and alle his frendes conseilede and grantede to wende towarde Ȝork, þere þat þe kyng was. & Buerne toke his menye, & come to þe kyng. and when þe kyng him saw, he callede him curtesly Buerne by name; and Buerne him ansuerede & saide: "Sire, y ȝow defye, & ȝelde op feautes, homages, and londes, and as miche as y haue holde of ȝow; and so, fro þis tyme afterwarde, y wil no þing of þe holde." & so he departede fram þe kyng with-outen more speche or eny abidyng, & toke leue of his frendes, and went to Denmarc, and pleynede to þe Kyng Godryn, & tolde him of þe dispite þat Kyng Osbright to him hade done of his wif, & praiede him of socoure & of helpe, him to avenge. ¶ When Kyng Godrin of Denmarc & þe Danoys, when þai hade herde þe pleynt of þis Buerne & of þe praer þat he bade, þai were wonder glade in hert, for-asmiche as þai myȝt fynde cause forto gone into Engeland forto werr oppon þe Englisshe-men, & also forto avenge Buerne of þe despite þat þe kyng hade done to his wif, & forasmiche as Buerne was sib to þe Kyng of Denmarc. ¶ Anone þai lete ordeyne a grete hoste of men, & lete ordeyne shippis, and as miche as was nede to þat Viage. and when alle þe hoste wasPage  105 redy, þe kyng made [MS Rawlinson B 171 56a] his ij breþerne cheuetyns, þat Were noble Knyȝtes and bolde: þat one me callede Humger, & þat oþere Hubba.

How þe Danoys toke Ȝork & quelled Kyng Osbright, and afterwarde Kyng Elle. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Quarto.

WHen al þing was aredy, þo ij breþerne tok leue of þe Kyng Godrin, and went towarde þe see, forto wende into Engelande as faste as þai myȝt spede. ¶ Now is Buerne so wel comfortede, & faste hiede him wiþ þe Danoys; and þai arryue in þe Northcontre, & come þrouȝ-out Holdernesse, & destroiede al þe contre, and brent tounes and robbede folc, & quellede al þat þai myȝt take, til þat þai come to Ȝorke. ¶ And when Kyng Osbright saw ham come, he toke þe peple þat he hade, and come out of þe citee, & with ham fauȝte; but no foysoun he nade aȝeynes ham; & miche was þe peple þat þere was slayn in boþe parties; and Kyng Osbright himself þere was slayn, and þe citee anone was take, & þe Danoys wenten in. ¶ And þere was also anoþere kyng in Northumberlond þat Buernes frendes hade chosen; & helde him for kyng, a man þat me clepede Elle, for-asmiche as þai nolde nouȝt to Kyng Osbright bene entendant, for þe despite þe he hade done to Buerne here cosyn. ¶ Hit bifelle þus, þat þe Kyng Elle was gon to þe wode him forto desporte: and of venysoun somdele he hade tak. and as he satte in the wode at mete, to a knyght he saide: "we haue wel y [MS Rawlinson B 171 56b] spedde, & michel venysoun taken." and wiþ þat worde þere come in a man, & to him saide: "Sire, if ȝe so miche of venysoun haue y-wonne, an C. tymes so miche þere aȝeyns ȝe hauen loste; for al þis contre þe Danois hauen gete, & take þe cite of Ȝork; & aȝeynes ȝow shal it holde, þat neuer ȝe shul come þerin; & forsothe þaiPage  106 haue slayn Kyng Osbright." ¶ And when Kyng Elle þise wordes herde, he lete assemble al þe folc of þe cuntre, & ordeynede al þe power þat he miȝt haue, and wold haue gete þe toune of Ȝork wiþ strengþ. but þe Danois comen out anon & ȝaf ham bataile, & quellede þe kyng & þe moste part of his men þat he hade brouȝt wiþ him: and þe same place þere þat þai were slayne shal euer bene callede Ellecrofte; and þat place is a litel fram Ȝork and þo abode þe Danois neuer, til þai hade conquerede al Northumberland. and in þat contre þai made Werdeynes, & went ferþer into þe lande, and token Notyngham. and þere þai abiden al þe wynter, and deden al þe sorwe þat þai myght. and after, when somer tyme come, þai remeved fram Notyngham, & come vnto Nichole, & to Lyndessey, & to Holand, for no man miȝt ham withstande, so miche power & strengþ þai hade.

How Seynt Edmunde þe Kyng was martrede. Capitulo Centisimo vto.

ANd so ferre hade þe Danois passede fram contre vnto contre, & euermore brennyng & robbyng, & destroiede al þat þai miȝt, til þat þai come vnto Tetteford. & in þat contre þai fonden a Cristen Kyng [MS Rawlinson B 171 57a] þat miche louede God and his Werkes, þat me callede Edmunde; & he was Kyng of Northfolc and Southfolc. ¶ þis Seynt Edmunde þe kyng ordeynede as miche folc as he myȝt, & fauȝt wiþ þe Danois; but he and his folc were scomfitede, & þe kyng him-self dryuen vnto a castel of Framelyngham. & þe Danois him pursuede, & comen vnto þe same castel. and when Kyng Edmunde saw þat þe castel myst nouȝt ham wiþstonde, he comen aȝeynes ham. with whame þe Danois ferst speken; and anone þai axede of him where Kyng Edmunde was. "now forsoth," quod he, "when y was in þe castell, y was kyng; & when y went oute of þe castel, he went out also; and wheþer þat he shal ascape or dye, at Godes wilPage  107 most hit be." ¶ When Seynt Edmunde hade nempnede God, by þat worde þai wist alle þat it was he him-self. and anone Hubba & Hungar tok him, & saide þat he shulde God forsake, & al cristen law, as alle oþere hade done þrouȝ ham biforn. and Seynt Edmunde saide þat 'he wolde neuer, but raþer he wolde suffre deth for Godes sone, and his law to kepe.' ¶ þo tok þai Kyng Edmunde, & bounde him vnto a tree, and made Archires to him shote with Arwes, til þat his body stickede alse ful of Arwes as an hirchone is ful of prickes; but for alle þe payne þat he hade, he wolde neuer God forsake. & in þe same pyne he deide wiþ þat turmentyng, & bitoke his soule to almyȝty God. & when þai saw þat he was dede, þai smyten of his heuede; & in þis maner was Seynt Edmunde martrede.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 57b] How Hubba & Hungar toke þe toune of Redyng. Capitulo Centisimo vjto.

[W]Hen sent Edmunde was martrede, Hunguar and Hubba went þens, with al here Danoys, vnto Redyng. and as þai went þiderwarde, þai brent tounes & citees, & quellede al Cristen peple þat wolde nouȝt God forsake, and caste adoun cherches, and comen to Redyng, and toke þe toun, and þere holde ham til þat þe Kyng Edelf of Westsex come þider wiþ al his power forto take þe toune. ¶ þo come oute þe Danoys forto ȝeue bataile to Kyng Elfride; and at þat bataile was quellede an Erl of Danoys þat me callede Gydrak. ¶ Oppon þe morwe come þe Kyng Eldrede, and his broþer Alurede, with a stonge power and grete host. and þe Kyng Edelf come aȝeyne (þat hade fouȝten wiþ þe Danois þe day toforne) to þat bataile. & þe Danois þo comen out forto feiȝt wiþ ham. and þat batale was wonder strong, for meny a man was þere slayn; and þe Danois þat day hade þe vittori; and þe Kyng Eldrede & his broþerPage  108 Alurede þat day were descomfited. but þe xiiij day afterwarde, þe Danois and þe Englisshe-men fouȝten to-gederes oppon Elkelden, & þere was slayne a kyng of Denmarc þat was callede Rasyng, and iiij Erles of grete power; and þat day hade þe Danoys shame, for þai were dryuen vnto Engelfilde. and þe xv day after, þe Danois & þe Englisshemen fouȝten anoþere tyme at Rasyng [sic], and þere were þe Englisshe-men descomfitede. and fram þens a Danois, þat me callede Roynt, went to Redyng wiþ his hoste, & destroiede al þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 58a] he myght tak; and Kyng Eldrede fauȝt wiþ him, but he was woundede so, wherfore he was dede; and he nade regnede but v. ȝere, and deide, and liþ atte Wonburne.

Of Kyng Alurede; & how þe Danoys in his tyme praiede him of mercy, þat þai moste gone out of þe lande. Capitulo Centesimo vijo.

After þe deth of þis Eldrede, regnede his broþer Alurede, þat Dolfynes was callede. þo went þe Danois, & assemblede ham, and went forto seche Alurede, þat þo was þe new kyng of Southsex. and þere þai fonde him at Wilton, wiþ a litel peple; & noþeles he fauȝt with ham; but at the laste he fledde þens fram þe felde, and went vnto Westsex, and ordeynede so miche peple of his owen reaume & also of oþere, so til þat he hade a stronge host, so þat þe Danois hade non power aȝeynes him to stande. and he come to London wiþ his host, þere as þe Danois soiournede; and þere wolde he haue fouȝten wiþ ham, but þe Danois derste nouȝt wiþ him feiȝt, but praiede him of pees, & þat þai most gone aȝeyne into her owen contre, & neuermore into Engeland forto come aȝeyne, eny harme forto done, and oppon þis couenant þai shulde ȝeue him to plegge, gode hostages, & soche as þe Englisshe men wolde axen.

Page  109

How Hubba & Hunguar were quellede at Chippenham; & how þe Danoys brouȝt hir kyng vnto oure kyng. Capitulo Centesimo Octauo.

ANd þe same day þat þe Danois departede fram London, so faste þai riden, boþe nyght and day, and neuer toke reste of goyng til þat þai [MS Rawlinson B 171 58b] comen vnto Excestre, and token þe toune, & þere helde ham. ¶ When Kyng Alurede herde þo tidynges, anone he lete tak þe hostages, and went fram þens vnto Excestre wiþ al þe power þat he hade. ¶ And when þe Danois herde tel of his comyng, þai went fro þens forth into Westsex, and comen to Chippenham; and þere þai deden miche harme in þe contre; þai robbede folc, & brouȝt ham into prisoun. The Kyng Alurede ham pursuede, & come oppon ham, and fersly ham assailede; & þere were slayn boþe Hubba, and Hunguar his broþer, and Buerne Bocard. and in þat bataile was michel folc slayn in þat o partye and in þat oþere, but þe gree of þe felde lefte wiþ þe Danois, for-asmiche as þe kyng þo come but with litel company. ¶ The Kyng Hastede him as miche as he myght, forto wende aȝeyn; and when þe Danois fonden Hubba his bodye liggyng dede, þai enterede hit, & made oppon him a grete logge, and lette calle hit Hubbeslaw; & so it is callede into þis day; and þat place is in Deuenesshire. ¶ þe barons of Westsex, Wilteshire and Dorset, harde telle how þat here kyng was descomfitede; and ordeynede al þe power þat þai miȝt haue, and come to þe kyng þere þat he was, & þankede God þat þai hade him fonden alif, for þai wende þat þe Danois hade him slayne. ¶ þo toke þai a counseil, þe kyng and his barons, & þai wolde gone seche þe Danois, with ham forto feiȝt. and so þai riden al þat nyȝt ham forto seche, and come amorw, about prime, to Abyngdon, þere þat þe Danois were.

¶ þe kyng þo, Alurede [MS Rawlinson B 171 59a] and his barons, assemblede, and þerePage  110 assailede þe Danois egrely, and þere ȝaf ham a stronger bataile þan euere he dede bifore; and þe Danois nobli put ham of, longe tyme, þat no man wist in wheþer partie more peple were slayn. ¶ But þus hit bifelle, as God wolde, þat Kyng Alurede hade þe vittorie with michel honoure; for þe Danois were so dryuen þat þai wist nouȝt whider to wende. xv dayes þe kyng ham pursuede at his wille, þat glade & fayne þai were forto speken of pees & of accorde, & toke him gode hostages, & saide þat þai wolde neuer oppon him werre, ne debate arere. ¶ And moreouer þai bihight to þe Kyng Alurede þat þai wolde go and brynge her owen kyng vnto him, and þat her kyng & þai all shulde bene baptisede. & oppon þis condicioun, Kyng Alurede ham grauntede lif and lyme, and saide to ham þat þai shulde gon here kyng forto fecche, and at a certeyne day to come aȝeyne, þat to ham was sette. ¶ And so þai went forþ fast, and come aȝeyne at here day þat was assignede, and alle þe Danois brouȝt here kyng wiþ ham. ¶ The Kyng Alurede anone lete ham ben baptisede, and here names chaunged, so þat þe kyng of Danois was callede Athelston, & xxxti of his felaweȝ names were chaungede also, & þe oþere were baptisede to þe right bileue; and al þis was done at Westmynstre. and after, Kyng Alurede helde wiþ him Kyng Athelstone & alle his Danois xij daies at soiune wiþ miche solempnite, and ȝaf ham grete ȝiftes after þat þai were overcome, and so þai departede. ¶ Tho was Kyng Alurede al at ese when he hade his enemys [MS Rawlinson B 171 59b] ouercomen, & þat þai were turnede to þe bileue of almiȝty God.

How þe Danois þat comen into Fraunce wiþ Gurmonde, come aȝeyne into Engeland; & of þe deþ of Kyng Alured. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Nono.

Page  111ANd þus hit bifelle afterwarde, þat þe Danoys of Northumberland, þat were paynemys, comen with a grete host of Fraunce, þat is to vnderstonde, with ham þat went into Fraunce with Gurmonde of Aufrik, when he hade conquerede Engeland, & it ȝaf vnto Saxonus. and þo þat come fro Fraunce arryuede in Kent, and sent into Northumberlande þat þai shulde come to ham. and whan þo ij hostes were comen & assemblede, anone þai went to destroie þe Cristen peple of Engeland fram place vnto place, and deden miche sorwe. ¶ Hit bifelle þus, as almiȝty God hit wolde, an harde chaunce in Engeland; ffor þe gode Kyng Alurede, þat was wont to abate þe Danois, deide in þe mene-tyme. þis Alured regnede xxxti ȝere, and a gode kyng hade bene, and wel couþe chastice his enemys; And was a gode clerc, and lete mak menye bokes. & on boke he made of Englisshe, of Auentures of kynges and of batailes þat hade bene done in þe lande; and meny oþere bokes of gestes, he lete ham write, þat were of grete wisdome and of gode lernyng, þrouȝ whiche bokes meny man may him amende þat wille ham rede and oppon lok; oppon whos soule almighty God haue mercy! & þis Kyng Alurede liþ at Wynchestr.

Of Kyng Edward, þat was Kyng Aluredus sone. Capitulo Centesimo xmo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 60a] ANd after þis Alurede, regnede Edward his sone, þat was a gode man & a wise, þat men callede [Edward], þat was wonder curteise. ¶ The Danois deden miche sorwe in þe lande, and her power encresede, and biganne forto wexe fram day to day, for þe Danois comen ofte wiþ here companies into þis lande. and when þe kyng saw þat he miȝt no bettre done, he tok trewes with ham, and granted ham his pees. ¶ And noþelesse þe trewes durede nouȝt longe, þat þe Danois ne bigonne strongliche forto were oppon þe Englisshe-men, & dede ham miche sorwe. Wherfore Kyng Edwarde dede assemble a grete hoste forto fiȝt withPage  112 ham; and þo þis Kyng Edwarde deide when God wolde. This Kyng Edward regnede xxiiij ȝere, & liþ at Wynchestre bisides his fader.

Of Kyng Athel[s]tone, & of Edmunde, Eldrede, & of Edwynne his broþer. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo ¶ Vndecimo.

After þis Edward, regnede Athelston his sone; & when he hade regnede iiij ȝere, he helde bataile aȝeynes þe Danois, and drof Kyng Gaufride, þat was kyng of þe Danois, and al his hoste vnto þe see, & restede by Scotland, & nomen strongliche þe contrey al a ȝere. ¶ And after þat, þo of Cumberland, & þe Scottes of Westmerlande, bigonne to werre oppon Kyng Athelston; and he ham ȝaf so strong bataile þat he quellede so meny of ham þat no man couþe telle þe nombre of ham. and after þat he ne regnede but iij ȝere; & he regnede in al xxv ȝere and liþ at Malmesbery.

¶ And after þis [MS Rawlinson B 171 60b] Athelston, regnede Edmund his broþer, for-asmiche as Kyng Athelston hade none sone. and þis Edmu[n]de was a worþi knyȝt, and a douȝty man of body, and a noble knyght. and þe þridde ȝere after þat he was kyng, he went ouer Humber, in whiche place he hade ij Kynges of Danois: þat one me callede Enelaf, and þat oþer Renaud. ¶ This Kyng Edmund drof ham boþe fram þe lande, and after went and tok grete preye in Comberland. ¶ This Edmund ne regnede but vij ȝer, and liþ at Glastynbery.

¶ And after þis Edmunde, regnede Eldrede his broþer, þat vengede Edwarde his fadre of his enemys þat him quelde; and aftirwarde he seisede Northumberland into his hand, and made þe Scottes abowe and meke vnto his Wille. ¶ And þe secunde ȝere þat he hade regned [come] Arnalaf Quyran, þat was kyng of Denmarc, and seisede al Northumberland, and helde þat lande ij ȝere. and after þat come Kyng Eldrede wiþ a grete power, and drof him oute of þis lande. ¶ And þis Kyng Eldrede was a noble man and a goode, of whos godenesse seynt Dunston prechede. & þis Kyng Eldrede regnede xj ȝere, & liþ at Wynchestr.

Page  113¶ And after þis Eldrede, Edwynne his broþer regnede, & was a luþer man towarde God and to þe peple; for he hatede folc of his owen land, and louede & honourede strange men, & sette litel by holy cherche, and bynom of holy cherche all þe tresoure þat he myȝt haue: þat was grete shame and velonye to himself, and perile of his soule, & perfore God wolde nouȝt þat he shulde regne no longer than iiij ȝer, [MS Rawlinson B 171 61a] and after deide, and Lith at Wynchestre.

Of Kyng Edgare, þat regned aboue þe kyngus of Scotland & of Walys; & how he was bigilede þrouȝ takyng of his wif. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Duodecimo.

ANd after þis Edwynne, regnede Edgare his sone, a man þat miche louede God, and pees, & holy cherche also, and was a worþi lorde, bolde and myghty, & mayntenede wel þis land in pees. ¶ And þis Edgare was Kyng and lorde aboue alle þe kynges of Scotland and of Walys: fram þe tyme þat Arthure was gone, neuer was siþen kyng of his power. ¶ And þis Edgare was seynt Edwardes fader. And when Edgarus wif was dede, þat was seynt Edwardes moder, & enterede, he herde speke of þe fairenesse of Estrilde, þat was Orgarus douȝter, a baroun of Deuenshire, þat was so faire a woman þat alle men spake þerof. He callede one of his knyȝtes þat he miche louede & trust oppon, and tolde him: "Go," quod he, "to þe noble Baron Orgar of Deuenshire, and se if his douȝter be so faire as men speke of; & if it be soþ, y wil haue here vnto my wif." ¶ þis knyȝt, þat me callede Edelwolde, went forþ þere þat þe lady þo was; & when he saw her so faire, he þouȝt haue her himself to wif, and þerfore spake to Orgar here fader. and Orgar was an olde man, & hade no mo childerne but here on; and saw þat Edelwolde was a faire ȝonge knyȝt, and worþi and riche, & was wel with þe kyng. & þouȝt his douȝter shulde wel [MS Rawlinson B 171 61b] bene mariede, & wel bisette oppon him, and grauntede him his douȝter, if þe gode lorde þe Kyng wolde assent þerto. ¶ þis Edelwolde come aȝeyn to þePage  114 Kyng, and saide 'she was faire ynow oppon to see, but of body she was wonder loþly.' ¶ þo ansuerede þe Kyng, and saide þat he toke of her litel charge. ¶ "Sire," quod Edelwolde þo, "she is her faderes heire, and y am nouȝt riche of londes, and if ȝe wolde consent and grant þat y most her haue, þan shulde y be riche ynow." "In Godes name," quod þe Kyng, "I assent þerto." ¶ Edelwolde þankede þo michel þe Kyng, and went aȝeyne into Deuenshire, & spousede þe damisel, and in þat contre duellede. ¶ And þus hit bifel oppon a tyme, þat he tolde his conseil & al þis þing vnto his wif, how & in what maner he hade bigilede his lorde þe Kyng, þat wolde haue hade her to wif. and anone as she it wist, she louede him neuermore afterwarde as she hade done bifore. ¶ þis lady conseyuede by him a sone; and when tyme was þat þis childe shulde ben born, Eldelwolde come to þe Kyng, & praede him to heue a sone of his at þe fountston. þe Kyng him grantede, and lete calle him Edgare, after his owen name. ¶ And when þis was ydon, he þouȝt þat he was siker ynow of þe Kyng, for bifore þat tyme þis Edelwolde him drede lest Kyng Edgare wolde haue taken his wif, forasmiche [MS Rawlinson B 171 62a] as his lorde was a Ioly man and an Amerus.

How þat Kyng Edgare wedede Estrilde afte þe deth of Edelwolde. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ terciodecimo.

THus hit bifelle, þat al men in Kyng Edgares court þo speken, and saide þat 'Edelwolde was richely auansede þrouȝ þe mariage þat he hade by his wif'; 'and ȝit,' þai saide, 'he was auauncede an hundred-folde more, for he hade spousede þe fairest woman þat euer was seyn.' and when þe Kyng herde speke so miche of here beaute, he þouȝt þo þat Edelwolde hade him desseyuede & bigilede, & þouȝt priuely in his hert þat he wolde gone into Deuenesshire, as it were forto hunt for hert and hynde and oþere wilde bestes, and þan he shulde see þere þe lady or he departede þens. ¶ And þis lady was duellyng at a manere bisidesPage  115 þe forest þere þat þe Kyng wolde hunte, and at þat maner was herburghede al nyght. and when tyme come þat þe Kyng shulde sope, and þe sonne shoone, þe Kyng axede after his Gossib and after his godsone, and Edelwolde made here come bifore þe Kyng; and noþeles, and it oþer myȝt haue bene, she shulde nouȝt haue comen in his sight bi his wille. ¶ þe lady welcomede þe Kyng, and suetely him kissede; and he toke her by þe hande, & þo nexte him her sette, and so soppede þai togeder. ¶ And þo was a custume and an vsage þat, when a man drank vnto anoþer, þe drynker [MS Rawlinson B 171 62b] shulde say 'Wassaile,' and þat oþere shulde ansure 'drynkhaile': and þus dede þe Kyng & þe lady meny tymes, & also kiste. ¶ And after soper, when tyme was to gone to bede, þe Kyn[g] went vnto his bed, hertly þenkyng oppon þe ladies fairenesse; and þo was ouercomen for here loue, þat him þouȝt he wolde dye, but of here his wille he hade. ¶ Oppon þe morwe þe Kyng aroos, and into þe fforeste went, him þere to desporte & salace wiþ hertes and hyndes, and alle oþer wilde bestes; & of þe hertes grete plente, to þe lady he sent; and þrise he went to salace and speke wiþ þat lady whiles he duellede in þat contre. ¶ And after þat, þe Kyng remevede þens, and þouȝt how he myghte best delyuer Edelwolde f[r]am his wif, as he hade him ferste desceyuede. and þe Kyng anone, after viij dayes, lete ordeyne a parlement at Salesbury of al his baronage, conseile to haue, & forto ordeyn how þe contre of Northumberland miȝt beste bene kepte, þat þe Danoys come nouȝt þere, the londe forto destroye. ¶ And þis Edelwolde come also to þe Kynges Parlement; and þe Kyng sent him to Ȝork forto bene keper of þat contre. ¶ And þus hit fel, þat men þat knew him nouȝt, slow him by þe waye. ¶ And anone as þe Kyng herde þat he was dede, he lete sende after þe lady Estrilde, þat she shulde come to þe citee of London, and þere bene weded to þe Kyng wiþ grete solempnite & worshipe; and [MS Rawlinson B 171 63a] helde a solempne fest; and he werede a crone of [gold], and þe Quene anoþer. ¶ And seyntPage  116 Dunston on þe morwe come vnto þe Kyng into þe Kyngus chaumbre, and fonde þe Kyng abed, & þe quene also in fere; and seynt Dunston axede who þat she was. ¶ þe Kyng ansuerede, "þis is þe Quene Estrilde." and þe Erchebisshop seynt Dunstan saide þat 'he dede grete wrong, and aȝeyns Godes wille to tak a woman to wif, whos childe he haþ take at þe funtston'; and þe Quene for þat worde neuer after louede seynt Dunston; and noþeles þe gode man warnede ham ofte-tymes þat folie to lete; but his warnyng availede litel, for þe loue bituene ham was so miche. ¶ þe Kyng bigate oppon her a sone þat me callede Eldred; and when þis childe was vj ȝer olde, þe Kyng his fader deide; & aboute þat tyme he hade regnede xvij ȝer, and lith at Glastynbery.

Of seynt Edward þe Martir; how Estrilde his stepmoder lete him quelle, forto make Eldred, her owen sone, Kyng. Capitulo Centesimo xiiijo.

ANd after þis Edgare, regnede Edward his sone, þat he bigate in his ferst wif, þat wel and noble gouernede þe lande; for he was ful of al maner godenesse, and lad ful holy lif; & aboue al þing he louede God & holy cherche. & þe quene Estrilde, his stepmoder, lete him slee, for enchesoun to make her owen sone Eldred kyng; and þus was he slayn, as afterward ȝe shul her. ¶ Hit bifelle þus oppon a day, þat þis Kyng Edwarde went him into a wode forto play in þe Southcontre, bisides a toune þat is callede Warham; in þe whiche forest was grete plente of Hertes & of hyndes. and as he hade bene awhile þere him forto playe, he þouȝt [MS Rawlinson B 171 63b] him oppon his broþer Eldred, þat Was wiþ his moder þe quene, for her place was neyȝ þe forest; & þouȝte forto go visite & see his broþer; and tok wiþ him but a litel meny, and went him þo toward his Stepmoders house, þat in þat tyme soiournede in þe castel of Corf. and as he rode in þe þickenesse of þe wode, to aspie his game, hit bifelle þat he went amys, & loste his meny þat were wiþ him. & at þe last he come out of þePage  117 wode; & as he lokede about, he saw þere faste bisides him þe maner þat his Stepmoder duelled in; & þiderward he went allon. and anone hit was tolde þe Quene how þat þe Kyng was comen allone wiþout company; and þerfore she made ioye ynow, & þouȝt how she myȝt do þat he were slayn as priuely as she myȝt. ¶ And anone priuely she called to her on of here knyȝtes, to whom she hade tolde miche of here consel bituene ham. and boþe þai come to þe Kyng, and curtesly him resceyuede; & þe Kyng tolde þat he was com her to Visite, & also forto speke wiþ Eldrede his broþer. ¶ þe Quene meny tymes him þankede, and him praiede to aliȝt and herburgh wiþ her forto haue al þat nyght. þe Kyng saide þat he myght nouȝt, but aȝeyne he wolde wende vnto his folc, if he myght ham fynde. ¶ And when þe Quene saw þat he wolde nouȝt abide, she praiede him þat he wolde ones drynk; & he grauntede her. and anone as þe drynk come, þe Quene drank to þe Kyng, & þe Kyng toke þe coppe & sette hit to his mouþ. & in þe mene-tyme whiles þat he drank, þe knyȝt þat was wiþ þe Quene, wiþ a knyf smote euen þe Kyng to þe hert, & þere he felle adoune dede of his palfray [MS Rawlinson B 171 64a] vnto þe erþe. ¶ the Quene, for þis dede, ȝaf to þe Knyȝt golde & siluer grete plente, and of oþer richesse ynow. and þe knyȝt, anone as þis was do, went him overe þe see; & so ascapede he oute of þis lande. ¶ When þis Kyng Edward þus was martrede, Hit was in þe ȝere after þe Incarnacion of oure Lorde Ihesu Crist, ix C. & iiijxx ȝer, and he hade regnede xij ȝere & an half, & lith at Glastenbery.

Of Kyng Eldrede; & how þe Kyng Swyn of Denmarc helde Engelond & how Eldrede, þat was seynt Edwardes broþer, was nouȝt bilouede in his reme, and þerfore fledde into Normandye. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Quintodecimo.

After þis Kyng Edward, regnede Eldrede his broþer; and seynt Dunstan cronede him. & þis seynt Dunstan deide sone after þat he hade forȝeue þe Quene her trespasse,Page  118 Estrild, for encheson þat she was cause of Kyng Edwardes deth. and seynt Dunstan hade her assoilede, and penaunce her enioynede; and she leuede after, chaste lif & clene. ¶ þis Kyng Eldrede wedede an Englisshe-woman; & on here he bigate Edmunde Irenside, and anoþer sone þat me callede Edwynne; and after, deide þe Quene his moder. ¶ And in þat tyme come into Engeland Swyn, þat was Kyng of Denmarc, forto chalange and conquere al þat his Ancestres hade bifore þat tyme. & so he conquerede, & hade it al at his axing; ffor þe gode Erle Cuthbert of Lyndeseye, and al þe peple of Northumberlond, & almost al þe grete of Engeland, helde with Swyne þat was Kyng of Dennemarc, for-asmiche as þai louede nouȝt Kyng Eldrede, ffor cause þat his gode broþer Edward was slayn falsely [MS Rawlinson B 171 64b] for enchesoun of him; and þerfore no man sette but litil bi hym; Wherfore Kyng Swyn hade al his wille, and toke al þe lande. ¶ And Eldrede þe Kyng þo fledde into Normandye, and so spak to þe Duk, þat þe Duc ȝaf him his sustre to wif; oppon þe whiche he bigate ij sones: þat on me callede Alrud, & þat oþere Edward. And when Swyn hade conquerede al þe lande, he regnede nobli, & leuede but xv ȝer, & deide, and liþ at Ȝork.

How Kyng Eldrede come aȝeyne fram Normandye; & how Knoth þe Danoys regnede; & of þe werr bituene him & Edmunde Irenside. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Sexto decimo.

After þe deþ of Swyne, þat was a Danois, Knoght, his sone, duellede in Engeland, and wolde haue bene kyng. and þo come aȝeyn Eldrede out of Normandy, with miche peple & wiþ stronge meny, þat Knoght derst nouȝt abide, but fley þens into Denmarc. ¶ þe Kyng Eldrede hade aȝeyn his reaume, & helde so grete lordeship þat he bigan to destroi al þat hade holpen Swyn, þat was a Danois, aȝeynes him. ¶ And afterwarde come aȝeyn þis Knoght fram Denmarc, with a grete power, so þat Kyng Eldre[de] derst nouȝt wiþ him fiȝt, but fley froPage  119 þens vnto London, & þere helde him. ¶ þo come Knoght, and him bisegede so longe til Kyng Eldrede diede in þe cite of London, and liþ at seynt Paules; & he regnede ix ȝere.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 65a] Of Kyng Knoght. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Septuagesimo.

After þe deth of þis Eldred, Knoght, þat was a Danois, bigan þo forto regne, but Edmunde Irenside, þat was Kyng Eldredus sone by his ferst wif, ordeynede a grete host, & bigan to werr oppon Kyng Knoght; and so he dede meny tymes and ofte; and þe werre was so st[r]onge and harde, þat wonder hit was to wete. ¶ And þe Quene Emme, þat duelled þo at Wynchestre, hade grete drede of her ij sones, for þe werr of Alured & Edward, leste þai shulde ben defoulede & misdon þrouȝ þis werre, wherfore she sent ham ouer þe se into Normandy, to þe duc Richard her Vncle; and þere þai duelled in safte and pees longe tyme. ¶ þis Edmunde Irenside & Knouȝt werrede strongliche to-geder; but at þe laste þai were accorded in þis maner, þat þai shulde departe þe reaume bituenes ham; and so þai deden; & after, þai bicome gode frendes, and so wel louede togederes as þai hade bene briþer, geten of o body, & of o moder born.

How Kyng Edmunde Irenside traiterousely was slayn, þrouȝ a tratour þat me callede Edrith of Statton. Capitulo Centesimo xviijmo.

ANd after, þo regnede Kyng Edmunde Irenside and Knoght þe Danois. but þus it fel aftirward, and in þe same ȝere þat þai were accorded, and somiche loueden togeder, wherof a false þef traitoure hade enuy vnto þe loue þat was bituene ham, and frendeship, whos name was Edrith of Stratton, þat was a grete lorde, þat was Edmunde Irensides man, & of him helde all þe londe þat he hade. ¶ And noþeles he þouȝt his lorde to bitraie,Page  120 & make Knoght kyng of þe lande, to þat entent richely to ben auauncede, & wiþ him bene wel bilouede. ¶ Wherfore he praiede his lorde, Edmunde [MS Rawlinson B 171 65b] Irenside, oppon a day wiþ him forto eten, and wiþ him duelle. and þe kyng curteisly him grantede, & to him come at his praier; and at þe mete þe kyng richely was seruede with diuerse metis & drynkes. ¶ And when nyght come þat he shulde gone to bede, þe kyng tok his owen meny, & went into chambre. & as he lokede aboute, he saw a wonder faire ymage, & wel made, & in semblant as it were an Archire, wiþ a bowe bent in his honde, & in þe bowe a fyne Arwe. ¶ Kyng Edmunde went þo neir, to biholde hit bettr, what it miȝte bene; and anone as his honde tochede þe Arwe, anone þe arwe him smote þrouȝ þe body, & þere slough þe kyng; for þat engyne was made to quelle his lorde traiterousely. ¶ And when þe Kyn[g] Edmund þus was dede & slayn, he nad regnede but x ȝere. his peple for him made miche sorw, and his body þai bare to Glastenbury and þere þai him enterede. ¶ And þus traitour Edrik anone went to þe Quene, þat was Kyng Edmundes wif, þat wiste of here lordes deþ. anone he toke fram her hir ij sones, þat were faire and ȝong, þat her lorde hade oppon hier geten,—& þat on me callede ¶ Edward, & þat oþer Edwyn,—& lade ham wiþ him to London, and toke ham vnto Kyng Knoght, þat he shulde done with ham what his willes were; & tolde him how queyntly he hade quellede Kyng Edmunde, for enchesoun & loue of him, so þat Kyng Knoght all Engeland in his power holly miȝt haue. ¶ "O þow false traitoure! haste þow my trewe wedbroþer slayn for cause [MS Rawlinson B 171 66a] of me? a man þat y moste Louede in þe Worlde. now, be myn heuede, I shal for þi trauail þe wel reward as þow hast deseruede!" and anone lete him take and bynde, hondes & feete in maner of a traitour, & lete caste him into Thamise; and in þisPage  121 maner þe false traitour endede his lif. ¶ þe Kyng tok þo ij childerne to þe Abbot of Westmynstr, to warde and to kepe til he wiste what was beste wiþ ham to done.

How Kyng Knoght sent Edmundes sones boþe into Denmarc forto slee; & how þai were sauede. Capitulo Centesimo xixmo.

HIt bifelle sone after þat Kyng Knoght hade al þe lande into his hande and spousede þe Quene Emme þrouȝ consent of his baronage, for she was a faire womman, & was Eldredes wif, and þe dukes suster of Normandye: & þai leueden to-geder with miche loue, as resoun wolde. ¶ þe Kyng axede oppon a day conseile of þe Quene, what was beste forto done wiþ the sones þat wer Edmundes Irenside. ¶ "Sire," quod she; "þai beþ þe right heirs of þe londe; & if þai leuen, þai wille do ȝow miche sorwe with werr; and þerfor lete sende ham into a strange lande aferr, to some man þat may ham defoule & destroie." ¶ The Kyng anone lete calle a Danois þat me callede Walgar, and commandede him þat he shulde lede þo ij childerne into Denmarc, and so do for ham þat neuer þai herde more tydyngus of ham. "Sir," saide þis Walger, "gladely ȝoure commandement shal bene done," ¶ And tok þo ij childerne, & lad ham into Denmarc. & for-asmiche as [MS Rawlinson B 171 66b] he saw þat þe childern were wonder fair, and also meke, he had of ham grete pitee and reuthe, & wolde nouȝt ham slee, but lade ham to þe Kyng of Hungrie forto norisshe: For this Walgar was wel knowen wiþ þe Kyng, and wel bilouede. ¶ Anone þe Kyng axede whens þe childern were. ¶ And Walger tolde him, & saide þat 'þai were þe right heirs of Engeland, & þerfor men wolde ham destroye'; "and þerfore, sire, to ȝow þai beþ comen, mercy & helpe to biseche; & forsoþ if þai mowen leue,Page  122 ȝour men þai shullen becomen, and of ȝow þai shal holde al hire land. ¶ The Kyng of Hungrie ham vnderfonge with michel honour, and lete ham worthely to bene kepte.

¶ And þus hit bifelle afterwarde, þat Edwyne, þe ȝonger broþer, deide, and Edward þe elder broþer leuede, a fair man, a stronge, & a large of body, and gentil and curteise of condicions, so þat alle men him louede. ¶ And þis Edward, in þe cronicles is callede amonges Englisshemen, 'Edward þe outelaghe.' And when he was made knyght, þe Kyngus doughter of Hungary so miche him louede, for his godenesse and his fairenesse, þat she made & callede him her derlyng. ¶ The Kyng þat was her fader, perceyuede wel þe loue þat was bituene ham too, And hade non heir but þat doughter. And þe Kyng fouchede his douȝter to no man so wel as he dede vnto him þat her louede, & she him; & he ȝaf here to him wiþ gode wille; and Edward her spousede wiþ michel honour. ¶ The Kyng of Hungrie sent after al his baronage, & made a solempne [MS Rawlinson B 171 67a] fest and ryche weddyng, and made al men to vnderstonde þat he shulde ben Kyng when he were dede; and þerof þai maden al gret ioye; and of þat tydyng þai wer ful glade. ¶ þis Edwarde bigate oppon þis lady a sone þat me callede Edgar Helyng, and afterward, a doughter þat me callede Margarete, þat afti[r]ward was Quene of Scotland; and, by þe Kyng of Scotland þat me callede Maucolom, she hade a douȝter þat was callede Maude, þat afterwarde was Quene of Engeland þrouȝ Kyng Henry, þat was þe ferst sone of þe Conqueroure, þat her weded; & he bigate on her a douȝter þat me callede Maude, þat afterward was Emperesse of Almaign; and of þis Maude come Henry þe Kyng of Engeland, þat into þis day is callede 'Henry, þe Emperesse sone.' ¶ And ȝit hade þis Edward anoþer douȝter by his wif, þat me called Cristian, and she was a none.

Page  123

How Kyng Knoght, þat was a proude man, conquered Norwaye; & how he bicome afterwarde meke. Capitulo Centesimo ¶ xxmo.

NOw haue ȝe herde of Edmundes sones wiþ þe Irenside, þat Kyng Knoght wende þai hade ben dede, as he hade commandede Walger bifor. ¶ And this Knoght hade in his honde al Engeland and Denmarc. And after þat, he went to Norwaye, þat londe to conquere. ¶ But þe Kyng of þe lande þat me callede Elaf, come with his peple, & wende his lande wel haue kepte & defendede; & so þere he fauȝt with ham, til at þe laste he was slayn in þat bataile; & þo þis Knoght toke al þat lande [MS Rawlinson B 171 67b] into his hande. ¶ And when he hade conquerede al Norwaye, and taken feautes & homages þere, he come after aȝeyne into Engelond, and helde him-self so grete lorde, þat him þouȝt in al þe worlde no man his pier was; & bicome so prout & hauten þat hit was grete wonder. ¶ And so hit bifelle, oppon a day as he hade herde masse at Westmynstre, and wolde haue gone into his palice, þe water of Tamise so swiftely aȝeynes him comen, þat Almost hit tochede his fete. þo saide þe Kyng with a prout hert, "y commande þe water turne aȝeyn, or elles y shal þe make." þe wawys for his commandement wolde nouȝt spare, but flowede euer on hye more & more. ¶ The Kyng was so prout of hert þat he wolde nouȝt flee þe water, but abode stille in þe water, and bete þe water wiþ a smal ȝerd þat he helde in his hande, & comandede þe water þat it shulde wende no ferþere; but for al his commandement þe water wolde nouȝt cesse, but euer waxe more & more an hye, so þat þe Kyng was al wete, and stode depe in þe water. ¶ And when he saw þat he hade abide þere or longe, & þe water wolde noþing done his commandement, þo sone he wiþdrowe him, and þo stode oppon a stone & helde his hondes an hye, & saide þis worde in heryng of al þe peple: "¶ þis God þat makeþ þe see þus arise anPage  124 hye, he is Kyng of alle Kynges, & of myghtes most; & y ame a caitif and a man dedly, & he may neuer dye; & alle þing doth his commandement, & to him is obedient. ¶ To þat God Y praye [MS Rawlinson B 171 68a] þat he be my waraunt, for y knowliche me caitif feble, & of none power; and þerforre y wil gone to Rome wiþout eny lettyng, my Wickednesse forto punisshe, and me to amende; ¶ ffor of þat God y cleyme my landes forto holde, and of none oþere"; and anone made his heir, and him-self [went] to Rome wiþouten eny lettyng, & by þe way dede meny almes dedes, & when he come to Rome also. ¶ And when he hade bene þere, and for his synnes done penaunce, he come aȝeyne into Englend, and bicome a gode man and an holy, and lefte al maner pride & stoutenesse, & leuede an holy lif al his lif after, and made ij Abbayes of seynt Benet, one in Engeland & þat oþere in Norway, for-asmiche as he louede specialy seynt Benet bifore al oþere seyntes; and miche he louede also seynt Edmunde þe kyng; & ofte he ȝaf grete ȝiftes to þe hous, wherfore it was made ryche. and when he had regnede xx ȝere, he deide, & liþ at Wynchestr.

Of Kyng Harolde, þat leuer hade gone in foot þan ryde on hors. Capitulo Centesimo xx[i]mo.

THis Knoght, of wham y haue spoken bifor, hade ij sones by his wif; & þat on me callede Herdiknoght, & þat oþere Harolde; and he was so liþ of fote þat men callede him þerfore Harolde Harefote. & þis Harolde hade noþing þe condicions ne maners of Kyng Knoght þat was his fader, for he sette but litil pris of chyualry ne of curtesye, neyþer of worship, but onely by his owen wille; & he bicome so wickede þat he exilede his moder. & þo she went out of þe land into Flaundres, & þere she duellede wiþ þe Erl; wherfor after þere was neuer gode loue bituene him & his broþer, for his broþer him hatede dedely; and when he hade regnede ij [yere] & a litil more, [MS Rawlinson B 171 68b] he deide, & liþ at Westmynstre.

Page  125

Of Kyng Hardiknoght, þat was Haroldes broþer. Capitulo Centesimo xx[i]jmo.

After þis Harolde Harefoot, regnede his broþer Hardiknoght, a noble Knyght & a worþi, & miche louede chiualrye and al maner godenesse. ¶ And when þis Hardiknoght hade regnede a litil while, he lete vncouere his broþer Harolde, and smote of his Heuede þat was his broþer, at Westmynstr, and lete caste þe heuede into a gonge, and þe body into þe Tamyse. and after come fisshers, & toke þe body wiþ her nettes by nyght, and bere him vnto seynt Clementȝ cherche, & þere him buryede; and in þis maner avengede him Hardeknoght of his broþer, for in none oþere maner þai mygh nouȝt hym avenge. ¶ This Kyng Hardiknoght was so large ȝeuer of mete and of drynk, þat his tables were sette euer þre tymes ful wiþ real metes for his owen mayne, & for al þat comen to his court to bene rychely seruede of real metes. ¶ And þis Kyng Hardeknoght sent after Emme his moder, & made hir come aȝeyne into Engeland, ffor she was dryue out of Engeland whiles þat Harolde Harefote regnede, þoruȝ conseil of þe Erl Godwyne, þat þo was þe grettest lorde of al Engeland next þe kyng, and moste myght done what he wolde þrouȝ at Engeland þrouȝ his commaundement, for-asmiche as he hade spousede þe doughter of þe gode Kyng Knoght þat was a danoys, whiche doughter he hade by his ferst wif. ¶ And when þis quene was dryuen out of Engeland, & come to þe Erl of Flaundres þat me callede Baldewynne, her cosyn, [MS Rawlinson B 171 69a] he fonde here þere al þing þat hir nedede, Vnto the tyme þat she went aȝeyne into Engeland, þat þe Kyng Hardiknoght hade sent for her, þat was her sone, & made here come aȝeyn wiþ michel honour. ¶ This Kyng Hardeknoght, when he hade v ȝere regnede, he deide, & liþ at Wynchestre.

Of þe Vylonye þat þe Danoys dede to þe Englisshe-men; wherfore fro þat tyme afterward was none Danoys made Kyng of Engeland. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo Vicesimo iijo.

Page  126After þe deth of þis Kyng Hardeknoght, forasmiche as he nad non heire of his body bigeten, þe Erles and barons assembled and maden a counseil; and neuer-more after þat tyme no man þat was a Danois, þouȝ he were ner so grete a man amonges ham, he shulde neuer bene Kyng of Engeland, for þe despite þat þe Danois hade done to þe Englisshemen. ¶ For euermore biforne-honde, if it were so þat Englisshe-men & Danois hapden to mete oppon a bruge, þe Englisshe-men shulde nouȝt bene so herdy to meve ne stere on foot, but stande still, til þat þe Danois were passede forth. ¶ And more-ouer, if þe Englisshemen hade nouȝt bowede adoun here heuedes, to done reuerence vnto þe Danois, þai shulde haue bene bete & defoulede; & soche maner despites and Vilonyes deden þe Danois to oure Englisshemen; Wherfore þai were dryuen out of þe lande after þe tyme þat Kyng Herdeknoght was dede, for þai had non lord þat ham myght mayntene. In þis maner voided þe Danois Engeland, þat neuer þai comen aȝeyne. ¶ þe Erles and barouns, by here commune assent & conseile, senten [MS Rawlinson B 171 69b] into Normandy forto seche þo ij breþern Alurede & Edward, þat were duellyng wiþ þe duk Richard þat was here eme, to þat intent forto crone Alurede þe elder broþer, & him make Kyng of Engeland, and of þis þing to make an ende, þe erles & barons made heroth; But þe Erl Godwyne of Westsex falsely þouȝt to slee þo ij breþerne anone as þai shulde come into Engelonde, to þat entente forto make his sone Harolde Kyng, þe whiche sone he hade bigete oppon his wif, þat was Kyng Knoghtes doughter, þat was a Danoys. ¶ And þis Godwyn pryueliche went him to Southampton, forto mete þere þo ij breþern when þat þai shulde come to lande. ¶ And þus hit bifelle, þat þe messagers þat wenten into Normandye, fonden nouȝt but onely Alurede, þat was þe eldest broþer; for Edward, his ȝonger broþer, was gone to Hungrie forto speke wiþp his cosyn Edward þe outelaw, þat was Edmondes sone wiþ þe Irenside. ¶ þe messagersPage  127 tolde & saide to Alurede, how þat þe Erles & barons of Engeland senten after him, and þat he boldeliche shulde come into Engeland and vnderfonge þe reaume; for Kyng Herdeknoght was dede, & alle þe Danois were dryuen out of þe lande.

How Godewyne, þe false traitoure, tok Alurede oppon Gildesdoun, when he come fro Normandye to bene Kyng of Engeland, & dede him bene martrede in þe Ile of Ely. Capitulo Centesimo xxiiijto.

WHen Alurede herde þis tydynges, he þankede God, & into shipp went, wiþ al þe hast þat he myght, and passede þe see, & arryuede at Southampton, þere þe Godewyne þe traitour was. And when þis tr[a]itoure [MS Rawlinson B 171 70a] saw þat he was comen, he welcomede him & vnderfonge him wiþ michel ioye, and saide þat he wolde lede him to London, þere þat al þe lordes & barons of Engeland him abode, forto maken him kyng. and so þai wenten in her way toward London. & when þai comen oppon Gildesdoune, þo saide þe traitoure Godwyne to Alurede, "takeþ kepe," quod he, "aboute ȝow, boþ on þe lefte side & in þe ryght side; and of all ȝe shul bene kyng, & of suche an hundrede more." ¶ "Now forsoþe," quod Alurede, "I behote, & if y be kyng, I shal ordeyn & make soche lawes wherof God & all folc shullen holden ham wel paied." ¶ Now hade þe traitoure comaunded alle his men þat were wiþ him, þat when þai were comen oppon Gildesdoun þat þai shulde slee alle þo þat were in Aluredes company þat comen wiþ him fram Normandye, and after þat, taken Alurede, & lede him into þe Ile of Ely, & þere put out boþe his eyne of his heued, and afterward bryng him vnto þe deth. & so þai deden, ffor þai quellede al his company þat xij [hundred] were in nombre, of gentil-men þat were comen wiþ Alurede fram Normandye; And after token Alurede, & lade him into þe Ile of Ely, & put out his eyen of his heuede, & rent his wombe, & token þe chief of his bowailes, & put a stake into þe gronde, & an ende of his bowailes þerto fastenede, & wiþ nedels of Iren pricked þe body of þe gode childe, and so made him gone aboute þe stakePage  128 til þat his bowales were alle drawen out: & so deide þere Alurede, þrouȝ treson of þe Erl Godwyne. ¶ When þe lordes of Engeland [MS Rawlinson B 171 70b] hade herde & wist how Alured, þat shulde have ben her kyng, was put to deþ þrouȝ þe false traitoure, þe Erl Godwynne, þai weren al wonder wroth, & swore bituene ham, by God & by his names, þat he shulde die in mor worse deth þan dede Edrik of Stratton, þat hade bitraiede his Lord E[d]munde Irenside. and þai wolde haue taken him, & put him vnto þe deþ, but þe þef traitoure fley þens into Denmarc, & þere helde him iiij ȝere & more, & loste all his londes in Engeland.

Of Seynt Edward þe Confessoure, þat was Aluredes broþer; How he was Kyng of Engelande. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ xxvto.

ANd when þis was done, alle þe Barons of Enge[land] senten anoþer tyme into Normandye, for þat Edward shulde come into Engeland with michel honour. And þis Edward in his childehode louede al-myghty God, & him drade, & in honeste and clennesse leued his lif, and hatede synne as deþ. ¶ And when he was cronede and annoyntede wiþ real power, he forȝate nouȝt his gode maners & condicions & custumes þat he ferst vsede, for no maner honour, ne for no richesse, ne for no maner hyenesse, but euer more & more ȝaf him to godenesse, and wel louede God & al mekenesse, & louede God & holy cherche passyng al maner þing, & pore men also, & ham helde as þai hade bene his owen breþerne, & to ham ofte ȝaf grete almesse wiþ gode wille.

Of þe ferst specialte þat God shewede for seynt Edwardes loue by his lif. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ xxv[j]to.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 71a] HIt bifelle oppon a day as he went fram þe che[rch] of Westmynstre, & hade herde masse of seynt Iohan Euaungelist, for-asmiche as he louede seynt Iohan EuaungelistPage  129 most specialy after God and oure lady, þan he dede eny oþer seynt. ¶ And so þere come to him a pilgrime, & praede him, for þe loue of God & of seynt Iohan Euaungelist, some god him forto ȝeue. And þe Kyng priuely toke þe ryng of his fenger, priuely þat no man perceyuede hit, & ȝaf it þe pilgrime; & he it vnderfonge, & went þens. þis goode Kyng Edward made alle þe gode lawes of Engeland þat ȝitte beþ most holden, & was so mercyable & ful of pite þat no man myȝt bene more.

How þe Erl Godwyn come aȝeyn into Engeland, & hade aȝeyne al his land, & afterward Seynt Edward wedede his douȝter. Capitulo ¶ Centesimo xxv[i]jto.

WHen þe Erl Godwyn, þat was in Denmarc duellyng, hade michel herd of þe godenesse of Edward, & þat he was ful of mercy & of pitee, & þouȝt þat he wolde gon aȝeyn into Engeland forto seche and to haue grace of him, & þat he myght haue þe lande aȝeyn in pees, & arraiede him as miche as he might, & put him toward þe see, & come into Engeland, to London, þere þat þe Kyng was þat tyme, & al þe lordes of Engeland, & helde parlement. ¶ Godewyn sent to ham þat were his frendes, & were þe moste gretteste lordes of þe londe, & praiede ham to biseche þe Kynges grace for him, and þat he wolde his pees & his londes graunt him. his frendes Lade him bifore þe Kyng forto biseche grace. ¶ And anone as þe Kyng him saw, he appelede him of tresoun, & of þe deþ of Alurede his broþer, and þise wordes vnto him saide: ¶ "Traitour Godwyn!" quod [MS Rawlinson B 171 71b] þe Kyng, "I þe appele, þat þow haste bitraede & slayne my broþer Alurede." ¶ "Certes, sire," quod Godwyn, "saf ȝour grace, ȝour pees & ȝoure lorde-shippe, y neuer him bitraede ne sloughe; and þerof y put me [in] rewarde of ȝour cou[r]t." ¶ "Now, faire lordes, ȝe þat beþ my lieges, erles & barons of þe lande, þat here bene allePage  130 assemblede,—wel ȝe hauen herde myn appele, and þe ansure of Godwyn; & þerfore y wil þat ȝe award and do ryght." ¶ þe erles and barons þo drowen ham al to-geder, forto done þis award by ham-self. and so þai spoken diuerseliche amonges ham; for somme sayde þat þere was neuer allyaunce by homage, serment, seruise, ne by lordeship, bituene Godwyn & Alurede, for which þing þai might him draw. ¶ And at þe laste þai demede þat he shulde put him into þe Kynges mercy altogeders. ¶ þo spake þe Erl Leueryche of Couentre, a gode man to God & to alle þe worlde, & tolde his resoun in þis maner, & saide: "þe Erl Godwyne is þe best frendede man of Engeland after þe kyng; and wel myȝt it nouȝt bene gaynsaide þat, wiþout consel of Godwyn, Alurede was neuer put vnto deþ; Wherefore y awarde, as tochyng my part, þat him-self and his sone, and eueryche of vs xij Erles þat beþ his frendes, wende bifore þe Kyng chargede wiþ alse miche golde and siluer as we mowe bere bytuene oure hondes, & prayng þe Kyng forȝeue his euel wille to þe Erle Godwyn, and resceyue his homage, & his landes ȝelde aȝeyn." & alle þai accordede vnto þat awarde, and comen in þis maner as is aboue-saide, eueryche of ham wiþ golde & siluer, [MS Rawlinson B 171 72a] as miche as þai myght bere bituenes here hondes, bifore þe Kyngg; and þai saiden þe fou[r]me and þe maner of her accord and of her awarde. ¶ The Kyng wolde nouȝt ham gayne-saie; but alse miche as þai wolde ordeyne, he grauntede & confermede; And so was þe Erl Godwyn accordede wiþ þe Kyng, & hade aȝeyne al his lande; and aftirward he bar him so wel & so wiseliche þat þe Kyng louede him wonder myche, & with him was ful priue. And wiþin a litel tyme þe Kyng louede him so miche þat he spousede Godwynus doughter, and made her Quene; and neuerþeles, for al þat, þouȝ þe Kyng hade a wif, he leuede euermore in chastite & in clennes of body, wiþouten eny flesshely dede doyng with his wif; & þe Quene also, in her Halfe, lade holy lif ij ȝere, and deide; & afterward þePage  131 Kyng leuede al his lif wiþouten eny wif. ¶ The Kyng ȝaf þe Erldome of Oxenford to Harolde, þat was Godwynes sone, & made him Erle; and so wel þai were bilouede, boþe þe fader and þe sone, & so pryue wiþ þe Kyng, þat þai myght do what þing þai wolde by righte, for aȝeynes ryght he wolde nouȝt done for no maner man, so gode and trew he was of consciens; and þerfore our Lorde Ihesu Crist, grete special loue to him shewed.

How seynt Edward saw Swyn, Kyng of Denmarc, drenche in þe see at þe sacrament, as he stode & herde masse. Capitulo Centesimo. ¶ xxviijmo.

HIt bifelle oppon Whitsonday, as Kyng Edward herde his masse in þe grete cherch of Westmynstre, ryght at þe leuacioun of Ihesu Cristes body, and as al men were gaderede into þe cherche, & comen neyer [MS Rawlinson B 171 72b] þe auter, sacring forto see, ¶ The Kyng his hondes lifte vp an hye, and a grete laughter toke op; wherfore all þat aboute him stode, gretly gon wonder; & after masse þai axede whi þe kyngus laughter was. ¶ "Faire lordes," quod þe Kyng, "Swyn þe ȝonger, þat was Kyng of Denmarc, come into þe see wiþ al his power forto haue comen into Engeland, oppon vs forto haue werrede; and y saw him and all his folc drenche in þe hye see: & al þis saw y in þe eleuacioun of Ihesu Cristes body bytuene þe prestes hondes; & y hade þerof so miche ioye, þat y myght nought my laughter wiþholde." ¶ And þe Erl Leueriche bisides him stode at þe leuacioun, & openlich he saw þe fourme of brede turne into þe lickenesse of a knaf childe ȝong, and toke of his right hande, & ferst blessede þe Kyng, and afterward þe Erle. And þe Erle turnede him anone toward þe Kyng, to make him see þat holy sight. ¶ And þo saide þe Kyng: "sir Erle," quod he, "I see wel þat ȝe seeþ,Page  132 þankede be God þat y haue honourrede my God, my saueoure, Visibili Ihesu Crist in fourme of man, whos name bene blessede in al worldes! Amen!"

How þe ryng þat Sent Edward hade ȝeuen to a pore pilgrime, for þe loue of seynt Iohan Euaungelist, come aȝeyn vnto Kyng Edward. Capitulo Centesimo xxixmo.

THis noble man Seynt Edwarde regnede xiij ȝere. & þus hit bifelle oppon a tyme biforne er he deide, þat ij men of Engeland were went to þe Holy Lande, & haden done her pilgrimage, & wer goyng aȝeyne toward her owen contre. ¶ And as þai went in þe way, þai mette a pilgrime þat curtesly ham [MS Rawlinson B 171 73a] Saluede, and axede of ham in wh[a]t lande & in What contre þai were born; & þai saide "in Engeland." ¶ þo axede he who was Kyng of Engeland; and þai ansuerede & saide "þe goode Kyng Edward." "Faire frendes," þo saide þe pilgrime, "when þat ȝe come into ȝour contre aȝeyne, y praye ȝow þat ȝe wolde gone vnto Kyng Edward, and ofte-tymes him grete in my name, & ofte-tymes þank him of his grete curtesye þat he to me haþ done, A[nd] nameliche for þe ryng þat he ȝaf me when he hade herde masse at Westmynstre, for seynt Iohnes loue Euaungelist," and toke þo þe Ryng to þe pilgrimes, and saide, "y pray ȝow forto gon & bere þis ryng, & take hit to Kyng Edward, & telle him þat y sende hit him; and a ful ryche ȝift y wil him ȝeue; for oppon þe tuelfeþ day he shal come to me, & euermore duelle in blisse wiþouten ende." ¶ "Sir," saide þe pilgrimes, "what man beþ ȝe, & in what place is ȝour duellyng?" ¶ "Faire frendes," quod he, "I ame Iohan Euaungelist & am duellyng wiþ Almyghty God; & ȝour Kyng Edward is my frende, & y loue him specialy for encheson þat he haþ euer Leuede in clennesse, and is clene maide; and y pray ȝow my message al forto done as y haue to ȝow saide." ¶ When seynt Iohan Euaungelist hade þus ham chargede, sodeynly he voidede out of her sight.

þe pilgrimes þo þankede Almyghty Gode, & went forþ in her way. ¶ & when þai hade gon ij or iij myle, þai bigon to waxenPage  133 wery, & sette adoune ham forto reste; & so þai felle and slepte. ¶ And when þai hade slepte wel, one of ham [MS Rawlinson B 171 73b] awoke, & lifte vp his heuede & lokede aboute & saide vnto his felaw, "arise op, and wende we in oure way." "What," saide þat on felaw to þat oþer, "where be we nowe?" ¶ "Certis," saide þat oþere felawe, "it semeþ me þat it is nouþt þe same contreye þat we laide vs in forto reste & slep, for we were þo fro Ierusalem but iij mile." ¶ þai tok op her hondes, and blessede ham, & went forþ in her waye. & as þai went in here way þai saw sheperdes goyng wiþ her shepe, þat spoken none oþere langage but Englisshe. ¶ "Leue frendes," quod on of þe pilgrimes, "what contre is þis, & who is lorde þerof?" and one of þe sheperdes ansurede: "þis is þe cuntre of Kent, in Engeland, of þe whiche þe gode Kyng Edward is lorde." ¶ þe pilgrimes þankede þo Almyghty God & seynt Iohan euaungelist, & went forþ in her way, & come to Kaunterbery, & fro þens vnto London; and þere þai fonden þe Kyng, & tolde him fro þe bigynny[n]g vnto þe ende as miche as seynt Iohan hade ham chargede, & of al þingus how þai spedden by þe way, & toke þe ryng to Kyng Edward; & he vnderfonge hit, & þankede Almyghty God & seynt Iohan Euaungelist, & þo made him aredy euery day, fram day to day, forto wende out of þis lif when God wolde for him sende.

How seynt Edwarde [de]ide on the xij day. Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Tricesimo.

ANd after hit bifelle þus in Cristenmasse eve: as þe holy man Edward was at Godes seruice, matynes forto hure of þat holy fest, he bicome ful [MS Rawlinson B 171 74a] sik, and in þe morwe endurede wiþ michel payn masse forto here, & after lete him bene lade into his chaumbre, þere forto resten him; but into his halle amonges his barons and his knyghtes myght he nouȝtPage  134 come, ham forto comfort and solace, as he was wonte forto done at þat worþi feste; Wherfore al his merþ & comfort amongus alle þat were in þe halle was turnede into care and sorwe, for enchesoun þat þai drade forto lese her gode Lorde þe Kyng. ¶ And oppon seynt Iohnes day Euaungelist þat þo come next, þe Kyng vnderfonge his rightes of holy cherche, as falliþ to euery Cristen man, & abode þe mercy & wille of God. ¶ And þo ij pilgrimes he lete bifore him come, and ȝaf ham riche ȝiftes, & bitoke ham vnto God. And also þe Abbot of Westmynstre he lete bifore him come, & toke him þat ryng in honour of Gode & of Seynt Iohan Euaungelist. And þe Abbot toke hit & put hit amonge oþere reliqes, so þat it is at Westmynstre, & euer shal be. and so lay þe Kyng sike to þe xij eve; & þo deide þe gode Kyng Edward at Westmynstre; & þere he liþ, for whos loue God haþ done meny miracles. And þis was in þe ȝere of Incarnacioun of oure Lorde Ihesu Crist, Ml .lxv. ȝere; & after he was translatede, & put into þe shryne, þrouȝ þe noble Martir Seint ¶ Thomas of Kaunterbery.

How Harolde, þat was Godwynus sone, was made Kyng; & how he scapede fro þe Duc of Britaign. Capitulo Centesimo xxxjo.

WHen Seynt Edward was gone oute of þis worlde, & was gone to God, & worþely enterede, as perteynede to soche a lorde forto bene, þe barons [MS Rawlinson B 171 74b] of þe Land Wolde haue hade Edward Helyngus, sone to Edward þe Outlaghe, þat was Edmundus sone Irensyde, to bene Kyng, for-asmiche as he was moste kyndest kynges blode of þe reaume. ¶ But Harold, sone þrouȝ þe Erle Godwyn, & þe strengþ of his fader Godwyn, & þrouȝ oþere grete lordes of þe reaume þat were of here Kyn & vnto him sib, seisede al Engeland into his Honde, & anone lete crone him Kyng, after þe enterement of Seynt Edward. ¶ This Harolde,Page  135 þat was Godwynus sone, þe secunde ȝere after þat Seynt Edward was dede, Wolde haue gone into Flaundres, but he was dryuen þrouȝ tempest into þe contre of Pountif, & þere he was take & brouȝt vnto Duc William. ¶ And þis Harolde wende þo þat þe Duc William wolde haue bene avenged oppon him, for encheson þat þe Erl Godwyn, þat was Haroldes fader, hade done quelle Alurede, þat was Seynt Edwardus broþer, and principaly for Alurede, Quene Emmes sone, þat was Richardes moder, Duk of Normandye, þat was Aile to þe Duc William. ¶ And noþeles, when þe Duc William hade Harolde in prisoun & vnder his power, for-alse-miche as þis Harold was a noble knyght, wise, & worþi of Body, & þat his fader & he were accordede wiþ þe gode Kyng Edward, & þerfore wolde nouȝt mysdone him, but al maner þingus þat bituene ham were spoken & ordeynede, Harolde by his gode Wille suore oppon a boke & oppon Holy seyntȝ, þat he shulde spouse and wedde Duc Williamus douȝter after þe deþ of Seynt Edward, and þat he shulde besely [MS Rawlinson B 171 75a] done His deuer forto Kepe & saue þe reaume of Engeland, to þe profite & auauntage of Duc William. ¶ And when Harolde hade þus made his oth vnto Duc William, he lete him gone, & ȝaf him riche ȝiftes; And he þo went þens, & come into Engeland, & anone dede in þis maner when Seint Edward was dede; and as man falsely forsuore, he lete crone him Kyng of Engeland, & falsely brac þe couenauntȝ þat he hade made bifore wiþ Duc William; wherfore he was wiþ him wonder wroþe, & swore þat he wolde oppon him bene avengede, whateuer so him bifelle. ¶ And anone William lete assemble a grete hoste, and come into Engeland, to avenge him oppon Harolde, & to conquere þe lande if þat he myght. ¶ And in þe same ȝere þat Harold was cronede, Harold Hare-strenge, Kyng of Denmarc, arryuede in Scotland, and þouȝ[t] haue be kyng of Engeland. & he come into Engeland, & quellede & robbede, & destroiede al þat he might, til þat he come to Ȝorke; & þere he quellede meny men of Armys Ml, & an C prestes.Page  136 ¶ When þis tyding come to þe Kyng, he assemblede a strong power, and went forto feiȝt wiþ Harold of Denmarc, & wiþ his owen honde him quellede, and þe Danois were descomfitede; & þo þat lafte alyue, wiþ myche sorwe went to her shippes; and þus Kyng Harolde of Engeland quellede Kyng Harold of Denmarc.

How William Bastard, Duc of Normandy, come into Engeland, & quellede Kyng Harold. Capitulo vjxx xij.

ANd when þis bataile was done, Harolde bicome [MS Rawlinson B 171 75b] so prout, and wolde nouȝt departe with his peple of þing þat he hade gete, but helde it al towardes him-self; Wherfore þe most part of his men were wroþ, and fram him departede, so þat oneliche wiþ him lefte no mo but his soudeours. ¶ And oppon a day, as he sate at þe mete, messagers comme to him, & saide þat William Bastard, Duc of Normandye, was Arryuede in Engeland wiþ a grete host, and hade taken al þe lande aboute Hastynge, & hade also mynede þe castell. ¶ When þe Kyng hade herde þis tydynges, he went þider wiþ a litil peple in al þe hast þat he myght, for a litel peple was wiþ him lefte. ¶ And when he was comen þider, he ordeynede forto ȝeue bataile to þe Duc William; but þe Duc axede him of þise iij þingus: if þat he wolde haue his doughter to wif, as he hade made & swore his othe & bihight; or þat he wolde halde þe lande of him in truage; or þat he wolde determine þis þing bi bataile. ¶ þis Harold was a prout man & a stout, and truste wonder miche oppon his owen strengþ, & fauȝt wiþ the duc & wiþ his peple; but Harold & his men were descomfitede, & himself was þere slayn. & þis bataile was endede at Tonbrigge, in þe secunde ȝere of his regne, oppon seynt Kalixtes day; and he liþ at Waltham.

Of Kyng William Bastard, & how he gouernede him wel & wisely; & of þe werr bituene him & þe Kyng of Fraunce. Capitulo Centesimo xxxiijo.

Page  137WHen William Bastard, Duc of Normandye, hade conquerede al þe land, oppon Cri[s]tenmasse day þo next sewyng he lete crone him kyng at Westmynstre, & was a worþi kyng, & ȝaf to Englisshemen largly landes, & to his knyghtes. ¶ And afterward he went ouer þe see, & come [MS Rawlinson B 171 76a] into Normandye, & þere duellede a while; & in þe secunde ȝere of his regne he come aȝeyne vnto Engeland, and brouȝt wiþ him Maude his wif, and lete crone here quene of Engeland, on Whitsonday. ¶ And þo anone after, þe Kyng of Scotland þat me callede Mancolum, bigon to werr and stryue wiþ Duc William; and he ordeynede him þo toward Scotland wiþ his men, boþe by lande and by see, forto destroy þe Kyng Mancolum. but þai were accordede, & þe Kyng of Scotland, Mancolum, bicome his man, and helde al his lande of him; and Kyng William resceyuede of him his Homage, and come aȝeyne into Engeland. ¶ And when Kyng William hade bene Kyng xvij ȝere, Maude þe Quene deide, on whom Kyng William hade geten meny faire cheldern, þat is forto seyne, Robert Curthose, William le Rous, Richar also þat deide, Henry Beauclerc, & Maude also, þat was þe Erles wif of Bleyns, and oþere iiij doughtre. ¶ And after his wifes deth, grete debate bigan bituene him & þe Kyng of Fraunce, Philippe; but atte þe laste þai were accordede; and þo duellede þe Kyng of Engeland in Normandye, and no man him werrede, ne he no man, longe tyme. and þe Kyng of Fraunce saide oppon a day in scorne of Kyng William, & saide þat 'Kyng William hade longe leyen a childe bed, & longe tyme haþ restede him.' ¶ And þis worde come to þe Kyng of Engeland þere þat he laye in Normandy, atte Roen; and for þis word was þo euel paiede for þat worde, & ek wonder wrothe toward þe Kyng of Fraunce, and swore þo by God þat, when he were arise of his gisyne, he wolde liȝt a þousand candelles to þe Kyng of Fraunce. ¶ And anone lete assem [MS Rawlinson B 171 76b] ble a grete hoste of Normandye and of Engelisshe-men; and in þe bigynnyng of Heruest he come into Fraunce, & brent alle þe tounes þat he come by, þrouȝ alle þe contre, & robbed, & dede al þe euel þat he might þrouȝ-out alPage  138 Fraunce. & at þe laste he brent þe toun of Mandes, & commandede his peple forto bere wode, & as miche as myght brenne; & him-self halpe þerto, al þat he myghte, wiþ gode wille. ¶ And þere was grete hete, what of fyre þat was so grete, & of þe sone þat þo was wonder hote, þat al stuffled him-self was, & felle into a grete sikenesse. and when he saw þat he was so stronge sike, he ordeynede and assignede al Normandy vnto Robert Curthese, his sone, and al Engeland to William þe Rous, & biquaþ to Henry Beauclerc al his tresoure. ¶ And when he hade þus done, he vnderfonge alle his sacramentȝ of holy cherche, & deide, þe xxij ȝere of his regne, & liþ at Caam in Normandye.

Of Kyng William Rous, þat was William Bastardes sone, þat destroiede tounes & hous of religioun fort[o] make þe new Foreste. Capitulo ¶ Centesimo xxxiiijto.

ANd after þis William Bastard, regnede his sone William Rous, & was a wonder contrarious man to God and to holy cherche, & lete amende & make þe toune of Cardeys þat þe paynemys hade destroied. ¶ This Kyng William destroiede holy cherche and alle here possessions, in what partye he miȝt ham fynde; and þerfore þere was so miche debate bituene him & þe Erchebisshope of Kaunterbery, Ancelyn, for enchesoun þat he vnderfonge him of his Wickednesse, þat he destroiede Holy cherche; & for encheson þerof, þe Kyng to him bare grete wraþ; & for þat cause he exilede him out of þe lande; & þe erchebisshop þo [MS Rawlinson B 171 77a] Went to þe courte of Rome, and þere du[e]llede wiþ þe Pope. ¶ & þis Kyng made þe new Forest, and caste doun & destroiede xxvj tounes & iiijxx house of religion, al forto make his foreste longer & broder, & bicome wonder glade & prout of his wode & of his Forest, and of þe wilde bestes þat wer þerin, þat it was mervailous forto wete, so þat men callede him 'keper of wodes & of pastures.' & þe lenger þat he leuede, þe more Wikkede he bicome, boþe toPage  139 God & to holy cherche, & to alle his men. & þis kyng lete make þe grete halle of Westmynstre; and so oppon a Whitsonday he helde þerin his ferste feste, he lokede aboute him, & saide þat þe halle was to litel by haluendele. ¶ And at þe laste he bicome so contrarious, þat al þing þat plesede God, displesede him; and al þing þat gode men louede, he hatede dedly. ¶ And so hit befel þat he dremede & mette oppon a nyȝt, bifore a litil or þat he deide, þat he was bloode, & bledde a grete quantite of bloode, and a streme of blode lepte an hye toward Heuen more þan an hundred Venithe; and þe clerenesse of þe day was turnede al to derkenesse, and þe firmament also. ¶ And when he awoke, he hade grete drede, so þat he nyste what to done; & tolde his dreme to meny of his conseile, & saide þat he hade grete drede, & supposede þat him was some meschaunce to come. ¶ And þe secunde nyght bifore, a monke dremed of þe househald, þat þe kyng went into a cherche wiþ miche peple; and he was so prout þat he despisede al þe peple þat was wiþ him; & so he toke þe ymage of þe crucifixe, & shamefully bote hit with his teiþ; and þe crucifix mekely soffrede al þat he dede; but þe kyng, as a wode man, rent of þe Armys of þe [MS Rawlinson B 171 77b] crucifixe and caste it vnder his feete, & defoulede it and þrewe it al brode; and a grete flame of fire come out of þe crucifixeȝ mouthe; of þe whiche dreem, meny a man hade grete wonder. ¶ The gode man þat dremede þis dreem tolde it to a knyght þat þo was moste priue wiþ þe Kyng of al men; & þe knyght me callede Hamundus sone; & þe monke and he tolde þe dreem to [the] Kyng, & saide þat it shulde bitoken oþere þing þan gode; and noþelesse þe Kyng lauȝhede þerat ij or iij, & litil sette þerof ¶ And þouȝt þat he wolde gone Hunte & pleye in þe forest. and his men conseiled him þat he shulde nouȝt þat day, for no maner þing, come in þe wode,Page  140 so þat he abode at home bifore mete. ¶ But anone as he hade eten, noþing might him lette but he wolde go to þe wode forto haue his disporte. ¶ And so hit bifelle þat one of his knyghtes þat hight Walter Tyrel, wolde haue shotte to an herte; & his Arwe glasede oppon a braunche, & þrouȝ misauenture smote þe Kyng to þe hert; & so he felle doune dede to þe grounde, wiþouten eny worde spekyng, & so he endede his lif. ¶ And it was non grete wonder, for þat day þat he dede, he hade late to ferme þe Erchebisshoppriche of Kaunterbery, and xij Abbays also, & euermore dede grete destruccioun to holy cherche þrouȝ wrongeful takynges and askyngus; for no man derst wiþsayen þat he wolde haue done; & of his luþernesse he wolde neuer wiþdrawe neyþer, to amende his lif; and þerfore God wolde suffre him no longer regne in his wickednesse. & he hade bene kyng xiij ȝere and vj wokes, & liþ at Wynchestre.

Of Kyng Henry Beauclerc, þat was William [MS Rawlinson B 171 78a] le Rousus broþer; & of þe debate bituene him & Robert Curthose, his broþer. Capitulo Centesimo ¶ xxxv.

ANd when þis William Rous was dede, Henry Beauclerc his broþer was made kyng, for enchesoun þat William Rous hade non childe bigeten of his body. & þis Henry Beauclerc was cronede kyng at London, þe ferþe day after þat his broþer was dede, þat is to seyne, þe v day of August. ¶ And anone as Ancellyn, þat was Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, þat was at þe court of Rome, herde þat William Rous was dede, he come aȝeyne into Engeland; & Kyng Henry Beauclerc welcomede him wiþ michel honoure. ¶ & þe ferst ȝer þat Kyng Henry was cronede, he spused Maude, þat was Margaretes douȝter, þe Quene of Scotland; & þe Erchebisshop Ancellyn wedede ham. ¶ And þis Kyng bigate oppon his wif ij sones & a douȝter, þat is to seyne, William, Richard, and Maude; & þis Maude was afterwardPage  141 Emperesse of Almayne. ¶ And in þe secunde ȝere of his regne, his broþere Robert Curthose, þat was duc of Normandye, come wiþ an huge nauy into Engeland, forto chalange þe land; but þrouȝ conseile of þe wise men of þe land, þai were accordede in þis maner: þat þe Kyng shulde ȝeue þe Duc his broþer a þousand li euery ȝere; and whiche of ham longeste leuede, shulde bene oþeres heire; & so bituene ham shulde bene none debate ne stryf. ¶ And when þai were þus accordede, þe Duc went home aȝeyne into Normandy. And when þe Kyng hade regnede iiij ȝere, aros a grete debate bituene him & þe Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, Ancellyn, for cause þat þe Erchebisshop wolde [MS Rawlinson B 171 78b] nouȝt graunt þe Kyng forto take taliages of Holy cherche at his wille; and þerfore þe Erchebisshop eftesones went ouer þe see vnto þe court of Rome, & þere duellede wiþ þe Pope. ¶ And in þe same ȝere þe Duc of Normandye come into Engeland forto speke wiþ his broþer. And amonges oþere þinges, þe duc of Normandy forȝaf to þe Kyng, his broþer, þe forsaide Ml li by ȝere þat he shulde paie him; & wiþ gode loue þe Duc went þo into Normandye aȝeyn.

¶ And when þo ij ȝere were gone, þrouȝ enticement of þe deuel & of a luþer man, a grete debate aros bituene ham, þe Kyng & þe duc, so þat þe Kyng, þrouȝ conseile, went ouer into Normandye. And when þe Kyng of Engeland was comen into Normandye, alle þe grete lordes of Normandye turnede þo to þe Kyng of Engeland, & helde aȝeyns þe Duc, here owen lorde, & him forsoke, & to þe Kyng ham ȝolden, and alle þe castelles & gode tounes of Normandye. And sone after was þe Duc taken, & lad wiþ þe Kyng into Engeland, and þe Kyng lete put þe Duc into prisoun. & þis was þe vengaunce of God; for when þe Duc was in þe Holy Land God ȝaf him suche might & honour þere, wherfore he was chose to ben Kyng of Ierusalem; and he wolde nouȝt bene hit, but forsoke it; & þerfore God sendePage  142 him þat shame & despite, forto bene put into his broþeres prisoun. ¶ Þo seisede Kyng Henry al Normandye into his hand, & helde hit al his lifes tyme. & þe same ȝere come þe bisshop Ancellyn fram þe court of Rome into Engeland aȝeyne, & þe Kyng & he were accorded. ¶ And in þe ȝere nexte comyng after, þere bigan a grete debate bytuene Kyng [MS Rawlinson B 171 79a] Philippe of Fraunce & Kyng Henry of Engeland. Wherfore Kyng Henry went into Normandye; and þe werr was stronge bituenes ham ij; and þo deide þe Kyng of Fraunce; & Lowys his sone was made Kyng anone after his deþ; and þo went Kyng Henry aȝeyne into Engeland, & mariede Maude his doughter to Henry, þe Emperour of Almayn.

Of þe debate þat was bituene Kyng Lowys of France & Kyng Henry of Engeland; & how Kyng Henrieȝ ij sones were loste in þe hye see. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Tricesimo ¶ Sexto.

WHen Kyng Henry had bene Kyng xvij ȝere, a grete debate aroos bitue[n] him & Kyng Lowys of Fraunce, for enchesoun þat þe Kyng hade sent into Normandy to his men, for þai shulde bene helpyng to þe Erle of Bleynes as miche as þai myght, in werre aȝeynes þe Kyng of Fraunce, and þat þai were as redy vnto him as þai wolde bene vnto here owen lord, for enchesoun þat þe Erle hade spousede his sustre, Dame Maude; for whiche enchesoun þe Kyng of Fraunce dede miche harme & sorwe to Normandye. wherfore þe Kyng of Engeland was wonder wroþ, & in hast went ouer þe see into Normandye wiþ a grete power, forto defende þat londe; & þe werre bituene ham laste ij ȝere, til at þe laste þai ij fouȝten to-geder, & þe Kyng of France was descomfitede, & vnneþe scapede away wiþ miche peyn; and þe moste part of his men were taken, & dede wiþ ham what him liked; and some of ham he lete gon freliche, &Page  143 some he lete put to deþ; but afterward þo ij kyngus were accordede. ¶ And when Kyng Henry hade holiche al þe land [MS Rawlinson B 171 79b] of No[r]mandye, and scomfitede his enemys of Fraunce, he turned aȝeyne into Engeland wiþ michel honour. and his ij sones, William and Richard, wolde come after her fader, and went to þe se wiþ a grete company of peple; but er þat þai might come to lond, þe shipp come aȝeyn a grete roche, and brake al into pices; and alle were drenched þat were þerin, saf one man þat was in þe same shipp þat ascaped; and þis was on seynt Katerynes day. ¶ And þise were þe names of ham þat were drenchede, þat is to seyn: William, þe Kynges sone, Richarde his broþer, þe Erl of Chestre, Octouyle his broþer, Geffray Ridel, Walter Emurcy, Gedfreye Erchedeken, þe Kynges doughter, þe Countesse of Perches, þe Kyngus nece, þe Countesse of Chestre, and meny oþer. ¶ When Kyng Henry and oþere lordes arryued were in Engeland, and harde þise tidyngus, þai made sorwe ynowȝ; & al her merþe & ioye was turnede þo into sorwe & care.

How Maude þe Emperesse come aȝey[ne] into Engeland; and how she was afterward wedded to Gaufrey, þe Erl of Angoy. Capitulo Centesimo xxxvij.

ANd when þat ij ȝere were gone, þat þe Erl hade duellede wiþ þe Kyng, þe Erl went þo fro þe Kyng, and biganne to werre oppon him, & dede miche harme in þe lande of Normandye. Wherfore Kyng Henry was sore annoiede when he herde þe tydynges. wiþ al þe haste þat he myght, he passede þe see, and come into Normandye, and toke þere a stronge castel, & þere helde him al þat ȝere. And þo come to him tydynges þat Henry, [MS Rawlinson B 171 80a] þe Emperour of Almaigne, þat hade spousede Maud his douȝter, was dede, and þat she duellede no longer in Almaigne, and þat she wolde come aȝeyne into Normandy to her fader. ¶ And when she was comen to him, he toke her þo wiþ him, and come aȝeyne into Engeland, & made þe Englisshemen to done oth & feaute vnto þe Emperesse. ¶ And þe ferst man þatPage  144 made þe oth was William þe Erchebisshop of Kaunterbury, and þat oþere Kyng Dauid of Scotland & after him, al þe Erles & barons of Engeland. ¶ And after þat, þe noble man, þe Erl of Angoy, a worþi knyȝt, sent to þe Kyng of Engeland þat he wolde grant him forto haue his doughter to spouse, Maude þe Emperesse. ¶ And for enchesoun þat her fader wist þat he was a noble man, þe Kyng grauntede him, & consentede þerto, and þo tok his doughter, and ladde her into Normandye, & come to þe noble knyȝt þe Erl Gaufrid; & he spousede þe forsaide Maude wiþ michel honoure; & þe Erl bigate oppon her a sone þat men callede 'Henry, þe Emperesse sone.' ¶ And after, when al þis was done, Kyng Henry duellede al þat ȝere in Normandy. and after þat, longe tyme, a grevous sikenesse toke him, wherfore he deide. & þis Kyng Henry regnede xxxv ȝere & iiij mounþes; & after he deide, as bifore is saide, in Normandy; & his hert was enterede in þe grete cherche of oure Lady of Roen, & his body was brouȝt wiþ michel honour into Engeland, & enterede at Redyng in þe Abbay; & of þe which Abbay he was bigynner & Foundoure.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 80b] How Stephene Kyng Henryes suster sone, Was made Kyng of Engeland. Capitulo ¶ Centesimo ¶ Tricesimo ¶ Octauo.

After þis Kyng Henry þat was þe ferst, was made Kyng his Nevew, his sustres sone, Stephen, Erl of Boloigne; For anone as he harde þe tidynges of his Vncles deth, he passede þe see, and come into Engeland, þrouȝ conseil & strengþ & helpe of meny grete Lordes of Engeland (aȝeynȝ heir oth þat þai hade made to Maude þe Emperesse), tok þe reaume, & lete crone Stephen Kyng of þe land. ¶ And þe erchebisshop William of Kaunterbery, þat ferst made þe oth to Maude þe Emperesse, sette þe crone ferst opon Kyng Stephenus heuede, & him annoyntede; and Bisshop Roger of Salesbery mayntenede þe KyngusPage  145 partye in-as-miche as he might. ¶ The ferst ȝere þat Kyng Stephen biganne forto regne, he assembled a grete host, & went him toward Scotland forto haue þo werrede oppon þe Kyng of Scotland; but he come aȝeynes him in pees & in gode maner, & to him trust; but he made to him none homage, for-asmiche as he hade made homage to þe Emperesse Maude. ¶ And þe iiij ȝere of his regne, Maude þe Emperesse come into Engeland; & þo bigan debate bituene Kyng Stephen and Maude þe Emperesse. þis Maude went vnto þe citee of Nichole; and þe Kyng her bisegede longe tyme, & might nouȝt spede, so wel þe cite was kepte and defendede. and þo þat were wiþin þe citee queyntly scapede away wiþouten eny maner harme; and þo tok þe Kyng þe citee, & duellede þerin to Candelmasse. ¶ And þo come þe barons þat helde wiþ þe Emperesse, þat is forto seyn, [MS Rawlinson B 171 81a] þe Erl Randulf of Chestre, þe Erl Robert of Gloucestre, Huge Bigot, Robert of Molleye, & brouȝt wiþ ham a stronge power.

How Maude þe Emperesse Went fram Wynchestr vnto Oxenford; and after she ascapede to Wallyngford; & what sorwe & disese ¶ she hade. Capitulo Centesimo xxxixo.

WHen þe Kyng was taken & brouȝt into warde in þe Castel of Bristow, þis Maude þe Emperesse anone was lady of Engeland, & alle men helde her for lady of þe lande. ¶ But þo of Kent helde wiþ Kyng Stephenes wif; and also William of Pree & his retenue halpe ham, and helde werre aȝeynes Maude þe Emperesse. & anone after, þe Kyng of Scotland come to ham wiþ a grete nombre of peple; and þo went þai in fere vnto Wynchestre, þere þat þe Emperesse was, & wolde haue take here; but þe Erl of Gloucestre come wiþ his power, & fouȝt wiþ ham; & þe Emperesse, in þe menewhile þat þe bataile durede, scapede fro þens, & went vnto Oxenford, & þere her helde. & in þat batail was þe Erl of Gloucestre descomfitede & taken, & wiþ him meny oþere lordes. ¶ And for his delyueraunce was Kyng StephenPage  146 delyuerede out of prisoun. ¶ And when he was delyuerede out of prisoun, he went þens to Oxenford, & bisegede þe Emperesse þat was þo at Oxenford; & þe sege endurede fro Michelmasse vnto Seynt Andrewus tyde. ¶ And þe Emperesse lete þo cloþe her al in white lynen cloþ, for enchesoun þat she wolde nouȝt bene knowe, for in þe same tyme þere was michel of snowe; and so she scapede by þe Tamyse fram ham awaye þat were her enemys; & fro þens she went to Wallyngford, & þere here helde. ¶ And þe Kyng wolde haue bisegede her [MS Rawlinson B 171 81b] but he hade so miche to done wiþ þe Erl Randulf of Chestre, & wiþ Hugh Bigot, þat strongelich werrede oppon him in euery place, þat he ne wist whider to turne; and þe Erl of Gloucestre halpe ham wiþ his power.

How Gaufride, Erl of Angoy, ȝaf vp vnto Henry, þe Emperesse sone, al Normandye. Capitulo Centesimo xl.

ANd after þis, þe Kyng went vnto Wilton, & wolde haue made a castel þere; but þo come to him þe Erl of Gloucestre wiþ a stronge power, & almost hade take þe Kyng; but ȝit þe Kyng ascapede wiþ miche payn; & William Marcil þere was take, & for whos delyuerance þe Kyng ȝaf to þe Erl of Gloucestre þe gode castel of Shirburn þat he hade tak. ¶ And when þis was done, þe Erl Robert, & alle þe Kynges enemys, went to Faryndon, & bigonne forto make þere a stronge castel; but þe Kyng, wiþ a stronge power drof ham þens.

In þat same ȝere ¶ The Erl Randulf of Chestre was accorded wiþ þe Kyng, and come to his court at his commandement; and þe Erl went haue safliche comen; & þe Kyng anone lete take him, and put him into prisoun, & most neuer for noþing come out þerof til þat he hade ȝelde op to þe Kyng þe castel of Nichole, þe whiche he hade tak fro þe Kyng wiþ strengþ in þe xv ȝere of þe regne of Kyng Stephene. ¶ Gaufride, þe Erl of Angoy, ȝaf vp to Henry al Normandy. In þe ȝere þat next sewede,Page  147 deide þe Erl Gaufrid and Henry þo anon turnede aȝyn to Angoy, & þere was made Erl wiþ michel ioye & honour of his men of þe lande; & to him deden feaute & homage þe most parte of his land. ¶ And þo was þis Henry, þe Emperesse sone, Erl of Angoy & Duc of Nor [MS Rawlinson B 171 82a] mandye.

¶ And in þe same ȝere Was made deuorse bituene þe Kyng of Fraunce & þe quene his wif, þat was ryght heir of Gascoigne, for encheson þat it was knowe & prouede þat þai wer sib & ney of blode; & þo spousede her, Henry þe Emperesse sone; & þo was he Erl of Angoy, Duc of Normandy, & Duc of Gascoigne. ¶ þe xviij ȝere of þe regne of Kyng Stephen, þis Henry come into Engeland wiþ a stronge power, and bigan forto werre oppon Kyng Stephen, & toke þe castel of Malmesbery, & dede miche harme. And þe Kyng Stephen hade so miche werre þat he wist nouȝt whider to wende; but at þe laste þai wer accorded, þrouȝ þe Erchebisshope Theobalde and þrouȝ oþer worþi lordes of Engeland, oppon þis condicioun, þat þai shulde departe þe reaume of Engeland bituene ham, so þat Henry, þe Emperesse sone, shulde haue holliche halfe þe reaume, and when Kyng Stephen were dede, he shulde haue al þe lande of Engeland; & þus þai were accordede, & pees criede þrouȝ-out al Engeland. ¶ And when þe accord was made bituene þo ij lordes, Kyng Stephen bicome so sori, for cause þat he hade loste half Engeland, & felle into soche a malaldy, & deide in þe xix ȝer, viij wokes & v dayes of his regne, al in werr & in contak; & he liþ in þe Abbay of Feuersham, þe whiche he lete make, þe vj ȝere of his regne.

Of Kyng Henry þat was þe Emperesse sone, in whos tyme Seynt Thomas of Kaunterbery was Chaunceller. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo xl primo.

ANd after þis Kyng Stephen, regnede Henry [MS Rawlinson B 171 82b] þe Emperesse sone, þat Was cronede of þe Erchebisshop Theobalde þe xvij day bifore Cri[s]tesmas. And in þe same ȝere ThomasPage  148 Beket of London, Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, was made þe Kyngus Chanceller of Engeland. ¶ þe secunde ȝere þat he was cronede, he lete caste doun alle þe newe castelles þat were longyng vnto þe crone, þe whiche Kyng Stephen hade ȝeue vnto diuerse men, & ham hade made erles & barons forto holde wiþ him, & him helpe aȝeyns Henry, þe Emperesse sone. ¶ And þe iiij ȝere of his regne he put vnder his lordeship þe Kyng of Walys. And in þe same ȝer, when þe Kyng of Scotland had in his owen hande, þat is to seyne, þe citee of Kerlil, þe castel of Bamburghe, þe newe castel op Tyne, and þe Erldome of Lancastre, þe same ȝere þe Kyng, wiþ gret power, went into Walys, & lete caste adoun wodes, & make waies, and made stronge þe castel of Rutland & Basyngewerc; and amonge þe castelles he made an house of þe temple. ¶ And in þe same ȝere was Richard his sone born, þat afterward was Erl of Oxenford.

¶ And þe iiij ȝere of hes regne, he made Gaufride, Erl of Britaigne; & in þat ȝere he chaungede his mone. And þe vj ȝere of his regne he lade an huge host vnto Tolouse, & conquerede hit. And þe vij ȝer of his regne, deide Theobalde, þe Erchebissho[p] of Kanterbery; and þo al þe citee of Kaunterbery, þrouȝ meschief, almost was brent.

[Thomas a Becket is made Archbishop of Canterbury, and quarrels with the King.]

Þe ix ȝer of his regne, Thomas Beket, his Chaunceller, was chosen to [MS Rawlinson B 171 83a] ben Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery; and oppon seynt Bernardes day he was sacrede. ¶ And in þat ȝere, born was Alienore, þe Kynges douȝter. ¶ And þ x ȝere of his regne, seynt Edmund þe Kyng was translatede wiþ miche honour. ¶ And þe xj ȝere of his regne he helde his parlement at Northampton; & fro þens fled Seynt Thomas, Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, for þe grete debate þat was bituen þe Kyng and him; for if he hade bene fonde on þe morwe, he hade bene slayn; & þerfore hePage  149 fledde þens wiþ iij felawes, in fote oneliche, þat no man wist wher he was, and went ouer þe see to þe Pope of Rome. ¶ And þis was þe principal enchesoun, forasmiche as þe Kyng wolde haue put clerkes to deth þat were atteint of felonye, wiþouten eny pryuelege of holy cherche. ¶ And þe xij ȝere of his regne, was Iohn, his sone, bore. And þe xiij ȝere of his regne deide Maude þe Emperesse, þat was his moder; And in þat same ȝere was Iohane his doughter born. ¶ þe xiiij ȝere of his regne, þe Duc Henry of Saxoyne spousede Maude, his doughter; & he bigate on here iij sones, Henry, Othus, & William. ¶ And in þe xv ȝere of his regne, deide þe gode Erle Robert of Gloucestre, þat foundede þe Abbay of Nonnes of Eton. ¶ And in þe same ȝere, Marik, Kyng of Ierusalem, conquerede Babilon. ¶ þe xvj ȝ ere of his regne, he lete crone his sone Henry at Westmynstre; & him cronede, Roger, þe Erchebisshop of Ȝork, in harmyng of Thomas þe Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery; wherfore þe same Roger was acursede of þe Pope.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 83b] Of Kyng Henry, þat was þe Emperesse sone; & of þe debate þat was bituene him & his fader whiles þat he was in Normandye. Capitulo Centesimo xlijdo.

After þe coronacioun of Kyng Henry, þe sone of Kyng Henry, the Emperesse sone, þat same Henry þe Emperesse sone went ouer into Normandye; and þere he lete marie Elianore, his douȝter, vnto Dolfynes, þat was Kyng of Almaigne. And in þe vij ȝere þat þe Erchebisshop Seynt Thomas hade bene outlaghed, þe Kyng of Fraunce made þe Kyng & þe Erchebisshop accorded; and þo come Thomas þe Erchebisshop, to Kaunterbery aȝeyne to his owen cherche. And þis accord was made in þe bigynnyng of Aduent, and afterward he was quellede & martirede, þe v day of Cristusmasse þat þo next comme. For Kyng Henry þouȝt oppon a day of Thomas, Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, oppon Cristesmasse day as he sate at þe mete, and þise wordes seide: þat if he hade eny gode knyȝt with him, he hade bene, meny day go,Page  150 avengede of the Erchebisshop Thomas. ¶ And anone Sir William [Breton], Sire Hughe Morvile, Sir William Tracy, & Sir Reynold Fitȝ-Vrse, Beressone in Engelisshe, went into þe see, and come into Engeland, to þe cherche of Kaunterbery, & him þere þai matrede, at seynt Benetes auter in þe moder cherche; And þat was in þe ȝere of þe Incarnacioun of Ihesu crist, Ml. C. lxxij ȝere. ¶ And anone after, Henry, þe new Kyng, biganne forto make werr oppon Henry, Kyng, his fader, & eke oppon [MS Rawlinson B 171 84a] his breþern. ¶ And so oppon a tyme þe Kyng of Fraunce and al þe Kynges sones, & ek þe Kyng of Scotland & þe gretest lordes of Engeland, were arisen aȝeynes Henry þe fader; & at last, as God wolde, he conquerede his enemys; and þe Kyng of Fraunce & he were accorded. and þo sent Kyng Henr, þe fader specialy vnto þe Kyng of Fraunce, and praede him hertly, for his loue, þat he wolde sende to him by lettre þe names of ham þat bigonne þe werr oppon him. ¶ And þe Kyng of France sent aȝeyn to him by lettre þe names of ham þat bigon þe werr: ferst was Iohn his sone, and Richard his broþer, & Henry his sone, þe newe Kyng. ¶ Þo was Henry þe Kyng wonder wroþ, & cursede þe tyme þat euer he ham bigate. And while þe werre durede, Henry his sone, þe newe kyng, ¶ deide, sore repentyng his mysdede; and moste sorw made of eny man for cause of Seynt Thomas deþ of Kaunterbery; & prayede his fader, wiþ miche sorwe of hert, mercy of his trespasse; and his fader forȝaf it him, & hade of him grete pite; & aft[er], he deide, þe xxxvj ȝere of his regne, and liþ at Redynge.

How þe Cristen men loste þe Holy Land in þe forsaid Kyngus tyme, þrouȝ a false Cristen man þat bicome a Sarasyne. Capitulo Centesimo xliijto.

And while þat Kyng Henry, þe Emperesse sone, leuede & regnede, þe grete batail was in þe Holy Land bituene þe Cristen men & þe Sarasynus; but þe Cristen men were þere quellede þoruȝ grete tresoun of þe Erl of Trype, þat wolde haue hade to wyfPage  151 þe Quene [MS Rawlinson B 171 84b] of Ierusalem, þat somme tyme was Baldewynus wif; but she forsoke him, & toke to her lorde a Knyȝt, a worþi man þat me called Sire Gy Percheȝ. Wherfore þe Erle of Trip was wroþ, and went anone ryght to Saladyn, þat was Soudan of Babilon, & bicome Saresyn, & his man, & forsoke Cristendome and all Cristen law; and þe Cristen men wiste nouȝt of þis dede, but wende forto haue hade grete helpe of him, as þai were wont to haue bifore. And when þai comen to þe batail, þis false Cristen man turnede vnto þe Sarasynes, and forsoke his owen naciounes; & so were þe Cristen men þere quellede wiþ þe Sarasynus; and þus wer þe Cristen men slayne & put to horrible deþ, and þe citee of Ierusalem destroiede, & þe holy croice born away. ¶ þe Kyng of Fraunce & al þe grete Lordes of þe land lete ham croice forto go into the Holy Lande; and among ham went Richard, Kyng Henries sone, ferst after the Kyng of France þat tok the crois of þe Erchebisshop of Toures; but he toke nouȝ[t] þe viage at þat tyme, for enchesoun þat he was lette by oþere maner waies þat nede moste bene done. ¶ And when Kyng Henry þe fader hade regnede xxxvti ȝere & v mounþes and iiij dayes, he deide, & liþ [at] Founteuerard.

Of Kyng Richard, þat conquerede all þe Holy Land þat Cristen men hade loste. Capitulo Centesimo Quadragesimo quarto.

And after þis Kyng Henry, regned Richard his sone, a stronge man & a worþi, & also bolde; & he was cronede at Wynchestre of þe Erchebisshop Baldewynne, Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, the þrid day of Septembre; and the secunde ȝar of his regne Kyng Richard him-self and Baldewyne the Erchebisshop of Caunterbury, & Huber[t], Bisshop of Salesbery, & Randulf, ErlPage  152 of Gloucestre, & oþere meny lordes of Engeland, went into þe Holy Land. And in þat viage deide þe Erchebisshop [MS Rawlinson B 171 85a] of Kaunterbery; and Kyng Richard went bifore into þe Holy Lond, & reste nouȝt til þat he come forþe in his way vnto Cypres, and toke Cipres wiþ grete force. & siþen he went fourþ toward þe Holy Land, & gete aȝeyn as miche as þe Cristen men haden loste bifore, Kyng Richard conquerede & gete hit aȝeyn, saf onely þe Holy Croice. ¶ And when Kyng Richard come to þe toune of Acres, forto gete þe citee, a grete debate aroos bituene him and þe Kyng of Fraunce, so þat Kyng Richard went aȝeyne into France, & was wroþ toward þe Kyng of Fraunce; but er þat Kyng Richard went aȝeyne, he toke þe Citee of Acres. ¶ And when he hade taken þe citee, he duellede þerin awhile; but to him come tydynges þat þe Erl Iohn of Oxenford, his broþer, wolde haue seisede al Engeland into his honde, & Normandy also, and wolde crone him Kyng of þe lande. ¶ And when Kyng Richard herde þis tydynges, he went aȝeyn toward Engeland wiþ al þe spede þat he myght; but þe Duc of Estriche mette wiþ him & tok him, & brouȝt him to þe Emperoure of Almaign; & þe Emperour brouȝt him into his prisoun. And afterward he was delyuerede for an huge Raunsoun, þat is, for to paien an .CM. li. ¶ And for whiche ransoun to bene payede, eche oþere chalice of Engeland was molten & made into monye. An alle þe monkes of þe ordre of Cisteaux ȝeuen alle her bokes þrouȝ Engeland, to done ham forto selle, and to þat ranson forto paye.

How Kyng Richard come aȝeyn fro þe Holy Lande, & avenged him of his enemys. Capitulo Centesimo Quadragesimo quinto.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 85b] WHiles þis Kyng Richard was in prisoun, þe Kyng of Fraunce werrede oppon him strongeliche in Normandye, and Iohn his broþer werrede oppon him in Engeland; but þePage  153 bisshoppis & þe barons of Engeland wiþstode ham wiþ al þe power þat þai hade & myght geten, & helde þe castel of Wyndesore and alle oþere castelles. ¶ And þe forsaide Iohn saw þat he hade no might ne power aȝeynes þe barons of Engeland forto feiȝt; but anone him went ouer þe see to þe Kyng of Fraunce. ¶ And when Kyng Richard come out of prisoun, and was delyuerede, and come into Engeland, anone after Candelmasse, in grete haste he went vnto Notyngham, and þe castel of Notyngham to him was ȝolden; and þo disheritede he Iohn, his broþer, and alle þat wiþ him helde; and after, he went vnto þe citee of Wynchestre, and þere he lete him crone Kyng eftesones; and after, he went into Normandy forto werr oppon þe Kyng of Fraunce. ¶ And þe Kyng of France come wiþ vj C. knyȝtes toward Gisers; and Kyng Richard mette him, & þo wolde haue ȝeue him bataile, but þe Kyng of Fraunce fledde; & an C. knyȝtes of his were take, & ij C. stedes were trappede wiþ yren. ¶ And anone after, went Kyng Richard forto bisege þe castel of Gaillard. ¶ And as he rode oppon a day by þe castel, forto take avisement of þe castel, an Arweblaster smote him wiþ a quarel þat was e[n]venymede; and þe Kyng drow out þe shafte of þe quarel, but þe quarelle hede abode stille in his heuede, & hit bigan forto rancle, þat he might nouȝt helpe him-self ne [MS Rawlinson B 171 86a] meve his Armes. ¶ And þo he wist þat he hade dethe Wounde, þat he might nouȝt bene hole for no maner þing. He commandede anone alle his men sharply forto assaile þe castel, so þat þe castel was taken or þat he deide. And so manliche his men deden, þat þe peple þat were in þe castel were al taken; and þe Kyng dede wiþ ham what þat he wolde, & commandede his men þat þai shulde bryng tofore him þe man þat him so hade hurte & so hade wondede. ¶ And when he come bifore þe Kyng, þe Kyng axed what was his name; & he saide "Sire, my name is Bertram Gurdon." "Wherfore," saide þe Kyng, "hast þow me slayn, siþ þat y dede þe neuer none harme?" ¶ "Sire," said he, "þuoȝ ȝe dede me neuer harme, ȝe haue done to my frendes miche harme; For ȝour-self, wiþ ȝour owen honde,Page  154 quellede my fader & my broþer; and þerfor now y han ȝow quytte ȝoure trauaile." ¶ þo saide Kyng Richard: "He þat deide oppon þe croice to bryng mannus soule fram þe pyne of helle, forȝeue ȝow my deþ! and y also forȝeue hit þe." Þo commandede þe Kyng þat no man shulde him misdone; but for al þe kyngus defendyng, ¶ Somme of his men him folwed, & priuely him quellede. And þe vj day after, þe Kyng deide shryuen, and sore repentance hauyng of his misdedes, & was houselede & annoyntede. And þis kyng ne regned but ix ȝere & xxxix wokes, & deide, & liþ bisides his fader at Founteuerard.

Of Kyng Iohn, þat in þe ferst ȝere of his regne loste al Normandye. Capitulo Centesimo xlvjmo.

WHen Kyng Richard was dede, for enchesoun þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 86b] he hade none heir, noþere sone ne doughter, his broþer Iohan was made Kyng, an[d] cronede at Westmynstre of Hubert, þat was þo Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery. ¶ And when he biganne forto regne, he bicome so mervaillous a man, and went ouer into Normandye, & werrede oppon þe Kyng of France. And so longe þai werrede to-gedre, til att þe laste Kyng Iohn loste Normandye & Angoy; wherfor he was sore annoiede, & was none mervaile. ¶ þo lete he assemble byfore him at London, Erchebisshoppis, bisshoppus, Abbotes & Pryours, Erles & barons, and helde þere a grete Parlement, & axede þere of þe clergye þe tenþe of euery cherche of Engeland, forto conquere & gete aȝeyne Normandy & Angoy þat he hade loste. and þai wolde nouȝt graunt þat þing; wherfore he was wonder wroþ. ¶ And in þe same tyme deide þe Erchebisshop Hubert. And þe Priour & þe Couent of Kaunterbery chosen, aȝeynes þe Kyngus wille, to bene Erchebisshop, Maistre Stephen of Langeton, a goode clerc þat wonede at þe court of Rome, & sende to þe Pope here elleccioun; & þe Pope confermede hit, and sacred hit at Viterbe. ¶ When þe Kyng wiste þis tydyngus, he was wonder wroþ, & drof þe Priour & þe couent fro Kanterbery, & exilede ham out of Engeland, &Page  155 commandede þat no maner lettre þat come fro þe court of Rome, ne no comandement, shulde be vnderfong ne pledede in Engelond. ¶ When þise tydyngus come to þe Pope, he sent vnto Kyng Iohn by his lettre, & prayede him wiþ gode wille & gode hert þat he wolde vnderfonge Stephen, [MS Rawlinson B 171 87a] Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, vnto His cherche, & soffre þe Priour & his monkes to come aȝeyn to her owen duellyng; but þe Kyng wolde nouȝt grant hit for noþing.

How Kyng Iohan wolde nouȝt do for þe Popes commandement; wherfore al Engeland was enterdite & suspended. Capitulo Centesimo xlvijo.

ANd at þe laste, þe Pope sent by his autorite, and ennioynede to bisshoppis of Engeland þat, if þe Kyng wolde nouȝt vnderfonge þe Prioure of Kaunterbery and his monkes, þat þai shulde do general enterdityng þrouȝ-oute al Engeland; & grantede ful power to iiij bisshopis to pronounce þe enterdityng, if it were nede: ¶ þe ferst was Bisshop William of London, & þat oþer Eustace, Bisshop of Ely; þe þridde was Walter, þe Bisshop of Wynchestre; And þe ferþ was Giles, þe Bisshop of Herford. ¶ And þise iiij bisshoppis praiede þe Kyng, knelyng on here knees & sore wepyng, þat he wolde do þe Popis commandement, and shewede him þe bullis of the enterdityng; but, for no prayer þat þai myght praye, he wolde nouȝt consent þerto. And when þe bisshopes saw þis, þai went fro þe Kyng; ¶ And in þe morwe after þe Annunsiacion of oure Lady, þai pronouncede þe general enterdytyng þrouȝ-oute al Engeland, so þat þe cherchedores were shitte wiþ Keyes & wiþ oþer fastnyng, and wiþ wallys. ¶ And when þe enterdyting was pronuncede, þan þe Kyng bigan forto wax al out of mesure, and toke into his honde alle þe possessions of þo iiij bisshopis, and of al þe clergye þrouȝ-out al þe lande,Page  156 and ordeynede men forto kepe ham, þat þe clerkes might nouȝt haue here leuyng. Wherfore þe biss[hopis curs]ede ham all þat put, or shulde medle wiþ, chercheȝ godes, aȝeins [MS Rawlinson B 171 87b] the Wille of ham þat ham owede.

¶ And Whe[n] þe Kyng Wolde nouȝt cesse of his malice for no maner þing, þe iiij bisshoppis aboue-saide went ouer þe see, and went to þe Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery, and tolde him al þe tidyngus. ¶ And þe Erchebisshop to ham saide, þat þai shulde go aȝeyn to Kanterbery, and he wolde come þider to ham, or elles he wolde sende þider certeyn persones in his stede, þat shulde done as miche as him-self were þere. ¶ And when þe bisshopis herde þis, þai turnede aȝeyne vnto Engeland, & come vnto K[a]unterbery. ¶ the tydynges comen to the kyng þat þe bisshoppes wer come aȝeyne to Kanterbery, and [as] him-self might nouȝt come þider þat tyme, he sent þider bisshopes, Erles, Abbotes, forto trete wiþ ham, þat þe Kyng shulde vnderfonge þe Erchebisshop Stephen, & þe priour and alle þe monkes of Kaunterbery, and þat he shulde neuer after þat tyme noþing take of Holy Cherche aȝeynes þe wille of ham þat owede þe godes; and þat þe Kyng shulde make ful amendes to ham whame he hade eny godes taken, & þat holy cherche shulde haue alle here Fraunchises as ferforþ as she hade in Seynt Edwardus tyme þe Confessoure.

How Stephen of Langetone comme into Engeland þrouȝ þe Popis commandement, & the[n] went aȝeyn. Capitulo Centesimo xlviijo.

WHen þe fourme of accorde þus was ordeynede, hit was in a peire of endentures; & þai put her selx to þat o party, and þai þat comen in þe Kyngus name put her selx to þat oþere parte of þe endentures. And þe iiij bisshoppus aboue-saide tokePage  157 þat o parte of þe endentures wiþ ham; And þe oþer parte of þe endenture þai bare wiþ ham forto shew þe Kyng. ¶ When þe Kyng saw þe fourme, and hit [MS Rawlinson B 171 88a] vnderstode, he helde him ful wel paiede of al maner þing þat þai hade ordeynede, saf as tochyng þe restitucion of þe godes forto make aȝeyne; to þat þing he wolde nouȝt accorde; and so he sent worde aȝeyne to þe forsaide iiij bisshoppis, þat þai shulde done out and put awey þat o pynt of restitucion; and þai ansuerede þat þai nolde nouȝt done out a word. ¶ þo sent þe Kyng to þe Erchebisshop by þo iiij bisshopes, þat he shulde come to Kaunterbery forto speke wiþ him þere, and sent vnto him saf condit, vnder plegges, þat is to seyn, his Iusticeȝ, Gilbert Peytevyn, William de la Breuer, & Iohn le fi[t]z Hugh, þat in here condit safly he shulde come, & gon aȝeyn at his wille; & in þis maner þe Erchebisshop Stephen come vnto Kaunterbery. ¶ And when the Erchebisshop was [come], þe Kyng come to Chilham, for he wolde come no nyer Kaunterbery at þat tyme; but he sent by his tresorer, þe bisshope of Wynchestre, þat he shulde done out of þe endentures þe clause of restitucioun forto make of þe godes. ¶ And þe Erchebisshop made his oth þer, þat he wolde neuer do oute a worde þerof, ne chaunge of þat þe bisshopes hade spoken & ordeynede. & so þe Erchebisshope went aȝeyn to Rome, wiþ-outen eny more doyng. ¶ Kyng [Iohn] was þo miche wroþer þan euer he was bifore, and lete make a comen crie þrouȝ-out al Engeland, þat al þo þat haden holy cherche rentes, and wenten ouer þe see, þat þai shulde come aȝeyn into Engeland at a certeyn day, and elleȝ þai shulde lese her rentes for euermore; and þat he commandede to euery shirryf þrouȝout Engeland, þat þai shulde enquer if eny bisshop, Abbot, Pryoure, or eny oþer prelate of Holy cherche, [MS Rawlinson B 171 88b] fro þat day afterward resceyuede eny mandement þat come fro þe Pope, þat þai shulde tak þe body, & brynge hit bifore him; & þat þai shulde take into þe Kynges hande al her londes of holy cherche þat were ȝeuenPage  158 to eny man þrouȝ þe Erchebisshop Stephen or by þe Pryour of Kaunterbery, fram þe tyme of þe eleccioun of þe erchebisshope; ¶ And commandede þat alle þe wodes þat were þe erchebisshopus shulde bene cast adoun to þe grounde, and all solde.

How Kyng Iohn destroyed þe ordre of Cisteaux. Capitulo Centesimo xlixo.

ANd in þe same tyme þe Irisshe-men bigon to werr oppon Kyng Iohn; and kyng Iohn ordeynede him forto wende into Yrland, and lete arere an huge tax þrouȝ-out al Engeland, þat is to seyn, xxxv Ml marȝ; & sent þrouȝ-out al Engeland to þe monkes of þe ordre of Cisteaux, þat þai shulde helpe him of vj Ml marc of Siluer; and þai ansuerede & saide þat þai derst noþing done wiþouten her chief Abbot of Cisteaux. Wherfore Kyng Iohn, when he come aȝeyne fram Irland, he dede ham so miche sorwe & care, þat þai nist wher forto abide; for he toke so miche ransoun of euery hous of ham, þe somme amountede ix Ml & iij C marȝ, so þat þai were clene loste and destroyede, & voidede her hous & her landes þrouȝ-out al Engeland. ¶ And the Abbot of Wauersey drade so miche his manace, þat he forsoke al his Abbay, & went þens, and pryuely ordeynede him ouer þe see to þe hous of Cisteaux. ¶ When þe tydynges come to þe Pope, þat þe Kyng had done so miche malice, þo was he toward þe Kyng ful wroþ, and sent ij legates to þe Kyng,—þat on me callede Pandolf, & þat oþere Duraunt,—þat þai [MS Rawlinson B 171 89a] shulde warne þe Kyng, in þe Popis name, þat he shulde cesse of his persecucion þat he dede vnto holy cherche, & amende þe wrong and trespasse þat he hade done to þe Erchebisshope of Kanterbery, & vnto þe monkes of Kaunterbery, & to al þe clergye of Engeland, and þat he shulde restore þe godes aȝeyn þat he hade taken of ham aȝeyns her wille, & elles þai shulde curse the Kyng by name; and to done þis þing, & to conferme, þe Pope toke ham his lettres inPage  159 bulles patent. ¶ þise ij legates comen into Engeland, and comen to þe Kyng to Northampton, þere þat he helde his parlement; & ful curteisely þai him salued, and saide: "Sire, we beþe comen fro þe Pope of Rome, þe pees of holy cherche & þe lande forto amend; and we monest ȝow ferste in þe Popis half, þat ȝe make ful restitucioun of þe godes þat haue rauisshede of holy cherche & of þe land, & þat ȝe vnderfonge Stephen, Erchebisshop of Kanterbery, into his dignite, and þe Priour of Kaunterbery & his monkes, & þat ȝe ȝelde aȝeyn to þe Erchebisshope alle his landes & rentes, wiþout eny wiþholdyng. ¶ And Sire, more-ouer, þat ȝe soche restitucioun ham make, as holy cherche shal holde her paiede."

¶ þo ansuerede þe Kyng; "as tochyng þe Priour & his monkes of Kaunterbery, al þat ȝe haue saide, y wille gladelyche do, & al þing þat ȝe wille ordeyne. ¶ But as tochyng þe Erchebisshop, y shal telle ȝow in myn hert as it liþ, þat þe Erchebisshop lete his bisshopriche, & þat þe Pope þan for him wolde praye, & þan oppon aventure me shulde like some oþere bisshopriche forto ȝeue him in Engeland; and oppon þis condicioun y wil him resceyue and vnderfonge. ¶ And noþeles in Engeland, as Erchebisshop yf [MS Rawlinson B 171 89b] he abide, he shal neuer haue so gode saf condit þat he ne shal ben tak." ¶ þo saide Pandolf vnto þe Kyng: "holy cherche was neuer wont to disgrade Erchebisshop wiþouten cause resonable; but euer she was wont to chastice Pry[n]ces þat to God & holy cherche were in-obedient." ¶ "What! how now?" qoud þe kyng, "manace ȝe me?" ¶ "Nay," saide Pandolf, "but ȝe now openly haue tolde as it stondeþ in ȝour hert; & to ȝow we wil tel what is þe Popis wille; & þus it stant: þat he haþ ȝow holiche enterditede & accursede for þe wronges þat ȝe haue done to holy cherche & to þe clergye. & for-as-miche as ȝe duelliþ & beþ in wil to abide in ȝour malice, and wil nouȝt come to none emendement, ȝe shal vnderstond þat fro þis tyme afterward þe centence is oppon ȝow ȝeuen, & halde stedePage  160 & strengþ; and all þo þat wiþ ȝow haþ communede or þis tyme, Wheþer þat þai beþ Erles or barons, knyghtes or eny oþer, what-so-euer þat þai bene, we ham assoile safly vnto þis day. And fro þis tyme afterward, of what condicion so-euer he be, we ham acurse þat wiþ ȝow communen, and do we sentence oppon ham openly & specialy. ¶ And we assoile quyte Erles & barons, knyȝtȝ, & al oþer maner men, of her homages, seruices & feauteȝ, þat þai shulde vnto ȝow done. ¶ And þis þing to conferme, We ȝeue pleyn power to þe Bisshop of Wynchestre & to þe Bisshop of Norwich; ¶ And þe same power we ȝeue into Scotland to þe Bisshop of Rouchestre & of Salesbery; & in Walys we ȝeue þe same power to þe Bisshop of seynt Dauid, of Landa & of Assa. ¶ And more-ouer we sende þrouȝ al Cristendome, þat al þe bisshopis biȝend þe see, þat þai [MS Rawlinson B 171 90a] acurse alle þo þat helpeþ ȝow, or in eny conseile ȝeue in eny maner nede þat ȝe haue forto done in eny party of the world; and we assaile al ham þat aȝeynes ȝow meueþ eny maner werre. ¶ And we assoile ham al also, by þe autorite of þe Pope, & commanden ham also wiþ ȝow forto werr, as wiþ him þat is enemy to al holy cherche." ¶ þo ansuered þe Kyng, "what mow ȝe done more?" ¶ þo saide Pandolf: "we seyn to ȝow 'in verbo Dei,' þat ȝe, ne none heir þat ȝe haue, neuer after þis day may be cronede." ¶ Tho saide þe Kyng: "by Him þat is Almyghty God, & y hade wist of þis þing er þat ȝe come into my land, þat ȝe me hade brouȝt soche tidynges, y shulde haue made ȝow ride al an hool ȝere." ¶ þo ansuerede Pandolf: "ful wel wende we, at oure ferst comyng, þat ȝe wolde haue ben obedient to God and to holy cherche, & haue fulfillede þe Popys commandement; and nowe we haue shewede & pronuncede vnto ȝow þe Popis wille, as we were chargede þerwiþ. ¶ And as now ȝe haue saide þat, if ȝe hade wist þe cause of oure commyng, þat ȝe wolde haue made vs ryde al an hool ȝere,Page  161 and as wel ȝe myght haue saide þat ȝe wolde haue take an hool ȝere of respite by þe Popys leue. ¶ But forto suffre what deþ þat ȝe couþe ordeyne, we shulle nouȝt spare forto tel ȝow holliche al þe Popis message, & his wille þat we wer chargede with."

How Pandolf delyuerede a clerc þat hade falsede & contrefetede þe Kyngus monye bifore þe Kyng. Capitulo Centesimo lo.

A Non þo commandede þe Kyng to the Shirrif & bailifs of Northampton þat were in þe Kynges presence, þat þai shulde bryng forth alle [MS Rawlinson B 171 90b] þe prisoners, þat þai myȝt bene done to deþe bifore Pandulf, for encheson þe Kyng wende þat þai wolde haue gaynesaide here dedes for cause of deþ, al þing þat þai hade spoken bifore. ¶ When þe prysoners were comen bifore þe Kyng, þe Kyng commanded somme to bene honget, & some to bene drawe, & somme to draw out her eyen of her heued. and amonge alle oþer, þere was a clerc þat hade falsede þe Kynges monye; & þe Kyng commaundede þat he shuld bene honged & drawe. ¶ And when Pandolf herd þis commandement of þe Kyng, he stert op smertly, and anone axed a book & candel, and wolde haue cursed alle ham þat sette oppon þe clerc eny honde. ¶ And Pandolf him-self went forto seche a croice; and þe Kyng folwede him, and delyuerede him þe clerc by þe honde, þat he shulde do wiþ him what-euer þat he wolde. And þus was the clerc delyuerede, and went þens; and Pandolf & Duraunt went þo fro Kyng Iohn, & come aȝeyne to þe Pope of Rome, and tolde him þat Kyng Iohn wolde nouȝt amendede ben, but euer abide so acursede. ¶ And noþeles þe Pope graunted þat ȝer þrouȝ-out Engeland, þat men might synge masseȝ in couenable cherches, & make Godes body, and ȝif it to sik men þat shulde passe out of þe worlde, & also þat men might cristenPage  162 childern oueral. ¶ And when þe Pope wist & sawe þat þe Kyng wolde nouȝt bene vnder þe rewele of holy cherche for no maner þing, þe Pope þo sent to þe Kyng of France, in remissioun of his synnes, þat he shulde take wiþ him al þe power þat he myght, & wende into Engeland forto destroye Kyng Iohan.

[King John gives in to the Pope.]

When þis tydyngus come to Kyng [MS Rawlinson B 171 91a] Iohn, þo Was he sore annoyede, & sore drade Laste þat he shulde lese his reaume, and him-self be done vnto þe deþ. ¶ þo sent he to þe Pope messagers, & saide þat he wolde bene iustifiede, & come to amendement in al maner þinges, atte his owen wille. þe messagers comen to þe Pope, & tolde him þe Kyngus wille, & saide þat he wolde come to emendement in al maner þinges, & wolde make satisfaccion to al maner men after þe Popys ordenaunce. ¶ þo sent þe Pope aȝeyne into Engeland, Pandolf and oþere messagers, & comen to Kaunterbery þere þe Kyng abode. and þe xiij day of May, þe Kyng made an hoth forto stande to þe Popes ordenaunce, bifore Pandolf þe legat, in al maner þingus for þe whiche he was accursede; & þat he shulde make ful restitucion to alle þe men of holy cherche and of religioun, of þe gode þat he hade take of ham aȝeynȝ heir wille. And alle þe grete lordes of Engeland suore oppon a book & by þe holy dome, þat if þe Kyng wolde nouȝt holde his oth, þai saide þat þai wolde make him holde hit bi strengþ. ¶ And þo put þe Kyng him to þe courte of Rome & to þe Pope, and þo ȝaf vp þe reaume of Engeland & of Irland, for him & for his heires for euermore þat shuld come after him, so þat Kyng Iohan & his heires shulde tak þo ij reaumes of þe Popis Hand, & shulde holde þo ij reaumes of the Pope as to ferme, paying euery ȝer to þe court of Rome a þousand marc of siluer. And þo toke þe Kyng þe croune of his Heued, and sette him on his knees, and þise wordes saide in heryng of alle þe grete lordes of Engeland: "Here y resyngn op þe crone of reaume of Engeland into þe Popis Hande, Innocent þe þridde, and put [MS Rawlinson B 171 91b] me Holliche in his mercy & ordenance." ¶ þo vnderfongePage  163 Pandolf þe crone of Kyng Iohn, and kepte hit v dayes, as for seising-takyng of þo ij reaumes of Engeland and of Yrland, and confermede al maner þinges by his chartre þat foleweþ after.

Of þe lettre obliga[to]rie þat Kyng Iohn made to þe court of Rome; wherfore þe Petrus pens beþ gadrad þouȝ al Engeland. Capitulo Centesimo Quinquagesimo primo.

"TO alle Cristen peple þrouȝ-out the worlde duellyng, Iohn, by þe grace of God, Kyng of Engeland, gretyng to ȝour vniuersite! and knowen þing it be þat for-asmiche as we haue greuede & offendede God & our moder cherche of Rome, and forasmiche as we haue nede to þe mercy of oure lord Ihesu Crist, and we may noþing so worþi offre competent satisfaccioun to make to God & to holy cherche, but if it were our owen body, as wiþ oure reaumes of Engeland and of Irland, Thanne, by þe grace of God, we desiren forto meken vs for þe loue of Him þat meked Him to þe deþ of þe Croice, þrouȝ conseil of þe noble erles & barons, we soffren and frely granten to God, and to þe Apostoilȝ seynt Petre & seynt Paule, & to oure moder cherche of Rome, & to our Holy fader þe Pope, Innocent þe þridde, & alle þe Popis þat comeþ after him, al þe reaume & patronages of cherches of Engeland and of Irland, wiþ alle þe appurtenances, for remissioun of oure synnes, and helpe & helþ of oure Kyn soules, and of all Cristen soules, so þat fro þis tyme afterward, we wille resceyue & holde of oure moder che[r]che of Rome, as fee ferme, doyng feaute to our holy fader [MS Rawlinson B 171 92a] þe Pope, Innocent þe þridde, and to alle þe Popes þat comeþ after him, in maner abouesaide. ¶ And in presence of þe wise man Pandolf, þe Popis Suthdekne, we makeþ liege homage, as it were in þe Popes presence, & bifore him were; and we shul do al maner þinges aboue-saide; and þerfore we byndeþ vs, and al þat comen after vs, & oure heirs for-euermore, wiþouten eny gaynsaying, to þe Pope, & eke þe ward ofPage  164 chercheȝ vacauntȝ. and in token of þis þing euer forto last, we wille, conferme & ordeyn, þat our special rentȝ of þe forsaide Reaumes, sauyng seynt Petrus pens, in al þing to þe moder cherche of Rome, paying by ȝer Ml marȝ of siluer at ij termes of þe ȝere, for al maner custumes þat we shulde do to þe forsaide Reaumes, þat is to seyn, at Mighelmesse & at Ester, þat is to seyn, vij C marȝ for Engeland, & iij C marȝ for Irland, sauyng to vs and to oure heires, oure Iusticeȝ and oure oþer ffraunchisis, and oþer realtes þat appertyneþ to þe crone. And alle þise þinges þat bifore ben saide, we wille þat hit be ferme & stable wiþouten ende; and to þat obligacion we, an alle our successoures & oure heires, in þis maner beþ bonde, þat if we, or eny of our heires, prouȝ presumpcion falle in eny poynt aȝne þise þingus abouesaide, & he bene warnede, & wille nouȝ riȝt amende him, he shal þan lese þe forsaide reaumes for euermore. and þat þis chartre of obligacion, & oure warant, for euermore be ferme and Stable wiþouten gaynsaying, we shul fro þis day afterward be trewe to God & to þe moder cherche of Rome, and to þe Pope Innocent þe þrid, and to al þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 92b] comeþ after him; and þe reaumes of Engeland & of Irland we shul mayntene trewely in al maner poyntȝ aȝynȝ al maner men by oure power, þrouȝ þe grace of God."

How þe clerkes þat werne outlawed of Engeland, come aȝeyn, & how Kyng Iohn was assoiled. Capitulo Centesimo lijo.

WHen þis chartre was made and enselede, þe Kyng Vnderfonge aȝeyn his crone of Pandolfes hondes, and sent anone vnto þe Erchebisshop Stephen, and to al his oþer clerkes and lewed men þat he hade exilede out of his lande, þat þai shulde come aȝene into Engeland, & haue aȝen her londes & heir rentes, & þat he wolde make restitucioun of þe godes þat hePage  165 hade take of heres, aȝeyns her wille. ¶ þe Kyng himself þo, and Pandolf, & Erles & barons, went þo vnto Wynchestre aȝeinȝ þe Erchebisshop Stephen. & when he was comen, þe Kyng went aȝeynes him, & felle adoun vnto his feet, & saide vnto him: "faire sir, ȝe beþ welcomen; and y crie ȝow mercy, for encheson þat y haue trespassede aȝenȝ ȝow." ¶ Erchebisshop toke him vp þo in his Armes, & cussede him curteisely ofte-tymes, and after lad him to þe dore of Seynt Swythynus cherche by þe honde, & assoilede him of þe centence, and him reconselede to God and to holy cherche; and þat was on seyn[t] Margarites day; and þe Erchebisshop anone went forto synge þe masse, and þe Kyng offred at þe masse a mark of golde. ¶ And when þe masse was done, alle þai went forto vnderfonge her londes, wiþouten eny maner gaynesaying; and þat day þai made al merþe and ioye ynow; but ȝitte was nouȝt þe enterdit relessede, for enchesoun þai hade sent þat þe enterditying shulde nouþt bene vndone til þe Kyng hade made ful restitucioun of þe godes that he hade [MS Rawlinson B 171 93a] take of Holy cherche, and also þat him-self shulde done homage to þe Pope by a certeyne ligat þat he shulde sende into Engeland.

¶ þo toke Pandolf his leue of þe Kyng and of þe Erchebisshop, and went aȝeyne vnto Rome. And þe Erchebisshop anone lete come bifore him prelates of holy cherche at Redyng, forto trete and conseil how miche and what þai shulde axe of þe Kyng forto make restitucion of þe godes þat he hade take of ham. ¶ And þai ordeynede and saide, þat þe Kyng shulde ȝeue to þe Erchebisshope iij Ml marȝ for þe wronge þat þle Kyng hade done to him, and also to oþer clerkes xv Ml marc, by porcyons. and in þe same tyme Nicholas, bishop of Tuscan, Cardynal Penitauncer of Rome, come into Engeland þrouȝ þe Popis commandement, þe v kalend of Ottobre, and come to London þe v None of Octobre, for enchesoun þat Kyng Iohn and alle þe kynges þat comen after him, shulde euermore halde þe reaumes of Engeland and of Irland of God & of þe Pope, paing to þe Pope by ȝer as is aboue saide.

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How þe enterditing was vndone in Engeland; and of þe debate þat was bituene Kyng Iohn & þe barons of þe reaume. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo liijo.

When Kyng Iohn hade done his homage to þe legat þat shewede him þe Popes lettre, þat he shulde paye to Iulyan and ȝelde aȝeyn, þat was Kyng Richardes wif, þe þridde part of þe londe of Engeland & of Irland þat he hade wiþholde siþ þat Kyng deide,—¶ when Kyng Iohn herde þis, he was wonder wroþ, for vtterliche þe enterdityng might nouȝt bene vndone til þat he hade made gree & restitution to þe forsaide Iulian of þat she axed. ¶ The legate went þo aȝeyn to þe Pope after [MS Rawlinson B 171 93b] Cristesmasse, and þe Kyng sent þo messagers ouere see to Iulian, þat was Kyng Richardes wif, forto haue a relesse of þat she axede him. ¶ And so hit beifelle þat Iulian deide anone after Ester, and insomiche þe Kyng was quyt of þat she axede; but þo, at þe feast of Seynt Iohn þat come next after, þrouȝ þe Popis commandement þe enterdytyng was ferst relessede þrouȝ al Engeland þe vij day of Iull;—and seuen ȝere almost was þe londe enterditede,—and on þe morwe men ronge, & songe masses þrouȝ-out London, and so after þrouȝ-out all Engeland.

¶ And þe next ȝere after, þere bigan a grete debate bituen Kyng Iohnm; & þe lordes of Engeland, for encheson þat he wolde nouȝ[t] graunt þe lawes, & halde, þe which Seint Edward hade ordeyned, and hade ben vsede & holde vnto þat tyme þat he hade ham broken; for he wolde none lawe holde, but dede al þing þat him likede, & disheritede meny men wiþ-outen consent of lordes & pireȝ of þe land; And he wolde haue disheritede þe gode erle Randolf of Chestre, for encheson þat he vndername him of his wickednesse. & for cause þat he dede so miche shame &Page  167 vilony to God & holy cherche, & also for he helde & hauntede his owen broþeres wif, & lay also by meny oþere wymmen, grete lordes douȝters,— for he sparede no womman þat him likede forto haue,—wherfore alle þe lordes of þe lande wer toward him wonder wroþ, and went wiþ him to London, & toke þe citee.

[King John grants the Great Charter.]

¶ And forto cesse þis debate and sorwe, þe Kyng and þe Erchebisshop, and oþere grete lordes of England, assemblede ham bifore þe fest of Seynt Iohn þe Baptiste, in a medowe bisides þe toune of Stanes þat is callede Rome- [MS Rawlinson B 171 94a] mede. And þe Kyng made ham þere a chartre of ffraunchiseȝ, soche as þai wolde axen; & in soche maner þai were acordede; and þat accordement laste nouȝt ful longe, for þe Kyng him-self some after dede aȝeynes þe poyntes of þe same chartre þat he hade made. Wherfore þe moste party of þe lordes of Engeland assemblede ham, & bigon to were oppon Kyng Iohn, and brent his tounes & robbede his folc, & dede al þe sorwe þat þai myght, and made ham alse stronge as þai might, wiþ all her power & þouȝt to dryuen him out of Engeland, and make Lewys, þe Kynges sone of France, Kyng of Engeland. ¶ And Kyng Iohan sent þo ouer þe see, and ordeynede so miche peple of Normannes & of Picardȝ, and of Flemynges, so þat þe lande miȝt nout ham sustene, but wiþ miche sorw. ¶ And among Alle þis peple þere was a Norman þat me callede Frankes of Brent; and þis Norman & his company sparede neyþer cherche ne house of Religion, þat þai ne brent & robbed hit, & bare away alle þat þai might tak, so þat þe land was al destroiede, what in o side & in þat oþere. ¶ Þe barons & þe lordes þo of Engeland ordeynede amonges ham þe best spekers & wisest men, & sent ham ouer þe see to Kyng Philip of Fraunce, & prayed him þat he wolde sende Lowys his sone into Engeland, to ben Kyng of Engeland, and vnderfonge þe crone

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How Lowys, þe Kynges sone of Fraunce, come into Engeland wiþ stronge power of peple, to ben Kyng of Engeland. Capitulo Centesimo liiijto.

WHen Kyng Philip of Fraunce herde þis tydynges, he made certeyn aliance bituene ham by her commune eleccion, þat Lowys, Kyng Philippis sone of Fraunce, shuld [MS Rawlinson B 171 94b] gone wiþ ham into Engeland, & dryue out Kyng Iohn of þe land. And alle þo þat were in presence of Lowis made to him homage, and bicome his men. And þe barons of Engeland helde ham stille at London, & abode þere Lowys, þe Kyngus sone of Fraunce. And þis was þe nexte Saturesday bifore þe Ascencioun of our Lord þat Lowis come into Engeland wiþ a stronge power; & þat tyme Kyng Iohn hade take alle þe castelles of Engeland into Aliens hondes. ¶ And Lowys come þo to Rochestre, and bisegede þe castel, & tok hit wiþ strengþ, & þe Þoresday in Whitson weke, lete honge alle þe Aliens þat were þerin. And þe Þoresday þo next sewyng, he come to London; & þere he was vnderfong wiþ michel honour of þe lordes þat aboden him þere; & alle to him þai maden homage. ¶ And afterward, in þe Tywesday þo next sewyng þe Trinitee Sonday, he toke þe castel of Ryegate, and in þe morwe after, þe castel of Gildeford, & þe Friday þo next sewyng, þe castell of Farnham; and þe Moneday next after, þe cite of Wynchestre to him was ȝolden; and in þe morwe nexte after seynt Iohns day, þe maner of Wolneseye; And þe Tiwesday next after þe viijtas of Seynt Petre & seynt Poule, þai token þe castel of Odyham. ¶ And þe Moneday next after seynt Margaretes day, he ordeynede him toward Beaumer, forto bisege þe castel; & þere he duellede xv dayes, & might nouȝt gete þe castel; & þo went he þens, and come to London, & þe Toure to him was ȝolde.

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And in þe same tyme þe Pope sent into Engeland a legate þat me callede Swalo; & of Kyng Iohnes deþ. Capitulo Centesimo lvto.

ANd in þe same tyme þe Pope sent into Englond a legate þat me callede Swalo, and he was [MS Rawlinson B 171 95a] prest Cardinal of Rome, forto mayntene Kyng Iohnes cause aȝeynȝ þe barons of Engeland; but þe barons hade so huge partye and help þrouȝ Lowys, þe Kyngus sone of Fraunce, þat Kyng Iohn wist nouȝt whider forto turne ne go. ¶ And so it bifel, þat he wold haue gon to Nichole; and as he went þiderward, he come by þe Abbay of Swyneshede, and þere he abode ij dayes. ¶ & as he satte at þe mete, he axede a monk of þe hous, 'how miche a lofe was worþ, þat was sette bifore him oppon þe table.' & þe monk saide þat 'þe lof was worþ but an halpeny.' "O," quod he, "þo here is grete chepe of brede. ¶ Now," quod þe Kyng, "and y may leue, soche a lof shal bene worþ xx s., or halfe ȝere be gone." and when he hade saide þis word, michel he þouȝt, and ofte-tyme sichede, and toke & ete of þe brede, & saide: "by God, þe worde þat y haue saide, hit shal ben soth." ¶ þe monk þat stode bifore þe Kyng, for þis word was ful sory in hert, and þouȝ[t], raþer he wolde him-self soffre pitouse deþ, & þouȝt to ordeyn þerfor somme maner remedy. ¶ And anone þe monk went to his Abbot, and was shryuen of him, and tolde þe Abbot al þat þe Kyng saide, and praiede his Abbot forto assoile him, for he wolde ȝeue þe Kyng soche a wassaile þat al Engeland shal be þerof glade and ioyful. ¶ Tho went þe monk into a gardeyn, & founde a grete tode þerin, & tok her vp, & put here in a coppe, & prickede þe tode þrouȝ wiþ a broche meny tymes, til þat þe venyme come out on eueryche side into þe coppe. and þo tok he þe coppe, and fellede hit wiþ god ale, & brouȝ[t] hit bifore þe Kyng, & knelyng saide:Page  170 "Sir," quod he, "Wassaile! for neuer, dayes of ȝour lyue, dranke ȝe of soche [MS Rawlinson B 171 95b] a coppe." "Bygynne, monk," quod þe Kyng, and þe monk dranke a grete drauȝt, and toke þe Kyng þe coppe; & þe Kyng drank also a grete drauȝte, and sette doune þe coppe. ¶ Þe monk anone right went into þe fermory, & þere deide anon, on whos soule God haue mercy, Amen! & v monkes singeþ for his soule, & shal whiles þat Abbay stant. ¶ The Kyng aros vp anone ful euel at ese, & commanded anon to remeve þe table, & axede after þe monk; and men tolde him þat he was dede, for his wombe was broken in sondre. ¶ When þe Kyng herde þis tidynges, he comandede forto trusse; but al it was for nouȝt, for his bely biganne to swelle, for þe drynk þat he drank, þat he deide wiþin ij daies, þe morwe after Seynt Lukes day. ¶ And þis Kyng Iohn hade fair childerne of his body bigeten, þat is to seyn, Henry his sone, þat was Kyng after his fader, & Richarde, þat was Erl of Cornewail, and Isabell, þat was Emperesse of Rome, and Alienore, þat was Quene of Scotland. ¶ And þis Kyng Iohn, when he had regnede xvij ȝere v mounþes & v dayes, he deide in þe castel of Newerc, & his body was buriede at Wynchestre.

Of Kyng Henry þe þridde, þat was cronede at Gloucestre. Capitulo Centesimo lvjto.

ANd after þis Kyng Iohn, regnede Henry his sone, & was cronede at Gloucestre when he was ix ȝere olde, on seynt Symondus day & Iude, of Swalo þe legat, þrouȝ conseile of alle þe grete lordes of Engeland þat helde wiþ Kyng Iohn, his fader, þat is to saien, þe Erl Randolf of Chestre, William, Erl Marchal, William Erl of Penbrok, & William Breuere, [MS Rawlinson B 171 96a] Erl of Ferers, Serl de Maule, baron; & alle oþere grete lordes of Engeland helde with Lowys, þe Kynges sone of Fraunce. & anone after, when Kyng Henry was cronede, Swalo the legat helde his conseil atPage  171 Bristow, at Seynt Martynes fest; & þere wer xj bisshopis of Engeland & of Walys, & of oþer prelates of holy cherche a grete nombre, & Erles & barons, & meny knyȝtes of Engeland; and alle þo þat were at þat conseil swore feaute vnto Henry þe Kyng, þat was Kyng Iohnes sone.

¶ And anone after, þe ligate enterditede Walis, for enchesoun þat þai helde with þe barons of Engeland; and also alle þo þat holpen or ȝaf conseil to meve werr aȝeynȝ þe new Kyng Henry, he acursede ham; And in the bigynnyng he put in þe sentence þe Kyngus sone of Fraunce Lowys. ¶ And noþeles þe same Lowys wolde nouȝt spare forto werr for al þat, but went anone, & tok þe castel of Berkhamstede, & eke þe castel of Hertford. ¶ And fram þat day aftirward, þe barons dede miche harme þrouȝ al Engeland, and principaly þe Frenche-men þat wer comen wiþ Lowys; wherfore þe grete lordes of Engeland, & alle þe commune peple, lete ham croice forto dryue out Lowys & his company out of Engeland. ¶ But somme of þe barons, & ek of þe Frenchemen, were gone to þe cite of Nichole, & tok þe Cite, & helde hit to Kyng Lowys profite. But þider come Kyng Henryes men wiþ a grete power, þat is to seyne, þe Erl Randolf of Chestre, and William Erl Marchal, & William de la Bruer, Erl of Ferers, & meny oþer lordes wiþ ham, & ȝaf Bataile [MS Rawlinson B 171 96b] vnto Lowyse men. ¶ And þere was slayn þe Erl of Perches; and Lowys men were þere foule descomfitede; and þere was taken Serl, Erl of Wynchestre, & Humfray de Boun, Erl of Herford, & Robert, þe sone of Walter; & meny oþer þat hade bigonne werr aȝeynȝ þe Kyng þere were taken, and lad to Kyng Henry þat was Kyng Iohnes [son]. ¶ When þe tydyng of þis scomfiture come vnto Lowys, he remevede þens, & went vnto London, and lete shette þe ȝates fast of þe citee. ¶ And anone after, þe Kyng sent to þe burgeys of London, þat þai shulde ȝelde ham vnto him, & þe citee also, and he wolde ham graunt alle þePage  172 Fraunchises þat þai were wont forto haue, & wolde conferme ham by his new chartr vnder his grete sele. ¶ And in the same tyme a gret Lorde, þat me callede Eustace þe monk, come out of Fraunce wiþ a grete company of Lordes, & wolde haue come into Engeland forto haue holp Lowys, þe Kyngus sone of Fraunce. ¶ But Hubert of Burgh and þe v portes, wiþ viij shippi, & no mo, mette wiþ ham in þe hye see, and assailede ham egrely, & ouercome ham þrouȝ strengþ, and smyten of Eustace-þe-monkes heuede, & token also x grete Lordes of Fraunce, and put ham into prisoun, & quellede almost alle þe men þat comen wiþ ham; and anone drenchede þe shippis in þe see.

How Lowys turned aȝeyn into Fraunce; and of þe confirmacioun of Kyng Iohnes chartre. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo Septimo.

When Lowys herd þis tydynges, he drade sore to ben dede and loste, and lete ordeyne, & spok bituene þe Kyng and Lowys by þe legat Swalo, and þoruȝ þe Erche [MS Rawlinson B 171 97a] bisshop of Kaunterbery, and þrouȝ oþere grete lordes, þat alle the prisoners of þatone halfe and of þat oþer shulde bene delyuerede, & gone quit, and Lowys him-self shulde haue for his costages a Ml li of siluer, & shulde gone out of Engeland, and come neuer þerin aȝeyne. and in þis maner was þe accord made bituene Kyng Henry & Lewys. And þo was Lowys assoilede of þe Popis legat þat me callede Swalo, of þe sentence þat he was in, and þe barouns of Engeland also. ¶ And after þis, Kyng Henry & Swalo þe legat, & Lowys, went vnto Merton; and þere was þe pees confermede, & bituen ham ordeynede. and afterward Lowys went fro þens vnto London, & tok his leue, & was brouȝt wiþ miche honoure at þe see wiþ Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery & wiþ oþer bisshoppis, and also wiþ erles and barons; and so went Lowys into Fraunce.Page  173 ¶ And aftirward þe kyng & þe Erchebisshope, & Erles & barons, assembled ham at London, at Michelmasse þat next þo sewede, & helde þere parlement. & þere were þo renewede alle þe Fraunchises þat Kyng Iohn hade grauntede at Romemede; and Kyng Henry þo confermede ham by his chartre, þe which ȝitte beþ holden þrouȝ-out Engeland. ¶ And in þat tyme þe Kyng toke of euery ploughe of londe ij s; and Hubert of Burgh was made þo chief Iustice of Engeland. ¶ And þis was in þe iiij ȝere of Kyng Henryes regne; & in þe same ȝere was seynt Thomas of Kanterbery translatede þe l ȝere after his martredome. ¶ And after, it was ordeynede by alle þe Lordes of Engeland, þat alle Aliens shulde gone out of Engeland, & come nomore þerin. And þe Kyng þo toke alle þe castelles into his honde, þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 97b] Kyng Iohn his fader hade ȝeue & taken vnto Aliens forto kepe, þat helde wiþ him. ¶ But þe prout Frankes of Brent, Richely lete arraie his castel of Bedford, whiche he had of þe Kyngus ȝifte Iohn; & he helde þat castel aȝeyns Kyng Henries wille wiþ might and strengþ. ¶ And the Kyng come þider wiþ a streng power, & biseged þe castel. And þe Erchebisshop Stephen of Langeton come to þe Kyng wiþ a faire company of knyȝtȝ, him forto helpe; and fra þe Ascencioun vnto þe Assumpcion of our Lady, laste þe sege: & þo was þe castel wonne & tak, and þe Kyng lete honge all þo þat were wiþin þe castel, þat wiþ her gode wille helde þe castel aȝeynȝ þe Kyng, þat is forto seyn, foure score men. ¶ And þo afterward Fra[n]kes himself was fonde in a cherche of Couentre; and þere he forsoure al Engeland wiþ miche shame, and went þo aȝeyn into his owen contre.

¶ And whiles þat Kyng Henry regned, Edmund of Abyndon, þat was tresorer of Salesbury, was consacrede Erchebisshop ofPage  174 Kanterbery. And þis Kyng Henry sent ouer see vnto þe Erle of Prouince, þat he shulde sende him his douȝter into Engeland, þat me called Alienore, & he wolde wedde her. And so she come into Engeland after Cristes-masse, and in þe morwe after seynt Hillary, þe Erchebisshop Edmunde spousede ham to-gedre att Kaunterbery; and at þe viij of seynt Hillary she was crounede at Westmynstre wiþ miche solempnite; & þere was a swete sight bituene ham, þat is to seyn, Edmund, þat was next Kyng after him, his broþer, [MS Rawlinson B 171 98a] folour of curtessi and of Larges, and Margaret, þat was afterward Quene of Scotland, & Beatrice, þat was afterward Countesse of Britaign, & Katerine, þat deide maide in religioun.

Of þe quinȝime of godes þat were granted for þe new chartres; & of þe puruyance of Oxenford. Capitulo ¶ Co lviij.

ANd þus hit bifelle þat þe lordes of Engeland wolde haue somme addicions mo in the Chartre of Fraunchises þat þai hade of þe Kyng, & spoken þus bituene ham, & þe Kyng grauntede ham alle her axing, and made to ham ij Chartres: þat on is callede 'þe grete Chartre of Fraunchises' & þat oþer is callede 'þe Chartre of þe Forest' and for þe grante of þise chartres, prelates, Erles and barons, & alle þe communes of Engeland, ȝaf to þe Kyng Ml marȝ of siluer.

¶ When Kyng Henry hade bene Kyng xliij ȝere, þat same ȝere he and his lordes, Erles, and barouns of þe reaume, went to Oxenford, & ordeynede a lawe in emendement of þe reaume, and suore þe Kyng him-self, & after, alle þe lordes of þe reaume, þat þai wolde holde þat statute euermore; and who þat it brak shulde bene dede. ¶ But þe secunde þer after þat ordenance, þe Kyng þrouȝ conseile of Sire Edward his sone, & of Richard his broþer, þat was Erl of Cornwail, & also of oþere, repentede him of þat oþe þat he hade made forto holde þat lawe & ordynance, and sent to þe court of Rome to bene assoilede of þat oth þat he hade made. ¶ And in þat ȝere next comen after, was grete derþ of corne in Engeland,Page  175 for a quarter of whete was worþ xxiiij s, & þe pore peple ete netles for hunger, and oþere wedes; & [MS Rawlinson B 171 98b] deide meny Ml for defaute of mete.

¶ And in þe xlviij ȝere of Kyng Henries regne, biganne werr and debate bituene him and his lordes, fo[r] enchesoun þat he hade broken þe couenaunteȝ þat were made bituene ham at Oxenford. ¶ And in þat same ȝer, in Lent, was þe castel of Notyngham tak, and þe folc slayne þat were þerin, for enchesoun þat þai hade ordeyned wilde fire forto haue brente þe citte of London.

¶ And in the morwe of May þat come next after, oppon seynt Pancras day, was the batail at Lewes, þat is to seyne, þe Wednesday bifore seynt Dunstanus day; and þere was tak, Kyng Henry him-self, & Sire Edward his sone, & Sire Richard, Erl of Cornwail, & meny oȝere lordes. ¶ And in þat same ȝere next sewyng, Sire Edward, þe Kynges sone, brak out of þe ward of Sire Symond of Mountford, Erl of Leicestre, at Hereford, and went to þe barouns of þe Marche; and vnderfong him wiþ michel honouþ. ¶ And in þe same tyme Gilbert of Clare, Erl of Gloucestre, þat was in þe ward also of þe forsaide Symond, þrouȝ þe commandement of Kyng Henry, þat went fram him in grete wraþ, for enchesoun þat he saide þat þe forsaide Gilbert was a fool in his conseile, wherfore he ordeyned him so, & helde wiþ Kyng Henry. ¶ And þe Saturesday next after þe middes of August, Sir Edward, þe Kyngus sone, descomfitede Sire Symond de Mountford at Kemworþ; but þe grete lordes þat were þere wiþ him wer taken, þat is to seyn, Baldewyne Wake, William of Mounchesye, and meny oþer grete lordes: and þe Tywesday next after, was þe bataile done at Euesham; & þere was quellede Sire Symond de Mountford, Hughe þe Spenser, and Mountford, þat was Rauf Bassetȝ [MS Rawlinson B 171 99a] fader of Dratton, & oȝer meny grete Lordes. ¶ And when þis batail was don, alle þe gentiles þat had be wiþ þePage  176 Erl Symond were disheritede; & þai ordeyned ham togedres, and dede miche harme to al þe land, for þai destroiede her enemys in al þat þai might.

¶ Of þe sege of Kemworþ; & how þe gentilmen werr disheritede, þrouȝ conseil of lordes of þe reaume of Engeland; & how þai comen aȝeyn, & had her landes. Capitulo Centesimo lixno.

ANd in þe ȝer next sewyng, in May, ferst day bifore þe fest of Seynt Dunstan, was bataile and scomfiture at Chesterfeld of ham þat were disheritede; & þere meny of ham were quellede; and Robert, Erl of Ferers, þere was take, and also Baldewyne Wake; & Iohn de la Haye, wiþ miche sorwe scaped þens. and in Seynt Iohanes Eve þo next sewyng bigan þe sege of þe castel of Kemworth; and þe sege laste to Seint Thomas Eve þe Postoil, in whiche day Sir Hughe Hastyngus had þe castel forto kep, þat ȝelde vp þe castel vnto Kyng in þis maner, þat him-self and alle oþere þat were wiþin þe castel shulde haue her lif and lyme, and as miche þing as þai hade þerin, boþe hors & herneys, and foure dayes of respite forto delyuer clene þe castel of ham-selfþ, & of al maner þing þat þai hade wiþin þe castel; so þai went fram þe castel, and þe kyng & his men went þo into castel. ¶ and Sir Symond þe Mounford þe ȝonge, and þe Countesse his moder. were fledde ouer þe see into Fraunce, and þere helde ham as peple þat were exilede out of Engeland [MS Rawlinson B 171 99b] for euermore. ¶ And sone after hit was ordeyned by the Legat Octobon, & by oþere grete lordes of Engeland, þe wisest of þe land þat alle þo þat hade bene aȝeyns þe Kyng & were disheritede, shulde haue aȝeyn her londes, and by greuos ransoun, after þat it was ordeyned; and þus þai were accorded wiþ þe Kyng, þ was pees criede þrouȝ al Engeland; and þus þe werr was endede.

And when þis was done, þe legat toke his leue at þe Kyng,Page  177 & of the Quene, & of the alle þe grete lordes of Engeland, & went þo to Rome, þe lv ȝere of Kyng Henryes regne. ¶ And Edward, Kyng Iohnes sone of Britaigne, Iohn Vessy, Thomas of Clare, Roger of Clifford, Othus Grauntson, Robert le Brus, Iohan of Verdon, & meny oþer lordes of Engeland & of byȝende þe see, token her way toward þe Holy Lond; and þei Kyng Henry deide in þe mene-tyme at Westminster, when he hade ben Kyng lv ȝer & ix wokes, on seynt Edmundus day, þe Erchebisshop of Kaunterbery; and he was enterede at Westminster on seynt Edmundes day, þe Kyng, ¶ In the ȝer of Incarnacioun of oure Lord Ihesu Crisat Ml CC lxxij.

Prophecie of Merlin of Kyng Henry, expounede, þat was Kyng Iohnes sone. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centisimo lxmo.

ANd of þis Kyng Henry, propheceide Merlyn, & said þat 'a lombre shulde come out of Wynchestre in þe ȝere of Incarnacion of our Lord Ml CC & xvj, wiþ trew lippis, and holynesse wryten in his hert.' And he saide soþ, for þe gode Henry þe Kyng was born [MS Rawlinson B 171 100a] in Wynchestre in þe ȝere abouesaide, and he spake gode wordes & swet, and was an holy man, and of god conscience. ¶ And Merlin said þat 'þis Henry shulde make þe fairest place of [the] world, þe whiche in his tyme shulde nouȝt fulliche bene endede'; and he saide soþ, for he made þe newe cherche of þe Abbay of seynt Petre of Westminster, þat is fairer of sight þan eny cherch þat men knoweþ þrouȝ al Cristendome; but Kyng Henry deide er þat werc were ful made, & þat was grete harme. ¶ And ȝitte saide Merlyn, þat 'þis Lambe shulde haue pees þees þe most tyme his regne'; and he saide ful soþ, for he was ne[uer] annoiede þrouȝ werr, ne disesede in no maner wise, til a litel bifore his deþ. ¶ And ȝitte saide Merlin more in his prophecie, þat 'in þe regne & ende of þe forsaide lambe, a wolf of a straunge land shulde do him grete harme þrouȝ his werr; and þat hePage  178 shulde at þe last be maistre þrouȝ helpe of a reede ffox, þat shulde come oute of þe Northwest, and shulde him ouercome; & þat he shulde dryue him vnto þe water': and þat prophecie ful wel was knowe, for wiþin a litel tyme or þe Kyng deide, Symond of [MS Rawlinson B 171 100b] Mountford, Erl of Leicestre, þat was bore in Fraunce, bigonne aȝeynȝ him stronge werre; þrouȝ doyng, meny a gode bachiler was shent and dede and disheritede. ¶ And when Kyng Henry hade þe vittori at Euesham, & Symond þe Erl was slayn þrouȝ helpe & myght of Gilbert of Clare, Erl of Gloucestre, þat Was in Kepyng and ward of þe forsaide Symund þrouȝ ordenance of Kyng Henry, þat went aȝeyn to þe Kyng wiþ miche power, wherfore þe forsaide Symund was shent; and þat was grete harme to þe communes of Engeland þat so gode a man was shent for truþ, & deide in charite, and for þe commune profite of þe same folc; and þerfor Almighty God, for him haþ siþennus shewede meny faire miracle to diuerse men and wymmen, of þe sikenesse and disesse þat þai haue had, for þe loue of him.

¶ And Merlin also tolde & saide in his prophesie, þat 'after þat tyme þe lambe shulde leue no while; and þan his sede shulde be in straunge land wiþ-out pasture'; and he said soþ, for Kyng Henry Leuede no while after þat Symund Mountford was ded, þat Kyng Henry ne deide anone after him. ¶ And in þe menetyme, Sir Edward his sone, þat was þe best knyȝt of þe world of honour, þo in the Holy Land, and gete þere Acres. ¶ And in [that] contre he bigate in Dame Alianore his wif, Iohne of Acres his doughter, þat aftirward was countesse of Gloucestre. And he made in þe Holy Land soche a viage, þat alle þe world spok of his knyghthode, & euery man drade him, hye and lowe, þrouȝ-out al Cristendome, as þe s[t]ory of him telleþ, as afterward ȝe shul here more openly. ¶ And fram the tyme þat Kyng Henry deide, til þat Sire Edward was croned kyng, alle þe gret Lordes of Engeland were as faderles children, wiþout eny socour þat ham might mayntene and gouerne, and defende aȝeynȝ her dedeliche enemys.

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¶ Of Kyng Edward, þat was Kyng Henrieȝ sone. Capitulo [Centisimo] lx primo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 101a]

ANd after þis Kyng Henry, regned his sone Edward, þe worthiest knyght of þe worlde, of honour, for Godes grace was in him, for he hade þe vittorie of his enemys. And as sone as Kyng Henry deide, he come to Londonn wiþ a faire company of prelates, & of Erles & barons; & al maner men dede him michelle honour; for in euery place þere Sir Edward rode in London, þe stretes wer couered ouer his heued wiþ riche cloþes of silk, wit[h] tapitȝ of riche coueryng. ¶ And for ioie of his comyng, þe noble burgeys of þe cite of London cast out at her wyndowes, golde and siluer handes-ful, in tokenyng of loue and of worship, seruices & reuerenceȝ. ¶ And out of þe condit in Chepe ran reed wyne & white, as stremes doþ of water; and euery man might drynk þerof at her owen wille. ¶ And þis Kyng Edward was cronede and annointede as right heire of Engeland with michel honoure; and after masse þe Kyng went into his palice, forto halde a real fest amonges ham þat him had done honour. ¶ And when he was sette vnto his mete, the Kyng Alisander of Scotland come forto done him honour and reuerence wiþ a queyntise: an hundred Knyghteȝ wiþ him wel horsede and arraiede; & when þai were light done of her stedes, þai lete ham goo whider þai wolde; & þai þat might tak ham,tok ham at her owen wille, wiþout eny chalange. ¶ And afterward co[me] Sir Symond Kyng Edwardus broþer, a curteise Knyght, and a gentil of renoun and þe Erl of Cornewaile & þe Erl of Gloucestre; and after ham come þe Erl of [MS Rawlinson B 171 101b] Penbrok and þe Erl of Garrein; and eche of ham by him-self lade in his hond an hundred knyghteȝ gayliche disgisede in her Armes. ¶ And wen þai were light of her horse, þai lete ham go whider þat ham liked; andPage  180 who þat might ham take holde ham stille, with-outen eny lette. ¶ And when al þis was done, Kyng Edward dede his diligence and his might forto emende and redresse þe wrongus of þe reame in þe beste maner þat he might, to the honour of God & holy cherche, and to mayntene his honour, and to amende þe noyaunce of þe commune peple.

How Ydoyne, þat was Lewelynus douȝter, Prince of Walis, & Aymer þat was þe Erles broþer Mounford wer taken in þe see. Capitulo Centesimo lxij.

The ferst ȝere after þat Kyng Edward was cronede, Lewelyn, Prince of Walys, sent into Fraunce to þe Erl Mountford þat, þrouȝ conseile of his frendes, þe Erl wedde shulde his douȝter. And þe Erl þo avisede him of þis þing, and sent aȝein to Lewelyn, & saide þat he wolde send after his douȝter. And so he sent Aymer, his broþer, after þe damisel. And Lewelyn arraiede shippis for his doughter and for Sir Aymer, & for her faire company þat shulde wende wiþ her. And þis Lewelyn dede grete wronge. for hit was couenant þat he shulde ȝeue his doughter to no maner man wiþouten consel and consent of Kyng Edward. ¶ And so hit bifelle, þat a burgeys of Bristow come in þe see wiþ wyn lade, and mette ham, & ham toke wiþ might & power; and anone þe bu[r]geys sent ham to þe Kyng. ¶ And when Lewelyn herde this [MS Rawlinson B 171 102a] tydynges, he Was Wonder Wroþ & eke sorweful, and bigon þo forto werre oppon Kyng Edward. & dede miche harme vnto Englisshe-men, and bete adoune þe Kyngus castelles, & biganne fast to destroi Kyng Edwardes lande. ¶ And when tydyngus come to Kyng Edward of þis þing, he went into Walys; and so miche he dede, by Godes grace & his grete power, þat he drof Lewelyn vnto miche meschif, þat he fleye al maner strengþ, and come & ȝelde him to Kyng Edward, and ȝaf him l Ml marȝ of siluer forto haue pees, and toke þe damisel & al his heritage, and made an obligacion vnto Kyng Edward, and come to his pa[r]lament ij tymes of þe ȝere.

Page  181¶ And þe secunde ȝere after þat Kyng Edward was cronede, he helde a general parlament at Westminster, and þere he made þe statutes for defaut of lawe, by commune assent of al his baronage. And at Ester nexte sewyng, þe Kyng sent by his lettre to Lewelyn, Prince of Walis, þat he shulde come to parlement for his londes and for his holdyng in Walys, as þe strengþ of þe lettre obligatorie witnessede. ¶ þo Lewelyn hade scorn and despite of þe Kynges commandement; & for pur wraþ biganne aȝeyn forto werr opon Kyng Edward, & destroied [his lands]. ¶ And when Kyng Edward herd þis tydynges, he was wonder wroþ toward Lewelyn, & in haste assembled his peple, and went him toward Walys, and werred so oppon Lewelyn þe prince, til þat he hade brouȝt him in miche sorw and disese; ¶ And Lewelyn saw that his defence myght nouȝt availe, and come aȝeyne, & [MS Rawlinson B 171 102b] ȝelde him to þe Kyngus grace, and criede him mercy, and Longe tyme knelede bifore þe Kynges feete. ¶ The Kyng had pite, and commaundede him forto arise; and for his mekenesse forȝat him his wraþ, and to him saide, that 'if he toke on amys aȝeyns him anoþer tyme, þat he wolde destroie him for euer-more.' ¶ Dauid, þat was Lewelynus broþer, duellede þat same tyme wiþ Kyng Edward, & was a felle man & a sotil, & enuyous, & ferre castyng, and miche tresoun þouȝt, and euermore helde him stille for[to] wete & aspie þe Kynges wille, and euermore made god semblaunt, and semede so trew þat no man myght perceyue his falsenesse.

How Lewelyn þouȝ enginge of Dauid his broþer, Werrede aȝeyne vppon Kyng Edward. Capitulo Centesimo lxiijo.

HIt was nought longe after þat tyme, þat Kyng Edward ne ȝaf vnto Dauid, þat was Lewelynus broþer, þe lordeship of Frodesham, and made him a knyght; and so miche honour dede he neuer to no man of Walys after, for encheson of him.

¶ Kyng Edward helde his parlament at London, when he hade done in Walys all þat he wolde, and chaungede his mony, þat þo was foule cotte & rounded; wherfore þe commune peple pleynedePage  182 ham wonder sore, so þat þe Kyng lete enquere of ham þat soche trespasse deden; and iij C were atteynt of soche maner falsenes; wherfore somme were honged, and some draw, and afterward hongede. ¶ And afterward, the Kyng ordeynede þat þe sterlinge halfpeny and ferthinge shulde go þrouȝ-out his lande, and commandede þat no man, fro þat day afterward, [MS Rawlinson B 171 103a] ȝaf ne feffede hous of Religioun with lande and tenementȝ wiþouten special leue of þe Kyng; and he þat dede hit, shulde ben punisshede att þe Kynges wille, and the ȝifte shulde be for nouȝt.

¶ And hit was nouȝt longe after, þat Lewelyn, Prince of Walys, þrouȝ ticement of Dauid his broþer, and by boþe here consent, þai þouȝt disherite Kyng Edward in-asmiche as þai might, so þat þrouȝ ham boþe þe Kynges pees was broken. ¶ And when Kyng Edward herde þis, anone he sent his barons into Northumberland, and þe Shirreyues also, þat þai shulde gone & take her Viage oppon þe traitoures Lewelyn and Dauid. ¶ And wonder herde was forto werr þo, for it [is] wynter in Walis when in oþer cuntres it is somer. And Lewelyn lete ordeyn and wel arraie his gode castel of Swandon, and was þerin an huge nombre of peple & plentee of vitailes, so þat Kyng Edward wist nouȝt wher forto entre. ¶ And wen þe Kynges men hit perceyuede, and also þe strengþ of Walys, þai lete come in þe see, barges and botes, and grete plankes, as meny as þai might ordeyn and haue, forto gone to the forsaide castell of Swayndon wiþ men on foot and eke on hors. But þe Walshemen hade so miche peple, and were so strong, þat þai dryuen þe Englisshe-men aȝein, so þat þere was so miche presse of peple at the turnyng aȝeyne, þat þe charge & þe berdeyn of ham made þe barges and botes synk; and þere was drenchede ful meny a gode Knyght, þat is to seyn: Sir Roger of Clifford, Sir William of Lyndesey, þat was Sire Iohnes sone Fitȝ Robert, and Sire Richard Tauny, and an huge nombre of oþere folc; and al was [MS Rawlinson B 171 103b] þouȝ her owen folye; for yf þai had hed gode espies, þai had nouȝt bene harmed.

Page  183¶ When Kyng Edward harde tel þat his peple were so ydrenchede, he made sorwe ynow, ¶ But þo come Sir Iohn of Vessy fram þe Kyng of Aragoun and brouȝt with him miche folc of bachilers & of Gascoignes, and wer soudioures, and duellede wiþ þe Kyng, and tok of him wages, & wiþ him were wiþholde, & noble-men; hit were forto fiȝte, & brenne meny tounes, & quelle miche peple of Walshemen, al þat þai myght take. ¶ And alle þo, wiþ pure strengþ & might, maden assaute to þe castel of Swandon, & gete the castel.

¶ And when Dauid, þe Prynce broþer, herde þo tidinges, he ordeined him to flight. ¶ And Lewelyn þe Prynce saw þat Dauid his broþer was flowen, [and] sore he was abasshed, for he had none power þo, his werr forto mayntene. ¶ And so Lewelyn gan forto flee, and wend wel forto haue scaped; but on a morwe Sir Roger þe Mortymer mette wiþ him oneliche wiþ x knyȝtes, and sette him rounde aboute, and to him went, and smote of his heuede, & presentede him vnto Kyng Edward: & in þis maner þe Prince of Walys was taken, and his heued smyten of, and alle his heires disherited for euermore, þrouȝ right dome of þe lordes of þe reaume.

¶ How Dauid, þat was Lewelynes broþer, Prynce of Walys, was put to deþ. Capitulo ¶ Centesimo lxiiijto.

DAuid, þat was Lewelynus broþer, þrouȝ pride wende forto haue bene Prince of Walis after his broþeres deth; and oppon þat, he sent after Walshemen to his parlement at Denbegge, and fulliche made Walys [MS Rawlinson B 171 104a] arise aȝeynes the Kyng, and biganne to meve Werr aȝeyns þe Kyng, and dede al þe sorwe and dissese þat he myght by his power.

¶ When Kyng Edward harde of þis þing, he ordeyned men to pursue oppon him; and Dauid ferseliche him defended til þat hePage  184 come to þe toun of Seynt Morice; and þere was Dauid take as he fley, and lad to þe Kyng; & þe Kyng commanded þat he shulde ben hongede & ydraw, & smyten of his heuede, & quarter him, & sende his heuede to London, and þe iiij quarters sende to the iiij chief tounes of Walys, for þai shulde take ensample, & þerof be-war.

¶ And afterward Kyng Edward lete crie his pees þrouȝ Walys, & seisede al the londe into his honde; and alle þe grete lordes of Walys þat were lefte alif, come þo to done feaute and homage vnto þe Kyng as to her Kynde Lord; and þo lete Kyng Edward amende þe lawes of Walys þat were defectif. ¶ And after, he sent to alle þe lordes of Walys, by his lettre patent, þat þai shulde comme alle to his parlement. And when þai were comen, þe Kyng saide to ham ful curtesly: "Lordyng, ȝe beþ welcomen; and me bihoueth ȝour conseile and ȝour helpe forto wende into Gascoigne, forto amende þe trespasse þat to me was þere done when þat y was þere, and forto entrete of Pees bituene þe Kyng of Aragon & þe Prynce of Morrey." ¶ And alle þe Kynges lege-men, Erles & barons, consentede and granted þereto. And þo went þe Kyng into Gascoign, and lete amende þe trespasse þat him was þere don and of þe debat þat was bituene þe Kyng of Arragon & the Prynce of Morrey, he cessede, & made ham accordede.

¶ And while the [MS Rawlinson B 171 104b] Gode Kyng Edward and Alianore his Quene was in Gascoigne, þe gode Erl of Cornwaile was made Wardeyn of Engeland til þat Kyng Edward come aȝeyn. And þo enquerede he of his traitoures þat coniectede falsenesse aȝeynȝ him; and eche of ham alle vnderfonge his dome, after þat þai hade deserued. ¶ But in the mene-tyme, while Kyng Edward was biȝonde þe see, to done ham forto make amendes þat aȝeyns him hade trespassede, a false þef traitour þat me callede 'Rys ap Meriedok,' bigan forto make werr aȝeyns the Kyng Edward; and þat was for enchesoun þat Sire Payn Tiptott wrongefully greuede & disesede þePage  185 forsaid Rys ap Meriedok. ¶ and when Kyng Edward herd al þis, he sent by his lettres to Rys ap Meriedok, þat he shulde bigin to make non werr, but þat he shulde be in pees, for his loue; and when þat he come aȝeyn into Engeland, he wold vndertake þe querel, and wolde done amende al þat was misdone. ¶ The forsaide Rys ap Meriedok dispisede the Kynges commandement, and sparede nouȝt forto done alle þe sorwe þat he might to þe Kyngus men of Engeland; but anone after he was taken, and lad to Ȝorke, and þere he was drawe and hongede for his folye.

Of þe redressing þat Kyng Edward made of his Iusticeȝ & of his clerkes, þat þai had done for her falsenesse; & how he drof þe Gewes out of Engeland, for her Vsurye and her mysbileue. Capitulo Centesimo lxvto.

WHen Kyng Edward had duellede iij ȝer in Gascoigne, ful wel hit bicome vnto him forto Wende aȝeyn into Engeland. And when he was comen [MS Rawlinson B 171 105a] aȝeyne, he toke so meny pleyntes made to him of his Iusticeȝ and of his clerkes, þat had don so meny wronges & falsenesseȝ þat wonder hit was forto wete; ¶ and for whiche falsenesse, Sir Thomas of Weylond, þe Kyngus Iustice, forsuore Engeland at the Toure of London, for falsenesse þat men put oppon [him]; wherfore he was teint, & prouede false. ¶ And anone after, when þe Kyng had don his wil of þe Iusticeȝ, þo lete he enquere & aspie how þe Gewys desceyuede & bigilede his peple, þrouȝ here synne & falsenesse of Vsurie; and lete ordeyn a priue parlement amonges his lordes; and þai ordeynede amongus ham þat 'alle þe Gewes shulde voide Engeland, for here misbileue, & also for her false Vsurye þat þai deden vnto Cristen men.' ¶ And forto spede and make an ende of þis þing, al þe communite of Engeland ȝeue to þe Kyng þe l. peny of alle here Godes moeble: and so were þe Gewis dryuen out ot Engeland; and þo went þe Gewis into Fraunce, [and there dwelled], þrouȝ þe leue of Kyng Philip þat þo was Kyng of Fraunce.

Page  186

How Kyng Edward was seisede in al þe lond of Scotland þrouȝ consent & graunt of alle þe lordes of Scotland. Capitulo Centesimo ¶ l[x]vjto.

HIt was nouȝt longe after, þat Alisander, Kyng of Scotland, nas dede, and Dauid Erl of Huntyngdon, þat was þe Kynges broþer of Scotland, axede and chalangede þe Kyngdome of Scotland, for encheson þat he was rightful heir. ¶ But meny grete lordes of Scotland saide 'nay'; wherfore grete debate arose bituene ham & her frendes, for-asmiche as þai wolde nouȝt consent to his coronacion; and in the [MS Rawlinson B 171 105b] mene-tyme þe forsaid Dauid deide. ¶ And so hit bifelle þat þe same Dauid had iij doughtres, þat worþiliche wer maried: þe ferst doughter was mariede to Bailoille, þe secunde to Brus, þe þridde to Hastinges. ¶ And þe forsaide Bailol & Brus chalanged þe land of Scotland; and grete debate and strif aroos bituene ham þre, for enchesoun þat eche of ham wolde haue bene Kyng. ¶ & when þe lordes of þe land saw þe debate bituene ham þre, þai come to Kyng Edward of Engeland, and seisede him in alle þe land of Scotland as [t]heir chief lord. ¶ And when þe Kyng was seisede of alle þe lordes of Scotland, þe forsaide Bailol, Brus, and Hastyngus, comen to þe Kyngus court, and axede of þe Kyng 'whiche of ham shulde be Kyng of Scotland. ¶ And Kyng Edward, þat was fulle gentil and trewe, lete enquere by þe Cronicles of Scotland, and of þe gret lordes of Scotland, whiche of ham was the Eldeste blood; and it was founde þat Bailoil was þe eldest, and þat þe Kyng of Scotland shulde holde of the Kyng of Engeland, and do him feaute and homage. ¶ & after þat þis was don, Bailoil went into Scotland, and þere was cronede Kyng of Scotland.

And þe same tyme was oppon þe see grete strif bituene þe Englisshe-men and the No[r]mannes. ¶ But oppon [a tyme] þe Normans arryuede al at Douer; and þere þai martrede an holy man þat me calleþ seynt Thomas of Douer. And aftirwardePage  187 were þe Normans quellede, þat þere scapede none of ham. ¶ And sone afterward, Kyng Edward shulde lese þe Duchee of [MS Rawlinson B 171 106a] Gascoign, þrouȝ Kyng Philipp of Fraunce, þrouȝ false castyng of þe Dossepereȝ of þe lond; wherfore Sir Edmund, þat was sire Edwardes broþer, ȝaf vp his homage vnto the Kyng of Fraunce. And in þat tyme þe clerkes of Engeland [granted] vnto Kyng Edward haluendel holy cherche godes, in helpyng forto recouer his land aȝeyn in Gascoign. ¶ And þe Kyng sent þider a noble company of his bachilers; and himself wolde haue went to Portesmouthe, but he was lette þrouȝ on Maddok of Walys, þat hade seisede þe castel of Swandon into his honde. And for þat enchesoun the Kyng turnede aȝeyn into Walys at Cristus-masse. ¶ And for enchesoun þat þe noble lordes of Engeland þat were sent into Gascoign, had no comfort of here lord þe Kyng Edward, þai wer take of Sire Charles of Fraunce, þat is to seyn, Sir Iohn of Britaigne, Sire Robert Tiptott, Sire Rauf Tauny, Sir Hughe Bardolf, & Sir Adam of Cretingus. And ryȝt at þe Ascencion was Maddok taken in Walys, and anoþer þat me callede Morgan; and þai were sent to þe Toure of London, and þai wer honget.

How Sir Iohn of Balol, Kyng of Scotland, wiþsaide his homoge; and of Sir Thomas Tourbeluile. Capitulo Centesimo lxvijo.

ANd when sir Iohn Bailol, Kyng of Scotland vnderstode þat Kyng Edward was werrede in Gascoign, to whom þe reaume of Scotland was delyuerede, falseliche þo aȝeynȝ his oth, wit[h]saide homage, þrouȝ procuryng of his folc, and sent to the court of Rome, þrouȝ a false suggescioun, to bene assoiled [MS Rawlinson B 171 106b] of þat oth þat he swore vnto the Kyng of Engeland; and so he was, by lettres enbullede. ¶ þo chose þai of Scotland Dossepers forto bynime Edward his right.

Page  188& in þat tyme com ij Cardinalles fro þe court of Rome, fram þe Pope Celestyne, forto trete of accorde bituene þe Kyng of Fraunce þe Kyng of Engeland. ¶ And as þo ij Cardinalles speken of accord, Thomas Tourbeluile, þat was take at Ryouns, made feaute and homage to the Wardeyn of Parys, and to him put his ij sones in hostage, for þat he þouȝt gon into Engeland forto aspie the contre, and telle ham when he come into Engeland, þat he hade broken þe Kynges prisoun of Fraunce by nyght, and saide þat he wolde done, þat alle Englisshe-men and Walshe-men shulde abowe to þe Kyng of Fraunce: and þis þing forto brynge to þe ende, he swore; and oppon þis couenaunt, dedes wer made bituene ham, and þat he shulde haue by ȝere an hundrede poundes worþ of land, to bryng þis þinge to þe ende. ¶ This false traitour toke his leue, and went þens and come into Engeland vnto þe Kyng, & saide þat he was broken out of prisoun, and þat he had put him in soche perile for his loue. Wherfore þe Kyng couþ him miche þank, & ful glade was his comyng. ¶ And þe false þef traitoure fro þat day aspiede al the Doyng of þe Kyng and also his Conseile, for þe Kyng louede him ful wel, & was wiþ him ful priuee. ¶ But a clerk of Engeland þat was in the Kynges hous of France, herde of þis tresoun & of the falsenesse, and wrote to anoþere clerk [MS Rawlinson B 171 107a] þat. Was duellyng wiþ þe Kyng of Engeland, al how Thomas Tourbeluile hade done his false coniettyng. And al þe Conseil of Engeland was writen forto haue sent vnto þe Kyng of Fraunce; and þrouȝ þe forsaide lettre þat þe clerc hade sent fro Fraunce, hit was founden oppon him; wherfor he was lade to London, & drawen & honged þere for his tresoun; and his ij sones, þat he hade put in Fraunce for hostages, were þo biheuedede.

Of þe Conquest of Berwik. Capitulo Centesimo Sexagesimo viijo.

WHen þo ij Cardinales wer gone aȝeyn into France, forto trete of pees at Cambrey, þe Kyng sent þider of his Erles and barons, þat is to seyn, Sire Edmund his broþer, Erl ofPage  189 Lancastre & of Leycestre, Sir Henr Lacy, Erl of Nichole, and William Vessy, a baron; & of oþere baronettes, aboute xiiij of þe best and wisest of Engeland.

And in þe same tyme Kyng Edward tok his viage in Scotland, forto werr oppon Iohn Bailol, Kyng of Scotland. ¶ And Sir Robert Roos at Berwik fley fro þe Englisshe-men, & went to þe Scottes. ¶ And Kyng Edward went him toward Berwik, and bisegede þe toun; and þo þat were wiþin manliche ham defendede, and sette afire and brent ij of Kyng Edwardes shippis, and saide, in despite and in reprofe of him: "¶ Wenes Kyng Edward, wiþ his longe shankes, forto wyn Berwik, al our vnþankes? gas pikes him! and when he haþ hit, gas diche him!" ¶ When Kyng Edward herd þis scorn, anone þrouȝ his mightynesse he passede ouere þe diches, and assailede þe toun, & [MS Rawlinson B 171 107b] come to þe ȝates, and gete and conquered þe toune, and, þrouȝ his gracious power, quellede xxv Ml & vij C of Scottes. & Kyng Edward loste of his men, no man of renoun saue Sir Richard of Cornwaile; and him quellede a Flemyng out of the Reede Halle wiþ a quarel, as þe forsaid Richard dede of his helme; and commandede ham forto ȝelde ham, and put ham into the Kyngus grace; and þe Scottes wolde nouȝt; wherfor þat halle was brent, and cast adoune, and alle þo þat were within were brent. And Kyng Edward loste no man at þat viage, of simple State, but xxviij Englisshe-men; and þe wardeyn of þe castel ȝaf vp þe keyes wiþouten eny assaut. And þere was take, William Douglas, and Sir Symond Frisel; and þe Erl Patrik ȝelde him to þe pees; but Ingham of Hunfreuil and Robert of Brus, þat were wiþ þe Kyng Edward, forsoke Kyng Edward, & helde wiþ þe Scottes: and afterward þai were tak, and put into pryson; & afterward þe Kyng forȝaf ham her trespasse, & deliuered ham out of prisoun; and þo lete Kyng Edward close in Berwik wiþ wallis and wiþ diches. ¶ And aftirward, Robert Brus went to Tyndale, and sette Woxebryge afire, and Excelham and Lamerstok, andPage  190 quellede & robbit þe folc of þe contrey; and aftirward he went fro þens vnto Dunbarr.

¶ And þe ferst Wedenesday of Marche, þe Kyng sent þe Erl of Garreine, Sir Hughe Percy and Sir Hught Spenser, wiþ a faire company, forto bisege þe castel. But on þat me called Sir Richard Siward, a traitour, a false man, ymagynede forto bigile þe Englisshe-men, & sent to the [MS Rawlinson B 171 108a] Englisshemen, ham forto desceyue, and saide þat he wold ȝelde to ham þe castel if þai wolde graunt him viij dayes of respite, þat he might sende & telle to Sir Iohn Bailol, Kyng of Scotland, how þe Englisshe-men ferde, as þai werr in þe castell, and sende him word if þat he nolde remeve þe sege of þe Englisshe-men, þat þai wolde þe castel ȝelde to þe Englisshemen.' ¶ The messanger þo come to Iohn Bailol, Kyng of Scotland, þere þat he was wiþ his host; and þe messager tolde him. ¶ And Sir Iohn tok þo his host, and come in þe morwe erly toward þe castel. & Sir Richard Syward saw him come, þat was maistre of þe Conseile and keper of þe castel, and saide vnto þe Englisshemen: "O God!" quod he, "now y se of folc a fair company, and wel apparailed, y wil go aȝeynes ham, & wit[h] ham to mete and ham assaile." ¶ And Sir Hugh þe Spenser saw the falsenesse of him & þe tresoun, and saide to him: "O traitour, tak and prouede, ȝour falsenesse shal nouȝt ȝow availe." ¶ And Hugh the Spenser commandede anon forto bynde him, and in al haste went aȝeins her enemys, & quelled of þe Scottes xxij Ml; for þe Scottes had wiþ ham þat tyme no man of honour, saf Sir Patrik Graham, þat manliche fauȝt, and Longe tyme, and at þe last he was quelled. & þo saide þe Englisshe-men in reprof of þe Scottis:

Page  191¶ Thus staterand Scottes,
holde y for sottes,
of wrenches vnwar,
¶ Erly in a mornyng,
in an euel tyming
went ȝe fro Dunbarr.

¶ þo þat wer in the castell saw þe scomfiture, and ȝelde þe castel to þe Englisshemen, and bonden her bodyes, londes & castelles to Kyng Edward: and so þere wer take in þe castel, [MS Rawlinson B 171 108b] iij Erles, and vij barons, & xxviijti Knyghtes, & xj clerkes, and xij Picardes; and alle were presentede vnto Kyng Edward, and he sent ham to þe Toure of London to ben Kepte þere.

How Kyng Edward, of his grete grace, delyuered aȝein þe Scottes out of prison, þat were cheueteyns of the londe; and þay drow ham þo to þe Frenchemen, þrouȝ conseil of William Waleys. Capitulo Centesimo Sexagesimo Nono.

WHen Kyng Edward hade made þo an ende of the werre, and taken the chyueteyns of Scotland, þo come Sir Iohn Bailol, and ȝelde him vnto Kyng Edward, and put ham in his grace; and he was lad to London. And when Kyng Edward was comen þider, þai were brouȝt bifore him; and þe Kyng axede of ham how þai wolde make amendes of þat trespasse and losse þat þai hade done him; and þai put ham in his mercy.

¶ "Lordynges," quod þe kyng, "y wille nouȝt ȝour landes, ne none of ȝour godes, but y wille þat ȝe make to me an oth, oppon Godes body, forto bene trewe to me, and neuer after þis tyme aȝens me bere Armes." And alle þai consentede to þe Kynges wille, and swore oppon Godes body, ¶ þat is to seyn, Sir Iohn of Comyn and þe Erl of Stratthorn, þe Erl of Carryk; and also iiij bisshopus vndertoke for alle þe clergye; & so þe Kyng delyuerede ham, and ȝaf ham saf condit to wende into her owen Land. ¶ AndPage  192 hit was nouȝt longe after, þat þai ne risen aȝeyns Kyng Edward, for enchesoun þat þai wist þat Kyng Edwardus folc were take in Gascoigne, as bifore is saide; but Sir Iohn Bailloil, [MS Rawlinson B 171 109a] Kyng of Scotland, wiste wel þat his lande shulde haue sorwe and shame for her falsenesse, and in haste went him ouer þe see vnto his owen londes, and þere helde him, and come neuer aȝeyne. Wherfore þe Scottes chosen to bene her kyng, William Walis, a rybaude, an harlot, comen vp of nouȝt, and miche harme dede to þe Englisshemen.

¶ And Kyng Edward þouȝt how he myght haue deliuerance of his peple þat were tak in Gascoigne, and in hast went ouer þe see into Flaundres, forto werr oppon þe Kyng of Fraunce. And þe Erl of Flaundres vnderfonge him wiþ michel honour, and grauntede him alle his landes at his owen wille. ¶ And when þe Kyng of Fraunce herde telle þat þe Kyng of Engeland was arryuede in Flaundres, and come wiþ an huge power, him forto destroye, he prayede him of trewes for ij ȝere, so þat Englisshe marchauntȝ, and also Frenche, myȝt safliche gon in boþe sides. ¶ The Kyng Edward grantede hit, so þat he miȝt haue his men out of prisoun þat were take in Gascoigne; and þe Kyng of Fraunce grauntede anone; and so þai wer Delyuerede.

¶ And in the same tyme þe Scottes sent by þe Bisshop of seynt Andrewes into Fraunce, to þe Kyng, and to Sir Charles, his broþer, þat Sir Charles shulde come wiþ his power, & þai of Scotland wolde come wiþ heir, and so þai shulde gone into Engeland, þat lande forto destroye, fram Scotland, til þat þai come into Kent. And þe Scottes truste ful miche oppon þe Frensshe-men; but of þat þing þai hade no maner graunt. and [MS Rawlinson B 171 109b] noþeles þe Scottes bigon to robbe and quelle in Northumberlond, and dede miche harme.

How William Wallis lete slee Sir Hughe of Cressingham; and of þe batail of Foukirk. Capitulo Centesimo Septuagesimo.

Page  193 WHen þis tydyng was comen to Kyng Edward, þat William Walis hade ordeynede soche a stronge power, and þat al Scotland to him was entendant, and redy to quelle Englisshemen & destroye his lande, he was sore annoied, and sent anone by his lettres to þe Erl of Gerrein, and to Sir Henry Percy and to Sir William Latomer, and to Sir Hugh of Cressingham his Tresorer, þat þai shulde take power, and wende into Northumberlond, & so forþ into Scotland, forto kepe þe contres. ¶ And when William Waleys herde of her comyng, he gan forto flee; & Englisshe-men him folwede, and drof him til þat he come to Streuelyn; & þere he helde him in þe castell; and þe Walshemen euery day ham ascriede & manacede, & dede al þe despite þat þai myght. ¶ So þat þe Englisshe-men oppon a tyme in a morwenyng, went out fram þe castel þe mountance of x mile, and passede ouer a bruge; and William Walys come wiþ a stronge power, and drof ham abak, for þe Englisshe-men hade aȝeynes him þo no myght, but fledde; and þo þat might take þe brugge scapede. ¶ But Sir Hughe, þe Kyngus Tresorer, þere was slayn, and meny oþere also; wherfore was made miche sorwe.

Þo hade Kyng Edward spedde alle his nedes in Flaundres, ¶ and was comyng aȝeyn into Engeland, [MS Rawlinson B 171 110a] and in haste toke his Way toward Scotland, and come þider at þe Ascencioun; and al þat he founde, he sette on fire & brent. But þe pore peple of Scotland come to him wonder þik, and prayed him, for Godes loue, þat he wolde haue on ham mercy and pitee; wherfore þe Kyng þo commandet þat no man shulde done harme to ham þat were ȝolden to ham, ne to no man of ordre, ne to no hous of religion, ne no maner cherche; ¶ But lete aspie al þat he myght, where þat he myght fynde eny of his enemys. Þo come an espie to þe Kyng, and tolde wher þe Scottes were assembled forto abide bataile.

And on seynt Marie Magdaleynus day, þe Kyng come toPage  194 Foukirk, and ȝaf bataile to þe Scottes; and at þat bataill þere wer quellede of Scottes xxxiij Ml, and of Englisshemen but xxviij and no mo; of þe whiche was a worþi Knyght slayn, þat was a knyght of the Hospitall, þat me called Frere Brian Iay; for, when William Waleys fley fram þe bataile, þat same Frere Brian him pursuede fersly; and as his hors ran, hit sterte into a mere of marreys vp to þe bely; and William Waleys turnede þo aȝeyn, and þere quellede þe forsaide Brian; and þat was miche harme. ¶ And while Kyng Edward went þrouȝ Scotland forto enquere if he might fynde eny of his enemys; and in þat lande he duellede as longe as him likede, and þere was none enemy þat derst him abide.

¶ And so aftirward Kyng Edward went to Southampton, for he wolde nouȝt abide in Scotland in wynter seson, for esement of his peple. ¶ And when he come to London, he lete amende meny misdedes þat were done aȝeynes [MS Rawlinson B 171 110b] his pees Whiles þat He Was in Flaundres.

Of þe laste mariage of Kyng Edward; and how he went þe þridde tyme into Scotland. Capitulo Centesimo Septuagesimo primo.

ANd after, hit was ordeynede þrouȝ þe court of Rome, þat Kyng Edward shulde wedde Dame Margarete, Kyng Philippus suster of France; and þe Erchebisshop Robert of Wynchelse spousede ham togedre; þrouȝ whiche mariage pees was made bituene Kyng Edward of Engeland and Kyng Philippe of Fraunce. ¶ Kyng Edward went þo þe þridde tyme into Scotland; and þo, with-inne þe ferst ȝere, he had enfamenede þe land so þat þere ne lefte nouȝt on but þai come to his mercy, saf þo þat were in þe castel of Estreuelyn, þat was vitailede & storede for vij ȝere.

Page  195

How þe castel of Estreuelyn was bisegede. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo lxx secundo.

Kyng Edward come with an huge power to þe castel of Estreuelyn, and bisegede þe castell; but hit litil availede, for he myght do the Scottes none harme, for þe castel was so stronge an[d] wel Kepte. ¶ And Kyng Edward saw þat, & þouȝt him oppon a queyntise, and lete make þere anone ij peire of hye Galwes bifore þe toure of þe castell, and made his oth þat, as meny as were in þe castell, were he Erle or baron, and he were take wiþ strengþ, but if he wolde þe raþer him ȝelde, he shulde bene hongede on þo Galwes. ¶ And when þo þat were in þe castel herde þis, þai come and ȝelde ham alle to þe Kynges mercy & grace; and þe Kyng forȝaf ham al his maletalent. And þere were alle þe grete lordes of [MS Rawlinson B 171 111a] Scotland sworne to Kyng Edward, þat þai shulde come to London to euery parlement, and shulde stonde to his ordenaunce.

How Troillebastoun was ferste ordeynede. Capitulo Centesimo lxx iijo.

THis Kyng Edward went þens to London, and wende haue hade rest and pees of his werr, wiþ whiche werre he was ocupiede xxti ȝer, þat is to seyn, in Walys, in Gascoign, and in Scotland, and þouȝt how he myght recouere his tresoure þat he hade spendede about his werre, and lete enquere þrouȝ þe reaume of alle þe mistakyngus and wrongus done þrouȝ misdoers in Engeland, of alle þe tyme þat he hade bene out of his realme, þat me callede 'Troylebaston'; and ordeynede þerto Iustices. And in þis maner þe Kyng recouered tresoure wiþout noumbre. ¶ And his encheson was, for he hade þouȝt forto haue went into þe Holy Land forto haue werrede oppon Godes enemys, for enchesoun þat he was croisede longe tyme bifore; and noþeles, þat law þat he had ordeynede dede miche gode þrouȝ al Engeland, to ham þat werePage  196 mysbode; for þo þat trespassede were wel chastisede, and afterward þe meker and þe bettre; and þe pore comunes were in þe more reste and in pees.

¶ And þe same tyme Kyng Edward enprisonede his owen sone Edward, for encheson þat Walter of Langeton, Bisshop of Chestre, þat was þe Kyngus tresorer, hade made oppon him compleynt, and saide þat þe forsaide Edward, þrouȝ conseil and procurment of on, Piers of Gauaston, a squyer of Gascoigne, had broke þe parkeȝ of þe forsaide bisshope, and þe forsaide Piers conseilede and ladde þe same Edward, þe kynges sone; and for þis cause [MS Rawlinson B 171 111b] Kyng Edward exilede him out of Engeland for euermore.

Of þe deþ of William Waleys, þe false traitoure. Capitulo Centesimo lxxiiij.

ANd when þis god Kyng Edward hade his enemys ouercome in Walis, Gascoign, & in Scotland, and destroyede his traitoures, but oneliche þat rybaude William Waleys, þat neuer to þe Kyng wolde him ȝelde. and at þe laste, in þe toune of Seynt Dominic, in þe ȝer of Kyng Edwardus regne xxxiij ȝer, þat false traitoure was take, and presentede to þe Kyng; saf þe Kyng wolde nouȝt seen him, but sent him to London to vnderfonge his iuge[ment]. And on Seynt Bartholomeus Eve he was honget and drawe, and his heuede smyten of, & his bowailes take out of his body, and brent, and his body quartarede & sent to iij þe best tounes of Scotland, and his heued sette oppon a spere, and sette oppon London Brugge, in sample þat þe Scottes shulde haue in mynde forto bere ham amys aȝeynȝ her lorde eftesones.

How þe Scottes come to Kyng Edward, forto amende here trespasse þat þai had done aȝeyns him. [Capitulo] Centesimo lxxvto.

ANd at Michelmasse þo next coming, Kyng Edward helde his parlement atte Westmynstre; and þider come þe Scottes, þat is to seyn, þe Bisshop of Seynt Andrewus, Robert þe Brus, ErlPage  197 of Carrik, Symond Frisell, Iohn, Erl of Athell; and þai were accordede with þe kyng, and bonden by her oth sworn, þat after, if eny of ham misbare ham aȝeyns Kyng Edward, þat þai shulde bene disheritede for euermore. And when here pees was þus made, þai toke her leue priueliche, [MS Rawlinson B 171 112a] and went Home into Here owen contree.

How Robert þe Brus chalanged Scotland. Capitulo Centesimo lxxvjto.

ANd after, Robert þe Brus, Erl of Karrik, sent by his lettre to þe Erles and barons of Scotland, þat þai shulde come to him to Scone, in the morwen aftir þe concepcioun of oure Lady, for hye nedes of þe land; and þe lordes come at þe day assignede. ¶ And at þe same day, Sir Robert þe Brus saide: "Faire lordes! ful wel ȝe wete þat in my persone du[e]lleþ þe ryght of þe reaume of Scotland; and as ȝe weteþ wel, as ryȝtful heir, siþ þat Sir Iohn Bailoil, þat was our Kyng, haþ vs forsak, & also lefte his lande. ¶ And þouȝ it so be þat Kyng Edward of Engeland, wiþ wrongeful power haþ made me to him assent aȝeyns my wille,—yf þat ȝe wil grant þat y be Kyng of Scotland, y shal kepe ȝow aȝeyns Kyng Edward & aȝeyns alle maner men." And wiþ þat worde, þe Abbot of Scone aros, and bifore ham alle saide, þat hit was resoun forto helpe him, and þe lande to kepe and defende; and þo saide, in presence of ham alle, þat he wolde ȝeue him a þousand pound forto mayntene þat land. and alle þe oþere grantede þe lande to him, and wiþ hir power him forto helpe, and defiede Kyng Edward of Engeland, and saide þat Robert þe Brus shulde bene Kyng of Scotland.

How Sire Iohn Comyn gaynesaide þe crounyng of Robert þe Brus. Capitulo Centesimo Septuagesimo Septimo.

Page  198"LOrdynges," saide Sir Iohn of Comyn, "þenketh oppon þe treuthe and þe oth þat ȝe made vnto Kyng [MS Rawlinson B 171 112b] Edward of Engeland! and as tochyng myself, y Wil nouȝt breke myn oth for no man." And so he went fram þat company at þat tyme; wherfore Robert þe Brus, and alle þat to him consentede, were wonder wroþe, & þo manacede Sir Iohn of Comyn. ¶ þo ordeynede þai anoþer conseil at Dumfrys, to þe whiche come þe forsaide Sir Iohn Comyn, and duellede but ij mile fram Dunfris, þere þat he was wont to soiourne and abide.

How Sir Iohn Comyn was traiterousely slayn. Capitulo Centesimo lxxviijo.

WHen Robert þe Brus wiste þat al þe grete of Scotland were comen to Scone, saf Sir Iohn Comyn, þat soiourned þo neyȝ Scone, he sent after him specialiche, þat Sir Iohn Comen shulde com & speke wiþ him; and oppon þat he sent after him Sir Iohn Comynus ij breþerne, and praiede him forto come and speke wiþ him atte þe Gray Freres at Donfris; and þat was þe Thoresday after Candelmasse; & Sir Iohn grauntede ham forto wende wiþ ham. And when he had herde masse, he toke a sop and drank, & afterwarde he bistrode his palfray and rode his way, and so come to Dunfris. & Robert Bruys sawe him comme atte a wyndow, as he was in his chaumbre, and þo made ioye ynow, & come aȝeyn him, and halsed him aboute þe nek, & made wiþ him gode semblaunt. And when alle þe Erles & barons of Scotland were present, Robert þe Brus spake and saide: "Sires," quod he, "ȝe weten wel the enchesoun of þis comyng, & wherfore hit is: if þat ȝe wil Graunt þat Y mote be Kyng of Scotland, [MS Rawlinson B 171 113a] as ryght heire of the londe." And al þe lordes þat were þere, saide wiþ on voys þat he shulde bene crouned Kyng of Scotland, and þat þai wolde him help and mayntene aȝeyns al maner men on lif; and for him, if it wer nede, dye. ¶ þe Gentil knyȝt þo,Page  199 Sir Iohn of Comyn, ansuerede & saide: "certes, neuer for me, ne forto haue of me as miche helpe as þe value of a botoun; for, þat oth þat y haue made to Kyng Edward of Engeland, y shal holde þe while my lif laste." And with þat worde he went fro þe company, and wolde haue went oppon his palfray. And Robert the Brus pursuede him wiþ a drawen sworde, and bare him þrouȝ the body, and Sir Iohn Comyn felle adoune vnto the Erþe. ¶ But when Roger, þat was Sir Iohn Comines broþer, saw þe falsenesse, he stert vp to Sir Robert the Brus, and smote him wiþ a knyf; but þe false traitoure was armed vnder, so þat þe stroke myght done him none harme; and so miche helpe come aboute Sir Robert the Brus, so þat Roger Comyn was þere quellede and alto-hewe into smale pices. ¶ And Robert þe Brus turnede aȝeyn þere þat Sir Iohn Comyn þe noble Baron lay woundede and pynede towardes his deþ, bisides þe hye auter in the cherche of þe Gray Freres, and saide vnto Sir Iohn Comyn: "O traitour! þow shalt be dede, & neuer after lette myn avauncement"; and shooke his suorde at þe hye auter, and smote him on the heuede, þat þe brayn felle adoune oppon þe Gronde, and þe blode stert vnto the wallis; and ȝitte into þis Day that blode [MS Rawlinson B 171 113b] is seyne þere, and no Water may wasshe it away; and so deide þat noble knyȝt in holy cherche.

How Robert þe B[r]us was cronede, and made Kyng of Scotland. Capitulo Centesimo lxxixo.

ANd when þe intrusour Robert þe Brus saw þat no man þo wolde lete his coronacioun, he commandede alle ham þat were of power shulde come to his crounyng, to Seynt Iohnes toun in Scotland. ¶ & so hit bifelle þat on oure Lady Day, þe Anunciacioun, þe Bisshop of Glascowe and þe Bisshop of Seynt Andrewus crounede for her Kyng, Robert the Brus, in Seynt Iohnes toune, & made him Kyng. And anone after hePage  200 drof out al þe Englisshe-men out of Scotland; & þai fledde, and come & pleynede vnto Kyng Edward, how Robert þe Brus hadde dryuen ham out of the lande, & disherite ham.

How Kyng Edwarde dobbit at Westminster xiiij score knyghteȝ. Capitulo Centesimo Ottogesimo.

ANd when Kyng Edward herde of þis meschief, he suore þat he wolde þerof bene avenged, and saide þat 'alle þe traitours of Scotland shulde bene hongede and draw, and þat þai shulde neuer bene raunsonede.' ¶ And Kyng Edward þouȝt oppon þis falsenesse þat þe Scottes hade done, and sende after alle þe bachilers of Engeland, þat þai shulde come to London at Whitsontyde; and he dobbit at Westminster iiijxx knyȝtes.

¶ þo ordeynede him þe noble Kyng Edward forto wende into Scotland, to werr oppon Robert þe Brus; and sent bifore him into Scotland [MS Rawlinson B 171 114a] Sir Aymer of Valance, Erl of Penbrok, & Sir Henry Percy, wiþ a fair company, þat pursewede þe Scottes and brenede tounes & castilles; & afterwarde come the Kyng himself, wiþ Erles and barons a fair companye.

How Robert þe Brus was scomfitede in bataile; and how Symond Frisell was slayn. Capitulo Centesimo Ottogesimo primo.

THe Fryday next bifore þe Assumpcicion of our Lady, Kyng Edward mette Robert the Brus bisides Seynt Iohnes toun in Scotland, & with his company; of þe whiche company Kyng Edward quelled vij Ml. ¶ When Robert þe Brus saw þis meschief he gan to flee, and hudde him þat men myght nouȝt him fynde; but Sir Symond Frisell pursuede him so sore, so þat he turnede & abode bataile, for he was a worþi knyȝt and a bolde of body; and þe Englisshe-men pursuede him sore on eueryPage  201 side, and quellede þe stede þat Sir Symond Frisell roode oppon; and þai toke him and lade him into þe hoste. ¶ And Sir Symond bigan forto flater and speke faire, and saide: "lordes, y shal ȝeue ȝow iiij Ml marȝ of Siluer, and myn horse and myn herneys, and all myn armure, and bicome a begger." þo ansuerede Theobalde of Peuenes, þat was þe Kyngus Archir, "Now God me so helpe, hit is for nouȝt þat þow spexte; for alle þe golde of Engeland y wolde nouȝt lete þe gone with-out commaundement of Kyng Edward." And þo was he lade to þe Kyng; but þe Kyng wolde nouȝt [MS Rawlinson B 171 114b] see him, but commaundede him to ben ledde away to haue his dome at London. In oure Ladies Eve, þe Natiuitie, he was hongede and drawe, & his heuede smyten of, and hongede aȝein wiþ cheynes of yren oppon þe Galwes; & his heuede was sette oppon London Brugge vppon a spere; and aȝeyns Cristenmasse þe body was brent, for enchesoun þat þe men þat kepte þe body by nyght, saw meny deueles raumpande wiþ yren crokes rynnyng oppon þe galwes, and horribliche turmentede þe body; and meny þat ham sawe, anone after þai deide for drede, or woxen made, or sore sikenesse þai had. ¶ And in þat bataile was taken þe Bisshop of Glascowe, þe Bisshope of Seynt Andrewes, þe Abbot of Scone, all armede wiþ yren as men of Armes, & false traitoures and false prelatis aȝeyns her oth; and þai were brouȝt to þe Kyng, and þe Kyng sent ham to þe Pope of Rome, þat he shulde done wiþ ham what his wille were.

How Iohn, Erl of Atheles, was take, & put to deþ. Capitulo ¶ Centesimo Ottogesimo secundo.

ANd at þat bataile fledde Sire Iohn Erl of Ateles, and went into a cherche, & þere hudde him for drede. But he miȝt haue þere no refute, for enchesoun þat þe cherche was enterditede þrouȝ a general sentence; and in þe same cherche he was take. ¶ And þis Sir Iohn wende wel haue scapede fram þe deth, for enchesoun þat he cleymede kynrede of Kyng Edward. AndPage  202 Kyng Edward wolde no longer bene taried of his traitoures, and sent him to London in haste; & þere he [MS Rawlinson B 171 115a] was Hongede, and his Heuede smyten of, and his body brent al into smal asshes. ¶ But at þe prayer of þe Quene Margarete, for enchesoun þat he cleymede of Kyng Edward kynrede, his drawyng was forȝeuen him.

How Iohn, þat was William Waleys broþer, was put to þe deþ. Capitulo Centesimo iiijxx iijo.

WHen þe gretteste maistres of Scotland were þus done to euel deþe, & shent for her falsenesse, Iohn, þat was William Waleys broþer, was tak as Sir Iohn, Erl of Atheles, was.

How Robert þe Brus fley fro Scotland to Norwaye. Capitulo Centesimo ottogesimo iiijto.

ANd at þat same tyme, was Robert þe Brus miche hatede amonges þe peple of Scotland; so he wist nouȝt what to don; and forto hide him, he went into Norway, to þe Kyng þat had spousede his sustre, and þere helde him, socour forto haue. ¶ And when Robert þe Brus might nouȝt bene founde in Scotland, Kyng Edward þo lette crye his pees þrouȝ al þe land, & his were vsede, and his ministres seruede þrouȝ-out al þe land.

How Kyng Edward deide. Capitulo Centesimo Ottogesimo quinto.

WHen Kyng Edward hade abatede his enemys, he turnede aȝeyn Southward, and a maladye toke him at Burgh op Sande, in þe Marche of Scotland. And he wiste wel þat his deþ was ful neyȝ, and callede to him Sir Henry þe Lacy, Erl of Lyncoln, Sir Gy, Erl of Warruyk, Sir Aymer Valence, Erl of Penbrok, and Sir Robert of Clifford, baroun, and prayede ham, oppon þe faiþe þat þai to him owede, þat þai shulde make Edward [MS Rawlinson B 171 115b] Page  203 of Carnaryuan, Kyng of Engeland, his sone, as raþe as þai myght; ¶ and þat þai shulde nought suffre Piers of Gauaston come aȝeyn into Engeland forto make his sone vse ryaute. And þai grantede him wiþ god wille; and þe Kyng toke his sacramentȝ of holy cherche, as a gode Cristen man shulde, and deide in Verray repentaunce. ¶ & when he hade bene Kyng lv ȝer, he deide, & was buried at Westminster wiþ miche solempnite: oppon whos soule, God haue mercy!

Of Merlynus prophecies, þat were declarede of Kyng Edward, þat was Kyng Henries sone. Capitulo Centesimo iiijxx vjto.

ANd of þis Kyng Edward, propheciede Merlyn, and callede him a dragon, þe secunde kyng of þe vj laste kynges þat shulde bene forto regne in Engeland; and saide þat 'he shulde ben mellede wiþ mercy & also wiþ sternesse, þat shulde kepe Engeland fram colde and fram hete; and þat he shulde oppen his mouþe toward Walys, and þat he shulde sette his on foot in Wyk, and þat he shulde closen wiþ Wallis, þat shulde do miche harme to his seed'; and he saide soþ, for þe gode Kyng Edward was medled wiþ mercy & with fersnesse; wiþ mercy aȝeyns his enemys of Walis, & after of Scotland; wiþ fersenesse, when he put ham to the deth for her falsenesse & traiteri, as þai had diserued hit; And wel kepte he Engeland fram colde and fram hete, siþ he kepte hit fram alle maner enemys þat ronne oppon him to done him eny harme or wronge. ¶ And wel openede he his mouþ toward Walys, and made hit [MS Rawlinson B 171 116a] quake þrouȝ þe hidour of his mouthe, When he conquerede hit þrouȝ dent of suerd; for þe Prynce Lewelyn, and his broþer Dauid Rys and Morgan, wer put vnto deþ for her falsenesse and her folie. ¶ And he sette his one foot in Wik, and conquered Berwik; at þe whiche conquest was slayn xxv Ml and vij C, out-take ham þat wer brent in þe Rede Halle; and þe wallis þat he lete make shulde ben noious to his seede, as men shal hure after in þe lif of Sire Edward his sone.

Page  204¶ And ȝitte saide Merlyn, þat 'he shulde make Ryuer rynne in bloode and wiþ brayn': and þat semede wel in his werres, þere þat he hade þe maistry. ¶ And ȝitte saide Merlyn: þat 'þere shulde come a peple out of þe northwest, duryng þe regne of þe forsaide dragoun, þat shulde bene lad be an euel grehounde, þat shulde þe dragoun croune Kyng, þat aftirward shulde flee ouer þe see wiþout comyng aȝeyn, for drede of þe dragoun' and þat was prouede by Sir Iohn Baloil, þat Kyng Edward made forto bene Kyng of Scotland, þat falsely aroos aȝeynnes him; and after, he fledde to his owen landes in Fraunce, and neuer come aȝeyne into Scotland for drede of King Edward. ¶ And ȝitte said Merlyn, 'þat þe peple þat shulde lede þe forsaide grewhonde shulde bene faderles vnto a certein tyme': & he saide soth, ffor þe peple of Scotland gretliche wer disessede sith þat sir Iohn Baloil, her Kyng, fley fro Scotland.

¶ And ȝitte saide Meryln, 'þat þe sone shulde bicome in his tyme as rede as [MS Rawlinson B 171 116b] eny blode, in tokening of grete mortalite of deþ of peple': and þat was wel knowen when þe Scottes was slayne. ¶ And siþ saide Merlyn, 'þat þilk dragoun shulde norisshe a fox þat shulde meve werr aȝeynes him, þat in his tyme shulde nouȝt bene endede': and þat semede wel by Robert þe Brus, þat Kyng Edward norisshe in his chambre, þat siþennes stale away, and mevede grete wer aȝeynes him; whiche wer was nouȝt endede in his tyme. ¶ And afterward, Merlyn tolde þat 'þis dragoun shulde ben holde þe best body of al þe world: and he saide soþ, ffor þe gode Kyng Edward was þe worthiest knyght of al þe worlde in his tyme.

¶ And ȝit saide Merlyn þat 'þe dragoun shulde dye in þe marche of anoþer land, and þat his londe shulde be longe wiþouten a gode keper, and þat men shulde wepe for his deth, fram þe yle of Sheepe vnto þe Ile of Marcylle, wher (allas!) shal be her commune songe amonge peple faderles, in þe lande wastede': andPage  205 þat prophecie was know oueral ful wel; ffor þe goode Kyng Edward deide at Burgh op Sandes, þat is oppon þe marche of Scotland; wherfore þe Englisshe-men gretlich were descomfitede & gouernede in Northumberlond ffor enchesoun þat Kyng Edwardes sone sette by þe Scottes non force, for þe ryaute of Piers of Gauastn wherfore (allas!) was þe songe þrouȝ-oute Engeland for defaute of a gode warde; fram þe Ile of Sheepey vnto þe yle of Marcile, þe peple made miche sorw for gode Kyng Edwardes deth; ffor þai wende þat gode Kyng Edward shulde haue gon into þe Holy Land; for þat was holliche [MS Rawlinson B 171 117a] his purpos: oppon whos soule, God of his blisse haue mercy!

Of Kyng Edward, þat was Kyng Edwardes sone. Capitulo Centesimo Octogesimo Septimo.

ANd after þis Kyng Edward, regnede Edward his sone, þat was born in Carnaryvan, and went into Fraunce, and spousede Isabell, þe Kyngus douȝter of Fraunce, þe xxv day of Ianuer at þe cherche of our Lady of Boloign, in þe ȝer of our Lorde Ml CCC vij. ¶ & þe xx day of Februer, þe nexte ȝer þat come after, he was cronede solempliche at Westminster of þe Erchebisshope Robert of Wynchelse, of Kanterbery; and þere was so grete prees of peple þat Sir Iohn Bakwelle was dede and mordrede. ¶ And anone as þe gode Kyng Edward was dede, Sir Edward his sone, Kyng of Engeland, sent after Piers of Gauaston into Gascoigne; and so miche louede him þat he callede him his 'broþer'; and anone after he ȝaf him þe lordeshipp of Wallyngford; and hit was nouȝt longe after þat he ne ȝaf him þe Erldome of Cornwaile, aȝeynes alle þe lordes wille of þe reaume. ¶ And þo brought he Sir Walter of Langeton, Bisshop of Chestre, into prisoun, into the Toure of London, with ij knafes allone him to serue, for enchesoun þat þe Kyng was wroþ with him, for cause þat Sir Wa[l]ter made pleint vppon him to his fader; wherfore he was put into prisoun in þe tyme of trailbaston.

Page  206¶ And þis Piers of Gauaston made so grete maistries, þat he went into þe Kyngus tresorie in þe Abbay of Westminster, and toke þe table of golde, [MS Rawlinson B 171 117b] wiþ þe tresteles of þe same, and meny oþere riche gewelles þat some tyme wer þe noble Kyng Arthures, and toke ham to a marchant þat me clepede Aymery of Friscombande, for he shulde bere ham ouer þe see into Gascoigne: and þai come neuer aȝeyne after; wherfore hit was grete losse vnto þis land.

¶ And when þis Piers was so rychely auauncede, he bicome so proude and so stout, wherof alle þe grete lordes of þe reaume had him in despite for his grete beryng. Wherfore Sir Henry þe Lacy, Erl of Lyncoln, and Sir Guy Erl of Warrwyk (þe whiche gode lordes þe gode Kyng Edward chargede, þat Piers of Gauaston shulde nouȝt come into Engeland forto brynge his sone into ryot), ¶ And alle þe lordes of Engeland, assemblede ham at a certeyn day at þe Frere Prichoures of London, and speken of þe dishonour þat þe Kyng dede to his reaume and to his crone. and so þai assemblede alle, boþe Erles, barons and communes, þat þe forsaide Piers of Gauaston shulde ben exilede out of Engeland. And so hit was done; for he forsuore Engeland, and went into Irland; and þere þe Kyng made him chiefteyn and Gouernour of þe lande by his commissioun; and þere þis Piers was chefteyn of al þe land, and dede þere all þat him liked, and had þere al what he wolde. ¶ And þat tyme were þe templeres exilede þrouȝ al cristendome, ffor enchesoun þat men put oppon ham þat þai shulde done þing þat was aȝeynes þe faiþ and gode bileue. ¶ Kyng Edward louede Piers of Gauaston so miche [MS Rawlinson B 171 118a] þat he might nouȝt forlete his company; and so miche þe Kyng ȝaf and bihight to þe peple of Engeland, þat þe exiling of þe forsaide Piers shulde bene reuokede at Staunford, þrouȝ ham þat him hade exilede. ¶ Wherfore Piers of Gauaston come aȝeyne into Engeland; and when he was comen aȝeyn into þis lande, he despisede þe grettest lordes of þis lande, and callede Sir Robert Clare Erl of Gloucestre,Page  207 'Horessone,' and þe Erl of Lyncoln, Sir Henry þe Lacy, 'Broste bely,' and Sir Guy Erl of Warrwyk, 'blanke hounde of Arderne.' And also he callede þe noble Erl and gentil, Thomas of Lancastre, 'Cherl,' and meny othere shames and scorn ham saide, & by meny oþere grete lordes of Engeland, wherfore þai were towardes him ful angri and sore annoiede.

¶ And in þe same tyme deide þe Erl of Lyncoln; but he charged, or he was dede, Thomas of Lancastre, erl, þat was his sone-in-lawe, þat he shulde mayntene his querell aȝeyns þe same Piers of Gauaston, oppon his benison. ¶ And so hit was ordeynede, þrouȝ helpe of þe Erle of Lancastr and of þe Erl of Warrwyk, þat þe forsaide Piers was biheuedede at Gauersiche bisides Warwik, þe xix day of Iun, in þe ȝere of grace Ml CCC & xij; wherfore þe Kyng was sore annoiede, and prayede God þat he might see þat day to bene avengede of þe deþ of þe forsaide Piers. ¶ And so hit bifelle aftirward, as ȝe shul hure,—allas þe tyme!—ffor þe forsaide Erl of Lancastre & meny oþere [MS Rawlinson B 171 118b] grete baroun, wer put to pitouse deþ, and martrede, for enchesoun of þe forsaide querell.

¶ The Kyng was þo at London, and helde a parlement, and ordeynede þe lawes of Sir Symond Mountford; wherfor the Erl of Lancastre, and alle þe Erles & all þe clergye of Engeland, maden an oth, þrouȝ conseile of Robert of Wynchelse, forto maintene þe ordenaunces for euermore.

How Robert þe Brus come aȝeyne into Scotland, and Gaderede a grete power of men forto werr oppon Kyng Edward. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo Ottogesimo viijo.

ANd when Sir Robert þe Brus, þat made him Kyng of Scotland, þat was fledde into Normandy for drede of deþ of þe goode Kyng Edward, and herd of þe debate þat was inPage  208 Engeland bituene þe Kyng and his lordes, he ordeynede an hoste, and come into Engelond, into Northumberland, and clenly destroiede þe contreye. ¶ And when Kyng Edward herde þis tidynges, he lete assemble his host, and mette þe Scottis at Streuelyn, in þe day of þe Natiuite of Seint Iohn þe Baptiste, in þe vij ȝer of his regne, and in þe ȝere of our Lorde Ihesu Crist, Ml CCC & xiiij. Allas þe sorw and losse þat þere was done! for þere was slayn, þe noble Erl Gilbert of Clare, Sire Robert of Clifford, a baroun, and meny oþere; & of oþere peple þat no man couþ nombre; and þere Kyng Edward was scomfitede. And Sir Edmund of Maule, þe kynges stiward, for drede went and drenchede him-self in a fresshe ryuer þat is callede Bannokesbourn; þerefore [MS Rawlinson B 171 119a] þe Scottes saide, in reprofe and despite of Kyng Edward, foralsemiche as he louede forto go by watere, and also for he was descomfitede at Bannokesbour[n]e, þerfore maidenes made a songe þerof, in þat contre, of Kyng Edward of Engeland and in þis maner þai songe:—

¶ Maydenes of Engelande, sare may ȝe morne,
For tynt ȝe haue [lost] ȝoure lemmans at Bannokesborn
wiþ hevalogh.
¶ What wende þe Kyng of Engeland haue ygete Scotlande
wiþ Rombylogh.

When Kyng Edward was descomfitede, he was wonder sory, and faste fledde wiþ his folc þat was lafte alif, and went to Berwik, and þere helde him. ¶ And after, he toke hostages, þat is to seyne, vij childerne, of þe rychest of þe toun; and þe Kyng went to London, and toke conseile of þinges þat were nedeful vnto þe reaume of Engeland.

¶ And in þe same tyme hit bifelle þat þere was in Engeland a rybaude þat men callede Iohn Tanner; and he went and saide þat he was þe goode Kyng Edwardus sone, and lete him calle 'Edward of Carnaruan'; and þerfore he was take at Oxenford, and þere chalangede þe frere Carmes chirche þat Kyng Edward hade ȝeue ham, þe whiche cherch some tyme was þe KyngusPage  209 Halle. ¶ And afterwarde was þis Iohn ladde to Northampton, and draw, and þere hongede for his falsenesse. and er þat he was dede, he confessede, and saide bifore al þe folc, þat 'þe deuel bihighte him þat he shulde be Kyng of Engeland'; and þat 'he hade seruede þe deuel iij ȝere.'

How þe toun of Berwik was taken þrouȝ treson; & how ij Cardynales wer robbet in Engeland. Capitulo Centesimo iiijxx ixo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 119b] ANd in myd Lenton Sonday in þe ȝere of our Lord Ihesu Crist Ml CCC xvj, Berwik was loste, þrouȝ false tresoun of on, Piers of Spaldyng; þe whiche Piers, þe Kyng had put þere forto kepe þe same toune wiþ meny burgeys of þe toun. ¶ Wherfore þe childerne þat were put in hostages þrouȝ þe burgeys of Berwik, folwede þe Kyngus Marchalcie meny daye, fetrede in stronge yrenes.

¶ And after þat tyme þere come ij Cardinales into Engeland, as þe Pope hade ham sende forto mak pees bituene Scotland and Engeland. and as þai went toward Duresme forto haue sacrede maistre Lowys of Beaumond, Bisshop of Duresme; and as þai went, þai were taken and robbit oppon þe more of Wigelesdon; of whiche robrye, Sir Gilbert of Midelton was atteint, and take, and hongede & drawe at London, and his heuede smyten of, and his bowales taken out of his body, and brent, & his body quartarede, and his heuede smyten of, and sette oppon a spere, and sette oppon Newegate; and þe iiij quarters sent to iiij citees of Engeland.

¶ And þat same tyme bifelle meny meschyues in Engeland; for þe pore peple deide in Engeland for hunger; and so miche and so faste folc deiden, þat vnneþes men m[i]ght ham bury; for a quarter of whete was worþe xls., and ij ȝere and an halfe a quarter of whete was worþe ij marȝ; and ofte-tymes þe porePage  210 peple stale childern and ete ham, and ete also alle þe houndes þat þai might take, and ek Horse & cattes; and after, þere felle a grete [MS Rawlinson B 171 120a] pestilence amonges bestes in diuerse contrees of Engeland duryng Kyng Edwardes lif.

How þe Scottes robbede Northumberland. Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo.

ANd in þe same tyme come þe Scottes aȝeyne into Engeland, and destroiede Northumberlond, and brent þat lande, & robbet hit, and quellede men and wymmen, & childern þat laye in cradell, and brent also holy cherche, and destroiede Cristendome, and toke & bare awaye Englisshe-mennes godes, as þai hade bene Sarasins or paynemes. and of þe wickednesse þat þai deden, all þe worlde spake þerof, þrouȝ al Cristendome.

How þe Scottes wolde nouȝt amende her trespasse; and þerfore Scotland was enterditede. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo primo.

ANd when Pope Iohn, þe xxij after seynt Petre, herde of þe grete sorwe and meschief þat þe Scottes wrought, he was wonder sory þat Cristendome was so destroiede þrouȝ þe Scottes, and nameliche for þai destroiede so holy cherche; Wherfore þe Pope sent a general sentence, vnder his bullis of leade, vnto þe Erchebisshope of Kaunterbery, and to þe Erchebisshope of Ȝork, þat 'if Robert þe Brus of Scotland wolde nouȝt be iustifiede, and make amendes vnto kyng Edward of Engeland, his lorde, & make amendes of his losse, and his harmes þat þai hade done in Engeland, and also to restore þe godes þat þai hade take out of holy cherch, þat þe sentence shulde be pronouncede þrouȝ all Engeland. ¶ And when þe Scottes herde þis, þai wolde nouȝt [MS Rawlinson B 171 120b] cesse of her malice for þe Popes commaundement; WherforPage  211 Robert þe Brus, Iamys Douglas, and Thomas Randolf Erl of Morref, and alle þo þat wiþ ham communede, or ham halp in worde or in dede, were accursed þrouȝ euery cherche þrouȝ Engeland, euery [day] at masse iij tymes; and no masse shulde be songen in holy cherche þrouȝ-out al Scotland, but if þe Scottis wolde make restitucion of þe harmes þat þai hade made vnto holy cherche. Wherfore meny a gode preste and holy man, þerfore were slayn þrouȝ al þe reme of Scotland, for enchesoun þat þai wolde singe no masse aȝeynes þe Popes commaundement and aȝeynes his wille, and to done and fulfille þe tirauntȝ wille.

How Sir Hughe, þe Spenseres sone, was made þe Kyngus Chamberlein; and of þe bataile of Miton. Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo secundo.

ANd hit was nouȝt longe afterward, þat þe Kyng ne ordeynede a parlement at Ȝork; and þere was Sir Hugh, þe Spensereȝ sone, made Chamberlein. And in þe mene-tyme, while þe werr last, the Kyng went aȝeyne into Scotland, þat hit was wonder forto wete, and bisegede þe toun of Berwik; but þe Scottes went ouer þe water of Solewath, þat was iij mile fram þe Kyngus host, and priuely þai stele awaye by nyght, and comen into Engeland, and robbede and destroiede al þat þai myght, and sparede no maner þing til þat þai comen to Ȝork. And when þe Englisshemen þat were lafte at [MS Rawlinson B 171 121a] home Wist of þis þing, alle þo þat might trauaile—as wel monkes and prestes and ffreres & Chanouns and seculers,—and come and mette wiþ þe Scottes at Miton op Swale, þe xij day of Ottobre. Allas! what sorwe for þe Englisshe hosbonde-men þat couþe noþing in werr, þere were quellede and drenchede in þe Ryuer of Swale. And her chyueteynes, Sir William of Melton, Erchebisshop of Ȝork, & þe Abbot of Selby with her stedes, fledde, & come vnto Ȝork. And þat was her owen folie þat þai had þat meschaunce, for þai passede þe water ofPage  212 Swale; and þe Sccottes sette in fire iij stackes of hey; and þe smoke þerof was so huge þat Englisshe-men myght nought see þe Scottes. ¶ And when þe Englisshe-men were gon ouer þe water, þo come þe Scottes wiþ her wenge, in maner of a shelde, and come toward þe Englisshe-men in a rawe; and þe Englisshe-men fledde, for vnneþes þai hade eny men of Armes; for þe Kyng hade ham alle almost loste atte þe sege of Berwik; and þe Scottes hobilers went bituix þe brigge & þe Englisshe-men. ¶ And when þe grete host had þaim mette, þe Englisshe-men fledde bituene þe hobilers and þe grete host; and þe Englisshe-men almost alle were þere slayn. And he þat might wende ouer þe water was sauede; but meny were drenchede, Allas, for sorwe! for þere was slayne meny men of Religioun, and seculers, and ek prestes and clerkes; and wiþ miche sorw the Erchebisshop scapede; and þerfore þe Scottes callede hit 'the White Bataile.'

How Kyng Edward dede all maner [MS Rawlinson B 171 121b] þing as Sire Hugh þe Spenser Wolde. Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo tercio.

ANd when Kyng Edward herde þis tydynges, he remevede his sege fram Berwik, & come aȝeyne into Engeland. But Sir Hugh þe Spenser, þe sone, þat was þe Kynges chaumberlein, kepte so þe Kyngus chaumbre, þat no man might speke wiþ þe Kyng, but if he made wiþ him a frett forto done his nede, & þat ouer mesure. And þis Hugh bar him so stoute, þat alle men hade of him scorn and despite; and þe kyng him-self wolde nouȝt be gouernede by no maner man, but oneliche by his fader and by him. ¶ And yf eny knyght of Engeland hade wodes, maneres, or lande, þat þai wolde couette, anone þe Kyng moste ȝeue it ham, or elles þe man þat owede hit shulde falsely be enditede of fforfet or of ffelonye; and þrouȝ soche doynges þai disheritede meny a grete bachiler, and so meny landes geten, þat hit was miche Wonder.

Page  213¶ And when þe lordes of Engeland saw þe couetise and þe falsenesse of Sir Hugh þe Spenser, his fader, and of Sir Hugh his sone, þai comen to þe gentil Erl of Lancastre, and axede him of conseile of þe disese þat was in the reame þrouȝ Sir Hugh þe Spenser and his sone. And in haste, by one assent, þai made a priue assemble at Shirborn in Elmede; and alle þa[i] maden þere an oth forto breke and destourble þe doyng bituene þe Kyng and Sir Hugh þe Spenser and his sone, oppon her power. And þai went into þe Marche of Walys, & destroiede þe Lande of þe forsaide Sir Hughes.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 122a] How sir Hughe þe Spenser and his fader Were exilede out of Engeland. Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo iiijto.

WHen Kyng Edward saw þe grete harme and destrucioun þat þe barons of Engeland deden on Sir Hugh þe Spensers Landes, and to his sones, in euery place þat þai comen oppon. And þe Kyng þo, þrouȝ his Conseile, exilede Sir Iohn Mounbray, Sire Roger of Clifford, and Sir Gosselyn Dauill, and meny oþer lordes þat wer to ham consent. Wherfore þe barons dede þo more harme þan þai dede bifore. ¶ And when þe Kyng saw þat þe barons wolde nouȝt cesse of her cruelte, þe Kyng was sore adrade leste þai wolde destroy him and his reame for his mayntenance, but yf þat he assentede to ham; and so he sent for ham by lettreȝ, þat þai shulde come to London to his parlement at a certeyne day, as in his lettres were conteynede.

¶ And þai come wiþ iij batailes wel armed at alle poyntȝ; & euery bataile hade cote-armur of grene cloþe; and þerof þe right quarter was ȝalwe, wiþ white bendes; Wherfore þat parlement was callede 'þe parlment wiþ þe whit bende.' ¶ And in þat company was Sir Humfray de Bohon, Erl of Herford, and Sir Roger of Clifford, Sire Iohn Mounbray, Sire Gosselyn Dauill, Sire Roger Mortymer, Vncle of Sir Roger Mortymer of Wigemore, Sire Henry of Tyeys, Sire Iohn Giffard, and Sir Bartholomew Badelesmere þat was þe Kynges Stiward, þat þe Kyng hade sent to ShirbornPage  214 in Elmede, to þe [MS Rawlinson B 171 122b] Erl of Lancastre and to alle þat Wiþ him Were, forto trete of accorde þat him aliede to þe barons, and come wiþ þe company, And Sir Roger Damory and Sir Hugh of Audeley þat hade spousede þe Kynges neces, susters to Sir Gilbert of Clare, Erl of Gloucestre, þat was quellede in Scotland, as aboue is saide. ¶ And þo ij Lordes hadde þe ij partes of þe Erldome of Gloucestre; and Sir Roger þe Spenser, þe sonne, hadde þe þridde part on his Wifes behalue,' the þridde suster. And þo ij lordes went to þe barouns wiþ al her power, auȝeynes Sir Hugh, her broþer-in-Law; and so þer come with ham, Sir Roger of Clifford, Sir Iohn Mounbray, Sir Gosselyn Dauill, Sir Roger Mortymer of Werk, Sir Roger Mortymer of Wygemore, his nevew, Sir Henry Trays, Sir Iohn Giffard, Sir Bartholomew of Bedelesmere, wiþ alle her company, & meny oþere þat to ham wer consent.

¶ Alle þis grete Lordes comen to Westminster, to þe Kynges parlement; and so þai spoken and dede, þat boþe Sir Hugh þe Spenser, þe fader & þe Son, were outlawede of Engeland for euermore. ¶ And Sir Hughe þe fader went to Douer, and made miche sorwe, and felle adoun by þe see bank, & clipped acros wiþ his Armes, and sore wepyng, saide: "now, farewele Engeland! & gode Engeland, to Gode y þe bitak!" and þries cussede þe grounde, and wende neuer haue comen aȝein, and Wepyng ful sore, cursede þe tyme þat euer he bigate Sir Hugh his sone, & saide 'for him he hade loste Engeland'; and in presence of ham þat were him [MS Rawlinson B 171 123a] aboute, he ȝaf him his curse, and went ouer þe see to his landes. But Sire Hugh þe sone wolde nouȝt go out of Engeland, but helde him in þe see; and he & his company robbede ij Dormondes bisides Sandewiche, & toke and bar awaye all þe gode þat was in ham, þe Value of xl Ml li.

How þe Kyng Exilede þe Erl Thomas of Lancastre, & alle þat helde wiþ him; and how þe Mortymer come & ȝelde him vnto þe Kyng; & of þe lordes siege. Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo Quinto.

Page  215HIt was nought longe after, þat þe Kyng ne made Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, and Sir Hugh þe sonne, come aȝein into Engeland, aȝeyns þe lordes wille of þe reaume. ¶ And sone after, þe Kyng, wiþ strong Power, come and bisegede þe castel of Leedes: and in þat castel was þe Lady of Badelesmore, for enchesoun þat she wolde nouȝt grant þe castel to þe Quene Isabell, Kyng Edwardes wif. ¶ But þe principal cause was, for encheson þat Sir Bartholomev Badelesmere was aȝeins þe Kyng, & helde with the lordes of Engeland. And noþeles, þe Kyng, by helpe and socoure of men of London, and also þrouȝ helpe of Southern men, þe Kyng gate þe castel, maugre ham alle þat wer wiþin, and tok wiþ him al þat he might fynde. ¶ And when þe barons of Engeland herd of þis þing, Sir Roger Mortymer & oþere meny lordes toke þe toune of Brugeworth with strengh; Wherfore þe Kyng was wonder wroþ, and lete outelawe Thomas of Lancastre & Hounfray de Bohoun, [MS Rawlinson B 171 123b] Erl of Hereford, and alle þat Were assent to þe same querell. ¶ And þe Kyng Assemblede an host, & come aȝeynes þe lordes of Engeland; wherfor þe Mortymers put ham to þe Kynges mercy & his grace; and anone þai wer sent to þe Toure of London, and þere kepte in prisoun. ¶ And when þe barons herd of þis þing, þai comen to Pontfret, þere þat þe Erl Thomas soiornede, and tolde him how þe Mortymers had ȝelde ham boþe vnto þe Kyng, & put ham in his grace.

Of þe sege of Tikhulle. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo iiijxx xvjo.

WHen Thomas, Erl of Lancastre, herde þis, þai were wonder wroþ, & alle þat were of his company, and gretly þai were descomfortede, & ordeinede her power togeder, and bisegede þe castell of Tykhull. But þo þat were wiþin, so manliche defendede ham, þat þe barons might nouȝt gete þe castell. ¶ And when þe Kyng herde telle þat his castell was bisegede, he suore, by God and by his crowne, þat þe sege shulde be remevede, and assemblede an huge power of peple, and went þiderward fortoPage  216 rescue þe castell; and his power encressede fram day to day. ¶ When þe Erle of Lancastr and þe Erl of Hereford, and þe barons and her company, herde of þis þing, þai assemblede al her power, and went ham to Burton op Trent, and kepte þe bruge, þat þe Kyng shulde nouȝt come ouer. ¶ But hit bifell so, þat on þe x day of Marche, in þe ȝere of grace Ml CCC xxj þe Kyng and þe Spensers, Sir Aymer Valaunce, Erl of Penbrok, & Iohn, Erl of Arundel, and her power, went ouer þe [MS Rawlinson B 171 124a] Watere, and descomfitede þe Erl Thomas & his company; and þai fledde to þe castell of Tuttebery; and fro þenns þai went to Pountfret. And in þat Viage deide Sir Roger Dammory, in þe Abbay of Tuttebery.

¶ And in þat same tyme, þe Erl Thomas hade a traitour with him þat men callede Robert of Holonde, a Knyght þat þe Erl hade brouȝt vp of nouȝt, and hade norisshede him in his botelerie, and had ȝeuen him ij Ml marȝ of rent by ȝere. And so miche þe Erl louede him, þat he might doo in þe Erles court what him likede, boþe amonges hye & law; and so queyntely euer he bare him aȝeynes his lord, þat he truste more oppon him þan oppon eny man alyue. ¶ And þe Erl hade ordeynede him by lettre forto wende into þe Erldome of Lancastr, forto make a rise to helpe him þat viage, þat is to seyn, vc men of Armes. But þe said Holand come nouȝt þere, no maner men forto warne, ne to make a rise to helpe his lord. ¶ And when Holand herde telle þat his lord was scomfitede at Burton, as an vntrew man he stale away, and robbede in Rauenesdale his lordes men þat come fra þe scomfiture, & tok of ham horse and harneys, and al þat þai hade, & quellede of ham alle þat he myght tak, and þo come and ȝelde him vnto þe Kyng. ¶ When þe gode Erl Thomas wist þat he was so bitraiede, he was sore abasshede, and saide to him-self, "O almyghty god!" quod he, "how might Robert Holonde fynde in his hert me to bitraye, siþens þat y [MS Rawlinson B 171 124b] haue Louede him so miche? O God, wel may now a man see byPage  217 him þat no man may desceyue anoþer, raþere þan he þat he most trust oppon. He haþ ful euel ȝeldede me my godenesse, and þe worship þat y to him haue done, and þrouȝ my kyndenesse haue him avauncede, and made him hie fram lowe; & he makeþ me go fram he into lowe; but ȝitte shal he dye in euel deþ."

Of þe Scomfiture of Burbrigge. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Centesimo Nonogesimo Septimo.

THe gode Erl Thomas of Lancastre, Hunfray de Bohon, Erl of Herford, and þe barouns þat wiþ ham wer, toke a conseile bituene ham at þe Frere Prechoures at Pountfrett. þo þouȝt Thomas vppon þe traitour Robert Holond, and saide in reprofe, "Allas! Holonde me haþ bitraiede! Ay is in þe rede of somme euel shrede." ¶ And by commune assent þai shulde alle gone to þe castel of Dunstanburghe, the whiche perteynede to þe Erldome of Lancastre, and þat þai shulde abide þere til þe Kyng hade forȝeue ham his male-talent. but when þe gode Erl Thomas þis herde, he ansuerede in þis maner, and saide: "Lordes," quod he, "if we gone toward þe north, men wil seyn þat we gon toward þe Scottes; and so we shul be holde traitoures, for cause of distaunce þat is bituene Kyng Edward and Robert þe Brus, þat made him Kyng of Scotland. And þerfore y say, as tochyng myself, þat y wil go no ferþer into þe North þan to myn owen castel of Pountfrett." ¶ And when Sire Roger Clifford herde þis, he aros vp anone in wraþ, [MS Rawlinson B 171 125a] and drow his suorde, & swore by Almygty God and by his holy names, but if þat he wolde go wiþ ham, he shulde be dede, and þat he wolde slee him þere. ¶ Þe noble Erl Thomas of Lancastre was sore adrade, and saide: "faire sires, y wil go wiþ þow whider-so-euer ȝe me lede." Þo went þai togederes into þe North; and wiþ ham þai hade vijc men of Armes, and come to Burbrig.

¶ And when Sire Andrew of Herkela—þat was in þe Northcontre þrouȝ ordenance of þe Kyng, forto kepe þe cuntre of ScotlandPage  218 —herde telle how þat Thomas of Lancastre was descomfitede, and his company were descomfitede at Burton vp Trent, he ordeynede him a stronge power, and Sir Symond Ward also, þat þo was shirryf of Ȝork, & come & mette þe barons at Burbrig; & anone þai breken þe brige, þat was made of tre. ¶ And when Sir Thomas of Lancastre herde þat Sire Andrew of Herkela hade brouȝt wiþ him soche a power, he was sore adrade, & sent for Sir Andrew of Herkela, & wiþ him spake, and saide to him in þis maner; "Sire Andrew," quod he, "ȝe mow wel vnderstonde how þat our Lord þe Kyng is ladde and misgouernede by miche false conseil, þrouȝ Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, & Sir Hugh þe sone, & Sir Iohn Erl of Arundel, and þrouȝ Maistre Robert Baldok, a false pilede clerc, þat is in þe Kyngus court duellyng; wherfore y praye ȝow þat ȝe wil come wiþ vs, wiþ al þe power þat ȝe haue ordeynede, and helpe to destroie þe venyme of Engeland, and þe traitoures þat bene þerin, and we wil ȝif vnto ȝow þe best part [MS Rawlinson B 171 125b] of v Erldomes þar We haueþ & holdeþ; and We wil make vnto ȝow an oth þat we wil neuer do þing wiþout ȝour consel, and so ȝe shul bene as wele at ese wiþ vs as euer was Robert Holande." ¶ Þo ansuerede Sir Andrew of Herkela, and saide: "Sir Thomas! þat wolde y nouȝt do, ne consent þerto, for no maner þing þat yhe might me ȝeue, wiþouten þe wil and commaundement of our lord þe Kyng; for þan shulde y be holde a traitoure for euermore." ¶ And when þe noble Erl Thomas of Lancastre saw þat he nolde consent to him for no maner þing, "Sir Andrew," he saide, "wil ȝe nouȝt consent to destroye þe venyme of þe reaume, as we bene consented? At on worde, Sir Andrew, y telle þe, þat or þis ȝer be gon, þat ȝe shal be take and holde for a traitoure, and more þan ȝe holde vs nowe; and in worse deth ȝe shul die, þan euer dede Knyght of Engeland; and vnderstonde wel þat neuer ȝe dede þing þat sorer ȝow shal repent. And now goþ and do what ȝow gode likes; and y wil put me toPage  219 þe mercy and grace of God." And so went þe false traitoure, Sir Andrew of Herkela, in his way as a false traitour, a tiraunt, & forsoure man. for þrouȝ þe noble Erl Thomas of Lancastre he vnderfonge þe armes of chiualry, and þrouȝ him he was made knyght.

¶ Thoo might men seen Archieres drawen ham in þat on side and in þat oþere; and Knyȝtes also fouȝten togeder wonder sore; and amonge oþere, Sir Hunfray de Bohoun, Erl of Herford, a worþi knyght of renoune þrouȝout al Cristendome, stode & fauȝt with his enemys apon þe brigge. [MS Rawlinson B 171 126a] And as the noble lorde stode and fauȝt oppon þe brugge, a þef, a ribaude, scolkede vnder þe brigge, and fersly wiþ a spere smote the noble knyght into þe fondement, so þat his bowailles comen out þere. Allas þe sorwe! for þere was slayn þe floure of solace and of comfort, & also of curtesye. and Sire Roger of Clifford, a noble knyght, stode euer, and faught, & wel and nobly him defendede as a worþi baron; but at þe laste he was sore wounded in þe heuede, & Sire William of Sulley & Sir Roger of Bernesfelde were slayn in þat bataile. ¶ And Sir Andrew of Herkela saw Sir Thomas men of Lancastre laske and slake. Anone he & his company comen to the Gentil Knyght, Thomas of Lancastre, & saiden "ȝelde þe, traitour! ȝelde þe!" ¶ The gentil Erl ansuerede þo, and saide: "nay, lordes! traitour be we none, and to ȝow wille we neuer vs ȝelde while þat our lifes lasten; but leuer we hauen to be slayn in oure treuþ, þan ȝelde vs to ȝow." And Sir Andrew aȝein criede oppon Sir Thomas company, ȝellynge as a wolfe, and saide: "ȝelde ȝow, traitour taken! ȝelde ȝow!" and wiþ an hye voice saide: "beþ ware, sires, þat no man of ȝow be so hardy, oppon lif and lyme, to mysdo Thomas body of Lancastre." ¶ And wiþ þat worde, þe gode Erl Thomas went into a chapel, and saide, knelyng doun oppon his knees, and turnede his visage toward þe crois, and saide: "almyghti God! to þe y me ȝelde, and holliche put me into þiPage  220 mercy." ¶ And wiþ þat, þe vileins ribaudes lepten about him, on euery side þat Gentil Erl, as tirauntȝ [MS Rawlinson B 171 126b] and Woode turmentures, and despoilede him of his Armure, & cloþede him in a robbe of Ray, þat was his sq[u]yers liueray, and fourþ lade him vnto York by water. þere might men see miche sorwe and care, for þe gentil knyghtes fledden on euery side, and þe ribaudes and vileins egrely ham descriede, and criede in hye, "ȝelde ȝow, traitoures! ȝelde ȝow!"

¶ And when þai were ȝolden þai wer robbed, and bonde as þeues. Allas þe shame & despite, þat þe gentil ordre of Knyghthode þere hade at þat bataile! And þe land þo was wiþouten Law, for holy cherche þo hade nomore reuerence þan hit hade bene a bordel hous. And in þat bataile was þe fader aȝeins þe sone, and þe vncle aȝeins his nevew; for so miche vnkyndenesse was neuer seyne bifore in Engeland amonges folc of on nacioun; for o kynrede had no more pite of þat oþer, þan an hundred wolfes haueþ on o shepe; and hit was no wonder, for þe grete lordes of Engeland were nouȝt alle of o nacioun, but were mellede wiþ oþere nacions, þat is forto seyn, somme Britons, somme Saxones, somme Danois, somme Peghtes, somme Frenchemen, somme Normans, somme Spaignardes, somme Romayns, some Henaudes, some Flemyngus, and of oþere diuerse naciouns, þe whiche nacions acorded nouȝt to þe kynde bloode of Engeland. ¶ And if þe grete Lordes of Engeland hade bene onelich wedded to Englisshe peple, þan shulde pees haue bene, and reste amongus ham, wiþouten eny envy. And at þat bataile was Sir Roger Clifford tak Sire Iohn Mounbray, Sire William [MS Rawlinson B 171 127a] Tuchet, Sir William Fitȝ- William, and meny oþer worþi Knyghtes; and Sir Hugh Dauill þe next day after was taken and put into prisoun, & shulde haue ben done to þe deþ if he hade nouȝ spousede þe Kynges nece, þat was þe Erl Gilbertus sustre of Gloucestre.Page  221 And anone after, was Sir Bartholomev of Bedelesmer taken att Stawe Park, a maner of þe Bisshoppes of Lincoln, þat was his nevew, and meny oþer barons and baronettes; Wherfore was made miche sorwe.

How Thomas of Lancastre was biheuedede atte Pountfrett, & v barons hongede and Draw þere. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo Octauo.

ANd now y shal telle ȝow of þe noble Erl Thomas of Lancastre. When he was taken & brouȝt to Ȝork, meny of þe citee were ful glade, and oppon him criede wiþ hye voice, "A, sire traitoure! ȝe arne welcome, blessed be God! for now shal ȝe haue þe reward þat longetyme ȝe haue diserued!" and caste oppon him meny snoweballes, and meny oþer reproues dede him. But þe gentil Erl þat soffrede, and saide neþer on ne oþere.

¶ And in þat same tyme þe Kyng herde of þat scomfiture, and was ful glade, and in haste come to Pountfrett; and Sir Hugh þe Spenser, and Sir Hugh his sone, and Sir Iohn, Erl of Arundel, and Sir Edmund of Wodestok, þe Kyngus broþer, Erl of Kent, and Sir Aymer of Valance, Erl of Penbrok, & maistre Robert of Baldok, a false pilede clerc, þat was priue & duellyng in þe Kynges court; and alle þai come þider wiþ þe Kyng. ¶ And Sir Rauf of Beeston ȝaf vp the [MS Rawlinson B 171 127b] castel to the Kyng; and þe Kyng entrede into þe castel; & Sir Andrev of Herkela, þe false tiraunt, þrouȝ þe Kynges commandement tok with him þe gentil Erl Thomas to Pountfret; and þere he was prisonede in his owen castel þat he hade new made, þat stode aȝeins þe Abbay of Kyng Edward.

And Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, and Sir Hugh his sone, caste and þouȝt how and in what maner þe God Erl Thomas of Lancastre shulde bene dede, wiþouten iugement of his peris; wherfore hit was ordeinede þrouȝ þe Kynges Iusticeȝ, þat þe Kyng shulde put oppon him poyntes of traitery. ¶ And so hit bifellePage  222 þat he was ladde to þe barr bifore þe Kynges Iusticeȝ, bare-heuede as a þef, in a faire halle wiþin his owen castel, þat he hade made þerin meny a faire fest, boþ to riche and eke to pore. ¶ And þise were his Iusticeȝ: Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, Sir Aymer of Valance, Erl of Penbrok, Sire Edmund of Wodestok, Erl of Kent, Sire Iohn of Britaign, Erl of Richemond, & Sir Robert of Malemeþrop, iustice; and Sir Robert him acoupede in þis maner: ¶ "Thomas! atte þe ferst, oure lord þe Kyng & þis court excludeþ ȝow of al maner ansuere. ¶ Thomas! oure lorde þe Kyng put oppon ȝow þat ȝe haue in his lande riden wiþ baner displaiede, aȝeynes his pees, as a traitour." ¶ And wiþ þat worde, þe gentil Erl Thomas, wiþ an hie voice saide, "Nay, Lordes! forsoþ, and by Seint Thomas, y was neuer traitoure." ¶ The iustice saide aȝein þo: "Thomas! our Lord þe Kyng put oppon þe þat ȝe hauen robbede his [MS Rawlinson B 171 128a] folc, and mordred his folc, as a þef. ¶ Thomas! þe Kyng also put oppon you þat he descomfitede ȝow and ȝour peple wiþ his folc in his owen reaume; Wherfore ȝe went and fley to þe wode as an outlawe, and also ȝe were taken as an outlaw. ¶ & Thomas, as a traitoure ȝe shull be hongede by resoun, but þe Kyng haþ forȝeue ȝow þat gewys for þe loue of Quene Isabell. ¶ And, Thomas, resoun wolde also þat ȝe shulde ben hongede; but þe Kyng haþ forȝeue þat gewys for cause and loue of ȝour lynage. ¶ But, Thomas, for-asmiche as ȝe were tak fleyng, & as an outlaw, þe Kyng wil þat ȝour heued be smyten of, as ȝe haue wel deseruede. Anone doth him out of pres, and bringe him to his iugement!" ¶ þe gentil knyght, when he hade herde alle þise wordes, wiþ an hye voice he criede, sore weping, and saide: "Allas, Seint Thomas, faire fader! Allas! shal y be dede þus? graunt me now, blisseful God, ansuere!" but al it availede him noþing; for þe cursede Gascoignes put him hider and þider, and on him criede wiþ an hye voice, "O Kyng Arthur, most dredeful! wel knowen now is þin open traitery!Page  223 in euel deþ shalt þow dye, as þow hast wel diseruede." ¶ þo sette þai oppon his heuede in scorn an olde chapelet, al-to rent & torn, þat was nouȝt worþ an halpeny; & after þai sette him oppon a lene white palfray, ful vnsemeliche, and ek al bare, wiþ an olde bridel; and wiþ an horrible noyse þai drow him out of þe castel toward his deþ, and caste on him meny balles of snowe. ¶ And as þe turmentoures lade him out of þe castel, þo saide he þise [MS Rawlinson B 171 128b] pitouse wordes, and his Handes helde vp in hye toward heuen: "Now, þe Kyng of Heuen ȝeue vs mercy, for þe erþely Kyng haþ vs forsak!" And a frere prechoure went wiþ him oute of þe castel, til þat he come to þe place þat he endede-in his lif; vnto whom he shroue him al his lif. ¶ And þe gentil Erl helde þe frere wonder faste by þe cloþes, and saide: "fair fader, abide wiþ vs til þat y be dede; for my flesshe quakeþ for drede of deþ." And soþ forto saie, þe gentil Erl sette him oppon his Knees, & turned him toward þe East; but a Ribaude þat men callede Hugon of Moston, sette hande oppon þe gentil Erl, and said in despite of him: "Sir traitoure, turne þe toward þe Scottes, þin foule deth to vnderfonge"; and turnede þe Erl toward þe North. ¶ The noble Erl Thomas ansuered þo wiþ a milde voice, and saide: "Now, fair Lordes, y shal do al ȝour owen wille." And wiþ þat worde þe frere went fram him ful sore; and anone a ribaude went to him, and smote of his heuede, þe xj Kalendus of April, in þe ȝer of grace Ml CCC xxj. Allas þat euer soche a gentil blode shulde ben don to deþ with-outen cause and resoun! ¶ And traiterousely was þe Kyng conseilede when he, þrouȝ false conseil of þe false Spensers, soffrede Sir Thomas, his vncles sone, bene put to soche a deþ, & so ben-heuedede aȝeyns al maner resoun. And grete pitee hit was also, þat soche a noble Kyng shulde ben desceyuede and mysgouernede þrouȝ false Spensers, þe whiche he mayntenede þrouȝ loselry aȝeins his honour and ek profit; for afterward þere felle grete vengeaunce inPage  224 [MS Rawlinson B 171 129a] Engeland for enchesoun of þe forsaide Thomas deþ. ¶ When þe gentil Erl of þis lif was passede, þe Prioure and þe monkes of Pounfrett geten Sir Thomas body of þe Kyng, and þai buriede hit bifore þe hye auter in the right side.

¶ And þat same day þat þe gentil lord was dede, þere wer honged and draw for þe same querel at Pountfrett, Sir William Tuchet, Sir William Fitȝ-William, Sire Warein of Ysillee, Sire Henry of Bradboure, Sir William Cheyne, barons alle, & Iohn Page, Squyer. ¶ And sone after at Ȝork, wer draw and Honget, Sire Roger of Clifford, Sir Iohn of Mounbray, barons, & Sire Gosselyn Dauil, Knyght. ¶ And at Bristow were draw and honged, Sire Henry of Wynington, and Sire Henry of Mounford, barons. ¶ And at Gloucestre wer draw and hongede, Sire Iohn Giffard & Sire William of Elmebruge, barons. ¶ And at London wer Honget & draw, Sir Henry Tyeys, baron; & at Winchelse, Sir Thomas Culpeper, knyght; & at Wyndesore, Sir Fraunceys of Waldenham, baron; & at Kaunterbury was draw and honged, Sire Bartholomew of Badelesmer & Sir Bartholomev of Assheburnham, barons; And at Kerdif in Walys, Sir William Flemynge, baron.

How Kyng Edward went into Scotland wiþ an Cml men of Armes, and might nouȝt spede. ¶ Capitulo Centesimo Nonogesimo ¶ Nono.

ANd when Kyng Edward of Engeland hade brouȝt þe flour of chiualry vnto þis deþ, þrouȝ conseil of Sir Hughe þe Spensers þe fader, & Sir Hugh his sone, he bicome as wood as a lyoun; and what-so-euer the Spensers wolde haue done, it was don. And so wel the [MS Rawlinson B 171 129b] Kyng louede ham, þat þai might do wiþ him al þat þai wolde; wherfore the King ȝaf vnto Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, þe Erldome of Wynchestre, and to Sir Androv of Herkela þe Erldome of Carlele, in preiudice and harmyng of his croune. ¶ And Kyng Edward þo, þrouȝ conseil ofPage  225 þe Spensers, disheritede alle ham þat hade bene aȝeins him in eny querell wiþ Thomas of Lancastre; and meny oþere wer disherited also, for encheson þat þe Spensers coueitede forto haue her londes; and so þai hade al þat þai wolde desire, wiþ wronge, and aȝeyns al resoun.

¶ þo made þe Kyng, Robert of Baldok, a false pilede clerc, Chaunceller of Engeland, þrouȝ conseil of þe forsaide Spensers; and he was a false rybaude and a couetous; and so þai conselede þe Kyng so miche, þat þe Kyng lete take to his owen ward alle þe godes of þe lordes þat wrongefully were put vnto þe deþ, into his owen honde; and aswel þai token þe godes þat were in holy cherche, as þe godes þat were wiþout, and lete ham ben put into his tresorie a[t] London, and lete ham calle his forfaitȝ; and by her conseile þe Kyng wrought, and disheritede al ham þat þe gode oweden; and þrouȝ her conseil lete arere a talliage of alle þe godes of Engeland; wherfore he was þe richest Kyng þat euer was in Engeland, after William Bastard of Normandy, þat conquerede Engeland. ¶ And ȝitte, þrouȝ consell of ham, him semede þat he hade nouȝt ynouȝ, but made ȝitte euery toun of Engeland fynde a man of Armes oppon her owen costages, forto gon and werr oppon the [MS Rawlinson B 171 130a] Scottes þat Wer his enemys.

Wherfore þe Kyng went into Scotland wiþ an hundred þousande men of Armes at Whitsontide, in the ȝere of our Lord God Ml CCC & xxij. But þe Scottes went and hud ham in Mounteyns and in Wodes, and tariede þe Englisshe-men fro day to day, þat þe Kyng myght for no maner þing ham fynde in pleyn felde; wherfore meny Englisshe-men, þat few vitailes hade, for hunger þere deiden wonder faste, and sodeynly, for hunger in goyng and in comyng, and nameliche þo þat hade bene aȝeyns Thomas of Lancastre, and hade robbet his men oppon his landes. ¶ When Kyng Edward saw þat vitailes failede him, he was þo wonder sore discomfortede, for enchesoun also þat his men so deide, and also for he might nouȝt spede of his enemys; so at þePage  226 last he come aȝeyne into Engeland. And anone after come Iames Douglas and Thomas Randolf wiþ an huge ost into Engeland, into Northumberland, and wiþ ham þe Englisshe-men þat wer dryuen out of Engeland, & come and robbet the contre, and quellede þe peple, and also brent þe toun þat was callede Northallertoun, and meny oþer tounes vnto Ȝork. ¶ And when þe Kyng herd þis þing, he lete [sompne] alle maner men þat might trauaile. And so þe Englisshemen mette þe Scottes atte þe Abbay of Beiheland, þe xv day after Michelmasse in þe same ȝer abouesaide; And þe Englisshe-men wer þere descomfited; & at þat scomfiture was tak Sir Iohn of Britaygn, Erl of [MS Rawlinson B 171 130b] Richemonde, þat helde þe contre and the Erldome of Lancastre; and after, he paiede an huge raunsoun, and was lete gone; and after þat he went into Fraunce and come neuer after aȝeyn.

How Sir Andrew of Herkela was taken, and put vnto þe deþ, þat was Erl of Cardoile. Capitulo CCmo.

ANd at þat tyme Sir Andrew of Herkela, þat newe was made Erl of Cardoile, for cause þat he hade taken þe goode Erl of Lancastre, he hade ordeyned, þrouȝ þe Kyngus commandement of Engeland, forto bryng him all þe power þat he might, forto helpe him aȝeyns þe Scottes atte þe Abbay of Behigland. ¶ And when þe false traitoure hade gadrede all þe peple þat he might, and shulde haue comen to þe Kyng to þe Abbay of Biegland, þe false traitoure lad ham by anoþer contre þrouȝ Copeland, and þrouȝ þe Erldome of Lancastr, and went þrouȝ þe contre, and robbit and quellede folc, al þat he might. ¶ And ferþermore þe false traitour hade take a gret some of golde of Sir Iamys Douglas, forto bene aȝeyns þe Kyng of Engeland, and to bene helpyng and holdyng wiþ þe Scottes; þrouȝ whos tresoun þe Kyng of Engeland was scomfitede at Biheland er þat he come þider; wherfore þe Kyng was toward him ful wroþ, and lete priuely enquere in þe contre about, how hit was. and so menPage  227 enquerede and aspiede, so þat at the laste treuþ was founde, and sought, and he atteint and taken as a false traitour,—as þe noble Erl Thomas of Lancastre him tolde, er þat he were don to dede at his takyng [MS Rawlinson B 171 131a] att Burbrig, and to him saide, þat 'or þat ȝere wer Don, he shulde ben take and holde a traitour': and so hit was, as þe holy man saide. Wherfore þe Kyng sent priuely to Sire Antoyn of Lucye, a knyȝt of þe contre of Cardoile, þat he shulde tak Sir Andrew of Herkela, and put him vnto þe deþ. And to bryng þis þing to þe ende, þe Kyng sent his commission, so þat þe same Andrew was take at Carleel, & ledde vnto þe barr in maner of an Erl, worthely arraied, and with a suorde gert aboute him, and hosede and spored. ¶ þo spak Sir Antoyn in þis maner, "Sir Andrew," quod he, "þe Kyng put oppon þe þat, for-asmiche as ȝe haue bene orpede in ȝour dedes, he dede vnto ȝow michel honour, and made ȝow Erle of Carlele; and þow, as traitoure vnto þi lord þe Kyng, laddest his peple of þis contrey, þat shulde haue holpe him at þe bataile of Bihiland; and þow laddest ham away by þe contre of Copeland, and þrouȝ þe Erldome of Lancastr, wherfor our lord þe Kyng was scomfitede in bataile þere of the Scottes, þrouȝ þi tresoun and falsenesse. And if þow hadest come betyme, he hade yhade þe maistre; and al þat tresoun þow dedest, for þe grete somme of golde and siluer þat þow vnderfong of Iames Douglas, a Scott, þe Kynges enemy. ¶ And our Lorde þe Kyngus wille is, þat ȝe, þe ordre of Knyghthode,—by þe whiche þow vnderfonge al þin honour and worship oppon þi body,—be al brouȝt to nouȝt, and þi state vndone, þat oþere knyghtes of lawer Degre mowe after þe be-ware; þe whiche lorde haþ þe auancede hugely in diuerses [MS Rawlinson B 171 131b] contrees of Engeland; and þat alle may take ensample by þe, her lord aftirward trewely forto serue."

¶ þo commanded he a knaf anone to hew of his spores of hisPage  228 heles; & after he lete breke þe suerde ouer his heuede, þe whiche þe Kyng him ȝaf to kepe and defende his lande þerwiþ, when he made him Erl of Cardoile; and after he lete him vncloþe of his furrede mantel and of his hood, and of his furrede Cotes and of his gerdell. And when þis was don, Sire Antoyne saide vnto him: "Andrew," quod he, "now art þow no knyȝt, but a knaue; and for þi treson þe Kyng wille þat þow bene honged & drawe, and þin heuede smyten of, and þi bowelles taken out of þi body, and þi bowelles brent, and þi body quarterede, and þin heuede smyten of, and sent vnto London; and þere hit shal be sette oppon London Brigge; and þi iiij quarters shal be sent to iiij tounes of Engeland, þat alle oþere mowe be-ware and chastisede by þe." And as Antoyne saide, so hit was done, al maner þing, on þe last day of Ottobre, in þe ȝer of grace Ml CCC xxij ȝere; and þe sonne þo turnede into blode, as þe peple it saw. ¶ and þat durede fro þe morne, til hit was xj of þe Clokke of þe day.

¶ Of þe miracles þat God wrouȝt for Seint Thomas loue of Lancastre; wherfore þe Kyng lete close þe cherche dores of Pountfrett, of þe Prioury, for no man shulde come þerin to þe body forto offre. Capitulo Ducentesimo ¶ Primo.

ANd sone after the Gode Erl Thomas of Lan [MS Rawlinson B 171 132a] castr was martrede, a preste, þat Longe tyme hade ben blynde, dremede in his slepyng þat he shulde gone vnto þe hull þere þat þe gode Erl Thomas of Lancastre was don vnto deþ, and he shulde haue his sight aȝein: and so he dremede iij nyghtes sewyng. And þe prest þo lete lede him to þe same hull. ¶ And when he come to þat place þat he was martred on, deuoutely he made þere his prayer, and prayede God and Seynt Thomas þat he might haue his sight aȝeyne. And as he was in his prayers, he laide his right hand oppon þe same place þere þe Gode man was martredPage  229 on; and a drope of dry bloode and smal sande cleued on his honde, and þerwiþ he striked his eyne, and anone, þrouȝ þe might of God and of Seynt Thomas of Lancastre, he hade his sight aȝeyn, and þankede þo Almighty God and Seynt Thomas. ¶ And when þis miracle was cud amonges men, þe peple come þider on euery side, and knelede, and made her praiers at his tombe þat is in the Priori of Pountfrett, and praiede þat holy martr, of Socour and of helpe, and God herd her prayer. ¶ Also þere was a ȝonge childe drenchede in a welle in þe toun of Pountfrett, and was dede iij daies and iij nyghtes; and men come and laide þe dede childe oppon seint Thomas tombe, þe holy martr; and þe childe aros þere fram þe deþ vnto lif, as meny a man hit saw; & also miche peple wer out of here mynde, & God haþ sent ham her mynde aȝeyn þrouȝ vertu of þat holy martr. [MS Rawlinson B 171 132b] ¶ And also God haþ ȝeuen to creples hir goyng, and to crokede her hondes and her feet, and to blinde also her sight, and to meny sike folc her hele, þat hadde diuerse maladyes, for the loue of his gode martre. ¶ Also þer was a riche man in Coundon in Gascoigne; and soche a maladie he had, þat al his right side rotede, and felle awaie fram him; and men might se his Lyuer and also his hert; and so he stank, þat vnneþ men might come neiȝ him; Wherfore his frendes for him were ful sory. ¶ But at þe last, as God wolde, þai prayede to Seint Thomas of Lancastre, þat he wolde praye to Almighty God for þat prisoun, and bihight to gon to Pountfrett forto done her pilgrimage. And þe goode man sone after slepte ful softe, and dremed þat þe martre Seynt Thomas come vnto him, and enoynted oueral his sike side. And þerwiþ þe gode man awoke, and was al hole; and his flesshe was restorede aȝein, þat bifore was rotede and felle away; for whiche miracle þe good man & his frendes louede God and Seint Thomas euermore after. ¶ And þis gode man come into Engeland, and toke with him iiij felawes, and come to Pountfrett, & come to þat holy martr, and dede her pilgrimage; but þe gode man þat was sik come þider alPage  230 naked, saf his breche; and when þai hade done, þai turnede home aȝeyne into her contre, and tolde of þe miracle wher-so þat þai come. ¶ And also ij men haue bene helede þere of þe morimal, þrouȝ helpe of þat holy martre, þouȝ þat euel be holde incurable.

¶ When þe Spensers herde þat God wrouȝt soche miracles for his holy martre, and þai wolde nouȝt bileue hit in no maner wise, but saide openly [MS Rawlinson B 171 133a] þat hit was grete heresie, soche vertu of him to bileue. ¶ And when Sir Hugh þe Spenser, þe sone, saw al þis doyng, anone he sent his messagers fram Pountfret þer þat he duellede þo, to þe Kyng Edward, þat þo was at Grauene atte Skipton, for cause þat þe Kyng shulde vndo his pilgrimage. ¶ And as þe rybaude þat was messager come to þe Kyng forto don his message, he come by þe hull þere þe gode man was done vnto deth; and in þe same place he made his ordur; and when he hade ydon, he went toward þe Kyng; and a stronge flux him come oppon er he come to Ȝork, and shedde all his bowailles at his fundement.

¶ And when Sir Hugh þe Spenser herde þis tydyngus, somdel he was adrad, and þouȝt forto vndo þe pilgrimage, if he might by eny maner way; And to þe Kyng went, and saide þat þai shulde be in grete sclaundre þrouȝ-out al Cristendome for the deþ of Thomas of Lancastre, if þat he soffrede þe peple done her pilgrimage at Pountfrett. And so he conseilede þe Kyng, þat he comandede to close þe cherche dores of Pountfrett, in þe whiche cherch þe holy martre Seynt Thomas was enterede; and þus þai deden, aȝeyns al fraunchise of holy cherche, so þat iiij ȝer after myght no pilgrime come vnto þat holy body. ¶ And for enchesoun þat monkes soffred men come & honour þat holy body of Seynt Thomas þe martre, þrouȝ conseile of Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe Sone, and þrouȝ conseile also of Maistre Robert Baldok, a false piled clerk þat was þe Kynges Chanceller, þe Kyng consented that þai shulde be sette [MS Rawlinson B 171 133b] to her wages, and Lete make Wardeynes ouer her, owen Godes longe tyme. ¶ And þrouȝ þe commandement of þe forsaide Sir Hugh þe Sepenser, xiiij Gascoignes wel armed kepte þe hull þer þat þe godePage  231 Seint Thomas was don vnto his deþ and biheuedede, so þat no pilgrime might come. By þat way ful wel wende he forto haue binome Cristus might and his power, and þe grete loos of miracles þat he shewede for his martre Thomas þouȝ-out al Cristendome.

¶ And þat same tyme þe Kyng made Robert of Baldok, a pilede clerc and a false, þrouȝ conseile & praier of Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe sone, Chanceller of Engeland. And in þe same tyme was þe castel of Wallingford holden aȝeynes þe Kyng, þrouȝ þe prisoners þat were wiþin þe castel, for Seint Thomas querell of Lancastre. Wherfore þe pep[l]e of þe contre come & tok the castel oppon þe prisoners; wherfore Sire Iohn of Goleinton, knyȝt, and Sir Edmunde of Bech, parson, and a squyer þat me callede Roger of Walton, wer taken and sent to the Kyng to Pounfrett; and þere þai wer done into prison; and þe forsaide Roger was sent vnto Ȝork, and þere he was draw and honged.

¶ And aftirward, Sir Roger Mortymer of Wygemore brak out of þe Toure of London in þis maner: þe forsaide Sir Roger herde þat he shulde bene draw and hongede at London, in þe morne after Seint Laurence day; and on þe dai bifore, he helde a fair fest in þe Tour of London, and þo was Sir Stephen [MS Rawlinson B 171 134a] Segraue, Conestable of London, and meny grete men wiþ him. ¶ And when þai shulde sopen, þe forsaide Stephen sent for alle þe officers of the Tourre; and þai come and soppede wiþ him; and when þai shulde take her leue of him, a squyer þat me callede Stephen, þat was ful priue wiþ þe forsaide Roger, þrouȝ heir conseile ȝaf ham alle soche a drynk, þat þe lest of ham alle slepte ij dayes & ij nightes; and in þe mene-tyme he scapede away by water, þat is to seyn, by þe Tamise, and went ouer þe see, and helde him in Fraunce; wherfore þe Kyng was sore annoied, and þo put þe same Stephen out of his Conestablery.

How þe Quene Isabell went into Fraunce forto treten of pees bituene her lord, þe Kyng of Engeland, & þe Kyng of Fraunce, her broþer. Capitulo Ducentesimo Secundo.

Page  232THe Kyng went þo vnto London, and þere, þrouȝ counseil of Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, and of his sone, and of maistre Robert of Baldok, a false pilede clerc, his Chanceller, lete seise þo alle þe Quenes landes into his owen honde, and also alle þe landes þat were Sir Edward his sones, and were þo put to her wages, aȝeins al maner reson; and þat was þrouȝ þe falsenesse of þe Spensers. ¶ And when þe Kyng of Fraunce, þat was þe Quene Isabelles broþer, herde of þis falsenesse, he was sore annoyed aȝeyns þe Kyng of Engeland and his false conseilers; wherfore he sent a lettre vnto Kyng Edward, vnder his seal, þat he shulde come into Fraunce att a certeyn day forto [MS Rawlinson B 171 134b] done His homag; and þerto he sompnede him; and elles he shulde lese al Gascoigne. ¶ And so Hit was ordeynede in Engeland, þrouȝ þe Kyng and his Counseil, þat Quene Isabell shulde wende into Fraunce, forto trete of pees bituene her lord and her broþer; and þat Olyuer of Yngham shulde wende into Gascoigne, and shulde haue wiþ him vij Ml men and mo of Armes, to bene Senescal and wardein of Gascoign. And so hit was ordeynede þat Quene Isabel went þo ouer þe see, and come into Fraunce, and wiþ her went Sir Aymer of Valence, Erl of Penbrok, þat was þer mordrede sodeynly on a priue sege: but þat was þrouȝ Godes vengeaunce, for he was on of þe Iusticeȝ þat consentede to Seint Thomas deþ of Lancastre, & wolde neuer afterward repente him of þat wicked dede. ¶ And at þat tyme Sir Olyuer of Yngham went ouer into Gascoigne, and dede miche harme to þe Kyng of Fraunce, and þo gete aȝein þat Kyng Edward hade loste, & more þerto.

How Kyng Edward sent Sir Edward his sone, þe eldest, into Fraunce. Capitulo Ducentesimo Tercio.

THe Quene Isabel nad nouȝt bene but a quarter of a ȝer in Fraunce duellyng, þat Sir Edward, his eldest sone, ne axede Leue forto wende into Fraunce forto spek wiþ his moder, Isabel þe quene. And þe Kyng his fader grantede him with gode wille, and saide to him, "go, my fair sone, in Godes blessing and myn; and þenk forto come aȝein as hasteli as þow maiste."Page  233 and he come ouer the see into Fraunce; and þe Kyng of Fraunce, his Vncle, [MS Rawlinson B 171 135a] vnderfonge Him wiþ michel honour, and saide to him, "faire sone, ȝe ben welcomen; and for cause þat ȝour fader comeþ nouȝt forto done his homage for þe Duchee of Ghyen, as his auncestres were wont forto done, y ȝeue ȝow þat lordeship, to holde hit of me in heritage as ȝoure auncestre deden bifore ȝow." Wherfore he was callede Duk of Gyene.

How Kyng Edward exilede his Quene, and Edward his eldest sone. Capitulo CC quarto.

WHen Kyng Edward of Engeland herde telle how the Kyng of France hade ȝeue þe duche of Giene vnto Sire Edward his sone, wiþouten consent and wille of him, and þat his sone hade vnderfonge þe Duchie of him, he bicome wonder wroþ, and sent to his sone bi his lettre, & to his wif also, þat þai shulde come into Engeland wiþ al þe haste þat þai might. ¶ The Quene Isabell, & Sire Edward her sone, were wonder sory and drade of the Kyngus manace and of his wraþ, and principally of the false traitoures þe Spensers, boþe of þe fader and of the sone, & at his commandement þai wolde nouȝt come. Wherfore Kyng Edward was ful sore annoiede, and lete make a crie at London þat, if Quene Isabell and Edward her sone come nouȝt into Engeland, þat þai shulde bene holden as enemys, boþe to þe reaume & to þe croune; and for þat þai wolde nouȝt come into Engeland, but boþ were exilede, þe moder and her sone. ¶ Whe[n] Quene Isabell herd þis tidingus, she was sore adrad to bene shente þrouȝ þe false coniettyng of þe Spensers, and went wiþ þe knyghtes þat wer exilede out of Engeland for [MS Rawlinson B 171 135b] Seint Thomas querell of Lancastre, þat is to seine, Sire Roger Mortymore, Sire William Trussell, Sire Iohn of Cromwell, & meny oþer grete kniȝtes. ¶ Wherfore þai tok her conseill, & ordeined amonges ham forto make a mariagePage  234 bituene þe Duc of Gyene, þe Kyngus sone of Engeland, and the Erles douȝter of Henaud, þat was a noble knyȝt of name, and a douȝty in his tyme. And if þat þing might be brouȝt about and stand, þai trowede, wiþ þe helpe of God, and wiþ his helpe, to recouere heir heritage in Engeland, wherof þai were put out þrouȝ the coniettyng of þe false Spensers.

¶ How Kyng Edward, þrouȝ conseile of þe Spensers, sent to þe Duȝsipiers of Fraunce, þat þai shulde helpe þat Quene Isabell, and hire sone Sir Edward, weren exilede out of Fraunce. Capitulo CCo vto.

WHen Kyng Edward and þe Spensers herde how Quene Isabel, and Sir Edward her sone, hade Aliede ham to þe Erle of Henaud, and to ham þat were exilede out of Engeland for encheson of Thomas of Lancastre, þey were so sory þat þai nist what to done. Wherfore Sir Hugh þe Spenser, þe sone, saide vnto Sir Hugh his fader, in þis maner wise, and saide: "Fader, accursede be þe tyme & þe conseil þat euer ȝe consentede þat Quene Isabel shulde gone into Fraunce forto treten of accorde bituene þe Kyng of Engeland & her broþer þe Kyng of Fraunce, for þat was ȝour conseile, for at þat tyme for-soþe ȝour witte faillede; for Y drede me sore lest, þrouȝ her & her [MS Rawlinson B 171 136a] sone, We shul be shent, but if we take þe better consel."

¶ Now, fair sires, vnderstondeþ how mervaillous folie and falsehede þe Spensers ymagynede & caste; for priuely þai lete fille v barelles ferers wiþ siluer,—þe somme amontede v Ml li,—and þai sent þo barelle oue[r] þe se priuely by an Alien þat me callede Arnolde of Spaign, þat was a brocour of London, þat he shulde go to þe Duȝsipiers of France, þat þai shulde procuren and speken to þe Kyng of Fraunce, þat Quene Isabel and Edward her sone were dryue and exilede out of Fraunce, and, amonge al oþer þingus, þat þai were brouȝ to þe deþ as priuely as þai might.Page  235 But Almighty God wolde nouȝt so; ¶ ffor when þis Arnolde was in þe hye see, he was taken wiþ Selanders þat mette him in þe see, and toke him, & lad him to her Lord, þe Erl of Henaud; & miche ioye was made for þat takyng. ¶ And at þe laste, þis Arnolde priuely stale away fro þens, and come to London. And of þis takyng, and of oþer þinges, þe Erl of Henaude saide to þe Quene Isabel: "dame, make ȝow mery and beþ of gode chier, for ȝe beþ more riche þan ȝe wende forto haue bene; & tak ȝe þise v barelles of Siluer þat were sent to þe Duȝsepiers of Fraunce forto quelle ȝow & ȝour sone Edward; and þenkeþ hastely forto wende into Engeland; and tak ȝe wiþ þow Sir Iohn of Henaude, my broþer, and v C men of Armes; for meny of ham of Fraunce, in whom ȝe haue [MS Rawlinson B 171 136b] hade grete truste, hade grete deintee þow forto scorne: and Almighty God grant ȝow grace, ȝour enemys forto ouercome." ¶ þe Quene Isabel sent þo þrouȝ Henaud and Flaundres for her sodioures, and ordeinede her euery day forto wende into Engeland aȝeine; and so she had in her company Sire Edmund of Wodestoke, þat was Erl of Kent, þat was Kyng Edwardes broþer of Engeland.

How Kyng Edward lete kepe þe costes bi þe see, & lete trie alle the pris men of Armes & footmen also þrouȝ al Engeland. Capitulo CCo vjto.

WHen Kyng Edward herde telle þat þe Quene Isabel and Edward hir sone wolde come into Engeland wiþ meny Alienus, and wiþ ham þat were outlawede out of Engeland for her rebelnesse, he was sore adrade to bene put adoune and lese his kyngdome. Wherfore he ordeynede forto kepe his castelles, in Walis as wel as in Engeland, wiþ vitailles and her apparale, and lete kepe his ryuers, and also þe see costes, wherof þe v Portes token to kepe ham, & also þe see. ¶ And also he commandede ferþermore, & by his lettres ordeynede, þat euery hundred & wapentache of Engeland, ij triors, as wel of men of Armes as ofPage  236 men of foote, and þat þai shulde bene put in tuentysome and in hundredesome; and commandet þat al þo men wer aredy, when eny outesse and crie wer made, forto pursue and tak þe Aliens þat comen into Engeland forto binime him þe land, and forto put him out of his kyngdome. ¶ And more-ouer he lete crie, þrouȝ his patent, [MS Rawlinson B 171 137a] in euery faire and in euery marcat of Engeland, þat þe Quene Ysabell, and Sir Edward his eldest sone, and þe Erl of Kent, þat þai were take, and safly kepte, wiþout eny maner of harme vnto ham doyng; and alle oþer peple þat come wiþ ham, anone smyte of her heuedes, wiþout eny maner raunson. ¶ And what man þat might bryng Rogeres heede, þe Mortymer, of Wigemore, shulde haue a C li of monee for his trauaile. And ferþermore he ordeynede by his patent, & commande, to mak a fire on euery hye hull bisides þe ryuers and in low contres, forto make hye bikenes of tymbre, þat if it so were þat þe Aliens come to þe lande by nyght, þat men shulde tende þe bikenes, þat þe contre miȝt ben warnede, and come and mete her enemys. And in þe same tyme deide Sir Roger Mortymer, his Vncle, in þe Toure of London.

How Quene Isabell & Sir Edward, Duc of Gyene, her Sone, come to land at Herwiche; and how þai deden. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Ducentesimo ¶ Septimo.

THe Quene Isabell and Sir Edward hir sone, Duc of Gyene, Sir Edmunde of Wodestok, Erl of Kent, and Sir Iohn þe Erles broþer of Henaud, and her company, drade nouȝt þe manace of þe Kyng ne of his traitoures, for þai truste al in Godes grace, & come vnto Herwiche in Southfolc, þe x day in þe mounthe of Ottobr, And in þe ȝere of grace Ml CCC xxvj. ¶ And at þe same tyme, at London, þere was Kyng EdwardPage  237 in the Toure at his metee; and a messenger come into þe hall, [MS Rawlinson B 171 137b] and saide þat Que[en] Isabell was comen to lande at Herewiche, and hade brouȝt in her company Sire Iohn of Henaude, and wiþ him men of armes wiþoute nombre. And wiþ þat worde, Sir Hugh þe Spenser; þe fader, spake & þus to þe Kyng saide: "my most worshipful Lorde, Kyng of Engeland, now mow ȝe make gode chere, for certeinly þai ben al oures." ¶ The Kyng saw þis worde comfortable; ȝitte he was ful sorweful & pensif in hert. And þe Kyng hade nouȝt ȝitte fulliche eten, þat þere ne come into þe halle anoþer messager, and saide þat þe Quene Isabel was arryuede at Herewich, bisides Skipwich in Southfolc. Sir Hugh þe Spenser, þe fader, spake to þe messager, and saide: "telle þe soþ in goode fay," quod he to þe messager, "my faire frende, is she comen wiþ a grete strengþ?" ¶ "Certis, sir, soþ forto say, she haþ in her company but vij C men of Armes." And wiþ þat worde, Sire Hughe þe Spenser, þe fader, criede wiþ an hye voice, and saide: "Allas, Allas! we beþ alle bitraiede; for certes wiþ so litil power she nad neuer comen to londe, but folc of þis lande were to her consentede." And þerfore, after mete þai toke her conseile, and went toward Walys, forto arere þe Walshemen aȝeins Quene Isabell and Edwarde her sone, al forto fight; and so þai were in purpos, euerycheon.

How Maistre Walter of Stapleton, Bisshop of Excestre, þat was þe Kyngus Tresorer, was biheuedede at London. Capitulo Ducentesimo Ottauo.

ANd in þe same tyme, Kyng Edward was sore adrade leste men of London wolde ȝelde ham [MS Rawlinson B 171 138a] vnto þe Quene Isabel and to Sir Edward her sone. Wherfore he sent maistre Walter of Stapleton, his Tresorer, forto bene wardein and keper of þe citee of London wiþ þe Mair. and so he come to þe Gildehall of London, and axede þe keies of þe ȝates of þe citee, þrouȝ vertue and strengh of his commission, and wolde haue hade þe Kepyng of þe citee. ¶ And þe communes ansurede and saide, þat 'þai wolde kepe þe citee to þePage  238 honour of Kyng Edward, and of Isabel þe Quene, and of þe Duc, þe Kyngus sone, wiþouten eny mo.' ¶ þe Bisshop was þo sore annoiede, and suore his oth þat þai alle shulde abie, anone as þe Kyng were come out of Walys; and þe communers anon, alle of þe citee, toke þe Bisshope, and lade him amid Chepe; and þere þai smyten of his heuede, & sette his heede in his right hand; and after, þai biheuedede ij of his Squyers þat helde wiþ þe Bisshope; and one of ham me callede William of Walle, þat was þe Bisshoppes Nevew; & þat oþer me callede Iohn of Padyngton. and also þai toke a burgeis of London, þat me callede Iohn Marchal, þat was Sir Hugh þe Spensers aspie, þe fader, and smyten of his heede also.

¶ And in þat same tyme þat same Bisshop hade in London a fair Toure in making, in his cloos oppon þe ryuer of Tamise, þat was wiþout þe Temple-Barr, and him failede stone forto make þerof an ende; wherfore he commandede his men forto gone to þe cherche of þe Frere Carmes; and þere þai toke stone, and made þerwiþ þe tour; and miche sande and morter, and olde robons þer was lefte. ¶ And for [MS Rawlinson B 171 138b] þe despite þat þe Bisshop Hade done to holy cherche, he and his ij squyers were buriede in þat sande, as þauȝ þai hade bene hondes; and þere þai leyen xj wokes til þat þe Quene Isabel sent her lettres to þe communers, and praiede ham þat þai wolde soffre and grant þat þe Bisshop moste bene take out of þat place, & buriede at Excestr, at his owen cherche; and so he was; and his ij squyers were buriede at seynt Clementis cherche wiþout Temple-Barr.

¶ And Hit was nouȝt ful grete wonder þauȝ þat Bisshop deide in euel deþ, for he was a couetouse man, and hade wiþ him no mercy, and euel conseilede þe Kyng. And sone þereafter was Arnold of Spaigne taken, he þat was assentant to haue ladde þo v Ml li of Siluer in v barelles ferers vnto þe Dussipiers of Fraunce, forto helpe and haste the Quene Isabel to hir deþ, & Edward her sone also: and þis Arnolde was done vnto þe deþ wiþout þe citee of London.

Page  239

How Kyng Edward and Sir Hugh þe Spenser were taken, and þe Erl of Arundel. Capitulo CCo ixo.

WHen Kyng Edward hade sent Maistre Walter of Stapleton, his Tresorer, into London, forto kepe þe citee vnto him aȝein þe Quene Isabel his wif, & aȝeyn Edward her sone, anon him-self tok wiþ him Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, and Sir Hugh his sone, & Sir Iohn, Erl of Arundell, & Maistre Robert Baldok, a false pilede clerc, his Chaunceller, and toke here way towarde Bristowe; And þere þe Kyng abode a litil [MS Rawlinson B 171 139a] terme, and made Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, Keper and Conestable of þe castel. And þe Kyng and þe oþer aboue-saide went into shipp, and sailede toward Walys, and toke no leue of þe Styward, ne of none of þe Kynges Householde; and went ouer into Walys forto arere þe Walshe-men aȝeynes Dame Isabel þe Quene, & Edward, Duc of Gyene, her sone, & her company. ¶ But þe Quene, & þe Duc her sone, and þe Erl of Kent, and Sir Iohn of Henaude, went and pursuede after ham; and her power come and encressede euery day; so at þe laste þe Kyng was taken oppon an hulle in Walys, and Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe sone, in þat oþer side of þat same hull, and þe false pilede clerc, ¶ Maistre Robert of Baldok, þere fast bisides ham, and were brouȝt aȝeyne into Engeland, as Almighty God wolde. And þe Kyng him-self was in saf kepyng in þe castell of Kenyworth; and him kepte Sir Henry, þat was Seint Thomas broþer of Lancastre.

& Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader come and put him vnto þe Quenes grace, and to Sir Edward her sone, Duc of Gyene. ¶ But Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe sone, after þat he was taken, wolde ete no maner mete, ne drynk no maner drynk, for he wist to haue no mercy, but onelich he wiste he shulde bene dede. And þe Quene and her conseil ordeynede þo þat he shulde bene done to deþ at London; but he was so feble for his michelPage  240 fastyng, þat he was dede almost for fastyng; and þerfore hit was ordeynede þat he shulde haue his iugement at Hereford; and at a place of þe toune his [MS Rawlinson B 171 139b] hode was taken fram his heued, and also fro Maistre Robert Baldok, þat was a false pilede clerc, & þe Kyngus Chanceller. And men sette vppon her Heuedes chapelettes of sharpe netles, and ij squyers blow in her eres wiþ ij grete bugles hornes, oppon þo ij prisoners; and men might her þo blowyng out wiþ hornes, mo þan a þousand and one. Symunde of Redyng, bifore ham bar her armes oppon a spere reuersede, in token þat þai shulde be vndone for euermore.

¶ And oppon þe morwe was Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe sone dampnede to deþ; and was draw and hongede, biheuedet, & his boweiles taken out of his body, and his bowelles brent. And after he was quarterede, & his quarteres sent to iiij tounes of Engeland, and his heuede sent to London Brigge. And þis Symond, for encheson þat he despisede þe Quene Isabel, he was draw and hongede on a stage made in mydes þe forsaide Sir Hughes galwes. And þe same day, a litil fro þens, was Sir Iohn of Arundel biheuede; for he was on of Sir Hugh þe Spensers conseilers. And anone after wa[s] Sir Hug[h] þe Spenser draw & hongede, & biheuedede at Bristow, and after hongede aȝeyn bi þe Armes bi ij strong ropes; and þe iiij day after, he was hew al to peces; & hundes eten him. And for þat enchesoun þat þe Kyng hade ȝeuen him þe Erldom of Winchestre, his heede was lad þider, and put oppon a spere; and þe false Baldok was sent to London, & þere he deide in prisone amonges þeues, for men dede him no more reuerence þan me wolde do vnto an hunde: and so deide the traitours of Engeland, blissede be AlmyghtyPage  241 God! & [MS Rawlinson B 171 140a] hit Was no wonder, for þrouȝ her conseil th[e] gode Erl Thomas of Lancastr was done unto deth and al þat helden with Thomas of Lancastre þrouȝ þo traitoures were vndon, and alle her heires disheritede.

How Kyng Edward was put adoune. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Ducentesimo ¶ Decimo.

ANon after þis was done, þe Quene Isabel, and Edward hir sone, and alle þe grete lordes of Engeland, at on assent sent to Kyng Edward to þe castel of Kenylworþ, þere þat þe kyng was in kepyng vnder þe warde of Sir Iohn Hothum, þat was þe bisshop of Ely, & of Sir Iohn of Parcy, a baron, for enchesoun þat he shulde ordein his parlement att a certein place in Engeland, forto redresse [and] amende þe state of þe ream. And Kyng Edward ham ansuerede and saide: "Lordes," quod he, "ȝe see ful wel how hit is. Lo! haueþ her my seal. y ȝeue ȝow my power to ordeine a parlement wher ȝe wille." And þai toke herleue of him, and come aȝeyne to þe barons of Engeland, and when þai hade þe Kyngus patent of þis þing, and þai shewede hit to þe lordes, and þo was ordeynede þat þe parlement shulde be at Westmynstre, at þe Vtas of Seint Hillari. And alle þe grete lordes of Engeland lete ordein for ham þere aȝeins þat tyme þat þe parlement shulde bene. ¶ And at þe whiche day þat þe parlement was assignede, þe Kyng wolde nouȝt come þere, as he hade sette himself and assignede. And noþelesse þe barons sent to him, on tyme and oþer, and he suore by Godes soule, þat he nolde come þere on foote. Wherfore hit was ordeynede by al þe grete lordes of [MS Rawlinson B 171 140b] Engeland, þat he Shulde no Longer bene Kyng, but bene deposede; and saide þat 'þai wolde crone Edward his sone Kyng, þe eldeste, þat was Duk of Gyene'; and sent so tydynges to þe Kyng þere þat he was in ward vnder Sir Iohn, Erl ofPage  242 Gerrein, and Sire Iohn of Bothun, þat was Bisshop of Ely, and Sir Henry Percy, baroun, and Sire William Trussell, a knyȝt, þat was wiþ þe Erle Sir Thomas of Lancastr, forto ȝelde vp her homages vnto him for all ham of Engeland. ¶ And Sire William Trussel saide þise wordes: "Sir Edward! for encheson þat ȝe haue traiede ȝour peple of Engeland, and haue vndone meny grete Lordes of Engeland wiþouten eny cause, but now ȝe beþ wiþstand,— þankede be God!—and also for ȝe wolde nouȝt come to þe parlement as ȝe ordeynede at Westmynstre, as in ȝour owen Lettre patent is conteinede, forto trete wiþ ȝour lige men as a Kyng shulde; and þerfore, þrouȝ all þe commune assent of alle þe lordes of Engeland, y telle vnto ȝow þise wordes: ¶ Ȝe shul vnderstonde, Sir, þat þe barons of Engeland atte on assent wille þat ȝe bene nomore Kyng of Engeland, but vtterly haueþ put ȝow out of ȝour realte for euermore." ¶ And þe bisshop of Ely saide þo to þe Kyng, "Sir Edwarde! here y ȝelde vp feautes & homage for alle þe Erchebisshoppes and Bisshopes of Engeland, and for al þe clergye." ¶ þo saide Sir Iohn, Erl of Garrein, "Sir Edward! y ȝelde vp her vnto ȝow feaute and homage, for me, and for al þe Erles of Engeland." ¶ And Sir Henry [MS Rawlinson B 171 141a] þe Percy ȝaf vp also þere his homag, for him and for alle þe barons of Engeland. ¶ And þo saide Sir William Trussel: "y ȝelde vp, Sir, now vnto ȝow my homage, fo[r] me & also for alle þe knyȝtes of Engeland, and for ham alle þat holden by seriauntrye or by eny oþer maner þing of ȝow, so þat fro þis day afterwad ȝe shulle nouȝt be cleymede Kyng, neiþer for Kyng bene holde; but fram þis tyme afterward ȝe shul bene holde a singuler man of all þe peple." And so þai went þens vnto London, þere þat þe lordes of Engeland ham abode; and sir Edward abode in prysoun vnder gode keping; and þat was þe day of þe Conuersion of seynt Poule in þe xx ȝere of his regne.

Prophecie of Merlyn declarede of Kyng Edward, þe sone of Kyng Edward. Capitulo CC vndecimo.

Page  243Of þis Kyng Edward, propheciede Merlyn, and saide þat þere shulde come a gote out of a car, þat shulde haue hornes of siluer and a berde as white as snowe; and a drop shulde come out at his noseþrelles þat shulde bitokne miche harme, hungre, and deþ of þe peple, and gret losse of his lande; and þat in þe bigynnyng of his regne shulde ben hauntede michel lecherie; and saide soiþ, allas þe tyme! ffor Kyng Edward, þat was Kyng Edwardus sone, þat was born in Carnariuan in Walys, for soþ he hade Hornes as siluer, and a berd as snowe, when he was made Prynce of Walys, & to miche he ȝaf him vnto realte and folie. And soþ saide Merlyn in his prophecie [MS Rawlinson B 171 141b] þat þere shulde come out of His nose a drop; ffor in his tyme was grete hunger amonges þe pore men, and stronge deþ amonge þe ryche, þat deiden in strange lande wiþ miche sorw, and in Scotland; and afterwarde he loste Scotland and Gascoigne; and whiles þat him-self was Kyng, þer was miche lecherie hauntede. and also Merlyn tolde and saide þat þis goote shulde seche þe floure of lif & of deþ; and he saide soþ, for he spousede Isabel, þe Kyngus douȝter of Fraunce.

¶ & in his tyme Merlyn saide þat þere shulde be made briges of folc oppon diches of þe see; and þat was ful wel sein at Bannokes-born in Scotland, when he was descomfitede þere of þe Scottes. ¶ And Merlyn tolde also þat stones shulde falle fram castelles, and meny tounes shulde be made playn; and he saide soþ, ffor when Kyng Edward was scomfitede in Scotland, and come þo Southward, þe Scottes bisegede castelles, and dede ham miche ha[r]me, and brent tounes vnto þe herde erþe. ¶ And aftirward Merlyn saide and tolde þat an Egle shulde come out of Cornwaile, þat shulde haue feþeres of golde, þat of pride shulde haue non pier, and shulde despice Lordes of bloode, and after he shulde dye þrouȝ a beer at Gauersiche: and þat prophecie was ful wel knowe, ffor by þe Egle is vnderstonde Sir Piers of Gauaston, þat was Erl of Cornewaile, þat was a wonder prout manPage  244 þat dispisede þe baronage of Engeland; [MS Rawlinson B 171 142a] but aftirward he was biheuede at Gauersiche, þrouȝ þe Erl of Lancastr and þe Erl of Warwik. ¶ And Merlyn tolde þat in his tyme it shulde seme þat þe bere shulde brenne, & þat a bataile shulde be done oppon an Arme of þe See in felde arraiede like a shilde, wher shulde dye meny white heuedes: & he saide soþ; for, by þe brynnyng of þe bere is bitokenede grete drede þrouȝ cotting of suorde. at þat bataile, ordeynede in a felde as a shelde oppon an Arme of þe see, is bitokenede þe bataile of Mitone. ffor þere come þe Scottes in maner of a shelde, in maner of a wynge, and quellede oppon Swale, men of Religioun, prestes & seculers; wherfor þe Scottes callede þat bataile, in despite of Englisshe-men, 'þe white bataile.'

¶ And after, Merlyn saide þat þe forsaide Beer shulde do þe forsaide goot miche harme, and þat shulde be oppon þe Southwest, and also oppon his bloode; and saide also þat þe goot shulde lese miche of his lande, til þe time þat shame shulde him ouercome; And þan he shulde cloþe him in a lyons skyn, and shulde wynne aȝeyne þat he hade loste, and miche more, þrouȝ a peple þat shulde come out of þe Northwest, þat shulde make him bene drade, and him avenge of his enemys, þrouȝ conseile of ij Oweles, þat ferst shulde be in peril to bene vndone; and þat þo ij oweles shulde wende ouer þe see into a straunge [MS Rawlinson B 171 142b] lande, and þere þai shulde duelle til a certein time; and after þai shulde come into Engeland aȝeyne, and þo ij oweles shulde done miche harme vnto meny on, and þat þai shulde conseile þe goot to meve werr aȝeynes [þe] Bere, and þat goot shulde come, and þe Oweles, vnto an Arme of þe Se at Burton op Trent, and shulde wende ouer, and þat for drede þe bere shulde flee, wiþ a swyne in his company, vnto Bur, toward þe North, þrouȝ an vnkynde out-puter; and þat þe Swyn þan shulde be slay with sorwe; and þe bere shulde be slayn ful neiȝ his owen nest, þat shalPage  245 stonde oppon Pountfrett, vppon wham þe sone shal shede his beemes, & meny folc him shal seche for þe miche vertue. and he saide ful soþ; ffor þe gode Erl Thomas of Lancastr was born in þe Northwest, and cosyn to þe Kyng, sone of his vncle; and by lawe he made þe Kyng lese miche lande þe whiche he hade purchasede wel foliche, til at þe laste þe Kyng þerof tok shame, and him-self fillede wiþ cruelte; and after he gate aȝeyne þat he hadde lost, and miche more, þrouȝ folc þat he lete assemble out of þe Northwest, þat made him to bene adrade, and avengede him of his barons, þrou conseile of Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, and of Sir Hugh his sone, þat biforne were outlawede out of Engeland for her wickidnesse. ¶ But afterward come aȝeyne into Engeland Sir Hughe þe Spenser the fader, out of Fraunce, and so miche conseilede the Kyng þat He Shulde Werr oppon Thomas, erl of Lancastr, so þat þe [MS Rawlinson B 171 143a] Kyng and þe Spensers, and þe Erl of Arundel and her power, mete wiþ Thomas of Lancastr atte Burton op Trent, and him þere descomfitede; and Hunfrai, erl of Hereford, was in her company. and after, fledde þe forsaide Thomas and Hunfray, wiþ her company at Burbrig, wiþ sir Andrew of Herkela, þat is callede þe vnkynde out-putter, and also sir Symond Warde, Shirref of Ȝork: þai come and mette wiþ Thomas of Lancastre wiþ an huge company, and ham þere descomfitede. and in þat Scomfiture þe Erl of Hereford was slayn oppon þe brige, cowardly, wiþ a spere, in the fundement; and þe Erl Thomas was taken & ladde vnto Pountfrett; and þer he was biheuedede bisides his owen castel. But aftirward, many a man him souȝt, for miracles þat God dede for him.

¶ And in þat tyme Merlyn saide for sorwe and harme [shuld die] a peple of his land, wherfore meny landes shulde bene on him þe bolder: and he saide soþ, ffor by enchesoun of his barouns þat were done vnto þe deþ for Seint Thomas loue of Lancastre, peple of meny londes bicome þe bolder forto meve werr aȝeyns þe Kyng, for her bloode was turnede into meny naciouns.

Page  246¶ And afterward Merlyn tolde and saide þat þe forsaide Oweles shulde done miche harme vnto þe flour of lif & of deþ, & þai shulde [MS Rawlinson B 171 143b] bring Her vnto miche disese, so þat she shulde wende ouer þe see into Fraunce for to make pees to þe flour de lice, and þere she shulde abide til a tyme þat her seede shulde come & seche her and þere þai shulde abide til a tyme þat þai shulde cloþen ham wiþ grace; and þo ij Oweles she shulde seche, and put ham vnto Spitouse deþ. and þat prophecie was wel knowen and was ful soþ; for, Sir Hugh þe Spenser þe fader, and sir Hugh þe sone, dede miche sorwe and persecucion vnto þe Quene Isabel, þrouȝ her procurment, to her Lorde þe Kyng. ¶ and so þai ordeinede amonges ham þat she was put vnto hir wages, þat is to seyn, xx s. on þe day. Wherfore þe Kyng of Fraunce, her broþer, was wonder sore annoiede, and sent into Engeland by his lettres vnto Kyng Edward, þat he shulde come to his parlement to Parys in Fraunce; but Kyng Edward was sore adrade forto come þere, for he wende to bene arest til þat he hade made Gode for þe trespasse þat þe Spensers hade done, and also grete harme þat þai hade done vnto þe Quene Isabel, his sostre: Wherfore, þrouȝ here ordenance & her consent of þe Spensers, the Quene Isabel went ouer þe see into Fraunce, forto make accorde bituene Kyng Edward and þe Kyng of Fraunce, hir broþer. ¶ And þere duellede she in Fraunce til Edward, her Eldeste sone, come her to seche; and so þai duelled [MS Rawlinson B 171 144a] þere boþe til þat Aliaunce was made bituene Ham and þe gentil Erl of Henaud, þat if þai wiþ his helpe mygh[t] destroi and ouercome þe venyme and the falsenesse of þe Spensers, þat Sir Edward shulde spouse Dame Philipp, þe worshipful lady, þe Erles Doughter of Henaud. ¶ wherfore þe Quene Isabel, and Sir Edward her [son], and Sir Edmund of Wodestok, þe Kynges broþer of Engeland, and Sir Iohn of Henaud, and Sir Roger Mortymer of Wygemore, and Sir Thomas Rocelyn, and sir Iohn of Cromwel, and Sire William Trussell, and meny oþere of þe Aliaunce of þe gentil Erle Thomas of Lancastre,Page  247 þat wer exilede out of Engeland for his querelle, and wer disheritede of her londes, ordeynede ham a grete power, and arryuede at Herewiche in Southfolc. and sone after þai pursuede þe Spensers til þat þai wer take and put vnto spitouse deþ, as bifore is saide, and her company, and also for þe grete falsenesse þat þai deden vnto Kyng Edward & to his peple.

¶ And Merlyn saide also more, þat þe goote shulde bene put into grete disese; & in grete anguisshe & in grete sorwe he shulde lede his lif. and he saide soþ: for after þe tyme þat Kyng Edward was tak, he was put into warde til þat þe Spensers were put vnto deþ. ¶ and also, for encheson þat he wolde nouȝt come vnto his owen parlement at London, as he had ordeyned and assignede him-self, and to his [MS Rawlinson B 171 144b] Baronage, and also wolde nouȝt gouerne ne reule his peple ne his reaume as a kyng shulde done, somme of þe barons of Engeland come & ȝelden vp her homage vnto him, for ham and for alle þe oþer of þe reaume, in þe day of þe Conuersioun of Seint Poule, and in þe ȝer of his regne xx; and þai put him out of his realte for euermore; & euer he leuede his lif aftirward in miche sorw and anguisse.

Of Kyng Edward þe þridde after þe conquest. Capitulo ¶ Ducentesimo ¶ Duodecimo.

ANd after þis Kyng Edward of Carnariuan, regnede Sire Edward of Wyndesore his sone, þe whiche was cronede Kyng, and annoyntede, at Westminster, þrouȝ consent and wille of alle þe grete Lordes of þe reaume, þe Sonday in Candelmasse eve of oure Lady, In þe ȝer of grace Ml CCC xxvi, þat was þat tyme of age but xv ȝer. and for enchesoun þat his fader was in warde in þe castel of Kenylworþ, and eke was put doun of his realte, þe reaume of Engeland was as wiþout Kyng, fro þe feste of Seynt Kateryne in þe ȝer aboue-saide, vnto þe fest of Candelmasse;Page  248 and þo were al maner pleeȝ of þe Kyngus Benche astent. ¶ And þo was commandede to alle þe shirreffes of Engeland þoruȝ write to warne þe partieȝ defendandȝ þrouȝ somp[n]ing aȝein, and also ferþermore þat alle þe prisoners þat were in þe Kyngus Gayole þat were atachede þrouȝ shirrefs shulde [MS Rawlinson B 171 145a] be Late go quiet. ¶ The Kyng Edward, after His coronacioun, at þe prier and biseching of his lieges of þe reaume, grauntede a chartre of stedefast pees to alle ham þat wolde it axe. ¶ And Sire Iohn of Henaude and his company toke his leue of þe Kyng and of þe lordes of his reaume, & turnede home to her owen contre aȝeyn; and eueryche of ham hade ful riche ȝiftes, euery man as he was of value and of State. ¶ And þo was Engeland in pees and in rest, & grete loue bituene þe Kyng and his lordes; and communeliche Englisshemen saide amongus ham þat þe deuel was dede. ¶ But þe tresour of þe Kyng his fader, and of the Spensers, boþ of þe fader and of þe sone, and þe tresour of þe Erl of Arundel, and of Maistre Robert Baldok þat was þe Kyngus chaunceller, was departede after þe Quene Isabels ordenaunce, and Sir Roger Mortymer of Wigemore, so þat þe Kyng hade noþing þerof but at her wille and her deliueraunce, neiþer of hir landes, as afterward ȝe shul here more openly.

How Kyng Edward went to Stanhop forto mete þe Scottes. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Ducentesimo ¶ xiij.

And ȝitte in þe same tyme was Kyng Edward in þe castel of Kenylworth, vnder þe kepyng of Sir Henry þat was Erl Thomas broþer of Lancastr, þat þo was Erl of [Leycestre; and þe Kyng grantede him the erldome of] Lancastre þat þe Kyng hade seisede into his hande, and put out Thomas of Lancastre his broþer, and þo was he Erl of Lancastre & [MS Rawlinson B 171 145b] of Leicestre, and eke Stiward of Engeland, as his broþer was in his tyme. ¶ but Sir Edward, þat was Kyng Edwardes fader, made sorw wiþouten ende, for cause þat he might nouȝt speke wiþ his wif ne wiþ his Sone; wherfor hit was miche meschief; ffor þauȝ hit were so þatPage  249 he were ladde & reulede þrouȝ false conseile, ȝitte he was Kyng Edwardus sone, & come of þe worþiest bloode of al þe worlde; and þilk to whom he was wonede forto ȝeue grete ȝiftes and large, were most pryue wiþ þe Kyng, his owen sone; and þai were his enemys boþe by nyght and by day, and procurede forto make debate and contak bituene him and his sone, and Isabel his wif. but þe ffter Prechoures to him were gode frendes euermore, and caste and ordeynede, boþe nyght and day, how þai might bryng him out of prison. ¶ And amonge her company þat þe ffreres priueliche hade brouȝt, þere was a ffrere þat me callede Dunheuede; and he hade ordeynede an[d] gaderede a grete company of folc forto helpe at þat nede; but þe ffrere was take a[nd] put into þe castel of Pountfrett, and þer he deide in prisone. ¶ And Sir Henry, Erl of Lancastr, þat hade þe Kyngus fader in kepyng, þrouȝ commandement of þe Kyng, delyuerede Edward, þe Kingus fader, by endentur vnto Sire Thomas of Berkelee, and to Sir Iohn Mautrauers; & þai lad him fram þe castell of Kenylworth vnto þe castell of Berkelee, [MS Rawlinson B 171 146a] and kepte him þere safly. ¶ And at Este[r] nexte after his coronacioun, þe Kyng ordeynede an huge host forto feiȝt aȝeins þe Scottes; and Sir Iohn, þe Erles broþer of Henaud, from byȝonde þe see, come forto helpe Kyng Edward, and brouȝt wiþ him v C men of Armes, and arryuede at Douer; and þai hade leue forto gone forth til þat þai come vnto Ȝork, þere þat þe Kyng abode ham. ¶ and þe Scottes comen þider vnto þe Kyng forto make pees and accorde, but þe accordement bituene ham laste but a litel while. and at þat tyme þe Englisshe-men were cloþe alle in cotes & hodes, peyntede wiþ lettres & wiþ floures ful sembli, wiþ longe berdes; and þerfore þe Scotes made a bille þat was fastenede oppon þe cherche dores of Seint Peres toward Stangate. & þus saide þe Scripture in despite of the Englisshe-men ¶ Longe berde hertles, peyntede Hode witles, Gay cote graceles, makeþ Engl[i]ssheman þriftles.

¶ And on þe Trinite day next comyng, biganne þe contakPage  250 in þe citee of Ȝork bytuene þe Englisshemen and þe Henaudres. and in þat debate were quellede of þe Erldom of Nichole and Mordrede, iiijxx and after, þai wer buriede vnder a stone in Seynt Clementis cherche haw in Fossegate. And for enchesoun þat þe Henaudres come forto helpe þe Kyng, hir pees was criede, oppon payne of lif and lime. and in þat oþere Half, it was [MS Rawlinson B 171 146b] fonden by enquest of þe citee, þat þe Englisshe-men biganne þe debate.

How þe Englisshe-men Stoppede þe Scottes in þe park of Stanhope, and How þai turnede aȝeyne into Scotland Capitulo CC xiiij.

And at þat tyme þe Scottes hade assemblede al her power, and come into Engeland, and quellede & robbede alle þat þai might tak, and brent and destroiede al þe North contre þrouȝ-out, til þai come to þe Parke of Stanhope in Wyredale: and þer þe Scottes helde ham in a busshement. ¶ But whe[n] þe Kyng hade herde þrouȝ certeyne aspieȝ wher þe Scottes were, anone right wiþ his host he bisegede þe forsaide park, so þat þe Scottes wiste neuer wher forto gon out, but onliche vnto her armes, and þai abiden in þe parke xv daies; and vitailes ham failede on euery side, so þat þai wer gretly empeyrede of her bodyes. ¶ And siþ þat Brut come ferst into Britaigne, vnto þis tyme, was neuer seyne seþenes so fair an host, what of Englisshemen and of Aliens, and of men on foot, whiche ordeyned ham forto feiȝt wiþ þe Scottes, þrouȝ egging of Sire Henry, Erl of Lancastr, and of Sir Iohn of Henaude, þat wolde haue gone ouer þe water of Wythe forto haue fouȝt wiþ þe Scottes; but Sir Roger of Mortymer consentede nouȝt þerto, for he hade priueliche tak mede of þe Scottes, ham forto helpe, þat þai myght wende aȝeyne into hir owen contre. ¶ And þe same Mortymer counseilede miche Thomas of Broþerton, þat þe Erl Marchal, þat was Kyng Edwardes vncle, þat the [MS Rawlinson B 171 147a] forsaide Thomas shulde nouȝt assemble at þat tyme vnto þe Scottes; and he assentede; but he wiste nouȝt þe doyng bituene þe Scottes and þe forsaide Mortymer. and for enchesoun þat he was Marchal ofPage  251 Engeland, and to him perteynede euer þe vauntward, he sent hastely to þe Erl of Lancastre and to Sire Iohn of Henaude, þat þai shulde nouȝt feiȝt oppon þe Scottes, in preiudice and in harmyng of him and his fee, and if þai dede, þat þai shulde stande to her owen peril. and þe forsaide Erl Marchal was al aredy wiþ his bataile at þe redose of þe Erl of Lancastre forto haue fouȝten wiþ him and wiþ his folc, if he hade meuede forto feiȝt wiþ þe Scottes. and in þis maner he was desceyuede, and wiste no maner þinge of þis tresoun and þus was þe Kyng Principaly desceyuede.

¶ And when it was nyȝt Mortymer, þat hade þe wacche forto kepe of þe host, þat nyght destourblede þe wacche þat noþing most be done. and in þe meny-while þe Scottes stele by nyȝt toward her owen contre, as fast as þai myght; and so was þe Kyng falsely desceyuede & bitraiede, þat wende þat alle þe traitoures of his land had bene brouȝt vnto and ende, as it was saide bifore. ¶ Now here, ȝe lordes, how traterousely Kyng Edward was desceyuede, and how mervailously and boldely þe Scottes dede of werr; ffor þe same nygh[t] Iames Douglas, wiþ CC men of Armes, ryden þrouȝ-out þe host [MS Rawlinson B 171 147b] of Kyng Edward, þe same nyght þat þe Scottes were scapede toward her owen contre, as is a aboue [said], til þat þai comen to þe Kyngus Pauylon, and quellede þere men in her beddes; and criede somme "Noward, Noward!" and anoþere tyme, "A Douglas, A Douglas!" wherfore the Kyng, þat was in his pauyloun, and miche oþer folc, were wonder sore afraiede; but, —blessede be Almyghty God!—þe Kyng was nouȝt taken; and in grete perile was þo þe reaume of Engeland. ¶ And þat nyght the mone shone ful clere and briȝt; and for al þe Kyngus men, þe Scottes ascapede harmeles. and in þe morwe, when þe Kyng wist þat þe Scottes were ascapede, he was wonder sory, and ful hertly wepte wiþ his ȝonge eyne; and ȝitt wist he nouȝt who had done him þat tresoun; but þat tresoun was wel knowe a godePage  252 while after, as þe story telleþ. ¶ The Kyng Edward come þo aȝeyne vnto Ȝork, ful sorweful, and his hoste departede, and euery man went into his owen contre wiþ ful heuy and mornyng semblant. and þe Henaude toke her leue, and went into her owen contre; and þe Kyng, for her trauaile, hugely ham rewarded, and for enchesoun of þat viage, þe Kyng had despended miche of his tresour, and wastede.

¶ And in þat tyme wer seyne ij mones in þe firmament: þat on was clere, and þat oþer was derc, þat men myȝt hit þo see þ[r]ouȝout al þe worlde. and Grete debate was þat same tyme aȝeyn [MS Rawlinson B 171 148a] þe Pope Iohn þe xxij after þat Seynt Petre was Pope, and þe Emperoure of Almaigne, þat made him Emperour aȝeins þe Popes wille, þat þo helde his see at Avy[n]oun; wherfore þe Emperour made his crie at Rome, and ordeynede anoþer Pope þat hight Nicholas, þat was a ffrer menour; and þat was aȝeynes þe right of holy cherch, wherfore he was cursede; and þe power of þat oþer Pope sone was laide; and for encheson þat soche mervailes were seyne, men saide þat þe wor[l]de was neiȝ at an ende.

Of þe deþ of Kyng Edward of Carnaruan, sometyme Kyng of Engeland. Capitulo Ducentesimo Quintodecimo.

ANd now [go] we aȝeyne vnto Sir Edward of Carnaruan, þat was some-tyme Kyng of Engeland, and was put adoune of his dignite, allas for his tribulacioun! and sorwe him bifelle þrouȝ false consel þat he leuede, & truste oppon ham to miche, þat afterward was destroyede þrouȝ her falsenesse, as God wolde. ¶ And þis Edward of Carnaryuan was in þe castel of Berkele, vnder þe kepyng of Sir Morice of Berkeley and of Sire Iohn of Mautrauers and to ham he made his compleynt of his sorwe and of his disese; and oftetymes he axede of his wardeyns what he hade tressepassede aȝeins Dame Isabel his wif, and Sir Edward his sone, þat was new made Kyng, þat þai wolde nouȝt visite him. ¶ [þo ansuerede one of his wardenes] ¶ "My worþi lord, displese ȝow nouȝt þat y shal ȝow telle; þe enchesoun is, for it is done ham to vnderstonde þat, if my Lady ȝour wif come eny þing neiȝ ȝow, þat þePage  253 wolde [MS Rawlinson B 171 148b] her strangle and quelle, and al so þat ȝe Wolde do to my Lord ȝor Sone." ¶ þo ansuerede he wiþ simple chere, and saide: "allas, allas! am y nouȝt in prisoun, and all at ȝour owen wille? Now God it wote, y þouȝt it neuer; and now y wolde þat y were dede! so wolde God þat y were! for þan were al my sorwe passede." ¶ Hit was nouȝt longe after þat þe Kyng, þrouȝ conseil of þe Mortymer, grantede þe ward and þe kepyng of Sire Edward his fader, to Sire Thomas Toiourneye and to þe forsaide Sir Iohn Mautrauers, þrouȝ þe Kyngus lettre, and put out holliche þe forsaide Sir Morice, of þe warde of þe Kyng. and þai tok and lad him to þe castel of Corf, þe whiche castel þe Kyng hatede as eny deþ and þai kepte him þere safly til þat it come to Seint Matheus day in Septembre, in þe ȝere of Grace Ml CCC xxvij, þat þe forsaide Sir Roger Mortymer sent þe maner of þe deþ, how and in what maner he shulde be done to deþ. ¶ And anone as þe forsaide Thomas and Iohn Hade seyne þe lettre and þe commandement, þai maden Kyng Edward of Carnaruan gode chere and gode solace, as þai myght atte þat soper; and noþing þe Kyng wiste of her traitoureȝ. ¶ And when tyme was forto gone to bed, þe Kyng went vnto his bed, and laye, and slepte faste. And as þe Kyng lay and slepte, þe traitoures, false forsuorne aȝeins her homage and her feaute, come priueliche into þe Kyngus chaumbre, and her company [MS Rawlinson B 171 149a] wiþ Ham, and Laiden an Huge table oppon his Wombe, and wiþ men pressede and helde fast adoune þe iiij corners of þe table oppon his body: wherwiþ þe gode man awoke, and was wonder sore adrade to bene dede þere, and slayn, and turnede his body opsadoun. ¶ þe tok þe false tirauntȝ, and as wode traitoures, an horne, and put hit into his fundement as depe as þai might, and toke a spete of Copur brennyng, & put hit & þrouȝ þe horne into his body, and ofte tymes rollede þerwiþ his bowailes; and so þai quellede here Lorde, þat noþing was perceyuede; and after, he was enterede at Gloucestr.

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How Kyng Edward spousede Philippe, þe Erles doughter of Henaude, at Ȝork. Capitulo Ducentesimo xvjto.

ANd after cristes-masse þo next sewyg, sir Iohn of Henaude brouȝt wiþ him Philipp, his broþereȝ Douȝter, þat was Erl of Henaud, his nece, into Engeland; and Kyng Edward spousede her at Ȝork wiþ michel honour; and Sir Iohn of Hothum, Bisshop of Ely, and Sir William of Melton, Erchebisshop of Ȝork, songe þo þe masse, þe Sonday in þe Eve of þe Conuersion of Seynt Poule, in þe ȝer of grace Ml CCC xxvij. ¶ but for enchesoun þat þe kyng was but ȝonge and tender of age when he was cronede, and meny wrongus were Done whiles his fader leuede, for enchesoun þat he trowede þe counseilers þat were false aboute him, þat conseilede him to done oþerwise þan resoun wolde, wherfore grete harme was þo vnto the [MS Rawlinson B 171 149b] reaume and to þe Kyng, and al men directede þe Kyngus dede, and hit was nouȝt—so Almyghty God hit wote,—wherfor it was ordeynede att þe Kyngus crounyng, þat þe Kyng, for tendre of his age, shulde be gouernede be tuelf grete Lordes of Engeland, wiþouten þe whiche noþing shulde be done, þat is forto seyne, þe Erchebisshoppe of Kanterbery, þe Erchebisshop of Ȝork, þe Bisshopp of Wynchestre and þe Bisshop of Hereford, And þe Erl of Lancastre, and þe Erl Marchal, and þe Erl of Kent, þat were þe Kyngus vncles, and þe Erl of Gerreint, Sir Thomas Wake, Sir Henry of Parcy, Sire Olyuer of Yngham, and Iohn of Roos, barons. ¶ Alle þise were suore treweliche forto conseil þe Kyng, and þai shulde ansuere euery ȝere in þe parlement of þat shulde be done in þe tyme of þat gouernaile. ¶ But þat ordenance was sone vndone, and þat was miche losse and harme to al Engeland; ffor þe Kyng and alle þe lordes þat shulde gouerne him, were gouernede & reulede after þe Kyngus moder, Dame Isabel, and by Sir Roger þe Mortymer; and as þai wolde, al þing was done, boþe amonges hye and lawe. ¶ AndPage  255 þai toke vnto ham castelles, tounes, Landes and rentȝ, in grete harme and losse vnto the croune, and of þe Kyngus state also, out of mesur.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 150a] How þe pees was made bituene þe Englisshemen and þe Scottes; & also of þe iustifiyng of Troilebaston. Capitulo ¶ Ducentesimo ¶ Septuadecimo.

THe Kyng Edward, at Whitsontide, þe secunde ȝere of his regne, þrouȝ conseile of his moder and of Sir Roger Mortymer, ordeynede a parlement at Nor[t]hampton; at þe whiche parlement þe Kyng, þrouȝ her conseil and none oþere of þe land wiþin age, grantede to bene accordede wiþ þe Scottes in þis maner, þat al þe feautes and homages þat þe Scottes shulde done to þe croune of Engeland, forȝaf ham vnto the Scottes for euermore, by his chartre ensealede. ¶ and ferþermore an endenture was made of þe Scottes vnto Kyng Edward, þat was Kyng Henries sone, whiche endenture þai callede his Ragemain, in the whiche were contenede alle þe homages and feautes, ferst of þe Kyng of Scotland, and of alle þe prelates, Erles and barons of all þe reaume of Scotland, wiþ her seals sette þeron, and oþer chartres and remembranceȝ þat Kyng Edward and his barons had of her right in þe reaume of Scotland, hit was forȝeue ham aȝein holliche, and also wiþ þe blac crois of Scotland, þe whiche þe gode Kyng Edward conquerede in Scotland, and brouȝt hit out of þe Abbay of Scone, þat is a ful preciouse relique. ¶ And also ferþermore he relessede and forȝaf alle þe landes þat þe barons of Engeland had in Scotland by olde conqueste. and þis pees forto halde and laste, þe Scottes were bonden to þe Kyng in xxx Ml li of siluer, to ben paiede wiþin iij ȝere, þat is to seyne, euery ȝere x Ml li, by even porcions. [MS Rawlinson B 171 150b] ¶ And ferþermore, ouer al þis, þai spake bituene þe Par[t]ies [a]boue-saide, þat Dauid Dritonanter, þat was Robert Brus sone,—þe false tirant and traitour, and false forsuorne aȝeynes his oth, þat aroos aȝeynes his liege Lord, þe noble Kyng Edward, and falseliche made him KyngPage  256 of Scotland, as is saide bifore,—& his sone shuld be Kyng of Scotland, þat was of age but v ȝere. ¶ & so, þrouȝ hir cursede conseil, þis Dauid spousede at Berewik Dame Iohne of þe Toure, þat was Kyng Edwardus sustre, as þe geste telleþ, oppon Marie Magdalein day In þe ȝer of grace Ml CCC xxviij, to grete harme and enpeiryng to al þe Kyngus bloode, Wherof þat gentil lady come, Allas þe time! for wonder miche was þat fair Damysell disparage, siþ þat she was mariede wiþout þe commune assent of alle þe lordes of Engeland. ¶ And fro þe tyme þat Brut hadde conquerede Albyon, and nempnede þe land after his owen name Brytayngn, þat now is callede Engeland, after þe name of Engist; and so was þe reaume of Scotland holde of þe reaume of Engeland, and of þe croune, by feaute and homage. For Brut conquerede þat lande, and ȝaf it to Albanac, his secunde sone; and he callede þe land Albany after his name, so þat þe heires þat comen after him helde of Brut, and of his heires, þe Kyngus of Britaign, by feaute and homage; and fro þat tyme vnto þis Kyng Edward, ¶ þe reaume of Scotland was holden [MS Rawlinson B 171 151a] of þe reaume of Engelond by feaute and by seruices abouesaide, as þe cronicles of Engeland and of Scotland bereþ witnesse more plenerly. and acursede be þe tyme þat þis parlement was ordeynede at Northamton! for þere, þrouȝ false conseile, þe Kyng was þere falsely disherited; and ȝitt he was wiþin age. ¶ And ȝette, when Kyng Edward was put doune of his realte of Engeland, ȝitte men put him nouȝt out of þe feautes and seruises of þe reaume of Scotland, and of þe Fraunchises Disheritede for euermore. ¶ And noþeles þe grete lordes of Engeland were aȝeins to conferme þe pees & the trewes abouesaide, saf oneliche þe Quene Isabel, þat was þe Kynges moder Edward, and þe Bisshop of Ely, and þe Lorde Mortymer. ¶ But resoun and law wolde nouȝt þat a final pees shulde be made bituene ham, wiþouten commune assent of Engeland.

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Of the debate þat was bituene Quene Isabell and Sire Henry, Erl of Lancastre and of Leycestre; and of the ryding of Bedford. Capitulo Ducentesimo xviijo.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 151b]

When þe forsaide Dauid hade spousede Dame Iohne of þe Tour in þe toune of Berwik, as bifore is saide, þe Scottes, in despite of þe Englisshe-men, callede Dame Iohn þe Countesse 'make pees,' for þe cowardise pees forto ordeyne; but þe Kyngus person bare þe wite & þe blame, wiþ wrong, of þe makyng of þe accorde; and al was done þrouȝ þe Quene & Roger þe Mortymer. ¶ And hit was nouȝt longe after, þat þe quene Isabel ne toke into Her Honde al þe Lordeshipp of Pountfrett, and almost al þe landes þat were of value, þat perteynede vnto þe croune of Engeland, so þat þe Kyng had nouȝt forto dispende, but of his Vsues and of his escheker; ffor þe Quene Isabel and þe Mortymer had a grete manie of her retenue, þat folwede euermore þe Kyngus courte, and went and tok þe Kyngus prises for her penyworthes at gode chepe; wherfore þe contre þat þai comen in were ful sore adrade, and almost destroiede. ¶ þo bigan þe communite of Engeland forto hate Isabel þe Quene, þat so miche louede her when she come aȝein forto pursue the false traitoures þe Spensers fro Fraunce, þat same tyme þe false traitour Robert of Holand þat bitraede his lorde Thomas of Lancastre was þo deliuerede out of prison, and was wonder pryue wiþ þe Quene Isabell and also wiþ þe Mortymer; but þat availede him but litel, for he was tak at Michelmasse þat next come after, as he rode toward þe Quene Isabel to London; and Sir Thomas Whither smote of his heede bisides þe toune of Seynt Albanus. and þis Sir Thomas duellede þo wiþ Sir Henry, Erl of Lancastre; and he put him in hidyng for drede of þe Quene, for she louede him wonder miche, and praiede vnto þe Kyng for him, þat þe same Thomas most ben exilede out of Engeland.

¶ And þe noble Erl, Sir Henry of La[n]castr, had ofte-tymes [MS Rawlinson B 171 152a] Herde þe commune clamour of þe Englisshe-men, of þe michel disese þat were done in Engeland, and also for diuerse wrongesPage  258 þat were done amonges þe commune peple, of whiche þe Kyng bare þe blame wiþ wrong, for he nas but ful ȝonge and tendre of age, and þouȝt, as a gode man, forto done away and slake þe slaundre of þe Kyngus persone, if þat he might in eny manerwise, so as þe Kyng was þerof noþing gulti, wherfore he was in perel of lif and lyme. ¶ And so he assemblede al his retynance, and went & spake vnto ham of þe Kyngus honour, and also forto amende his estate. and Sir Thomas of Broþerton, Erl Marchal, and Sir Edmunde of Wodestok, þat were þe Kyngus vncles, and also men of London, maden her oth, him forto mayntene in þat same querele. ¶ And her cause was þis, þat þe Kyng shulde holde his householde and his many as perteynede a Kyng forto done, and haue also his realte; and þat þe Quene Isabel shulde delyuer out of her honde, into þe Kyngus honde, al maner lordeshippe, rentes, tounes, and castelles þat perteynede to þe croune of Engeland, and þat she shulde leue wiþ þe þridde part of þe rentes of Engeland, as oþere Quenes hade done or þis tyme, and wiþ none oþer þing. ¶ And also þat Sir Roger Mortymer shulde duelle oppon his owen Londes, for þe whiche landes he hade holpen disherite miche peple, so þat þe commune peple were nouȝt destroiede þrouȝ hir [MS Rawlinson B 171 152b] wrongeful takyng. ¶ And also to enquere How, and by whome, þe Kyng was bitraiede and falsely deseyuede at Stanhope, and þrouȝ whos conseil þat þe Scottes went away by nyght fram þe Kyng. ¶ And also how, and þrouȝ whos conseil, þe ordenance þat were made at þe coronacion of Kyng Edward wer put adoun, þat is to seyne, þat þe Kyng, for helpyng and amendement of þe reaume, and in honour of him, shulde be gouernede and reulede by xij, þe grettest & wiseste Lordes of þe reaume; and wiþouten ham shulde noþing be graunted ne done, as 'bifore is saide; the whiche gouernances maliciou[s]ly were put adoun fro þe Kyng; wherfor me[ny] harmes, shames and reprofes haue falle vnto þe Kyng and to hisPage  259 reaume. And þat is to vnderstonde, for-asmiche as Kyng Edward, some-tyme Kyng of Engeland, was ordeynede, by assent of þe communite in plein parlement, forto bene vnder þe warde and Gouernance of Henry, Erl of Lancastre, his cosyn, for saluacion of his body he was taken out of þe castel of Kenylworth, þere þat he was in ward, and þrouȝ colour of þe Quene Isabel and of þe Mortymer, wiþout consent of eny parlement, þai tok and lad him þer þat never after none of his Kynrede myȝt wiþ him speke ne see, and after traiterously toke and mordrede him; for whos deþ a foule sclandre aroos þrouȝ-ont all Cristendome, when hit was done. ¶ And also al þe tresoure þat Sir Edward of Carnaryuan hade lefte [MS Rawlinson B 171 153a] in meny places of Engelond and in Walys, were wastede and born away wiþouten þe wille of Kyng Edward his sone, in destruccioun of him and of his folc. ¶ Also, þrouȝ whos conseile þat þe Kyng ȝaf vp þe Kyngdome of Scotland, for þe whiche reaume þe Kyngus ancestres hade ful sore trauaile, and so dede meny a nobleman for her ryght; and was diliuerede al þe right vnto Dauid, þat was Robert le Brus sone, þat no right hade vnto þat reaume, as al þe worlde hit wiste. ¶ And also, by whom þe chartres & remembrances þat þai hade of þe right of Scotland were take out of þe tresorie, and taken to þe Scottes, þe Kyngus enemys, to disheriteson of him and of his successoures, and to grete harme to his lieges, & grete reprofe to alle Englisshe-men for euermore. ¶ Also, wherfore Dame Iohn of þe Toure, þe Kyngus sustre Edward, was disparaged and mariede vnto Dauid, þat was Robert þe Brus sone, þat was a traitour and enemy vnto Engeland; and þrouȝ whos conseil she was tak into our enemys Hondes, out of Engelond.

¶ And in þe mene-tyme, while the Gode Erl Henry of Lancastr and his company tok conseile how þise poynte[s] abouesaide amight bene amendede vnto þe worshipp of þe Kyng, and to his profite, and to þe profite also of his lieges, þe Quene Isabel,Page  260 þrouȝ conietting and sotelte of þe Mortymer, Lete ordein a parlement at Salesbury; and at þe same Parlement þe Mortymer was made Erl of Marche, aȝeins alle þe barons wille of Engeland, in preiudice of þe Kyng and of his croune; & [MS Rawlinson B 171 153b] Sir Iohn of Eltham, þe Kynges broþer, was gert wiþ a suerd of Cornwail, and þo was callede Erle of Cornwaile; and euermore þe Quene Isabel so miche procurede aȝeinȝ hir sone þe Kyng, þat she hade þe warde of þe forsaid Sir Edward and of his Landes. ¶ And at þat parlement þe Erl of Lancastre wolde nouȝt come, but ordeynedd al his power aȝeins þe Quene Isabel and the Mortymer; and men of London ordeynede ham wiþ vj C men of armes him forto helpe.

¶ When þe Quene Isabell wist of the Doyng, she suore by God and by his names ful angrely, þat in euel tyme he þouȝ[t] on þo poyntes. ¶ Tho sent þe Quene Isabel and þe Mortymer after her retenue, and after þe Kyngus retenue, so þat þai hade ordeynede amongus ham an huge ost; and þai conseilede þe Kyng so þat oppon a nyght þai ryden xxiiij [myle] toward Bedford, þere þat þe Erl of Lancastr was wiþ his company, and þouȝt haue him destroiede. and þat night she rode biside the Kyng her sone, as a knyȝt armede, for drede of Deþ. ¶ And hit was done þe Kyng Edward to vnderstond, þat þe Erl Henry of Lancastre & his company wolde haue destroiede þe Kyng and his conseil for euermore, wherfor þe Kyng was somedel towardes him heuy & annoiede. ¶ When þe Erl Marchal and þe Erl of Kent, þe Kyngus broþer, herde of þis þing, þai ryden so in message bituene ham, þat þe Kyng grantede him his pees to þe Erl Henry of Lancastre for a certeyn raunson of xj Ml li; but þat was neuer [MS Rawlinson B 171 154a] paiede afterward. ¶ And þise were þe Lordes þat Helde wiþ Sir Henry of Lancastre: Sir Henry Beaumond, Sir Fouk fitȝ-Warein, Sir Thomas Rooselyn, Sir William Trussel, Sir Thomas Wyther, and about an C of knyȝteȝ mo, þat were to ham consenting; and alle þo were exilede þrou conseile of Quene Isabel & of þe Mortymer, for þe Mortymer couetede forto hauePage  261 her londes, if he might þrouȝ eny maner coniettyng; for he was so couetous, and hade to miche his wille, and þat was Grete pitee.

How Kyng Edward went ouer þe see forto Don his homage vnto þe Kyng of France for þe Duchee of Gyene. ¶ Capitulo Ducentesimo Decimo nono.

HIt was nouȝt longe after, þat þe Kyng of France, þrouȝ conseile of his Dusȝepirs, sent to Kyng Edward of Engeland, þat he shulde come to Parys, and do his homage, as resoun hit wolde, for þe Duchee of Gyene. ¶ And so, þrouȝ consent of þe lordes of Engeland, Kyng Edward went ouer þe see; [and] at Ascencioun he come vnto Parys þe iij ȝere of his regne, forto done his homage [vnto þe Kyng of Fraunce. and þe Kyng vnderfonge his homage] and made michel ioye and worship. But or Kyng Edward hade made his homage vnto þe Kyng of France, hastely he was sent aȝeyne into Engeland þrouȝ þe Quene Isabel his moder; and anone hastely he come aȝeyne into Engeland oppon Whitsonday, wiþout eny takyng leue of þe Kyng of Fraunce; wherfore he was wonder worþ[=wroth].

How Sir Roger Mortymer bare him so proudely & hie. Capitulo CC xx.

[MS Rawlinson B 171 154b]

ANd now shul ȝe hure How sir Roger þe Mortymer of Wygemore, þat desirede and couetede to bene at an hye state, so þat þe Kyng grantede him to bene callede þe Erl of Marche þrouȝ-out al his Lordeship. ¶ And he bicome þo so prout, þat he wolde lese and forsake þe name þat his Ancestre haden euer bifore; And for þat enchesoun he lete him calle Erl of Marche; And none of þe communes of Engeland derste calle him by none oþer name, for he was callede so, þrouȝ þe Kyngus crie þat men shulde calle him þe Erl of Marche. ¶ And þe Mortymer þo bare him so hauten and so proude, þat wonder hit was to wete; and also disgisede him wiþ wonder ryche cloþes oute of al maner resoun, boþe of shaping and of wering; WherofPage  262 the Englisshe-men hade grete wonder, how and in what maner he might contreue or fynde soche maner pride; and þai saide amonges ham alle communeliche, þat his pride shulde nouȝt longe endure. ¶ And þe same tyme, Sire Geffray þe Mortymer þe ȝonge, þat was þe Mortymers sone, lete him calle Kynge of Folye; and so hit bifelle aftirward indede, ffor he was so ful of pride and of wrecchednesse, þat he helde a rounde table in Walys to alle men þat þider wolde come, and countrefetede þe maner & doyng of Kyng Arthureȝ table; but openly he failede, ffor þe noble Knyȝt Arthure was þe moste worþi lord of renoun þat was in al þe worlde in his tyme, and [MS Rawlinson B 171 155a] ȝitte come neuer non soche after him, for alle þe noble knyȝtes þ[r]ouȝ Cristendome of dede of Armes alosede, du[e]llede wiþ Kyng Arthure, and helde him for her lord; and þat was wel sene, for he conquerede a Romayn þat me callede Frolle, & gete of him þe reaume of France, and quellede him wiþ his owen hande. ¶ And also he fauȝt wiþ a Geaunt þat me callede Dynabus and quellede him, þat hade rauisshede Elyne, þat was Kyng Hoeles nece, Kyng of Litil Britaign; and afterward he quellede in bataile þe Emperour of Rome, þat me callede Lucye, þat had assemblede aȝeyns Kyng Arthur forto feiȝt wiþ him so miche peple of Romayns and of Peiȝtes and of Sarasynus, þat no man couþ ham nombre; and he descomfitede ham alle, as þe story of him more pleynloker telleþ. ¶ And in þe same tyme, commune loos sprong in Engeland, þrouȝ conietting and ordenaunce of þe ffrere Prechoures, þat Sir Edward of Carnaryuan, þat was Kyng Edwardus fader, of whom þe geest telles, saide þat he was alif in the castel of Corf; wherfore alle þe commune[s] almost of Engeland were in sorwe and drede wheþer hit were so or nouȝ; þai wist neuer how þe Mortymer traiterousely hade done him mordre.

Page  263

How Edmunde of Wodestok, þat was Erl of Kent, and þe Kyngus broþer, Edward of Carnaryuan, was biheuedede at Wynchestr. Capitulo CCo xxio.

ANd oppon a tyme hit was so, þat Sir Edmunde of Wodestok, Erl of Kent, spake vnto þe Pope Iohn þe xxij at Auy[n]on, and said þat Almyghty God hade meny tymes done, for Thomas loue of Lancastre, meny Gret miracles to meny men and [MS Rawlinson B 171 155b] wymen þat Were þrouȝ diuerse sikenesse vndon as to the world, and þrouȝ his praier þai were brouȝt vnto her hele. ¶ And so Sir Edmund praiede þe Pope hertly þat he wolde graunt him grace þat þe forsaide Thomas might bene translated; but þe Pope saide, 'nay, he shulde nouȝt bene translatede, þe same Thomas, Erl of La[n]castre, vnto þe tyme þat he were bettre certefied of þe clergie of Engeland, and seyne by hir obediens what þing God had done for þe loue of Thomas of Lancastre, after þe suggestion þat þe forsaide Edmunde of Wodestoke, Erl of Kent, had vnto him made.' ¶ And when þis Edmund saw þat he miȝt nouȝt spede of his purpos as tochyng þe translacioun, He praiede him þo of his conseile as toching Sir Edward of Carnaryuan, his broþer, and saide nouȝt longe gon þat he was Kyng of [England], what þing mygh[t] beste bene done as tochyng his delyuerance, siþ þat a commune fame is þrouȝ-out al Engeland þat he was alif, and hole and saf. ¶ When þe Pope herde him telle þat Sir Edward was alif, he commanded þe Erl, oppon his benison, þat he shulde helpe, wiþ al þe power þat he might, þat he were delyuerede out of prison, and saf his body in al maner þat he myght; and, forto bryng þis þing vnto an ende, he assoilede him and his company a pena & a culpa, and alle þo þat halpen to his delyuerance.

¶ Tho tok Edmund of Wodestoke, Erl of Kent, his leue of þe Pope, and comme aȝeyn into Engeland. And when Edmunde was comen somme of þe ffrere prechoures come and saide þat Sir Edward his broþer ȝitte was alyf in þe [MS Rawlinson B 171 156a] Castel of Corf, vnder the kepyng of Sir Thomas þe Gurnay. ¶ þo spede him þe forsaidePage  264 Edmund, as faste as he might, til þat he come to þe castel of Corf, and acqueyntede him, and spake so faire wiþ Sir Iohn Daueril, þat was conestable of þe forsaide castel and ȝaf him riche ȝiftes forto haue acqueyntance of him, and forto know of his conseil. and þus hit bifelle, þat þe forsaide Sir Edmund praiede specialy forto telle him priuely of his lorde his broþer, Sir Edward, if þat he leuede or were dede. if þat he were on lif, he praiede of him ones to haue a sight. ¶ And þis Sir Iohn Daueril was an hye-hertede man, & ful of corage, and ansuerede shortely vnto Sir Edmund, and saide, þat Sir Edward his broþer was in hele & vnder his kepyng, ¶ and derst shew him vnto no man, siþ it was defendede him in the Kyngus half, Edward, þat was Edward sone of Carnauan, and also þrouȝ commandement of þe Quene Isabel, þe Kyngus moder, and of Sir Roger þe Mortymer, þat he shulde shew his body to no man of þe worlde, saf onely vnto ham, oppon peyne of lif and lyme, and to disheritesoun of his heires for euermore. but þe false traitour falsely liede, for he was nouȝt in his ward, but he was tak þens, and lade to þe castel of Berkelee þrouȝ Sir Thomas Gurnay, þrouȝ commandement of þe Mortymer, til þat he was dede, as bifore is saide more plenerly. ¶ But Sir Edmund of Wodestok wist noþing þat his broþer was dede. Wheroppon he toke a lettre vnto þe forsaide Sir Iohn, and praiede him hertly þat [MS Rawlinson B 171 156b] he wolde take hit to Kyng Edward his broþer, as to His worþi Lorde; and he toke þe lettre of him, and bihight to him forto done his message wiþ-outen eny maner faile. and wiþ þat, Sir Edmund to[k] of him his leue, þat is to seyne, of þe forsaide Iohn, and went þo into his owen contre and Lordeship in Kent, þat he hade þer. ¶ And anon as þis same Iohn wist þat Sir Edmund of Wodestoke was Gone into Kent, his owen Lordeship, anone he went in al the haste þat he might fro þe castel of Corf, and come to Sir Roger Mortymer, and toke him þe lettre þat Sir Edmund of Wodestoke, Erl of Kent, hade take him closede, & enselede wiþ his owen seal.Page  265 ¶ And when Sir Roger hade vnderfonge þe lettre, he vnclosede þe lettre, and saw what was conteynede þerin, and gan Hit forto rede; ¶ Wherof þe bigynning was þis:

"Worshippis and reuerence, wiþ broþeres liegeance and subieccioun. Sir knyght, worshipful and dere broþer! if it ȝow plese, y pray hertly þat ȝe bene of gode comfort, ffor y shal so ordeyne for ȝow, þat sone ȝe shul come out of prisoun, and bene deliuerede of that desese þat ȝe beþ in. and vnderstondeþ of ȝour Grete lordeshipe, þat y haue vnto me assentant almoste al þe grete [lordes] of Engeland, wiþ al her apparail, þat is to seyne, wiþ Armure, wiþ tresour wiþout nombre, forto mayntene and helpe ȝour querell so ferfourth that ȝe shul ben Kyng aȝein as ȝe were biforne; and þat þai alle haue suorne to me oppon a boke, and alsewel prelates as Erles & barons."

¶ when Sir Roger þe Mortymer saw and vnderstode þe myght and the [MS Rawlinson B 171 157a] strengþ of the Lettre, anone for wraþ his hert gan bolne, and euel hert bare toward Sir Edmund of Wodestok þat was Erl of Kent. ¶ and so, wiþ al þe haste þet he might, he went vnto Dame Isabel þe Quene, þat was þe Kyngus moder, and shewede her Sir Edmundus Lettr, Erl of Kent, and his wille and his purpos, and how he hade coniettede & ordeynede to put adoun Kyng Edward of Wyndesore, hire sone, of his realte and of his Kyngdome. ¶ "Now certes, sir Roger," quod she, "haþ Edmund done so? be my faderes soule," quod she, "y wil bene þerof avenged, if þat God graunt me my lyf, and þat in a shorte tyme." ¶ And anone wiþ þat, þe Quene Isabel went vnto Kyng Edward here sone, þere þat he was at þe parlement at Wynchestre forto haue amendede þe wronges & trespasses þat were done amongus þe peple in his reaume. ¶ And þo toke she and shewede him þe lettre þat Sir Edmund of Wodestok, Erl of Kent, hade made, and ensealede it wiþ his seal, and bade him, oppon her benyson, þat he shulde avenged bene oppon him, as oppon his dedeliche enemy. ¶ Tho was þe quene so wroþ toward Sir Edmund, Erl of Kent, and cessede neuer to pray vnto herPage  266 sone þat he shulde sende in haste after him. and oppon þat, þe Kyng sent by his lettres after Sir Edmunde of Wodestok, þat he shulde come & speke wiþ him at Wynchestre, alle maner þinges lafte. ¶ And when Sir Edmund saw þat þe Kyng sent after him wiþ his lettre enselede, he hastede him in all þe hast þat he myght, til þat he come to Wynchestre. ¶ But [MS Rawlinson B 171 157b] þo þe Quene Wist þat Edmund was come vnto Wynchestre, and anone she praiede so faste vnto Edward her sone, þat þe gode Erl was arrestede anone, & ladde vnto the barr bifore Robert of Hamond, þat was crouner of þe Kyngus Household; and he associede vnto him Sir Roger þe Mortymer. and þo spake þe forsaide Iohn vnto him and saide: "¶ Sir Edmund, Erl of Kent, ȝe shul vnderstond þat it is done vs to wete, and principalli vnto oure liege lord, Sir Edward, Kyng of Engeland—þat Almyghty God saue and kepe!—þat ȝe beþe his dedely enemy & his traitour, and also a commune enemy vnto þe reaume; and þat ȝe haue bene about meny a day forto make priueliche deliuerance of Sir Edward, some-tyme Kyng of Engeland, ȝour broþer, þe whiche was put adoune of his realte by commune assent of alle þe lordes of Engeland, in enpeiring of our Lord þe Kyngus Estate, and also of his reaume." ¶ þo ansuerede þe gode man and saide: "For-soþe, Sir, vnderstandeþ wel þat y was neuer assenting forto enpeir þe state of our Lorde þe Kyng, ne of his croune, and þat y put me to ben demede oppon my pires." ¶ And wiþ þat word, Sir Roger þe Mortymer shewede him þe Erles lettre & his seal, and saide þo: "Sir Edmunde, knowe ȝe nouȝt þe prynt of þis lettre þat he hade take vnto Sir Iohn Daueryll?" and he saw þe print of his seal, but he saw nouȝt what was contenede þerin; and þe Erl him-self wende þat hit hade bene on of his lettres þat hade bene of no [charge]. [MS Rawlinson B 171 158a] ¶ þo saide þe Erl to Sir Roger Mortymer, þat He wolde nouȝt fo[r]sake þe lettre, and þat was þe prynt of his seal. and anone wiþ þat word, þe wile and falsePage  267 Mortymer bygan to vndo þe lettre, and gan hit forto rede in audience of al þe court. ¶ And þo saide Sire Robert of Hamull, "Sir Edmunde," quod he, "siþ þat ȝe haue made knowyng openly in þis court þat þis is ȝour lettre ensealede wiþ ȝour seal, and þe tenour of þe lettre seiþ þat ȝe wolde haue bene aboute forto haue delyuerede þe body of þat worshipful knyȝt Sir Edward, sometyme Kyng of Engeland, ȝour broþer, and forto helpe him þat he shulde haue bene Kyng aȝeyne, and gouerne his peple as he was wont bifore tymes, in empeiring of our liege lorde þe Kyngus state, þat is now,—wham God kepe fram alle desese!—¶ And þis court wil þat ȝe bene vndone of lif and lyme, and þat ȝour heires bene disheritede for euermore, Saf þe grace of our lorde þe Kyng." þo was þe Erl, Sir Edmund of Wodestok, put aȝeyne into prisoun, vnto ful saf ward til oppon þe morwe; and þo come þe Mortymere vnto þe Kyng, þere þat he satte at his mete, and tolde him how þe Erl was Dampnede by wai of lawe, and also of lyf and lyme, and his heires disheritede for euermore, þrouȝ oppen knoweliching in plein court; wherfore him þouȝt hit were gode þat þe forsaide Erl were hastely quellede, wiþouten wetyng of þe Kyng; for elleȝ [MS Rawlinson B 171 158b] the Kyng wolde forȝeue him his deþ, and þat shu[l]de turne ham vnto miche sorwe so as he was enpechede. ¶ Anone þe Quene Isabel, þrouȝ conseile of þe Mortymer, and wiþout eny oþere conseile, sent in haste to þe baliffys of Wynchestr, þat þai shulde smyte of Sir Edmundes heede of Wodestok, Erl of Kent, wiþout eny maner abidyng or respite oppon peyne of lif and lyme. ¶ þo tok þe bailliffes Sir Edmund of Wodestok out of prisoun, and lade him bisides the castell att Wynchestr, and þere þai made a gonge-fermer smyte of his heuede, for none oþer man derst hit done; & so deide he þere—allas the tyme!—þat is to seyne, the x Day of Ottobre, þe þridde ȝer of Kyng Edwardes regne. And when þe Kyng wist þerof, he was wonder sory, and lete entere him at þe ffrere menoures at Wynchestre.

Page  268

Of the Deþ of Sir Roger Mortymer, Erl of þe Marche. ¶ Capitulo ¶ Ducentesimo ¶ Vicesimo ¶ Secundo.

ANd so hit bifelle at þat tyme, þat Sir Roger the Mortymer, Erl of the Marche, was so prout & so hauten, þat he helde no lorde of the reaume his pier; and þo bicome he so couetouse, þat he folwede Dame Isabell þe Quenes court, þe Kyngus moder Edward, and bisette his penyworthe wiþ þe officers of þe Quenes househalde in þe same maner as þe Kyngus officeres deden; & so he made his takyngus as tochyng vitailes, and also of cariages; and al he dede for enchesoun of Spenses, and forto gadre tresoure; and so he dede wiþout nombre in al þat he myght. ¶ Tho made he him wonder priuee [MS Rawlinson B 171 159a] with þe Quene Isabell; and so miche Lordeshippe And retenue hade, so þat alle þe grete Lordes of Engeland of him wer adrade. wherfore þe Kyng and his Conseile towarde him wer agreuede, and ordeynede amongus ham forto vndo him be pure resoun and lawe, ffor enchesoun þat Kyng Edward, þat was þe Kyngus fader, traterousely þrouȝ him was mordred in the castel of Berkelee, as bifore is saide more plenerly, in the CC and xvij Chapiter of þis book. ¶ And somme þat were of þe Kyngus Conseil louede þe Mortymer, and tolde him in priuetee how þat þe Kyng and his conseil wer about fram day to day hym forto shende and vndo; Wherfore þe Mortymer was sore annoiede, and angry as þe Deuel aȝeynes ham þat wer of þe Kyngus Conseil, and saide þat he wolde on ham bene avengede, how-se-euer he toke on. ¶ Hit was nouȝt longe afterward, þat Kyng Edward and Dame Philipp his wif, and Dame Isabell þe Kynges moder, and Sir Roger Mortymer ne went vnto Notyngham, þere forto soiourne. ¶ and so hit bifell, þat þe Quene Isabell, þrouȝ conseile of the Mortymer, toke to her þe keyes of þe ȝate of þe castelle of Notingham, so þat no man might come neþer in ne out by niȝt, but þrouȝ þe commandement of þe Mortymer, ne þe Kyng, ne none of his Conseil. ¶ And þat tyme Hit felle so þat þe Mortyme[r], as a Deuel for wraþ, bolnede for wraþ þatPage  269 he hade toward the Kynges men Edward, and principally aȝeins ham þat hade him accusede to þe Kyng of þe deþ of Sire Edward his fader. ¶ And priueliche a conseile [MS Rawlinson B 171 159b] was taken bituene Quene Isabel and the Mortymer, and þe Bisshop of Lincolne, and Sir Symond of Bereford and Sir Hughe of Trompeton, and oþer priue of hir conseile, forto vndo ham alle þat hade accusede þe Mortymer vnto the Kyng of his fadres deþ, Sir Edward, of tresoun and of ffelonye. Wherfore alle þo þat were of the Kynges Conseile, when þai wist of the Mortymeres castyng pryuely, comen to þe Kyng Edward, and saide þat þe Mortymer wolde ham destroie, for cause þat þai had accusede him of Kyng Edwardus Deþ, his fader, & praiede him þat he wolde maintene ham in her trew querell; and þe Kyng granted ham hir bone, and saide þat he wolde maintene ham in hir right. ¶ And þise were þe lordes þat pursuede þis querell: Sire William Montagu, Sire Hunfray de Boungh, Sire William his broþer, Sire Rauf of Stafford, Sire Robert of Hufford, Sir William of Clynton, Sir Iohn Neuyl of Horneby, and meny oþere of her consent; and alle þise suorne oppon a bok to mayntene þe querell in-asmiche as thei might.

¶ And hit bifelle so after, þat Sir William Mountagu ne none of þe Kynges frendes moste nouȝt bene herburghede in the castel, for the Mortymer, but went & toke her herbugage in diuerse places in the toune of Notingham; and þo were þai sore adrade leste þe Mortymer shulde ham destroie. ¶ And in haste þere come vnto Kyng Edward, Sir William Mountagu þere þat he was in his castel, [MS Rawlinson B 171 160a] and priuely tolde him þat he ne none of his company shulde nouȝt take þe Mortymer wiþout conseil & helpe of William of Eland, Conestable of þe same castell. ¶ "Now certes," quod þe Kyng, "y leue ȝow ful wel; and þerfore y conseile ȝow þat ȝe go to þe forsaide conestable, and commande him in my name þat he be ȝour frende and ȝour helpe forto take the Mortymer, alPage  270 þing lafte, oppon peril of lyf and lyme." "Sir," quod Mountagu, "Sir,' my lord, graunt mercy!" ¶ Tho went forth the forsaide Mountagu, and come to þe conestable of þe castell, and tolde him þe Kyngus wille. and he ansuerede and saide þe Kynges wille shulde be done, in-asmichel as he might, and wolde nouȝt spare for no maner deþ; and so he suore and made his oth. ¶ þo saide Sir William of Mountagu to þe conestable, in hering of alle ham þat were Helpyng to þe same querell: "Now certes, dere frende, vs bihoueþ forto werche and done by ȝour queyntise, to take þe Mortymer, siþ þat ȝe bene keper of þe castell, and haueþ þe keyes in ȝour [warde]." ¶ "Sir," quod þe conestable, "wil ȝe vnderstonde þat þe gates of þe castel beþ loked wiþ þe lokes þat Dame Isabel sent hider; and by nyght she haþ þe keyes þerof, and leiþ ham vnder þe cheuesel of her bede vnto the morne; and so y may nouȝt come into þe castel by þe ȝates in no maner wise; but y know a Alie þat stracches out of the ward, vnder erþe, vnto the castel, þat goþe into þe weste, the whiche alie Dame Isabel [MS Rawlinson B 171 160b] þe Quene, ne none of her men, ne þe Mortymer, ne none of his company knoweþ hit nouȝt; and so y shal lede ȝow þrouȝ þat Alie; and so ȝe shul come into þe castel wiþout aspies of eny man þat beþ ȝour enemys."

¶ And þat same nyght Sir William Mountagu, & alle the lordes of þe querell, and þe same Conestable also, went ham to horse, and made semblant as hit wer forto wende out of þe Mortymeres sight; but anone as þe Mortymer herde þis tydyngus, he wende þat þai wolde haue gone ouer þe see for drede of him; & anone he and his company toke conseile amonges ham forto lette hir passage, and sent lettres anone vnto the portes, so þat none of the grete lordes shulde wende ham home into her owen contre, but if he were areste & taken. ¶ And amonge oþere þingus, William Eland, Conestable of þe forsaide castel, priueliche lade Sir William Mountagu and his company by þe forsaide way vnderPage  271 the erþ, so til þat þai comen into the castel, and went vp into the Toure þere þat þe Mortymer was in. But Sir Hughe of Trompiton ham ascriede hidously, and saide, "A, traitoures! hit is al for nouȝt þat ȝe beþ comen into þis castel. ȝe shul dye ȝitte in euel deþ euerychon." And anone on of ham þat was in the Mountagues company, vp wiþ a mace, and smote the same Hughe oppon þe heuede, þat þe bray[n] barst out and felle on þe Ground; and so was he dede in euel deþ. ¶ Tho toke þai þe Mortymer, as he Armede him atte þe toures [MS Rawlinson B 171 161a] dore, When he herde þe noise of ham for drede. And When Quene Isabell saw þat þe Mortymer was taken, she made miche sorwe in hert, and þise wordes vnto ham saide: ¶ "Now, fair sires, y ȝow praye þat ȝe done non harme vnto his body; a worþi knyȝt, our wel bilouede frende and our dere cosyn." ¶ Tho went þai þens, and come & brouȝt the Mortymer, and presentede him vnto Kyng Edward, and commaundede to brynge him into sauf ward. ¶ But anone as þai þat were consent vnto þe Mortymeres doyng herde telle þat he was taken, þai went and hid ham, and priueliche by niȝt went out of the toune, eueryche on his side, wiþ heuy hert and mornyng, & leuede oppon her owen londes as wel as þai myght. ¶ And so þe same ȝer þat þe Mortymer was taken, he hade at his retynu ixxx knyghtȝ, wiþouten squyers & serieantȝ of Armes and footmen. And þo was þe Mortymer lade to London, and Sir Symond of Bereford was lad wiþ him, and was take to þe conestable to kepe. ¶ But afterward was þe Mortymers lif examynede at Westminster bifore þe Kyng & bifore alle þe grete Lordes of Engeland for peril þat might falle to þe reaume, & forto enquer also whiche wer assentyng vnto Sir Edwardes deþ, þe Kyngus fader, and also þrouȝ whom þe Scottes askaped at Stanhope into Scotland wiþout þe wille of Kyng Edward; ¶ And also how the chartre of Ragaman was delyuerede vnto þe Scottes, wherin [MS Rawlinson B 171 161b] þe Homages and feauteesPage  272 of Scotland were contened, þat þe Scottes shulde do euermore to þe Kyngus of Engeland for þe reaume of Scotland. Wherfore in his absence he was dampnede to bene honget & draw for his tresoun. And þis meschief come to him on Seint Andrewes eve, In þe ȝere of þe incarnacion of our Lord Ihesu Criste, Ml CCC xxx.

How Kyng Edward gete aȝeyn into his honde graciouseliche þe feautes and þe homages of Scotland, wherof he was put out þrouȝ þe false conseil of Isabell his moder, & of Sir Rogere Mortymer þat was made Erl of þe Marche. Capitulo Ducentesimo xxiijto.

NOw ȝe haue [herde] Lordes, how Sir Iohn of Bailoil, in tyme of pees, was chosen to bene Kyng of Scotland, for encheson þat he come of þe eldest douȝter of þe Erl Dauid of Huntingdon, þat was Kyng Alisaundres broþer of Scotland, þat deide wiþouten heir of his body bigeten; and how þis Iohn made feaute & homage to Kyng Edward, þat was Kyng Henries sone þe þrid, for his landes of Scotland; and how he afterward wiþsaide his homages, þrouȝ conseile of þe Scottes, In þe ȝere of the Incarnacion Ml cclxxijo, and sende vnto þe pope, þrouȝ false suggestion þat he made his oth vnto þe forsaid sir Edward, ouer his estate and his wille, of þe whiche oth þe Pop assoilede him, þrouȝ his bulles to him sent. ¶ And anone as Kynge Edward wiste þerof, he ordeynede anone his [MS Rawlinson B 171 162a] barons, and come Vnto Berewike, and conquerede þe toune; at þe whiche conqueste þere were slayn xxv Ml & vijc. and Bailoil, þat was Kyng of Scotland, come & ȝelde him vnto Kyng Edward; and þe Kyng afterward delyuerede him out of þe tour of London, and alle þePage  273 grete lorde[s] of Scotland wiþ him, þat were taken at Berwike, and ȝaf ham sauf condit to gon into Scotland. And the Scottes seþenes, þrouȝ her falsenesse, werrede oppon Kyng Edward. ¶ And when Sir Iohn Bailoile, Kyng of Scotland, saw al þis, he went & put him ouer þe see vnto Dompier, and leuede þere oppon his owen landes as wel as he might, til þat þe Scottis wolde amende ham of hir misdedes & trespasseȝ, and lad with him Sir Edward, his sone. Wherfore þe Scottes, in despite of him, callede him "Sir Iohn Turnetabard," for cause þat he wolde nouȝt offende ne trespasse aȝeynes Kyng Edward of Engeland; and so he forsoke his reaume of Scotland, and sette þerof but litil pris. ¶ And þis Sir Iohn, Longe duellede in Fraunce, til þat he deide þere; and Sir Edward his sone vnderfonge his heritage, and dede homage vnto þe Kyng of France for his landes of Dunpier.

¶ And so hit felle afterward þat Edwarde, þat was Iohn Bailoilles sone, had wiþ him a squyer of Engeland þat was born in Ȝork-shire, þat men callede Iohn of Barnaby; and þis Edward Bailoil louede him miche, & was neiȝ him, and wiþ him ful pryuee. [MS Rawlinson B 171 162b] ¶ And so þis Iohn of Bernaby was in debate with a Frenche-man in þe toune of Dounpier and so he quellede him, and went in his way, in al the haste þat he might, into þe castel fortil haue socoure and helpe of his lord. ¶ And anone come þe Officeres of þe toune forto take Iohn of Barnaby as a feloun. and Sir Edward, his lorde, halpe him, and rescuede him, and by nyȝt made him wende out of the castel; and so he went his way, and come into Engeland with-oute eny harme. ¶ And when þe Kyng of Fraunce saw þat Sir Edward had rescuede his feloun, he bicome wonder wroþ aȝeyns Sir Edward, and anon lete him bene arest, and toke into his hande alle his landes. ¶ Tho duellede Sir Edward in prison vnto þe tyme þat Sir Henry Beaumond come into Fraunce; þe whiche Henry some-tyme was Erl of Angos in Scotland, þrouȝ his wif, and was put out of þe forsaide Erldome when þe accord was made bituene Engeland & Scotland, þrouȝ þe Quene Isabell & Sir Rogere þePage  274 Mortymer & her companye, for þe mariage þat she made bituene Dauid, þat was Robert þe Brus sone, and Dame Iohn of þe toure, Kyng Edwardus sustre of Engeland, and wel vnderstode þis, þat at the ende he shulde come to his ryght, but if [it] were þrouȝ þe Edward Bailloill, þat was right heir of the reaume of Scotland. ¶ And þe Kyng of Fraunce, Lowys, louede wel þis Sir Henry, and was wiþ him ful priuee, and [MS Rawlinson B 171 163a] þouȝt forto make delyuerance of Sir Edward Bailoiles body, if he might in eny maner. ¶ Tho praiede he þe Kyng, þat he wolde graunt him of his grace Sir Edward Bailoilles body vnto þe next parlement, þat he miȝt leue wiþ his owen rentes in þe mene-tyme, and þat he myȝt stande to bene Iugede by his pieris at the parlement. ¶ the Kyng grantede him his praieres, and made þe forsaide Sir Edward ben delyuerede out of prisoun in the maner aboue-saide. and anone as he was out of prisoun, Sir Henry toke him forth wiþ him, & lad him into Engeland and made him duelle priueliche in the Maner of Sandhal oppon Owes in Ȝorke-shire, wiþ þe Lady Vescy. and so he ordeynede him þere an Huge retenance of peple of Englisshemen, and also of Aliens, forto conquere aȝeyne his heritage. ¶ And so he ȝaf miche siluer vnto soudeoures and to Alienes forto helpe him; and þai bihight him forto helpe in al þat þai might, but þai failede him at his most nede.

And at þat tyme Donalde, Erl of Morref, herde telle how þat Sir Edward was comen into Engeland, and come to him, and made wiþ him grete ioye of his commyng aȝeyne, and saide to him, and bihigh[t] þat alle grete lordes of Scotland shulde bene to him entendant, and holde him for hir Kyng, as right heir of Scotland. and so miche þai wolde done, þat he shulde be crounede Kyng of þat lande, and to him dede feaute & Homage. [MS Rawlinson B 171 163b] þo come Sir Henry of Beaumond to Kyng Edward of Engeland, and praiede him, in way of charite, þat he wolde grantPage  275 of his grace vnto Sir Edwarde Bailoil, þat he moste safliche gone bi land fram Sandhall vnto Scotland, forto conquere his riȝt heritage in Scotland. ¶ the Kyng Edward ansuerede and saide vnto him: "yf þat y soffre þe Bailoil wende þrouȝ my londe toward Scotland, þan þe peple wolde say þat y were assenting to þe company." ¶ "Now, Sir, y praie ȝow þat ȝe wolde grant him leue to take vnto [him] soudeoures of Englisshe-men, þat þai myȝt safly lede him þrouȝ ȝour land vnto Scotland; and, Sir, oppon þis couena[n]t, þat if it so bifalle—þat God hit forbede!—þat þai bene descomfited in bataile þrouȝ þe Scottes, þat y and alle þe lordes þat holden with Bailoil ben for euermore put out of oure rentȝ þat we haueþ in Engeland." ¶ and þe Kyng, oppon þis couenant, grantede hir bone, as toching him and þo þat were of þe same querell, þe whiche cleimede forto haue londes & rentȝ in þe reaume of Scotland. ¶ And þise were þe names of þe same Lordes þat pursuede þis mater, þat is to seyn, Sir Edward Bailoil, þat chalangede þe reaume of Scotland; Sir Henry Beaumond, Erl of Angos; Sir Dauid of Stroboly, Erle of Atheles; Sire Geffray of Mountbray, Walter Comyn, and meny oþere þat were put out of hir heritage in Scotland when þe pees was [MS Rawlinson B 171 164a] made bituene Engeland and Scotland, as bifore is saide.

¶ And ȝe shal vnderstond þat þise lordes toke wiþ ham v C men of Armes and ij Ml Archires of footmen, and þo went vnto ship atte Rauenesere, and sailede by þe see til þat þai come vnto Scotland, and come to lande at Kynkecorne, xij mile fro Seint Iohnes toune, and sende oute hier shippes aȝeine, for þai shulde nouȝt ben hurt ne apairede, neiþer þat no man shulde gone into shippe aȝeyne, þouȝ þat þai hade nede, but abide at al periles, and nouȝt flee, but stande, and raþer soffre deþ þan flee, to mayntene hir trew querelle. ¶ when þe Erl of Fif, a fers man and a sterne, herde telle þat þe Bailoil was comen forto take þe lande of Scotland, he come in haste vnto Kynkecorn wiþ x Ml Scottes, forto destourble him, þat he shulde nouȝt come to land. ¶ But Sir Edward Bailoil and his company had taken þe land, maugrePage  276 him and his company, and him descomfitede; at þe whiche scomfiture Sir Alisandre of Seton was þer quellede, and meny oþer. ¶ The Erl of Fif was þo wonder sory, and ful euel shamede þat so litil company hade him descomfitede, and shamefulliche put him & alle his company þat was alif forto flee. þo come Sir Edward the Bailoil, and toke þe contre al about him, til þat he come to þe Abbay of Dunfermelyn; and þere he fonde vitailes for him and [MS Rawlinson B 171 164b] for his men. and amonge all oþer þinges, He fonde in a chambre aboue v C of grete stafes of fyne oke, with longe pikes of yren and of stele: he tok and delyuerede ham to þe most strongeste of his company. ¶ And anone after he went fro þens, and loggede him in a felde ij mile fro Seint Iohn toune. and when þe burgeys of þe toune herde how þe Erl was descomfitede þrouȝ Sir Edward Bailloile, þai were sore adrade, and broken þe briggeȝ þat þai had made ouer þe water of Erne, so þat þe Bailoil might nouȝt gon ouer; Wherfore he loggede him þere al þat nyght, but litel hede he toke to reste, and saide vnto his peple, ¶ "Now, dere lordes, ȝe knowe ful wel þat we bene now loggede bituene oure enemys; and if þai mow vs hampre, þere nys but litil deþ; whe[r]fore if we abide here all þis nyght stille, y leue þat hit shal turne vs to miche harme; for þe power of Scotland may euery day wax and encresce, and we may nouȝt so; and we bene ful litel peple as aȝeins ham. whefore y praye ȝow, for the loue of Almyghty God, make we vs bolde and hardy, and þat we mow mightely take þe Scottes þis nyght, and boldely werr oppon ham; and late vs pu[r]sue ham þis niȝt; and if þai bene trauailede þrouȝ vs, and þai see oure hardynesse, so þat oþere Scottis þat comen, and mete ham & see ham so trauailede and wery, þe sorer wil bene adrade wiþ vs forto feiȝten; and fressheliche þan we shullen [MS Rawlinson B 171 165a] feiȝt, and oppon Ham pursue, so þat, þrouȝ the grace of Almighty God, al the worlde shal speke of þe douȝtynesse of our chaiualry." ¶ And, sires, vnderstondeþPage  277 wel þat all the company þat come with Sir Edward Bailoile grauntede wel vnto þis conseil, and were þerof glade, and anone pursuede oppon þe Scottes þat wer bicomen wonder wery. and þe Bailoile and his company sore folwede ham, and dede ham miche sorwe þrouȝ her assaut, so þat þai myght nouȝt, for feble, ham helpe, and for litel peple. ¶ But þo saide amongus ham: "what is vs now bifalle, þat so litel peple as þe Bailoil haþ in wenge, done vs so miche trauaile and sorwe? now certes hit semeþ vs þat he werches by grace, for he is wonder graciouse in his querelle, and al we certes shul bene dede er þat we may come to him, vs forto ȝelde, siþ þat his fader sette of vs no pris."

¶ And amonge alle oþere þengus, þe Bailoil & his peple passede þe watere of Erne, so þat Sir Roger of Suynerton, þe sone, was fers and angri, and went forth; and þai saw miche peple of men of armes ful wel arraiede; and forþ þai went vnto ham, and wiþ ham fouȝten, and quellede as meny as wolde abide, and toke; and noþelesse at þat assaut þai wende þat hit hade bene þe grete host of Scotland. and when hit come to þe morne, þai gadrede ham and restede a while. ¶ But þe while þat þe Englisshemen restede, þe noble Baron Thomas of Vescy, and þe noble baron of Stafford, prekeden hir [MS Rawlinson B 171 165b] horse vp and doun by þe hulles, forto Kepe þe estres of þe contreye. ¶ and as þai prekeden vp and doun, þai saw a grete hoste of gode arraye, ordeynede in iij wenges, wiþ helmes and shelde shynyng, comyng oppon ham, and þo come þo ij lordes aȝeyne vnto þe Bailoiles folc, and saide, "Now, for the loue of Almyghty God, beþ of gode comfort, for ȝe shul haue bataile anone right!" ¶ And þo spake Sir Fouk, þe sone of Gerrein, a baroun of grete renoun and of dede of Armes: "Sires lordynges, vnderstondeþ [þ]at y wil saien y haue seyne meny diuerse wenges, as wel amonges Sarasynus and Gewes as amonge þe Scottes; and ȝitt see y neuer þe ferþe part of þe wenge feiȝten. and þerfor, and we wil abide our enemys, we beþPage  278 ynow forto feiȝt aȝeynes ham; but if we be nouȝt of gode hert and of gode wille forto feiȝt wiþ ham, for certes we ben ful fewe aȝeyns þis company. ¶ And þerfore, for the loue of God, take we vnto vs gode hert, and lete vs bene bolde; and þenke we neiþer oppon oure wifes ne oppon our cheldren, but oneliche to conquer ham in bataile; and, þrouȝ þe helpe of our Lord God, oure enemys we shul ouercome."

¶ And with þat, come þe hoste of þe Scottes toward ham ful sorely, & aȝeins Sir Edward of Bailoile, in iij baitailes wel araiede in Armure; and wonder fressheliche þai comen toward þe Bailoiles men. But when Sir Donalde, Erl of Marcile, saw al [MS Rawlinson B 171 166a] þis, he saide to Robert þe Brus, þe sone of Robert þe Brus, þise wordes: "Sir Robert," quod he, "ful sore me forþenkeþ at myn hert þat þis folc, þat þe Bailoile haþ brouȝt wiþ him, shulde dye wiþ dent of Scottisshe meneȝ suorde, siþ þat þai bene Cristen men as wel as we bene; and þerfore me þenke þat hit were grete charite to sende vnto ham forto ȝelde ham vnto our mercy and grace, and raunsoun ham þrouȝ greuous raunsons, forasmiche as þai haue take our land and done ille." ¶ "Now, certes," quod Sir Robert Danolde, "y haue wel perceyuede þat þow art an enemy and traitour vnto Scotland, siþ þat þow wil consent to saue oure dedely enemys þat haue done vs miche sorwe and shame; and nowe hit semeþ wel þat ȝe beþ of her assent." ¶ "Certes, Robert," quod Sir Donald, "falseliche ȝe lye! y am nouȝt of her company ne of her consent; and þat hastely ȝe shul see, for y wil feiȝt wiþ ham raþer þan eny of þis company." "And certes," Sir Robert saide, "y shal, magre þin heede, assaile ham or þow." ¶ And wiþ þat þai prekeden her stedes fersely oppon Caskemore, and her wenges ham folewede on a renge. and þo come þai, and mette þe Bailloil and his company at an hongen bouȝt of þe more in a streite passage. and so faste þai hastede ham vnto þe Englisshemen, so þat þousandes felle to þe gronde, echePage  279 oppon oþer, into on hepe, boþe horse and man. ¶ The Bailoil and his men þo [MS Rawlinson B 171 166b] mighghtely stoden aȝeynes Ham, and faste quellede þe Scottis vnto þe grounde, & meny sore woundede, so longe til þat þai stoden oppon ham, and foynede ham with her suordes & speres þrouȝ-out here bodyes; and so sore trauailede oppon ham til þai bicome ful wery, and wist nouȝt what to done. and þe Scottes þat were lafte alif fledden to saue ham-self, in the best maner þat þai myght. ¶ And þo pursuede Edward Bailoile & his men, and quellede of ham til þat hit was nyght. and fro þens þai went vnto Seint Iohnes Toune, and toke hit, and helde ham þere and vitailede ham-self atte her owen wille, for þai fonden ynouȝ wherwith to make ham mery. ¶ þo made þe Bailoile his men þat wer woundede gone to shippe forto wende into Engeland, forto hele her woundes.

And in þat same tyme þere was a Flemyng in þe see, a strong þef robour þat me callede 'Crab'; and þis Flemyng was dryuen out of Flaundres for his wickednesse; and þerfore he come into Scotland, and helde him wiþ þe Scottis, and dede as miche harme vnto the Englisshe-men as he myght. ¶ And þis Crab mette in þe see þis Bailoiles men þat wer wondede in bataile, þat were sent aȝeyn into Engeland forto hele her woundes. and þis Crab ȝaf vnto ham a grete assaut, and wolde haue quellede ham euerychon; but þe Englisshe-men defendet ham wel and manliche, [MS Rawlinson B 171 167a] and descomfitede Crab and his company; and þo gan he forto flee into Scotland. ¶ And as he come towarde Seint Iohnes toune, he fonde a grete company of Scottis, þat were comen aȝeyn to-geder after þe scomfiture of Gaskemore, þe whe[ch] bisegede Bailoil and his men in þe same toune of Seint Iohn; and anone tolde to þe Scottis how þat he descomfitede of þe Englisshe-men þat were sore wondet at Gaskemore, & went toward Engeland forto hele her wonde; and saide vnto þe Scottes, þat þai shulde haue no grace ne might aȝeynes EdwardPage  280 Bailoile, for enchesoun þat he had scomfitede & empairede al the chiualrye of Scotland wiþ an handeful of men, as to acount aȝeins þe Scottis þat wer slayn. Wherfore he conseilede ham to remeve þe sege fram Seynt Iohnes toune, and kepe ham in þe best maner þat þai couþe or myght. ¶ The Scottes vnderstode þat Crab saide ham soþ, and forsoke þe sege and went þens by nyght, and halpe ham-self in the beste maner þat þai might.

¶ When þis tidyng was know þrouȝ Scotland, how þat þe lordes and knyghtes were scomfitede at Gaskemore of Scotland þrouȝ Sir Edward Bailoil, ȝe shullen vnderstonde þat the Lordes and ladies & gentiles of Scotland comen wonder faste vnto Seynt Iohnes toune, and ȝelde ham vnto Baloile, and to ham dede feaute and homage for hir londes, and ȝelden ham vnto his pees, [and helde him for heir lord. and he vnderfonge of ham heir homages, and grauntede ham his pees; and fro þens he went to þe Abbay of Scone, and þere he was cronede Kyng of Scotland. and after, he lete crie his pees] þrouȝ [MS Rawlinson B 171 167b] -out þe Land. and at þat same tyme Hit bifelle þat Kyng Edward of Engeland helde his parlement amongus his Lieges at þe Newe-Castell oppon Tyne, forto amende þe trespasses and þe wronges þat had ben done in his land. and Sir Edward þe Bailoil, Kyng of Scotland, come to him þider, and dede vnto him feaute and homage for þe reaume of Scotland. ¶ And in þis maner Kyng Edward of Engeland gaderede aȝeyn þe homages and feautes of Scotland, wherof he was put out þoruȝ conseil and assent of Dame Isabell his moder, and of Sire Rogere Mortymer, Erl of þe Marche.

¶ Tho toke Sir Edward Bailoil, Kyng of Scotland, his leue of Kyng Edward of Engeland, and went þens into his owen lande of Scotland, and sette but litil be ham þat hade conseilede him and holpen him in his querell; wherfore þai went from him, and went & leuede by her owen londes and rentȝ in Scotland. ¶ And so hit bifelle afterward nouȝt longe, þat þe Kyng of Scotland nePage  281 remevede and come to þe toune of Anand, and þere toke his duelyng. and þider come to him a company of knyȝtes, stronge men and worthy, & ȝelde ham vnto þe kyng, and bare ham so faire in dede, and in contynaunce so þat he trust miche oppon ham. [and anone as þe traitoures sawe þat he trust miche oppon ham], þai ordeynede amongus ham l. in o company, and wolde haue slayn her Kyng; but, þrouȝ þe grace of Almyghty God he brake out þrouȝ a walle [by] [MS Rawlinson B 171 168a] an Hole in his chambre; and, as God wolde, scaped her traitery. and alle his men wer quellede; and he ascapede wiþ miche drede to þe Toune of Cardoile, and þere helde him, sore annoiede: and þis bifelle on oure Ladyes eve þe Concepcioun.

¶ Tho sent Kyng Edward Bailoil to Kyng Edward of Engeland, how falsely and traiterousely he was in litel while put vnto shame and sorwe, þrouȝ his lige men, oppon whom he truste wonder miche and praiede him, for þe loue of Almyghty God þat he wolde mayntene him and helpe [him] aȝeyns his enemys. ¶ the Kyng of Engeland hade of him þo grete pite, & bihight him helpe and socour, and sent him worde þat he shulde halde him in pees stille in the citee of Cardoile, til þat he hade gaderede his power. ¶ Tho ordeynede Kyng Edward of Engeland a conseil at London, and lete gader his men in diuerses shires of Engeland, and when he was redy, he went toward þe toune of Berwik-vp-Twyde; and þider come to him Kyng Edward of Scotland, wiþ his power, and bisegede the toune, and made wiþout þe toune a fair toune of pauylouns, and dikede ham wel al aboute, so þat þai hade non drede of þe Scottes; & made meny assautes wiþ gonnes and wiþ oþere engynes to þe toune, wherwiþ þai destroiede meny a fair hous; and cherches also were beten adoune [MS Rawlinson B 171 168b] vnto the erþe, wiþ gret stones, and spitouse comyng out of gonnes and of oþere gynnes. and noþeles þe Scottes kepte wel þe toune, þat þo ij kyngus miȝt nouȝt come þerin longe tyme. and noþeles thePage  282 Kynges abiden þere so longe, til þo þat were in þe toune faillede vitailes; and also þai so wery of wakyng þat þai wiste nouȝt what to Done. ¶ And ȝe shulle vnderstonde þat þo þat wer in the toune of Berwik, þrouȝ hir comune conseile and her assent, lete crie oppon þe walles þat þai miȝt haue pees of þe Englisshe-men; and þerof þai praiede þe Kyng, and of his grace, and praiede him of trewes for viij daies, oppon þis couenant, þat, if þai were nought rescuede in þat side of þe toune toward Scotland, of þe Scottis, wiþin viij daieȝ, þat þai wolde ȝelde ham vnto the Kyng, and þe toune also. and to holde þise couenauntȝ, þai profurede to þe Kyng xij hostages oute of þe toune of Berwik. ¶ When the hostages wer delyuerede vnto þe Kyngus, anone þo of þe toune sent vnto þe Scottes, and tolde ham of hir sorwe & meschief. and þe Scottes comen þo pryueliche ouer þe water of Twyde, to þe bouȝt of þe Abbay; and Sir William Dikett, þat was þe Styward of Scotland, and meny oþer þat comen wiþ him, put ham þere in grete perile of hamself att þat tyme of hir lif; for þai comen ouer a bruge [MS Rawlinson B 171 169a] þat was to-broken, and þe stones away. and meny of hir company were þere drenchede; but þe forsaide William went ouer, and oþere of his company, and come by þe Englisshe shippis, and quellede in a barge of Hulle xvj men; and after þai went into the toune of Berwik by the water side; Wherfore þe Scottis helde þo þe toun rescuede, and axede hir hostages aȝeyne of þe Kyng of Engeland. ¶ And þe Kyng sent ham worde aȝeyne þat þai askede the hostages wiþ wronge, siþ þat þai comen into the toune by Engeland syde; for couenaunt was bituene ham þat þe toune shulde be rescuede by the half of Scotland. anon Kyng Edward þo commanded ham to ȝelde þe toune or he wolde haue þe hostages. and þe Scottis saide þat þe toune was rescuede wel ynow, and þerto þai wolde holde ham. ¶ When Kyng Edward saw þe Scottis breke her couenauntȝ þat þai made, he was wonder wrothe, and anone lete take Sire Thomas fitȝ and Sire Alisaundre of Seton, Wardeyne of Berwik,—the whiche Thomas was person of Dunbarr,—and lete ham be taken ferst bifore þe oþer hostages, forPage  283 enchesoun þat Sir Alisaundres fader was keper of þe toune. and þe Kyng commandede euery day forto take ij hostages of þe toune til þat þai were alle done, vnto þe deþ, but if þai wolde ȝelde þe toun; and so he wolde teche ham to breke her couenauntȝ. ¶ And when þo of þe toune herde þis tydynges, þai bicome wonder sory, and sent to þe Kyng of Engeland, þat he [MS Rawlinson B 171 169b] wolde graunt ham oþer viij dayes of respite, so þat bituene CC men of Armes and xxti men of Armes mygh[t] by strengþ gon bituene ham vnto þe toune of Berwik, ham forto vitaile, so þat þe toune moste be holde for rescuede. ¶ And if it so were þat xxj or xxij or mo were slayn of þo CC biforesaide, þat þe toune shulde nouȝt ben halde for rescuede. & þis couenaunt forto holde, þai sent to him oþere xij of þe toune in hostageȝ. ¶ The Kyng of Engeland grantede ham her praier, and tok þe hostages. on Seynt Margaretes eve, In the ȝer of grace Ml CCC xxxij, þe Scottis comen ferseliche in iiij wengus wel arraiede in Armes, forto mete Kyng Edward of Engeland and Edward þe Kyng of Scotland, & wiþ hir power, and come fast and sharpely aȝeynes evesong tyme. and þe same tyme was flode at Berwik, in the water of Twede, þat no man myght wende ouer, on horse neiþer on foote, and þe water was bituene þo ij kyngus and þe reame of Engeland: and þat tyme abyden the Scottis in þat oþer side, for enchesoun þat þe Englisshe-men shulde haue bene drenchede or slayn.

THis was þe arraie of the Scottis as þai comen in bataile aȝeynes þe ij Kyngus of Engeland & of Scotland: In þe vant-ward of Scotland were þise Lordes:—

¶ The Erl of Morrif, Iames Frisell, Symond Frisell, Walter Stiward, Raynolde Cheyne, Patrik of Graham, Iohn le Graunt, Iames of Cardoile, [MS Rawlinson B 171 170a] Patrik Parkeres, Robert Caldecotes, Philip of Meldrum, Thomas Gilbert, Wiseman, Adam Gurdoun, Iamys Gramat, Robert Boyde, Hughe Park, wiþ xl knyȝtes newe dobbede, and vj C men of Armes, & iij Ml of commune.

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In þe ferst partie of þe halfe bataile of Scotland wer þise lordes:—

¶ The styward of Scotland, þe Erl of Moneteth, Iames his Vncle, William Douglas, Dauid of Lyndeseye, Maucolyn Flemyng, William of Keth, Dunkan Kambok, wiþ xxx bachilers new dobbede.

In þe secunde part of þe half Lien-warde of the bataile of Scotland, were þise lordes:—

¶ Iames Stiward of Colden, Aleyne Styward, William Abbrehyn, William Morice, Iohn fitȝ William, Adam le Mose, Walter fitȝ Gilbert, Iohn of Cherlton, Robert Walham, wiþ vij C men of armes, & xvij Ml of communes.

In þe þridde ward of þe bataile of Scotland were þise Lordes:—

¶ The Erl of Marr, þe Erl of Roff, þe Erl of Straherne, þe Erle of Sotherland, William Kirkeleye, Iohn Cambron, Gilbert de Haye, William of Rameseye, William Proudegest, Kirstyn Hard, William Gurdon, Arnolde Garde, Thomas Dolfyn, wiþ xl knyghtes new dobbede, ix C men of Armes, aud xv [Ml of] communes.

In þe ferþ warde of þe bataile of Scotland were þise lordes:—

¶ Archebald Douglas, Erl of Leneux, Alisaunder le Brus, Erl of Fiff, Iohn Cambel, Erl of Atheles, Robert Lawether, William Vipount, William of Lonston, Iohn de Labelles, Gros de She [MS Rawlinson B 171 170b] renlowe, Iohn of Lyndeseye, Alisaunder de Gray, Ingam De Vmfreuil, Patrik de Pollesworth, Dauid de Wymes, Michel Scott, William Landy, Thomas de Boys, Rogere de Mortymer, with xxx bachilers, ix C men of Armes, and xviij Ml communes.

[In þe vte warde of þe bataile of Scotlond were these lordis:—]

¶ The Erl of Dunbarre, keper of þe castel of Berwik, halpe þe Scottis wiþ l. men of Armes. And Sir Alisaundre of Seton, keper of þe toune of Berwik, wiþ C men of Armes, [and the comons of þe toun with CCCC men of armes], ¶ and x Ml & viij C of fotemen: þe somme of þe Erles and lordes amonteþ lv; þe somme ofPage  285 bachileres newe dobbede amounteþ C and xl; þe some of men of Armes amounteþ iij Ml vj C & l; þe [som of þe comons amountith lxiiij Ml & CC, The] somme of commune peple abouesaide amounteþ lxviij Ml & xlv. ¶ And þise lv grete Lordes ladden alle þe oþere lordes aboue-saide in iiij batailes, as is tolde bifore, alle on foote.

¶ And þe Kyng Edward of Engeland and Edward, Kyng of Scotland, hade wel apparalede her folc in iiij batailes, forto feiȝt on foot aȝeynes her Enemys. And þe Englisshe mynstralles blow her trompis ¶ and hir pipes, and hidousely ascriede þe Scottis. and þo hade euery Englisshe bataile ij wenges of pris Archiers, þe whiche at þat bataile shotten Arwes so faste and sore þat þe Scottis myght nouȝt helpe hamself; and so þai smyten [þe] Scottis, þousandes to þe grounde; and þai gon forto fle fro þe Englisshe-men forto saue hamselfe. ¶ And when þe English knafes saw þe scomfiture, [MS Rawlinson B 171 171a] and þe Scottis falle faste to the ground, þai prikeden hir maistres hors wiþ þe Spores forto kepe ham fro perile, and sette her maistres at no force. ¶ And when þe Englisshe-men saw þat, þai lopte on her hors, and fast pursuede þe Scottis; and alle þat abiden, þai quellede doune ryght. þere might men see þe douȝtynesse of þe noble Kyng Edward and of his men, how manliche þai pursuede þe Scottis, þat flowen for drede. ¶ And þere might men see meny a Scottisshe-man caste doun vnto þe erthe dede, and hir baneres displaiede, & hackede into pices, and meny a gode habrigoun of stele in hir blode baþede; and meny a tyme þe Scottes were gadrede in companyes, but euermore þai were descomfitede. ¶ And þus hit bifelle, as God wolde, þat þe Scottis hade þat day no more foisoun ne myght aȝeynes ȝe Englisshe-men, þan xx shepe shulde haue aȝeyns v wolfes; and so were þe Scottis descomfitede; and ȝitte þePage  286 Scottes men had v men aȝeyns on Englisshe-man. And þat bataile was done at Halydounhill bisides þe toune of Berwik: at þe whiche bataile were slayn of þe Scottis xxxv Ml & vijc & xij, and of Englisshemen but vij oneliche, & þo were footemen. & þis Victorie bifelle to þe Englisshe-men on Seynt Margaretes eve, In þe ȝer of our lord Ihesu Crist Ml CCC xxxij. And while þis doyng laste, þe English knafes tok þe pilfre of þe Scottes þat were quellede, euery man þat he myght take, wiþout eny chalange of eny man. Deo gracias!