Sammlung altenglischer legenden, grösstentheils zum ersten male hrsg. von C. Horstmann.
Horstmann, Carl, b. 1851., Jacobus, de Voragine, ca. 1229-1298.
Page  [3]

1. S. Paula.

Der Anfang, c. 250 V., fehlt im Ms. Vernon, da ein Blatt hier ausgefallen ist. Das lateinische Original dieser Legende, wie der ganzen Sammlung, ist des Jacobi a Voragine (c. 1290) bekannte "Legenda aurea", aus der der Dichter einzelne Legenden wörtlich metrisch übertragen hat; Paula findet sich daselbst in cap. 29; de sancta Paula (ed. Grässe Dresd. & Lips. 1846).

* In der Edit princ. Dresd. 1472 fehlt diese Legende der Paula. Eine Prosaübertragung derselben, aber unter dem Titel S. Pauline statt Paula, enthält die altenglische Uebersetzung der Leg. Aur. (Ms. Egert. 876, Harl. 630, Harl 4775), welche im Anfange des 15 Jhdts. von mehreren "Doctoren der Theologie" nach der französischen Uebersetzung des Jehan de Vignay angefertigt und später von Caxton überarbeitet und gedruckt wurde; diese engl. Uebertragung ist bereits sehr verderbt.

Der im Anfang ausgefallene Theil erzählte, wie Paula, deren Leben mit des Hieronymus, ihres Freundes und Biographen, eigenen Worten geschildert wird, eine edle Römerin war, von solcher Tugend und Güte, dass es unmöglich wäre sie nach Verdienst zu preisen; wie der Edelstein die anderen Gesteine, wie die Sonne der Sterne Heer verdunkelt, so überstrahlte sie Alle durch Demuth und Mildthätigkeit; durch Ge|burt und Reichthum hervorragend, erschien sie die geringste unter den Weibern. Nach dem Tode ihres Gemahls, dem sie fünf Kinder geschenkt, besuchte sie, nur von ihrer Tochter Eustochium begleitet, das heilige Land und weilte andachtsvoll an den Stätten wo Christus gelebt und gelitten hatte. So demüthig, dass man sie für die letzte der Mägde halten konnte, so enthaltsam, dass sie nur wenig und auf hartem Boden schlief, beweinte sie geringe Sünden als habe sie die grössten Verbrechen begangen. Ihre Wohlthätigkeit war so gross, dass Hieronymus sie einmal desshalb tadelte, auf die Worte des Apostels*. [Vgl. 2 Corinth. 8, 13-14. Der Text der Vulgata stimmt nicht wörtlich mit der oben citirten Stelle überein.] hinweisend: "non ut aliis refrigerium sit, vobis autem tribulatio, sed ex aequalitate in hoc tempore, ut vestra abundantia sit ad illorum ino|piam et illorum abundantia sit ad vestram inopiam" (— hier schliesst der englische Text an, V. I —), und ihr bemerkte: et providendum esse, ne quod libenter faceret semper facere non posset (so V. 2-5). Ihre Entgegnung siehe V. 6.

. . . . .
"Eiþur oþur þus to cloþun and fede;
Such purueaunce men schulde make
Þat charite gunne not to slake,
But as he gladliche nou ȝiueþ and doþ
Þat he mowe do afturward forþ."
     5
Of þeos word was heo nouht aferd,*. [der latein. Text in der Leg. Aur. cap. 29 (ed. Grässe) fährt fort: Quae illa mira verecundia (et sermone parcissimo peritissimoque) dissolvebat, testem invocans dominum (engl. directe Rede) se pro illius nomine cuncta facere et hoc habere voti ut mendicans ipsa moreretur, ut unum nummum filiae non dimitteret et in funere suo ali|ena sindone involveretur.]Page  4
Ful myldeliche heo onswerd:
"God i take to my witnes,
For his loue do i þis godnes;
And also hit is my disir
     10
To dye a pore beggir,
No peni to my douhtres leue,
So clene awey my good to ȝeue
Þat of myn owne leue nouht bihynde.
A schete, my bodi in to wynde,
     15
Of moni men þat her liue,*. [Ad extremum inferebat:) Ego si petiero, multos inveniam qui mihi tribuant; iste mendicans si a me non acceperit quid ei possum etiam de alieno tribuere, si mortuus fuerit, a quo ejus anima requireretur? (V. 22 Zusatz des Dichters)]
Ȝif i bidde, þei wol me ȝiue;
A beggere ȝif he aske of me
Anoþur monnes þing þauh hit be,
Ȝif I from him þenne torne myn eȝe,
     20
And þenne for faute þe pore mon dye,—
I take witnes of seint Poule—
God of me wol aske his soule."
ÞIs wommon of so gret nobleye*. [Nolebat in his lapidibus effundere pecuniam qui cum terra et saeculo transituri sunt, sed in vivis lapidibus qui volvuntur super terram (32-33 erklär. Zusatz), de quibus in Apocalipsi Johannis: civitas magni regis exstruitur.]
Wolde not spende hire moneye,
     25
Þat heo hedde kept for þe nones,
In to suche precious stones
Þat wiþ þis world and eorþe here
Passen awey al in fere,
But to stones þat meuen and lyue,
     30
To whuche God haþ his grace iȝiue:
In eorþe her þat ben pore
And sum tyme hungren and þursten sore,—
Of þe whuche, wiþoute lipse,*. [lipse: ellipse.]
Seint Jon seide in þe Apocalipse:
     35
Þe cite of þe grete kynge
Is mad ouer alle þinge.
OÞur souuel vsede heo non*. [Exceptis festis diebus vix oleum in cibo accipiebat, ut ex hoc uno aestimaretur quid de vino et de liquamine et piscibus et lacte et melle et ovis et reliquis quae gustui suavia sint judicarit,]
But oyle wiþ hire bred alon,
But hit were þe grettore festeday;
     40
Þen lutel mete wolde hire pay.
Of hony oþur milk or elles fisch
Oþur eiren comen non in heore disch,
And oþur metes þat to mouþ ben swete,
Ful luyte of hem heo wolde ete. —
     45
Sum men þer ben neuerþeles:*. [in quibus sumendis quidam se abstinentissimos putant et, si his ventrem ingurgitaverint, tutam pudicitiam suspicantur.]
Al þauh þei vsen no gret deyntes,
Her wombes þei wollen wiþ such metes fille
And chastite þerfore þei spille,
And ȝit þei wene hit beo clannes
     50
Hem to fulle wiþ suche mes. —
(JERONIMVS dicit:)
But i kneuȝ a mon of þe Susurron —*. [Jeronimus dicit eingeschoben, wie 133, 212.]*. [Novi susurronem quendam, quod genus hominum vile est, quasi benevolum nuntiasse quod prae nimio fervore virtutum quibusdam vide|retur insana et cerebrum illius diceret confovendum (engl. directe Rede). Cui illa re|spondit: Theatrum facti sumus mundo et angelis et hominibus: nos stulti propter Christum, sed stultum Dei sapientius est hominibus (71-72 nicht im lat.).]
Þat is a schrewed nacion (!) —
Þat seide to hire on þis maneere:
"Þou þi self spillest here,
     55
Þou art so feruent in vertue
Þat sum men seyn þart waxen newe
Out of þi witte; þerfore i red,
Cumforte þi brayn beter wiþ sum bred
And wiþ sum substancial mete,
     60
Þi wit aȝeyn forte gete,
And take þe to anoþur scole,
For men þe holde but a fole."
Þenne heo him ful sone onswerd,
As wommon þat of God was ferd:
     65
"To gode angeles and to men
Spectacle mad forsoþe we ben:
For Cristes loue we ben holden vnwys;
But neuerþeles þenk on þis: Page  5
Þat þing þat is to God folye
     70
To men hit is wisdam and joye."
Þus holy writ bereþ witnes —
Good is beo war boþe more and les.
AN Abbei of men of religioun*. [Post virorum monasterium, quod viris tradiderat gubernandum, plures virgines, (quas ex diversis provinciis congregaverat, tam nobilis quam mediocris et infimi generis), in tres turmas et monasteria divisit, (ita dumtaxat ut opere et cibo separatae psalmis et oratione jungerentur).]
Heo hedde mad, of gret renoun;*. [þart aus þou art versehmolzen.]
     75
And aftur þat, wiþouten wene,
Heo gederde of maidens clene
Þreo wel feire cumpaignies
And hem sette in feir abbeyes,
God to serue day and niht,
     80
Þat made alle þing, derknes and liht.
Whon eny of hem bigonne to chide,*. [Jurgantes inter se sermone lenissimo foederabat,]
Wiþ softe wordes in þat tyde
Heo wolde hem ouercome anon
And loueliche make hem aton.
     85
Whon þe ȝonge in hote blood*. [lasci|vientem adolescentularum carnem crebris et duplicatis frangebat jejuniis, malens eas stomachum dolere quam mentem, dicens munditiam corporis atque vestium animae esse immunditiam, et, quod inter saeculi homines vel leve putatur vel nihil, hoc in monasteriis gravissimum esse delictum dicebat.]
Bigonne to waxe wylde of mod:
Þouh þei were neuer so nessche,
Wiþ fastyng heo maad hem chast heor flesche:
For þe bettre heo chose and toke
     90
Þat þe wombe raþur þen þe þouht oke.
Heo seide: "clannes of bodi in cloþing
Is ofte þe soule defoulyng" —
Þat heo seide, for þei schulde nouht
Haue to muchel in heor þouht
     95
Bisynesse of gret aray
For þe bodi, niht ne day. —
Deedes þat men holden no trespas
In þis world in certeyn cas,
Idon in cloystre heo hem heold
     100
Ful gret trespas, as heo feld.
To hem heo wolde, whon þey weore seke,*. [hem doppelt.]*. [cumque aliis languentibus large praeberet omnia et esum exhiberet carnium, si quando ipsa aegrotaret, sibi non in|dulgebat, et in eo inaequalis videbatur quod in aliis clementiam, in se duritiam com|mutabat.]
Flesch and fisch let dihten hem eke,*. [hem doppelt.]
But, þouh hire self weore seek also,
Heo nolde not ete neuer þe mo:
     105
To oþure heo schewed hire godnes,
And to hire self al hardnes.
IN a somer hit biful,*. [(Referam quod expertus sum:) Mense Julio ferventissimis aestibus incidit in ardorem febris; et post desperationem cum Dei misericordia respi|rasset et medici suaderent ob refectionem corporis vino esse opus tenui et parvo, ne aquam bibens in idropisim verteretur,]
In þe Moneþ of Jul,
Þat al hire bodi, hond and fote,
     110
Was taken wiþ a feuere hote;
Þat hedde ibrouht hire so lowe
Þat vnneþe heo mihte breþ blowe.
But aftur þat wiþ Godus gras
Of þat seknes heo mended was.
     115
Þen leches hire counseyled and bad,
Wiþ wordus softe and eke sad,
Þat heo schulde vse to drinke wyn,
A luitel þunne, but not to fyn;
Þei seiden wiþ o vois alle
     120
Þat heo mihte lihtliche falle
In to a dropesye and synke,
Ȝif þat heo watur dude drinke.
(JERONIMVS dicit:)
ÞEn i bigon priueliche*. [et ego clam beatum episcopum Epiphanium (127 Zus.) rogarem ut eam moneret, immo compelleret vinum bibere,]
To preye þe pope ful specialiche,
     125
Þat was icalled Ephiphayn —
Of his presence heo was euer fayn, —
Þat he schulde bidde hire and constreyn
Wyn to drinke wiþouten feyn. Page  6
But heo parceyued sone hit,*. [(ut erat prudens et sollertis ingenii,) statim sensit insidias et, subridens, meum esse quod ille diceret intimavit. (Quid plura?)]
     130
Heo louh and seide hit was my wit
Þat þe pope Epiphayn
So schulde hire bidde and to hire sayn.
Whon i sauh þat heo so louh,*. [Cum beatus pontifex (engl. I, sc. Ierom) post multa horamenta exiisset foras, quaerenti mihi quid egisset, respondit: Tan|tum profeci ut ipsa mihi seni homini paene persuaserit ut vinum non bibam (der engl. Text setzt eine andere Lesart des Orig. voraus?]
Out of þe hous I me drouh.
     135
And whon þat i was out iworþe,
I abod til heo com forþe;*. [heo statt he?]
Þen I him asked hou he hedde isped
Of þe wordus þat I him red.
He onswerde þat heo him bad
     140
To bidde an holde mon, þat wolde be lad,
Wyn forte drinke, for heo wolde non,
For frendes counseyl ne for fon.
Whon þat heo serwe schulde make*. [In luctu mitis erat et suorum mor|tibus frangebatur maxime liberorum, nam et viri et filiorum dormitione saepe pericli|tata est,]
For deþ, for hire children sake,
     145
Euere þerwiþ heo was meke;
But neuerþeles heo was ofte seke
For hire hosebondes diȝinge
And for hire children departynge,
Out of þis world whon þat þei went;
     150
But euermore heo tok entent*. [et cum os stomachumque signaret et matricis dolorem crucis niteretur im|pressione lenire, (superabatur affectu et credulam mentem parentis viscera consterne|bant animoque vincens fragilitate corporis vincebatur — Der engl. Dichter folgt hier dem wohl verdorbenen oder in seinen Antithesen nicht bequemen Text seiner Vor|lage nicht genau, vgl. V. 156-159).]
Wiþ signe of þe holy crois
Hire mouþ to stoppe and hire vois,
Hire þouht also heo wolde refreyne,
On God þerfore þat heo nolde pleyne.
     155
And þauh monkynde, þat is so frele.
For frendes deþ wol make gret dele,
Wiþ good bileeue and sad preyere
Hire soule heo cumforted here.
Studefastliche heo set hire wit*. [Scripturas sanctas tenebat memoriter, et cum amaret historiam et illam veritatis diceret fundamentum, magis sequebatur intel|ligentiam spiritualem et hoc culmine aedificationis animae protegebat.]
     160
In muynde to haue holy writ;
Heo louede wel good stori
And clept hit foundement of soþfastnus, witerly.
Whon heo hit herde, was hire vertue
Parfytliche forte suwe
     165
Þe spirituel vndurstondyng,
To kepe hire soule in good lyuyng.
Heo hedde also þis vertu*. [(Loquar et aliud, quod fortasse aemulis videtur incredulum:) Hebraeam linguam, (quam ego ab adolescentia multo labore et sudore ex parte didici et infatigabili meditatione non desero, ne ipsa ab ea deseratur,) discere voluit et consecuta est ita, ut psalmos hebraice caneret et sermonem absque ulla latinae linguae proprietate personaret — quod quidem usque hodie in sancta filia Eustochia ejus cernimus.]
Þat heo couþe speken Ebru,
In so muchel, wiþouten lesynge,
     170
Þat heo wolde boþe rede and synge
Þe salmus of þe sauteer
Wiþouten fayle al in feer,
Vppon hire tonge feire hit felle
On Ebru hire tale to telle.
     175
So dude aftur hire hir douhtur dere,
Eustoche, þat wel couþe lere.
NOu who mihte wiþoute wepyng*. [(Hucusque navigavimus pro|speris ventis et crispantia maris aequora labens carina sulcavit; nunc in scopulos incurrit oratio,) quis enim posset siccis oculis Paulam narrare morientem?]
Telle of þis wommons departyng
Out of þis world at Godus wille,
     180
Þat heo disirede euere to folfulle?
In to a wondur gret seknes*. [Incidit in gra|vissimam valetudinem, immo quod optabat invenit: ut nos desereret et domino plenius jungeretur. (Quid diu differo et dolorem meum in aliis immorando facio longiorem?)]
Þis wommon fel, wiþouten les; Page  7
Þen hed heo founden hire desire
To wende to þat lord and sire
     185
Þat made alle þing of nouht
And wot boþe dede and þouht.
Whon heo feled wel þat heo schulde dyȝe,*. [Sentiebat (prudentissima feminarum) adesse mortem (et) frigescente jam parte corporis atque membrorum (solum animae teporem in sacro et sancto pectore palpitare,), et nihilominus, (quasi ad suos pergeret alienosque despiceret,) illos versiculos susurra|bat: domine dilexi decorem domus tuae et locum habitationis gloriae tuae et quam dilecta tabernacula tua domine elegi abjecta esse in domo Dei mei.]
Hire limes woxun cold, þen fayled þe eȝe,
But ȝit such strengþe as heo had,
     190
Þeos versicles heo seide and bad:
Domine dilexi decorem domus tue
Et locum habitacionis glorie tue,
And þe salm hol and sum
Quam dilecta tabernacula tua domine vir|tutum,
     195
Þat alle men mihte here hire sey
Elegi abiecta esse in domo dei mei
Magis quam habitare in tabernaculis pec|catorum,
Til þat þe breþ was hire binum.
But neuerþeles heo lay ful stille,
     200
Heo onswerd no mon at his wille.
(JERONIMVS dicit:)
Ich hire asked hou þat hit was*. [Cumque a me interrogaretur cur taceret, cur nollet respondere, inclamanti an doleret aliquid, graeco sermone respondit: nihil se habere molestiae, sed omnia quieta et tranquilla perspicere.]
Wheþur heo soffred ouȝt peine in þat plas,
And whi heo nolde not onswere
To men þat calden vppon hire þere.
     205
On Gru heo onswerde wiþ good fyaunce
Þat God hir hedde isent þat chaunce
Þat heo feled no maner greef,
But al was pes: þat was hire leef.
Aftur þat made heo no res,*. [Post hoc obmutuit et clausis oculis, (quasi humana despiceret, 213 Zus.) usque ad expirationem animae eosdem repetebat versiculos, vix ut aure apposita quod dicebat audire possemus.]
     210
But sweteliche heold hire pes,
And þen hire eȝen wenten to geder,
And feir and clene as swannes feþer,
But euer þe tonge gon to sey
Elegi abiecta esse in domo dei mei,
     215
Þat men mihte vnneþe ihere,
Wiþ þe versus tofore al in fere,
Til þat þe gost heo hedde iȝiue,
Wiþ God euermore to liue.
Þen þe monkes of þat hous*. [(Tota ad funus ejus Palaestinarum ur|bium turba convenit.) Quem enim monachorum latentium in eremo cellula sua tenuit, quam virginum cubiculorum tenuerunt secreta (anders im engl.), sacrile|gium putabat qui non tali feminae ultimum reddidisset officium, donec supter eccle|siam (et juxta specum domini) conderetur.]
     220
Þat heo hedde mad so glorious,
And þe maydens also
Þat heo to gedere hedde gedered þo,
Token hir bodi wiþ dreri mood
And to þe place þer heor chirche stod
     225
Ful deuoutliche þei hit bare,
And buried hit riht sone þare,
Faste bi vndur þe churche
Þat god for hire wondres doþ worche.*. [þat st. þer.]
Þen Eustoche, hir douhtur, leope*. [Venerabilis filia ejus virgo Eustochium (quasi ablactata super matrem suam abstrahi a parente non poterat, deosculari oculos, haerere vultui, totum corpus amplexari) et se cum matre velle sepelire.]
     230
To hire sepulcre, forte wepe;
So gret deol heo made, parde,
Wiþ hire iburied heo wolde haue be.*. [Testis est Jesus nec unum quidem nummum ab ea filiae derelictum, sed magis tribuens egenis (die engl. Prosaübertragung des Ms. Egert. 876 hat hier: she lefte neuer a peny to her doughter but money of straungers) et, quod his difficilius est, fratrum et so|rorum immensam multitudinem, quam et sustentare arduum est et abjicere impium est. (V. 242-245 Zus.)]
God is witnesse, i dar wel say,
Hir modur wiþ hire lafte no money,
     235
But raþur in oþur mennes dette;
Þat was hard to hem þat wer sette
Þorwh hire in religiun,
Monkes and maidens of deuociun; Page  8
Þenne was hard hem forþ to fynde,
     240
And worse was (ha) left al bihynde.
Al þis storie, hol and sum,
Telleþ to ou þus seint Jerom,
Þat kneuh hire lyf and hire ende.
Þerfore haueþ hit wel in mynde!
     245
Fare wel, Paula, and prey for vs*. [Vale o Paula et cultoris tui ultimam senectutem orationibus juva.]
To Godus sone, þat is Jhesus!*. [Ms. lef mit klein überschr. t; zu lesen ist: (to) leve oder ha left.]