Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  249, vol.7


Capitulum primum.

WHAN*. [Thanne, α. and β.] William cam to London and was i-corowned kyng at Westmynstre*. [Westmonaster, γ.] of Aldredus archebisshop of ȝork, and voydede Page  251, vol.7 Stygandus archebisshop of Caunterbury, and was i-crowned in a mydwynter day, þat fil þat ȝere on*. [on] in, β.] a Monday. Willelmus de Pontificibus. But þe nexte Lente*. [Leynte, α. and β.] þerafter he wente into Normandie, and lefte his broþer, bisshop of Bayon, to kepe Engelond. And hadde wiþ hym [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] gentile men, and name|liche þe eorles Edwyn and Markarus*. [Morkarus, α.] and Edgar Edlyng,*. [Adelyng, α. and β.; Adelynge, γ.] and most nameliche Stigandus þe archebisshop, þei*. [þei] though, Cx.] [he]*. [From α. and β.] wiþstood in þat al þat he myȝte, he ladde hem wiþ hym as it were for to doo hem worschippe, bote his meyny*. [menynge, α. and γ.; menyng, β.; mening, Cx.] specialliche for non tresoun schulde be i-doo, in his absence*. [absens, γ.] in Engelond, by auctorite of Stigandus. Among all oþere it is harde for to telle how grete worschippe he dede*. [dide, β.] to Stigandus, for he wold arise aȝenst hym and come aȝenst hym wiþ processioun, and þat wiþ greet boost and array, bote al þat was i-closed and i-hid*. [yhud, γ.] in þat doynge come out afterward clere i-now whanne þe popes legat com into Engelond, and made a counsaille by assent of þe kyng, and Stigandus was i-sette downe*. [deposed and set a doun, Cx.] and praied besiliche*. [bysyliche, γ.] þe kyng of his grace. Þe kyng excused hymself wiþ faire wordes, as he kowþe*. [kouþe, α.; couþe, β.] wel inow, and seide þat he myȝte nouȝt doo aȝenst þe popes wille and*. [wille and] om. α. and γ.] heste. And so he heelde*. [hilde, α.; huld, γ.] Sti|gandus in bondes at Wynchestre terme of his lif. Alfridus. Here after aȝenst wynter kyng William cam into Engelond, Page  253, vol.7 and put*. [pot, γ.] a tribut uppon Englisshe men grettere þan þey myȝte bere, and byseged*. [bisegide, β.] Excetre, þat was rebel aȝenst hym, and brak þe citee. Githa þe countas,*. [contas, α.] þat was somtyme Godwyn his wif, forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] þe citee, and seilled into Flaundres. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. In þis seege þe towne wal fil*. [vul, γ.] downe as it were for the nones, and so þe enemyes come yn; for oon of þe enemyes*. [cyteseyns, Cx.] stood on þe wal, and dede*. [dude, γ.] doun þe*. [þe] hys, γ.] breeche, and defouled þe ayer wiþ þe foule*. [voul, γ.] noyse of his neþer ende. Also [þat ȝer]*. [From α.] þe lordes of Northumberlond dradde þe cruelnesse*. [cruwelnes, γ.] of William, and took wiþ hem Edgar Adelyng, and his moder Agath, and his tweie sustres Margarete*. [Margreet, α.; Margret, β., et infra.] and Cristian, and seilled*. [seylide, β.] to Malcolyn*. [Malcolin, γ.] kyng of Scotland. ℞. Bote som men wil mene þat þis Edgar sigh þat þe þinges of Englische men [were]*. [From α. and γ.] destourbed in everiche side, and took a schippe, and caste forto seille wiþ his moder and his tweie sustres*. [sosters, γ.] into his own contray þere he was i-bore; bote þere come greet tempest and droof*. [drof, γ.] hym into Scotlond. By occasion þerof it was þat Malcomus*. [Malcolyn, Cx.] kyng of Scotlond wedded Edgar his suster Margarete,*. [soster Margrete, γ.] and gat*. [gat] om. α.] on here sixe sones and tweie douȝtres. Page  255, vol.7 Þre of his sones were kynges after þe fadir, Edgar, Alisaundre, and David. Moold,*. [Mold, α., β., and Cx., et infra.] Malcolynes douȝter was i-maried to þe firste Henry kyng of Engelond; of hym*. [ham, γ.] com Moold þe emperesse.*. [emperyce, Cx.] Þe oþer douȝter Marie was i-maried to Eustas erle of Bonoun;*. [Bonon, γ.] of here com Moold þat was i-maried to kyng Stevene. Also þat ȝere kyng William made a strong castel at Snotingham, [þat now hatte Notyngham,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and anoþer at*. [hatte, α.] Lincolne, and tweyne at ȝork. Also þat ȝere Moold*. [Mold, γ., et supra.] þe queene com out of Normandie into Engelond, and was i-crowned of Aldredus. Harald and Canutus, þe sones of Swanus kyng of Denmark,*. [Denmarch, β.] come alonde in þe mowþe of Humber wiþ two hundred schippes. Edgar Adelyng ȝaf hemself*. [hymself, Cx.] to hym. Aldredus þe archebisshop was sory*. [so soory, Cx.] for her comynge, þat he deide for sorwe þe enlevenþe day of Septembre. Þe eiȝteþe day þerafter þe Normans þat kepte castelles dredde lest þe hous*. [houses, Cx.] of þe suburbes*. [soubarbes, α.; subarbes, γ.] schulde helpe þe Danes to fille þe diches, and þerfore þei sette hem a fuyre. Bote þe leye*. [lyȝe, γ.; lyght, Cx.] aroos to hiȝe,*. [lyȝe aros to heyȝ, β.] and brende þe citee of ȝork, wiþ Page  257, vol.7 þe mynistre*. [monaster, γ.; mynster, Cx.] of Seint Peter. But or þe fuyre were i-doo*. [doon, β.] cam þe strengþe of Danes, and slowȝ by assent of þe citeȝeyns moo þan þre þowsand*. [The word citee is here wrongly inserted in MS.] [of]*. [From α.; citeseyns, mo þan þre þowsand of, γ.] Normans. Þanne kyng William was wrooþ, and destroyed*. [distruyede, β.] so þat province þat for greet honger men ete hors flesche, [houndes flesche]*. [From α. and β.; hondes fleysch, γ.; houndes flessh, Cx.] cattes flesche, and manis flesche. Also þe lond þat lieth*. [liþ, β.] bytwene ȝork and Durham was nyne ȝere wiþ oute teliers*. [tylyer, γ.] and wonyers,*. [tilies and wonyer, α.; tylier and wonyer, β.; tylyer and wonyer, Cx.] out take onliche seint Iohn of Beverlay his lond, for þere fil a wreche uppon oon of þe kynges knyȝtes, for his hors nekke was to brooke and his face i-torned bakward.*. [bacward, β.] Also þat tyme was i-brend Seint Beda his abbay þat was in Girvum uppon þe brynke of þe ryver Wire. Þat ȝere Malcolyn destroyed so Northumberlond þat he slowȝ alle þe olde men and feble, and made þe strong bond*. [boond, β., et infra.] for evermore,*. [reverence, Cx.] so þat unneþe was eny hous in Scotlond wiþ oute an Englisshe bonde man or womman. Kyng William, by counseille of oþer men, made serche*. [sarche, γ.] all þe abbayes of Engelond, and took al þe tresorie*. [money, β., γ., and Cx.] into his owne tresorie. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Sone þer|after Page  259, vol.7 in þe utas*. [eotas, β.; eoytaues, γ.] of Esterne*. [Ester, α., β., and Cx.] was a counsaile i-made at Wynchestre by assent of þe secounde pope Alisaundre: þere were tweie*. [twy, γ.] cardynales present. In þat counseil Stigandus þe archebisshop was degrated for þre skiles: ffirst,*. [vurste, γ.] for he hadde i-holde wrongfulliche þe bisshopriche of Wynchestre and þe archebisshopriche of Canturbury [at ones; þe secunde vor he huld and ocupyede þe archebyschopryche of Cantur|bury]*. [From γ.] while Roberd þe archebisshop was on*. [on] a, γ.] lyve, and used þe palle þat was þere i-left wiþ oute leve of þe court of Rome; þe þridde,*. [þe þridde] om. Cx.] for he hadde i-fonge þe palle of pope Benet þat was acorsed of þe chirche of Rome. And þeiȝ Stigandus souȝte besiliche frendschipe*. [frenschip, β.; vrendschip, γ.] of þe kyng, þe kyng excused hym self smeliche,*. [smetheliche, α.; smeþelich, β.; smeþelyche, γ.; swetely, Cx.] as he wel kowþe, by þe popes maundement, and caste Stigandus into bondes at Wynchestre to his lyves ende, and ȝaf hym eche day a litel what of en|chetes to lyve by. Stygandus was kyndeliche*. [kundelych, γ.] so hard þat he wolde fonge riȝt nouȝt of his owne, and swoor by all halwen*. [halewen, β.] þat he hadde nevere a peny. Bote þat ooth was i-preved un|trewe by a [litel]*. [From α. and Cx.; lytel, γ.] keye þat heng aboute his nekke whanne he Page  261, vol.7 was deed, ffor by þat keye was i-founde greet riches in meny places under erþe.*. [eorþe, α.] Also in þat counsaille [were y-sett doun meny bisshops and abbotes, namelyche by procurynge*. [procryng, γ.] of kyng William, for he wolde brynge yn Normans in here stede. Som men trowede*. [trowide, β.] þat he dede*. [dude, γ.] so for he wolde be þe more sicker*. [siker, β.; syker, γ.; seker, Cx.] of þe kyngdom. Also in þat counsail]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] seint Wolston bisshop of Worcestre axede*. [axesede, α.] besiliche som possessiouns of his bisshopriche þat were wiþ holde by Aldredus archebisshop of ȝork, and it*. [hit, α.] fel*. [and a falle, β.; valle, γ.] into þe kynges hond after Aldredus his deeþ. Bote for þe chirche of ȝork was dombe*. [dome, γ.] þat tyme, for þe see*. [se, β.] was voyde, hit was i-demed þat þat cause schulde be stille and nouȝt i-touched at þat tyme. Here after at Wyndesore, in a Whitsonday, kyng William ȝaf þe archebisshopriche of ȝork to Thomas chanoun of Bayocens. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þis*. [Þis . . . cherche] om. Cx.] Thomas was a faire man of face and of speche, and made a faire cherche at ȝork, and made þe chanouns riche, and made songes of holy chirche.*. [Þis . . . cherche] om. Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus. Here after þe kyng hadde Lanfrank, abbot of Cadomens,*. [Codomenence, Cx.] out Page  263, vol.7 of Normandie. Þis Lanfranc was of þe nacioun of Italy, and was most konnynge of holy writt and of seculer*. [of syngler, Cx.] lettrure,*. [letture, γ.] and moost redy in governynge of þinges.*. [þingis, β.] In oure*. [ur, γ.] Lady day þe Assumpcioun þe kyng made hym archebisshop of Caunterbury. ℞. Of his þewes and of his noble dedes it is i-wrete innere more aboute his deeþ tyme. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Thomas þat was i-chose archebisshop of ȝork cam to Lanfrank [for to be i-sacred as þe usage wolde. Lanfranc]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; and is here wrongly inserted in MS.] axede of hym an ooth and his professioun i-wrete of his obedience. Thomas answerde and seide þat he wolde nevere doo þat, bot ȝif he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerfore auctoritees i-write, oþer skilful resouns in*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] biddynge,*. [byndinge, α. and β.; byndyng, Cx.] by the whiche it were i-knowe þat he schulde so doo wiþ oute [eny]*. [From γ.] preiudice of his chirche: he seide soo more for lewednesse of witt þan for rebelnesse and pride*. [prute, γ.] of herte, as he þat was a newe*. [nuwe, γ.] man and bigiled by flaterynge wordes, and knewe nouȝt þe customs and þe usages of Enge|lond. And Lanfranc declared*. [dysclarede, γ.] and preved resonableliche þat his axinge was resonable and riȝtful. Bote Thomas wolde ȝit nouȝt*. [nouȝt ȝit, α. and β.] assent, but wiþ seide it and wente his wey unsacred. Page  265, vol.7 Þe kyng herde þerof and was wrooþ, and trowede*. [trowide, β.] þat Lanfrank wolde have*. [habbe, γ.] greet þinges wrongfulliche, and he truste more in his comynge aȝen*. [comynge aȝen] connynge, α.; kunnyng, β. and γ.] þan*. [his connynge than in, Cx.] in good fay*. [feyþ, β.; feyth, Cx.] and resoun. Bot he an|swerde herto in presence of þe kyng, and esede þe kynges herte. Þerfore, by commaundement of þe kyng, Thomas was compelled for to come aȝen, and wroot his professioun of obedience, and rad*. [radde, β. and γ.] hit. In þat professioun he byhet*. [byhyȝte, γ.] wiþ oute eny con|dicioun þat he schulde be obedient in al þat longeþ to þe wor|schippe of God, and to*. [to] om. Cx.] cristen fey.*. [feiþ, β.; feyth, Cx.] And so he was i-sacred, and went forþ his wey. Nouȝt longe þerafter Lanfrank axede and feng*. [fyng, α.; vynge, γ.] professioun of alle þe bisshoppes of Engelond þat were i-sacred of oþer men to forehonde.

Capitulum secundum.

THE eorles*. [erles, β. and γ.] of Mercia and*. [and] om. Cx.] of Norþhumberlond, Edwyn and Morkar,*. [Markar, Cx., et infra.] wente priveliche out of courte for kyng William Page  267, vol.7 hadde i-cast to putte hem in bondes, and so þey were rebel somwhat of tyme. But for*. [for] om. Cx.] it*. [vor hyt, γ.] stood hem but litel in stede, Edwyn wente toward þe kyng of Scotland, and was i-slawe in þe wey of his men.*. [of hys men in þe weye, γ.] Bote Morkarus and Edwyn*. [Egelwyn, α., β., and Cx.; Egel|win, γ.] bisshop of Durham wente into þe ile of Hely,*. [Ely, β.] þere þe king stopped out þe goynge*. [stopped the outgoyng, β.; þe out goynge, γ.; stopped the oute goyng, Cx.] out in þe est side, and made a brigge of tweie myle in þe west side; þanne þey were*. [þanne hy were aferd þat were, γ.; they were aferd that were, Cx.] i-closed wiþ ynne,*. [þei were aferde that were closed wiþ ynne, γ.] and ȝilde*. [ȝolde, γ.] hem to þe kyng, and þe kyng sente þe bisshop to þe abbey of Abyngdoun*. [Abendon, γ.] to be þere in warde: þere þis bisshop deide for honger, for he wolde not ete for sorwe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Walkerus of Lotharynge was bisshop after hym.*. [And] add. Cx.] Editha, þat hadde i-be kyng Edwardes wif,*. [Edward hys wyf, γ.] siȝ*. [sawe, Cx., et infra.] hym i-brouȝt to Wynchestre for to be i-sacred, and seide, "Here we haveþ a faire*. [habbeþ veyr, γ.] martir:" by conjectynge*. [coniecturyng, β. and γ. conjec|turynge, Cx.] of þe cruel men of Northumberlond sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] was i-meoved to telle what schulde afterward be falle;*. [by valle, γ.; byfall, Cx.] sche*. [heo, β.; huo, γ.] siȝ hym wiȝtliche*. [whytely of heer, rody of face, Cx.] of hir*. [heet, α.; heer, β.; here, γ.] rody face,*. [rody of face, β. and γ.] and huge of body and of stature. WillelmusPage  269, vol.7de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Þis ȝere deide Walter bisshop of Herford; of hym it*. [hyt, γ.] is i-seide þat he loved hugeliche, I not by what myshap, a schipster*. [shipster, Cx.] of þat citee. But sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] woste*. [wist, β., et infra.] nouȝt*. [nouȝt . . . hadde] bis in MS.] þerof, and on cas þat*. [þeyȝ, α.] sche hadde i-woste sche wolde have*. [þeiȝ hue hadde ywuste hue wolde have, γ.] i-sette litel þerby.*. [in caas thouȝ heo had wist heo wold have sett litel þerby, β.] In þe mene tyme ȝit þe bisshop þouȝt þat no þing is more ungracious þan a lovynge olde man, and wiþ stood as he myȝt for þe reverence*. [for reverence, β.; vor reverens. Bote, γ.] of his owne estaat;*. [state, β. and Cx.] but in a tyme, by fraude of þe devel, sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] cam into þe bisshop his chambre, oon caas*. [bischops chambre in caas, β.] for to schape þe chamberlay*. [chamberleyn, α. an Cx.] his*. [chamburleynes, β.; chamber|lens, γ.] lynnen cloþes. Servauntes þat knewe and woste*. [wyst, Cx.] þe bisshoppes*. [byschop hys, γ.] privete went out for þe nones; at þe laste*. [at laste, γ.] þe bisshop after unfittynge wordes wolde have i-take þe womman wiþ strengþe; þe womman stikede þe bisshop byneþe in*. [in] om. β. and Cx.] his prive membres wiþ the scheres þat sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] hadde in honde, and so þe bisshop deide. After hym Lotharyngus Robert*. [Robert Lotharyngus, α., β., and Cx.; Robert Lotharingus, γ.] was bisshop þere; he Page  271, vol.7 was connynge*. [kunnyng, β.; kunnynge, γ.] of al manere artes and sciens,*. [sciences, β.] specialliche he kowþe*. [couþe, β. and γ.] skile in Inabacus,*. [in Abacus, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is a table to make [by]*. [From α. and Cx.] dyvers figures and schappes. He knewe þe cours of þe mone and of [þe]*. [From α.] oþer sterres and planetes. Þat tyme Marianus Scot and monk was i-closed at Magons*. [Magounce, Cx.] in Almayne. In his longe soli|tarie beynge he serchede cronykes and stories, and was war firste,*. [vurste, γ.] oþer al oon, of Denys Exiguis*. [Exyguus, Cx.] his discord*. [Exiguus discord, β.] aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.; aȝenes, γ.] þe soþenesse of þe gospel, in acountynge of cicles [and]*. [From γ. and Cx.] of ȝeres,*. [titles and of ȝeres, β.; and . . . ȝeres, bis in MS.] and Marianus acountede al þe ȝeres from*. [vram, γ.] þe bygynnynge of þe world,*. [worl, γ.] and put two and twenty ȝere þat lakked of þe forsaide*. [vorseyde, γ.] cicles and ȝeres, and made a greet book of cronycles;*. [cronyks, β. and γ.] þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] book þis Robert*. [Robart, β.] defloured solemp|neliche, and took out þe beste, so þat it semed*. [semeþ, β.; hyt semeþ, γ.] þat þat deflora|cioun is now more worþy*. [worþe, β.; worþ, γ.] þan al þe grete volume*. [volym, β. and γ.] [and longe].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Also þis Lanfrank, arch|bisshop of Caunterbury, [and]*. [From γ. and Cx.] Thomas, archebisshop of ȝork, went to Rome in fere*. [y fere, β.; y vere vore, γ.] for to have þe palle, bote Lanfrank Page  273, vol.7 tweie palles, oon of worschippe and anoþer of love. For Lan|frank hadde suche*. [sich, β.] grace to pope Alisaundre, þat boþe his felawes þat com wiþ hym to Rome, Thomas of ȝork and Remigius of Dorchestre, þat were riȝtfulliche i-prived of here croses*. [croyses, Cx.] [and]*. [From α. and Cx.] rynges, he restored hem to here office aȝe.*. [aȝen, β.] For þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] was a preostes*. [prust hys, γ.] sone; and while þe secounde was monk*. [a monke, γ.] of Fiscane, he halp*. [a halp, γ.] duke William in many þinges in his wendinge*. [comynge, γ.] to Engelond, so þat þe duke byheet*. [byhyȝte, γ.] hym by covenant a bisshopriche ȝif*. [ef, γ.] he hadde þe victorie; and þat was i-preved uppon hym to fore*. [vore, γ.] þe pope, and þerfore he was*. [þarevore a was, γ.] i-sette adowne. In presens of þe pope Thomas of ȝork meoved a cause of chalenge of þe primat of Dorobernia, þat is Caunterbury, and of þe sugestioun*. [sugection, α.; of subiectioun, β.; of sugection, γ.; subjectioun, Cx.] þat schulde longe to hym of þre bisshopriches of Lincolne, of Wircestre, and of Lichefeld, and seide þat þe sees of Caunterbury and of ȝork were fer*. [ver attweynne, γ.] atwynne,*. [atwenne, Cx.; α repeated in MS.] and þat noþer of hem by Gregories*. [Gregory hys, γ.] constitucioun schulde be suget to oþere, bote þat þe oon of hem schulde be*. [schulde be] om. α.; is, γ.] more worþy þan þe oþer, for he is of elder Page  275, vol.7 tyme. Þanne Lanfrank*. [Lanfranc, β., semper.] declared skilfulliche þat þat constitu|cioun of Gregory makiþ non mencioun of Caunterbury, but of ȝork and of Londoun. Þanne þe pope demede þat*. [þat, bis in MS.] þe cause*. [þat cause, γ.; that that cause, Cx.] schulde be i-determyned*. [termyned, α., β., and Cx.] tofore*. [ytermyned tofore, γ.] þe kyng and þe bisshoppes of*. [of] in, β., γ., and Cx.] Engelond. And they*. [þouȝ, β.; þeyȝ, γ.; though, Cx.] Lanfrank helde*. [huld, γ.] Thomas i-bounde by þe professioun þat Thomas*. [he, γ.] hadde i-made to hym toforehonde,*. [biforhond, β.; tovore, γ.] ȝit hym was levere travaille for*. [vor, γ.] his successoures þanne lete þat chalange abide to hem*. [hym, Cx.] to stryve þerfore*. [þarvore, γ.] afterward. Þis ȝere, þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre score and twelve, at Wyndesore, tofore kyng William and þe clergie, þat cause was i-treted. And þere Beda his storie was i-rad,*. [shewde, Cx.] and þerby it was i-schewed þat from þe firste Austyn his tyme to Beda his laste tyme, aboute an hondred ȝere and two*. [and two] om. β. and Cx.] and fourty,*. [honderd ȝere and vourty, γ.] þe archebisshopriche*. [arche byschop, γ.] of Caunterbury hadde primat*. [primacye, β.; primacye over, Cx.] of*. [over, γ.] alle þe ilond*. [londe, Cx.] of Britayne, and of Irlond also, and also þat he hadde i-holde counsailles fast*. [vast, γ.] by ȝork, and cleped þerto þe bisshoppes of ȝork, and Page  277, vol.7 made bisshoppes, and punshede*. [punysched, β.; punysshed, Cx.] some bishopps of ȝork for here trespas, and sette doun menye and put*. [pot, γ.] hem [out]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of þe dignite. Here to were rehersed priveleges þat were i|graunted uppon þis manere of doynge. Aȝenst*. [Aȝenes, γ.] al þis Thomas aleyde a*. [α] om. α.; þe, β. and γ.] pistel*. [the pystle, Cx.] in þe whiche pope Gregory demede þat þe chirches of ȝork and of Londoun schulde be evene peres, and never*. [never] om. Cx.] noþer*. [neiþer, β.] suget*. [nere no . . scholde be suget, γ.; neyther subget, Cx.] to oþer. Þanne Lanfrank answerde and seide, "I*. [Ich, γ.] am nouȝt bisshop of Londoun, noþer the ques|tioun is*. [not, add. Cx.] i-meoved*. [y-meued, γ.] of þe cherche of Londoun." Þanne Thomas, þat hadde [meny]*. [From α. and Cx.] fautoures and moche folk*. [volk, γ.] i|gadred wiþ hym, answerde and seide þat seint*. [seint] om. β. and Cx.] Gregory hadde i-ordeyned*. [graunted, β. and Cx.] to Austyn alone to have under hym alle þe bis|shoppes of Engelond, and þat þe bisshoppes of Londoun and of ȝork schulde be good freendes,*. [vrendes, γ.] and love wel eyþer oþer, and he þat were first*. [vurste, γ., bis.] ordeyned schulde be first*. [vurste, γ., bis.] i-worschipped. And þei*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] Austin hadde i-chaunged þe archebisshops see from Londoun into Kent, ȝif*. [yef, Cx.] Gregory wolde þat Austyn his suc|cessours*. [þerfore he made noon mencioun þat he, wrongly inserted here in MS.] schulde be above þe bisshoppes of ȝork, he wolde liȝtliche have i-sette in his pistel*. [epystle, Cx.] suche manere wordes, "I graunte to þe Austyn and to þyn successours;" but for he Page  279, vol.7 wolde not þat it schulde strecche to Austyn his successours, þerfore he made non*. [no, γ.] mencioun of his successoures. Lanfrank answerde herto and seide, "ȝif [þat]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] auctorite was i-graunted to Austyn alone, and nouȝt to his successoures, it were a symple ȝifte*. [ȝeft, γ.; yefte, Cx.] þat þe pope ȝaf Austyn, þat was prive wiþ hym, and nameliche while Austyn ordeyned no*. [non, γ.] archebisshop of ȝork while he was onlyve.*. [alyve, β. and Cx.] And also þer was no bisshop of*. [of] at, β., γ., and Cx.] ȝork þat schulde be [ordeyned by]*. [From β. and Cx.] Austin.*. [be suget to Austyn, γ.] Also pri|veleges of popes confermeþ þis dignite to Austin his succes|sours of Dorobernia, þat is*. [Dorobernia þat is] om. β. and Cx.] Caunterbury, and demede þat it is skile and riȝt þat al þe cherches of Engelond schulde fonge her*. [her] om. β.] loore*. [vonge lore, γ.] of lyvynge of þat place, for*. [ana γ.] of þe welle of þat place he hadde þe leme*. [leeme, Cx.] of byleve. But for þou*. [bote þou, γ.] seist þat Gregory myȝte ȝif he wolde have i-confermed wiþ a word to Austyn his successoures þat he hadde i-graunted [to seynt Austyn],*. [From β. and Cx., his succes|soures is wrongly added in α.] þat is sooþ, bote þat dooþ no prejudice to þe see of Caunterbury. For whanne Crist seide to Peter, 'I schal ȝeve þe þe keyes of þe kyngdom of hevene,' he myȝte have also i-seide ȝif he wolde, [I]*. [From Cx.] graunte þe same power Page  281, vol.7 'to þy successoures;' and þeiȝ he seide nouȝt soo, ȝit he bynemeþ Peter his successoures noþing of reverens noþer of auctorite; bote þey*. [hy habbeþ, γ.] haveþ*. [hadde, Cx.] lawefulliche þe dispensacioun of office*. [offys, β.] of holy chirche. What makeþ þat bote þe vertu of God þat springeþ by Crist of Peter [into]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] hys*. [hys, from γ.] successours? Also ȝif þou canst*. [kanst, β. and Cx.] knowe bytwene þe*. [þe] om. Cx., bis.] false and þe*. [þe] om. Cx., bis.] soþe, what haþ strengþe in al haþ strengþe in [þe party, and what haþ*. [haþ] om. γ. and Cx.] strengþe in þe more haþ strengþe in]*. [From α. and β.] þe lasse. Þe cherche of Rome is as it were heed*. [heed] om. α.; al, β. and Cx.] of alle chirches, and oþere chirches*. [were alle of alle cherches, γ.] beeþ*. [both, Cx.] as it were parties þerof, and so*. [as, α., β., and Cx.] forto*. [as vorto, γ.] take heede in oon manere wise, man is þe kynde of his singulers. Bote in everiche singuler man is þe kynde of al mankynde. So forto take hede in som manere wise, þe chirche of*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe see at*. [of, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Rome is as it were þe kynde, and conteyneþ al in comparisoun to oþere chirches, and ȝit in every chirche regneþ þe ful*. [volle, γ.] hoolnes*. [holynesse, Cx.] of Cristene fey.*. [feiþ, β., et infra; feyth, Cx., et infra.] Þe cherche of Rome is grettest of alle chirches, and what haþ strengþe in þat chirche schal have strengþe in lasse cherches. So þat in every*. [euerych, γ.] chirche þe powere of þe firste schal springe into alle his successours, bote ouȝt be nameliche and special|liche outake; þerfore as Crist seide to alle þe bisshoppes of Rome þat he seide to Peter, so Gregory seide to alle Austyn Page  283, vol.7 his successours what he seide to Austyn. Hereof folweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] þat as Caunterbury [is suget to Rome for he fenȝ þe fey*. [vor a veng, γ.] of Rome, so schal ȝork be sugett to Caunterbury]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat sent þider prechours to preche hem þe fey. Bote for þou seist þat Gregorie wolde þat Austyn schulde have his see at Londoun, it may nouȝt stonde: who wolde trowe þat so noble a disciple as Austyn was wolde wiþstonde and doo aȝenst his maister his wille, þat was so noble a maister, and doo aȝenst holy decrees? But þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] it were so þat Austyn as þou seist passed from Londoun, what is þat to me þat am not bisshop of Londoun. Þerfore ȝif þis strif is i-cessed, and pees i-made for a tyme, if þow desirest for*. [for] om. β. and Cx.] to plede, I shal nouȝt be from home,*. [þe dome, α. and Cx.; þe doom, β.; vram þe dome, γ.] bote I shal defende myn offys and myn*. [my, β.] riȝt." By þese resouns Thomas was overcome, and grauntede gladliche þat þe ȝonder brynke of Humber schulde be þe bygynnynge of his deocise.*. [diocesy, β. and γ.; dyocesy, Cx.] Also it*. [hyt, γ.] was i-demed þat þere afterward in þinges þat longeþ to þe*. [þe] om. β., γ., and Cx.] worschippe of God, and to þe fey of holy chirche, þe archebisshop of ȝork schulde be sugett to þe archebisshop of Caunterbury, so þat ȝif þe archebisshop of Caunterbury wolde make a counsaille in eny place of Engelond, þe archebisshop of ȝork schulde be þereat wiþ þe bisshop*. [bischops, β.; bisshops, Cx.] of his province,*. [provinces, α.] and he schal be obedient to his*. [α, γ.] laweful hestes. ȝif þe archebisshop [of Caunturbury is ded the archbischop]*. [From β. and Cx.; Ef the archebyschop of Canturbury ys ded þe archebyschop, γ.]Page  285, vol.7 of ȝork schal come to Dorobernia, þat is*. [Dorobernia þat is] om. β. and Cx.] Caunterbury, wiþ bis|shoppis of þe forseide cherche, and sacre þe primat þat is i|chose. And ȝif þe archebischop of ȝork is deed, his successor schal come to þe archebisshop of Caunterbury, where he wole assigne in Engelond, and be i-sacred of hym, and he schal make hym an ooþ with professioun and obediens. Þanne Lanfrank hopped for joye, and feng al þis i-wrete*. [writen, β.; wreton, Cx.] for þe*. [þe] þat, β. and Cx.] newe doynge schulde nouȝt slide out of mynde,*. [mund, γ.] and his suc|cessoures*. [sholde, add. Cx.] be bygiled of þe knowleche þerof. Bote he bare hym so þat he*. [α, γ.] lefte*. [loste, Cx.] not þat noþer passed in spekynge. For it is i-hated a man to make hymself curious in his owne preys|inge. Þanne Lanfrank sente a pistel to pope Alisaundre þat conteynede al þis doynge, wiþ þe professioun of Thomas arche|bisshop of ȝork. Þis ȝere kyng William wente into Scotlond wiþ a greet navey and an oost of horsmen, and made kyng Malcolyn suget, and kyng Malcolyn bycam his leege*. [lege, β.; lyege, Cx.] man, and swoor hym homage and fewte. And*. [And] om. β. and Cx.] Sigebertus, bisshop of Magons, wente to Seynt James a pilgremage, bote in his com|ynge aȝen*. [aȝe, γ.] he was i-made bisshop*. [monk, β. and Cx.] of Cluny. Þanne schip|men*. [chepmen, γ.] wolde have i-bouȝt his bisshopriche; [he siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and Page  287, vol.7 wente aȝen to his bysshopriche],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] as his*. [his, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; Incis, MS.] abbot het hym. Þat*. [Þis, β.] ȝere Edgar Adelyng wente to kyng William into Nor|mandie, and was accorded*. [acord, Cx.] with hym.

Capitulum tertium.

HATEBRAND,*. [Hiltebrand, β.; Hiltebrande, Cx.] þat was þe sevenþe pope Gregory, þat*. [þat] om. β., γ., and Cx.] was sometyme priour of Cluni and þanne archedekon of Rome, and þanne he*. [α, γ.] was i-made pope elevene ȝere; he made a synod, and forbeed*. [vorbud, γ.] clerkes þat were i-sacred*. [wyfes added here in α. and Cx. The word is also written in MS., but has been marked out.] and ordeyned*. [forbode, Cx.] þat þei schulde have no wifes, noþer wonye*. [dwelle, Cx.] wiþ wommen, bote wiþ suche as þe sinod Nicena and holy lawes suffreþ: bote for preostes despisede*. [dispisiden, β.; dispreysed, Cx.] his punschynges*. [punsyngs, γ.] þe pope heet þat me schulde nouȝt hire*. [here, β.] a preostes*. [prist hys, γ.] masse þat hilde*. [hu ld, γ.] opounliche and comoun|liche a concubyne,*. [a concubyne] om. γ.] aȝenst þe popes*. [aȝenes pope hys, γ.] ordenaunce. In a tyme þis was a cardenal and þe popes messanger*. [pope hys messager, γ.] into Fraunce, and made hard processe aȝenst prelates þat were i-made by symonye; [þanne oon bisshop þat was scharpliche diffamed of symony],*. [From α., β., and Cx.]Page  289, vol.7 chaungede*. [stanchede, γ.; chaunge, Cx.] wiþ mede*. [myde, γ.] þe witnes þat hym hadde accused; þe legat was war*. [waare, Cx.] þerof, and seide tofore al þe counsail: "Now manis doome is away þat failleþ*. [failleþ, from α.; failiþ, β.; fayleþ, γ.; faylyth, Cx., bis.; falleth, MS.] ofte, lete us brynge Goddes*. [vorth God hys, γ.] owne dome þat failleþ nevere more. Seþþe*. [Siþþe, β.] þat þe grace of a bisshopriche [is þe gifte of þe Holy Goost, he þat byeþ a bisshopriche]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] dooþ aȝenst þe Holy Goost:*. [he þat bisshopriche doþ aȝenst þe Holy Goost, wrongly inserted here in MS.] þanne ȝif*. [ȝif] om. Cx.] þou bisshop hast nouȝt i-doo aȝenst þe Holy Goost, say openliche here in counsaille,*. [say . . . counsaille] bis in MS.] "Gloria Patri et Filio et 'Spiritui Sancto;'" þat is, "Ioye to þe Fadir,*. [and to the, add. β.; and, add. γ.] Sone, and*. [to the, add. β.] Holy Goost." He bygan, and assayede ofte, but he myȝte nevere seie*. [sygge, γ.; say, Cx.] þe Holy Goost; but he seide it pleynly whan he was i-put out of þe bisshopriche. Also while þis pope songe þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] firste masse in a mydwynter nyȝt at Seynt Marie ad*. [ad] at, Cx.] presepe Domini, oon Crescensius, þe sone of þe prefecte of þe citee, took hym and putte hym in prisoun; bote anon þe Romayns breke*. [brake, β.] þe toure and delyvered þe pope. Also in a counsaile of þre hondred bisshoppes þis pope corsede þe þridde Henry [þe]17 emperour, and assoilede alle men of here ooth þat Page  291, vol.7 owede*. [owht, Cx.] hym homage and feute; for he kest*. [caste, β., γ., and Cx.] meny þinges aȝenst þe state of holy chirche. And afterward þeiȝ þe empe|rour stood longe tyme baare foot*. [barfot, β.] uppon snow and yse, un|neþe he was assoiled. But after*. [þerafter, α. and β.; afterwarde, Cx.] þe emperour*. [þe emperour] om. Cx.] byseged Rome, and mede*. [medede, α.; meded, β. and Cx.; mydede, γ.] þe citeseyns, and prisoned þe pope, and took oon Wybertus bisshop of Raven, and made hym pope, and cleped hym Clement; but Robert duke of Apulia herde herof, and delyvered þe pope and þe cardinalles.*. [and þe cardinalles] om. Cx.] Roger þe*. [þe] om. γ.] eorle of Herford, by whos counsaille kyng William had i-made serche*. [sarche, γ.] alle þe abbayes of Engelond for to have greet tresour, þis eorle maried his suster to Raaf eorle*. [Raph erl, γ.] of Est Engelond,*. [Anglond, γ.] þat conteyneþ Norþfolk and Souþfolk,*. [and Souþfolk] om. Cx.] aȝenst þe kynges heste,*. [kynges heste] kyng, β.; kynge, Cx.] and made þere conspiracie aȝenst þe kynges heste,*. [heste] om. γ.] and made eorle Waltef assente þerto be gile;*. [by gile, β.; by gyle, Cx.] bote he wente anon to Lanfrank and feng*. [vyng, γ.] his penaunce, and wente awey*. [awey] om. γ.] þan into Normandie to þe kyng, and warnede hym of þe tresoun, and putte hym wilfulliche in þe kynges grace. Þe kyng cam aȝen into Enge|lond, and outlawed some, and chasede eorle Raaf,*. [erl Raph, γ.] and prisoned Page  293, vol.7 eorle Waltaf,*. [erl Waltef, γ.; Waltef, Cx.] and made afterward [smyte of his heed wicked|liche bisides Wynchestre. In a*. [α] om. γ.] tyme þat came afterward]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] by ordenaunce of God, his body was i-buried in þe abbay of Crowland. Of hym witnessith Lanfrank þat he was verray repentant of his synnes, and seide þat wel were hym ȝif he myȝte come to Waltef his reste after his ende day. In Lan|frank his tyme was [a]*. [From β.] counsaille i-made at Londoun in Seint Poules*. [Paulys, γ.] chirche; þat doynge hadde*. [The word be is transferred in α. and Cx.] longe tyme be*. [be] om. γ.] i-left*. [i-] om. α. and β.] of in Engelond. First, þer was i-ordeyned how bisshops schulde sitte in counsailles and in synodes; þe secounde, þat bisshoppes sees*. [see, Cx.] schulde passe out of smal townes to gretter townes; and so the see of Selsey*. [Selsey, from β., γ., and Cx.; Sefey, MS.] passede to Chichestre, of Cornewaile*. [Kirtoun, β.; Kyrton, Cx.] to Excetre, of Welles to Bathe, of Shireborne to Salesbury, of Dorchestre to Lincolne, of Lichefeeld to Chestre in bisshop Peter his tyme, bote his successour Robert passede from Chestre to Coventre. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Þis ȝere deide Hermannus*. [Hyrmanus, Cx.] þe firste bisshop of Salesbury, of þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] it is i-wrete*. [wreton, Cx.] to forehonde.*. [to vorhond, γ.] After hym þe kinges chaunceller Osmundus was bisshop foure and twenty Page  295, vol.7 ȝere; he bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] þere a newe cherche, and brouȝte þider*. [þuder, γ.] noble clerkes and konnynge of clergie and of songe. So þat þis bisshop hymself schonede not to write and lumine*. [lymne, β. and Cx.; lumine, from γ. lumynede, MS.] and bynde bookes. Also he made þe ordynal of þe service of holy chirche, and cleped it þe Consuetudinarius.*. [consuetudinarye, α., β., and Cx.; consuetudinary, γ.] Now wel nyh al*. [ne iȝ, .] Enge|lond, Wales, and Irlond useþ þat ordynal. Also he endited seint Aldelm*. [Aldelm, from γ.; Adelms, Cx.; Albon, MS.] his lif.*. [Aldelm's lif, β.] Þis ȝere Robert Curthose,*. [Courthehose, β., γ., and Cx.] kyng*. [kync, γ.] William his eldest sone, for he myȝte nouȝt have Normandie [that his fader had assigned him somtyme, therfore by helpe of the kynge of Fraunce he toke prayes in Normandie, and]*. [From Cx.; þat his fader had assigned him somtyme, þerfore by helpe of þe kyng of Fraunce he toke prayes in Normandy and dide, β.; þat hys vader hadde assygned hym som tyme, þarvore by help of þe kyng of fraunce he touk prayes in Normandy, and dude hys vader moche wo, γ.] dede his fader moche woo, so þat his fader was i-wonded and unhorsed, and gan for to crie. Robert herde*. [hurde, γ.] his fader voys, and lyȝte downe of is hors, and horsede his fader aȝen. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þe Norþhumbres slouȝ Walkerus bisshop of Durham. William þat was somtyme abbot of Kariles,*. [Karyles, β.; seynt Kariles, γ.; Cariles, Cx.] was bisshop after hym. Þis William brouȝte firste monkes at Dyrham.*. [Durham, α. and γ.] He was myȝti in þe Page  297, vol.7 world,*. [worl, γ.] and hadde his mouth at his wille, and hadde greet trust*. [triste, β.] þerynne, and favored afterward parties somdel aȝenst kyng William þe Rede. Þerfore he fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] out of Engelond, and com aȝen to his owne bisshopriche after two ȝere, and made hym ful besy*. [busy, γ.] to have þe kynges love aȝen. So þat he folwede*. [folewide, β.; volwede, γ.] þe kynges wille and his ȝee*. [ȝhe, β.] and nay*. [in his ye and nay, Cx.] in al manere wise, and specialliche in þat strif þat was bytwene þe kyng and Ancelm,*. [Anselm & þe kyng, γ.] [and hopede þerby to gete þe kynges grace oþer [to]*. [From Cx.] be archbisshop after Ancelm*. [Anselm, γ.]].*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Bot he faillede of eyþer, for þere fil*. [vul, γ.] strif bytwene hym and þe kyng, and he was at Glowcestre to defende his cause.*. [and vul syk in hys bed & dyede þar, γ.] Þis was þe firste þat dede*. [dude, γ.] þe priour of Durham a benefet þat he schulde be deen*. [been (sic), α.] and archedekon in al þat bishopriche. Wareyn*. [Waryng, β. and Cx.] eorle*. [Waryn erl, γ.] of Schroesbury*. [Scrosbury, β.] made tweie abbeyes, oon in þe suburbes of Schroesbury and anoþer at Wenlok, in worschippe of seynt Milburgh.*. [Myldburgh, α.; Mildburgh, β. and γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. While a myȝti man sat at þe*. [þe] a, Cx.] feste muys*. [muyse, β., tris; myes, Cx., et infra.] bysette hym sodenliche al aboute, and þeiȝ*. [though, Cx.] he were i-brouȝt into þe hiȝe see it halpe hym nouȝt, ffor þe muys sewede*. [siwede, β.; syewed, Cx.] hym in þe see uppon ryndes of pom|garnet,*. [pomegarnat, β. and Cx.]Page  299, vol.7 and were adreynt of the schipmen. No þing þat God haþ wrouȝt is al wiþ oute witte, noþer*. [noyfol, γ.] þing wiþ oute remedie: þan þe man was i-brouȝt on*. [α, γ.] londe aȝen,*. [ayene to londe, Cx.] and muys al to haled*. [halide, β.; haaled, Cx.] hym. Me seiþ þat þe same hap bifel*. [bifil, β.; byvul, γ.] a prince of Po|lenia*. [Polonia, Cx.] þat hadde a leoparde*. [a leopard hadde, α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-bete. Also suche an hap is i-tolde of a prince þat myȝte by no manere craft kepe and save hym self fro luys*. [for lyyse, β.; lyese, Cx.] in no manere wise. Henricus, libro 6o. Þis ȝere was a corsed stryf bytwene þe monkes of Glastyngbury and þe unthryvynge abbot Thurstan, þat kyng William hadde i-brouȝt þider*. [þuder, γ.] out of þe abbay of Cadoni,*. [Cadony, β.] and made hym abbot of Glastingbury, þat cowþe non*. [no, β.] manere witte of redynes. Among his oþer lewednes and folie he despised Gregori his song and offys, and bigan to compelle þe monkes for to use þe song of oon William [monk]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of Fiscanen.*. [Fiscamen, Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. He wasted and spend*. [spended, Cx.] þe cherche good and catel*. [catails, Cx.] in leccherie, and chalengede cruelliche þe ordre and service of þe monkes, and wiþ drouȝ [therwith]*. [From Cx.; þerwiþ, β.; þare|wyþ, γ.] here mete and drynke; þerof come chidynge and strif of wordes and discord of wittes and of þowȝtes, ffor*. [vor γ.] Lucanus seiþ, "Fast|ynge*. [Vastyng, γ.]Page  301, vol.7 folk*. [volk, γ.] conneþ*. [kunneþ, β.] nouȝt*. [can noo, Cx.] drede." Þanne after chid|ynge and stryf me took*. [touk, γ.] wepone.*. [wepne, β.] And*. [And, from β., γ., and Cx.; MS. has of.] þe abbot wiþ his men of armes, fel*. [vul, γ.; fille, Cx.] i-armed on þe monkes, and slowȝ tweyne at þe hiȝe awter and woundede eyȝtene, and schot*. [schet, γ.] arewes*. [and dartes, add. γ.] to ymages and schrynes of þe cherche. Þe monkes, as þey were i-dreve*. [dryve, β.; y-dryve, γ.; drive, Cx.] to by nede, defended hem self as wel as þey myȝte yn everiche side wiþ foormes and stooles and candlestikkes, and woundede som of þe knyȝtes. Þis cause was i-meoved to|fore þe kyng, and þe abbot was i-chaunged and i-torned to*. [From γ. and Cx.; MS. has fro.] his owne abbay in Normandie. Bote þe monkes were to schifte*. [scatered, β.; to scatred, Cx.] aboute by þe kynges heste by dyvers bisshopriches and ab|bayes; but after kyng William his deeþ þis Thurstan bouȝte þe abbay of Glastyngbury of kyng William þe Rede for fyve*. [vor vyf, γ.] hondred pounde; and so he wente aboute somwhat of ȝeres by þe possessiouns of þe abbay, and deide fer from*. [deyde fer fram, β.] hym. Þis ȝere kyng William hadde of everiche hide*. [huyde, Cx.] of lond in Enge|lond*. [in Engelond] om. Cx.] sex schillynges of silver. Also pope Hiltebrand lay in his deeþ [bed],*. [From β.; dede bedde, Cx.] and cleped to hym þe cardenales*. [cardynal, α. and β.] þat he lovede moost, and knowleched þat he hadde i-made wreþe and strif Page  303, vol.7 bytwene þe emperour and [the]*. [From Cx.] oþer Cristen men, þerfore he *. [From Cx.][un-]dede*. [undide, β.; undude, γ.] þe bondes [of þe peynes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat were i-sette of peynes,*. [of peynes] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and deide.

Capitulum quartum.

AFFTER Hiltebrand, þe þridde Victor was pope oon*. [o, γ.] ȝere and fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes; somtyme he heet*. [het, β.; hyȝte, γ.] Desiderius, abbot of Mont Cassyn; he was i-poysened*. [poysent, γ.] wiþ venym þat was i-doo in his chalys. Þat ȝer Canutus kyng of Denmark, by help of his wifes fader,*. [vader, γ.] Robert of Flaundres, arayed hym forto come into Engelond [wiþ a grete navey. Bote kyng William herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof and gadrede*. [gadderde, γ.] a greet ost and com into Engelond]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] out of Normandie; but his enemyes were i-lette, and he hilde his court*. [his greet court, γ.] at Gloucestre, þere*. [þar vore, γ.] he ȝaf*. [þre, γ.] bisshopriches to his þre preostes; to Morys*. [Morice, Cx.] he ȝaf þe bisshopriche of Londoun, to William þe bisshopriche of Thetford,*. [Tedford, β., γ., and Cx.] to Robert þe bisshopriche of Chestre, but he chaunged*. [chayngede, γ.] þe see to Coventre. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. He rasede of oon beem of þat cherche Page  305, vol.7 fyve hundred mark of silver for to fille*. [vulle, γ.] þe kynges hond and forto begile*. [bigile, β.] þe occupacioun of þe pope. Eorle Leofricus hadde i-made þat place*. [plasce, γ.] riche of gold and of silver, of relikes, and of*. [of] om. Cx.] oþer*. [oþer] om. γ.] precious stoones. And so þis*. [þes, γ.] Robert robbed his owne cherche, and was gilty to make good þerfore in his lif, oþer wiþ his catel*. [cataill, Cx.] after his deeþ, ȝif eny man were þat wolde hym*. [hym wolde, α., β., and γ.] accuse. Also he fedde*. [vedde, γ.] þe monkes of þat place wiþ symple mete and drynke, and suffred*. [suffryd, Cx.] hem*. [ham, γ.] nouȝt to lerne*. [lurne, γ.] but symple lettrure*. [letture, γ.] [lest likynge mete and drynke and grettre*. [gret letture, γ.] lettrure]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wolde make þe monkes stoute and prowde aȝenst*. [prout aȝenes, γ.] þe bisshop. Noþeles at Lichefeeld*. [Lychfeld, γ.] he bygan meny grete buldynges. Aboute þat tyme bygan þe ordre of the Charthous*. [Charterhous, α.; Chartus, β. and γ.; Chartrus, Cx., et infra.] in Calabria, in þe bisshopriche of Grannopo|lican, by oon Bruno þat was i-bore at Coleyn,*. [Coloyn, Cx.] of þe nacioun of Duchesmen,*. [Duchische men, α. and β.; Du|chesch men, γ.; Duche men, Cx.] [and]*. [From β.] chanoun of Remene*. [Reynes in Champayne, Cx.] in Gallia, and maister of þe scoles; he forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] þe worlde,*. [worl, γ.] and foundede þe hermytage of Cartus, aboute seynt*. [seyn, γ.] Johnes feeste, and rulede it sixe ȝere. At þe laste he com to Rome by heste of þe secounde [pope]*. [From β. and Cx.] Urban, þat hadde i-be somtyme his scoler; þere he halpe*. [som tyme hys scoler; þar he halp, γ.] þe pope gretliche in doynges*. [dygnyte, Cx.] of holy chirche. Page  307, vol.7 But whan he myȝte nouȝt suffre þe stryf and þe maneres of þe court, he forsook þe world,*. [world] court, β.; courte, Cx.; and foundede þe hermytage wrongly inserted here in MS.] [and þe archebisshopriche of Risens,*. [he vorsouk þe court and þe bis|choprych of Risens, γ.] to þe whiche he was y-chose by heste of þe pope, and wente to þe ermytage]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þat hatte þe*. [to wrongly inserted here in MS.] tour in Calabria, and þere*. [þere] om. α.] ended his lif.*. [endede þare hys lyf, γ.] Þat manere ermytes*. [hermytes, γ,] [þat]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] beeþ i|cleped Celestes*. [Celystes, α.; Celistes, β.; Cellistes, γ.; Cellystes, Cx.] also, for þey woneþ in celles and lyveþ*. [lyven, Cx.] under a priour, and passeþ*. [passen, Cx.] nouȝt þe nombre of twelve in clerkes, but it be for som worþi person, bote þey fongeþ lewed*. [leude, Cx.] men anon to þe noumbre of twenty, everiche in his [owne]*. [From β. and Cx.; oune, γ.] celle in symple dayes i-served*. [ysevered, β.; y seuered, γ.] by hem self, biddeþ her*. [his, α. and Cx.] bedes, slepeþ and eteþ. Eueriche*. [Eche, Cx.] of hem haþ oon loof for his brede for al þe woke;*. [weke, β. and Cx.] þey eteþ nevere flesche noþer blood; þey wereþ nevere lynnen clooþ, noþer stamyn, but þe heer next þe flesche,*. [vleysch, γ.] and above þe*. [þe] a, β. and Cx.] curtelle of wolle*. [wollen, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and a pilche.*. [pylche, γ.] Þey haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þrittene celles, and everiche celle is departed in*. [on, α. and Cx.] foure,*. [a voure, γ.] and to sette wiþ ynne for þe oratorie, þe dortour, þe freytour,*. [fraytour, Cx.] and þe werkhous, þere þey dooþ here werkes, bote þey joyneþ*. [a juneþ, γ.] al to gidres.*. [gedders, γ.] [On]*. [From β. and Cx.] Sondayes*. [Sondawes, γ.] and oþere hiȝe Page  309, vol.7 dayes þey comeþ to cherche and to a comyn bord and eteþ*. [etyn, Cx.] in fere, and talkeþ mekeliche*. [mekeliche] om. Cx.; myklyche, γ.] in fere of gostly*. [goostlich, β.; gostlyche, γ.] tales. Þey seieþ*. [siggiþ, β.; Hy segeþ, γ.] her service after seint Benet his rule.*. [reul, γ.] An*. [From Cx.; and, MS.] apostata þat brekeþ his ordre þey fongeþ*. [vongeþ, γ.] nevere aȝen. Kyng William made [to]*. [From β.] descrive al Engelond, for he wolde wite and knowe how moche lond everiche of his barons hadde; how meny knyȝtene*. [knyghtes, Cx.] fees,*. [feos, γ.] how meny teme*. [teeme, β.] lond, how meny townes and men, and how meny beestes. Þe lond was greved wiþ meny mescheves*. [meschyefs, Cx.] and happes þat fil for þat drede;*. [dede, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat discripcioun was i-write [al]*. [From β.] in oon volym, and i-doo in þe kynges librarie at Wynchestre. Also þis ȝere Edgar Adelyng wente into Apulia wiþ greet strengþe, by leve of kyng William, and his suster Cristine*. [Cristyn, γ.] wente into þe abbey of Ramsey.*. [Romsee, β.; Rumesee, γ.] After Victor, þe secounde Urban was pope þrittene ȝere. First þis was a monk of Cluny, and þanne*. [þanne] om. Cx.] archedekene of Remne,*. [Rome, Cx.] and heet*. [hyȝte, γ.] Odo; þerafter he was bisshop Hostient,*. [Hostyence, Cx.] and pope at þe laste.*. [atte laste, γ.] Anoþer pope, þat heet Clement, þat was in þe poperiche wiþ wrong, dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] þis Urban moche woo and tene:*. [teone, β.] þis Clement was somtyme bisshop of Ravenna. Þat ȝere in Engelond was Page  311, vol.7 greet deeþ of beestes and distemperynge of þe ayer,*. [eyr, β.; aer, γ.; eyer, Cx.] by þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] meny men deide in þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] feveres and for honger. In þe same [tyme]*. [From β. and γ.] grisliche fuyre*. [vure, γ.; grysely fyre, Cx.] destroyede the principal citees of Engelond, and Seynt Poul*. [Paul, γ.] his chirche, and a greet deel of Londoun. Alfridus. Þat ȝere þe Danes in a chirche slowȝ her kyng Canutus. Willelmus de Regibus, libro tercio. Þis kyng William lay a bedde at*. [Cx. inserts Roen before Rotho|mage.] Rothomage in þe laste ȝere*. [ende, β. and Cx.] of his lyf; þe kyng of Fraunce scornede hym in þis manere: "Kyng William*. [William kyng, γ.] of Engelond lieþ now as wommen*. [wymmen, γ.] dooþ*. [don, Cx.] a childe bedde, and takeþ*. [takiþ, β.] hym to slewþe:" he boorded*. [bourded, β.] soo for kyng William hadde i-slaked*. [yslaket, γ.] his greet wombe wiþ a drynke*. [drench, β.; dreynch, γ.] þat he hadde i-dronke. Þe kyng was*. [was] om. γ.] displesed wiþ þat scorne, and seide, "I schal offre hym a þowsand candelles whan I schal go to cherche of childe." And nouȝt longe þerafter in [a]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Lamasse*. [lambmas, γ.] monþe, whan þe cornes were in feeldes,*. [veldes, γ.] fruyt on trees,*. [treen, β.; tren, γ.] and grapes on þe vynes, he sette afuyre þe westside of Fraunce and þe citee Medant and Oure Lady Page  313, vol.7 chirche. In þat cherche he brende a woman þat was i-closed and trowed*. [trowyd, Cx.] nouȝt þat sche*. [heo, β.; α, γ.] schulde flee in suche a manere nede. In þat heete he took a manere*. [a manere] an, β.; manere, om. Cx.] evel*. [an evel, γ.] þat myȝt nouȝt be i-heled, oþer elles whan his hors leep*. [lupe, γ.] over þe diche, he*. [α, γ.] brak þe entrailles of his fat*. [vatte, γ.] wombe; þanne leches warned hym þat he*. [α, γ.] schulde deie. Þanne he ordeyned Normandie to his eldest sone Robert, and Engelond to William þe Rede, and þe moder possessiouns and tresour to Henry clerk, and made delyvere his prisoners þat he hadde in bondes, þat were þe eorles*. [erles, γ.] Markarus, Roger,*. [Rogyer, Cx.] Wilnotus Harald his sone, his broþer Odo bisshop of Raveyn.*. [Bayen, α.; Baion, γ.; Bayon, β. and Cx.] And so he deide þe ȝere of his kyngdom oon and twenty, þe tenþe monþe; þe ȝere of his ducherie two and fifty; þe ȝere of his lyf nyne and fifty;*. [vyfty, γ.] þe ȝere of our Lord a þowsand*. [voure, γ.] fourescore and sevene, þe eyȝteþe*. [eiȝte, β.; eyght, Cx.] day of De|cembre; and he*. [α, γ.] was i-buried in the abbay of Cadoni,*. [Cadony, β.] þat he hadde i-founded. Þere me myȝte see sorowe þat he þat was so dredful and so worschipful in Europa myȝte nouȝt be i-buried wiþ oute chalange. For þere a kniȝt forbeed openliche*. [oponlych vorbude, γ.] his Page  315, vol.7 burienge,*. [buryinge, β.; beryeng, Cx.] and seide þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þat grounde was his owne, and i-take of hym wiþ strengþe. Þerfore his sone Henry ȝaf þe knyȝt an*. [and, MS.] hondred pounde for to cese, for þere were no mo*. [no mo] none, Cx.] of kyng William his sones, for his eldest sone Robert werrede [than]*. [From Cx.; þo, γ.] in þe contray, and William the Rede was seillede into Engelond. But at Wynchestre he took his fader tresorie, and ȝaf moche*. [myche, β.] for his fader mynde.*. [munde, γ.]Henricus, libro 5o. Þis William Conquerour was a wise man and a gileful, riche [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] coveitous, glorious, and loved wel greet loos; faire*. [veyre, γ.] spekere wiþ Goddes servauntes, and sturne*. [sterne, β., et infra; storn, γ.] to hem*. [ham, γ.] þat wolde hem*. [hym, β.] wiþ stonde. In þe province of Hamptoun, in þe newe forest, in þe space of þritty myle, þe þrew doun cherches and townes, and put*. [dide, β.; dyde, Cx.] þere wilde bestes. So þat who*. [þat, add. γ.] took þere a wilde best schulde lese*. [luse, γ.] his oon yȝe;*. [eye, Cx.] and who*. [who] om. γ.] þat took a womman by strengþe schulde lese his genitras.*. [genetraces, β.; genitoryes, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. Kyng William was of skilful stature, to greet and fat*. [vatte, γ.] of body, and*. [and] om. γ. and Cx.] sturne of Page  317, vol.7 face, bare*. [baar, β.] of forheed, greet of strengþe [in brawne and armes, so þat unneþe eny man myȝt*. [myȝte, γ.] bende his bowe; bote he wolde on [his]*. [From Cx.] hors strecche forþ his senewes and bende hit esiliche ynow uppon his owne*. [one, Cx.] foot.*. [vot, γ.] He had skilful strengþe,]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and ȝaf hym self to moche to hontynge, so þat he þrewe doun cherches and townes to make wodes. He made grete festes and revelles in [the]*. [From Cx.; þe, β. and γ.] hiȝe feestes of þe ȝere. He hilde*. [huld, γ.] his mydwynter tide at Glowcestre, his Esterne*. [Ester, γ.; Eester, Cx.] at Wynchestre, Witsonday*. [Witsontyde, β.; Whitsontyde, Cx.] at Westmynstre, whan he was in Engelond. But he passede and over dede in gadringe of*. [of] om. γ. and Cx.] money of þe people, oþer to wiþstonde his enemyes, oþer to make hym a greet name, oþer to cese his covetise. Hit is a comoun*. [comyn, γ.] tale þat whan þis William was ȝong he destourbed his eme*. [eame, Cx.] Mal|gerus, archebisshop of Rothomage, of his bisshopriche, for he forgendred*. [vor a vorgendrede, γ.] Goddis service, and ȝaf hym self to hontynge and to festes, bote more verrailiche*. [verely, Cx.] for þe bisshop hadde i-corsed*. [acorsed, α. and γ.; acursed, β.] duke William and Molde his wif and his cosyn, for þey were unlawfulliche i-wedded to gidres. But for þat trespas duke William bulde*. [bylded, Cx., et infra.] an abbay of men and*. [From γ. and Cx.; MS. has at.] Mold anoþer of wom|men Page  319, vol.7 at Cadoni.*. [Cadony, β.] ℞. Also William bulde tweie abbayes in Engelond, oon at Bermoundeseie,*. [Bermundseye, β.; Bermundes|eye, γ.] faste by Londoun, and anoþer at þe*. [þe] om. β. and γ.] bataile*. [Batayl, β.] in Souþsex þere he hadde i-fouȝte.*. [y-voȝte, γ.]Henricus, libro 6o. Whanne þis William was kyng*. [ded, γ.] unneþe was þere a lord in Engelond [an]*. [From Cx.] Englische man; bote Englische men were i-made bonde, so þat it was schame and despite to be i-cleped an*. [an] om. γ.] Englischeman. To bere a doun and*. [to, add. γ.] destroye*. [distruye, β.] Englische men God had i-ordeyned cruel men*. [men] om. Cx.] and sturne, þat beeþ*. [be, Cx.] of suche kynde þat whanne þei [haveþ*. [hy habbeth, γ.] y-bore*. [have boren, Cx.] doun here enemyes þann þey*. [α, γ.]]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] bereþ doun hem*. [ham, γ.] self.*. [bere doune theyrself, Cx.]Willelmus.

Capitulum quintum.

WILLIAM þe Rede was i-crowned kyng þe day of seint Cosma [and]*. [From β. and γ.] Damyan. Hym halp Wolstoun*. [Wulstan, β., et infra.] bisshop of Worcestre,*. [Wyrceter, γ.]Page  321, vol.7 and þe archebisshop Lanfrank, þat hym hadde i-norsched*. [norysshed, Cx.] and i-made knyȝt. Þus*. [Þes, γ.] William regnede þrittene ȝere, a monþe lasse. Robert þe eldest sone was þoo*. [þoo] that tyme, Cx.] in Almayne, and hadde i-gadred a greet oost aȝenst*. [host aȝenes, γ.] þe fadir, and herde herof, and come aȝen to*. [into, β.] Normandie, and leyde þe halvendel of*. [half, Cx.] Normandie outake castelles to wedde to his broþer Henry for to wage an oost aȝenst his broþer William, and cam at þe laste alonde at Hamptoun. Þanne þe kyng*. [kyng William, γ.] sent hym messangers*. [messagers, γ. and Cx.] þat seide in þis manere: "Þy broþer William clepeþ not hym self*. [hymsylf noȝt, γ.; clepeth himself not, Cx.] kyng, [under þe]*. [From γ., but apparently in error.] but under kyng, to regne under þe and by help of þe, þat art*. [ert, γ.] gretter þan he and better and raþer i-bore, ȝif it is þy wille; he haþ nouȝt mystake as his owne þat he haþ i-fonge for a tyme by cause of þyn absens. But for*. [for] bycause, Cx.] he is now i-crowned he prayeþ þat he moot regne under þe, and paye to þe eueriche ȝere þre þowsand mark, and he þat lyveþ over*. [over lyveþ, α., β., and γ.; over|leveth, Cx.] schal have þe worschippe of eyþer." Robard, waggynge as a*. [α] om. α. and β.] reed,*. [reode, β.; rued, γ.; waggyng his heede, Cx.] assented anon, and left his oost, and went aȝen into Normandie, and hadde riȝt nouȝt but faire wordes.*. [byhestes, α., β., and Cx.; veyr byhestes, γ.] Wel nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] al þe noble men of Engelond wolde Page  323, vol.7 have i-made Robert kyng outake Lanfrank and Wolstoun. Þat tyme fil cruelnesse*. [vul cruwel, γ.] and grisliche*. [a cruwel and grislich, β.] tempest in Engelond.*. [a cruell and grysely tempest, Cx.] For after wynter, in þe bygynnynge of springyng tyme, kyng William his eme*. [eame, Cx.] Odo, bisshop of Baiocens, þat was tofore|honde*. [byfore, Cx.] delyvered out of þe firste kyng William his prisoun, cam into Engelond; to hym was i-ȝeve*. [yeven, Cx.] þe erldome of Kent; he siȝ þat it ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.] nouȝt al at*. [at] to, Cx.] his devise in þe londe, as it dede*. [dude, γ.] somtyme in þe firste kyng William his tyme, and was wrooþ þerfore, and forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] þe kyng, and infected meny oþer wiþ þe same grucchinge, and nameliche þe bisshop of Durham, þe eorle of Northumberlond, and Roger of monk Gormerik,*. [Mont Gomeryk, α. and Cx.; Gomerik, β.; Mont Gomerik, γ.] eorle of Schroesbury. Þo*. [Þanne, β.] þis Odo wastede and destroyede the kynges rentes and enchetes, and Lanfrank þe archebisshopes londes,*. [þe archebisshopes londes, from α., β., and Cx.; hys londes, γ.; arche|bisshop of London, MS.] for he was by his counseil *. [From α.][y]-cast in þe firste kyng William his bondes. For þe firste kyng William playnede*. [pleined, Cx.] somtyme of his broþer þat he wolde forsake hym. "Take hym," quod Lanfrank, "and bynde hym þat he greve þe nouȝt. I seie*. [sigge, β.; sygge, γ.] not the bisshop, bote þe eorle*. [erl, γ.] of Kent." Þat tyme Roger*. [Rogyer, Cx.] eorle*. [erl, γ.] of Schroesbury, wiþ his Walsche*. [Walysch, γ.] men, destroyede þe endes of Engelond anon to Wircestre.*. [Wyrceter, γ.] But by þe prayer and curse of seynt Wolston*. [Wulstan, β.] þei were so i-febled and i-blend*. [blent, β.; blente, Cx.] þat he and his men were i-chased of a litel noumbre of men into*. [into] of, γ. and Cx.] castelles of þe same bisshoppes meynye.*. [meyne, β.] Kyng William siȝ þat þe Normans were nygh al conspired aȝenst Page  325, vol.7 hym; þanne he plesede Englische men wiþ byhestes of better lawes and fre hontynge in his owne woodes. In þe same manere he awelde*. [awelded, β. and Cx.] Roger eorle of Schroysbury, and anon he fil*. [vul, γ.] on hym*. [ham, γ.; them, Cx.] þat hym hadde forsake*. [vorsake, γ.] and occupied Odo his castelles in Kent, and took Odo and made hym forswere*. [vorswere, γ.] Engelond, and bysegede and took þe citee of Rouchestre, þere and*. [and] om. α. β., γ., and Cx.] þe noble men were i-gadered. Also þat ȝere seint Nicholas his body was i-brouȝt to þe citee Barrus in Apulia, whan Turkes destroyede þe citee Mirrea. Foure and twenty knyȝtes of Barrus wente þider*. [þuder, γ.] and brouȝte to hire owne citee seint Nicholas*. [hys, add. γ.] bones swymmynge in oyle. Also þat ȝere pope Urban hadd wiþ hym Ancelyn*. [Ancelm, β.; Anselm, γ.] abbot of Becco,*. [Becko, Cx.] and made a counsaile at Clermount in Gallia, þat is [in]*. [From Cx.] Fraunce;*. [Frauns, γ.] þere it was i-ordeyned þat þe houres of Oure Lady schulde be i-seide every day, and*. [in, MS.] ful service of hire þe Satirday.*. [and vul seruys of here þe Satur|day, γ.] Kyng William corumpede þe wardeynes wiþ money, and wan som of Robert his castelles in Normandie, and lette þe kyng of Page  327, vol.7 Fraunce þat he schulde nouȝt favoure*. [favere, γ.; faver, Cx.] his broþer Robert. And so Normandie was longe unstedefast,*. [unstidfast, β.] now favorynge þe*. [þe] þat, β.; that, Cx.] oon*. [o, γ.] broþer, now*. [þat, add. γ.] þat oþer, forto*. [forto] til, β. and Cx.] þat Roberd*. [vorto Robert, γ.] hadde Cenomannia,*. [Chynon, Cx.] and kyng William som castelles in Normandie.*. [in Normandie] in Saint Nycolas mount, Cx.] Þanne*. [Þanne . . . oþer] om. Cx.] þe þridde broþer Henry grucchede for he hadde no part, and occupied Seynt Michel*. [Mighels, β.] his mount, and reysed*. [resed, β.] up*. [uppon, α. and β.; oppon, γ.] eyþer broþer now uppon þat oon,*. [and efte, γ.] now uppon þat oþer.*. [Þanne . . . oþer] om. Cx.] Þere in a day king William wente out of his tente unware,*. [onwar, Cx.] and fil*. [vul, γ.] on meny enemyes wiþ fewe*. [feaw, γ.] men, but his hors was i-slawe*. [sleyn, β.] under hym, and he was longe i-drawe and i-haled by þe foot,*. [voot, γ.] but his habergeoun*. [haberione, β. and Cx.; haber|jon, γ.] was so good þat it saved hym þat he was nouȝt i-hert. Þe knyȝt þat hadde i-þrow hym downe, sette his hond on*. [on] to, β. and γ.] his swerd*. [schord, γ.] for to slee þe kyng; "Leef,*. [Leve, β. and Cx.] fool," quod þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kyng William, "I*. [Ych, γ.] am kyng of Engelond." Alle þe oost dradde whanne þey herde þat voys, and brouȝt þe kyng anoþer hors; and whanne he was on þat hors*. [and . . . hors] om. Cx.] he Page  329, vol.7 axede who þrewe hym doun. "I," quod*. [quaþ, γ.] þe knyȝt þat hadde i-doo þe*. [þat, γ.] dede; "I wende nouȝt to þrowe adoun a kyng, bote a knyȝt." Per vultum de Luca," quoþ þe kyng, "þou schalt be me the levere after þis." Þanne whan Henry was [so]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] byseged of boþe his breþeren*. [brethern, γ.] þat hym lakked water, he sente to his broþer Robert, þat was þe more benigne man, and seide þat it was an evel dede for to werne*. [wurne, γ.] water, þat is comyn to alle men and bestes, and þat it were more laweful to fiȝte*. [vyȝte, γ.] wiþ strengþe of knyȝtes þan wiþ violence*. [wyolens, γ.] of þe ele|mentes: þan he graunted hym water. Kyng William herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, and scornede*. [schornede, γ.] þat dede, and seide: "So þou hast i|lerned, Robert, to overcome þyn enemyes, and to ȝeve hem drynke." "Þou tellest greet prise*. [pryce, Cx.] of water," quod Robert; "telle*. [tellest, β., γ., and Cx.] þou more prise*. [more pris, add. γ.] of water þan of oure broþer? woldest þou suffre hym deie for defaute of water? where schal we have anoþer broþer ȝif we leseþ*. [luseþ, γ.; leese, Cx.] hym?" For þis answere þe kyng undede*. [undide, β.; undude, γ.] þe werre, and hadde boþe his bre|þeren*. [breþern, γ.] wiþ hym into Engelond.

Page  331, vol.7

Capitulum sextum.

THIS ȝere deide Lanfrank archebisshop of Canturbury, þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] day tofore*. [tofore] of, Cx.] Iuyn,*. [tovore Jun, γ.] after þat he hadde i-be arche|bisshop eyȝtene ȝere; and þanne þe see was voide foure ȝere. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þis Lanfrank, of þe nacioun of Lombardes, was a noble man of lettrure;*. [letture, γ.] he hadde i-ȝeve al his ȝowþe to fre artes and sciens, and spende*. [spente, Cx.] his elde al in holy bookes; he was konnynge þerof, and despisede þe smokynge and schillynge speche of mysbyleved men. And of alle abbayes in Normandie he chees Becco, and was by|capped*. [cappet, γ.; ycapped, Cx.] by þe povert and religioun of þat place. Þere he was a monk under abbot Herlewyn,*. [Herlewing, Cx.] and was a man þat kouþe doo no grete werkes to gete his liflode þerwiþ. Þerefore he hilde open scole of art to releve þe nedy place by fredom*. [vredom, γ.] of his scolers; þe loos of his preysinge and of his worschippe sprang out among wicked men, so þat þey hadde greet envie to þe good man, and*. [to the, add. Cx. wrongly.] preostes*. [prustes, γ.] of þe contray meoved so William duke of Normandie [þat he commaundede to put*. [pot, γ.] out Lanfranc out of Normandye]*. [From α. and β.] for his unesynes. Willelmus, libro 2o. For*. [For Hervast] Bycause herof, Cx.] Hervast,*. [Herfast, β., γ.] duke William his preost,*. [prust, γ.] was holde a man of Page  333, vol.7 greet sciens tofore þe comynge of Lanfrank. He cam in a day to Lanfrank his scole wiþ greet brag and boost; þanne by his firste speche Lanfranc was war þat þe man couþe wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] riȝt nouȝt, and took hym a þing wiþ letter*. [lettres, β.] for to spel,*. [spede, α., β., and Cx.; of letters vor to spyde, γ.] and so he overcom þe wildenesse of þe man by connynge*. [kunnyng, β.] of Italy. Þerfore he was wrooþ, and made duke William putte Lanfrank out of al Normandye. But occasioun to have grace of þe duke was, for*. [was, vor, γ.] Lanfrank wente to þe dukes court, and his hors haltede and made þe duke lawhe.*. [lauȝe, β.; lauȝhe, γ.; laugh, Cx.] Þe duke took heed*. [hyde, γ.] of þe*. [þe] om. β.] curtesie*. [courtosye, Cx.] of Lanfrank his answere, and of þe fairenesse*. [veyrnes, γ.] of his face,*. [fas, γ.] and made hym [of]*. [From β.] priour of Becco, abbot of Cadony,*. [Caen, Cx.] and afterward archebisshop of Caun|terbury. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þis man was so famous of lore þat pope Alisaundre aroos*. [aros, β.] worschip|fulliche aȝenst hym whan he come to Rome, and seide þat he dede nouȝt to þe archebisshop [þat worschippe],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] but to his clergie. Þerfore þe pope axede þat seþþe*. [syth, Cx.] þat he hadde i-doo what was worschipful, Lanfrank schulde doo what was Page  335, vol.7 riȝtful, þat is þat he schulde falle adoun to þe feet*. [veet, γ.] of seint Peter his vikarie.*. [vikere, α.; viker, β.; saynt Peter vyker, Cx.] Whanne he hadde soo i-doo þe pope by cause of hym restored his felowes bisshoppes þat com wiþ hym to here staat, crosses*. [croyses, Cx.] and rynges, þat were to forehonde*. [bifore, Cx., bis.] i-preved,*. [yprived, β. and γ.] as it is seide to forehonde.*. [bifore, Cx., bis.] Also þis Lanfrank tredede*. [tretid, Cx.] and bylad*. [byladde, β.] kyng William conquerour by an holy craft, nouȝt wiþ grym chidynge, but somtyme [an hernest*. [ernest, β., γ., and Cx.] and some|time]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in good merþe. Kyng William was sterne*. [storn, γ.] and dradde no man, and rulede*. [reulede, γ.] boþe temperalte and spiritualte at his owne wille; he fenge*. [vynge, γ.] no man for*. [þey] he, β. and Cx.] þe pope in his lond, but þey*. [for] fro, Cx.] come and plesede hym; he suffred no counsaile i-made in his lond wiþ oute his owne leve. Also he wolde suffre no þing to be ordeyned in suche a counseil but as he wolde assente. Also no lord of his lond schulde be punsched*. [punyschide, β.] bote at his owne heste. Somtyme Lanfrank took money for to spare þe more þe*. [þe] om. α.] tres|pas of his sugettes,*. [subget, Cx.] þat dede he nouȝt for to*. [to] om. Cx.] liȝte þe charge of synne, bote for to gete þe more grace of þe kyng; þe nede*. [neode, α.] why it moste be i-doo excused somdel*. [somwhat, Cx.] þe kynges dede in gaderynge of money. For wiþ greet money me*. [one may make, Cx.] mote*. [mot, γ.] make pees in þe lond þat is i-wonne wiþ dedes of armes and wiþ strengþe; and þeiȝ it be litel acounted among men [to ravese*. [ravysch, β.] of men]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of þe lond, and ȝeve to enemyes, ȝit tofore God I Page  337, vol.7 holde it riȝt nouȝt. Þan kyng William his dedes, in compari|soun of dedes of kynges þat now beeþ, [beeþ]*. [From α. and γ.; beþ, β.; now ben be, Cx.] worþy to be i-preved*. [preched, β. and Cx.; ypreched, γ.] for ensample of fre*. [vre, γ.] and lordliche herte; þat was i-seide trespas of presumcioun. Lanfranc suffred it aȝenst his wille, and whanne he sigh his tyme he wolde speke plesyng|liche,*. [pleasauntly, Cx.] [and warnede him and wiþseide him in skileful*. [skilfol, γ.] manere. Lanfranc hadde y-fylled*. [y-vulled, γ.] his witt wiþ al vertues, bote*. [and specially, Cx.] passyngliche]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in almes*. [almesse,.] dedes, he passede oþere men in word and in dede, and usede ofte þat word of holy writt, ȝeveþ almesse, and al þing is clene to ȝow." And þey covetise be a special vice*. [vys, γ.] to Lombardes, he put*. [potte, γ.] þat gleymynge*. [gleymyng, β. and γ.] fer from his persone, so þat he spende in*. [spente on, Cx.] pore men mete and drynke and clooþ. Hym schamede nouȝt to girde*. [gurde, γ.] hym self hiȝe,*. [heyȝ, β.] and fede*. [vede, γ.] and serve pore men, and make poure scolers stryve and dispute,*. [despuyte, γ.] and whan þey hadde i-doo*. [doon, β.] eiþer schuld goo glad awey, þe victor for he hadde þe maistrie, and he þat were overcome for comfort*. [comford, γ.] and solas of schame. He avaunsede*. [advanced, Cx.] nameliche þe place*. [plas, γ.] of monkes, and of cherches*. [clerkes, α., β., and γ.; clerkis, Cx.] he brouȝte manliche aȝen possessiouns þat were aliened. Scharpnes of Page  339, vol.7 wit and Donston his*. [Dunstan's, β.] favour conforted hym ofte; for as ofte as he was þouȝtful*. [þoȝtfol, γ.] in*. [in] for, Cx.] suche doynges, and bood*. [abode, β. and Cx.; bod, γ.] wiþ þe sentens, seynt Donstoun wolde come to Lanfrank whan he were on slepe, and warne hym of al þe sleiþe of his adversaries, and teche þe weies how he schulde ascape. Also in a tyme Lanfrank was sike, and hym semede þat Donstoun wrastled*. [warstled, Cx.] wiþ hym [and delyvered hym of his siknes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and made hym [al]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hool. And as it is i-take out of seint Donston his lif, Lanfrank was so mylde and so faire of speche in herynge of schrifte, þat whanne þe schrift were i-doo he wolde kesse her*. [theyr, Cx.] hondes þat were*. [where, MS.] i-schryve to hym, and seide, "Þese haveþ*. [have, Cx.; segge þes habbeþ, γ.] i-made me holy þis day." Also in his tyme þe monkes of Caunterbury, as wel nyȝ alle oþere monkes in Engelond, were nouȝt onliche*. [unlyk, Cx.] to seculer men, sauf*. [save, β.] þat þey lefte nouȝt liche*. [liȝtliche, β.; lyȝtlych, γ.; om. Cx.] her chastite, bote þey usede hontynge and haukynge*. [Transposed in α. and Cx.] and playeng at þe dees and greet drynkynge also, so þat þou woldest wene þat þey were consuls raþer þan monkes, for þey hadde so menye servauntes and*. [and] of, β., γ., and Cx.] so greet aray. Lanfranc suffrede her out|rage somwhat of tyme, but he ferede it away wiþ þe staf of covenable*. [covenabel, γ.] sturnes.*. [sternenesse, β.] Þe wyse maister of soules knewe*. [knwe, γ.] and wiste*. [weste, α.; wuyste, γ.] wel þat costome*. [the customme, Cx.] is þe secounde fro*. [from, β.; vram, γ.] kynde, and he knewe also þat sodeyn chaungynge of maneres and þewes Page  341, vol.7 greveþ þouȝtes and wittes; þerfore oþer whiles among*. [emonge, Cx.] he putte*. [pot, γ.] awey somwhat of suche manere doynges*. [doyngis, Cx.] wiþ faire speche and softe, and whette þe rude*. [rued, α.; ruyde, β. and Cx.] soules to goode wiþ þe whestoun of*. [whestoun of] om. γ.] vertues, so þat þey forsook þe braunches of schrewednesse and evel manere of levynge, and desired*. [desirede, β.] the kynde cours of vertues and of good þewes by here owne good wille. Þerfore ȝit þey haveþ*. [hy habbeþ, γ.; have, Cx.] þe holy man in mynde,*. [munde, γ.] and greet devocioun to God, and faire speche to gestes,*. [gistes, β.; ghestes, Cx.] and charite among hem self. Þis Lanfrank leet nevere a*. [α] om. α., β., and Cx.] man goo from hym helynge*. [elenge, α. and Cx.; elyng, β.; elynge, γ.] and*. [and] or, Cx.] sory; ȝif he sigh eny man dis|comforted he wolde besiliche axe and wite þe cause and ȝeve comfort and medecyne;*. [medicyn, β. and Cx.] he wolde freliche profre penyes to ȝong*. [ȝunge, γ.] children; he ordeynede to monkes what hem nedede in eueriche side, so þat hem lakked nouȝt*. [schulde lacke of, α.; they should not lack of, Cx.] of*. [blynche, γ.] what þat hem neded, and out of rule þey schulde nouȝt blenche. Þat tyme sprang envie among bisshoppes þat wolde putte out monkes of here places,*. [her place, β.] and set*. [brynge, α. and β.; bringe, Cx.] in seculer clerkes; auctor*. [autor, β.] þerof schulde be*. [auctor of þat doynge was, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Walkelinus bisshop of Wynchestre, a good man in Page  343, vol.7 oþere dedes, þeyȝ he were badde in þat doynge, and i-brouȝt þerto by counsaile of bakbiters. Also he hadde i-drawe*. [convertid, Cx.] kyng William to þat same entent, but Lanfranc herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, and destroyede þe castes of þe myȝti men as who destroyeþ copweb.*. [attercop weftes, β.; copweft, γ.; attercops nestes, Cx.] So þat þey þat come afterward schulde nouȝt be hardy to begynne þat doynge ne non oþer i-liche, he made þat pope Ali|saundre forbeed*. [vorbud, γ.; forbode, Cx.] it by his writynge. He restored þe abbay of Rochestre from þe nombre of [foure]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; voure, γ.] clerkes [to þe noumbre of fifty monkes],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat hadde riȝt inow*. [ynough, Cx.] to lyve by. *. [Hit wit, add. α.; His wit, add. β. and γ.; His witte is ywyst, Cx.]It is i-woost*. [ywust, β.; ywuyst, γ.] þat he translated monk Gundulphus of Cadoni to þe bisshopriche of Rouchestre, as me troweþ*. [I trowe, Cx.] by þe ellec|cioun of God. For þis Gundulphus lernede*. [lurnde, γ.] holy writ of Lanfrank at Cadoni, while his maister took hede*. [hyde, γ.] to oþer þinges, he and his felowe Walter, wiþ þe þridde, hilde in*. [on, α., β., and Cx.] honde þe book of þe gospelles, and seide, "Now assay we by*. [essaye we be, Cx.] tornynge of þe leeves whiche*. [whoche, γ., bis.] of us schal be abbot and whiche schal be bisshop?" Þanne Gundulphus fonde*. [vond, γ.] þis place: "Trewe*. [truwe, γ.] servaunt, wise and redy, þat oure lord ordeyneþ over his Page  345, vol.7 meyne." But Walter fond þis place: "Good*. [Goddes, Cx.] servant and trewe,*. [truw, γ.] [entre]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] into þe ioye of þy lord." Þe þridde felowe fonde I not what hard word þat greved hym sore, and þeyȝ I*. [ich, β.] have i-herde it I forȝete*. [yhurd hyt ych vorȝute, γ.] it gladly. For it is a gentil herte to make no game and scorne of oþer men*. [mennis, β.] woo. Þan þey made ioye for þat hap,*. [of that happe, Cx.] and Lanfrank axede what þey hadde of merþe. And whan he knewe*. [wuyste, γ.] how it stood he tolde hem wiþoute dowte þat Gundulphus schulde be a bisshop, and Walter an abbot, and þe þridde schulde torne to [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] slydynge of þe world.*. [worl, γ.] As it fil afterward þe soþe was i-preoved,*. [y-preved, β.] for Gundulphus was bisshop of Rouchestre, and Walter abbot of Evesham, and þe þridde*. [felawe] om. Cx.] felawe passede in vayn.*. [veyn, β.] Whan Lanfrank accorded nouȝt in þe*. [þe] om. β.] maneres wiþ kyng William þe Rede, he lay at þe laste sike in þe feveres, and was i-schryve*. [yscryve, γ.] and i-houseled,*. [hosled, β.; y-hosled, γ.] and drank a medicinal drynke,*. [drynch, γ.; medecinale drank Cx.] and so he ȝilde up þe goost as he hadde desired; he knowleched þat he hadde i-prayed God þat he moste deie in þe feveres oþer in þe flux,*. [flix, α.] for þese evels distourbeþ nouȝt þe mynde*. [munde, γ.] noþer letteþ þe speche.

Page  347, vol.7

Capitulum septimum.

THIS*. [Also þys, γ.] ȝere whanne þe counsaille was i-made in þe citee Turon in Gallia, þat is*. [þat is] in, Cx.] Fraunce, pope Urban excitede nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] al þe westlondes to socour of þe Holy Lond. Þerfore þe þridde Henry emperour, Reymond eorle of Seynt Giles, and Bemond*. [Beomund, β.; Boamund, γ.] of Apulia, took þe cros and passede þe see of Myddel erþe at þe place þat hatte Seynt George his Arme, and hadde wiþ hym two hondred þowsand*. [þousent, γ.] of Cristen men, and so þe Holy Lond was i-wonne at þat tyme, and Cristes spere was i-founde by revelacioun of seynt Andrew, þat was schewed by*. [to, α., β., and Cx.] a cherle.*. [clerke, Cx.] Wiþ hem went Robert duke of Normandie, and þerfore he made acord wiþ his broþer kyng William þe Rede, and leide to hym Normandie to wedde for ten þowsand pounde. But by cause þerof kyng William took a grevous tribute of Englische men, so þat prelates moste ȝit*. [molte, β.; ȝote, γ.] here vessel and*. [and, from β. and γ.; of, MS.] lordes spoyle*. [prelates melted theyr vessel and lordes spoylde, Cx.] here sugettes. Malcolyn kyng of Scotland took prayes at*. [at] in, β. and Cx.] Norþ|humberlond, þerfore kyng William and his broþer Robert wente into Scotland; his navey was nyh [al]*. [From β. and Cx.] adreynt, and his oost i-schend*. [yschent, β.; marryd, Cx.] wiþ colde and wiþ honger. Malcolynus cam aȝenst Page  349, vol.7 him*. [ham, γ.] wiþ Edgar*. [Edgar] om. Cx.] Adelyng, and made pees by mediacioun, so þat Malcolyn schulde be obedient to kyng William, as he was somtyme*. [so in tyme, α.] of his fader, and kyng William schulde [ȝeve hym every*. [everyche, γ.] ȝere twelf*. [twelve α.] mark of gold, and he schulde]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝeelde hym twie*. [twelve, β.; twelf, γ.] citees in Engelond. But sone þerafter þe kyng faillede, and Robert took wiþ hym Edgar, and wente aȝen into Nor|mandie. Þis ȝere, þe fiftenþe*. [fyfte, Cx.] day of Octobre, a grym*. [grete, Cx.] strook of liȝtnynge*. [tiȝnynge, β.; lyȝtnyng, γ.] smoot þe cherche tour at Wynchecombe, and þrulled*. [þurled, β.; þurlede, γ.; thyrled, Cx.] þe wal, and þrew*. [þruw, γ.] doun þe crucifex his heed doun to þe erþe, and brak þe riȝt þigh, and þrew doun oure Lady ymage þat stood by þe rode. Þerafter com a stinking smook*. [smoke, γ.] þat fillede*. [vullede, γ.] al þe cherche, and durede forto*. [till, Cx.] þe monkes hadde i-goo a processioun aboute all places and offis of þe abbay with holywater*. [halywater, γ.] and relikes of holy seyntes and wiþ þe letanye. Also at Londoun a whirlewynd þrew*. [þruw, γ.] doun passynge sixe hondred houses and meny chirches þerto, and slowȝ tweie men in Seint Marie cherche at þe Bowe,*. [atte Bowe, β. and Cx.] and lefte*. [lifte, β.; lyft, γ.; lyfte, Cx.] up sixe rafters*. [refters, β.; reftres, Cx.] of þe cherche, and piȝte*. [stroke, Cx.] hym so depe*. [dupe, γ.] in þe grounde þat Page  351, vol.7 unneþe þe sixte part of hem was i-seie above þe erþe; also a whirle wynde þrew doun þe helynge of þe cherche of Salis|bury, þe fifte day after Osmound*. [Osmundus, α., β., and Cx.] had i-halwed*. [halewed, β.] þat chirche. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Remygius þe bisshop, þat translatede þe see from Dorchestre to Lyncolne, caste forto halwe*. [habbe, γ.] þe cherche þat he hadde newliche i-bulde. But Thomas bisshop of ȝork wiþstood hym, and seide þat þat place was of [his]*. [From Cx.] parische. And kyng William, for money þat Remygius had i-ȝeve hym priveliche,*. [yeven pryvely, Cx.] commaundede nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] alle þe bisshoppes of Engelond þat þey schulde come to þat dedica|cioun þe fiftenþe*. [fifteþe, α.] day of May. Bote tweie dayes*. [twy dawes, γ.] tofore þe*. [þat, β.] day of þe dedicacioun, Remygius was dede, by Goddes prive dome.*. [prevy doome, Cx.] Robert bisshop of Herford allone wolde nouȝt come to þat*. [the, Cx.] halwynge of þat chirche, for he knew by certeyne sight of þe sterres þat þat chirche schulde nouȝt be i-halwed*. [halwide, β.] in Remigyus his tyme. Þis Remigius semede nyȝ a wonder for|beddynge*. [forbodyng, β. and Cx.; vor|bodyng, γ.] for his body was so lite,*. [lytel, β. and Cx.] but he overcome kynde,*. [kunde, γ.] and schewed outward [a]*. [From Cx.] noble hearte and witte. So þat gracious and noble vertue come of þat litel*. [kunde, γ.] body. After þis Remygius, Robert Bloet was bisshop, a ful*. [vol, γ.] leccherous Page  353, vol.7 man, he fulfilled*. [vulvullede, γ.] realliche*. [rialich, β.; ryally, Cx.] þe halwynge of þat chirche. At þe laste, at Wodestoke, he wente from the kyng [and deyde],*. [From β. and Cx.] and his bowels were i-take out of his body and i-buried [in þe abbay of Evesham þat he hadde y-foundede; þe oþer del was y-buryed]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] at Lyncolne, þere it was wel i-knowe þat þe war|deynes of þe place [were ofte desesed wiþ schadewe*. [schadewis, β.; schadewes, γ.; shadowes, Cx.] by nyȝtes, forto*. [vortto, γ.; till, Cx.] þe place]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was i-clensed wiþ holy prayer and bedes. Þat ȝere kyng William wente into Northumberlond, and repa|raillede*. [repayred, Cx.] þe cite Lugubalia,*. [Lucubalia, γ.] þat now hatte Caerleel,*. [Caercol, Cx.] and made a castel þerynne; þat citee hadde i-lay*. [y-leye, β.; ben, Cx.] destroyed from the comynge of þe Danes, two hondred ȝere; and sone þerafter, at Glowestre,*. [Gloucestre, Cx.] þe kyng was i-take wiþ a greet siknesse, and byhet*. [byhyȝte, γ.] þat he wolde amende his lyf by counsaile of þe lordes. Hen|ricus, libro 6o. And he ȝaf þat ȝere þe archebisshopriche to Ancelm, bot he moste not take þerof, but as þe kyng wolde hote, or*. [ar, γ.] þe tribute was paide, þat þe kyng hadde i-sette. [Also he *. [seide, β.]sayde]*. [From β. and Cx.] þat þe bisshopriche of Lyncolne longede*. [longide, β.] to see of ȝork, forto Robert Bloet hadde i-ȝeve þe kyng fyve þousand mark.*. [þousent marc, γ.] Also þis ȝere deide Roger eorle of Schroisbury, whanne he Page  355, vol.7 lay seke and*. [he, α., β., and Cx.] made hym monk for to have som socour, by assent of þe contasse*. [contas, γ.] Adelisa, for he hadde i-sent Reynold,*. [Raynald, β.; Reyngnold, γ.] priour of Shroesbury, to Cluny, for to have seint Hewe*. [Huwe, γ.; Hughe, Cx.] þe abbot his kurtel*. [kirtel, β.] to were it aboute [hym].*. [From Cx.]Trevisa. A wise man wolde wene*. [mene, Cx.] þat eorle Roger*. [Rogyer, Cx.] hadde as moche mede*. [myde, β.] of þat he was a monk, as Malkyn of here maydenhood, þat no man wolde have, and nouȝt a deel more. Þanne it foloweþ*. [folwiþ, β.] in þe storie: after*. [after, from α. and β.; of, MS.] Rogeris*. [Roger his, β.] sone [Hugh]*. [From Cx.; Hugus, β.; after Roger hys sone Huwe, γ.] was eorle. Also þat ȝere was greet reyn and floodes,*. [vlodes, γ.] and sone þerafter so grete froste*. [forst, α. and β.; vorst, γ.] þat me myȝte overal lede cartes and waynes over wateres and ryveres;*. [ryver, α.] and whanne þat*. [þat] þe, Cx.] frost gan to þawe*. [þewe, β.] and to melte,*. [multe, β.; molte, β.; mylte, γ.] it brak nygh al þe brugges*. [bridges, Cx.] in every side. Rees kyng of Wales is i-slawe yn a fiȝtynge,*. [vyȝtynge, γ.] faste by Brethnoc,*. [Breȝnok, β.; Brechnok, Cx.] and so cesede þe kyngdom of Wales. Malcolyn, kyng of Scottes, come to Gloucetre aȝenst kyng William, in seint*. [seyn, γ.; on a Saynt, Cx.] Barnabe is day, to accorde wiþ hym. Bote þey departed in wreþþe, for kinge*. [for kinge] From Cx.; for kynge, β.; vor kynge, γ.; workynge, MS.] William wolde þat Malcolyn schulde be demed in his court where it evere were*. [be, α.] in Engelond. But Malcolyn wolde Page  357, vol.7 nouȝt bote in þe marches of boþe kyngdoms, þere it was i-woned.*. [wont, β.] But þat ȝere in a*. [in a] uppon, Cx.] seint Bricius his day, Malcolyn, and his eldest sone Edward, and meny oþere, were i-slawe in Norþhum|berlond of eorle Robert his knyȝtes. Margrete queene of Scottes, þat lovede and worschipped God wiþ here*. [hir, β.] myȝt, took so grete sorwe þat sche*. [heo, β.] fil sike,*. [hue vul syke, γ.] as sche hadde i-prayed God, and deide þe þridde day þerafter. Whan sche was deed þe Scottes made Dunwale,*. [Dunwald, β., γ., and Cx.] Malcolyn his broþer, kyng. But Dunkan, Malcolyn his sone, by help of kyng William put out Dunwald, and took þe kyngdom of Scotlond. Willelmus de Pontificibus. It was i-tolde þis Malcolyn in a tyme þat oon of þe lordes in*. [in] of, β.] his lond hadde conspired forto brynge hym to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] deeþ. He heet*. [hyt, γ.] hym be stille þat tolde hym þat tale, and he hilde*. [huld, γ.] it prive hym self for to þe traitour was i-come.*. [comen, β. and Cx.] At þe laste þe traitour com to þe kyng to awayte*. [aweite, β.; aweyte, γ.] his tyme to doo þat cursede dede. Þe kynge heet*. [hyt, γ.] erliche amorwe*. [in a morwe, γ.; erly in a morn|yng, Cx.] þat alle þe hontes*. [huntes, β.; hunters, Cx.] schulde come wiþ her houndes. While þey were Page  359, vol.7 ahontynge, þe kyng wente wiþ þis traytour to a broode*. [brod, γ.] pleyne þat was byclipped wiþ þilke*. [þicke, β.; byclepped wiþ þykke, γ.; bysette with thykk, Cx.] wode al aboute as a gerland, in þe myddel of þat playn was a litel toft*. [tote, β.; tout, γ.; toote, Cx.] as it were an hille. Þese tweie*. [hulle. Þues tweyne, γ.] stood allone on þat hille:*. [toute, γ.; toote, Cx.] "Lo," quoþ þe kyng, "I and þow be*. [ben, Cx.] here allone, iliche*. [eche, Cx.] wel i-horsed and i|wepened, iliche*. [and eche, Cx.] wel arrayed; now is no man þat seeþ us þat myȝte helpe or lette. [Yf thou myght and]*. [From Cx.; ȝif þu miȝt and, β.; Ef þu myȝt or, γ.] ȝif þou dorst*. [darst, α.; darrest, β. and Cx.; þerrest, γ.] [do]*. [From β. and γ.] now as þou haddest i-þouȝt, I can nouȝt see whan it myȝte be bettre noþer more freliche i-doo. ȝif þou hast ordeyned venym, þat is þe doynge of wommen and nouȝt of knyȝtes. ȝif þou desirest my wyf, so may spouse|brekers. ȝif þou kastest*. [castest, β.] to stele uppon*. [oppon, γ.] me wiþ a swerd, þat is a þeef his doynge, and nouȝt a knyȝtes; þerfore doo as a man and a knyȝt schulde, þat þy tresoun be wiþ oute schame of cowardise, for wiþ oute falshede may it nouȝt be." Anon he fil doun to the kynges feet,*. [veet, γ.] and swore þat he wolde þerafter be trewe to þe kyng to his lifes ende, and byheet*. [byhyte, γ.] hym plegges*. [pledgys, Cx.] whiche he wolde chese. And so þe traytour is i-made trewe, and gooþ*. [wente, Cx.] aȝen to his felawes whanne he seeþ his tyme. Also þis ȝere Ancelm, abbot of Becco, cam out of Page  361, vol.7 Normandie into Engelond, at þe prayere*. [atte request, Cx.] of Hewe*. [Hugus, β., bis; Huwe, γ., et infra; Hugh, Cx., et infra.] eorle of Chestre, for þre causes: oon þat he schulde releve abbayes þat he hadde to forehonde i-founde*. [y-founded, α. and β.; founded, Cx.] in Engelond of grevous tribut, þat þe abbayes paide to þe kyng; þe secounde for to visite eorle Hewe, þat was sore sike*. [seke, β.] þat tyme; þe þridde þat*. [for, α.; vor, γ.] he schulde founde an abbay at Chestre. In þat place he assignede his preost*. [prust, γ.] Richard first*. [vurste, γ.] abbot, and chaungede seculer chanouns into monkes. Bote in [þe]*. [From β.] comynge aȝen þennes he was i-made archebisshop [of Caunterbury].*. [From Cx.]

Capitulum octavum.

THIS ȝere Engelond and Normandie were i-greved wiþ a grevous tribut, and wiþ moreyn of men, so þat eorþe*. [erþe, β.] telynge*. [tilynge, β.; tylynge, γ.; tyl|yenge, Cx.] ceesede, and þerafter come greet honger, and Walsche men forsook þe ȝokke*. [ȝok, β.; yok, Cx.] of [þraldom and of subieccioun, and took prayes in þe]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] shires*. [shires] from Cx; schyres, β. and γ.; schiles, MS.] of Chestre, of Schroesbury, and of Hereford, and took þe castel of Menavia.*. [Menevia, β. and Cx.] Þat tyme þe Scottes Page  363, vol.7 slowȝ here kyng Duncanus, and maad Dunwald eft kyng. Sterres were i-seie*. [seen, β.] falle*. [valle, γ.] downe from hevene,*. [from the skye, Cx.] as it were fiȝtinge to giders.*. [togedders, γ.] Kyng William com out of Normandie, and sente an ooste into Wales, þere he loste meny hors*. [horses, Cx.] and men. Þanne þe kyng sigh þat þe Walsche men myȝt not be over|come for streitnes of dyvers places, and for þikke woodes; þerfore þe kyng made strong castelles in places*. [plas, γ.] by þe see side, and hewe*. [hewed, Cx.] doun a greet deel of þe woodes, and þerafter he beet downe meny Walsche*. [Walysch, γ.] men. Wolstoun,*. [Wulfstan, β.; Wulstan, Cx., et infra.] in þe houre of his deienge,*. [in . . . deienge] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] bischop of Worcestre,*. [Wircetre, β.] deide þe eiȝteþe*. [eyghtenth, Cx.] day of May.*. [Janyver, α. and γ.; Januare, β.; January, Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þis Wolstoun in þe houre of his deienge*. [diyng, β.; dyyeng, Cx.] [apperede]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to his leef*. [leove, α.; lueve, γ.] frende*. [his wel byloved frende, Cx.] Robert, bisshop of Herford, in þe toun of Crekelade,*. [Criklade, β.; Crykkelade, γ.; Cryklade, Cx.] and chargede hym þat he schulde array for his burienge.*. [beryeng, Cx.] And eft þe þrittenþe day þerafter he appered to hym, and warnede þat he schulde amende hym of þe necligence*. [neglygence, Cx.] of hym self and Page  365, vol.7 of his also, and seide þat he schulde not longe in his chayer*. [cheyer, γ.; chayr, Cx.] sitte; and*. [and . . . dede] om. γ.] sone þerafter Robert was dede.*. [Robert deyde, Cx.] Also þis Wolstoun*. [Wulfstan, β., semper.] wolde suffre no man whan he was dede to take of hym his ryng þat he hadde first whanne he was i-sacred bisshop; he [hadde]*. [From Cx.; had, β.] ofte[y-]*. [From α.] seide while he was on lyve þat he wolde nevere leve þat ryng. Also he seide ofte to Englische men, "It is Goddes chastisynge þat ȝe suffereþ." Englische men an|swerde hym and seide þat þe Normans were worþy*. [worþ, α.; wors, β. and γ.] more*. [more] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] þan*. [were wors than, Cx.] [evere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] [were]'*. [From γ. and Cx.] Englische men. "God Almyȝti," quoþ he, "useþ wel þe wickednesse*. [wykketnes, γ.] of hem in ȝow, and by hem þat beeþ unworþy he takeþ wreche of hem þat haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] i-trespased and i-gulte.*. [agult, α. and γ.; agilt, β.; agylt, Cx.] So by God*. [So God by, Cx.] his good wille þe feend*. [vend, γ.] by his evel wille tormenteþ evel men in helle, and is i-tormented wiþ hem also. Ensample may be ȝif*. [yeven, Cx.] þou art wrooþ and smytest a man wiþ a staf, of þe brekynge of the staf þow recchest ful lite."*. [lytel, β.; rechest but lytel, Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Wolstoun was i-bore in Warwykschire, and lernede lettrure*. [lurnde lettour, γ.] and offis of holy chirche in þe abbay of Burgh. At þe laste Page  367, vol.7 he was i-made preost, and song alowh*. [long, α.; a longe, β. and Cx.; a long, γ.] masse, and hilde hym apaide wiþ onliche þe offringes of Cristen men, and [he]*. [From β.] was i-holde a clene maide. He dede*. [dude, γ.] non outrage in drinking, flesche*. [vleysch, γ., et infra.] he eet somtyme, but he forsook etynge of flesche by cause of þis hap. In a day whan he schulde goo for to plede, hym semede þat he schulde firste synge his masse, [and þanne take som mete to releef wiþ his nede; þanne a goos*. [gos, γ.] was y-leyde to þe fyre,*. [fuyre, β.; vure, γ.] and he smelled þe rosted flesche while he was at þe masse,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and was lette of his devocioun by þe smel*. [smyl, γ.] of þe flesche, and so he stroof longe tyme, and myȝte nouȝt torne away his þouȝt at his wille; þerfore he swore on þe holy sacrament þat he hadde on*. [on] an, γ.] honde þat he wolde not*. [never, Cx.] ete suche*. [soche, γ.] manere mete after þat tyme, and seide his masse and ete and wente forþ to þe plee as he moste. At þe laste his devocioun encresede, and he avowede chastite and forsook þe worlde,*. [worl, γ.] by ensample of his forfadres þat hadde avowed chastite tofore her deeþ*. [before his deth, Cx.] tyme; [and]*. [From Cx.] in þe abbay of Worcetre, þere his fader hadde i-served toforehonde, he was i-made monk. Þere he wente upward by alle þe offys*. [offices, β.; offyces, Cx.] of þe hous; he was Page  369, vol.7 evere besy in fastynge, wakynge, and in bedes. He was wont to legge*. [lygge, γ.; laye, Cx.] his heed uppon a forme of þe chirche, þere he bad his bedes and sleep*. [slepte, β.] riȝt*. [riȝt] om. Cx.] þere. He lay to fore þe auȝter in a nyȝt in [his]*. [From Cx.] bedes, and þere cam a fend*. [vend, γ.] in a manis liknes*. [liche, β.; lyche, γ.] and wrastled*. [warstled, Cx.] wiþ hym, wheþer he wolde oþer noo, and caste hym þries to þe grounde. Þerfore he hadde after|ward greet penaunce in an evel þat hatte ilium*. [yleos, β. and Cx.] and greveþ faste*. [vast, γ.] by þe reynes. Þe fende cam in a servauntes liche*. [lykenesse, Cx.] to hym*. [β. and Cx. put to hym after cam.] of þe court; as ofte as Wolston siȝ þat servaunt after|ward he wax al pale for drede, [and dredde]*. [From α. and γ.] nouȝt of oþer men, he wolde oft seie*. [segge, γ.] þat he woste*. [a wuste, γ.] nouȝt what was fere and drede.*. [and . . . drede] om. β. and Cx.] He wolde nouȝt liȝte down of his hors for no brekyng of brigges, but he wolde ride sikerliche inow*. [ynowȝ, β., surely ynough, Cx.] uppon þe hiȝe brynkes of þe brigge, þeigh it were riȝt streiȝt.*. [strayte, Cx.] At þe laste, whanne þe forseide Aldredus was translated to þe bisshopriche of ȝork, Wolstone was i-chose bisshop of Wor|cetre,*. [Wircetre, α.] specialliche by procuringe of Aldredus, þat hopede to blende*. [blynde, Cx.] his [pylyng and hys]*. [From γ.] robborie by þe sympilnesse*. [symplenesse, β.; symplenes, γ.]Page  371, vol.7 of Wolston. Bote he hadde more helpe of vertues*. [vertue, β.; vertu, γ.] þan of lettrure, and defended manliche þe riȝt of his chirche. But he was nouȝt so lewed*. [lewide, β.] of lettrure as he was i-holde, for he coude what hym nedede for to konne,*. [kunne, Cx.] outake fables and*. [of, β.] poetes, and wily*. [whyly, γ.] and sly*. [slyȝ, β. and Cx.] silogismes, þat he wolde nouȝt on caas vouchesauf*. [fouchesaf, γ.] forto lerne. Wolston wolde nouȝt assente to his owne elleccioun. Þanne oon Unsius,*. [Wusius, α.; Wulsius, β., γ., and Cx.] an holy man, hadde i-be fourty ȝere i-closed, blamed hym scharply for he wolde nouȝt assente. Also he was i-warned of God þat he schulde assente to þe eleccioun. In his consecracioun were tweie*. [two, Cx.] legattes of þe court of Rome. And þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] he made professioun to Stigandus þe archebisshop, he feng*. [vyng, γ.] his consecracioun and his sacrynge of Aldredus archebisshop of ȝork. But forto avoyde chalanges þat myȝte falle afterward, Aldredus made protestacioun þat he fand*. [langede, α.; chalengide, β.; chalengyd, Cx.] no riȝt of subieccioun in Wolston after þat tyme, þeiȝ he were his monk to fore þat tyme. Þanne Wolstoun was i-made bisshop, and sparede boþe mete and drynke. Þeyȝ me drank*. [Þeyȝ me drank] om. Cx.] in his halle [alle]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þe houres after mete, as þe usage was of Englisshe men, he wolde sitte by hem and frote his palmes, and feyne to drynke as his tyme come, and conforted hem þat wolde drynke. But he dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] þat more for usage of þe contre þan for eny likynge þat he hadde þerynne. And he lefte nouȝt of þe best*. [bost, α. and β.; boost, Cx.] of þe Normans, but he hadde knyȝtes aboute hym where so*. [so] om. β.] he wolde wende. He seide Page  373, vol.7 his masse every day, and þe psawter*. [sauter, Cx.] also, and memories and myndes*. [munde, γ.] of famous seyntes, departed in*. [in, a, β., γ., and Cx.] sevene by þe sevene houres of þe day, as ofte as he was at Worcetre.*. [MS. Addit. breaks off here in the middle of a column, the text being continued on the back of the next folio.] Þan*. [Þan] om. β. and Cx.] he wolde synge þe hiȝe masse, and seide þat he wolde nouȝt leve þat office for to resigne þe bisshopriche, he wolde be at þe colacioun of monkes, and made*. [make, α. and β.] þe general confessioun wiþ oþere, and ȝeve þe benesoun, and goo into his chambre. Whan he rood on his hors he wolde seie*. [sygge, γ.] his psawter and benesouns þat Englisshe men makeþ over þe coppe.*. [on the cuppe, Cx.] He sparede it nouȝt at þe kynges*. [kyngis, β.] bord, ȝif nede drof hym to plede in eny manere tyme, he wolde bydde Cristes curse*. [cours, α.; curs, β. and Cx.] to alle manere arbitroures of men,*. [arbitres and manis, α.; arbi|trours and menes, β.; alle evel arby|ters and menes, γ.; al evyl arby|trours and moyens, Cx.] bote to alle þe goode he wolde bidde Cristes bless|ynge. He usede forours*. [forrours, γ.; furres, Cx.] of symple prys, and rouȝte but litel of what manere skynnes, bote he usede more skynnes of lombe þan of oþere bestes; and ȝif men seide hym*. [yf one hadde counseyled hym, Cx.] somtyme þat he schulde use skynnes of cattes, he answerde*. [answeride, β.] in his game and seide, I*. [y, α.; ich, β.; I, from Cx.; and, MS.] herde synge in cherches of Goddes lombe, and nat*. [not, α.; nouȝt, β.] of Goddes cat, [therfor I love better the heete of the lambe Page  375, vol.7 than I doo the heete of a catte].*. [From Cx.; þarevore y lyke better þe hete of a lombe þan y do þe hete of a cat, γ.] In a tyme his monkes wente to þe newe*. [more, α., β., γ., and Cx.] cherche þat he hadde i-bulde, and he sigh þat þe olde chirche was destroyed þat seynt Oswolde hadde i-bulde, and weep ful*. [wuep vol, γ.] sore teres. He was in faire manere wiþ|seide of þat dede, and men seide hym*. [it mas sayd unto hym, Cx.] þat he schulde raþer be glad þat his chirche hadde so grete worschippe in his lyve*. [lif, β.] tyme, [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] also as þe hous*. [houses, β. and Cx.] were more so were þe mo of monkes, he answerde and seide, "I mene al oþer wise þanne doo ȝe wrecches; we destroye*. [distruyeþ, β.; destruyeþ, γ.; do. We wreches destroye, Cx.] þe werkes of holy seyntes forto gete oure self*. [oure self] us, Cx.] a*. [α] om. β. and γ.] greet name and preysinge of men. In þat tyme men usede nouȝt to bulde no bostful buldnes,*. [buyldyngis, β.; buldes, γ.; buyldynges, Cx.] but þei used*. [þei used, from β.; they used, Cx.; þat. MS.] to offre hem self to God, under what roof*. [rof, γ.] þat it evere were, and [to drawe]*. [From Cx.] here sugettes to here owne en|samples, bote we doo þe contrarie, and gadreþ stones to hepe,*. [heope, β.; hepe, from α. and γ.; kepe, MS.] and reyche*. [reche, α.; recchiþ, β.; recheþ, γ.; retche, Cx.] nouȝt of soules." In a tyme he made a sermoun of þe pees to þe peple,*. [pupyl, γ.] and meny men tornede*. [tourne, Cx.] to love and to pees. But oon þere was þat wolde nouȝt be accorded in none wise, neyþer for resoun, ne*. [ne] noþer, β. and Cx.] for skile, noþer for prayeng of þe bisshop. He stood bifore þe bisshop, and þe bisshop seide to Page  377, vol.7 hym, "It is i-write, 'Men of pees beeþ i-blessed;' þan þey þat beeþ nouȝt men of pees, beeþ wrecches, and þe develes children. Þanne but*. [but] til, β.; till, Cx.] þou amende [þe],*. [From α. and Cx.; þee, β.] I betake þe to hym þat haþ þe as his owne childe;" and anon he was made þe enemyes his maunciple,*. [mancypel, γ.] he gan*. [bigan, β.] to ligge and to fome,*. [vome, γ.] to gris|bite*. [grysbette, γ.] and to grynde wiþ þe teeþ, and to caste his heed aboute. Wolstoun helede hym aȝen, but he wolde nouȝt of pees; þanne þe fend had*. [hadde, Cx.] hym eft at*. [at] and, Cx.] þe þridde tyme, forto he hadde forȝeven al manere of trespas. [In a tyme Lanfrank putte aȝenst Wolston of lettrure,*. [letture, γ.] and [the]*. [From Cx.] archebisshop of ȝork Aldredus chalangede*. [chalangide, β.] of hym laweful subieccioun, and he wente out of þe paleys, and seide þe houre of none þat [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] hadde be*. [be] om. β. and γ.] byhynde, and com aȝen boldeliche, and answered and hadde þe maystrie. Oon Alwyne, þat lyvede as an anker at Malvern hylles, had greet will to take þe weie to þe Holy Londe, and tolde his counsaille to bisshop Wulston. Þe bisshop answered, "Nay," and seide, "Leve*. [Lef, γ.] of, Alwyn, wiþ þy good wille, trowe þou me, þou woldest have greet wonder ȝif þou wyst*. [wistest, β.; wustest, γ.] what God þenkeþ to doo by þee." He dede be [his]*. [From β. and Cx.] rede,*. [dude by his rede, γ.] and wente þennes and gadrede þritty monkes in þe same place.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]Page  379, vol.7 A chapman*. [chepman, β. and γ.; shipman, Cx.] þat heet Sewulphus schroof hym to Wolston ofte of þe same synnes; þanne þe same*. [same] om. Cx.] bisshop seide, "I see wel þat ese makeþ þe to synne,*. [þe to synne] a þeef, α., β., and Cx.] þerfore I counseille þe þat þou be a monk." He wolde nouȝt, for it was an harde lyf. "Goo," quod þe bisshop, " for*. [for] om. Cx.] wheþer þou wilt oþer no þow schalt be a monk;" and so it happede afterward. In a tyme Wolstoun gropede þe heved*. [hed, β. and γ.; heede, Cx.] of oon Nichol, þat was his owne norie,*. [nory, β. and γ.] þat gan to wexe balled riȝt in his ȝouþe. Wolston seide to hym, "I trow, sone, þou schalt be balled in schort tyme." "Þanne," quod þe fader,*. [he, Fader, β.; he, vader, γ.] " why kepest þow nouȝt myn here, and makest*. [make, Cx.] it abide." " Sone," quod þe bisshop, "trowe þou me, þe oþer deel of þyn here schal abide while I am on lyve." And it happede [þe same wyke*. [weke, β.; woke, γ.] þat þe bisshop was dede,]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þe heer of Nichol his heed fil awey, and left not oon of his*. [not on his, Cx.] heed bote þe bare skyn. After Wolston his*. [his] om. α.] deeþ, whan al þe chirche was on fuyre, þer fil*. [vul, γ.] noþer fliȝ*. [fle, α.] noþer sparcle*. [sprong, α.; neiþer ysel neþer spark, β.; neyther ysel nor spark, Cx.] noþer soot*. [sot, γ.] uppon Wolston his grave, and so it ferde*. [vurde, γ.] of þe matte þat was under hym whan he bad his bedes. Of hym it is Page  381, vol.7 seide þat kyng William þe conquerour wolde have depreved*. [y-preved, α.; prived, β.; pryved, Cx.] hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] for unsufficiant of*. [of] om. Cx.] lettrure,*. [unsuffysant of letture, γ.] and also for he kowþe no Frensche, and cast in þat manere to brynge in som Norman in his stede. Þanne Wolston took*. [touk, γ.] his crosse, and piȝt it in þe hard stoon at seynt Edward þe kynges feet, þat lay þere in his grave. He piȝte so þe crosse þat no man myȝte take it out of þe stoon, or*. [or] er, Cx.] he took it hymself at þe kynges heste. While he piȝte þere the crosse, he seide to kyng William, " A better man þan þou art bytook it [to]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] me, and [I]*. [From Cx.; Y, γ.] take [it to]*. [From Cx.; hyt, γ.] hym aȝe;*. [and y take hit hym aȝen, β.] take þou it awey now if þat*. [þat] om. β., γ., and Cx.] þou myȝt."

Capitulum nonum.

THIS ȝere was þe goyng to Ierusalem, in þe whiche*. [woche, γ.] iorney were Beaumond,*. [was Beamund, Cx.] and Robert duke of Normandie. By cause of þe*. t, α.; that, Cx.] iornay Robert leyde Normandie to wedde to his broþer William for ten þowsand pounde of silver. Þere [after]*. [From β.]Page  383, vol.7 twelve dayes tofore Iul*. [Juyl, β. and Cx.] Cristen men toke þe citee Acon; and in þe monþe of Octobre stella comata,*. [cometa, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is a sterre wiþ a briȝt blasynge crest,*. [creest, Cx.] was i-seie fiftene dayes, and meny men seigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þe signe of þe crosse brennynge in hevene. Þat tyme seint*. [seyn, γ.] Stevenes heed was i-brouȝt to Cadoni in Normandie, and wiþ meny grete myracles*. [myraclis, β.; myrakels, γ.] a monk þat hiȝte Odoo*. [het Odo, β.; Odo, γ.] brouȝt þider*. [þuder, γ.] þat holy heed. Henricus, libro primo.*. [septimo, Cx.] Þere fil strif betwix kyng William and Ancelm þe archebisshop, for Ancelme moste make no synodes noþer corecte trespas. Also þe kyng chalan|gede þe investiture of prelates, and pyled and schaved þe peple for*. [for] om. α.; wiþ, β.; with, Cx.; schamede þe pupyl wyþ, γ.] tribut, and specially for*. [to spend about, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe tour of Londoun, and aboute þe grete halle at*. [at] of, β. and Cx.] Westmynstre.*. [Westmonaster, γ.] Also þe kynges meyny grevede þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] overal where þey wente. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 4o. And ȝit herto þe roote and to*. [to] om. Cx.; þe, γ.] norisch|ynge of covetise, oon Ranulf,*. [Ranulph, β., et infra; of Ra|nulf, γ.] þat was somtyme þe firste kyng William his preost*. [prust, γ.] and his chapeleyn, was i-made [thus]*. [From Cx.; þis, β.] his procuratour. In every place ȝif þis Ranulph schulde gadre Page  385, vol.7 þe kynges tribut he wolde take suche*. [siche, β.] two as riȝt and*. [riȝt and] om. Cx.] resoun wolde. He pilede þe riche and bare doun þe pore*. [poure, γ.] and disperage*. [disparagide, β.; desparage, γ.; dysparagid, Cx.] heritage,*. [heritages, β.; herytages, Cx.] and took hem*. [herytages and touk ham, γ.] into þe kynges hond; þerfore þe kyng bourdede in a tyme, and seide þat he was a man alone, for he kowþe so torne his witt þat he ne*. [ne] om. β.] rowȝte of no men*. [mannes, β.] wreþþe*. [he rought of noo mannes wreche, Cx.] while he myȝte plese his lord at wille.*. [fulle, β.; volle, γ.] By his doynge holy dignitees were i-solde, and sone þer|after he bouȝte þe bisshopriche of Durham for a þowsand pounde. Þat tyme men usede*. [uside, β.] stroutynge*. [stroutyng, Cx.] lokkes, and longe blasynge cloþes, gay spores and scharpe. Þo men ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.] tripp|ynge, schewynge þe sides. Ancelm wolde amende al þis, and hadde no*. [noon, β.] help of his suffraganes, and þerfore [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] went out of Engelond. Bote by heste of þe kyng in his goyng in an haven of Kent he was piled and i-robbed, and fare*. [yvare, γ.; faren, Cx.] wiþ as it were a þeef, his malys*. [males, β. and γ.] were i-serched [his bouges]*. [From Cx.; his bulges, β.; bulges and hys, γ.] and his trussynge cofres, and al þat he hadde. Þanne Anselm wente to pope Urban [in grete counseyll]*. [From Cx.; in a grete coun|sail, β.; and in a gret consayl, γ.] at Perrus*. [Barrus, β. and γ.] in Appulia; he declared cleerliche aȝen þe opinioun of þe Grees,*. [Grekis, β.; Grekes, Cx.] þat telleþ*. [tellyn, Cx.] þat þe*. [Here MS. Addit. begins again.] Holy Goost comeþ of þe Fader and nouȝt of þe Sone. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Þat tyme Raf Page  387, vol.7 bisshop of Chichestre spared nouȝt þe kyng noþer þe oþer bis|shoppes þat helde aȝenst Anselm, [but he spak for Anselm,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and wiþseide þe kyng in*. [in] to, Cx.] his owne face,*. [fas, γ.] and dradde riȝt nouȝt; he schewed forþ his crosse and his ryng, and cesede nevere noþer slaked þe greet doing of his witte or*. [er, β.] Ancelm in his goynge hadde i-brouȝt his cause to a good ende. Also þis wolde nouȝt assente þat þe kyng schulde take tribute of preostes þat usede fornicacioun, but in al his diocise*. [diocesy, γ.; dyocesy, Cx., et infra.] þe service of holy chirche was suspended, and þe cherche dores were i-stopped wiþ þornes. Þe kyng was awelde*. [awelded, β. and Cx.] by grymnes of þat dede, so þat he grauntede to hym alone [þe]*. [From β.] tribut of his preostes.*. [prustes, γ.] Also he alleyde þat þe cherche þat is destroyed and i-brend schulde nouȝt ben*. [be, β.] i-piled and i-robbed wiþ tributes, but it schulde be releved and i-holpe wiþ fre ȝiftes,*. [yeftes, Cx., et infra.] and þe kynge þat hadde i-take from alle chirches, he ȝaf glad|liche to Raaf*. [Raph, γ.] his chirche meny grete ȝiftes. Þis Raf*. [Rauf, Cx.] sparede nouȝt to blame mysdoers for her synnes, and ȝif his blamynge halpe but lite*. [litel, β.] he wolde destroye þe synne wittiliche*. [wytlyche, γ.] wiþ myrþe and wiþ game; he wolde goo aboute his dyocise*. [diocesy, β.] þries in a ȝere, but he piled nouȝt his sugettes by myȝt and by maistrie, but what me wolde freliche ȝeve hym he fenge*. [vynge, γ.] it wiþ good wille; hereof wolde I nouȝt speke at þis tyme, nere þat it schulde be acounted a myracle now in oure*. [ur, γ.] age to Page  389, vol.7 fynde in a bisshop besynesse of prechynge and resonable fong|ynge.*. [vongyng, γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o.*. [4o, α. and Cx.] In a tyme whan kyng William wente an hontynge þere com a messanger*. [messager, γ.] and seide þat Cenomannya*. [Cenemonia, Cx.] was byseged. Anon þe kyng tornede his hors [heede],*. [From Cx.; hed, β.] and took þe wey streiȝt to þe see; þe lordes counsaillede*. [counseilide, β.] [hym]*. [From Cx.] to gadre an ost. "I schal see," quod he, "who wil folowe*. [volwe, γ.] me," and wente soo to þe see wel nyh allone. Þe weder was derk, and [þe]*. [From β.] wynde was aȝenst hym, bote he wolde nede*. [nedes, β., γ., and Cx.] saile over, and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] shipmen counsailled hym forto abide þe wynde and þe weder. "I herde*. [Y hurde, γ.] nevere of a kyng," quod he, "þat was adreynt; but takeþ up*. [op, γ.] ȝoure ancres*. [ankers, β. and Cx.] and arayeþ ȝow to seille, and ȝe schal se þat þe elementes makeþ hem redy to my service:"*. [servys, γ.] so he passede þe see, and þey þat*. [þey þat] from α., β., γ., and Cx.; þat þey, MS.] beseged Cenomannia herde of his comynge and breke þe sege. Helias þe maister of þat tresoun was i-take and i-brouȝt to fore þe kyng, and þe kyng spak game|liche to hym and seide, "Maister, now have I þe." "It is by hap," quod he, "þat þow hast i-take me; I woot what I wolde doo myȝte I ones ascape." Þe kyng was wrooþ, and seide, Page  391, vol.7 "Goo þy wey and flee,*. [vle, γ.] I graunte þe to doo what þou myȝt, and ȝif þou overcomest me I schal acorde wiþ þe." For þis*. [þe, β.; the, Cx.] kyng dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] suche dedes, [that]*. [From Cx.] ȝif it myȝte stonde with þe feith of holy cherche, me wolde wene þat Iulius Cesar his soule [were y-passed and y-come into þis kyng, as me trowede*. [I trow, Cx.] somtyme þat Euforbius his soule]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] passede into Pictagoras. Henricus, libro 4o. Þis ȝere at Fynchamstede in Barrokschire a welle was i-seie welle blood fiftene*. [vyftene, γ.] dayes, and al a nyȝt hevene was i-seie brennynge as*. [and, α.; afuyre, β.; a vure, γ.; a fyre, Cx.] fuyre. Also þis ȝere Hewe and Hewe,*. [Hugus and Hugus, β.; Huwe and Huwe, γ.; Hugh and Hughe, Cx.] eorles of Schroysbury and of Chestre, took þe ilond Man,*. [Mon, α. and γ.] þat hatte Angleseya also, and slouȝ Walsche men þat were þerynne, and of meny þey kutte of þe genetras*. [genytraces, β., et infra; geny|tras, γ., et infra; genetoryes, Cx., et infra.] and put out here eyȝen.*. [eiȝen, β.] Among þe whiche*. [woche, γ.] þey took a preost þat heet Kenredus,*. [Kynredus, Cx.] and drouȝ hym out of þe cherche, and put out his oon eyȝe,*. [ye, γ.] and kutte of his genitras and his tonge; but by myracle of God he hadde his speche aftir ward þe þridde day. Þat tyme þe grete kyng of Noreganes, þe sone of Olavus, took wiþ hym Harald þat somtyme kyng Harald his sone, and took Page  393, vol.7 þe ilond*. [ylondes, β.; ylandes, Cx.] Orcades and Mevanies, and come þennes into Man,*. [Mon, β. and Cx.] þere þe tweie forseide*. [vorsede, γ.] eorles were; þe eorle of Schroisbury*. [Schrowesbury, γ.] [wente aȝenst hym, and was y-smyte wiþ an arwe ryȝt into þe yȝe, and deide þe eyȝteþe day after þat he hadde y-kyd*. [kidde, β.; ykud, γ.; kydde, Cx.] his woodnesse yn*. [yn] of, Cx.] þe forseid*. [vorseyde, γ.] preost, and he was y-buryed at Schroysbury].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Aboute þat tyme Herbert Lesang,*. [Losang, β., γ., and Cx.] þat hadde i-be somtyme abbot of Rameseye, and was þo*. [þanne, β.] bisshop of Teddeforde, was a greet norrey*. [norry, β.; nory, γ.] of symonye, for he hadde i-bouȝt his*. [his] the, Cx.] bisshopriche of þe kyng. But afterward he was sory and byweep*. [bywepte, α., β., and Cx.; by|wupe, γ.] þe unskil|fulnes*. [unskilful res, α. and β.; un|skylfol res, γ.; unskylful rest, Cx.] of his ȝouþe,*. [yongth, Cx.] and took þe wey to Rome, and cam home aȝe, and chaunged*. [chaungide, β.] and tornede his see from Tedford to Norþ|wiche,*. [Norwyche, β.; Norwiche, Cx.] and þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] he foundede a solempne*. [solempnel, Cx.] abbay with his owne catel, and nouȝt wiþ þe catel of þe bisshopriche. But at Tedford he ordeyned monkes of Cluny, þat were riche in þe world,*. [worl, γ.] and cleer of religioun to Godward, and so Hereberd*. [Herbert, β.; Herbart, Cx.] was amended by double [sawe of]*. [From β. and Cx.] warnynge,*. [dubel sawe, γ.] þat oon was Page  395, vol.7 of his predecessour Herfast, and was þis, "Not þis [but]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; bote, γ.] Barabas;" and þe oþer was his owne, and was þis, "Frend, wherto art þou i-come?" He herde þis and weep,*. [wepte, β.; wuep, γ.] and seide: "I com in [an]*. [From Cx.] evel manere, but by Goddes grace I schal goon*. [go, β.] out in god manere;" and hadde often in mynde*. [munde, γ.] þe word of Ierom þat seide: "We errede in oure ȝowþe,*. [yongth, Cx.] amende [we]*. [From β. and Cx.] us in oure*. [ur, γ., bis.] elde." Henricus, libro 4o. Þanne kyng William com out of Normandie, and whan he sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] first þe grete halle of Westmynstre*. [Westmonstre, α.] he seide þat it was to lite*. [lytel, β.] by þe halvendel,*. [lytel by the halfe, Cx.] and þerfore he hadde i-cast to ordeyne it for þe*. [þe] his, β. and Cx.] chambre.*. [vor hys caumber, γ.]

Capitulum decimum.

ABOUTE þis tyme bygan þe ordre of white*. [vor hys caumber, γ.] monkes in Bur|goyne, in þe dyocise of Cabilonens;*. [Cabiloneus, β.] þat ordre is i-cleped ordo*. [ordre, Cx.] Cisterciensis a*. [α] in, Cx.] Latyn, and hit bygan in þis manere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Oon Hardynge Stevene,*. [Steven Hardyng, β. and Cx.; Stevyn, γ.] of þe nacioun of Engelond, monk of Shirborne,*. [Shyrburn, Cx.] from his Page  397, vol.7 childhood wente into Scotlonde, and afterward into Fraunce, þere he lernede liberal sciens,*. [sciences, β.] and feng þe prikkes*. [vyng the pryckkes, γ.] of þe love of God, and went to Rome at þe laste wiþ oon of his scole feres.*. [veres, γ.] No gref myȝte departe hem [tweyne],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] no þing hem lette þat þey nolde every day sey*. [sigge, β.] þe sawter:*. [sygge þe sauter, γ.] it sprang in his wit*. [witte, β.; wyt, γ.] as it com forþ afterward. For he com into Burgoyne, and in*. [into, Cx.] Molys*. [Molis in þe, γ.] [in]*. [From β. and Cx.] þe grete newe abbay he þrew away þe heyre.*. [heer, α. and β.; here, Cx.] Þere he took liȝtly þe poyntes of þe rule*. [reul, γ., et infra.] þat he hadde i-seie toforehonde. And whanne he sigh oþere put forþ to byholde*. [be y-holde, α.; be holden, β.; be holden, Cx.] and i-kepte, þat he hadde nevere i-seie noþer i-herd in seynt Benet his rule, he enquered þe skile and þe resoun þerof soburliche, as a monk schulde, and seide, "Þe hyest Worchere*. [Worchere, β.; Worcher, γ.; higher Worcher, Cx.] made al þing by resoun and governeþ al þing by resoun þat he made [by resoun].*. [From β.] By resoun þe elementes haveþ here beynge, and þe sterres also moveþ*. [meoveþ, β.] by resoun, and holdeþ*. [habbeþ, γ.; kepyn, Cx.] here cours by resoun also, and so schulde oure kynde stonde by resoun, and falleþ ofte from*. [of the, Cx.] resoun by sleuþe and unkonnynge, and is i-cleped aȝen by lawe of*. [to, α., β., and Cx.] resoun. And also by seint Benet his rule,*. [reule, γ.] in þe whiche rule is somwhat conteyned of Page  399, vol.7 þe whiche I am nouȝt of power to conceyve þe resoun. But ȝit I holde [þat]*. [From β. and γ.] it be*. [be, from α., β., and Cx.; by, MS.] resoun to assente to auctorite, for þe auctoritees of holy Scripture beeþ al oon, þey it semed*. [seme, α.] somtyme þat þey discordeþ, and God dooþ no þing wiþoute resoun, how schal I þan trowe þat holy fadir, þat folwede*. [vader þat volwede, γ.] Crist, ordeynede ouȝt wiþ oute resoun; and also by seint Benet his rule,*. [and . . . rule] om. Cx.] as þey*. [þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] we schulde ȝeve fey to al oon auctorite, and nouȝt to resoun. Þerfore*. [Þerfore . . . of] þanne of, β.] ȝe*. [þe . . . myssen] om. γ.] myssen*. [Þerfore ȝe myssen] Than, Cx.] of þat ȝe dooþ scheweþ som auctorite oþer resoun, and scheweþ en|saumple of seint Benet his rule*. [as þey . . . rule] bis in MS.] þat ys grounded and stondeþ oppon reson and auctoryte.*. [From γ.] ȝif þe mowe nouȝt, it is an*. [an] al, Cx.] idel þat þe*. [ȝe, α.] makeþ professioun þat it is so noble, and despiseþ to folwe þe lore þerof." [Þe sentens of]*. [From β.] þis speche passeþ from oon to oþer, and mevede meny oon leste þey hadde i-ronne in veyn [other shold renne in veyn];*. [From Cx.; oþer scholde in veyn, γ.] þanne it was ordeyned*. [demed, β. and Cx.] þat þe superfluyte of þe rule schulde be i-take away, and onliche þe marouȝ*. [marȝ, γ.; marouh, Cx.] schulde be i-holde. Þe abbot made hym besy to make al assent, but it is hard to worche*. [wreche, Cx.]Page  401, vol.7 uppon*. [wreche op out, γ.] þoughtes*. [wreche up of þouȝtes, β.; thoughtes, Cx.; ȝoughtes, MS.] þat is i-roted in of longe tyme. Onliche eiȝtene monkes and abbot Hardyng lefte þat abbay, and seide þat þe clennesse of þe rule myȝt nouȝt be holde in place þere þat þe*. [þat þe] om. β. and Cx.] riches*. [richesses, β.] was gadred, and þere plente of mete and drynke stuffeþ þe soule and þe witt þat schulde wiþstonde. Þanne þey wente to Circetre,*. [Cisterci, β. and γ.; Cisterus, Cx.] a place þat was toforehonde ful*. [vol, γ.] of wode and of laundes, but now þere is a famous abbay, [þe whiche abbay is]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hugeliche*. [hogelyche, γ.] avaunced by help of þe bisshop of*. [of] om. γ.] Vien, and afterward by help of þe pope. [℞.]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Þerafter, þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand an hondred and þritty and fyve, oon Walter Espek*. [Espec, γ.] brouȝt þat ordre of white monkes into Engelond, and made at Ryval*. [Ryvalle, β.] an abbay of þe ordre of Cisterciens, þat is þe ordre of white monkes. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 4o. Þese ben þe observaunces þat semeþ*. [semyn, Cx.] hard in þat ordour:*. [ordre, β.] þei schal were no manere furres,*. [furrours, β.; forrours, γ.] ne lynnen cloþ, ne wollen þat is smal and softe as stamyn, neiþer breches, but in þe wey; oon of hem schal have on*. [of, α.] hym two curtell*. [kirtelles, α.; curtles, β.; twy cortels, γ.; curtels, Cx.] and a covel,*. [coule, Cx.] and no more þouȝ it be wynter, but ȝif þey wil*. [wolleþ, β. and γ.]Page  403, vol.7 þey mowe have lasse*. [las, γ.] in þe somer tyme.*. [in somme maner tyme, Cx.] Þey slepeþ i-cloþed and i-gerd,*. [y-gurde, β.; gyrde, Cx.] and after matyns þey goo nevere to bedde aȝen. Þey disposeþ so þe houre*. [oure, γ.] and tyme, þat tofore laudes [þe day lyȝt bygynneþ to springe. Anon after laudes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þey singeþ prime. After þat þey gooþ to þe hondwerk þat þey doon by day, þey makeþ an ende þerof wiþoute candel liȝt; noon of hem schal be from houres*. [oures, γ.] noþer from complyn,*. [complyn, β.; comply, γ., bis.] [but ȝif he be sike.*. [seke, β.] After commpelyn]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe selerer [and the hosteler]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.; hostiler, γ.] goþ stilliche out and serveþ þe gestes,*. [ghestes, Cx., et infra.] þe abbot dooþ nouȝt hym self, but suche*. [nygh, Cx.] as he graunteþ leve*. [leve] om. β. and Cx.] to oþere monkes. He is overal present wiþ his flok,*. [vlok, γ.] but onliche at mete, and þat by cause of gestes, and*. [but, ins. α.; bote, γ.] þan he is served [but]*. [From β.] onliche wiþ two messe.*. [messes, Cx.] Noon of hem eteþ blood, noþer flesche, but [yf]*. [From Cx.] he be sike. From þe þrittenþe*. [þritteþe, α.] day of Decembre*. [September, Cx.] to þe Estertide day*. [day] om. α., β., and Cx.] þey eten*. [etiþ, β.] but ones in*. [on, α.; om. β.] þe day, outake þe Sonday, þey goon nevere out of cloystre but by cause of hand|werk. Þey speken*. [spekith, β.] in no place but to þe priour oþer to þe abbot. Þey putteþ*. [potteþ no giblotes, γ.] non giblettes*. [gybletes, Cx.] to þe houres*. [oures, γ.] of Goddes service, outake Placebo and Dirige for þe dede.*. [deede, β.] Þey usen*. [usiþ, β.]Page  405, vol.7 Ambrose his service,*. [Ambroses office, α.; Ambros hys offys, γ.] and haven*. [haveþ, β.] charge of gestes*. [habbeþ charche of gystes, γ.] and [of]*. [From β.] sike men. First þis abbot of Molys*. [Molyce, Cx.] hilde streyȝtliche þese ordenaunces, and compellede oþere to holde hem also. But in tyme þat comeþ*. [come, α.; com, β. and γ.] afterward þe man þouȝte*. [aþoȝte, γ.] þat he hadde be*. [ben, α.] likyngly*. [lykynglyche, γ.] i-norsched, and some of the monkes knew wel his lust and likyng, and procurede*. [procrede, α.] lettres of wiþclepinge*. [revokyng, Cx.] of þe pope, by þe whiche lettres þis abbot was brouȝt aȝen to his first abbay, and alle þe monkes wiþ hym wente outake eyȝte, and made Alberik here*. [here, from α.; her, β. and Cx., his MS.] abbot, and Harding here priour; but þere after þis Hardynge Stevene*. [Steven Hardyng, β. and Cx.; Stevyn, γ.] was abbot þere, and bulde þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] sixe*. [þere sixe] sixtene, α., β., and Cx.] abbayes and bygan þe sevenþe.*. [sevententh, Cx.] Þat ordre encresede so þat tyme þat þe monkes of Cisterciens*. [Cisterci, β.; Cistercy, γ.] were spied*. [aspied, β.; spyde, γ.; espyed, Cx.] of alle monkes [þe]*. [From β.] myrour*. [merour, γ.] of hem þat were goodliche besy, and reproof*. [repref, β.; repreve, γ.] and chastisynge*. [repreef and chastyng, Cx.] of slewþe. Here abit is*. [abit is] þei beþ, β.; they be, Cx.] i-cleped oestrum of þe slowe; oestrum hatte tawny*. [tanu, α., β., and Cx.] a*. [α] in, Cx.] Frensche.*. [taun a Freyns, γ.]

Page  407, vol.7

Capitulum undecimum.

AFFTER Urban, þe secounde Paschal*. [Paschalis, β.; Pascalis, γ. and Cx.] was pope eyȝtene ȝere and fyve monþes; þritty ȝere*. [In his þrittenþe ȝere, β.] he was i-prisoned, and his cardy|nalles also, by þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Henry þe emperour, þat assaillede Rome. And þe pope myȝte nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. α.] be delyvered, or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] he hadde i-swore feawte to Henry þe emperour*. [þat . . . emperour] bis in MS.] [and byhight hym the investiture of prelates with the cros and with the ryng, and also that he sholde never curse themperour];*. [From Cx.; and byhote hym þe investiture of prelates wiþ þe cros and wiþ þe ryng. And also þat he schuld never curse þemperour, β.; and byhote hym þe investiture of prelates wyþ þe croos and wyþ þe ryng, and also þat he scholde nevere corse þe emperour, γ.] and here of he wroot hym a privelege [in þis maner].*. [From β.] [But þe next ȝere after þe pope made a counsail at Rome, and dampned þe same prive|lege]*. [From α. (not Cx.).] in þis manere: "I beclippe*. [embrace, Cx.] and fonge al holy writt, þe elde*. [olde, β. and γ.] testament and þe newe, lawe and þe prophetes, þe gos|pelles, and þe [holy]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] pistles of þe apostles,*. [of þe apostles] om. Cx.] al þe general counsailles and decrees of bisshoppes of Rome; what þey hilde*. [helde, Cx.; hulde, γ.]Page  409, vol.7 I holde, and what þey dampne*. [dampneþ, β.; dampnede, γ.] I dampne also; and, nameliche, þat privelege þat is more verrayliche and priveleged,*. [a privilege α.; a pravilege, β.; a pravylege, γ.; a pryvelege, Cx.] þat is, an evel lawe þat was somtyme granted to Henry, we dampne*. [dampneþ, β. and γ.]it with outen ende." Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Whanne William bisshop of Durham was dede, þe kyng ȝaf þe bisshopriche to oon Walter, þat hadde i-be þat oþer*. [elder, β.; the elder, Cx.] William his preost*. [prust, γ.] and his chapeleyn;*. [chapelen, γ.] þe kyng ȝaf hym þe bisshop|riche for a þowsand pounde. Evel doers þat fleyȝ to seint Cuthberdes chirche, þis drowȝ hem out*. [out] om. α] of þe chirche, and made monkes sitte wiþ hym specheles*. [specially, Cx.] in his halle at mete, and served hem wiþ mete þat was forboden,*. [vorbode, γ.] and ordeyned wommen to serven hem wiþ heer i-sprad behynde, þat semede wowynge gigelottes*. [giglotes, β.; gyglotes, γ.] in cloþing, face, and semblant; þere unneþe scapede eny þat he was*. [nas, β.] undertake. For ȝif he torned awey his face*. [eiȝe, β.] he was i-cleped an ipocrite; and [ȝif]*. [From β.] he were assentynge and accordynge wiþ þe merþe, þan he was i-cleped a nyce*. [nyse, β.] man and a fool.*. [fowl, γ.] But þis is worþy to be greetliche i-preysed, for by his procurynge seint*. [seyn, γ.] Cuthbert his body was doo*. [take, Cx.] out*. [take up, β.] of þe grave, and i-cloþed in newe cloþes,*. [clothynge, Cx.]Page  411, vol.7 and kyng Oswald his heed was i-founde by twene his armes. Osmunde bisshop of Salisbury is dede; also þis ȝere þe see flood sprang up [by]*. [From β. and Cx.] Tempse*. [Temyse, α.; Temse, β.] and drenshede*. [dreynt, β.; drowned, Cx.] meny townes; þe devel was seyn, and spak wiþ [many]*. [From Cx.] men of þe kynges paleys,*. [malys, β.; malyce, Cx.] and of his hasty deeþ. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 4o. Þe kyng was warned þerof, and sette litel þerby. Also þis ȝere How*. [Hugus, β., et infra; Hugh, Cx., et infra.] þe abbot of Cluny sigh in his swevene kyng William i-brouȝt to fore God Almyȝty and i-dampned; How þe abbot tolde þat [to]*. [From β. and Cx.] Anselme, þat was þo*. [þo] so, Cx.] exciled; also þis mette þat he was i-late blood [and bledde blode]*. [From Cx.; and bled blode, β.; and bledde blod, γ.] þat dymmede þe sonne; þerfore he cride ofte, "Seynt Marie, [seynt Mary,"]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and wook of his sleep, and heet*. [hyte, γ.] brynge liȝt, and comaunded þe chamberleyns þat þey schulde abide wiþ hym.*. [þat þe chamberleynes schulde wiþ hym abyde, α., β. and Cx.] Þan þe þridde day of August, þe ȝere of oure*. [ur, γ.] Lord xi. hondred, of*. [of] and, Cx., bis.] his kyngdom þrittene,*. [of] and, Cx., bis.] of his age foure and fifty, in þe newe forest, he was i-schote*. [yscote, γ.] of oon Walter Tirel þat was his owne Page  413, vol.7 meynel,*. [meyneal, β. and Cx.] þat wolde schete*. [have schott, β.; have shotte, Cx.] to an hert; and so þe kyng deide, and fewe*. [veaw, γ.] men wepte*. [weped, α.; wuep, γ.] for sorwe. Walter Tirel scapede, and no man he*. [hym, α., β., γ., and Cx.] pursewed; and so þe kyng was i-leide on*. [on] in, β.] an horsbere and i-lad to Wynchestre, and his blood dropped*. [dropp, α.] doun in þe way as he was i-ladde; and he was i-buried wiþ ynne þe tour [of þe bisshopriche. Þat tour]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]*. [and it, wrongly inserted here in MS.] fil*. [vul, γ.] doun wiþ ynne a ȝere after. [Þis man took uppon*. [oppon, γ.] hym greet dedes, and caste to do wel gretter ȝif þe destenye of his lyf were y-schapede*. [had be scaped, Cx.] to make þerof [a]*. [From Cx,] good ende. To fore þe next day of his deþ me axed*. [axide, β.] hym where he wolde holde his myd|wynter tide; "At Payters,"*. [Peyters, β., γ., and Cx.] quod he. For þe eorle of þat place arayed hym forto wende to Ierusalem, and wolde borwe*. [borowe, β.] money of hym, and legge*. [laye, Cx.] hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] his lond to wedde. He wolde suffre no counseil of bisshops to be y-made. He solde dignitees of holy cherche in dyverse manere wyse, and helde*. [heelde, β., bis.; huld, γ.] som in his owne lond.*. [honde, Cx.] For in*. [in] on, Cx.] þe day of his deþ he helde*. [heelde, β., bis.; huld, γ.] þre bisshopriches in his hond,*. [handes, Cx.] Caunterbury, Wynchestre, and Salisbury, and twelve abbayes also, and som [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] sette*. [lete, Cx.] to ferme also. He desirede to be ȝit*. [ȝit hyȝer] evereche mannes heyr, β.; everyche man hys heir, γ.; every mannes heyre, Cx.] hyȝer.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] He warnede þe tribute to Rome for strif þat was in þe chirche of Rome by|twene Page  415, vol.7 pope Urban and Wyberd*. [Wibert, β.] þe antypope.*. [antepote, α.]Henricus, libro 7o. And þouȝ he were liȝt of dedes, he was stabil and stedefast*. [studefast, γ.; stydefast, Cx.] of wordes; so [that]*. [From Cx.] if he behiȝt eny man good oþer evel, he myȝte be wel*. [ful, α., β., and Cx.] siker of þat he hadde byhote;*. [byhyght, Cx.] and þouȝ he were [most]*. [From β. and Cx.] coveitous of money, ȝif*. [ȝit, α. and β.; yet, Cx.] he dede oon dede þat is worþy to be kepte in mynde.*. [munde, γ.] For in a tyme an abbot was dede [in Englond],*. [From Cx.] and two*. [twey, β.; twy, γ.] monkes gadrede*. [gadderde, γ.] a grete some of money, and wente to þe kyng, eiþer to sup|plaunte*. [subplaunte, γ.] oþer to gete þe abbottes office; and þe þridde wente wiþ hem mekeliche*. [mekeliche] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] in þat entent, to bringe hym hoom meke|liche*. [myklyche, γ.] þat schulde be abbot; þese tweyne stood byfore*. [stode tofore, β.] þe kyng, and þat oon by het more þan þat oþer, and þe þridde stood stille, and spak nevere a word, and þe kyng askede of hym what he wolde ȝeve: "Noþing," quod he; "for I wil noþer ȝeve nor hote."*. [byhote, α.; bihote, β.; pro|mysse, Cx.] "Come nere," quoþ the kyng, "for þou art worþy, and non oþer, to fonge so holy a charge."*. [charche, γ.] Þe oþer dedes þat longeþ to kyng William his lyf, loke hem with ynne [in]*. [From β. and γ.] Anselmes lyf, capitulo 14o.

Page  417, vol.7

Capitulum duodecimum.

KYNG William þe Rede*. [Rede, from β. and Cx.; þridde, MS.] usede lemmans alwey, and deide wiþ oute children; and his ȝong*. [ȝonger, β.] broþer Henry was i-made*. [i-made] om. β. and Cx.] kyng after hym, and was i-chose at Wynchestre þe fifte day of August and i-crowned at Westmynstre of Morys bisshop of Londoun, for Anselm was nouȝt þere. Þis was i-gete in wedlok þe þridde ȝere of his fadir kyngdom. He spended*. [spende, β. and γ.] his first ȝowþe*. [yougthe, Cx.] in liberal artes and sciens;*. [sciencis, β.] his broþer William hadde i-greved him in*. [on, α.] a tyme, and his fadir conforted hym in þis manere: "Sone, wepe*. [wuep, γ.] þou nouȝt, for þou schalt be a kyng." Þanne in þe laste ȝere of his fadir kyngdom, and in þe nyntene*. [xix., β. and Cx.; nyntene, from γ.; nynþe, MS.] ȝere of his age, he was i-made knyȝt of his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fadir, and wente wiþ his fadir into Normandie, and was at his fadir*. [fadres, α.] deienge*. [dyyng, β. and γ.] sone þerafter, as it is i-seide toforehonde; and his oþer breþeren were i-sent*. [awent, β. and γ.; goon, Cx.] everich in his side, as it happed hem at þat tyme; þerfore he hadde his fadres blessynge and his moder heritage and tresour, and dradde þe privete*. [pride, β.; prute, γ.; pryde, Cx.] of his breþeren ful*. [but, Cx.] litel;*. [vol lyte, γ.] he bowede*. [bowide, β.] hym alway to his broþer Robert for myldenesse of herte. But Robert greved*. [groned, Cx.] alwey, and trowed liȝtly tale tellers; and also Robert spende on his knyȝtes soudeours*. [soudiours, β.; saudyours, γ.] þre þowsand pounde þat was byqueþe Henry in his fadres testament. Þan Henry was i-made kyng, Page  419, vol.7 most deel*. [deel] om. Cx.] by help of Henry eorle of Warwyk, þat was toforehonde his meynel,*. [meyneal, β. and Cx.; meynal, γ.] he made holy cherche free, but he hilde*. [huld, γ.] þe forest*. [forestes, Cx.] in his owne hond; he hilde Edwardes lawe wiþ þe amendynge þerof; he forȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] þe grevous penciouns. He putte out of his court þe men þat usede wommen*. [wymmenes, β.] manere; and restored aȝen in his court candel liȝt be*. [by, α., β., and Cx.] nyȝt, þat was i-lefte of in his fadir tyme; and closede Ranulph bischop of Durham in þe tour of Londoun; and reconciled Ancelm arche|bisshop of Caunterbury, þat þo*. [þo] so, Cx.] was exciled; he chastede þe false*. [vals, γ.] mesures of marchaundise,*. [marchauntes, β. and Cx.; mar|chaundes, γ.] and brouȝt forþ þe lengþe of his owne arme. He wolde fiȝte more gladly wiþ counsaille þan wiþ swerde; he wolde ete to staunche his honger, and nouȝt for gloteneye; he wolde nevere drinke but ȝif he were aþurst.*. [a first, α.; a furst, γ.] In hym self and al*. [in, α., β., and Cx.] his [meyne]*. [From Cx.] alway he hatede outrage of mete and [of]*. [From β.] drynke. After greet stryf þat was bytwene hym and Anselm þe archebisshop, he resigned to God and to seint*. [seyn, γ.] Peter þe vestiture*. [investiture, β. and Cx.] of prelates þat was i-doo by seculer hondes. At þe laste was made a counsaille of bisshops at Londoun, and strompettes were i-putte awey and remevede,*. [remeoved, β.]Page  421, vol.7 and he weddede Mold, þe douȝter of Malcolyn*. [Malyncolyn, α.] kyng of Scot|land; Anselme crownede here*. [hir, β.] queene on seynt Martynes day. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þis ȝere deyde Thomas archebisshop of ȝork, and Giralde was archebisshop after hym, a lecherous man, a wicche,*. [wycche, γ.; wytche, Cx.] an*. [and, Cx.] evel doer, as þe fame telleþ; for under his pelewe,*. [pile, β.; pule, γ.; pyle, Cx.] whan he diede in an herber,*. [erber, Cx.] was i-founde a book of curious craftes; the book hiȝte Iulius Firmicus;*. [Frumeus, Cx.] in þat book he radde priveliche in þe underne tymes,*. [undertydes, β., γ., and Cx.] þerfore unneþe [the]*. [From Cx.; þe, β. and γ.] clerkes of his chirche wolde suffre hym be i-buryed under hevene wiþ oute holy chirche. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 5o. In þe mene tyme eorle Robert, þis kynges broþer, herde*. [hurde, γ.] of þis*. [þis] þe deþ of, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng William þe Rede,*. [Rede from β. and γ.; Reede, Cx. þridde, MS.] and come aȝen out of þe Holy Lond into Apulia, and from þennes into Normandie, and arrayed hym to wende into Engelond. Þanne me herde þerof,*. [Than it was knowen, Cx.] and meny of þe lordes feynede som smale occasiouns, and wiþ drowȝ hem priveliche and openleche from kyng Henry, and cleped hym godriche, godfader, and sente priveliche for eorle Robert. And Page  423, vol.7 herto Raph*. [Raaf, β.; Rauf, Cx.] bisshop of Durham, þat was*. [had ben, Cx.] toforehonde pri|soned, gat a rope*. [roop, β. and γ.] and scapede out of þe tour of Londoun, and wente into Normandye in*. [and, α., β., and γ.] spiȝt of*. [of] om. α., β., and γ.] duke*. [Normandy and encouraged duc, Cx.] Robert aȝenst kyng Henry. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 4o. Þis Robert was kyng William þe Conquerour his eldest sone, a litel man of body, with a fat*. [vat, γ.] wombe. In his firste knyȝthode he usede his fader maneres, but afterward þe*. [þe] by, Cx.] hete*. [heete, β.] of his ȝong blood and counseille of fooles priked hym, and he fondede to have Normandie while his fader was onlyve;*. [alyve, β.] and whanne his fader warnede*. [wurnde, γ.] hit hym, he wente away for wreþþe,*. [wreche, Cx.] and made oft reses*. [restes, Cx.] uppon þe contray. First his fader scornede hym, bot afterward he swore by þe resurrexioun of Crist, and seide, "Robert short boot,*. [body] boot, from β. and Cx.; Robyn schort boot, γ; body, MS.] my sone, schal be a noble man." [For ellis had Roberd nouȝt þat myȝt be blamed, for he was curteise,*. [curteys, β.; corteys, γ.; curtoys, Cx.] and faire of face,*. [veyr of fas, γ.] of schap, and of speche, myȝti of strengþe, and sad of counsaile. But at þe laste his fader was so wrooþ wiþ him þat he deprivede hym of his heritage of Engelond, and lefte hym unneþe þe eorldom of Normandye.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] He dede meny grete dedes in þe Holy Land, and was so won|derful in every place þat he myȝte nevere be unhorsed by Page  425, vol.7 Cristen men*. [man, α. and Cx.] ne by paynym. Also at Ierusalem in an Ester eve he stood among oþere men, and abood þe fyre*. [fuyre, β.] þat was wont*. [vure þat was ywond, γ.] to come fro hevene and liȝt*. [tende, β., γ., and Cx.] som manis tapir,*. [taper, β.; tapur, γ., bis.] þanne his taper was i-tend; by doynge and vertu þer*. [þer] om. Cx.] of God, þerfore alle men chese hym kyng of Ierusalem. But whanne he herde of þe deeþ of his broþer William kyng of Engelond, he refusede*. [recused, β.] þe kyngdom of Ierusalem, nouȝt by cause of reverence, but for drede of travaille, or for*. [for] om. Cx.] covetise of þe kyngdom of Engelond; þerfore hym happede nevere wel afterward in bataille. Also in þe comynge aȝen from Ierusalem þis*. [he, Cx.] wedded þe douȝter of William de Aversana in Apulia, a wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] faire womman of schap, and lost hir by an evel after fewe*. [vew, γ.] ȝeres: one*. [me, β.] seiþ þat sche*. [hue, γ.] was begiled by þe counsaile of a childe wyf,*. [mydwyf, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat kutte*. [kitte, β.; kuytte, γ.] hire breestes [for greet plente of melk þat ran of here bresstes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] whan sche*. [heo, β., bis.] hadde childe. But he*. [hue, γ.; she, Cx.] hadde a sone,*. [William transposed to here, β.] a noble man of wit, William was his name.*. [was his name] om. α.] Robert feng*. [fonge, α.] grete money for þat mariage, and wasted it sone þerafte. Whanne he hadde i-gadred*. [Than he gadryd, Cx.] a greet oost in every side and com into Engelond forto reve his broþer Henry þe kyngdom, and londede at Portes|mouthe; Page  427, vol.7 but by [mene of]*. [From α. β., γ., and Cx.] þe wisest men of þe kyngdom pees was i-made uppon suche condicioun, þat Robert schulde feng every*. [evereche, β.] ȝere iii. ml marc,*. [marcȝ, α,] and wheþer of hem lyvede lengest*. [lynguste, γ.] schulde be oþere*. [oþeres, α. and β.] heyre ȝif þey deie*. [deide, α.; he deyde, β.; oþer hys heyr ef a dyede, γ.] wiþ oute heyre male.*. [maul, β. and γ.] But þe next ȝere*. [ȝere, from β, and γ.; yere, Cx.; heire, MS.] after Robert come into Engelond, and at þe prayere of Molde þe quene he forȝaf þe*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.] pensioun of þre þowsand marcȝ.*. [mark, β.; marc, γ. and Cx.] [Thenne Robert wente ageyne and was lytel ytold of amonge the Normans, soo that the Normans prayed kynge Henry to come ageynst Robert. The kyng cam and bynam hym al Normandy lytel and lytel, Rone, Cane and Faleys, in the whiche cytees Robert wente burethely up and doun. Therfor they of Cane were wroth, and prayd king Henry for to come to them, and closed theyr yates ayenst Robert.]*. [From Cx.; Þanne Robart went aȝen and was litel ytolde of among þe Normans, so þat þe Normans prayede kyng Henry to come agenus Robert. Þe kyng cam and bynam hym al Normandy litel and lytel, outtake Rothomage, Cadony, and Phales. In þe whiche citees Robart went unrediliche up and doun; þer|fore þe Cadoniens were wroþe, and prayed king Henry for to come to hem, and closide her ȝates aȝenus Robart. β. and γ.] Þan Robert fliȝ*. [fleyȝ, α.; fledde, Cx.] to Rothomage*. [Rone, Cx.] with oon squyere alone, and prayde help of þe kyng of Fraunce and of þe eorle Page  429, vol.7 of Flaundres, but Robert was helples for hem; he*. [he] and, β.] fondede*. [and founded, Cx.] to ȝeve his broþer bataile, and was overcomen, and i-take and kepte in warde seven ȝere to his lyfes ende, and deide in þe castel of Cardyf,*. [Cardef, β. and Cx.; Kerdyf, γ.] and was i-buried at Gloucestre.*. [Glocetershire, γ.]

Capitulum decimum tertium.

THIS ȝere Roberd de*. [þe] Roberd de, from α.; Robart de, β.; þe, MS.] Bolysm*. [Bolisme, β.; Robert Denbolism, γ.; Robert de Bolysme, Cx.] rose*. [ros, β.] aȝenst kyng Henry; þis Robert was þe gretteste of þe sones of Roger de Moun Geme|rok,*. [Mont Gemeric, α.; Mount Go|merik, β.; Mont Gomeric, γ.; Mount Gomeryk, Cx.] erle of Schroisbury. Robert strengþede his castelles of Schroisbury, of Brugge,*. [Brugges, β. and Cx.] of Arundel, and of Tykenhulle,*. [Tykehull, γ.; Tykenhyl, Cx.] and made*. [spiȝte, β.; encouraged, Cx.] meny Walsche men to rise*. [to rise] om. Cx.] aȝenst þe kyng; bot wiþ ynne xl.*. [vourty, γ.] dayes þe kyng wan [and toke]*. [From β. and Cx.] al þis strengþis, and overcom the Walsche*. [Walysch, γ.] men wiþ ȝiftes and faire*. [veyr, γ.] byhestes, and compellede þis eorle Robert to forswere*. [vorswerye, γ.] Engelond, and he saillede into Normandie. And sone þerafter William eorle of Mortony in Normandie [and of Cornwayle in Engelond saillede to Robert into Normandye],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] for þe kyng hadde warnede*. [ywurnd, γ.]Page  431, vol.7 hym*. [Þues tweyne, γ.] þe eorldom of Kent. Þese two*. [fautours, β.; fautors, γ.] and here faitoures wer|rede*. [werryd, Cx.] and dede moche*. [grete, β.] harm in Normandye; kyng Henry herde þerof, and bynam þe eorle of Mortoun al þat he hadde in Engelond, and saillede þerafter into Normandie, and made it suget, nouȝt with oute schedynge of blood, and prisoned þe two forseide eorles to hire lyves ende, þat were men ful*. [vol, γ.] of gile and*. [and] of, β.] stryf and of wiles. Þan kyng Henry leefte*. [lefte, Cx.] greet pees in Normandie, and come aȝen into Engelond, and made*. [made, from Cx.; maden, MS.] scharpe lawes aȝenst false men and þeoves,*. [þeeves, β.; þueves, γ.] in þe whiche lawes is i-conteyned lost and lesing of eyȝen, of prive stone,*. [stones, α., β., γ., and Cx.] of fistes*. [fustes, β.; vustes, γ.] and*. [fustes and of, Cx.] handes. Þanne he made þe Scottes sogette, *. [to, wrongly added here in MS.] þe Walsche men, þe Britouns by ȝonde þe see, and Lowys þe kyng of Fraunce. Þan kyng Henry lay in Normandye, and pope Calixte*. [Kalixtus, α. and β.; Calyxtus, Cx.] com nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] to Normandie, among alle oþere causes to have kyng Henry scharpliche at answere for þe prisonynge*. [prisonment, β. and γ.; pry|sonnement, Cx.] of his broþer Robert, pilgrim of Ierusalem; but he hadde semeliche answers, and cesede of þat cause: al manere of arguynge may be i-bend*. [bonde, Cx.] toward every*. [eyþer, γ.] side by the facunde of þe pledere, þe whiche facunde is [wiþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] pre|santes*. [presauntes, β.] specialliche i-hiȝt.*. [lyghted, Cx.] And for no pompe and boste schulde faille, þe kyng maked*. [made, Cx.] þe ȝonge sones of þe eorle of Mollent*. [Mellent, β., γ., and Cx.] appose þe cardinales þat were þo presente, and up|broyde*. [upbreide, α.; enbryge, β.; en|brugge, γ.; embryge, Cx.] hem and snarlede*. [snarle, β.] hem*. [snarle ham, γ., smarle hym, Cx.] wiþ sotil sophyms. Þerfore Page  433, vol.7 þe cardinales schamede nouȝt to knowleche þat þere was more wit and konnynge of clergie in þe west londes þan þey had herde*. [yhurde, γ.] of speke. How*. [Hugus, β.; Huwe, γ., et infra; Hugh, Cx.] the eorle of Chestre, kyng William þe Conquerours nevew on his suster side [deyde],*. [From β.] and his sone Richard, a childe of vii. ȝere olde, was eorle after hym. Anselme made a counsaile at Londoun, and sette adoun*. [put doune, Cx.] meny abbottes, and forbeed settynge of dignetes to ferme, and demede þat Sodomytes schulde be accorsed every Sonday. But afterward he undede*. [undude, γ.] þat doynge, for publicacioun*. [pupplycacion, Cx.] of vice,*. [vys, β. and γ.] þat was norschynge of more hardynes to wikked hertes to doo suche dedes. Also he forbeed preostes*. [prestene, β. and γ.] wyfes. Stryf fel*. [fil, β.] bytwene þe kyng and Anselm forto he wolde nouȝt sacre þe prelates þat hadde i-fonge vestiture*. [investiture, α., β., and Cx.] of lewed*. [lewide, β.] men hondes, and*. [and] om. Cx.] nameliche for þe pope hadde forbode it uppon peyne of cursynge.*. [corsyng, γ.] But Giralde archebisshop of ȝork sacrede suche*. [siche, β.] prelates; þerfore Anselme was i-meoved, and wente to þe pope. The contray of Flaundres was destroyed*. [destried, β.] wiþ a*. [α] om. β.] castynge of*. [of] the, Cx.] gravel of þe see; þerfore þe Flemynges ȝede Page  435, vol.7 aboute þat tyme, and hadde no place*. [plas, γ.] to*. [to] forto, β.] wone ynne. Þerfore þey prayde and hadde i-graunted of kyng Henry a place to wone*. [wonye, β.] ynne faste*. [vast, γ.] by Twede in þe est side of Engelond, but in þe enlevenþe ȝere þey were i-torned into West Wales. For þe mysbyleve of som prelates seynt Cuthbert his body was i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] hool and sound, þe ȝere after his burienge*. [berieng, Cx.] foure hondred and fourtene, and bytwene his armes seint Oswoldes heed was i-founde also hool and sound. Þe sevenþe day of Iuyn*. [June, β.] were i-seyn foure white cercles aboute þe sonne. Þis*. [That, Cx.] ȝere þe first wike*. [woke, γ.] of Lentyn,*. [weke of Leynte, β.; weke of Lenten, Cx.] on þe Friday at eve, was an unkowþe sterre i-seyn schyne bytwene þe soaþ and þe west, and schoon so every*. [everech, β.] day in þat*. [þat] the same, Cx.] houre fiftene*. [fyve and twenty, Cx.] dayes; also a grete beeme*. [beme, β.; beame, Cx.] was i-seie come aȝenst þat sterre out of þe estside. Þerafter in Cene Þorsday, þat som men clepeþ Schireþorsday,*. [Schereþursday, β.; clepyn chere Thoursday, Cx.] were i-seie two ful mones a litel to fore day, oon in þe est [and]*. [From β.] anoþer in þe west. Þat ȝere was a grisliche stryf by|twene þe fader Henry þe emperour and his owne sone Henry, so þat þe sone prisoned þe fader. Þat ȝere kyng Henry come to Becco, and was accorded wiþ hym, and sente þis*. [ysend þennes, β. and γ.; thennes. Cx.] into Engelond.

Page  437, vol.7

Capitulum decimum quartum.

THIS ȝere þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.; vurde, γ.] Henry, þe sone of þe þridde Henry, bygan to be emperour among Duches*. [Duchys, β. and γ.; Duche, Cx.] men, and regned nyntene ȝere; he caste his owne fader in bondes,*. [boundes, Cx.] in þe whiche he*. [he] his fader, Cx.] deide. Also he took and prisoned pope Paschal and þe cardynales, as it is i-seide toforehonde; þerfore me troweþ*. [men trowyd, Cx.] þat he deide wiþ oute children, þouȝ he hadde i-wedded Molde whan sche*. [heo, β.] was but fyve ȝere olde, Henries douȝter kyng of Engelond. At þe laste he repented,*. [reputed, Cx.] and resigned up þe riȝt of holy cherche frely*. [frelich, β.; vreliche, γ.] to pope Kalixte,*. [Calixt, α.] and so, as þe soþe opynioun telleþ,*. [telliþ, β.] he exciled hym self by his owne fre wille, unwetynge his wif, and deide at Chestre. Anselme made a counsaile at Londoun, and þere it was i-ordeyned by assent of þe kyng, þat nevere after þat tyme, þat*. [þat] om. β. and Cx.] þe kyng, schulde not, noþer oþer lewed person, make investiture wiþ croys*. [croos, γ. and Cx.] and wiþ ryng. Þat tyme Girald archebisshop of ȝork putte*. [pot, γ.] his hondes bytwene þe hondes of Anselme archebisshop of Caunterbury, and dede hym obedience. Þan þe tenþe day of August at Londoun Ancelme sacred fyve bisshoppes [in oon day,*. [vyf byshops in o day, γ.] the bisshops]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of Wynchestre, of Salisbury, of Excetre, of Herford, Page  439, vol.7 and of Glamorgan, þat happede nouȝt after Pelegius*. [Plegnidus, α.; Plegyndus, Cx.] tyme. Þis ȝere ordeyned kyng Henry þat þeoves*. [þeeves, β.] schulde be an*. [an] om. Cx.] honged, and þat false money and [false]*. [From α. and Cx.] sele*. [seel, β. and Cx.] makers schulde lese here eyȝen*. [yen, γ.] and here prive stones; and þat penyes and half penyes schulde be rounde. Philip kyng of Fraunce deide, and his sone Lewys was kyng after hym. Giralde arche|bisshop of ȝork deide, and Thomas þe nevew of the elder Thomas was archebisshop after hym sevene ȝere. Kyng Henry made a bisshoppes see at Hely, and ordeyned þere Hervy,*. [Henry, Cx.] þat hadde be bisshop of Bangor; and for in þat doynge he bynam*. [toke, Cx.] a grete deel of þe bisshopriche of Lyncolne, and ȝif*. [gaf, Cx.] Cantebrigge*. [Cambriggeschyre, β.; Cam|bryggeshire, Cx.] to þe see of Hely; þerfore he ȝaf þe bisshop of Lyncolne his owne real*. [ryal, β. and Cx.] towne of Spaldynge. Þis ȝere deyde Hughe*. [Huwe, β.] abbot of Cluny, in þe Ester wyke,*. [woke, β. and γ.; weke, Cx.] after þat oure Lady, seynt Peter, and seint Hillary hadde appered to hym. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 1o. Þis ȝere deide Ancelme archebisshop of Caunterbury, and þe next day after þat fel*. [vul, γ.; fyll, Cx.] þe Cene Þorsday: he was anoynted*. [enoynt, Cx.] wiþ baume*. [baum, γ.] [þat God sente doun fro hevene],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and so he was i-buried; and þanne þe see of Page  441, vol.7 Canturbury was voyde*. [foyde, α.] ful fyve ȝere, and in þe mene tyme holy chirche*. [cherches, α.] good*. [gode, β.] was spend in þe kynges court.*. [use, α., β., and Cx.] And was*. [was] om. α., β., and Cx.] whan þe kyng was i-meved*. [were meoved, β.] to helpe þe chirche þat so was hevedles and wedwe,*. [hedles as it were a widewe, β.; hedles as hyt were a wedewe, γ.; hedles as it were a wydowe he wold, Cx.] and*. [he, α. and β.] wolde putte it of wiþ a meke*. [myke, γ.] answere, and seie þat his fader and his broþer hadde i-made archebisshops þe beste men þat þey myȝte*. [coude, Cx.] fynde, and þat he wolde nouȝt goo out of kynde,*. [kunde, γ.] but he wolde make archebisshop þe beste man þat he myȝte fynde. Soche*. [Siche, β.] answers semede ful of lawe and of riȝt, bote þe greet somme of money þat was arered of þe archebisshop*. [archbischoprich, β.; archebis|shopryche, Cx.] plesede þe kynges herte. Þeyȝ*. [Þouȝ, β.] Emerus monk of Canturbury had i-wreten and descryved Anselms lyf at þe fulle, ȝit by helpe [of William]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of Malmesbury somwhat mote be i-seide of þe noble*. [so noble α, β.; so nobel α, γ.; of so noble α, Cx.] man. Whanne*. [Þanne, β.; Than, Cx.] Anselme was i-bore in þe citee of August, faste besides þe hilles*. [hulles, γ.] of*. [of] þat hatte, α.; that hight, Cx.] Alpes, and was lettred and chast of his childhode, and hadde his fader wreþþe, and myȝte plese hym in no manere wise, þerfore he fliȝ awey fer from his fader, and come to Becco in Normandie, and was i-favored under Lanfrank, and was i-made a*. [α] om. α., β., and Cx.] monk þere in his sixtene*. [six and twenty, Cx.] ȝere. After Lanfrank, þre ȝere*. [Transposed in α., β., and Cx.] priour of Becco, was translated*. [translate, α.] to þe abbay of Cadony, and Anselm Page  443, vol.7 was i-made priour under þe abbot Herlewyn. Þan Ancelme ȝaf hym to penaunce and to fastynge,*. [vastynge, γ.] and to techynge of children nameliche fiftene ȝere, and wolde seie ful ofte þat hym were levere to be in helle wiþoute synne þan in hevene wiþ synne. He made meny bookes of clergie, in þe whiche oure byleve, þat oþer men makeþ hem besy [to wynne]*. [From β., and Cx.; to wynne wyþ auctoryte, γ.] by*. [by] wiþ, β.] auctorite, he strengþede wiþ resouns and argumentis [that]*. [From Cx.; MS. has and passeþ.] may nouȝt be assoilled, so þat he passeþ*. [passyd, Cx.] nouȝt onliche here werkes þat were to fore hym, but also he gadrede here werkes al into oon hepe. Also by good witte and paciens he overcom al þe malys of his enemyes. After þe fiftenþe ȝere of his priourie Herlewyn abbot of Becco deide, and Anselme was i-made abbot in his stede, and helde*. [huld, γ.] hym fyve ȝere out of Engelond, þowȝ his comynge were nedeful*. [nedfol, γ.] for meny manere causes, leste me wolde wene þat*. [lest that it shold be demed that, Cx.] he coveytede*. [converted, Cx.] þe archebisshopriche of Canturbury,*. [Kaunterbury, α.] þat voidede so*. [so] þo, β.; tho, Cx.] by Lan|frank his deeþ. But at þe laste for þre maneres causes he was i-compelled to come into Engelond, as it is i-seide tofore|honde, for in*. [for in] om. Cx.] þat tyme [in]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Engelond was robberie under kyng William þe Rede, and proscripciouns and excilinges and takynge into [the]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] kynges hond, for it was*. [were, β.] esiere to bygrone þe emper*. [From α. and γ.; empire, β.; by|waill the empyre, Cx.; emperour, MS.] [of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] a man*. [oon man, β.; o man, γ.] alone þan to be under newe lordes þat comeþ oon after oþer. Among al þis was grete scilence*. [silence, β.] among þe bisshoppes, þe riȝtful doom was i-choked wiþ ynne þe conscience of hem þat myȝt nouȝt nor dorste nouȝt berke*. [berke, from β.; speke, Cx.; breke, MS.] for drede of oon*. [oon] from α. and β.; one, Cx.; no, MS.] man: for what profit is it to speke þere þou schal arere wreþþe and wynne no profit? Þo Page  445, vol.7 was hope to scape [al]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þis mescheef þere*. [þere] yf, Cx.] þe bannyour*. [ȝif þe banyour, β.] Ancelm, þat was þe first comyn schild,*. [comyn schild, from γ.; comynge child, MS.] was*. [were, α.] i-made arche|bisshop. [Kyng William put of al þat was good y-seide to hym wiþ swellynge wreþþe, oþer wiþ merþe and curtesye of speche He suffrede doo no bedes for hym ne for þe state of holy cherche, but he saide: "Praye ȝe what ȝe willeþ,*. [wolleþ, β.] I schal do what me likeþ." At þe laste he was y-take wiþ a greet sik|nesse, and sent for Anselyn,*. [Ancelm, Cx., et infra.] and by assent of bisshops he ordeynede þat he schulde be archebisshop. And he wiþsaide hit, and alleyde for hym þis manere: "ȝif a ȝong sheep, þat is Anselyn, schal be y-coupled and y-ȝoked*. [yocked, Cx.] to a wylde bole,*. [boole, Cx.]þat is William þe rede, ffor þeyȝ*. [þei, β.] drawe nouȝt alle aliche*. [vor hy draweþ noȝt al yleche, γ.]þe solouȝ*. [solouh, Cx.] of holy cherche schal nouȝt goo aryȝt." But Anselyn fonge*. [vyng, γ.] þe investiture, and was y-sacrede. But he recoverede of his siknesse, and was worse after þan to forhond: his frendes counsailled hym to god,*. [goode, β.; gode, γ.; good, Cx.] and [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] usede to answere and seie:*. [sygge, γ.] "Per vultum de Luca, God schal nevere have me good for þe harm þat he doþ [me]."*. [From Cx.] Also þe kyng was a ravener*. [ravenour, β.] in gaderynge and a greet wastour in spendynge. He ferede dispitousliche eche man þat profrede hym ouȝt, but þe ȝifte were greet and accordynge to his owne herte. So]*. [From α. β. γ. and Cx.]Page  447, vol.7 seint Anselme in a tyme*. [in a tyme put before seint An|selme, in. α., β., γ., and Cx.] profred þe kyng fyve hondred pound, and he wolde nouȝt fonge hit;*. [hem, α.] þanne Ancelme deled it to pore men. Dyvers wondres were i-seie into al Engelond, for at Schroisbury was a grete erþe schakynge; and at Snotyngham, þat is*. [Snotyngham þat is] om. Cx.] Notyngham, from þe erliche morwe*. [morn, α.] tide to þe underne*. [to under, Cx.] of þe day þe ryver of Trente was so fordryed*. [vordruyed, γ.] þat men myȝte goo þerover drye foot. And stella comata,*. [cometa, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is a sterre wiþ a briȝt lemynge*. [bemyng, Cx.] creest, was i-seie hool þre wykes*. [thre hoole wekes, Cx.] in þe monþe of Iuyn. Þo was an hard wynter, strong honger, deeþ of men, pestilence of beestes, and fiȝtinge of foules, þat fauȝt to gidres. Kyng Henry bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] þe abbay of Hyde wiþ oute þe walles of Wyn|chestre, þat was toforehonde wiþ ynne þe citee. Þis ȝere þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] emperour Henry*. [Henry emperour, Cx.] of Almayne wedded Mold, kyng Henries douȝter, at Magons, þe vi. day of Ianyver.*. [Januar, Cx.]

Capitulum decimum quintum.

THE fiftenþe day of Octobre felle*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] a grete defaute of water in Engelonde, so þat hors and men myȝte wade bytwene Temse|brugge*. [brydge, Cx.]Page  449, vol.7 and þe toure of Londoun, and*. [and] om. Cx.] þat durede a day and a nyȝt. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þis ȝere was a counsaile at Wyndesore, and þe kyng ordeyned Faricius abbot of Abyndon to þe see of Canturbury; but þe charge of þat dede come to examynacioun of bisshops, and þey putte tofore hym Rauf*. [Raaf, β. and Cx., et β. infra.] bisshop of Rochestre. Also þat ȝere one Thurstan*. [One Thurstan, from Cx.; Athel|ston, MS.] was i-chose archebisshop of ȝork; þe kyng chargede hym ofte þat he schulde do lawful subjectioun to Rauf archebisshop of Caunterbury. [But hym was lever leve the dignyte than be obedyente to the archebisshop of Caunterbury].*. [Added in Cx.; But hym was lever leve þe dignite þan be obedient to þe archbischop of Caunterbury, β.; bote hym was levere leve þe dig|nyte þan be obedient to þe arche|bisshop of Caunturbury, γ.] But when he was i-prived, and had no service, as he was i-wont, he was agreved, and [he]*. [From α.] forþouȝt*. [forþouȝt, from β.; and for|thought, Cx.; þouȝt, MS.] þat dede ful sore, and folwede þe kyng over þe see; þere by þe procurynge of Thurstynes clerkes pope Paschal sente a lettre to þe kyng forto restore Thurstan aȝen. Whanne he was efte i-comen to þe see of ȝork, ȝit he hadde scorne to doo laweful obedience to þe archebisshop of Canturbury; þanne þe olde strif was renewed aȝen: þere*. [þere . . . cause] om. Cx.] þey ordeyned for to come to Rome*. [Remne, β.] to þe general counsail to defende here cause.*. [þere . . . cause] om. Cx.] First þere þe pope byheet to þe kyng of Engelond and to Rauf archebisshop of Caunterbury [that he wold nothyng ordeyne ageynst the dygnyte of hooly chirche Page  451, vol.7 of Caunterbury].*. [From Cx.; þat he wolde noþinge ordeyne aȝenes þe dignite of þe chirche of Caunterbury, β.; þat he wolde no þynge ordeyne aȝenes þe dignyte of þe cherche of Canter|bury, γ.]Willelmus, libro 2o. But it semeth þat he grauntede a privelege in þis manere: "Of alle þe autentike grauntes þat ȝoure cherche haþ, i-graunted of oure*. [ur, γ.] predeces|sours, we wil noþing wiþdraw, but wil þat it stonde and be i-keped*. [kepte, γ.] wiþouten*. [withoute ony wemme, Cx.] wemme." Here ȝif þe pope hadde i-seie*. [seid, α.; seide, β.] "ȝoure cherche haþ þis*. [þese, β. bis; þues, γ. bis.] dignitees and þis"*. [þese, β. bis; þues, γ. bis.] hadde he*. [he hadde, α., β.] assoyllede þe plee and þe stryf. But now he leveþ þe stryf al unassoilled; so þe gileful spekere of Romayns can torne hym|self to þe wille*. [wiles, β.; wyles, γ.] of plederes so þat hym likeþ: he wil sus|pende in veyn and leve it in doute, and spareþ nouȝt þe cost and travaille of oþer men, while he casteþ for his owne profit and avauntage. Þerfore whanne þe kynges messangers were i-goo, þe pope was aboute for to favere*. [was ybowed for favour, β.; was ybowed vor favour, γ.; was bowyd other for favour, Cx.] oþere for ȝiftes more gilfulliche þan so grete a man schulde, and forsook þe reule*. [reule, from γ.; rule, β.; realme, MS.] of þe*. [þe] om. β.] olde tyme, and sacrede Thurstyn and ȝaf hym the pal. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Kyng Henry had greet indignacioun þerof, and forbeed*. [vorbud, γ.] Thurstyn his londe; but he was aferde by þe popes lettres, in þe whiche it was conteyned þe king schulde fonge Thurstyn or be accorsed and suspended by Page  453, vol.7 þe dignyte of þe office of Canturbury. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro primo. Kyng Henries firste wyf was dede; þanne he weddede þe dukes douȝter of Lotharingia. In þe day of þe weddynge Raph*. [Raaf, β. and Cx., et infra.] archebisshop of Canturbury, þat was wreþful*. [wraþful, α.] and acombred wiþ the palsy, and sigh*. [syȝ, β.] þe bisshop of Salisbury *. [y] om. α. and Cx.]y-revested to doo þe solempnite of þat weddynge, and made hym leve of þat dede, and ordeyned þe bisshop of Wynchestre to doo þat office. Þanne þe next day þerafter he sigh kyng Henry i-crowned aȝenst his concience, and wente to hym and seide, "Þow art unriȝtfulliche i-crowned; þerfore þou schalt leve þy crowne, or I schal leve þe masse." "Fader," quod þe kyng, "amende þou þat is mysdoo." Þanne Rauf sparede unneþe for prayere of lordes þat he ne hadde i-smete*. [but he had smyten, Cx.] doun þe crowne of the kynges heed. He was a stedefast man of good levynge, of lettrure, and of faire*. [veyr, γ.] speche, wiþouten suspeccioun of eny trespas þat was i-knowe, but þat he usede more lawhynge*. [lauȝinge, β.; lauȝyng, γ.] and playenge þan it semede his staate and his age, and he was nyh i-cleped a iapere. Þe wynter was hard, so þat many brugges*. [brydges, Cx.] in Engelond were i-broke*. [to broke, α., β., and γ.] of þe þowynge*. [þewinge of þe iise, β.] of þe yse.*. [ys, γ.] In þe monþe of May come so meny flyȝes and fleyȝ*. [vlye, γ.] aboute in Page  455, vol.7 þe lond of Ierusalem þat þey ete and destroyed vines, treen, and corn, [and whan þey hadde y-do a*. [α] her, β. and Cx.] iourney a day some flauȝ*. [flyȝ, β.; flye, Cx.] and some ȝede on here feet to here herborwe*. [harbrugh, γ.] at eve. In Ytale was an erþe schakyng, and*. [and] that, Cx.] durede fourty dayes, so þat meny house were y-þrowe doun, and greet townes*. [a grete toun, β.; a grete towne was, Cx.] were y-meoved and y-hove*. [heve, Cx.] fer out of oon place into anoþer. Pope Paschal deide; Iohn Gaytanus was pope after hym; þis was þe raþer popes chaunseler, and was y-cleped þe secounde Gelasius, and was pope a ȝer and an half].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Henry þe emperour herde þat his privelege of þe investiture of prelates was wiþ|cleped, and wente to Rome, and took*. [to take, β. and Cx.] more grevous wreche of pope Paschal; and herde of pope Paschallis deeþ, and putte oon Morys Burdyn*. [Burdin, γ.] into þe poperiche. Þis Moris was bisshop of Bachar,*. [Bacher, Cx.] and þe emperour cleped þis Morys þe vii. Gregorie. For drede of þe emperour pope Gelasius lefte Rome, and saillede to Gien,*. [Gene, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and wente þennes on his feet to Cluny, and deide þere. Þe cardynales þo þere took Gye archebisshop of Vyen, and made hym pope, and clepid hym þe secounde Calixte. ℞. Also þis ȝere deide Florence*. [Florencius, β.; Florentius, Cx.] monk of Wircestre: by his studie and travaille þis storie is greetliche i-hiȝt.*. [y-yȝt, γ.] Greet stryf Page  457, vol.7 was bytwene þe kynges of Engelond and of Fraunce, and Henry kyng of Engelond overcome þe kyng of Fraunce realliche*. [rialich, β.; ryally, Cx.] in bataille. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 5o. Hereafter kyng Henry maried his eldest sone William to Fulcos his douȝter, duke of Angeo.*. [Avioe, β.; Anioe, γ.; Angeo, from Cx.; Avynoun, MS.] Þoo was pees i-made bytwene þe kynges, for þis William hilde Normandie of þe kyng of Fraunce, and dede hym homage for þat lond, by graunt of his fader kyng Henry; for þe kyng was so grete þat he wolde nouȝt do homage to þe kyng of Fraunce for Normandie. Þo also kyng Henry made of*. [of] om. Cx.] his free men of Engelond and of Normandie doo homage to his sone William. And me hopede þerby þat kyng Edwardes prophecie scholde be fulfilled*. [volfuld, γ.] in þis William. In þat prophecie it was i-seide þat whanne þe tree þat is i-kutte*. [tre þat is kitt, β.] comeþ to þe stok aȝen and springeþ, þan schal be hope and*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] remedie. But þat was i-blend wiþ*. [by, β.; yblend be þe, γ.] þe*. [wiþ þe] by, Cx.] chaungynge of hap of mankynde; þerfore*. [þerfore] for, β. and Cx.] after þe kyng hadde i-dwelled þre ȝere in Normandie þis William was drenched.*. [adreynt, β., γ., and Cx.] Also þat [tyme]*. [From β. and Cx.] þis eorle Folco wente to Ierusalem, and bytook þe eorldom of Angeo*. [Angeo, from Cx.; Avioun, MS.] to þe kyng of Engelond to kepe to þe profit of his sone in lawe ȝif he come nouȝt aȝen.

Page  459, vol.7

Capitulum decimum sextum.

THE secounde Kalixte was pope fyve ȝere and fyve monþes; he gadrede strengþe on every side, and took and prisoned Morys þe [forsayd]*. [From Cx.] antipope, and made first sette hym uppon a camel, and torned his face toward þe camelis tayle, and so he rood, and hilde*. [a rod and huld, γ.] þe tayle in his hond in stede*. [stude, β.] of a bridel, and rode tofore the pope. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 5o. Aboute þis tyme bygan þe ordre Premonstracensis, þat is þe ordre of white chanouns, and bygan in þe diocise Landymensi,*. [Landunensi, α.; Landunensy, β.; Laudunensy, Cx.] under þe fader Norþbert of the nacioun of Coleyne.*. [Coleye, α.; Coloyn, β.] Aboute þat tyme deide Molde queene of Engelond: ferst sche lernede*. [vurste hue lurnde, γ.] lettrure and was i-norsched among mynchouns*. [monchouns, β.] at Wynchestre; for to putte of unworþy mariage þat here fadre profred here ofte tyme, sche*. [heo, β.] bare þe vayle of holy avow; þerfore whan kyng Henry wolde have hire to wyve þat doynge [fel]*. [From α.; vul, γ.; fylle, Cx.] in greet des|putesoun,*. [desputyson, Cx.] and Anselme wiþstood þat mariage, for [to]*. [for] til, β.; vorto, γ.; till, Cx.] it was i-proved by lawe of ful*. [by lawful, Cx.] witnesse þat sche took þe vayle for to putte of*. [of, from α. and β.; þe, MS.] wowers, and for noon oþer cause. Þis hadde two children [at oon burden, a sone and a douȝter, and cessede of children]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] berynge; þan sche dwelled at*. [and, α.] Westmynstre, and was i-founde as a queen by þe [kyng and by]*. [From α.; not in β. and Cx.] kynges wil; but sche werede þe heyre under þe real*. [ryal, β.] array,*. [were the heer under the ryal araye, Cx.] and ȝede bare|foot*. [barvoot, γ.]Page  461, vol.7 to cherche in þe Lenten*. [Leynte, β.] tyme, and was nouȝt squaymus*. [scaymes, β.; scoymes, γ.; squaymes, Cx.] to wasche seke menis feet, and grope sore bochches*. [bocches, β.; boches, γ.; botches, Cx.] wiþ here hondes, and kusse þe seke men, and sette to hem a mete borde and serve hem. Also sche loved moche Goddes service, þerfore sche spended moche on clerkes þat kowþe wel synge. Þerfore famous men of scole come to here wiþ vers*. [versus, Cx.] and wiþ song, as it were out of alle londes. Also sche spendede largeliche on comers þat come on every side. Desire of praysinge is so kyndeliche i-piȝt,*. [pyȝt, α.] in manis herte, þat unneþe eny man, þeiȝ he be of good conscience, holde*. [halt, β.] hym apaide wiþ the fruyt of his good werkes; but ȝit he haþ likynge þat þe people*. [pupel, γ.] knewe*. [knowe, Cx.] of his good dedes: [by cause of suche dedes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] sche pyled hir*. [hue pelede here, γ.] plouȝ men, but þat may be wiste by counseille of here mynistres. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 5o. The sixte day tofore De|cembre at Barefleet*. [Barbeflet, γ.; Harfleet, Cx.] in Normandie up gooþ the ankres, and þe kyng saillede graciously*. [gracyosliche, γ.] into Engelond. His sone William wolde seile after hym, and was i-drenched,*. [adreynt, Cx.] and meny noble men nouȝt fer from þe londe. Þe kynges sone Richard, eorle of Chestre,*. [eorle of Chestre] om. α., β., and Cx.] bastard, was among hem, and Notha þe contesse*. [contas, γ.] of Percy, and Richard eorle of Chestre, and his wyf, þat was þe kynges neese,*. [nece, β.] and þe archedecon of Hereford, and oþere in þe nombre of an hondred and fifty: of hem alle ascapede none but oon cherle, a bocher,*. [bochour, β.; bochur, γ.; chorle bocher, Cx.] þat swam al nyȝt uppon a broken mast, and come to þe cleve*. [clyve, β.] in þe morntide, and tolde [alle]*. [From Cx.] þe geest*. [al þe geest, β.; gest,.; geste, Cx.] how it was byfalle.*. [byvalle, γ.] Alle þese wente be nyȝte into a Page  463, vol.7 newe schip wiþ dronken schipmen; þey*. [þey] and, β.] fil anon uppon a rokke nouȝt fer from þe londe, and þe schippe to cleef, and William þe kynges sone [was]*. [From β. and Cx.] i-doo*. [was doo, α.] in a boot, in þe whiche he myȝte have be i-saved wel inow; but whan he come to þe cleef,*. [clif, β.] and herde his suster wepe*. [wuepe, γ.] and crye, þan he torned aȝen and took here into his boot; þanne oþer men sterte*. [starte, β.; start, γ.] into þat boot, and overladde*. [overlade, α.; overladede, β. and γ.; overlode, Cx] it, and drenchede*. [drowned, Cx.] þe boot and al þat was þerynne outake þe forsaide cherle. But it was wonder þat grete tresour was i-founde [fast by the clyves in the morowe, and none of the dede bodyes were founde],*. [From Cx.] but þey were al eten of þe fisches*. [yete of þe vysches, γ.] of þe see. Henricus, libro 7o. And me seiþ þat nyȝ*. [neiȝ, β.; nyȝ, from γ.; nyȝt, MS.] al þese were Sodomytes. Willelmus. And also þis William, þe kynges eldest sone, hadde i-manassed Englische men þat ȝif he were evere lorde over hem he wolde make hem drawe as oxen at þe plowȝ. [℞.]*. [From α.] Also Richard eorle of Chestre hadde i-manassed þat whenne he were i-comen out of Normandie he wolde destroye þe monkes of Chestre þat his fader hadde i-ordeyned þere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 5o. Page  465, vol.7 Here after Fulco eorle of Angoye,*. [Anioye, β.; Angeo, Cx.] whos douȝter William þat was i-drenched*. [drowned, Cx., et infra.] hadde i-wedded, come out of þe Holy Lond, and maried his oþer douȝter to Robert Schorthoses sone, and ȝaf with here þe eorldom of Cenomannia. For kyng Henricus*. [Henry, α.] wiþ heeld hir dowarie*. [his dower, α. and β.; hys dower, γ.] in Engelond. Here [after]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Henry maried his douȝter Molde to þe fourþe Henry þe emperour of Almayne. Þis ȝere kyng Henry made a grete parke at Wode|stoke.*. [Wodestode, Cx.] Whan Richard [erle]*. [From Cx.] of Chestre was i-drenched,*. [adreynt, β.] þe first Ranulph de Meschenes, þe sone of þe firste Hughe,*. [Huwe, γ.] was eorle eyȝte ȝere after hym. Rauf [archebisshop]*. [From Cx.; archbischop, β.; Raph archebyschop of Caunterbury dyede and, γ.] of Canturbury [dyed],*. [From Cx.; deyde, β.] and William Canonicus was archebisshop after hym. Aboute þis tyme bygan þe ordre of Templeres; þese were i-gadred of þe releef*. [relef, β., et infra; relyf, γ.] of þe Hospitalers, and ordeyned hem a place in þe porche of þe temple [of Ierusalem, þerfore above*. [above] þei beþ, β.; they be, Cx.] yclepede þe knyȝtes of þe Temple].*. [From α., β., and γ.] Þese*. [Þues, γ.] were sus|teyned by þe releef of þe Hospitalers, boþe in mete and in armure, and wexe so riche þat it semede þat þe douȝter passede and weried*. [wyryȝede, α.; wyryed, β. and Cx.; wyryde, γ.] þe moder: at þe laste, for vile apostacie and despisynge of Crist, þei were destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] in þe fifte pope Page  467, vol.7 Clementes tyme, þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre hondred and twelve. Henricus, libro 7o. Iohn, cardynal of Rome, come into Engelond, and made grevous proces aȝenst preostes concubynes, and seide þat it is a foule*. [voul, γ.] synne and a greet to arise from a strompet side to sacre Cristes body; but þe same day after þat he hadde i-songen*. [ysonge, β.] [masse]*. [From Cx.] he was i-take wiþ a strompet at even: þing þat was openliche i-knowe myȝt nouȝt be forsake, it moste nedes be i-knowe. ȝif þis displesiþ*. [displesiþ, from β.; dypleseþ, γ.; dysplesyth, Cx.; despise, MS.] eny man, I rede hym holde his pees and be stille, leste me wolde wene þat he folwe Iohn in wordes and in dedes. After Kalixte, the secounde Honorius was pope fyve ȝere. Þe ferþe Henry þe emperour of Almayne is dede, and som men telleþ*. [tellyn, Cx.] þat he is i-buried at Spire wiþ his forfadres, wiþ*. [wif, α.] soche writynge on his tombe: "Here lieþ þe sone and þe fader and þe grauntsire, and þe fader grauntsire." [℞.]*. [From α.] But it semeþ þat Girald in his book Itinerario Wallie haþ þe*. [no] þe, from β.; om. γ.; the, Cx.; no, MS.] more sooþ understondynge, þere he seeþ*. [seyþ, γ.] þat þis Henry, after þat he hadde punesched*. [prisoned, β.; emprysoned, Cx.] his flescheliche*. [vleyschlyche, γ.] fader, and his goostliche fader the pope, and þe cardynales, at þe laste also*. [at þe laste also] om. Cx.] hym repentede, and went away, unwetynge his wyf Molde of Engelond, and excilede hym self by his good wille, and lyvede at Chestre ten ȝere as an here|myte; Page  469, vol.7 and for he wolde not be knowe þere*. [þere] þe, β.; the, Cx.] while he was on lyve, he cleped hym self Godeschal,*. [Godescal, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is Goddis cleping. Whan þe emperour was so priviliche i-goo, Molde þe em|peresse*. [emperys, γ.] come aȝen to [hir fader]*. [From β.] kyng Henry into Nor|mandie; þere sche*. [heo, β.] was so*. [so] soone, β. and Cx.] i-maried to Geffrey Plantagenet erle of Angoye,*. [Anioye, β.; Angeo, γ. and Cx.] and had by hym þe secounde Henry, þat afterward was kyng of Engelond.

Capitulum decimum septimum.

WHEN þe ferþe Henry was i-goo,*. [ago, β. and γ.] Lotharius duke of Saxoun was i-made emperoure. At Londoun was i-made a counseille, and it was i-graunted to kyng Henry þat he schulde doo riȝt of preostes fornicaries and of hire concubynes; but he dede*. [dude, γ.] nouȝt elles*. [not ellys, Cx.] but took*. [touk, γ.] silver*. [money, β. and Cx.] on everiche side. Þat ȝere in presence of þe kyng þe lordes of Engelond swore þat þey wolde kepe þe kyngdom to his douȝter Molde þe emperesse, ȝif sche*. [ef hue, γ.] levede after his day, and*. [and] from α., β., γ., and Cx.; but, MS.] ȝif he*. [he] α., β., γ., and Cx.; sche MS.] diede wiþ oute [oþer]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] children. Seynt Matheu*. [Mathys, Cx.] þe apostles body is i-founde in þe citee Trever, þe whiche body Agry*. [Agricius, β. and γ.] þe archebisshop had i-brouȝt þider out of Constantynnoble in þe elder Constantynes tyme, and he Page  471, vol.7 hadde þat body of þe ȝifte of Eleyne*. [Helene, β. and Cx.; Helen, γ.] þe queene. After Hono|rius, þe secounde Innocent was pope þrittene ȝere and seven monþes. Peter Leonis, þat hiȝte Anacletus also, assaillede þe poperiche, and so fel greet stryf in holy chirche; þis Anacletus was i-chose of þe lasse deel and partye, and chasede Innocen|cius out of þe citee, and spoylede þe cherches of Rome, and medede þe Romayns wiþ þe money of þe chirches, but Innocen|cius and þe cardynales wonede wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce, and made a counsaile at Rome,*. [Reme, β. and γ.] and in his comynge aȝen he crownede Lotharius duke of Saxon, and sacred hym emperour; by his help he chasede Roger duke of Cecile*. [Sycilya, Cx.] and of Apulia, þat was rebel to þis Innocencius þe pope. Whenne þe first Ranulph eorle of Chestre was dede, his sone þe secounde [Ranulph],*. [From β.] Grevous*. [Gernons, α.; Gercious, β. and Cx.] by his surname, was eorle after hym fyve and fifty*. [xxv, β.; twenty, Cx.] ȝere. Þe eorle of Flaundres [deyde],*. [From β.] and Henry kyng of Engelond, by þe assent of þe kyng of Fraunce, hadde þe eorldom after hym by riȝt of blood and of kynrede.*. [kynrade, β. and γ.] Molde þe emperice was sone forsake of here housebonde Geffray, and wente to hir fadir into Normandie. Þere þe kyng sygh þre wonder siȝtes. For firste he sawe in his slepe meny clerkes*. [cherles, α., β., and γ.]Page  473, vol.7 rise*. [rese, β. and γ.] on hym wiþ stoles,*. [toles, α. and Cx.; tooles, β.; toules, γ.] and axede*. [axe, β. and Cx.] of him dette; efte he saw a rowte of men of armes þat wolde rise*. [rese, γ. and Cx.] uppon hym wiþ al manere wepen; þe þridde tyme he saw a grete com|panye of prelates manace hym wiþ here croces; and everich tyme þe kyng sterte out of his slepe,*. [bed and caught, β.] and kauȝt*. [start up of his bed, Cx.] his swerd, and cryde "Help!" as þey he wolde slee som man, but he myȝte no man fynde.*. [vynde, γ.] Also a phisicien, Grombald*. [Grymbald, β. and Cx.] by his name, sawȝ alle þese*. [þues, γ.] þinges,*. [syghtes, Cx.] and tolde hem to þe kyng erliche on þe morwe. And as Danyel hadde somtyme chargede [Nabugodo|nosor, so he chargede]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe kyng þat he schulde doo almesse dedes in remedie of his synnes. Þan þe kyng wente into Engelond, and was hard i-sette*. [asset, β. and γ.] wiþ tempest in þe see, and made his avow þat he wolde relese þe Danes*. [Dane, α.] tribute for seven ȝere, and þat he wolde visite seynte Edmond, and doo and use riȝtwisnesse. In Fraunce was so grete drouȝte*. [druythe, β.; druyþe, γ.] þat ryvers Page  475, vol.7 and welles were fordreied. Also fuyre*. [fier, β.] come out of*. [out of] into, β. and Cx.] þe chynnes*. [in to þe chenes, γ.] of þe erþe þat myȝt nouȝt be quenched, neiþer wiþ moist ne wiþ colde ne wiþ doynge of craft. Þis ȝere at Kerdyf deide þe kynges broþer Robert, þat was somtyme erle of Normandie, and he was i-buried at Glowcestre, to fore þe hiȝe auȝter. William þe sone of Nigellus*. [Nychellus, Cx.] foundede þe priourie of Nortoun in þe province of Chestre. Also þe abbay of Comer|mere*. [Cumbremere, β.; Cumbremer, Cx.] was i-founded in þe same province. And Henry schort mantel is i-bore, þe sone of þe emperice. Kyng Henry deide in Normandie; [of hym oon meovede [in]*. [From Cx.; meved in, β.] metre in þis manere: Kyng Henryes deþ:*. [Henry dyeþ, β. and γ.; Henry deyd, Cx.] fayrenesse som tyme, now duel*. [deol, β. and Cx.] of þe world. Godes now wepeþ*. [wuepeþ, γ.; wepen, Cx.] for here god þat is now dede. Mercurius þe lasse in speche; hert strong as Appollo; Iupiter in heste and Mars in strengþe. Groneþ*. [Greveth, Cx.] Engelond of*. [of] in, β.] child|hode [and kyngdome]*. [From Cx.] ryȝt of þe*. [þe] þis, β. and γ.; this, Cx.] godde was hyȝe in schynynge ful*. [ful] for, Cx.] derk now falleth adowne. Þis land wiþ his Page  477, vol.7 kyng, Normand wiþ his duke, welwes*. [welwiþ, β.; welweþ, γ.; welwith, Cx.] away. Þis londe norscheþ þe childe þat oþer now leseþ*. [luseþ, γ.] þe name.*. [name] man, Cx.]]*. [From α., β., and Cx.]Henricus, libro 8o. Whan kyng Henry was dede men demede of hym and spak freliche what þey wolde, as me dooþ of oþere men when þey beeþ dede. Some saide þat he passede oþer men*. [when . . . men] bis in MS.] in þre poyntes, in wit, in speche, and in fortune of bataille. Oþere saide þat he was overcome wiþ þre vices, wiþ covetise, wiþ cruelnesse, and wiþ lust of leccherie. Also þe kynges bowels*. [bowayles, α.] were drawen out of his body, and his brayn i-take out of his heed, and þe body salted wiþ moche*. [myche, β.] salt; and forto voyde*. [avoide, β. and Cx.] þe stenche*. [stynch, γ., et infra.] þat hadde infecte meny men, it was at þe laste i-closed in a bole*. [boole, Cx.] skyn, and ȝit myȝt nouȝt þe noyful humoure*. [odour, Cx.] be lette, but he þat took out þe brayne of his heed deide of þe stenche. He hadde i-ete of a lampray while he was olde and feble, and he loved it alway, þouȝ it greved hym evermore. Þis kynges body was i-brouȝt into Engelond, and i-buried in þe abbay of Redynge, þat he hadde i-founded out of þe grounde. Henricus, libro 7o. In þis kynges tyme oon Symon þe sone of*. [of] om. α.] Robert bisshop of Lyncolne, was in his floures deen*. [deen, from β., γ., and Cx.; mede, MS.] in þe same chirche; he was scharp of wit, clere of speche, faire of fface and of schap, and gracious wiþal, ȝong of age, and wise and redy as an olde man, but he was i-smeten*. [i-smyȝten, α.; ysmytted, β. and γ.; spytted, Cx.] wiþ þe vice of pride. In hym of his Page  479, vol.7 pride sprang envie, of envie wreþþe, of wraþþe stryf and bak|bitynge. He spak in a tyme of hym self, and seide, "I am i|sette among men of court as salt among quyk elys."*. [eles, β.] He took heed of oon propurte of þat sawe, and was nouȝt war of þat oþer. For as salt amonges eles greveþ ful sore, so he greved men of court wiþ bacbitinge and evel speche. But at þe laste, as salt is destroyed by moysture of þe eles, so was he byhated*. [by hate, α., β., γ., and Cx.] of alle men. For at þe laste he hadde þe kynges wreþþe, and was i-prisoned, and scapede awey by a gouge,*. [gonge, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and was flemed, and deide so exciled.

Capitulum decimum octavum.

WHAN þe firste kyng Henry was dede, Stephen eorle of Boleyn*. [Boloyn, β.] was kyng after hym. Þis Stephen was eorle of Ble|senses sone, kyng Henry his nevew on his suster side, and he regnede seventene ȝere, a nobil man and an*. [an] om. Cx.] hardy. But aȝenst his ooth þat he hadde i-made to þe emperesse he was i-crowned at Londoun on seynt Stephenes day, of*. [From β. and Cx.; and, MS.] William archebisshop of Canturbury, þat was i-swore to þe emperesse also. Þerfore Page  481, vol.7 þis William levede nouȝt [over]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] oon ȝere. Also al þe grete þat were i-swore to Steven made a wrecched ende; and also me saiþ þat in þe day of his coronement*. [crownement, β.] þe sacrament of Cristes body was brouȝt to þe kyng, and it vanysched*. [vansede, γ.] away sodeynlyche. Kyng Stephene was i-crowned, and i-swore to fore þe lordes at Oxenforde þat he wolde nouȝt holde in his hond þe prelacies þat voyden,*. [voidede, β.; voyded, Cx.] and also þat he wolde forȝeve þe Danes golde,*. [Danegold, α.; Danegilt, β.; vorȝeve þe Danegaelt, γ.; Dane|gylt, Cx.] and þat he wolde enplede*. [emplede, Cx.] no man for his owne woodes. Also, for he dradde þe comynge of the emperesse, he graunted eche*. [every, Cx.] lord leve to bilde*. [bilde, from β.; bylde, Cx.; hold, MS.] a castel oþer a strengþe on his owne ground; and sone þerafter he feng to acorde David kyng of Scottes, þat hadde tofore by gile i-take þe castel of*. [of] om. Cx.] Kaerlile and þe castel uppon Tyne; and he ȝaf hym hontynge in Enge|lond, and hadde feaute and homage to þe emperesse. Þan kynge Stevene took Excetre; and William archebisshop of Canturbury deide, and Theodorus*. [Theobalde, α., β.,; Theobald, Cx.] abbot of Becco was archebisshop after hym. Lotharius emperour of Almayne deide, and Conrade was emperour after hym fiftene ȝere of Almayns and of Romayns; and þouȝ he fong nouȝt þe benysoun of þe pope, ȝit at þe prechynge of abbot Bernard [he]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] took þe Holy Lond in Eugenius the popes tyme, and dede meny grete dedes. Giral|dus, Page  483, vol.7 distinctione prima, capitulo 18o.*. [19o, Cx.] Þat tyme Theobald þe mylde, eorle of Campania, was in his floures; he wolde myldeliche visite pore men and leprouse; oon preysed hym in metre passingliche in þis manere: "Þis felawe eorle þis*. [þes felouȝ erl þes, γ.] was þat mylde man Theobaldris;*. [Theobaldus, Cx.] hevene makeþ ioye þat [hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]haþ, and sorwful is þe world*. [sorful ys world, γ.] þat hym leveþ. I*. [yche, α.; Ich, β.] may calle hym man, hym þat*. [þat] dar, Cx.] [y]*. [From α.; I, Cx.] not*. [hym dar ich not, β.] clepe God; deeþ preveþ hym man; his owne lyf hym preveþ God;*. [gode, α.; goode, β. and Cx.] [above man, under God; more þan man, lasse þan God;]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] I not what manere þing is bytwene þe tweyne." David kyng of Scotlond came þe þridde tyme into Engelond, and destroyed þe lond anon to the ryver of Tese,*. [Teyse, β. and γ.; Theyse, Cx.] in þe marche*. [mouth, Cx.] of the province of ȝork, and brende and slowȝ, and slitte women wiþ childe. Thurstyn the archebisshop come priveliche aȝenst hym wiþ þe kynges knyȝtes, and chasede hym, and slowȝ ten þowsand of his men, and took meny prayes and grete. Kyng Stevene took þe castel of Bedforde þat was aȝenst hym, and þere after wente into Scotlond, and dede*. [dude, γ.] þere newe*. [fewe, β.; vewe, γ.] dedes at his owne wille Page  485, vol.7 and come home aȝen.*. [aȝeyne, α.] But in his comynge homward he took Alisaundre bisshop of Lyncolne, and putte hym into bondes forto*. [til that, Cx.] he hadde i-ȝilde*. [y ȝeve, β., bis.] hym þe castel of Newerk. Also he chasede Nigellus bisshop of Hely; and Roger bisshop of Salis|bury, þat hadde i-doo hym moche good, he took hym and putte hym into prisoun, and helde hym þere til he hadde i-ȝove*. [y ȝeve, β., bis.] hym tweie castellis of Vescy*. [Vyse, β. and γ.; the Vyse, Cx.] and Schirborne; and for þis Roger was a greet bilder of houses and of castelles, he werþe*. [a worþ, γ.; he bycam, Cx.] sike and deide for sorwe. After hym he lefte in his castel*. [castels, β.] of money as it were a fifty*. [fourty, Cx.] þowsand mark,*. [marcȝ, α.] þat was i-spended in þe kynges use, and nouȝt in Goddes service, for wiþ þat money þe kyng bought*. [bought, from Cx.; brouȝt, MS.] to his sone Eustas Constantines*. [Constauns, β.; Constans, γ.; Constaunce, Cx.] þe kynges suster of Fraunce. Thurstyn þe archebisshop of ȝork was a greet foundour of abbayes, of Hangustalde, of Fonteyns,*. [Fontens, β. and γ.] and of viii. oþere, and took þe abite of monk at Pomfreet,*. [Pontfret, β.] and deide in good elde. After two ȝere his body was i-founde hool and sownde, and smelled ful*. [smellyng fol, γ.] soote. Þat tyme þe kyng took þe castel of Gloucestre, of Hereford, and*. [and] om. α.] of Webelay,*. [Webbeley, β.; Webbely, Cx.] of Bristowe, and of Dudley,*. [Duddeleye, β.] and of Schroisbury. Robert eorle of Gloucestre, of Hereford, Page  487, vol.7 and of Webelay,*. [of . . . Webelay] om. α. and Cx.] kyng Henries [bastard]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] sone, herde here of, and sente for his suster Molde þe emperesse, þat wonede þoo in Angeo,*. [Angeo, from γ. and Cx.; Avyoun, MS.] and prayede here to come into Engelond, and behiȝt*. [byhyght, Cx.] here help aȝenst kyng Stevene. Henricus, libro 8o. Þanne in the monþe of Iuyl*. [Jul, γ.] Robert and Molde come first to Portes|mouþe, and þennes to Bristowe, and dede men of þe contray grete harme and damage; þo þe kyng bysegede þe castel of Wal|yngforde, and herde here of, [and]*. [From Cx.] lafte his sege,*. [syege, Cx.] and went aȝenst hym, and bysegede Lyncolne sone after þat tyme.*. [γ. has suffered in this part very great damage from the fire.] Þanne aboute Candelmasse Ranulph eorle of Chestre, and Robert eorle of Gloucestre, come wiþ meny Walsche men, and brak*. [and brak] to breke, Cx.] þe kynges sege; and whanne þey were unneþes i-passed Areden marys,*. [a reden marys, α.; a reody marreys, β.; a reedy mareys, Cx.] and hadde arrayed þe scheltrouns, þe eorle of Chestre spak to his men in þis manere, and seide: "I þanke ȝow, and pray ȝow besiliche þat y*. [ich, β.] þat am cause of ȝoure peril moste*. [mot, Cx.] be þe firste þat schal answere hym into*. [shal entre into the, Cx.]peril." Eorle Robert answerde hym, "It is nouȝt unworþy þat þou axest þe dignete of þe first strook boþe for nobilte*. [nobley, β.]of blood and for vertu of strengþe, in the whiche þow Page  489, vol.7 passest oþer men. But þe kynges falshede*. [fals oþ, β.; fals othe, Cx.] and his wood|nesse meveþ me to werre and to fiȝte. But we moste*. [mowe, γ.] nouȝt torne aȝen by þe wey þat we come, þan we moste have here þe maistrie oþer be overcomen; he þat haþ non oþer socour moste nedes flee to bolde dedes*. [dedes, from γ. and Cx.; dayes, MS.] of manhode and of strengþe. But takeþ hede aȝenst whom*. [hem, Cx.] and what manere men ȝe moste*. [mot, β.] fiȝte: Robert eorle of Mellent stondeþaȝenst ȝow; he is crafty of fraude and of gile, and haþ wicked|nesse in [his]*. [From Cx.] herte, tresoun and gyle in his mowþe, and slewþe in his dedes.*. [dede, γ.] Þere comeþ also þe eorle of Albe|marle; he is devout to Bachus, and nouȝt i-knowe of Mars; he smelleþ of the*. [From Cx.] wyne, and useþ no werre." Trevisa. Poetes feyneþ a god of wyn, and clepeþ*. [clepyn, Cx., bis.] hym Bachus, and anoþer of bataile, and clepeþ hym Mars; and so for þe speche,*. [forth to speke, Cx.] he is devout to Bachus þat dooþ leccherie,*. [þat dooþ leccherie] om. α.; that is a good drynker, Cx.] and he þat is nouȝt worþ in batayle is unknowen to Mars. Þan he telleþ forþ his tale in þe storie in þis manere: "Þere stondeþ Symon of Hamptoun, his dedes beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] but wordes, and*. [and] om. α.] his ȝiftes [is]*. [From α. and β.] but a byheste; when his word is i-saide he haþ i-doo his dede; when he haþ[y-hote he haþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-ȝove*. [yȝeve, β.] his ȝiftes." In þis grete hete kyng Steven herde*. [hurde, γ.] Alisaundre þe bisshoppes masse, and þe tapre þat Page  491, vol.7 þe kyng offrede brak in þe bisshoppis hond, and þe cheyne brak, and þe box fil*. [vul, γ.] þat*. [þat] there, Cx.] Goddes body was ynne; þat was a token of þe kynges fallynge.*. [vallyng, γ.; fayllyng, Cx.] Þan þe kyng wente, and Balde|wyn þe eorle hadde þe wordes to conforte men for to fiȝte, and he spak to oþere men in þis manere: "Men þat schal*. [must, Cx.] fiȝte most knowe þre þinges, þe riȝtfulnesse of þe cause, leste me*. [men, Cx.]schulde falle in peril of soule; þe quantite of þe companye, þat þey be nouȝt i-bore down wiþ to menye enemyes; and þe effecte of myȝt and of strengþe, leste me lene uppon febil*. [feble, β.; oppon febel, γ.]helpe, and falle to þe grounde. Touchinge þese þre poyntes I trowe þat we ben sped;*. [beþ yspedde, β.] but takeþ hede furþermore what manere enemyes we haveþ.*. [habbeþ, γ.] Loo Roberd consul,*. [Roberts counseyll, Cx.] þat useþgreet manas, and doþ litel in dede, in þe mouþ he is a lyoun,*. [leon, γ.]and in þe herte an hare; [he is clere of speche and derk by unkonnynge. Also þere stondeþ þe erle of Chestre, a man of unresonable hardynesse; redy and prest to conspiracy, and unstedfast [to]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] fulfille*. [to vulvulle, γ.] in dede, hasty of herte and unwar of peryles. He casteþ ful greet dedes, and assaieþ dedes þat he may nouȝt y-welde.*. [awelde, Cx.] What he bygynneþ frescheliche, he forsakeþ hit feyntliche as a womman; unhappy and ungracious in everiche place, and is alwey overcome or y-chasede].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] He haþ wiþ hym flemed men and scolkers*. [sculkers, β.]aboute; þe Walsche*. [Walysch, γ.] men, ever þe moo beeþ of hem, þe worse þey beeþ [in]*. [From β. and Cx.] fiȝtinge." But or he hadde i-made an ende of his wordes, come þe cry of þe enemyes, þe noyse of trumpes, and þe gruntynge of hors, and þe scheltrouns smyten*. [smytiþ, β.] to gidre, and doun goþ [þe]*. [From β.] slowȝ.*. [and forth goon tharowes, Cx.] Þe kyng is i-take, and brouȝt to þe emperesse, and was i-kepte in bondes*. [boundes, Cx.] at Bristowe from Page  493, vol.7 Candelmasse to the Holy Rode day in harvast.*. [hervest, β.; harvost, γ.] Þerfore þe emperesse worþ swiþe proude, and occupied Circestre*. [Surseter, γ.; Surcetre, Cx.] and þan Wynchestre, þere þei*. [þere þei, from β.; there they, Cx.; þerby, MS.] come aȝenst hire with a*. [α] om. α. and Cx.] processioun, and þat allowed þe popes legat. Þan sche wente to Wyltoun,*. [Wiltoun, β.] to Oxenford, to Redynge, and to Seynt Alboun;*. [Albon, Cx.] and in every place alle men fonge here with good wil, outake Ken|tische men allone. But Theobaldus þe archebisshop come specialliche aȝenst her. Þan sche come to Londoun to trete of the state of þe londe. Þere þe queene of Engelond, kyng Ste|phenes wyf, prayed þe emperesse þat þe kyng moste*. [myght, Cx.] be de|livered out of bondes uppon þat condicion, þat þe kyng scholde holde*. [yelde, Cx.] up þe kyngdom to þe emperesse, and somwhere bycome a monk or be a pilgrim to his lyves ende. But þe emperesse wolde nouȝt here þis bone. Also þe citeȝeins of Londoun prayed here þat þey myȝte use seint Edwardes lawes, and nouȝt þe lawes of her fader kyng Henry, for þey were ful harde; but sche wolde nouȝt assente. Þerfore þe people*. [pupel, γ.] was i-meoved, and*. [From α.] [y]-ordeyned to take here. Sche*. [Heo, β.] was war þerof, and lefte al her store and housholde, and fliȝ to Oxenforde, and þere sche bode*. [heo abode, β.; abode, Cx.] here knyȝtes þat were al i-sched.*. [or divided, β.; or dyvyded, add. Cx.] Þanne Page  495, vol.7 sche*. [hue, γ., et infra.] took wiþ here her owne eme,*. [eame, Cx.] David kyng of Scot|lond, and strengþe of knyȝtes*. [þat were al i-sched, wrongly inserted here in MS.] and wente to Wynchestre; þere sche byseged comounliche*. [strongly, Cx.] the bischoppes tour, where þe kynges broþer was. At þe laste come þe queene with William Iprens,*. [Prens, γ.] and þe empresse was [so]*. [From β. and Cx.] aferde, þat sche was bore to Glowcestre on an hors liter*. [hors-bere, β.; hors bere, Cx.] as it were a dede body. Here broþer eorle Roberd was i-take and i-putte in prisoun in þe mene tyme; þan þe queene was besy on þat oon side for þe kyng, and þe emperesse on þat oþer side for hire owne broþer; and suche delievrance*. [deliverauns, γ.] was i-pro|cured, and i-ordeyned, þat þe kyng schulde be restored aȝen to þe kyngdom, and þe eorle to his lordschepe, and boþe schulde make pees in þe kyngdom as þey hadde destour|bled*. [destroubled, α.; dystourbed, Cx.] it; but þe eorle wolde nouȝt assente. Þan al þe ȝere was in þe lond robbynge and manslauȝter, and revynge,*. [revynge manslauȝt, β.; revynge manslauȝter and, α. and Cx.] and sell|ynge*. [sullyng, γ.] of riche [men].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne about Holy Rode day in hervest þe kyng was delyvered, and byseged þe emperesse in þe citee of Oxenforde from Miȝhelmasse to mydwynter, and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] al þat was wiþ oute. At þe laste fel*. [fyll, Cx.] a greet hunger, and þe Page  497, vol.7 emperesse was heled*. [coverd, Cx.] in white, and byspronge wiþ snow, and scapede awey over Temse, þat was i-frore*. [yfrore, β.] and heled wiþ snowe, and come to Walyngforde. For*. [For] Therefore, β.] þe men of þe sege*. [syege, Cx.] were begiled and yblynd*. [y-blynd, from α.; y-blend, β. and Cx.; wende, MS.] wiþ þe blasynge of þe snowe; and so þe citee of Oxenford was i-ȝolde*. [yolden, Cx.] to þe kyng. Aboute þis tyme oon maister Arnold preched at Rome aȝenst riche men, and aȝenst superfluyte þat men useþ;*. [usen, Cx.] þerfore meny folowede*. [volwede, γ.; pursued, Cx.] hym: at þe laste he was i-take and an honged for wratthe of clerkes. Also þat tyme deide Iohn de temporibus, þat hadde i-leved þre hondred ȝere þre score and oon, and hadde i-be a squyer wiþ the grete Charles.

Page  [3], vol.8

Capitulum nonum decimum.

AFTER þe secounde Innocencius þe secounde Celestinus was pope fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes. After hym Lucius xi.*. [enleven, Cx.] monthes. Þe þridde Eugenius was pope fyve monþes, after hym Lucius: þis was first*. [vurste, γ.] seynt Bernard his disciple, and after abbot of Seint Anastasy bysides Rome, and cam unwar to Seynt Cesarius cherche, and was i-chose*. [chocen, Cx.] by þe cardinales, but for drede of þe senatoures he was i-sacred*. [a was ysacred, γ.] wiþoute þe citee. Þis signedede*. [sygned, Cv.] Lowys kyng of Fraunce wiþ croys,*. [cros, β.] and made a counsaille*. [conseil, β.] at Reme in Fraunce; also to hym seynt Bernard þe abbot wroot þe bookes De consideratione. Henricus, libro 8o.*. [nono, Cx.] Ranulp*. [Ranulph, Cx.] consul Page  5, vol.8 of Chestre come to Wallyngforde wiþ meny knyȝtes, and was accorded wiþ the kyng. But sone þerafter he was gilefulliche*. [gylfolliche, γ.] i-take in þe parlement at Norhamptoun, and myȝt nouȝt be delyvered or*. [er, β.] he hadde i-ȝolde*. [yolden, Cx.] up þe castel of Lyncolne. Þat tyme Walsche men destroyed þe province of Chestre, but at Wycombmalban*. [Wicum Malban, β.; Wycum|alban, Cx.] þey were i-kilde;*. [y-keld, α.; ykeld, γ.; kylde, Cx.] sone þer after kyng Ste|phene was i-crowned at Lyncolne, and happede no kyng so byforehonde.*. [byfore, Cx.] Also þat ȝere Conradus þe emperour, Lowys kyng of Fraunce, þe erle of Flandres, and meny oþer þat hadde i-take þe cros to þe Holy Lond, chese*. [chuese, γ.; chesed, Cx.] þe londe way, and nouȝt þe water wey, and passed by Hungery, and were betrayhed by fraude of þe emperour of Constantynnoble, for meny of hem tastede mete and*. [and] om. β., γ., and Cx.] i-medled*. [mele medled, β.; mele ymelled, γ.; mele medlyd, Cx.] with lyme and deide, and meny oþere were dede by swerd of werre,*. [of werre] om. Cx., which reads by swerde and honger for robbyng, &c.] and honged for robynge and revynge and lecherie. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo 18o. Lowys kyng of Fraunce cam homward*. [hamward, β. and γ.] out of þe Holy Lond, and worþe*. [werþ seke, β.] sike*. [syke, γ.] for long covetise*. [continence, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and defaute of wom|man, as leches seide, and leches and prelates counsailled*. [counceilide, β.] hym Page  7, vol.8 to take a wenche*. [weynche, γ.] for he was fer from*. [vram, γ.] þe queene, "Me is levere to*. [to] om. α.] deie," quoþ he, "chast*. [chaaste, β.] þan lyve*. [lybbe, γ.] in spouse|breche;"*. [spousebrekyng, Cx.] and so he al put in*. [pot al in, γ.] Goddes honde, and was hole anon. In þat*. [þat] a, Cx.] tyme a clerk come to hym and brouȝt with hym privelege of þe pope þat he schulde in everiche cathedral cherche of his realme abil*. [reme habbe, γ.; reme have, Cx.] þe firste benefice*. [vurste benefis, γ.] þat voydede, wiþ þe fruyt and prophetes*. [prouffytes, Cx.] in þe mene tyme. Anon he þrew þe lettre*. [þruw þe letters, γ.; lettres, Cx.] into þe fuyre, and seide þat hym were levere brenne suche lettres þan abil his soule*. [habbe hys soul, γ.] i-tormented in helle. Þe same prince faste every*. [everech, β.] Friday*. [day, α.] to brede and water, and men counsailled hym to fede an hondred pore men in*. [in] on, Cx.] þe Friday, and leve þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] fastynge. "We wil*. [wold, Cx.] gladliche,"*. [We wolleþ gladlich, β.] quoþ he, "fede so meny pore men, oþer moo, but oure fastynge wil we*. [ur vastynge wol we, γ.]nouȝt breke. For al wiþoute þe preof*. [prouffyte, Cx.] þat it dooþ to þe soule, hit profiteþ moche*. [profitiþ myche, β.] to þe body also: we dooþ al þe*. [al þe] every, Cx.] woke [so moche*. [al weke so mych, β.] and so meny]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] superfluytes into þe body þat purgacioun and reste of oon day helpeþ moche to pulle*. [potte, γ.; putte, Cx.] of Page  9, vol.8 superfluite, and also to make more*. [þe, α. and Cx.] scharper appetit." When þis Lowys was dede a versefiour*. [versfyour, γ.; vercifyour, Cx.] wroot on his tombe in schort stile*. [style, Cx.] and*. [and] a, Cx.] writynge i-hiȝt wiþ faire speche of rethorik, and tornede his speche as it were to his sone Philip, and schewed hym his fader*. [vader, γ.] þat lay i-buried þere, and seide,

Nunc superes tu qui superes successor honoris,
Degener es si degeneres a laude prioris,

ut patet per versum.*. [ut . . . versum] om. α. and Cx.] Þat is to menynge:*. [to saye, Cx.] Þou overlevest þis þat art above successor of worschippe, þou art unkynde*. [unkunde, γ.] if þou gost out of kynde [of the praysing]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] of þy forefader.*. [vorvader, γ.] Aboute þat tyme deide maister Hughe*. [Huwe, β.] de Seint Victor, monk and priour of Seynt Victor besides Parys, a profite*. [an perfiȝt, α.; parfite, β.; par|fyght, Cx.] man of lettrure and of religioun. Of hym it is i-seide þat whan he was sike in his deeth evel, and myȝte noþer holde mete ne drynke, he axede besiliche*. [bisiliche, β.] and prayed to ȝeve hym Goddes body. His breþeren wolde cese*. [ceese, β.] his crienge,*. [cryyng, γ.] and brouȝt hym an obley*. [oubleye, Cx.] þat was nouȝt i-sacred; he knewe it in his spirit, and seide, "God forȝif*. [vorȝeve, γ.] it ȝow with*. [with] om. α. and γ.] breþeren, why wolde ȝe begile me? þis is nouȝt my Lord." Anon þey brouȝte an obley þat was i-sacred; he seigh it and myȝt nouȝt holde it, and haf*. [haaf, β.; heved, Cx.]Page  11, vol.8 up his handes*. [have op hys hondes, γ.] and seide, "I praye þat þe Sone goo up to þe Fader, and þe spirit to God þat made hym of nouȝt;" and [so]*. [From Cx.] he ȝelde up þe goost, and oure Lordes body vanesched*. [vansede, γ.] out of sight. ℞. Bote som men wolde*. [wole, β.] mene*. [wene, α.] þat þis Hughe myȝte nouȝt holde it, and haf up his hondes and seide,*. [it . . . seide] om. α. and Cx.] for he was castynge alway,*. [aweye, Cx.] and þerfore his breþeren wolde nouȝt brynge þe verray*. [verrey, β.] sacrament, and he prayede him*. [hem, Cx.] special|liche þat þey wolde sette þe sacrament uppon his side, and whan þey hadde so done þe seke manis side opened, and þe sacrament worþ in by hymself.*. [hit silf, β.; went in by hit self, Cx.] Þis made newe*. [newe] many, Cx.] good bookes, De sacramentis, De archa Noe, De institucione novi|corum,*. [noviciorum, Cx.] De arra animæ, De studio sapientiæ, þat is i-cleped*. [þat is i-cleped] om. Cx.] Didascalion,*. [Didascalicon, β.; Dydascaly|con, Cx.] and De laude crucis he made a book also. Frost*. [Forst, β.] and yse was*. [Vorst and ys was, γ.] so strong þat hors myȝte passe over Tempse*. [Temse, β.] þis ȝere. Maister*. [Temse. Þis yere maister, Cx.] Gracianus de Tuscia, monk of Banonia,*. [Bononia, Cx.] [was borne;]*. [From Cx.] he compilede and gadrede þe book of decrees, so seiþ Hughe, 2. q. 6 forma. His broþer-german Page  13, vol.8 maister Pers*. [Peres, Cx.] Lombard,*. [Peres Lumbard, γ.] bisshop of Parys, compilede and made þe foure bookes of sentence, and glosede þe psawter*. [sauter, β.; gloosed the sauter, Cx.] and Paules*. [Poules, β. and Cx.] pistles also.

Capitulum vicesimum.

AFFTER Conradus þe firste Frederik was emperour of Al|mayns and of Romayns seven and þritty ȝere. After pope Page  15, vol.8 Adrianus deeþ, þat hym hadde crowned, þis was grevous*. [a grevous enemy, β., γ., and Cx.] to pope Alisaundre, ffor in prejudice of hym he helde with foure*. [huld wyþ vour, γ.] false popes everiche*. [eche, Cx.] after oþer. Also for þe pope was flowe*. [aflowe, β.; fledde, Cx.] to þe kyng of Fraunce, he fauȝte aȝenst þe kyng of Fraunce wiþ a grete strengþe of Bemeners*. [Boemes, β. and Cx.] and of Danes, but he was i-put*. [y-pot, γ.] of by help of Richard kyng of Engelond. When*. [þanne, β.; Than, Cx.] þe ȝere of oure Lord enlevene hondred and sexty and two*. [tweyne, Cx.] he com to Melan, þat was hiȝest i-walled of eny toun, and destroyed*. [destruyed, β.] it streiȝt*. [downe, Cx.] to þe grounde. At þe laste, after þat þis hadde i-doo þe pope meny grete*. [grete] om. Cx.] greves, þe rebelnesse he dradde*. [Transposed in α., β., γ., and Cx.] of þe Lombardes,*. [Lumbardus, γ.] and prayeden*. [prayd, Cx.] forȝifnes of þe pope, and took þe cros on*. [in, Cx.] his flesch to þe Holy Lond, as it were in amendement of his synne; and he was i-drenched*. [adreynt, β.] þere in*. [drowned in, Cx.] a litel ryver besides Armenye, and i-buried at Tirus; and his sone, a noble ȝongelynge, deide at þe sege of Ptholomayda, þat is Acon, and nyh al þe nobilte*. [noblete, β.; nobelte, γ.] of Cristen men deide þat tyme. After Page  17, vol.8 Eugenius, Anastasius was pope as it were two ȝere; þat ȝere deide seint Bernard, abbot of Clerevaus,*. [Clervaulx, Cx.] þat was i-bore in Burgoyne in þe castel of Fonteyns; he was a noble knyȝtes sone, and was first i-fed*. [vurste yved, γ.] wiþ his owne moder melk,*. [moders mylk, Cx.] and afterward i-norsched wiþ gretter metes. Þan the ȝere of oure Lord enlevene hondred and twelve; after þe bygynnynge of þe ordre of Cisterciensis, þat is þe ordre of white monkes, fiftene; of his owne age two and twenty, he entred into Cisterci wiþ þritty felawes; and after þe fifte ȝere of his conversacioun he was*. [was ordeyned, β. and Cx.] abbot of Clervaus; þere he usede wakynge passynge þe usage of mankynde,*. [mankuynde, γ.] he saide þat he lost no tyme more þan whan he sleepe, and he likned deeþ to sleep; [unneþe he*. [unnethe that he, Cx.] myȝte suffre hem þat rowtede and ferde*. [aferde, Cx.] foule*. [furde voule, γ.] in here*. [his, Cx.] sleep; he wente to mete as hit were to torment. For greet abstenaunce þat he usede he hadde lost his taast*. [taste, Cx.] and savoure of mete and of drinke, so þat he wolde take oyle in stede of wyn and blood in stede of buttre.*. [boter, β.; botter, Cx.] He wolde seie*. [sygge þat hym saverede, γ.] þat he*. [him, Cx.] savered water, for hit kelede his mouþ and his jowes. Al þat he lernede*. [lurnde, γ.] of scripture he drank hit in wodes and in fyldes*. [veldes, γ.; feldes, Cx.] in his meditatiouns and bedes. He knowlechede none oþer Page  19, vol.8 maystres*. [þat he had, add. β.] but okes and beches. In his cloþynge was poverte wiþouten eny filþe.*. [vylþe, γ.] He seide þat cloþinge is juge and witnes of hert and þouȝt, of negligence oþer of pryde and veynglorie; þat proverbe is ofte had*. [he hade oft, Cx.] in his mouþ and alwey in his herte, "Alle men wondreþ of hym þat doþ as noon oþer dooþ." To þe novis*. [novyce, Cx.] þat schulde come to religioun he wolde seie, "ȝif ȝe bene*. [bene] om. β.] hieþ*. [Ef ȝe hyȝeþ, γ.; Yf ye hye, Cx.] to þat þat is wiþ ynne, leveþ*. [leveth, Cx.] here wiþ oute þe bodyes þat ȝe brouȝte of þe world,*. [worl, γ.]þe spirites schal entre,*. [intre, γ.] flesche doþ no profyȝt." As ofte as me prayede hym to be bisshop he seide þat he was not his owne man,*. [man] om. Cx.] but þat he was y-ordeyned to þe service of oþere men.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Alway he was i-wont*. [was founde, Cx.] oþer biddynge, oþer redynge, oþer writynge, oþer in meditaciouns, oþer prechynge and techynge his breþeren. [Þe ȝere of oure Lord enleven hondred and two*. [thre, Cx.] and fifty, whan his deþ neiȝhede, he bitook his breþe|ren]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þre poyntes to kepe, and seide þat he hadde kepte hem in þis*. [þis] his, β.; hys, γ.] wise al his lyf tyme, and seide,*. [saide, α.] "I wolde no man sclaundre, Page  21, vol.8 but ȝif eny sclaundre were i-rise*. [aryse, Cx.] I cessed hit what I myȝte; I trowede myn owne wit lasse þan oþer men dooþ*. [other mennes dome, Cx.]; ȝif I*. [ich, β.]were i-greved I asked no wreche of hym þat hadde i-greved me." Bernard wroot meny nobil bookes, and specialliche of þe Incarnacioun of Crist, and dede*. [dude, γ.] meny miracles,*. [myraclis, β.] and bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] sixty*. [þrescore, β.] abbayes, and passed out of þis world*. [worl, γ.] to oure Lord of hevene. Also þat ȝere deide þe secounde Ranulph, þat heet Gervous*. [Gernons, α.; hight Gercious, Cx.] by his surname, he was þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] eorle of Chestre after þe conquest: his sone þe secounde Hughe was lord after hym in þat ducherie nyne and twenty ȝere, and dede meny grete dedes. Also þat ȝere deide kyng Stephene*. [Steven, Cx.] in Kent, in þe abbay of Feveresham,*. [Faversham, β.] þat he hadde i-bulde*. [he buylded, Cx.; up, add. β.] out of*. [y-buld op of, γ.] þe grounde. In þis Stephene his tyme a knyȝt þat hiȝte Oweyn*. [Owen, Cx.] wente into purgatorie of þe secounde Patrik, abbot and nouȝt bisshop. He come aȝen and dwelled in þe nedes*. [nede, γ.] of þe abbay*. [of, add. β.] Ludens*. [Ludene, Cx.] of white monkes in Irlond, and tolde of joye and of Page  23, vol.8 peynes þat he hadde i-seie, as it is i-seide to forehonde*. [sayd byfore, Cx.] in þe firste book,*. [book] om. Cx.] capitulo 34o of þe wondres of Irlond.

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

WHEN*. [Thanne, Cx.] Steven was dede þe secounde Henry was kyng. Þis Henry was þe [firste]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; vurste, γ.] Henries nevew, þe eldest sone of his douȝter þe emperesse and of Geffray Plantagenet, erle of Angoye.*. [Anjoye, β.; Ageo, γ.; Angeo, Cx.] His maneres and his dedes, his vertues and his vices, Girald Cambrencis in his distincciouns discryveþ, and saiþ in þis manere. Dredeful it is to allegge aȝenst hym þat may [put out of lond, and to discreve hym wiþ meny wordes þat may]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] excile a man wiþ oo*. [α, Cx.] word. Hit*. [That, Cx.] were a gracious þing and passinge oure wit and oure*. [ur wyt and ur, γ.] strengþe to telle out þe soþe in alle his dedes and offende þe princes herte in no manere poynt. Þis Henry was somdel*. [somwhat, Cx.] redisshe, wiþ a large face and brest*. [bryst, α.; fas and brust, γ.] and ȝelow eyȝen and a dym voys, and fleschely*. [fleschy, β.] of body, and took boþe*. [but, Cx.] scarsliche of mete and [of]*. [From α., β. and Cx.] drinke; Page  25, vol.8 and forto allegge*. [alledge, Cx.] fatnesse he travailled his body wiþ besynesse of*. [of] wiþ, β.; with, Cx.] hontynge, wiþ stondynge and*. [wiþ, α.] wandrynge. He was of mene stature, resonabel*. [renable, β. and Cx.; renabel, γ.] of speche, and wel i-lettred, nobel and orped in knyȝthode, and wise in counsaille and in bataille, and dradde douteful destonye; more manliche and curteys to knyȝtes*. [knyȝt, α. and Cx.] when*. [when] om. α.] þey were dede þan whiles þey were*. [while he was, α. and Cx.] onlyve. [He schewede more sorwe for men when þey were dede þan love while þey were of lyve.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] No man was more goodliche þan he in mescheef, and whan he hadde nede of sturnes*. [whanne he had efte surte no man, β.; whanne a hadde efte surte, γ.; and whan he hadde efte suerte noo man, Cx.] no man was more sterne þan he. [He]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was cruel*. [cruwel, β.] to hem þat was nouȝt i-chasted, and somtyme mylde to his sugettes; hard to his famulers,*. [famylers, α.] and freherted to straungers; large of ȝiftes outward, and scars in privete;*. [privyte, β.] whom he hated oþer loved ones, unneþe he wolde torne to þe contrarie; he wolde wilfulliche passe his owne word; slow in all manere answere, and loved wel pees and quyet; he bare doun gentil men, and solde and taried riȝtwisnesse; unstedefast of fay,*. [feiþ, β.; feyth, Cx.] chaunge|able*. [changehabel, γ.] and gileful of word; open spousebrekere, þe harmere*. [hamer, β.] of holy cherche, alway unkynde*. [unkuynde, γ.] to God; he norsched*. [norsede, γ.] strif amonges his sones wiþ al besynesse, and hopede to have pees hym self, have love*. [have love] aloon, β.; alone, γ. and Cx.] by stryf of his children. ȝif he*. [me, β.; men, Cx.] axede Page  27, vol.8 of alle his grete dedes, þe world schulde raþer faille þan*. [þat,.] we schulde make an ende; londes may cese [to a bolde herte, but victoryes conneþ*. [kunneþ, β.; cunneþ, γ.; can, Cx.] nouȝt cese];*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] triumphis and praysing schal not faille, but þe matir of wynnynge of worschippe may faille. He was peerles and passynge in chyvalrie, in werre, and in leccherie; he pesede myȝtiliche þe londes of his heritage, and wan Irlond myȝtily with*. [by, Cx.] strengþe. He took William kyng of Scotlonde, and joynede*. [innede, γ.] þe kyngdom of Scotlond to his owne. From þe souþ occean to þe norþ Irlond*. [ilondes, β.; ylondes, γ.; Ilandes, Cx.] of Orcades he closede all þe londes as it were under a*. [oon, β.; one, Cx.] principate, and sprad so nobilliche his empere, and made it ful wide. After Julius Cesar me redeþ of no man þat so happede. Byȝonde þe see, wiþoute Normandie, Gyan, Angoye,*. [Angeo, Cx.] and Cenomannia*. [Chynon in Toureyne, Cx.] þat fel*. [vul, γ.] to hym by riȝt of his fader, and also Peytow and Gascoyne anon to þe mountes Pirenees, þe hilles of Spayne, þat fel to hym by mariage, he made suget to his lordschippe Alverne and oþer londes. He used to say*. [forto sygge, γ.] þat all þe world is litel*. [lyte, γ.] inow*. [ynowȝ, β.] for oon man þat is strong and myȝty. Þe kynges of Spayne forto cese stryf putte her querel uppon þe*. [þe] þis, β.] kynges dome. Meny of his dedes þat were al aȝen þe pees he brouȝt to ende at his owne wille, as it were by warnynge of gracious eure*. [eur, β. and γ.] and by a chose*. [chosen, β. and Cx.] wirker*. [worcher, β.] of fortune. But meny þinges passed*. [happyd, Cx.] hym as it were ungracious*. [ungraciousliche, β.; ungra|ciously, Cx.] to his owne Page  29, vol.8 mekenesse, ȝif he wolde be repentaunt,*. [repentauȝt, α.] and elles for*. [ellus vor, γ.] he schulde be torment in his owne flesche, þe cruel bocher.*. [cruwel bochour, β.; cruwel bo|cheur, γ.] First he took wrongfulliche Eleanore þe queene from here*. [vram hure, γ.] lord Lowys, kyng of Fraunce [and wedded here in dede þouȝ he myȝte nouȝt by þe lawe, and his owne fader Geffray for|bede*. [forbad, Cx.] hym, and saide þat he schulde nouȝt touche here, for he had y-lay by here hym self whiles he was þe kynges styward of Fraunce.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Noþeles þis Henry gat on here þre douȝtres and sexe nobel sones. Þe firste douȝter Molde he maried to þe duke of Saxon, þe secounde Elianore to þe kyng of Spayne, and þe þridde John*. [Johan, β. and Cx.] to William kyng of Secile.*. [Scicil, Cx.] Alle his*. [Also two, α.; Also his twey, Cx.] sones were hasteliche i-take from hym, and he was worþeliche destourbed and greved by þe oþer foure to his lyfes ende. He regnede nyh fyve and þritty ȝere, and so he hadde þritty ȝere y-ȝeven hym to worldliche blisse and likynge, to suffraunce of conversioun,*. [conversacion, Cx.] and to assay of devocioun; and þe ȝere þat were*. [weren, α.] over þe þritty ȝere [were]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-ȝeve hym too greef and to wreche as to an evel man and an*. [an] om. β.] unkynde. For Page  31, vol.8 in þe secounde ȝere his*. [of þis, α.; of these, Cx.] fyve ȝere his strengþe passed away*. [and] þat, β.] and*. [strengþe vansede away þat, γ.; the strength vanysshed aweye that, Cx.] he hadde i-ordeyned aboute þe sendynge of his sone John into Irlond, and þe þridde he þat lefte*. [loste, α.; lost, β. and Cx.] nevere þing lost Alverne aȝenst þe kyng of Fraunce; þe fourþe ȝere he loste Bythuricam, þe fifte ȝere he loste*. [þe citees, add. β.] Cenomannia*. [Cenomanniaca, α.] and Turon and many castelles þerto, and hym self [also].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] This kyng usede to have in his speche of tretys religious bisshoppes, and lad hem wiþ hem byȝonde*. [byȝunde, γ.] þe see in dedes of armes, and dede*. [dude, γ.] more by counsail of hem þan by counsail of knyȝtes. And þat he dede for two skilles, ferst for his court schulde seme þe more real*. [rial, β.] and nobil to messangeres*. [messagers, Cx.] and legates þat come þerto; þe secounde skille for alway he assayed raþer pes þan wepen and armure, þerfore he made suche medyatoures with puttynge too of money. Also for he hadde somtyme y-ȝeve*. [yeven, Cx.] dignitees of holy cherche to unworþy per|sones, forto wynne his fame aȝe he made Baldewyn þe whiȝte monk archbisshop of Caunterbury, and Hugh,*. [Huwe, β. and γ.] prioure of þe Charthouse,*. [Chartherous, Cx.] bisshop of Lyncoln. He hadde þese tweyne as hit were alway to counsail. For every man þat redeþ in book Page  33, vol.8 schulde have þe lesse wonder of þe ungracious issue*. [ysseu, γ.] and ende of þis kyng and of his sones, we*. [me, β.; men, Cx.] schal take hede of þis kynges bygynnynge, and wherof he come boþe on*. [on] in, β. and γ.] fader syde and moder side. Also of þe condicioun of his wyf,*. [lif, β. and Cx. wrongly.] on whom he gate his sones. Geffray Plantegenet come of þe children of a cuntesse*. [countesse, β.; contas, γ.] of Anioye*. [Angeo, Cx.] þat was y-spoused onliche for fayrnesse of body. Sche wolde selden*. [Heo wolde seelde, β.; Hue wolde selde, γ.] come at cherche, and þan unneþ sche*. [heo, β.] wolde abyde þe secretes of þe messe. Þe erle hir hous|bonde toke hir,*. [heede, β.] and was war of þat doynge, and ordeynede foure knyȝtes to holde here in cherche, and sche*. [heo, β.] þrewe awey here mantel þat sche*. [hue, γ. (quater).] was y-holde*. [holden, Cx.] by, and lefte þere here two sones under here ryȝt side of hir mantel, and wiþ here oþer two sones þat sche hadde under þe left*. [lift, β.] side of here mantel sche flauȝ*. [flyȝ, β.; fleuh, Cx.] out at the wyndowe of þe*. [atte chirche wyndow, Cx.] cherche in siȝt of alle men, and was nevere y-seyn after þat tyme. Afterward Richard kyng of Engelond tolde ofte þis tale, and saide þat hit was no wonder þouȝ þey þat comeþ*. [come, β., and Cx. bis.] of suche a kuynde*. [kunde, γ.] greved everich oþer, as þey þat comeþ*. [come, β., and Cx. bis.] of þe devel and schulde goo Page  35, vol.8 to þe devel. Also in a tyme kyng Henry sente a clerk to his sone Gaufrede erle of Britayne forto refourme and make ful pees,*. [vol pes, γ.] and þe sone answered þe clerk in þis manere: "Why art þu come to desherite me of my ryȝt*. [of my ryȝt, Cx.] of my kynde burþe? knowest þou nouȝt þat hit longeþ to us propurliche by kynde, and hit is y-pyȝt uppon us by kynde of oure fore|fadres,*. [of my ryȝt, Cx.] þat noon of us schulde love oþer? þan travayle þou nouȝt an*. [an] in, β. and Cx.] ydel to put awey kynde." Also þis kyng Henryes moder was y-wedded to þis Geffray, lyvynge here*. [hyr, Cx.] raþer hous|bonde, þat was a pilgrim and lyvede as an hermyte, and þis kyng Henry come of hem tweyne in þis lattere mariage. Also of þis Henry while he was a child y-norsched in þe kynges court of Fraunce, seynt Bernard þe abbot propheciede and saide in presence of þe kyng, "Of þe devel he come, and to þe devel he schal;" and menede*. [moeved, Cx.] þerby boþe þe tyraundise*. [iirauntrie, β.; tyraundys, γ.; tyrauntrye, Cx.] of his fader Geffray þat geldede the bisshop of Sagye,*. [Sagre, Cx.] and his owne cruelnesse þat slouȝ seynt Thomas of Caunterbury. And ȝit his fader Geffray hadde y-laye by þis Elianore*. [þues Alienor, γ.] þat his sone this Henry wedded afterwards. Also this Elianores fader,*. [of fornfaders, Cx.]Page  37, vol.8 eorle of Peytho,*. [Peytow, β.; Peytowe, Cx.] ravesched*. [raveste, γ.] his owne viscountes*. [schirreves, β.; vicounte, γ.; shyrreves, Cx.] wyf, and wedded here levynge*. [lyvyng, Cx.] her housbonde. In a tyme an holy man blamed hym [for]*. [From Cx.] þat dede, and it vayled*. [avayled, β.; availed, Cx.] nouȝt; þanne þe good man prayed þat nevere childe þat come of hem schulde brynge forþ gracious fruyt. It happede in a tyme at Wynchestre in þis kyng Henries chambre þat was dyversliche i-peynted [that one place was lefte unpaynted]*. [From Cx.; þat on plas was left unpeynt, γ.] by the kynges heste, þere þe kyng heet afterward peynte an egle wiþ foure briddes;*. [breddes, γ.] [þe þre briddes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] cracched*. [cratched, Cx., bis.] and rent*. [torent, β. and Cx.] þe fader with billes and wiþ clawes,*. [clouwes, γ.] bote þe fourþe bridde besied hym faste to cracche out his fader eyȝen. Me axede of þe kyng*. [of þe kyng] hym, Cx.] what þis*. [þues, ., bis.] wolde mene. "Þese*. [þues, ., bis.] foure bryddes," quoþ þe kyng, "beeþ myn foure sones, þat wil*. [wole, β.] not cese to pursewe*. [pursywe, γ.] me anon to the deeþ, and nameliche þis laste John, whom I loved*. [ich love, β.; I love, Cx.] now moost, schal most scharpliche awayte and caste for my deeth."

Page  39, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

AFFTER Anastasius, þe ferþe*. [fourth, Cx.] Adrian, a man of Englische nacioun, was pope foure ȝere. Þe comoun*. [comyn, β.] fame telleþ þat þis was þe abbotes bonde man of Seynt Albones in Engelond, and þat he prayed somtyme þat he moste somtyme*. [somtyme] om. β.] be*. [he myght be, Cx.] monk in þe*. t, α.] abbay, and was put of and forsake, but he ȝaf hym to clergie*. [clergi, γ.] and to good þewes, and was i-made bisshop Albanensis. In a tyme he was i-made legat to Warmancia,*. [Wormacia, β., γ., and Cx.] and converted þat province to þe riȝt byleve. At the laste i-was*. [he was, Cx.] made pope, and for the woundynge of a*. [α] oon, β.] cardynal he enterdited all þe citee of Rome. He cursede William kyng of Cecile*. [Sicil, β.] [and compellyd hym to submytte hym to his grace. This was the fyrst pope that dwellyd]*. [From γ. and Cx.; and compelled hym to submitte hym to his grace. Þis was þe first pope þat woned, add. β.] wiþ þe cardinales in þe olde citee. Þe [kyng of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Scotlond deide, and nyh alle þe lordes of Enge|lond. In*. [In, α.] þe monþe of Octobre þe signe of þe cros was i-seyne*. [yseye, γ.] in þe mone. Seynt Jame þe apostles hond was*. [was] is, β.]Page  41, vol.8 brouȝt to þe abbot*. [abbay, Cx.] of Redynge. Þat ȝere kyng Henry lad first an oost into Wales, and made a strong castel at Roþelan,*. [Ruthlan, β.; Rutland, Cx.] and foundede þe abbay of Basyngw.*. [Basyngwerk, β. and Cx.] After Adrian, þe þridde Alisaundre was pope xxii. ȝere: he overcome foure false popes þat Frederik þe emperour had i-sette up. Also þis accordeþ Frederik and Emanuel of Constantynnoble and þe kyng of Secile, and socrede*. [sokered, β.; sukerde, γ.; so|cured, Cx.] Thomas of Caunturbury whan he was exiled. Henry þis kynges eldest sone wedded þe kynges douȝter of Fraunce. At Glowcestre Jewes nailled a childe to þe roode. Theobald þe archebisshop deide, and Thomas of Londoun þe kynges chauncelere was i-sacred archebisshop þe secounde day of Juyn, and þe þridde ȝere [þere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] after he went out of Engelond, and come aȝen þe sevenþe ȝere of his exciling, and was i-martired. Foure famous men discreved his lyf and his dedes as it is i-written in his lyf. Aboute þat ȝere abbot Joochym*. [Ioachym, β.; Joachim, γ.; Joachyn, Cx.] was in his floures in Calabria: he wroot þe exposicioun uppon þe Apocolips*. [Apocalips, β.; Apocalypsis, Cx.] and uppon þe bookes of pro|phetes. Page  43, vol.8 Also he warnede Frederik þe emperour þat*. [þat] and, β. and Cx.] oþer kynges þat went to þe Holy Lond þat þey schulde nouȝt profite þere but litel at þat tyme, for the tyme of þe deliver|aunce was nouȝt ȝit i-comen. Me seiþ also þat*. [þat] of, β.] þis Joachyn þat he descryvede as it were by prophecie þe maneres and dedes and*. [of, Cx.] nombre of all popes þat schulde be in holy chirche. But þere he wroot aȝenst þe maister of þe*. [þe] om. β.] sentence, his opinoun was reproved, as it were*. [is, α., β., and Cx.] i-write in þe bygynnynge of decrees*. [decretales, α.; decretals, β. and Cx.] by þe nynþe Gregory. Þe xii. day tofore Octobre aboute prime were i-seyn þre cercles*. [cerkels, γ.] in hevene and two sonnes; þat ȝere roose þe stryf bytwene þe kyng and Thomas. Þat tyme was maister Peres*. [Pyers, Cx.] Comestor*. [Piers Comestorye, α.] in his floures in Fraunce; he wroot a storye of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., and Cx.] eyþer Testament, þat hatte*. [hight, Cx.] Historia Scolastica. Also he wroot allegorias uppon*. [oppon, γ.] eyþer Testament, þat is a book of goostliche understondynge. Also he made a nobil book of sermouns, and made afterward his allegorias in a book of metre, and cleped þe book Aurora.*. [Auroica, Cx.] Rauph*. [Raph, β. and γ.; Raaf, Cx.] bisshop of Coloyne*. [Coleyn, β.; Colayn, γ., bis.] brouȝt þe bodies of þe [þre]*. [From α., β., γ. and, Cx.] kynges of Coloyne*. [Coleyn, β.; Colayn, γ., bis.] out of Melan þat was destroyed by Frederyk. Þis bodies Page  45, vol.8 were first i-brouȝt out of Pers to Constantynnoble, and þan by þe pope Sergius þey were i-brouȝt to Melan. Þis ȝere was Thomas of Caunturbury i-martired: of hym oon seiþ in þis manere:

"Anno milleno centeno septuageno
Anglorum primas coruit*. [corruit, β., γ., and Cx.]ense Thomas."

Þat is to menynge: þe ȝere of oure Lord enleven hondred and seventy Thomas deide by a swerd primat of Englische men. Anoþer seiþ in þis manere:

"Qui*. [Quis, α. and β.]moritur? Præsul. Cur? Pro grege. Qualiter?
Quando? Natali. Quis locus?*. [Quo loco?, Cx.]Ara est*. [est] om. α., β., and Cx.]Dei."

An Englische man*. [man] om. β. and Cx.] who deieþ? A bisshop. Why? For þe folk?*. [vlok, γ.] How? Wiþ a swerd. Whane? At mydwynter. At what place? At Goddis auȝter. Anoþer seiþ in þis manere:

Pro Christi sponsa, [Christi]*. [From β. and Cx.]sub tempore, Christi
In templo, Christi verus amator obit."

Þat is to menynge: for Cristes spouse, in Cristes tyme, in Cristes temple, Cristes trewe lyver*. [lover, α. and Cx.; lovyer, β.] deide.*. [lovyer dyeþ, γ.]Giraldus. After his deeþ þe kynges fortune bygan to wiþdrawe, for þe ȝere after þe kyng wente into Irlond þat he hadde myȝteliche*. [myghtely, Cx.] i-wonne, and made þere counsailles in meny places*. [plas, γ.] by þe popes wille, and nameliche at Cassile,*. [Cassil, Cx.] þen*. [þere, α., β., and Cx.] was nouȝt þe primat of Page  47, vol.8 Armach*. [Armarch, γ.; Arnach, Cx.] for febilnesse of his body: þis primat ladde wiþ hym a white kowe alway aboute, and was susteyned onliche by melk of þat white kow. He reformede al þis Irlond*. [þat ylond, β. and γ.; al that yland, Cx.] wiþ al his myȝt, specialliche in þre poyntes, in rulynge of þe office of holy chirche, in trewe*. [truwe, γ.] paienge of tyþe*. [teþing, β.; teþyng, γ.; tethyng, Cx.] to holy chirche, and in all*. [all] om. Cx.] laweful usage of wedlok. Þoo it was þere i-ordeyned þat men þat deieþ schulde make here testament in presence of here neigheboures,*. [neiȝbors, β.] and ȝif þe man þat deieþ have a wyf and children he schulde*. [childern a scholde, γ.] firste caste what he oweþ and is detted*. [detty, β. and γ.; hys dettys, Cx.] to oþere men and to servauntes for here hire, and þe oþer deel of his nobles*. [meobles, β. and Cx.] schulde be deled in þre, and oon party is*. [is] schuld be, β.; sholde be, Cx.] ordeyned for his children, þat oþer for his wyf, and þe þridde to brynge hym on*. [on] in, β. and Cx.; an, γ.] erþe and to doo for his soule: ȝif he be wiþoute wyf oþer wiþoute children his catel schulde be deled atweyne.*. [in tweyne, Cx.] Whanne þe kyng come out of Irlond he bygan to have revela|ciouns, and specialliche for*. [for] bycause that, Cx.] he schulde amende his lyf: firste in þe castel of Kerdyf*. [Cardef, Cx.] in Walys þe Sonday next after Ester day, whan the kyng hadde i-herd masse and wente to his hors, þere stood*. [stonde, Cx.] a pale*. [pal, γ.] man wiþ rounde tonsure,*. [tonsour, Cx.] lene and Page  49, vol.8 long, barefoot, i-cloþed in a white kirtel. He spak to þe kyng in Duche*. [Duchys, β.] speche in þis manere, and seide, "Good old kyng," and þan he told forþ his tale in þis wise: "Crist greteþ þe and his moder childe,*. [mylde, α. and β.; myld, Cx.] and John þe Baptiste*. [Joon Baptist, β.; Iohan Bap|tist, Cx.] and Peter, and comaundeþ hiȝliche þat no chepynges be i-holde noþer se|veral*. [servyle, β. and Cx.] werkes i-doo in þe Sonday in þy*. [þe, α., β., and Cx.] landes of þy lordschippe, out take þat nedes moste be done to mete.*. [þat nediþ to þe use of greiþinge of mete, β.; to þe use of greyþyng of mete, γ.; oute take doynge that nedith to the usage of dyghtynge of meete, Cx.]ȝif þow doost as I telle, al þat þou bygunnest*. [begynnest, Cx.] þow schalt brynge to a gracious ende." Þe kyng speke Frensche*. [Freyns, γ.] to þe knyȝte þat hilde his bridel, and seide, "Axe of þis clerk*. [cherle, β.; cherl, γ.; chorle, Cx.] ȝif he haþ i-mette*. [ymet, β. and γ., bis; hath ydremed, Cx.] al þis þat he telleþ;" and he expowned it on*. [on] an, β.] Englische. Þan þe man spak in þe forsaide*. [vorseyde, γ.] tonge, and seide, "Wheþer I have i-mette*. [ymet, β. and γ., bis; hath ydremed, Cx.] þis tale or nouȝt, take þou hede what day it is to day, for but þou doo as I ytelle and amende þy lyf þou schalt here suche tydinges*. [tyþyngus, γ.] wiþ ynne þis ȝere þat þou schalt be sory þerfore to þy lyves ende." Page  51, vol.8 Þe man vanysched*. [vansede, γ.] when þis was seide, and wiþ ynne þe ȝere*. [the thre yeres, Cx.] þe kynges sones Henry, Gaufre,*. [Gaufred, Cx.] and Richard turned to the kyng of Fraunce aȝenst here owne fader; þe kyng of Scotlond, þe eorle of Chestre, and þe erle of Leycetre ryse*. [reysed, Cx.] aȝenst þe kyng. And þe kyng hadde meny oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx.] warnynges, but he sette litel by al.*. [by al] therby, Cx.] For þe secounde tyme an Irische*. [Yrysch, γ.] man warnede hym and tolde hym tokenes þat were most trewe priveliche.*. [trewe priveliche] pryvy, Cx. were most privy, β.; were most prive, γ.] Þe þridde tyme a knyȝt of Lyndeseie, Phelip of Chescherby,*. [Chesterby, α.; Chestreby, β. and Cx.] passede the Frensche*. [Vreynse, γ.] see and com to þe kyng into Normandie, and expowned hym þere sevene articles þat he schulde amende, and ȝif þat he dede*. [ef a dude, γ.] he schulde regne worþiliche*. [worshipfully, Cx.] sevene ȝere, and he schulde wynne þe holy croys of*. [of] and, Cx.] his enemyes; and elles he schulde schameliche deie in þe fourþe ȝere. Þre þe firste were þe articules þat he hadde i-swore in his crownynge, þat he schulde holde: oon was of meyntenynge of holy chirche, þat oþer of riȝtful lawes, þe þridde þat he schulde no man dampne wiþouten dome; þe ferþe þat he schulde restore aȝen heritages þat he hadde bynomen; þe fifte Page  53, vol.8 [that he sholde doo ryght withoute meede; the syxthe]*. [From Cx.; þat he schuld do riȝt wiþoute mede, þe sixte, β.; þat a scholde do ryȝt wiþoute myde, þe syxte, γ.] þat he schulde paie þe wages of his servauntes; þe sevenþe þat he schulde doo [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Jewes*. [Juwes, γ.] out of Engelond and leve hem somwhat of money to wende out of þe*. [þe] om. β.] lond. But þe kyng was nouȝt amended, þerfore aroos*. [roos, α.] aȝenst hym [þre]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] strong men and myȝti, his owne þre sones, wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce. But whan kyng Henry had i-visited mekeliche Thomas þe martires tombe, William þe kyng of Scotland and þe two eorles of Chestre and of Lincolne were i-take at Alnewik.*. [Alnewye, γ.] Þis mescheef durede two ȝere, and was unneþe i-cessed, and he accounted þe cesynge þer of to his owne strengþe, and nouȝt to Goddes mercy, and he þat hadde prisoned his wif Eleanore þe queene, and was priveliche a spouse brekere,*. [and, wrongly inserted in MS. om. γ.] leveþ now*. [now from β. and γ. nouȝt MS.] open|liche*. [and lyved now openly, Cx.] in spousebreche,*. [spousbruche, γ.] and is nouȝt aschamed to mysuse þe wenche*. [weynche, γ.] Rosamound. To þis faire wenche þe kyng made at*. [at, from α., β., and Cx. α MS.] Wodestoke a chambre of wonder craft, wonderliche*. [wonder slilyche, α.; wonder slyȝlich, β.; slylych, γ.; slyly, Cx.] i-made by Dedalus*. [dudulus, α.] werke, leste þe queene schulde fynde*. [vynde, γ.] and take Rosamounde: but þe wenche deide sone, and is i-buried in þe Page  55, vol.8 chapitre hous at Godestowe besides Oxenforde wiþ siche a writynge on her tombe:

"Hic jacet in tumba rosa mundi, non rosa munda.
Non redolet, sed olet, quæ redolere solet."

Þat is, Here lieþ*. [liþ, β.] in tombe þe rose of þe world, nouȝt a clene rose; it smelleþ nouȝt swete, but it stinkeþ, þat was wont to smelle ful swete. Þis wenche*. [weynche, γ.] hadde a litel cofre scarsliche of two foot long, i-made by a wonder craft, þat is ȝit i-seyn þere. Þerynne it semeþ þat geantes*. [geauntes, β.] fiȝten,*. [vyȝteþ, γ.; geauntes fyghtyn, Cx.] bestes stertelleþ,*. [startleþ, γ.; startlyn, Cx.] foules fleeþ*. [vlueþ, γ.; fleyn, Cx.] and fisches meoven*. [lepeþ, β. and γ.; leepe, Cx.] wiþ oute manis hond meovynge.*. [withoute ony mannes moevynge, Cx.]

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

ALSO þis ȝere at ȝork, þe twelfþe*. [twellyfth, Cx.] day tofore Septembre, William kyng of Scotland, by assent of lordes and prelates of his londe dede*. [dide, β.; made, γ.] homage to Henry kyng of Engelond. Also þis kyng William seiþ in his own*. [own] om. Cx.] lettre*. [lettres, β.; letters, γ.] patent þat he and his successoures and men of Scotlond schulde doo homage lege|aunce*. [lygiauns, γ.]Page  57, vol.8 and feaute*. [fewty, Cx.] to the kynges of Engelond also ofte as þey ben þerof*. [þerto, β.; they be therto, Cx.] required. In token of þis subjeccioun þe kyng of Scotlond offrede his hatte and his sadel uppon seint Petres auȝter*. [aulter, Cx.] in þe chirche of ȝork, þat beeþ ȝit i-kepte þere anon to þis day. And ȝit herto þe lordes of Scotlond swore þat ȝif þe kyng of Scotlond wolde be*. [be] om. α., β., and Cx.] withdrawe hym in eny tyme from þat feiþ,*. [fey, β.] þey wolde rise aȝenst hym [and be ageynst hym]*. [From Cx.] alwey til he be torned aȝen. Pope Gregorye in dyverse writ|ynges þat he sent to þe kynges of Engelond and of Scotlond charged hiȝly*. [heyhely, Cx.] þat þe composicioun schulde be stedfastliche i-holde. And for þe declaracioun of þis subjeccioun þe kyng of Scotlonde and his prelates come to Norhamptoun to kyng Henries parlement, and þerafter he come to kyng Henry into Normandie. Also þis ȝere by assent of þe kyng þe covent of Caunturbury chose*. [chese, γ.; cheese, Cx.] Richard priour of Dovoure to be arche|bisshop. In þe enlevenþe ȝere of his bisshopriche oure Lord appered to hym and seide, "Þou hast i-wasted þe goodes of my cherche, and I schal root*. [rote, Cx.] þe out of þe erþe:" þan he Page  59, vol.8 was aferde, and deide þe xviii.*. [eiȝte, β.; eyȝte, γ.; eyght, Cx.] day þerafter. Þe charge of al*. [al] þe, β.] travaille of þe takynge of þe cros þat Henry [þe]*. [From β.] kyng hadde i-take somtyme byȝonde þe see, and swore afterward byfore*. [tofore, α. and β.] two cardynales þat he wolde pursue*. [poursue, Cx.] it after two*. [þre, β.; thre, Cx.] ȝere, when þe*. [thre, Cx.] ȝere were i-passed*. [a passed, β.] he sent to Rome forto have lenger delay and*. [and] an, β.; in, Cx.] idel*. [an ydel, γ.] of his giltful*. [gylfol, β. and γ.; gyleful, Cx.] doynge, and þat by suche a feyned colour, þat he schulde make þre abbayes in Engelond, and so he dede in þis manere: of seculer chanouns of Waltham he made chanouns ruler;*. [reuler, γ.; reguler, Cx.] and dede away þe mynchouns*. [monchons, β., bis; mynchens, γ., bis; menchons, Cx., bis.] of Ambresbury, and brouȝt þider oþer mynchouns*. [monchons, β., bis; mynchens, γ., bis; menchons, Cx., bis.] from by|ȝonde þe see; and restored sympelliche*. [symplech, β.; semplelyche, γ.] þe Chartre Hous*. [Charthous, β.; Chartrous, Cx.] at Witham besides Salisbury. Also he hadde i-fonge somtyme to kepynge þe kynges douȝter of Fraunce, for he schulde marie hire to his sone Richard eorle of Peytow and of Angeoy.*. [and of Angcoy] om. β. and Cx.] But after þe deth of Rosamounde he lay by þis*. [þues, γ.] mayde, þerfore his sone Richard refusede*. [recused, β.] þe mariage; þerfore þe kyng caste to wedde þis wenche,*. [þues wynche, γ.] and þerfore he prayed Hugucio*. [Huguncio, Cx.] þe cardinal Page  61, vol.8 for to come and make devors*. [divorse, β.] bytwene hym and Elianore þe queene, for he*. [sche, α.] hopede so to have more help and favoure of Frenchemen to disherite his owne sones moder.*. [moder] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] [Afterward felle werre bytwene hem*. [hym, β. and Cx.] and þe kyng of Fraunce for Castel Raph, and kyng Henry axede þis wenche*. [þues weynche, γ.] to wedde here to his sone John, and axed wiþ here þe erldom*. [erldoms, β. and γ.] of Peitou and of Anioye.*. [Angeo, Cx.] But þe kyng of Fraunce assented nouȝt to þis askynge, but he sente [þe]*. [From β.] lettres to Richard, for*. [bycause, Cx.] he schulde hem see. Þerfore roos a greet*. [grisliche, β.] werre*. [a grisely wreth, Cx.] bytwixe þe fader and þe sone.]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] Grislich þondringe was i-herd in a mydwynter nyȝt at An|devere in Hampschire; a preost was i-smyte to þe deeþ wiþ liȝtnynge in þe myddel of þe peple, and non oþer man was i|touched, and swyn were i-seie among hem renne*. [eorne, γ.] up and doun; tempest of haille*. [hawel, β. and γ.; hayel, Cx.] slouȝ foules, bestes, and men in a Mary*. [Mary] om. β. and γ.] Magdeleyns*. [Maudelaynes, α.; Maudeleyn, Cx.] nyȝt. Giraldus, distinctio 16. Þis tyme, þat was in oure tyme, kyng Arthures body [was founden]*. [From Cx.] þat was Page  63, vol.8 i-counted as it were fantastik, and i-brouȝt as it were a fire*. [afer, β.; a ver, γ.; fer, Cx.] at an ende, and fabil of Britouns i-feyned þat he schulde efte come and be kyng. At Glastyngbury bytwene tweie*. [two, α. and Cx.] pilers þat were arered of stoon somtyme in þe holy cherche hawe,*. [heye, β.; hygh, Cx.] by wonder tokenes and warnynges þis Arthures body was founde i-buried and i-naked*. [i-marked, α. and γ.; marked, β. and Cx.] in an holouȝ stoone*. [ook, α.; oke, β. and Cx.; holuȝ oke, γ.] deep in þe eerþe, and so he was i-take up and translated worschipfulliche into þe cherche, and i-leyd honestliche in a tombe of marbil stoon: þere was i-founde a croys of leede, and a stoon þeruppon, and lettres i-wrete wiþynne in þe croys i-torned toward the stoon, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] lettres I handeled*. [ich handled, β.] and I radde*. [I radde] redde, α.; rad, β.; radde, γ.; radde and handled, Cx.] in þis manere foorme: Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arthurus cum Wennerva uxore sua secunda [in]*. [From Cx.]insula Avalona: þat is, here lyþ i-buried þe nobil kyng Arthur wiþ his secounde wyf Wennerver*. [Wennever, α., β., γ., and Cx.] in þe ilond of*. [þe ilond of] om. Cx.] Avalon. Þe bones were i-leide in þe grave so þat þe tweie deles of the grave toward þe heed conteyned þe manis bones, and þe þridde deel toward þe feet conteyned þe womman bones; þere þe ȝelew heere*. [ȝelowe tresses, β.; ȝelou tresses, γ.; yelow tresses of the womans heere, Cx.] of þe womman trasses*. [here, β.; her, γ.] was i-founde hoole and sounde, wiþ fresche*. [vreysche, γ.] colour and hewe*. [huw, γ.] as it hadde somtyme; but a monk Page  65, vol.8 touched it coveitousliche wiþ his hond, and anon it fel*. [fel] to fil, β.] al into poudre. Þis kyng Henry hadde i-hed*. [y-herd, α.; herde, β. and Cx.] somtyme of a Britoun þat knewe stories and was a synger of gestes, þat kyng Arthures body schulde be founde in an holouȝ ook*. [oke, β.; holow oke, Cx.] aboute a*. [α] om. Cx.] fiftene foot*. [vot, γ.] deep in þe erþe: he was i-buried so depe*. [duepe, γ.] leste þey*. [he, Cx.] were liȝtliche i-founde of þe Saxons þat were his enemyes. And þerfore lettres were i-wrete and i-graved wiþ ynne toward þe stoon, to be iuge and witnesse of þe soþenesse and truþe. And also have mynde þat Arthures scheen*. [Arthur his schyne, α.; schyn, β.] boon þat was þe*. [thenne, Cx.] i-schewed was lenger by þre ynches þan þe leg and þe kne of þe lengest*. [lynguste, γ.] man þat was þoo*. [than, Cx.] i-founde. Also þe space of his forhede bytwene his tweye eyȝen*. [yen, γ.] was a spanne brood. Also in his heed were i-seyne*. [seen, β.] wemmes of ten woundes, and it semede þat þey come alle into oon wemme [outake þe wemme]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of oon wounde. Ierusalem is take and destroyed of þe Sarsyns. After Alisaundre, þe þridde Lucius was pope a ȝere and foure monþes; þat ȝere deide Hughe*. [Huwe, γ.] erle of Chestre at Leek; his sone þe þridde Ranulph was eorle after hym fifty ȝere. Also þat ȝere deide Henry, þat was the kynges eldest sone: of hym oon Page  67, vol.8 seide in þis manere: "Omnis honoris honos, decor et decus urbis et orbis;" þat is, [Worschip]*. [From β.; Worschyp, γ.] of al worschippe, fairnes*. [feyrnes, α.; veyrnes, γ.] and worschippe of þe citee and of þe worlde*. [worl, γ.] [wyde].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] "Mi|licie splendor, gloria, lumen, apex;" þat is, to*. [to] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] schynynge and blis, liȝt and heed of chivalrie. "Julius ingenio, virtutibus Hector, Achilles viribus, Augustis*. [Augustus, α., β., and Cx.]moribus, ore Paris;" þat is, Julius in witte, Ector in vertues, Achilles in strengþe, Augustus in þewes, Parys in mouth.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

THIS ȝere whan Richard archebisshop of Canturbury was dede, Baldewyn bisshop of Wircestre*. [Wyrcetre, Cx.] was archebisshop after hym by assent of þe kyng and of alle þe bisshoppes. But þe monkes of Canturbury wiþ seide it wiþ all þat þey myȝte. Of hym it is i-seide þat he ete nevere flesche from þe firste day þat he was i-made white monke to his lyfes ende. Þan*. [Þan] om. α., β., and Cx.] in a tyme by þe wey an olde lene womman mette hym, and axede*. [axide, β.] ȝif it were sooth þat he eete no manere flesche. "It is sooþ," quoþ he. "Hit is false," quoþ heo,*. [quaþ hue, γ.] "for þow Page  69, vol.8 hast i-ete my flesche*. [vleysch, γ.] anon to þe bones; ffor I ne*. [ne] om. Cx.] hadde*. [nadde, β.]but oon kowe*. [knowe, α.; cowe, β.] þat I was susteyned by, and þy Danes*. [denes, α.; deenes, β. and Cx.; dyens, γ.]haþ*. [haveþ, α.] bynome me þat kow." He answerde and seide, "Truly by þe grace of God þou schalt have as good a kow as þat*. [sche, α. and Cx.; heo, β.; hue, γ.] was." Þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] ȝere of his bisshopriche fil stryf bytwene hym and þe covent*. [convent, Cx.] of Caunterbury, for newe houses and cherches*. [hous and cherche, α. and β.] þat was i-bulde*. [were buyld, Cx.] faste by þe monken*. [monkes, β. and Cx.] walles, in þe whiche cherche he hadde i-ordeyned seculer clerkes, and assignede*. [ordeyned, Cx.] hem provendres of þe monkene*. [monkes, β. and Cx.] cherches; þan he was compelled to take awey þe bulders,*. [buldes, α.; buyldes, β.; byld|yng, Cx.] and þey were translated to Lambhyþe*. [Lamphythe vaste, γ.] faste by Londoun aforne*. [avorne, γ.] West|mynstre þat*. [þat] þe, β.; the, Cx.] ȝere of oure Lord elevene hondred foure score and eiȝte. Þis Baldewyn*. [Baudwyn, Cx.] had þe office of*. [þe, α.] legacie of þe cros and wente into Wales, and songe in every cathedral chirche of Wales a masse in pontificalibus, and þat was nevere i-seie tofore þat tyme. After Lucius, þe þridde Urban was pope as it were two ȝere; he deide for sorwe þat Ierusalem was i-take of þe Sarsyns. Þat tyme com Heraclius patriark of Ierusalem into Engelonde to kyng Henry, and prayed hym help aȝenst þe Page  71, vol.8 Sarasyns in þe name of al [þe]*. [From β.] Cristen men of þe est londes, and profrede hym*. [hym] om. Cx.] þe keyes of þe holy citee [and]*. [From Cx.] of oure Lordes grave, wiþ þe kynges baner, and lettres of Lucius þe pope þat counsailled and charged hym þat he schulde take þat iournay, and hadde*. [made, Cx.] mynde of þe ooth þat he hadde i-made; but þe kyng putte*. [pot, γ.] over his answere forto he cam to Londoun, and by þe prechynge of the patriark and of Baldewyn þe archebisshop meny took þe cros to þe holy lond. But Henry answerde and seide þat he myȝte nouȝt forsok*. [vorsake, γ.; forsake, Cx.] and leve his landes wiþ oute warde and kepynge, noþer sette hem*. [ham, γ., bis.] to be*. [be] the, Cx., bis.] pray to be*. [be] the, Cx., bis.] robberie of Frensche men, but he wolde ȝeve largeliche of his to men*. [hem, α. and β.; theym, Cx.] þat wolde [thyder]*. [From Cx.] wende. "Kyng," quoþ þe patriark, "it is nouȝt þat þou doost: we secheþ and askeþ*. [axed, α.; axeþ, β.] a prince,*. [prins, γ., bis.] and nouȝt money; nygh every lond of þe world sendeþ us money, but no lond*. [man, Cx.] sendeþus a prince; þanne we axeþ a man þat nedeþ money, and nouȝt money þat nedeþ a man;" and so þe patriark gooþ his way, and his hope his*. [is, β.] lost; [and þe kyng folweþ hym anon to þe see, for he wolde wiþ fayre wordes, as he couþe wel, plese þe Page  73, vol.8 patriark þat was agreved. But þe patriark spak to þe kyng and seide, "Hyderto*. [Hederto β; Huderto, γ.] þou hast y-regned gloriousliche, but here|after He wil forsake þe þat þou hast forsake. Þenke and have mynde*. [munde, γ.] what oure Lord haþ y-ȝeve the, and what þou hast y-ȝelde*. [yolden, Cx.] Hym aȝe, how þou were false to þe kyng of Fraunce and slouȝ seynt Thomas, and now þou forsakest þe defens and protectioun of Cristene men." Þe kyng was wrooþ wiþ þese wordes; þe patriark sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and profrede hym his heed and his necke, and seide, "Do by me ryȝt as þou dedest*. [dudest, γ.] by Thomas, for me is as leef*. [vor me ys as luf, γ.] by y-slawe*. [lef be slayn, β.] of þe in Engelond as of Sarsyns in Siria, for þou art wors þan eny Sarsyn." "Þeyȝ al my men," quoþ þe kyng, "were oon body and speke wiþ oon mouþe, þey dorste nouȝt speke to me suche wordes." "No wonder," quoþ þe patriark, "for þei loveþ þyne*. [love thyn, Cx.] and nouȝt þe. Þis peple*. [pupel, γ.] folweþ*. [folewiþ, β.] pray, and nouȝt a man."]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Þan þe kyng seide, "I may nouȝt [wende]*. [From β. and Cx.] out of my londes, for myn owne sones wolde arise aȝenst me when I were absent." "No wonder," quoþ þe patriark, "for of þe devel þey come, and to þe devel þey Page  75, vol.8 schulleþ."*. [schullen, α.; hy scholdeþ, γ.; shal, Cx.] Þis ȝere þe kyng sente his sone John into Irlond, but he dede litel profite þere, and come hoom aȝe. Þis ȝere, þe firste day of May, Sarcyns took Ierusalem, and bere awey þe holy cros, and slowȝ þe maister of þe*. [þe] om. β.] chevalrie of þe Temple and meny holy*. [nobil, α.; noble, Cx.] men. Whanne þat was i-wost*. [wyst, Cx.] among Cristen men, meny took þe cros to þe Holy Lond in al þe world wide. Among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] Richard of Peytow, kyng Henries sone, took þe crosse also, and for þe same cause Balde|wyn þe archebisshop wente into Wales as it is i-touched tofore|hond. In his company was Gerald Cambrensis, archedecon of Landaf, þat descreved þe maneres of Walsche*. [Walysch, γ.] men in his book þat hatte Itenerarius,*. [Itincrarius, Cx.] as he hadde toforehonde discreved þe staat and maneres of Irischemen in his book þat hatte*. [Itenerarius . . . hatte] om. α.] Topographia, whanne he was i-send wiþ Iohn kyng Henries sone into Irlond. After Urban, þe eyȝte Gregory was pope foure monþes; he sent meny lettres and pistles for socour of þe Holy Lond. After hym þe þridde Clement was pope þre ȝere. Þis ȝere at Dunstapil*. [Dunstaple, Cx.] in Engelond meny men sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] oure Lord*. [sye ur Lord, γ.] Iesus Crist in þe aier*. [eyr, β. and Cx.] honge in*. [on, α. and Cx.] þe cros. Also þis ȝere Henry made Ranulph erle of Chestre knyȝt, and ȝaf hym to wyf Constauns contas*. [the contesse, Cx.] of Bretayne, þe loove*. [wydowe, Cx.] of his sone Page  77, vol.8 Gaufred, wiþ al Litel Britayne in*. [in] and, Cx.] þe erldom of Rechemound.*. [Rychemond, Cx.] Þe kynges of Engelond and of Fraunce, Richard eorle of Peytow, and meny oþer noble men to þe nombre of an hondred þowsand and foure [score]*. [From Cx.] þowsand, took þe cros on seynt Gregory his day. Þat ȝere Frederik þe emperour wente acorsed to þe Holy Lond, and lad his oost by Constantynnoble; bote for grete hete he bathed hym in a ryver of Armenye þat hatte Gula Sathane, þat is, Sathanas is þrote, and [there]*. [From Cx.] Frederik was adreynt;*. [drowned, Cx., bis.] oþer as som men telleþ his hors stombled and fel*. [stomlede and ful, γ.] into þe water, and so was he adreynt,*. [drowned, Cx., bis.] and was i-buried at Tirus: his eldest sone was dede in þe same iournay, and his oþer sone, þe fifte Henry, was emperour of Almayne after hym, and regnede eiȝte ȝere, and wan Apulia and Cicilia,*. [Sicilia, α. and β.] and was acorsed of pope Celestinus, for Richard kyng of Engelond was i-take whan he cam from þe Holy Lond, and i-holde in þis*. [the, Cx.] emperours prisoun, and myȝte nouȝt be delivered wiþ oute a grete somme of money; and þe emperour deide in þe same corsynge, and myȝt nouȝt be i-buried wiþ oute assent of kyng Richard, and*. [and . . . Richard] om. Cx.] bote þat money were i-payde Page  79, vol.8 aȝen to kyng Richard. Also þat ȝere fel*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] stryf bytwene þe kynges of Engelond and of Fraunce, and al þe money was i|wasted þat was arered in demes*. [of dymes, α., β., γ., and Cx.] for þe iorney in*. [and, α., β., and Cx.] goyng to Ierusalem; for at þe citee Cenomannia þe kyng of Fraunce and Richard eorle of Peytow come aȝenst þe kyng of Enge|londe, and kyng Henry made sette þe subesbes*. [subarbes, α., β., and Cx.; su|burbarbes, γ.] afyre,*. [afuyr, β.; avuyr, γ.] for a cautel of*. [for, α. and β.; bycause, Cx.] his enemyes schulde have*. [habbe, γ.] no socour þerynne, bote þe strengþe of þe wynde droof þe leye*. [lye, β.; layte, Cx.] of þe fuyre into þe toun,*. [citee, α.; cite, β.; cyte, Cx.] and brende up al þe cite, and compelled kyng Henry to goo out of þe citee; and þe kyng in his goynge from þe citee spak suche wordes and seide: "For þou, God,*. [God] om. β.] hast bynome me þis day þe citee þat I*. [ich, γ.] most loved in þis world,*. [worl, γ.] I schal quyte þe. For after þis tyme I schal byneme*. [benyme, Cx.] þe þing þat schulde most plese þe yn me, þat is myn herte." At þe laste at Turon he was i-take wiþ a fevere, and desired to have pees wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce in suche a manere, þat he wolde gladliche put hym self in þe kyng of Fraunce his grace savynge his owne worschippe and þe crowne of his reamne;*. [and his rewme, β.; regme, γ.; and his royamme, Cx.] but al for noȝt, for Page  81, vol.8 he myȝte gete noo pees but if he wolde wiþ oute [eny]*. [From α. and β.; ony, Cx.] condi|cioun putte hym in þe kynges grace; and it was wel worthy, for he grauntede nouȝt to Thomas þis word, "savynge þe worschippe of God and þe dignetee of his ordre and þe fredom*. [vredom, γ.] of holy chirche." Þan kyng Henry deide in the castel Chinonens,*. [Cynonens, Cx.] and al þat were aboute hym ȝaf hem so to robberye and to bryberie*. [briborye, α.; brybury, γ.] þat þe kynges body lay naked long tyme, ffor to a childe heled*. [coveryd, Cx.] þe neþer parties of his body wiþ a schort cloke: it þo semede þat his surname was fulfilled þat he hadde of his childhode, Henry schort cloke, þat hatte schort mantel byȝonde*. [byȝunde, γ.] þe see. For þis was þe firste þat brouȝt schort clokes out of Angoye*. [Angeo, Cx.] into Engelond. Also þey þat were þere as he was dede, tolde þat al þe while þat his sone stood by his fader body, þe fader [boþe]*. [From β. and γ.] nostrilles*. [noseþurlles, γ; nosetherles, Cx.] bledde dropes of blood. Eyȝte dayes tofore þis kynges deeþ visches*. [ffisses, α.; fisches, β.; fysshes, Cx.] leep out of a pond in Normandie, and fouȝte*. [vouȝte, γ.] strongliche to gidres wiþ so greet noyse þat men of þe contray aboute come þider out of everich side for to se þe wonder, and fonde unneþe eny fisch [alyve].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.]

Page  83, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

KYNG Henry is deed at Fontenbraud,*. [Fontenebraud, β.; Fontene|brad, γ.; Fonteverard, Cx.] and his sone Richard was kyng after hym, and regnede ten ȝere. Stephene*. [Steven, Cx.] of Canturbury discreved cleerliche his manere and his dedes, and for þis storye schulde [not]*. [From α.; nouȝt, β.] mysse þe noble dedes of so greet a duke, I have studied*. [y-studed, γ.] to take þe floures of Stevenes book. Þis kyng ordeyned redeliche*. [redyly, Cx.] his þinges byȝonde þe see, and cam into Engelond for to be crowned. In his comynge prisouns were i-oponed and he was i-crowned at Londoun of Baldewyn, archebisshop of Caunterbury, þe þridde day of Septembre, þe whiche is acounted an evel day by þe veyn bileve and usage of mysbileved men, as is i-cleped [in]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe kalender dayes*. [dayes] om. Cx.] dies Egipciacus, and dies malus, an evel day by þe veyn bileve,*. [by . . . bileve] om. α. and Cx.] as it were a day of bodynge of evel*. [From α. and Cx., tris.] happes to þe Iewes; [for þe Iewes*. [Juwes, γ., et infra.] of Engelond þat*. [þat] om. α. and β.] hadde*. [hadden, β.] evel]*. [From β. and γ.] happes þat day. Meny [Iewes]*. [From β. and γ.] come to þis solempnite leste þe welþe þat þei hadde under þe olde kyng schulde be wiþdrawe in þe newe kynges tyme. But þe kyng heet and comaundede þat þe Iewes schulde nouȝt come into þe chirche while he were i-crowned noþer into þe paleys while he were at mete. But while þe kyng Page  85, vol.8 was at mete som of þe Iewes parsed*. [perside, β.; presede, γ.; pressed, Cx.] among oþere and come with ynne þe paleys gate,*. [ȝate, α.] and oon of hem was i-smete wiþ a manis feest.*. [vuest, γ.; fyste, Cx.] Þan þe rabbisshe*. [rabbisch, β.; rabyssh, Cx.] peple*. [rabysch pupel, γ.] wende þat þe kyng had so i-hote, and up wiþ staves, battes, and stoones, and leide on þe Iewes and madde hem to flee. Here of sprank*. [sprang, Cx.] likynge tidynges*. [tiþingis, β.; tyþyngus, γ.; thynges, Cx.] into al þe citee, as þey þe kyng hadde i-hote, and*. [and . . . staves] om. α., β., and Cx.] up with staves to destroye þe Iewes. And þe peple, resynge and crienge, breck*. [brake, Cx.] up þe hous þere þe Iewes were i-flowe*. [fledde, Cx.] for drede, and brende and spoylede and took what þey myȝte, and wolde nouȝt leve for þe kynges sendynge.*. [sonde, α.] But*. [þe, α., β., and Cx.] outrage of so greet woodnesse ȝif it were i-suffred schulde passe meny cruel dedes, and blenschede*. [blemesched, β.; blemsede, γ.; blemysshed, Cx.] moche þe bygynnynge of þe kyng.*. [of þe kyng] om. β.; α. and Cx. have "þe kynges begynnynge."] But for þe grete multitude of hem þat were gilty*. [gulty, γ.] he moste lete*. [late, α.] passe what he myȝt nouȝt take of ful*. [ful, from α.,β., and Cx.; for] wreche. At þe laste þe Iewes had pees i-graunted, and anon þe kyng ȝeveþ dignetees þat voydeþ.*. [avoideþ, β.; avoydeth, Cx.] And al wiþ oute þat his broþer Iohn hadde of his fader ȝifte in Irlond and in Normandie, he ȝaf hym þe provinces of Cornewayle, of Devenschire, of Notingham, of Lancastre. Also he ȝaf hym þe eorles douȝter Page  87, vol.8 of Gloucetre to wif, þat was his cosyn in þe þridde degree,*. [gree, α.] wiþ al her fader lordschippe. Þe lordschepe of þe fourþe deel*. [vurde del, γ.] þat was i-ȝove,*. [iȝeve him, β.] i-made*. [i-] om. α.; yeven hym made him, Cx.] hym unkynde and untrewe, and desired*. [desire, α. and β.; desyre, γ. and Cx.] þe hool kyngdom. Þe kyng committed þe destour|bance*. [governaunee, Cx.] of þe reawme*. [rewme, β.] to þe bisshop of Durham, þat schulde more skilfulliche and semeliche occupie hym self in Goddis service þan in þe kynges service. For þe gospel seiþ þat no man may serve eiþer lord at þe fulle*. [twey lordes at ful, Cx.] as he schulde, þey þe bisshop wolde to dele hym self for to plese eiþer kyng of hevene and of erþe. Certeynliche þe Kyng of hevene alloweþ nouȝt service þat is so to-deled, for he wolde*. [wil, α.] be served with al þe myȝt of þe*. [þe] om. α. and γ.] soule. And what ȝif þe bisshop þat is but half i-ȝeve to Goddes service doþ nouȝt his service ne*. [his . . . ne] om. α., β., and Cx.] his offys*. [office, β.] as he schulde, but ordeyneþ unworþy and recheles persons in his sted,*. [stude, β.] for he wol*. [wolde, α. and Cx.] serve holiche*. [holiliche, β.] in þe paleys oþer in þe*. [þe] om. α. and γ.] feyre and court. For in*. [in] om. γ.] non half man makeþ good*. [God, Cx.] at þe fulle*. [atte volle, γ.] of þe acountes of an erþelich prince. Also þe kynge for to have þe more large spens*. [spence, β. and Cx.] toward Ierusalem, he resignede þe castelles of Berwik and of Rokesburgh to þe kyng of Scotlond for ten þowsand pound. Also he begiled þe olde man þe riche bisshop of Durham, and made hym begge*. [bigge, β.; bye, Cx.] his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ.] province for a greet somme of money. Þerfore þe kyng seide ofte in his game, "I am a wonder crafty man, for I have i-made a newe eorle of an olde bisshop." By suche Page  89, vol.8 manere while and speche he emptede*. [ampted, β.; amptede, γ.] meny men purses and bagges, and solde dignetees and lordschippes þat longede to þe kyng, as þeyȝ he þouȝte nevere for to come aȝen. In a tyme his frendes*. [vrendes, γ.] þat were homliche wiþ hym blamede hym þerfore, and he answerde and seide: "I*. [Ich, β., bis.] wolde selle*. [sille, γ.] Londoun, and I myȝte fynde a chapman*. [chepman, γ.] þat myȝte wel paye." Meny men bouȝte wiþ þe bettre wil, for me*. [they, Cx.] trowed þat þe kyng wolde nevere come aȝen hom.*. [hom] om. Cx.; home aȝen, α.] He hadde i-fonge*. [i-fonge] om. α.; take, Cx.] power of þe pope þat he myȝte beneme*. [bynyme, α. and β.; byneme, Cx.] þe crosse whome*. [whome, from Cx.; whan, MS.] [þat]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he wolde, and þerby he gat many þowsand pound. Þan the kyng as it semed bytook rechelesliche þe governaunce*. [governynge, α., β., and Cx.] of his kyngdom to his chaunceller, bisshop of Hely, and seilled into Normandie tofore mydwynter tyde. Þat tyme at Dunstapil*. [Dunstaple, Cx.] þe signe of þe cros was i-seie in hevene, and sone þerafter þe schap of þe cros was i-seie forsake þe baner and passe somwhat of space þerfrom,*. [þarvram, γ.] telle who þat wil what it myȝte mene, for I have i-lerned to telle þis wonder, and not to discreve what it schulde mene. Þanne þe kynges of Engelond and of Fraunce after þat þey hadde i-made suerte bytwene hem tweyne, þat*. [þey, α. and Cx.; þei, β.] dwelled*. [hy dwelde, γ.] at Turon in Fraunce forto abide somer, to wende in þe wey to þe Holy Land nouȝt onliche in*. [for, Cx.] holy entent and for Page  91, vol.8 cause of [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fey, but for to*. [to] om. α., β., and Cx.] desire of her owne helthe*. [welþe, α., β., and Cx.] and hope of greet hap and fortune.*. [strengþe, α. and β.] Bote þe riȝtwisnesse of God alloweþ non suche [a]*. [From α.] manere doynge, but semeliche God ordeyneþ þat outrage*. [outrageous, Cx.] [pryde]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of mysbileved men schulde be alayde in þat manere. [Also wiþ oute þe mescheef and woo*. [and woo] om. Cx.] þat Iewes suffrede in here body and catel at Lyncolne and at Lynne, ȝet at ȝork after a longe sege and greet mescheef and woo, Raby, mayster of Iewes, forkutte þe veynes of foure hondred Iewes, and his owne veynes also, and his wifes*. [veynes, Cx., wrongly.] þrote.]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Also at Staunforde*. [Stanfort, γ.] Iewes were i-bete, i-slawe, and i-spild.*. [y-piled, α. and β.; pylled, Cx.] And oon Iohn, moost hardy of Cristen men, com to Northamptoun wiþ many grete prayes; þere his hostiler slowȝ hym priveliche by nyȝt for covetise of money þat he hadde i-brouȝt, and þrew þe body by nyȝte wiþ oute*. [into, α.] þe citee, and fleyȝ*. [fled, Cx.] awey as a þeef*. [þef, γ.] schulde. Þanne olde wyfes mette, and þere were i-seie wonder*. [wondres, α.] false siȝtes and*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] fals tokenes,*. [vals syȝtes of vals toknes, γ.] and þe sely men bere an*. [on, α. and Cx.] honde þat it was for þe holynesse of þat man, þat þey hilde a verray martir, and wor|schipped þe sepulcre of þe dede man wiþ solempne wacches and ȝiftes; bote wise men lowh*. [louȝ, α. and β.; lough, Cx.] hem to scorne; bote clerkes of þe place were wel apaide þerwith, ffor þey hadde profiȝt þerby. Þis was i-tolde þe bisshop, and anon he forbeed*. [vorbud, γ.] þe doynge of symple men uppon the*. [the] om. α., β., and Cx.] peyne of cursynge, and*. [and, from Cx.; þat, MS.] þe greet boost of coveytous men and of hir false martir. In þe mene tyme, while kyng Richard was absent, William bisshop of Hely, þe kynges chaunceller, procuratour of þe rewme,*. [reme, Cx.] þe popes legat in Engelond i-made for money, he hilde lowe*. [louȝ, α.] the Page  93, vol.8 clergie, and spak by þe kynges power, and bare down þe kynges*. [comoun, α.; comyn, β. and Cx.] peple, and schewed auctorite of þe pope of Rome, and rood wiþ a þowsand hors.*. [horses, β. and Cx.] He greved abbayes with paymentis and with ȝiftes, and made his allye*. [allyes, β. and Cx.] þe grettest of þe lond; eiþer primat his see he hilde lowȝ*. [lowe, Cx.] inow at his owne wille, for Baldewyn þe archebisshop of Caunterbury deide at Tyrus*. [Troys, Cx.] tofore þe comynge of þe kyng to*. [fro, Cx.] þe Holy Lond, and þe kynges broþer Geffray, elyt*. [electe, Cx.] of ȝork, he hadde i-let ten ȝere þat he was nouȝt i-sacred. And also Giffray londede at Dovere, and he bynam his catel, and drowȝ hym out of Seynt Martyns abbay, and putte hym in þe kynges tour; and made a counsaile at Westmynstre as þe kynges procuratour and þe popes legat. Þere his fautour Hewe Nonant,*. [Novant, γ.; Hughe Novaunt, Cx.] bisshop of Chestre, putte forþ a pleynt þat [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] monkes of Coventre had i-sched*. [shadde, Cx.] his blood riȝt tofore þe hiȝe auȝter; þerfore William bisshop of Hely demede þat monkes schulde be putte awey from Coventre, and clerkes i-brouȝt þider þat lyveþ by pro|vendres. By occasioun herof þis Hewe, þat was gylful of wit, schameles and hardy in evel dedes, connynge in lettrure and Page  95, vol.8 faire speche, and had alway i-made debaat and strif bytwene the priour and þe covent of Coventre, now wiþ strengþe of men of armes he put out þe monkes as passing evel deers, and gulty of huge*. [hoge, γ.; hughes, Cx.] trespas, and sente anon to the court of Rome men of answere ful*. [vol, γ.] informed, wiþ lettres of bisshops witnessynge þat þe monkes had forsake Cristes chivalry, and were afalle*. [avalle, γ.] to worldliche likynge; þerfore he prayed of þe pope fre power of þe ordenaunce*. [prayed the pope of free orde|naunce, Cx.] of þat abbay. Þe pope abood sixe monþes wiþ þe sentence for to abide ȝif eny man wolde come and speke for þe monkes, bote defaute of spense*. [spences, β. and Cx.] lette þe monkes, and made þat þe bisshop had al his wille. Þe monkes come unneþe at þe laste, whan þey had [longe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-wope*. [ywept, β.; wepte, Cx.] þe wrong of her violent out puttynge; but þe bisshoppes myȝt and power hadde þe*. [no, α.] maistrye by money and by sleiþe, and meny ȝeres þe monkes were disperbled,*. [disparpled, β. and Cx.] and what þey hadde was i-ordeyned to provendres to*. [to] of, β. and Cx.] clerkes, and þey lyved poor|liche, and gat her liflode as þey myȝte. Þerfore whan þis bisshop [Hew]*. [From α. and γ.; Hugo, β.; Hughe, Cx.] woorþ seek*. [seke, β.; syk, γ.] at Becco in Normandie in a Good Friday, and myȝte no man fynde þat wolde sette hym penaunce, as it is i-seide, [þan he seide],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] And I deme myself Page  97, vol.8 to ligge*. [lye, β. and Cx.] in þe peyne of purgatorie for myn evel dedes anon to þe day of doome."

Page  99, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum sextum. Þe crownynge of þe emperour.*. [Þe . . . emperour] om. α., β., and Cx.]

AFFTER Clement, þe þridde Celestinus was pope sixe ȝere and eiȝte monþes. Þe secounde day of his consecracioun he Page  101, vol.8 crowned þe fifte Henry emperour, Frederik his sone, in þis manere: first tofore þe grees of þe cherche of Rome he feng an ooþ of þis Henry þat he schulde defende and meyntene holy chirche and þe riȝtes of holy chirche, and ȝif ouȝt were bynome of seynt Petres londes, he schulde restore it aȝen wiþ al his myȝt. Þanne he sat*. [saate, Cx.] in his chayer*. [chaer, γ.] and hilde þe emperours crowne with his feet,*. [veet, γ.] and þe emperour bowed*. [bowide, β.] doun his heed, and þe pope let falle þe crowne uppon þe emperours heed, and smot it [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] aȝen of þe emperours heed anon wiþ his feet riȝt to þe grounde,*. [riȝt . . . grounde] om. Cx.] in token þat þe pope haþ power to make the emperoure and sette hym down, if he is worþy. Þe cardynals stood by, and took up*. [touk op, γ.] þe crowne, and sette it aȝen uppon þe emperours heed. While kyng William*. [the kyng, Cx.] was absent, þe forsaide William de Longchamp, bisshop of Hely, prevede*. [prived, β.; pryved, Cx.] Hughe bisshop of Durham of al manere worschippe, and greved þe bisshop of Wynchestre, and wreþþed nyh*. [wrethyd neygh, Cx.] alle. In þe mene tyme meny were arrayed for to passe þe see to have and axe a*. [α] om. α., β., and Cx.] remedie of þe kyng, and of help aȝenst þe comoun*. [comyn, β. and Cx.]Page  103, vol.8 tiraunt; but he was ware*. [waare, Cx.] þerof, and com tofore all oþere, and hadde alle his wille, and com aȝen or oþer men come to þe kyng; but oþer men hadde lettres also suche as þey wolde, and oon of hem, þat was bisshop of [Lyncolne, cam aȝen, and persewede William bisshop]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of Hely anon to Lyncolne, þere was i-sette a day to answere, and þe castel of Tykhulle;*. [Tykhille, β.; Tykhylle, Cx.] þere whan þe bisshop of Durham was i-come, þis William spak to hym and seide, "I take þe nouȝt bisshop [a byschop];*. [From γ.; a bischop, β.; I take the bisshop not a bisshop, Cx.]but I chaunceller, take þe castellan, forto þou ȝeve plegges*. [pledges, Cx.]to ȝilde up þe kynges castelles." Þe fame of þis evel man William fulfilled al Engelond, so þat þe grete grucchede*. [grutchyd, Cx.] aȝenst hym, and þe smale cursed wel faste.*. [vast, γ.] The kynges broþer Iohn was wrooþ for þe takynge of his broþer Geffray, elyt*. [erle, Cx.] of ȝork, and gadrede greet strengþe of his owne province and of Walsche men wiþ meny bisshoppes, and chased*. [chaced, β.] þis William from Wyndesore to þe toure of Londoun, and from þennes to Dovere; þere þis William dredde leste he schulde nouȝt freliche*. [freely, Cx.] passe þe see, and took a womman*. [wommans, β.] clooþ*. [cloþ, γ.; womans cloth, Cx.]Page  105, vol.8 above his owne cleþinge, and hyled*. [helede, α.; heled, β.; coveryd, Cx.] his heed and þe more deel*. [the moost part, Cx.] of his [face]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ kerchefes*. [kevercheves, γ.] and wymples, and walked on þe clef,*. [clyf, Cx.] and bar on his lift arme a webbe of lynnen cloþ, as it were to sellynge,*. [sullyng, γ.] and bare a metȝerde*. [meteyerde, Cx.] in his riȝt hond, for he wolde sliliche ascape*. [scape, α. and γ.; slyly escape, Cx.] and passe by þat craft and nouȝt be aspied. But for he couþe not selle*. [sille, β.; sulle, γ.] and undo his clooþ as a womman*. [man, α.] schulde, he was i-take by his prive membres and despitouslyche aspied; but at þe laste he passed þe see, and þe bisshop of Rothomage had þe rulynge*. [reulyng, γ.] of reaume*. [reuling of þe rewme, β.; of the royamme, Cx.] by maundement of þe kyng þat was in Sicilia. Also the bisshop of Bathe was i-chose*. [choce, Cx.] archebisshop, but he was soon dede; and ȝit William bisshop of Hely purchased a wel stronge maundement of Celestinus þe pope, and hadde þe same auctorite and power þat he hadde raþer, as it were for amaun|dement*. [amendemente, Cx.] of þe kyngdom of Engelond, and forto wiþstonde Iohn þat wolde byneme his broþer þe kyngdom while he was absent; but in al þis he was begiled,*. [bylort, γ.] for he conspired and was assentynge to Iohn for ȝiftes oþer [for]*. [From β.] faire*. [veyr, γ.] byhestes. And ȝit al for nouȝt, for þey he schewed at Dovere þe greet warant of his legacie, ȝit þe queen Alianore*. [Elyanor, Cx.] and þe arche|bishops of Rothomage and of ȝork and meny oþer compelled hym for to seille*. [sayle, Cx.] aȝen. Þanne after þat þey hadde abide springing tyme at Turon, þe kynges of Fraunce and of Enge|lond Page  107, vol.8 wente, þat*. [þat] the, Cx., bis.] oon by londe and þat*. [þat] the, Cx., bis.] oþer by water, and com to Sicilia; þere þe kyng of Fraunce let passe þe trespas of his men unpunsched,*. [unpunsed, γ.] and was cleped a lombe; but þe kyng of Engelonde leet no trespas unpunsched, þerfore he was i-cleped a leon.*. [lyon, Cx.] Also kyng Richard ffauȝt wiþ Griffon,*. [griffons, β. and Cx.; gryphones, γ.] in Calabria and in Sicilia, and hadde þe maistrie. He made a castel of tree to be i-lad aboute, and he rerede þat castel [aȝenst þe citee of Messan, and cleped þat castel]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Mate|grysphom;*. [Mategryphun, α.; Mategriffon, β.; Mategryffons, Cx.] with þat castel afterward he to*. [took, α.; toke, β. and Cx.] þe citee of Acres. And þere his moder brouȝt hym a faire mayde of schap and of speche, Berengaria, þat was þe kynges douȝter of Navarne, and kyng Richard wedded her to wyfe. Þanne þe kyng of Fraunce wente fforþ into Siria, and þe kyng of Engelond abood somwhat after þat he was a goo.*. [was goon, Cx.] Bote in þat abidynge he was nouȝt idel, but he sente forþ vitailles and made engynes. Þanne he wente out of Sycil and com into Cipres, and byþouȝt hym þat tweyne of þe kynges schippes were to-broke wiþ tempest in*. [in] of, β.] þe see, and i-spoyled by men of Cipres. Þerfore kyng Richard chasede þe kyng of Page  109, vol.8 þe lond, þat wolde nouȝt doo amendes, from citee to citee, for to þe kyng ȝalde*. [ȝylde, α.; ȝeelde, β.; yelded, Cx.] hym to kyng Richard. And þe kyng ȝalde*. [ȝulde, α.; yelde, Cx.] hym self uppon coyenant þat he schulde nouȝt be putte in bondes*. [boundes, Cx., bis.] of iren.*. [yr, γ.] Kynge Richard grauntede, but he put hym in bondes of silver, and dwelled þere tweie monþes, and hadde þe londe at his wille. Þan he wente to Acres, and took in þe see oon of þe sowdans greet schippes i-lade with grete riches, and bolgede and þrulled*. [bulgyd and thyrled, Cx.] it in þe eyþer*. [neþer, α. and Cx.; þurlede hyt in þe neþer, γ.] side.*. [bulgide and þirled hit in þe neþer side, β.] Whan he come to Acres, fil*. [vul, γ.] strif bytwene hym and þe kyng of Fraunce [in þis manere. By covenant that was made bytwene him at Turon, the kynge of Fraunce chalanged half that was wonne in Cypres. Kynge Richard ayenesayde, and sayde that the covenaunt*. [þat was made bitwene hem at Turon þe kyng of Fraunce cha|lengide half þat was y-wone in Ci|pres. Kyng Richard aȝenseide, and seide þat þe covenaunt, β. and γ.] was made of þe wynnynge in þe Holy Lond [and]*. [From β.] aȝenst þe Sarsyns. Also þere was anoþer cause Page  111, vol.8 of stryf, for the kyng wolde leve noþing to þe eorl of Cham|payn, þat was þo ful nedy and in greet mescheef, but he wolde legge*. [laye, Cx.] Champayn to þe kyng to wedde. Þan þe eorle seide, "Ich have y-doo þat y schulde; here after y schal doo what me nedeþ:*. [neodeþ, β.] myn owne lord fongeþ*. [takyth, Cx.] me nouȝt but for myne; þerfore y schal goo to hym þat is more redy to ȝeve þan to fonge." Þanne he cam to kyng Richard, and was riche ynowe].*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Also kyng Richard faverede Gy*. [Guy, Cx., et infra.] kyng of Ierusalem aȝenst Conradus Markys kyng of Tyrus, þat þe kyng of Fraunce faverede in þe oþer side. But he*. [þey, α. and Cx.; þei, β.] comeþ to þe seege of Acres, þat was byseged two ȝere and al þe travayle i-lost. For þe engynes þat were i-brouȝt aȝenst þe citee were i-brend wiþ Grekkische*. [Grekysshe, Cx.] fuyre,*. [vur, γ.] þat no water myȝte aquenche, noþer oþer element. Also þe Cristene men*. [oost, α.; hoost, Cx.] wax lasse and lasse, somdel for*. [by, α., β., and Cx.] siknes and somdel for oþer defauȝtes and mescheef. Also it was to deled in parties [for þe stryf]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat was bytwene Gy and þe Markes.*. [Markys, Cx.] Also som greet of oure side hadde i-fonge money and mede of þe sowdon.*. [soudan, β. and Cx.; sauden, γ.]

Page  113, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

WHAN*. [Þanne, β.; Than, Cx.] þe ȝere of oure Lord enleven hondred foure score and ten, þe enlevenþe day of Juyn,*. [Juyl, α., β., and Cx.] þe þrittenþe day after þe comynge of kyng Richard [to]*. [Not in γ.] þe citee, Tholomayda was i-take, þat hatte Acres. In þat takynge þe duke of Ostrige*. [Austryge, α.; Austrige, β.; Austrych, Cx.] folowed kyng Richard, for he wolde in*. [on, β.] caas chalange part of þe prayes þat were i-take. I not*. [cannot telle, Cx.] wheþer by hap oþer by þe kynges wille, þe duke of Ostrige*. [Austrege, α.; Austryche, Cx.] his baner was i-trode in þe fen.*. [ven, γ.; feen, Cx.] Þerfore þe duke was wrooþ, and tornede home aȝen, to*. [forto, α.] take afterward gretter wreche of kyng Richard. Þan al þat þere was i-wonne was departed bytwene þe kyng of Engelond and of Fraunce, and*. [and . . . Fraunce] om. α.] þe kyng [of Fraunce]*. [From Cx.] solde his prisoners, and þe kyng of Engelond heng*. [hyng, γ.] his owne prisoners. Here|fore and oþer suche dedes þe kyng of Fraunce*. [and . . . Fraunce] om. α.] gan for to stryve, and had greet envie to þe name þat kyng Richard hadde, and seide þat þe aier*. [eyr, β.; aer, γ.; eyer, Cx.] was distempered, and wente home aȝen, and swore þat he schulde do no damage to kyng Richard tofore his comynge out of þe Holy Lond. Þanne he hadde good wynde, and seillede into Italy, and cam to þe pope, and praied to be assoilled of an ooþ þat he hadde i-made Page  115, vol.8 aȝenst his*. [his, from Cx.; he, MS.] wille; bote þe pope wolde nouȝt assent. Þanne Conradus þe Markys was i-slawe of tweie þeofes*. [þeeves, β.; twy þueues, γ.; theves, Cx.] in his owne citee Tirus, and þe kyng of Fraunce fondede to putte*. [vondede to potte, γ.] þat cursed dede uppon kyng Richard, and made a counsaille at Parys, and þere he seide þat he wolde be awreke of þe traytour*. [wroken upon kyng, Cx.] Richard. But þe wisest men counseillede hym to leve his purpos, and take no*. [none, α. and Cx.; noon, β.] hasty wreche, and seide, þey*. [though, Cx.] it were sooþ þat was i-bore kyng Richard an honde, ȝit me*. [men, Cx.] schulde nouȝt hastiliche and unskilfulliche worche, but me schulde abide by cause of honeste for [to]*. [From α.; till, Cx.] he were i-come aȝen, for it was i-knowe þat he was in pilgrymage for Cristes sake. Also ȝif he wolde when he were i-come home purge hym of þat me*. [men, Cx.] bare hym an*. [on, α. and Cx.] honde, oþer make good for þe trespas, þan he*. [it, Cx.] schal be well inow, and elles it is riȝtful to axe wreche, and þat in skilful tyme; and ȝif þis counsaile pleseþ ȝow nouȝt, axeþ counsaile of þe pope. Þe kyng cesede for a tyme, but he caste a cruel doynge and blody for þe kyngdom of Engelond. For þe kyng of Fraunce sente Page  117, vol.8 messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] for to have*. [habbe, γ.] to his wif þe kynges suster of Den|mark uppon suche a covenant, þat he schulde have i-graunted wiþ here*. [hir, β.] all þe riȝt þat þe Danes had somtyme in Engelond a*. [α] om. α. and Cx.] navey and strengþe for oon ȝere to helpe wynne þat riȝt. Þat condicioun was denyed, for þe Wandales þat were aȝenst hem*. [hym, Cx.] in þe oþer side. But þe kyng hadde with þe wenche*. [weynche, γ.] ten þowsand mark of silver. Bote after the firste nyȝt of þe weddynge þe kyng forsook*. [vorsoke, γ.] her and putte her away un|semyngliche,*. [unsemely, Cx.] oþer for hire breeþ [stank],*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] oþer for he fonde hir not mayde, Þat tyme in þe*. [þe] om. α.] est londes was greet defaute*. [defout, γ.] of spens,*. [spence, β. and Cx.] and also kyng Richard was wickkedliche defamed þat he was untrewe to þe kyng of Fraunce, and hadde i-doo hym wrong. And also þat he hadd i-hired þeoves*. [y-huyred þeeves, β.; y-hyred þeves, γ.; theves, Cx.] to slee Conradus þe marquys, and þat he hadde conspired*. [conspired, from α., β., and Cx.; aspired, MS.] with þe Sowdan*. [Sauden, γ.] to betray*. [bytraye, Cx.] þe Holy Lond, and þat it was and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] þerfore Page  119, vol.8 [þat]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe kynge Richard wolde not goo to fore*. [forto, α. and β.] to take þe holy citee. Herefore kyng Richard arayed hym homward,*. [hamward, β.] also for the more deel of þe Cristene oost was destroyed wiþ swerd, wiþ siknes, wiþ honger and hard travaille. In þat doynge take hede þat þe*. [þat þe] of, γ.] hiȝe*. [hygh, Cx.] wisdom of God, þat reccheþ but lite*. [retcheth but lytel, Cx.] as it semeþ of þe worldliche*. [worlyche, γ.] heele and salvacioun*. [savacion, β.; savacyon, γ.] of his servauntes, while he makeþ hem com wisliche [by]*. [From Cx.] þe mescheves and sorowes*. [sorwe, α.; sorowe, β.] to fulfille*. [volvulle, γ.] þe [hyȝe]*. [From γ.] citee of hevene. I telle it for þei þat passede*. [passede, from γ.; passeþ, MS.] so þere spedde*. [passed so ther sped, Cx.] more graciousliche þan þei*. [þan þei, from β.; þey, α.; than they, Cx.; þat by, MS.] þat come home aȝe to her*. [here, α.; her, from β. and Cx.; the, MS.; he, MS.] foule manere of lyvynge of olde tyme. So Crist oure kyng useþ wel þe evel dedes of mankynde,*. [mankuynde, γ.] while he takeþ þe erþelich Jerusalem into þe hondes of enemyes for þe synne of hem þat wonede þerynne, and bringeþ þerynne*. [þerynne] om. α., β., and Cx.] forþ wysliche large wynnynge of hiȝe Jerusalem in*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] hevene. For þe defaute and schame of oure tyme þe holy citee mote be defouled of mysbileved men anon to þat tyme þat God knoweþ allone. For wiþ oute eny doute whan tyme comeþ þe Holy Lond schal caste out evel men þat woneþ þerynne as it dede*. [dude, γ.] somtyme, and on caas wiþ wel lasse strengþe, for God his owne strengþe schulde be more i-knowe in þat manere Page  121, vol.8 dede. So among þe Machabies one sayde;*. [one sayde, from Cx.; on syde, MS.] It is but litel maistrie for God Almyȝti to overcome meny men wiþ þe myȝt and strengþe of fewe*. [veawe, γ.] men, and þat was i-schewed and declared whanne oon pursewed a þowsand, and tweyne chasede ten þowsand. And Gedeoun dede awey þe grete multitude [and hadde þe victorye of a greet multitude]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ þre hondred men þat lapede water into her owne mowþe. But Cristene men schal nouȝt assaye God, and starte forþ rabbisliche*. [rabbyshly, Cx.] and unwysliche, fewe*. [vew, γ.] aȝenst meny enemyes, as who seiþ, We haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] a good Lord and a myȝti; for God wole þat his servauntes truste so on hym þat þey be*. [ben, α.] nouȝt recheles and necligent*. [neglygent, Cx.] to*. [but, Cx.] worche wiseliche.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

WHAN*. [Þanne, β.; Than, Cx.] trewes were i-take for fyve*. [three, Cx.] ȝere bytwene kyng Richard and þe Sowdon,*. [Sauden, γ.] and Hubert bischop of Salisbury ȝede to þe sepulcre*. [ȝude to þe sepulker, γ.] for hym self and for þe kyng, and offrede þere an holy Oost,*. [oyst, β., γ., and Cx.] and cam þennes and seylede wiþ þe kyng Page  123, vol.8 to Cypres, þennes þe kyng sente forþ to Sicil queenes tweie,*. [tweye quenes, α., β., and Cx.; twy queenus, γ.] his wif and her*. [her] hir, β.; his, Cx.] suster, nyh*. [neygh, Cx.] wiþ al his meyne. And he myȝte nouȝt wel endure in [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] softe see, but he seillede wiþ a strong wynd toward þe contray of Histria wiþ fewe*. [vew, γ.] men, and was i-dryve so*. [til, Cx.] þat he come bytwene Aquilia and Venyse, and þere he hovede and bleynt hider and þider, and hudde*. [hidde, β.; hyd, Cx.] hym somwhat of tyme, and me*. [men, Cx.] made grete pur|veaunce*. [purvyans, γ.] of vitailles for hym, and so he was aspied and i-take of þe dukes men of Austrige.*. [Austryche, Cx., et infra.] Whan þat was i-knowe, þe kyng of Fraunce made John, kyng Richard his broþer, [to]*. [From β.] turne liȝtliche aȝenst kyng Richard, and excitede also þe emperour of Almayne aȝenst king Richard. Þan þe empe|rour made covenant with the duke of Austrige forto have þe þridde deel*. [part, Cx.] of þe prophite*. [profit, β.; prouffyte, Cx.] and wynnynge þat com of kyng Richard, and hadde kyng Richard into his owne warde ȝit while kyng Richard bare þe crosse and þe signe of oure Lord. And þe emperour putte hym in a place þat hatte Trinallus,*. [Trinallis, β.; Trivallis, γ.; Tryvallis, Cx.] þere Aristotil seeþ it were good a man to slee his owne fader. But aboute Palmsoneday, þe emperour brouȝt forþ kyng Richard Page  125, vol.8 to ȝeve his answere to fore meny lordes of þe emperours lond; and he cam forþ with so glad chere, and answerde to al þing þat was put aȝenst hym, þat þe emperour was bowed*. [bouwed, γ.] nouȝt onliche to mercie, bot also forto doo hym greet reverens and wor|schippe. Þo cam to þe kyng þat was so i-holde William bisshop of Hely, þat was put out of Engelond for his grete extorciouns and outrage, he cam to þe kyng for to aspie what wil þe kyng had to hym ward. And whanne he myȝte nouȝt begile þe kyng wiþ gile of blynde flaterynge, he hadde evel trust*. [trist, β.] to hym self, and turnede aȝen into*. [to, α. and Cx.] Fraunce wiþ hope*. [hoope, Cx.] of grace. Bote Hubert bisshop of Salisbury come out of Sicil to þe kyng, and was i-send*. [sent, α. and β.] into Engelond for governynge of þe rewme,*. [regme, γ.; royame, Cx.] and also for to spede þe kynges rawnsown;*. [raunsone, Cx.] whan he was i-come*. [comen, β.] into Engelond he was i-chose archebisshop by oon*. [oon] om. Cx.] assent of þe monkes of Caunterbury [and of the bisshops, and no wonder. He feng þe palle and was y-stalled, and took anoon þe habyte of chanoun at Mertoun,*. [Marton. Cx.] and was nouȝt grevous to þe monkes of Caunterbury],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] bote þe scharpenes of Baldewyn had somdel*. [somwhat, Cx.] unwiseliche i-greved hym*. [hem, β.] toforehonde. Þey þis Baldewyn were a good man and an holy in his*. [his] om. Cx.] oþer dedes, Page  127, vol.8 ȝit he fondede [to]*. [From β. founded to, Cx.] turne*. [vondede torne, γ.] þe riȝt and þe prorogatif of þe elleccioun of þe archebisshop from þe monkes of Caunterbury. By cause þerof, faste*. [vast, γ.] by þe monkene*. [monkes, Cx.] chirche, by favour of the kyng he gan bulde a place*. [plas, γ.] and greet howsynge, nouȝt wiþ oute schedynge of blood, for to have þere provendres*. [provendes, Cx.] for seculer chanouns, and for bisshoppes suffraganes schulde nouȝt*. [nouȝt] om. β., γ., and Cx.] come þider*. [þuder, γ.] forto trete þere*. [raþer, α.] wiþ clerkes of þe ellec|cioun of þe archebisshop, and forto doo away þe monkes. Bote in þe oþer side the monkes appeled to þe pope, and compelled to cese þe work þat was bygonne, and after Baldewynes deth [þey]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þrew it [doun]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; hy þruwe hit doun, γ.] streiȝt to þe grounde. [In þat doynge hit is wonder of so greet a man, þat was first arche|dekon, and þanne whyte monk, and þanne abbot, and þanne bisshop of Wircetre, and þanne archebisshop, þat he wolde brynge men of more unperfyȝt*. [unparfyght, Cx.] lyf, seculer chanouns, instede of men of more parfyȝt lyf. For somtyme holy princes and bisshops in Englond wolde nouȝt have to menye*. [many, β.; meny, γ.] of suche manere clerkes, and ȝeve hem choys wheþer þey wolde leve here benefice oþer chaunge hir lyf and goo into religioun.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]Trevisa. It semeþ þat Baldewyn was wel avised þat Crist was heed of holy cherche, and his apostles hyȝe*. [heyghe, Cx.] bisshoppes, and non of hem alle was noþer*. [never, Cx.] monk noþer frere; and so it myȝte seme þat he knewe wel þat oþer clerkes were more profit þan evere was monk oþer frere. Bote for it is i-seide þat þe clerkes hadde choys wheþer þey wolde leve her benefice oþer goo into religioun, of þat choys it myȝte seme grete wonder; for it semeþ þerby Page  129, vol.8*. [This sentence is repeated in the MS.]þat þey*. [from α. and Cx.; α. γ.] schulde leve her benefice how it evere were; for ȝif þei*. [he, α.; þei, β.] ȝede nouȝt into religioun þey schulde leve her benefice, and ȝif þey ȝede into religioun þe*. [þeyȝ, α., they, Cx.] moste leve þe benefice by þe rule of religioun, oþer þey*. [he, α.] spekeþ oþerwise of religioun þan alle men in comyn speche wolde*. [wol, α. and Cx.; wole, β.] mene, and so it semeþ more wonder [of þat wonder]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þan of his menynge. But me*. [men, Cx.] wolde wondre þat Baldewyn, þat was a monk, wolde nouȝt flatre*. [flatery, α.] wiþ monkes, but helde*. [huld, γ.] oþer clerkes more holy þan monkes [syth he knew the degre of eyther].*. [From Cx.] Þan it foloweþ in þe storie: After þe woo and þe tene*. [teone, α. and β.] þat kyng Richard had in prisoun in Almayne a ȝere and þre monþes, he was delyvered in þe monþe of Janyver*. [Januar, Cx.] for an hondred þowsand pound of silver, and lefte wiþ the emperour plegges,*. [pledges, Cx.] þe bisshops of Rothomage and of Bathe, for som of þe money þat was nouȝt ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] i-payde: and for to paye þat som of money all þe wolle of white monkes and of chanouns was i-take, and also rynges of prelates, vessel,*. [vessels, β. and Cx.] croyses, and chalys [were y-take],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and golde i-schave of seyntes*. [seyntene, α.; seventene, β.] schrynes and i-ȝote,*. [y-molt, β.; and gold of seven|tene shrynes y-shave and molten, Cx.] and no privelege of persoun wheþer*. [noþer, α. and Cx.] of holy cherche noþer fredom*. [vredom, γ.] was i-spared Bote*. [Bote] om. Cx.] þe kyng dwelled weie*. [tweie] om. β.] monþes ful*. [volle, γ.] at Swynam*. [Suinam, α.; Swynne, Cx.] in Flaunders, oþer to abyde wynde oþer for to aray what hym neded; Page  131, vol.8 þere the emperours*. [emperour his men, α.] [men]*. [From β.] had almost*. [almest, γ.] i-take hym eft sones; for þe emperour aþouȝt þat he hadde i-lete goo þe kyng as Pharao aþouȝte*. [forthought, Cx.] somtyme, þat [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] had i-lete goo [þe children of]*. [From β. and Cx.] Israel. Bote in þe monþe of Marche þe kyng com alonde at Sandwiche, and dwelled awhile at Londoun, and wente and toke þe strengest castelles þat his broþer Iohn hadde, þe castelles of Notyngham and of Tykehulle, and putte þe wardeynes þreof in prisoun. And by counsaille and doom of lordes he privede his broþer John of all manere worschippe, for he hilde*. [heelde, β.; helde, Cx.] hym untrewe and unkynde; and hilde*. [heelde, Cx.] his Esterne*. [Ester, β. and γ.; Eester, Cx.] at Hamptoun; and so at Wynchestre, whanne þe mescheef of his takynge was i-wyped of, he was neweliche i-crowned as a newe kyng, þe fifte ȝere of his kyngdom. After þe solempnite of þat crownement*. [crownyng, β. and Cx.] þe kyng axede aȝe al þat was to forehonde liȝtliche i-ȝeve oþer grevousliche i-solde, and acounted for þe sorte al þe fruyt þat was i-fonge in þe mene tyme, and sparede for no covenant noþer for chartre, [nother]*. [From Cx.] for dede noþer for instrument; and so he dwelled awhile, and seilled into Fraunce for to werre aȝenst þe kyng of Fraunce. Þanne þe kynges fouȝte, and eiþer spedde dyversliche, and Page  133, vol.8 trewes were i-take*. [graunted, α., β., and Cx.] for oon ȝere, and þat was profitable*. [profythabel, γ.] to kyng Richard forto gadre boþe riches and strengþe, þeiȝ*. [þouȝ, β.] it wolde nouȝt stonde wiþ resoun of honeste. John, kyng Richard his broþer, þat tornede to þe kyng of Fraunce aȝenst his owne broþer, for he had riȝt nouȝt, he myȝt doo riȝt nouȝt, þerfore he was forsake of þe kyng of Fraunce. Bote by help of his moder Eleanore he come mekeliche aȝen to kyng Richard, and was afterward his trewe*. [truwe, γ.] knyȝt. For use of ȝonge knyȝtes, as it were to make hem alle*. [able, α. and β.; make hable, γ.] to fiȝte in bataile, þat tyme tournamentis, þat were left of longe tyme, were i-made and i-used aȝen nouȝt wiþstondynge þe popes forbedynge.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

ABOUTE þat tyme oon Stevene, procuratour of Angeoy,*. [Anjoye, β.] þat hadde wiseliche i-bore hym in þe secounde kyng Henries tyme, and in þis kyng Richard his tyme also;55 he supposed þat þe kyng, þat was tender of body, schulde be overcome wiþ*. [wiþ . . . come] om. α.] longe way and peril þat he schulde nevere come*. [wiþ . . . come] om. α.] aȝen, oþer ȝif Page  135, vol.8 he come aȝe it schulde be unneþe; þerfore he bygan rabbis|liche*. [rabbyschliche, α.] to passe his waraunt in absens of þe kyng. Þan oon þat was homeliche wiþ hym counsaillede hym to aske*. [axe, Cx.] of a nigro|mansere wheþer*. [where, α.] kyng Richard schulde come aȝen oþer no. Þe nigromansere ladde Stephene*. [Stevyn, γ., et infra.] into a prive place, and schewed hym a brasen heed, in þe whiche was a spirit i-closed: "Aske of þis what þou wilt," quod þe nigromansere, "but fewe and schortlyche, for he answereþ nat to greet iangelynge." "Schal I nevere*. [ich ever, β.; ever, Cx.] see kyng Richard?" quoþ Stevene. "Nay," quod þe spirit. "How*. [How . . . spirit] om. α.] longe schal myn office dure?" quod Stephene. "To þy lyves ende," quod þe spirit.*. [How . . . spirit] om. α.] "Where schal I deie?"*. [Ich dyȝe, γ.] quod Stephene. "In Pluma,". quod*. [quoþ, β.] þe spirit. Þanne moste he aske*. [axe, α. and β.] no more, but he wente from his prophet, and forbeed his men and heet hem þat they schulde bringe no feþeres*. [non veþeres, γ.] nyh hym in no manere wise, and þat [bycause that a fether]*. [From Cx.; for a feþer, β. vor veþer ys, γ] is Pluma in*. [in] a, β.] Latyn. Þerafter he gan to worche þe more boldloker,*. [boldlyche, γ.; boldly, Cx.] and greved his*. [his, from α., β., and Cx. hire MS.] sugettes ful sore, and nameliche a noble man þat fliȝ somtyme to his Page  137, vol.8 owne castel, for Stevene pursued hym. Þis man aspied whan Stevene was recheles in þe seege, and took hym, and al to|hakked hym: þat castel heet Pluma, and so þe cautel of þe gileful*. [gylfol, γ.] spirit was i-knowe; and so it fel of Gerebertus the false*. [valse, γ.] pope, as it is i-seide toforehonde. ℞.*. [R.] om. α.] And so it fil*. [befell, Cx.] of oon Albericus erl of Norþhumberlond, þat was a myȝti man with alle, and hulde*. [heelde, β.] hym nouȝt apaide with his owne estate;*. [staat, α.] but he counsailled wiþ a feend, þat tolde hym þat he schulde have*. [habbe, γ.] Grecia, þat is Grees;*. [Grece, β. and Cx., bis.] þerfore he wente estward, and cam into Grees. Whan þe Grees*. [Grekes, β. and Cx.] herde*. [hurde, γ.] telle þat he schulde regne over hem, þei took of hym al þat he hadde, and putte hym out of her lond; but after somwhat of ȝeres þis was wery of travaille and of woo, and cam to kyng Henry into Normandie, and hadde of hym a nobil wedewe*. [widewe, β.] to wyf, and whanne þe preost*. [prust, γ.] schulde wedde hem he axede of þe womman, and seide, "Dame Grecia, hast þou wille to þis man?" Þo Albericus knewe þe gile and þe fraude of þe false spirit þat arered his owne coveytous Page  139, vol.8 hert into a veyne hope. Whan kyng*. [kyng . . . Richard] om. α.] Richard had i-made redy to paye þe duke of Austrige*. [duc of Austryche, Cx.] twenty þowsande pounde þat was behynde of raunsoun, þe plegges þat kyng Richard*. [kyng . . . Richard] om. α.] hadde i-lefte wiþ hym come sodenliche and tolde þat þe tiraund*. [tyraunt, Cx.] was over|torned by wreche of Goddes doome,*. [Godus dome, γ.] and his land tofore his deth was greved with many [grete]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] mescheves; for citees were sodenliche i-brend,*. [y-barnd, γ.] and þe ryver Danubius passed þe brymmes,*. [brynkes, β. and Cx.] and dede grete harm fer aboute; sedes þat were i-sowe for|dried*. [druyde, α.] in þe erþe. Also þis duke was acorsed of þe pope for þe takynge of kyng Richard, and scorned þe corsynge; also in a seint Stephenes day he rood to þe feeldes,*. [veldes, γ.] and hurte so his*. [his, from β. and Cx.; þe MS.] foot*. [vot, γ.] þat it moste be and was*. [and was] om. γ.] kutte of, and he wiþoute hope of lyf siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat he moste deie, and in presens of þe lordis of his lond he prayed to be assoilled*. [asoyled, γ.] of þe sentens þat he was yn i-bounde. Þe clergie answerde and seide þat it myȝte noȝt be, but he wolde swere*. [swerye, γ.] to stonde to holy chirche ordenaunce touchinge þe wrong þat he hadde i-doo kyng Richard. Þe duke swore, and delyvered kyng Richard his plegges anon after his ooþ.*. [othe, Cx.] Þan þe kyng amended his lyf, and had also anoþer warnynge for to amende his lyf. For a man of Cenomannia Page  141, vol.8 wente to Seint James for greet devocioun, and cam hom aȝen save*. [saaf, β.; sauf, Cx.] and sownde. Þerafter he hadde a grete devocioun to wende, and wente to þe Holy Lond to se oure Lordes grave. As he wente by þe wey uppon caas*. [case, γ.] alone, he siȝ oon wiþ a dredful face, and was a-drad*. [adred, α.; aferd, Cx.] ful sore, and blessid hym self wel faste wiþ þe signe of þe cros in everiche side. Þan þe oþer, as it were despisynge þe signe of þe cros, seide, "Þou myȝte nouȝt defende þe in þat manere but þou schalt be myne; [and]*. [From β.] ȝif þou wilt falle*. [valle, γ.] doun to þe grounde and worschippe me, I schal make þe riche." "Now," quod the man, "it semeþ þat þou art contrarie and of þe oþer side; take þou þyn owne; [Crist his owne]*. [From β. and γ.] ȝift is*. [ȝiftes, MS.] ynow for me; I worschip hym allone." "Wilt þou nelt þou,"*. [Wolt þou nylt þou, β.; Wolt thou nylt, quoth he, Cx.] quod he, "þou most have somwhat of myne," and þrewe*. [þruwe, γ.] anon uppon þe manis heed as it were a þynne mantel, þat brende þe heer of his heed, and made þe skyn of his heed*. [and . . . heed] om. α.] al blak. Þe man was sore aferde, and cride to seint Iame. Seynt Iame com anon and aroute*. [arouted, β. and Cx.] þe fende, and axede what he was, and wherof Page  143, vol.8 he servede. "I*. [Ich, β., tris.] am a feend,"*. [Ich am a vend, γ.] quod he, "and greve mankynde. I*. [Ich, β., tris.] lettede þe Cristen kynges in þe iorney in þe Estlondes; I*. [Ich, β., tris.] took kyng Richard prisoner by*. [by, from Cx.; be MS.] my servaunt þe duke of Austrige. After þat kyng Richard was delyvered I besette hym al aboute, and nameliche aboute his chambre and his tresour, þat he gadereþ besiliche." Whan þese wordes were i-seide, þe fend vansched awey, and þe man was conforted, and left his wey þat he hadde i-ment, and tornede home aȝe to Cenomannia, and tolde kyng Richard what he hadde i-seie and i-herd, and schewed hym his heed þat was i-sweled and i|scalded; þanne þe kyng amended his owne lyf and his maneres. Aboute þat tyme Hubert archebisshop of Caunterbury was leeftenaunt*. [lutenant, β.; levetenaunt, γ.; lieutenant, Cx.] of þe pope and of the kyng of*. [in, Cx.] Engelond, þe archebisshop of ȝork was dede, and Hubert made a grete counsaile at ȝork.

Page  145, vol.8

Capitulum tricesimum.

ABOUTE þat tyme were tweyne þat fondede,*. [þat fondede] om. α.; founded, Cx.] as it semed, to doo þe kynges profit*. [prouffyte, Cx.] al by oon entent, but by dyverse cause of doynge; for þe abbot Cadomensis*. [Cadonensis, Cx.] warnede þe kyng of þe fraude of his officers; þerfore he wolde þat her outrage schulde be chastised,*. [chasted, Cx.] þat men of þe contray*. [contrayes, α. and Cx] myȝte lyve*. [lybbe, γ.] in pees. But William wiþ þe longe berde warnede þe kyng of þe outrage of riche men, þat sparede her owne riches*. [rychesse, Cx.] and piled pore men. Þanne þis abbot had a warant,*. [warent, α.; warraunt, Cx.] and cam to Londoun in þe monþe of Feverer,*. [Februar, β. and Cx.] and made sone*. [sompne, α.; somne, β.; somme, Cx.] come to fore hym þe officers of contrayes and of provinces to ȝelde ful*. [fol, γ.] acountes: bot deth hym lette, so þat he siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] nouȝt Ester-day. Me seiþ*. [Men sayn, Cx.] þat þis William was i-bore at Londoun, and hadde his*. [þe, α.] sur|name of his longe berde þat he usede, [and was y-cleped William wiþ þe longe berde. He usede]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat long berd for he wolde Page  147, vol.8 seme the more worþy and semelich in speche, and gaderynge of meny men; he was scharp of witte and somwhat i-lettred, and over mesure a greet speker, and by a manere kyndeliche rabbischnesse*. [kundlych rabyschnes, γ.] of wit and of þewes he wolde gete hym a greet name, and caste hym to doo newe dedes, and bygan to hyre*. [here, β. and Cx.; hure, γ.] greet doynge and dedes. Also his wrecched and schameliche dedes aȝenst his owne broþer was signe and tokene of his woodnes in his oþer dedes, for he accused his owne broþer of tresoun to þe kyng, for he ȝaf hym nouȝt more large spens*. [spence, β. and Cx.] of solas and cost þan he was i-woned.*. [y wont, α.; wont, β.] His broþer was a burgeys of Londoun, and hadde i-founde hym to scole. He was scorned of þe prince for þat dede, and ȝit by favour of som men he had place among þe grete of Londoun; also among þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] he blamede venymliche*. [venymouslich, β.; venymously, Cx.] þe prive dedes and þe outrage of riche men, þat misferde with pore men, and so he excitede hugeliche*. [hougelyche, γ.] þe mene men to love*. [lovye, α.; lovy, β.] and desire fredom out of mesure, so þat he socied meny to hym as þouȝ þey were bewicched*. [bywychched, γ.; bywytched, Cx.] riȝt wiþ wich|craft. For [þere]*. [From β.] he hadde tendaunt to his hestes fyve hondred þowsand and two þowsand men of Londoun, as it were to þe comoun provyour*. [comyn purvyour, γ. and Cx.] of alle. Whan he hadde so many fautours as he*. [he] om. α.] þat wolde stonde for þe pore peple and for þe kynges profite, he wolde in everiche gadrynge and counsaile wiþ|stonde Page  149, vol.8 gentil*. [jentel, α.; iantyl, γ.] men, and segge*. [seie, α.; sey, β.; sygge, γ.; say, Cx.] þat by here fraude þe kyng loste meny [grete]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] enchetes; þey grucched*. [grucchide, β.] aȝens hym þer|fore, and*. [and] om. α.] he seilled to þe kyng, and seide hym þat riche men dede hym greet wrong, for he was trewe*. [vor a was truwe, γ.] to hym. Þan he cam aȝen and gan to worche wiþ fraude, as he was i-wonde,*. [wont, α. and Cx.] more besiliche and more tristeliche,*. [trustly, Cx.] and conforted his fau|tours as it were by favour of þe kyng. Noyse and tydinges*. [tiþingis, β.; tyþyngus, γ.] of þis conspiracie sprang out, and Hubert archebisshop of Canturbury,*. [ȝork, α.] þat hadde þe rule of þe rewme,*. [regm, γ.; royamme, Cx.] herde þerof, and sente for þe peple, and rehersed how it was i-tolde, and forto putte*. [vorto potte, γ.] of all evel suspeccioun he prayed wel faire, and axede plegges. Þe pepil*. [pepul, α.] was i-plesed wiþ his faire speche, and ȝaf and delivered hym plegges; bote þis William helde forþ as he hadde bygonne, and hadde moche folk aboute him, and wente wiþ greet boost and array, [and made openliche con|venticles and counsailes and gadrynge of men, and cleped hym self þe savyour*. [saveour, β., et infra.] of pore men, and made greet boost and brag, Page  151, vol.8 and seide þat þe frowardnesse and outrage of myȝti men schulde be aleyde, and þat in a schort tyme; and he took a theme*. [teme, β. and Cx.] of holy writt, and gan to preche in þis manere: "Haurietis aquas in gaudio de fontibus salvatoris;" þat is, Kecheþ*. [clechiþ, β., et infra; kycheþ, γ., et infra; drawe, Cx.] up water wiþ ioye of þe savyour his welles. "I am," quoþ he, "þe savyour of pore men; ȝe beeþ pore men, and haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] assayed þe hard hondes of ryche men, and now kecheþ*. [drawe ye, Cx.] and laveþ up water of hulful*. [heelful, β.; helefol, γ.; heele|ful, Cx.] lore up of my welles, and þat wiþ ioye, for þe tyme of ȝoure visitacioun is y-come. Y schal," quod he, "departe and to-dele*. [divide, β., bis; dyvyde, Cx.] watres from watres. Þe peple is water: þanne y schal to-dele*. [divide, β., bis; dyvyde, Cx.] and departe þe peple þat is trewe and meke from þe peple þat is false and proude; y schalde parte*. [departe, β. and Cx.] good men from evel men, as lyȝt from derkenesse"].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne by counsaile of lordes þis Hewbert*. [Hubert, Cx.] sente for William, for he schulde stonde and answere to þat me*. [men, Cx.] schulde putte aȝenst hym. He com at þe tyme as he was sommed,*. [ysomned, γ.; somned, Cx.] but he hadde so moche folk aboute hym, þat he [that]*. [From Cx.] had i-sent for hym was aferd, and þe nysechere*. [neschere, β.; nayscher, γ.; softir, Cx.] in his doynge, and put of þe dome for þat tyme. Afterward oportunite was aspied by twene*. [by tweye, α.; by two, Cx.] burgeys Page  153, vol.8 of Londoun whan he myȝte be founde allone wiþ oute peple aboute hym, and men of armes were i-sende for to take [hym].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx. (bis).] Bote William [wiþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx. (bis).] his ax slow oon þe burgeys þat hadde aspied hym. Anon William wiþ fewe*. [vew, γ.] of his men, and wiþ his concubyne þat wolde nevere from hym, wente into a cherche þat was þere faste by, þat is Seint Marie cherche at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] bowe.*. [atte Bowe, β.] Þere he wolde nouȝt defende hym as it were in a cherche, bote as it were in a castel wiþ strengþe, and hopede in vayn þat his peple wolde come and delivere hym. Þe peple was sory for þe peril þat he was ynne, and is no wonder, bote by cause of þe plegges*. [pledgys, Cx.] þat þey hadde i-ȝeve, and for drede of þe knyȝtes þat þey sigh i-armed, þei com nouȝt to his delyveraunce. Þanne William was i-hote*. [boden, Cx.] to come [out],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] bute wolde nouȝt; þan he was compelled wiþ fuyre*. [by fier, β.; vuyr, γ.] and wiþ smoke to come out maugre*. [mauegre, γ.] his teeþ. Whanne he come out þe burgeys sone þat he had i-slawe forkutte*. [forkitte, β.; forkytte, Cx.] his wombe wiþ a knyf; but by dome of þe court whan he was i-take [he was]*. [From Cx.] firste to-draw wiþ hors, and þan he was an honged wiþ nyne felawes þat wold nevere leve hym. But fautoures diffamed þe archebisshop as a man sleere; and nouȝt onliche þat, bote Page  155, vol.8 also for to wype awey þe schame of her owne conspiracie, and for to preve þat þey þat dampned William were wikked men and evel doers, by craft and by fraude and gyle þey fondede to make William have þe name and worschip of a martir. Also me seiþ*. [men seyn, Cx.] þat a preost of William his kyn, leyde þe chayne þat William was wiþ i-bounde under a manis heed þat was sike*. [seke, β.] in*. [of, Cx.] þe feveres, and preched opounliche þat þe man was hool anon riȝtes. Þis*. [anon. Ryght this, Cx.] sprang out among þe peple,*. [pupel, γ., bis.] and þe peple com þeefliche*. [þeevelich, β.; þevelyche, γ.; pryvely, Cx.] be nyȝte, and took awey his gybet, and pared awey litel and litel þe erþe þat was by-bled*. [bibled, β.] wiþ his blood, and made a grete diche, and kepte þe erþe as it were holy relikes to hele wiþ sike men. Name and tidinges*. [tiþingis, β.] hereof sprang wel wide, and greet companyes boþe of sly*. [slyȝ, β.] men and of fooles come to þe place, and wook þere be nyȝte;*. [woke there by nyght, Cx.] alwey come þider*. [þuder, γ.] greet multitude of lewed men and of fooles, and as moche wor|schippe as þei dede þat*. [þe dede, α., β., and Cx.] man, so moche*. [mych, β.] vilenye þey putte upon hym þat hym hadde i-dampned. Þis error hadde so his forþ whan it was bygunne þat it wolde have bewicched*. [bywicched, α. and β.; bywitched, Cx.] wys men and redy ne hadde*. [nadde, β. and γ.; nad, Cx.] þei rediliche i-take hede*. [hyde, γ.] to þe doynge þat þei knewe of þis William his dedes; for he slow a man a litel to fore his takynge, and þat is ynow for a wise Page  157, vol.8 man to knowe þat he schulde not be worschipped for*. [as, α., β., and Cx.] a martir; [and ȝit his laste confessioun þat he made whanne he schulde deie schulde schame alle þat worschipped hym for a martir].*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Meny counsailled hym to be mekeliche i-schryve*. [shreven mekely, Cx.] of his synnes, and to worschippe God; he schroof hym þey it were late, and knowleched þat he hadde defouled Seint Marie cherche, and i-leye þere by a womman while he was þerynne. Also for his men come nouȝt at his wille to delyvere hym, he forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] Mary sone, and cleped þe devel to help, and prayde þat he wolde delyvere hym. William his fautores denyed al þis, and seide þat it was falsliche i-feyned. Also þe va[n]yte*. [wayte, α.; vanyte, β., γ., and Cx.] of þis tale fil*. [vul, γ.] downe sone, and durede but awhile, and aleyde þe strif; for þe*. [þe] m. Cx.] sooþnes is stedefast*. [stidefast, β.; stutefast, γ.] and is streng*. [strenger and strenger, α.; strynger and stringer, γ.; strenger, Cx.] in long tyme, but falnes i-feyned vanscheþ*. [vanyschiþ, β.; vanysshed, Cx.] awey in schort tyme. Þan Hubert þe archebisshop, ruler of þe reame,*. [regme, γ.; royamme, Cx.] cursede þat preost, and sette men of armes to kepe þat place, for men schulde not come þider a pilgrymage; and so þe sleyþe*. [slyȝþe, γ.; sleyght, Cx.] [that]*. [From Cx.; þat, β.] was i-feyned fil away in schort tyme, and þe opinioun of þe peple gan*. [bigan, β.] forto reste.

Page  159, vol.8

Capitulum tricesimum primum.

THAT tyme oon Fulco, an holy preost in Gallia, cam to kyng Richard and seide, "Kyng, to þe I seie*. [saye, β.] in þe name of God Almyȝti þat þou marie*. [maryee, β.] sone þy*. [þyn, α.] þre evel douȝtres, leste som worse hap by þe falle."*. [þe byfalle, α.; the befall, Cx.] "Þou lyest, ypocrite," quod þe kyng, "for douȝter have I*. [Ich, β.] none." "ȝis," quoþ he, "for þou hast pride, covetise, and leccherie." Þe kyng had lordes to gidres, and seide, "I*. [Ych, γ.] ȝeve my pride to þe Templeres and Hospitalers, my covetise to white monkes, and my leccherie to prelates of holy cherches."*. [chirche, Cx.] Þey þat sey*. [syȝ, β., sawe, Cx.; om. γ.] þis Fulco took and*. [and] om. γ.] putte hym into bondes, but he myȝte nouȝt be i-bounde. Þis ȝere deide Ree*. [Rees, β. (et somper), and Cx. Res, γ., et infra.] prince of Wales; of hym oon seide in þis manere: "O blis of bataille, child of chivalrie, defens of contray, worschippe of armes, arme of strengþe, hond of largenes, yȝe*. [eye, Cx.] of resoun, briȝtnes of honoste,*. [honeste, α., β., and Cx.] Achilles his scharpnes, Nestor his soburnes, Tydeus his hardynesse, Sampson his strengþe, Ector his*. [Hectors, Cx.] worþynesse, Eurialus his swiftnes, Parys his Page  161, vol.8 fairnes,*. [Parys his fairnes] om. Cx.; veyrnes, γ.] Ulix his faire speche, Salomon his wisdom, Ajax his hardynes. O cloþing of þe*. [þe] om. β.] naked, þe hungry his mete, fulfillynge*. [folvullyng, γ.] alle men bone þat hym wolde ouȝt bidde.*. [bidde] do, γ.] O faire of*. [in, Cx.] speche, felowȝ*. [felawe, β.] in service, honest of dede and sobre in word. Glad of semblaunt and loveliche*. [love, Cx.] of face.*. [fas, γ.]Goodliche to everiche man, and riȝtful to alle; þe noble dya|deme of þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] fairnes of Wales is now afalle; þat is, Rees is dede: [al Wales groneþ, Res*. [Rees, Cx.] is dede.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þe name is nouȝt i-lost, but blisse passeþ; þe blisse of Wales passeþ, Rees is deed; worschippe of the world goþ away; Rees al preysinge slakeþ; Wales lyveþ in gronynge, Rees is deed; Rees is aweye, þe enemy is here, for Rees is not here. Now Wales helpeþ nouȝt it self;*. [hit silf, β.] Res is dede and i-take awey, but his noble name is not dede, for it is alwey newe in þe world wyde. Þis place holdeþ greet worschippe [yf]*. [From Cx.; ȝif, β.] þe burþe is byholde, ȝif me axeþ*. [men axe, Cx.] what is þe ende, it is askes and poudre.*. [axes and pouder, β. and γ.; asshes and pouder, Cx.] Here he is i-hud,*. [y-hidde, β.] but he is unheled,*. [hyd, but he is unhylled, Cx.] for name dureþ ever more, and suffreþ nouȝt þe noble duk be i-hyd of speche. His proues*. [prowes, β.; prowesse, Cx., bis.] [passede his maneres, his wit passede his proues,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] his faire speche passede his witt, his goode þewes passede his faire speche."

Page  163, vol.8

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.*. [In Cx., though there is a break in the page, yet there is no number of a chapter put here, and so each chapter to the end of the book is in number one less than in our MS.]

AFTER Celestinus, þe þridde Innocent, þat*. [was pope, transposed to here in α.] heet Lotharius also, was pope eiȝte ȝere and fyve monþes: þis was a lettred man, and made þe bookes De miseria humanæ conditionis, et Speculum missæ, and meny constituciouns. He dampned abbot Joachym his book þat he hadde i-made aȝenst Perus*. [Peres, α., β., and γ.; Pyers, Cx.] Lom|bard, maister of sentens; he dampned also Amary Carnotensis wiþ his heretik lore. Also þat ȝere whan þe emperour was dede, þe princes of Almayne discordede, for som chese*. [ches, β.] Otho and som Philip, þe fifte Henries broþer; but Philip was tray|turliche*. [treytourlyche, γ.] i-slawe, and Otho was i-crowned of pope Innocent in Fraunce: he fauȝt*. [voȝt, γ.] anon wiþ þe Romayns, for þey had doo hym Page  165, vol.8 no worschippe. And þan he bynam Frederyk þe kyngdom of Apulia aȝenst þe popes wille, and*. [and] om. α.] þerfore he was acorsed of þe pope; þanne þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] ȝere of his regnynge*. [regne, Cx.] þe princes of Almayne made Frederik emperour, and he hadde worschip|liche þe victory*. [victorye, β.; victory, from Cx.; victor, MS.] of Otho. Þis last ȝere of kyng Richard oon Wydomarus, viscounte*. [vicecomyte, β.; vicond, γ.] of Lemovik*. [Lemonik, β.; Lemonke, Cx.] in Bretayne þe lasse, þe kyng of Engelond his owne man, foond greet tresour of gold and silver in his owne ground, and sente a greet deel of [the]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] tresour to kyng Richard. And he recused*. [refusede, α. and Cx.] it, and seide þat he schulde haue al by þe riȝt of his lordschippe; and þe oþer wiþseide hym. Þan þe kyng byseged þe viscounte*. [vicecomites, β.; vycount, γ.] his castel þat heet Calux, and trowed þat þe tresour was þerynne; þe mynistres of þe castel come out to þe kyng, and profred hym þe castel wiþ al þat was þerynne, savynge her lyf and lyme and armure. Bote þe kyng wolde nouȝt, bote het hym goo aȝen and defende hem self wiþ al þe strengþe þat þey kouþe and myȝte. Þan in a day þe kyng and þe duke of Braban*. [Brabant, Cx., et infra.] wente Page  167, vol.8 aboute forto aspie þe febilnes*. [feblenesse, β.; febles, γ.] of þe castel. And oon Bertrard Gardoun*. [Gurdroun, α.; Gurdon, β. and γ.; Guedon, Cx.] an arblaster*. [alblastrer, γ.; albalaster, Cx.] hitte þe kyng in þe arme wiþ a darte. Þerefore þe kyng heet þat þe castel schulde be take in al wise, and al men þat were þere ynne schulde be an*. [an] om. Cx.] honged outake hym þat [hym]*. [From β. and Cx.] had i-wounded; and so it was i-doo. Þe schaft*. [schefte, β.; scheft, γ.] was i-take out, but the yren*. [yre, β. and γ.] abood þerynne; þe*. [þe] and, Cx.] veynes and þe synues*. [senewes, β.; synewes, γ.] were forkutte; and þe nynþe day after, whan þe kyng schulde deie, he sente for hym þat hadde [him]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-wounded, and spak to hym and seide, "What dede I*. [dide Ich, β.] evere to þe þat þou hast i-wounded me anon to þe deþ."Þou slow," quod he, "my fader*. [vadyr, γ.] and myn tweyne*. [twy, γ.] breþeren, and now þou woldest have i-slawe me also, þerfore it pleseþme what peyne evere I suffre so þat þou be deed." Þan þe kyng heet and*. [heet and] om. Cx.] commaunded þat he schulde suffre*. [suffre] om. Cx.] goo free, and ȝaf hym an hondred schillynges of sterlynges;*. [schyllynges sterlyng, Cx.] but after þe kynges deeþ þe duke of Braban made hym be i-hylde*. [huld, α.; y-huld, β. and γ.; flayn, Cx.] al quyk and an*. [an] om. Cx.] honged. Þan kyng Richard deide Page  169, vol.8 þe sixte day of Averel, and his body was i-deled in þre,*. [a þre, α. and β.] and i-buried in þre places: þerfore oon seide in metre in þis [maner]:*. [From Cx.; manere, β.]

"Viscera*. [Viscera] added in margin of α. by a late hand.] Carleolum, corpus fons servat Ebrardi,*. [Ebardy, Cx.]
Et cor Rothomagum, magne Richarde tuum.
In tria*. [terra, Cx.] dividitur unus, quia plus fuit uno.
Nec superest uno gratia tanta viro."

Þat is, "Þy bowels beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] at Karlil, þy body at Font Ebrard, and þyn herte at Rothomage,*. [Roen, Cx., and it is written between the lines as a translation in γ.] þou grete Richard. He is de|parted a þre, for he was more þan oon, and so grete grace is nouȝt in oon man alyve." Anoþer metriour seide in þis manere:

"Christe, tui calicis prædo fit præda Calucis;
Ere brevi deicis*. [denis, Cx.] qui tulit era crucis.
Hic, Richarde, jaces, sed mors si cederet armis,
Victa timore tui cederet armis tuis."

Þat [is]:*. [From Cx.] "Crist, þe þeof*. [þeef, β.; þef, γ.] of þy*. [the, Cx.] chalis is Calux [his pray];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ffor schort metal*. [metayl, γ., bis.] þou þrowest hym doun þat took þe metal of þe cros. Here þou*. [þou] om. α.] liest,*. [lyst, α.] Richard, but ȝif deeþ wolde spare for wepoun*. [wepen, β. and Cx.; vor wepen, γ.] overcome wiþ drede of þe Page  171, vol.8 a*. [α] he, β. and Cx.] wolde [voyde]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] þy wepoun."*. [wepen, β. and γ.] [Trevisa.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Here kyng Richard is i-cleped Calux is [pray],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for he was i-slawe at þe castel [þat heet]*. [From α. and β.; þat hrȝte, γ. that was callyd, Cx.] Calux.

Capitulum tricesimum tertium.*. [32, Cx.]

KYNG Richard deide wiþ oute children, and his broþer, þat Page  173, vol.8 heet Iohn wiþ oute londes,*. [lond, α., β., γ., and Cx.] was kyng after hym, anoon he occupied kyng Richard his tresour at Chinon, and sente Hubert þe archebisshop to ordeyne þinges in Engelond; bote Thomas of Thorney bytook Angeoy*. [Anioye, β.] to Arthur duke of Bretayne, þe sone of þe elder broþer Geffrey.*. [Giffrai, γ.] Þere come to gidres þe lordes of Anjoye, of Cenomannia and of Turon,*. [of Chynon in Tureyn, Cx.] and hylde*. [helde, β.] wiþ Arthur,*. [Artur, Cx.] as þe manere is of þat lond, þat*. [þere, α.; the lond there, Cx.] þe elder broþer sone schal be eyre ȝif þe eldest sone deieþ wiþ oute sone. Constans, Geffray*. [Giffrai, γ.] his love,*. [loove, α.] contas*. [countesse, β. and Cx.] of Bretayne, bytook þe warde of her sone Arthur and his heritage to þe king of Fraunce, but Iohn overtorned sone Cenomannia, for he hulde wiþ Arthur. Þan þe*. [at, α. and Cx.] Esterne*. [at Ester, β. and γ.; Eester, Cx.] at Rothomage*. [Roen, Cx.] Iohn was i-gurd*. [gird, β.] wiþ þe swerd of þe duccherie of Bretayne. And an*. [an] on, β. and Cx.] holy Þorsday at Westmynstre he was i-crowned kyng of Engelond of Hubert archebisshop of Caunturbury; þat day Iohn made Hubert his owne chauncelere. Hubert was to proude of þat office after|ward, Page  175, vol.8 and oon spak to hym and seide, "Sire, þou schuldest nouȝt be proude*. [prout, γ.] of þe ȝok of þraldom; ofte we haveþ i-herd*. [habbeþ yhurd, γ.; have herde, Cx.]of an erchebisshop i-made [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] a chaunceller, bote nevere*. [bote nevere, from γ.; but never, β. and Cx.; and, MS.]a chaunceller i-made [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] a*. [an, α. and β.] erchebisshop." Here after, aboute seint Iohn his feste þe Nativite, kyng Iohn seillede into Normandie. Þere were trewes i-take bytwene þe kynges of Engelond and of Fraunce, and assuered with ooth and wiþ writinge, so þat wheþer of hem breke first þat pees, his men schulde be assoilled of his homage and fewte and [turne]*. [From α., β., and γ.; torne, Cx.] to þe oþer kyng. But afterward kyng Iohn wolde slee his owne nevewe Arthure; þanne þe kyng of Fraunce occupied meny londes*. [londes, from β., γ., and Cx.; lordes, MS.] by ȝonde þe see. Also þis ȝere þe eorle of Flaundres bycam kyng Iohn his lege*. [lyge, γ.] man, and þe kyng of Fraunce made Arthur knyȝt, and feng of hym homage for þe londe*. [londes, α. and β.] of Anioye,*. [Angeo, Cx.] and of Cenomannia, of Peyto,*. [Peytow, β.] of Turon, of Litel Bretayne, and of Normandie. Also þis ȝere was made devors*. [dyvorse, β. and Cx.; dyvors, γ.] solempneliche*. [solemliche, β.] bytwene kyng Iohn and his wif þe eorles Page  177, vol.8 douȝter of Gloucestre, bycause of kynrede*. [kynrade, γ.] in þe þridde gree.*. [degre, α. and β.; degree, Cx.] And by counsaille of þe kyng of Fraunce*. [kyng, add. Cx.] Iohn wedded Isabel, þe eorle his*. [eorle his] om. Cx.] douȝter of Engolism,*. [Engolosym, Cx.] and gat on here Henry, [and]*. [From β.] Richard duke of Cornewayle, and þre douȝtres. And took anon tribute of everiche teme*. [teeme, β.; tem, γ.] lond in Engelond þre schelynges,*. [schillyngis, β.] and wente aȝen into Normandie. Þat tyme þe þridde Ranulph eorle of Chestre, on caas by ensaumple of þe kyng, lefte his wif Constaunce contas*. [countesse, β. and Cx.] of Bretayne, þat he hadde i-wedded somtyme by counsaille of Henry, and wedded oon Clemencia, Raaph his douȝter de Feugere;*. [of Feneger, β. and Cx.; Fen|gere, γ.] þerfore he deide wiþoute children as som men weneþ.*. [wenen, Cx.] Me troweþ*. [Men trowyn, Cx.] þat þis ȝere bygan þe lordschippe of Tarters.*. [Tartres, β.] Þese men wonede under þe hilles of Inde, [and slouȝ here owne lord David,]*. [From α., β., and γ. (not Cx.).] [kyng of Inde,]*. [From β. and γ.] þat was prætor*. [preter, β., γ., and Cx.] Iohn his sone, and wente to robbynge and revynge, and took prayes of oþer naciouns. Also þat ȝere Frensche*. [Freyns, γ.] men took Constantynnoble, and made þere emperour Baldewyn [erle]*. [From β. and Cx.] of Flaundres. Men of þe contray aboute longe tyme þerafter myȝte unneþe i-leve*. [leeve, β.; leve, Cx.]Page  179, vol.8 þat þat citee was i-take, and þat for olde prophecie þat seide þat þat citee myȝte nouȝt be take but by an aungel; bote þe enemyes entrede*. [entride, β.] þe citee by a place of þe wal þer an aungel was i-peynt, and so þe men of þe contray knewe at þe laste þat þey were begiled by doubel*. [duble, γ.] entendement of an aungel. Þe secounde Frederik was emperour þre and þritty ȝere. Þis was i-crowned of pope Honorius. First he favored holy chirche, as it were his owne moder, but afterward he spoylede holy cherche, as it were his stepdame. Þerfore Honorius pope acorsed hym, and assoillede meny*. [men, Cx.] of his fey and feute. Þe nynþe pope Gregory renewed*. [renewide, β.] þe same sentens; þis Frederik took his owne sone Henry kyng of Almayne, and slouȝ hym in prisoun. Also þe prelates þat þe nynþe Gregory hadde i-sente forto come to general counsaille he made hem i-take,*. [theym to be take, Cx.] and while he was so accorsed he wente to þe Holy Lond, and lefte þere more desola|cioun and discomfort þan consolacioun and confort.*. [comfort, β.] At þe laste he was i-sette doun of the fourþe pope Innocentius, and while he byseged a citee of Italy he loste his tresour, and [the]*. [From Cx.] pope his legat chasede hym in to Apulia, and þere he Page  181, vol.8 evelde*. [evelede, α. and Cx.; eveled, β.] and deide. Aboute þis ȝere fil so greet reyn, þonder, and hayle,*. [hawel, β. and γ., bis.] þat hayle*. [hawel, β. and γ., bis.] stones fil doun from heven as greet eyren i-medled*. [ymelled, γ.] wiþ reyn, and destroyed vynes and corn;*. [cornes, β.] men were i-schent,*. [shende, Cx.] and foules were i-seie flee*. [vle, γ.] in þe ayre, and bere fury*. [vuyry, γ.; fuyer, Cx.] coles in her biles, and sette houses a fyre.*. [hous fuyre, α.] Also þis ȝere at Londoun deide seint Hewe*. [Huwe, β.] bisshop of Lin|colne, [but he was y-buryed at Lyncolne].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] To his burienge come þe popes legat and þre archebisshoppes, [of Caunterbury, of Develyng*. [Develun β.; Dyvelyng, γ.] and of Regne,*. [Ragne, β., γ., and Cx.] and þrittene bisshoppes],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and tweie kynges, of Engelond and of Scotlond, þat was þo*. [þo] soo, Cx.] i-come þider forto swere fewte uppon Hubert the archebisshops cros, and forto doo homage to kyng Iohn. Þat day a womman had her siȝt þat hadde i-be sevene ȝere blynde, and a purskevere*. [purskervere, α. and Cx.; purs|kerver, β. and γ.] in kuttinge of purses werþ i-cliȝt*. [y-clyȝt, α. and γ.; was lame, Cx.] in his hondes, forto he was delivered by prayeng of the clergie and*. [and] om. Cx.] of þe people.*. [pupel, γ.] Þis Hewe was of þe nacioun of byȝonde*. [byȝunde, γ.] þe see, i-made priour of þe Charthous*. [Chartrous, Cx.] at Wicham besides Salusbury, and þan he Page  183, vol.8 was made bisshop of Lyncolne. Whan he was i-stalled at Lyncoln by þe archedecon, me axede an hors oþer a kow for his stallynge, and he seide þat hym*. [þat hym] he, Cx.] were levere forsake þe bisshopriche þan ȝeve eny manere þing for suche*. [soche, γ.] a doynge. Wilde foules*. [voules, γ.] wolde fecche*. [veeche, γ.] mete at his hond. Þis [yere]*. [From Cx.] Eustas abbot of Flaiȝ*. [Flai, α., β., and γ.; Flaye, Cx.] cam in to Engelonde forto preche Goddes word, and dede meny miracles:*. [myrakels, γ., bis.] among þe myracles he blessed þe welle of Wy besides Caunterbury, and sike men þat dronke þerof had her heele; ffor a womman þat hadde a fende wiþ inne her drank þerof, and caste up tweye*. [twy, γ.] blake taddes,*. [todes, Cx.] þat tornede anon in to houndes, and þan in to grete asshes,*. [asses, α., β., and Cx.] and fliȝ*. [flyed, Cx.] up in to þe ayer,*. [eyr, Cx.] and lefte foule soores*. [foores, β.] after hem. Þis Eustas by his prechynge made meny men leve*. [leeve, β.] userie and chepynge and feyres in*. [in] on, Cx.] þe Sonday; he made þat liȝt schulde brenne alwey in cherches to fore Goddes body, and þat lordes at þe borde schulde have almes disches. At þe laste som prelates hadde envie to þis Eustas, and seide to hym, "Þou hast no leve to sette þyn hook*. [houk, γ.] in oþer men Page  185, vol.8 ripe."*. [ryppe, α.; rip, β.; ryp, γ. rype, Cx.] "Þere is moche corn [to rype],*. [From γ.]" quod he, "and fewe workmen;" and so he wente into Normandie. Also þis ȝere in þe province of ȝork, in the monþe of Decembre, were i-seie fyve*. [vyf, γ.] mones in hevene, oon in þe est and þe oþere*. [another, Cx.] in the west, þe þridde in þe south, þe fourþe in þe north, and þe fifte in þe myddel of hevene, and ȝede sixe siþes*. [sydes, γ.] aboute þe oþer foure*. [foure] om. Cx.] moones as it were in an houre, and vanschede*. [vansede, γ.] awey at þe laste.

Capitulum tricesimum quartum.*. [33, α. and Cx.]

AT Lammasse at þe castel of Myrabel, kyng John took and slowȝ his nevew Arthur, and prisoned his suster Elianore at Bristowe to hire lyves ende. Þerfore as it were for vilonie*. [felonye, α. and Cx.; felony, β. and γ.] þe kyng of Fraunce occupied Normandie, Bretayne, Payto,*. [Peytow, β. and Cx.] Angeoy et*. [and, Cx.] Cenomannia. Þis ȝere, þat was þe sixte ȝere of þe þridde Innocentius, bygan the ordre of Frere Prechours in þe contray of Tholous under þe duke Dominik, but it myȝte Page  187, vol.8 nouȝt be confermed tofore þe firste ȝere of Honorius. Þo fil*. [vul, γ.] a scharp wynter and a grisliche, and*. [þat, α.] durede from ȝeres day to þe Annunciacioun. Also kyng John mariede his baast douȝter to Lewelyn prince of Wales, and ȝaf wiþ here þe castel and al the lordschippe of Eylesmere*. [Ellesmere, β.; Ellesmer, Cx.] in þe marche of Wales. Þis ȝer, whan Hubert archebisshop of Caunterbury was dede, þere*. [þere] om. α.] fil greet stryf [in þe chirche of Caunterbury],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] for som chees*. [chose, Cx.] þe suppriour, and som þe bisshop of Norþ|whiche*. [Norwyche, Cx.] by þe kynges heste. Bote Innocentius þe pope un|dede*. [undide, β.] eyþer ellectioun, and sacrede Stevene of Langtoun. Houndes and masteves*. [mastyves, β. and γ.; maistyves, Cx.] beeþ i-slawe in alle þe forestes of Engelond. [Giraldus.]*. [From γ. and Cx.] In Souþ Wales in Morgan his lond a knyȝt appered to oon maister Morys in his sleep, þat was i-woned*. [wont, β.] to pleie wiþ hym, and to make vers*. [versus, β. and Cx.] eyþer wiþ other, now bygynnynge and eft endynge,*. [endynge, from α., β., and Cx.; endyde MS.] so þat eyþer schulde ende oþer his*. [on his] oþeres, α. and β.; oþer hys, from γ.; others, Cx. on his MS.] vers. In þat apperynge þe knyȝt spak to maister Moris in his sleep,*. [in his sleep] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and seide, "Maister Morys, I wil*. [Ich wole, β.]þat þou ende þis vers, Destruet hoc regnum Rex regum."But ende þou it," quod Morys, "for þou hast almost i-made Page  189, vol.8 a ful vers.*. [versus, β and Cx.] As I see," quod þe knyȝt,*. [knyȝt, from β.; knyght, Cx.; A y se quaþ þe knyȝt, γ.; kyng MS.] "Þat þou art olde and slow, þerfore ende it in þis manere, Destruet hoc regnum Rex regum duplice*. [dupplici, β.; dupplice, γ.]plaga." Þat is, "Kyngene Kyng*. [Kyng of kynges, β.; King of kyng, Cx.]schal destroye þis rewme*. [royamme, Cx.] wiþ double*. [duble, γ.] meschef." Also þere*. [þere] þys ȝere, γ.; this yere, Cx.] was Henry i-bore, kyng Iohn his eldest sone i-gete on Isabel: he gat on here þis Henry, and Richard eorle of Corne|wayle, and þre douȝtres, Isabel þe emperesse, and Elianore, þat was first i-maried to William Marchal erle of Penbroke, and afterward to Symound de Mountfort erle of Leycestre,*. [Leyceter, γ.] þat gat on hire sixe children. Also þe þridde, Ione,*. [Iohan, β.; Jouhane, γ.; Iane, Cx.] was i-maried to þe kyng of Scotlonde. Þis ȝere bygan þe enterditynge of Eng|lond, þat durede sevene ȝere [contynualliche],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ffor kyng Iohn recusede*. [refused, Cx.] and wolde in no wise fonge Stevene [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Langtoun*. [Langeton, γ.] archebisshop of Caunterbury, þat was confermed by þe pope. Also kyng Iohn chasede the monkes of Caunterbury, and took here goodes in his owne hond. Þerfore þe pope assoillede kyng Iohn his men of his homage and fewte, and wroot to þe kynges next Iohn þat þey schulde arise aȝenst Iohn. Heretikes Page  191, vol.8 þat heet*. [hiȝte, β.] Abbigenses*. [Albigenses, β. and γ.; Albi|gensis, Cx.] come into Engelond, and some of hem were i-brend alyve.*. [onlyve, α.] [Sarsyns come out of Affrica wiþ þre þowsend men of armes al wiþ oute sixty þowsand of lavenderes,*. [lavendres, β. and Cx.; laven|ders, γ.] and occupiede a greet deel of Spayne. Þerfore Innocentius þe pope sente messangeres*. [messagers, Cx.] to dyvers naciouns for help and socour of þe Holy Lond. For þe Sarsyns hadde y-bulde*. [bilde, β.] strengþes*. [stryngþes, γ.] in þe hul mont Tabor forto werre aȝenst Acres.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Also þis ȝere seint Fraunceys began þe ordre of Frere Menoures bysides Assise. Þe kyng of Fraunce wiþ greet oost occupied þe clyves of Normandie aȝenst kyng Iohn.*. [and chargede hyȝliche, add. α. wrongly.] Þe popes legat Pandulphus cam into Engelond, and spak to kyng Iohn, and chargede hyliche*. [chargide hyȝlich, β.; hyȝlyche, γ.] þat he schulde be buxum*. [buxom, β. and Cx; boxum, γ.] and obedient to þe cherche of Rome. Þe kyng seiȝ*. [siȝe, α.; sawe, Cx.] peril in every side, by þe kyng of Fraunce, and also by lordes of his owne lond þat hadde by writinge turned hem self to þe kyng of Fraunce.*. [and also by lordes of his owne londes, repeated here in MS.] Þan þe kyng obleged*. [oblegide, β.; oblege, γ.] al his kyngdome of Engelonde and Erlonde*. [Irlond, β. and Cx.] also, for hym and for his heire,*. [heyres, α. and Cx.; eyres, β.] to pope Innocentius and his laweful successoures for evere, so þat after þat tyme he and his heires schulde be feodaries to þe chirche of Rome, Page  193, vol.8 and paie everich ȝere seven hondred mark for [Engelond, and two hondred mark for]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Irlond; so þat ȝif he oþer eny of his heires faillede*. [faylde, γ.] of þis condicioun oþer of þe paiement he schulde falle*. [valle, γ.] of [þe]*. [From β.] riȝt to*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] þe kyngdom. [Here after Pandulphus wente forþ and compellede þe kyng of Fraunce to wende out of Normandye. Stevene þe archebisshop and þeyȝ*. [þei, β., bis.] þat were exciled wiþ hym cam into Engelond, and assoyllede þe kyng and his fautoures in þe cherche of Wyn|chestre. But he*. [he] a, γ.] made hem swere þat þeyȝ*. [þei, β., bis.] schulde restore al þat was wrongfulliche y-take.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Aboute þat tyme kyng John made honge and drawe an holy man þat heet Peeris of Pountfreiȝt,*. [Peres of Pontfret, β.; Pont|fret, γ., et infra; Pyers of Ponfret, Cx.] for he hadde i-warnede hym of meny mys|happes þat schulde falle hem*. [him shold fal, Cx.] for*. [valle vor, γ.] his cruelnes and for his fornicacioun.*. [Part of this sentence is repeated in MS.] Also for he hadde i-warnede hym þat he schulde regne but fourtene ȝere, and he regnede almost*. [almest, γ.] eyȝtene ȝere; but he knewe nouȝt in þat doynge þat he regnede fre|liche*. [vrelich, γ.] but fourtene ȝere; but he regnede þre ȝere [nouȝt freliche,*. [vrelyche, γ.] for þilke*. [þelke, γ.] þre ȝere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]*. [he, from α., β., and Cx.; and, MS.] was tributarie to þe pope. Crist appered to þis Perys*. [Peres, β.] twyes at ȝork, and ones at Pount|freyt*. [Pontfret, β.]Page  195, vol.8 in þe liknes of a child bytwene þe preostes hondes, and breþede on hym, and seide þries, "Pes, pes, pes,"*. [in the . . . pes] om. Cx.] and tawȝte hym many þinges þat he tolde afterward to bisshoppes and peple*. [pupel, γ.] þat were of evel lyf. Also in a tyme he lay þre dayes and þre nyȝt*. [nyghtes, Cx.] as he were in a*. [α] om. Cx.] swonyng, and was i-ravisshed and sigh þe ioyes and peynes of good men and [of]*. [From β. and γ.] evel. A*. [α] On, β. and Cx.] seynt Andrew his eve kyng Iohn took þe castel of Rouchestre, þere meny gentil men were conspired aȝenst hym. Also Lewys,*. [Lowys, β.] þat was the kynges broþer of Fraunce, com into Engelond at þe prayer of lordes, and hadde homage and feute of Frensche*. [Freyns, γ.] men and Englisch, and of þe kyng of Scot|londe, at Londoun; bote þe popes legat [Gualo]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was þo in Engelond, and cursed Lowys and his fautours. Noþeles Lowys took Wynchestre, and byseged Dovere and Wyndesore. Pope Innocent*. [Innocentius, α., β., and Cx.] is deed,*. [is deed] deyde, α. and β.; deyd, Cx.] and þe þridde Honorius was pope after hym ten ȝere and eyȝte monþes. In his firste ȝere he con|fermede þe ordre of Frere Prechours, for þe þridde Innocentius Page  197, vol.8 was loth*. [loþe, β.] to conferme þat ordre. Kyng Iohn deide at Newerk in*. [of, Cx.] þe flux, a Seint Calixtis*. [Calix his, α.; Seynt Calyxt hys day, γ.; Calyxtes, Cx.] day þe pope, þe seventeþe ȝere of his kyngdom, in the sixte monþe, but he was i-boweld in þe abbay of white chanouns at Crochtoun,*. [Croghton, β., γ., and Cx.] and buried at Wynchestre*. [Wircetre, α., β., and Cx.] in þe myddel of þe queer*. [queor, α. and β.] of monkes. Bote þe comune*. [comyn, β. and Cx.] fame telleþ þat he was i-poysned at Swyneshede, in þe abbay of white monkes. Me seiþ*. [þat . . . seiþ] om. Cx.] þat he swore þere at mete, þat þe loof*. [lof, β.] þat was þo [but]*. [From β.] at*. [at] worth, Cx.] an half peny*. [halpeny, γ.] schulde be worþe twelve pens*. [panes, γ.] wiþ ynne þat ȝere ȝif he moste lyve. A monk of þat hous herde þat, and made a*. [α] om. α., β., and γ.; hym Cx.] drink of venym, and schrof hym, and was i-houseled, and drank to þe kyng as it were his tastour, and so þe kyng and he deide in fere.*. [in fere] yfere, β.; yvere, γ.; both attones, Cx.]

Capitulum tricesimum quintum.*. [34, Cx.]

ANON a Symondis*. [Symon his, α.; a seynt Symon hys, γ.; upon Saynt Symons, Cx.] day and seint*. [seint, Cx.] Iude, kyng Iohn his sone Henry, a child of nyne ȝere old, was i-made kyng: he was Page  199, vol.8 i-holpe by strengþe and wit of the popes legat, of þe bisshop of Wynchestre, of þe erles of Penbroke and of Chestre; [for Ranulph erl of Chestre]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hadde þoo i-take Lyncolne aȝenst Lowys, and i-slawe þere meny Frensche men. Þan Lowys syh*. [syȝ, β.; saw, Cx.] þat his party was febled, and feng*. [vyng, γ.] money, and ȝelde up þe strengþes þat he hadde i-holde, and was assoylled of þe popes legat, and wente aȝen in to Fraunce. Lewed*. [Lewyde, β.] men þat heelde*. [huld, γ.] with Lowys were nouȝt disherited, bot clerkes, as þe trespas was greet, were prived of her benefice, oþer i-sent to þe court of Rome for to be assoilled. Ranulph erle of Chestre wente to Ierusalem, after þat he was acorded wiþ Lewelyn prince of Wales; and Damyeta is i-take of Cristen men. Þis ȝere first þe abbottes of blak ordre come to gidres at Oxen|forde forto trete of þe ordre. Kyng Henry bygan þe newe werk at Westmynstre;*. [Westmestre, Cx.] and Ranulph erle of Chestre cam*. [come, α.] out of þe Holy Lond, and bulde þe castelles of*. [of . . . castelles] om. α.] Chirteley*. [Charteley, β. and Cx.; Char|teleye, γ.] and of Borston*. [Beestoun, β.; Beeston, γ.; Beston, Cx.] and þe abbay of Deulcresse*. [Delacresse, β. and Cx.; Deu|lacresse, γ.] of þe white ordre.*. [order, β. and γ.] For þe cost of þese castelles*. [of . . . castelles] om. α.] he took taliage*. [tallage, γ.; tollage, Cx.] in al Page  201, vol.8 his land. Also þis ȝere seint Thomas of Caunturbury þe martir was translated by Stevene þe archebisshop [of Caunter|bury].*. [From α. and γ. (not in β. and Cx.).] Durynge þe solempnite he fonde hey*. [heyȝ, α.] and pro|vendre*. [provende, Cx.] to alle men þat wolde axe it, in þe wey bitwene Londoun and Caunturbury. Also in þe day of þe translacioun he made wyne [to renne]*. [From β. and Cx.; urne, from γ.] in pipes continualliche in divers places*. [plas, γ.] of þe citee. And so the coste þat Stevene made in þis solempnite his fourþe*. [ferthe, β.] successour Bonefacius paide it unneþe. [Alisaundre kyng of Scotlond wedded Iohanne, kyng Henryes suster.*. [soster, γ.] A*. [On, β. and Cx.] seynt Luc þe Evaungelyst his day com a wynd out of þe norþside þat brak doun hous,*. [houses, β. and Cx.] orchardes and woodes, belhous and belfrayes. Also fury*. [fuyry, β.; vury, γ.; fyry, Cx.] dragouns and evel spirites were y-seie fle*. [vle, γ.] aboute in þe whirle wynd. At Oxenforde, in þe counsail of bisshops, was oon y-take þat hadde in his body woundes as oure Lord Crist hadde y-nayled to þe cros. Þis seide þat he was Iesus, bote by doom of holy cherche he was y-take to be y-punsched, [and]*. [From β. and γ.] at Abburbyry he was y-nayled to þe cros. David an erl of Scotlond hadde Page  203, vol.8 a son Iohn þat wedded Lewelyn his douȝter prince of Wales, as hit were for fynal acord bytwene [him and]*. [From β. and Cx.; hym and, γ.] Lewelyn and his eem Ranulph erle of Chestre.]*. [Alisaundre . . . Chestre] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Iohn kyng of Ieru|salem cam into Engelond [for socour of þe Holy Lond. Þe lordes of Engelond]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] graunted kyng Henry þe wardes of heires*. [eyres, β.] and of her londes, and þat was begynnynge of moche*. [myche, β.] harm in Engelond; and sone þer after kyng Henry took þe fifteþe*. [fiftenþe, α., β., and Cx.] peny in all Engelond. Þis ȝere [fyrst]*. [From Cx.] come Frere Menoures*. [Mynors, γ.] into Engelond, two ȝere tofore seint Austyn*. [Fraunceys his, α., β., and γ.; Fraunceys, Cx.] deeþ. After Honorius þe nynþe Gregory was pope fourtene ȝere. Þis strengþede*. [stryngþede, γ.] þe sentence of cursynge aȝenst Frederik þe emperour, [þerefore þe emperour]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] took meny prelates and tweie*. [twy, γ.] cardinales þat wente to [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] counsaille. Þis pope made his*. [his] om. β.] broþer Reymond [to]*. [From β.] compile fyve bookes of Decretales, þat were i-gadered of meny constituciouns, pistles, and decretales.*. [þat were, repeated here in MS., but om. α., β., and Cx.] Also in a tyme þis pope was byseged of þe emperour in*. [in . . . emperour] om. α.] þe citee of Rome, and siȝ þat þe Page  205, vol.8 Romayns hadde i-fonge mede*. [myde, γ.] of þe emperour; þan he toke in his hondes þe hedes of þe aposteles*. [apostlis, β.] Peter and Paule, and made a processioun from Seint Iohn his chirche þe Lateran to Seint Petres chirche, and so he awelde*. [awelded, β. and Cx.] þe hertes of þe Ro|mayns. Þerefore þe emperour was aferd and wente þennes a fer wey.*. [a ferre wey, Cx.] Stevene þe archbisshop deide; he coted*. [quoted, β. and Cx.; quotede, γ.] þe Bible*. [Bybyl, γ.] at Parys, and marked*. [merkede, γ.] þe chapitres, and endite*. [endited, β. and Cx.; enditede, γ.] kyng Richard his lyf, and lefte after hym meny goode bookes þat he hadde i-made. Þe greet dene*. [deen, β.] of Londoun, maister Richard of Weþerisheved,*. [Weþereshed, β.; Withershed, Cx.] was archebisshop after hym. Also þis ȝere deide William of Alverne, a noble man of lettrure;*. [a lettred man, Cx.] first he was chaunceler and þan bisshop of Parys; þis lefte after hym meny noble*. [noble] om. Cx.] bookes þat he hadde i-made: De sacramentis; Cur Deus homo? De fide et de legibus, et de universo temporali*. [corporali, Cx.] et spirituali. [Gregory toke þe dyme*. [dysme, γ.] of holy cherche. While þe bisshop of Londoun seide his masse in Seynt Poul his cherche, fil so greet þiknesse of cloudes, derkenes of þe sonne, wiþ þonderynge and liȝtnynge and stenche,*. [stynch, γ.] þat no man myȝte suffre, so þat þe peple went Page  207, vol.8 out of þe cherche and left þe bisshop þere wiþ his servaunt*. [servauntes, Cx.] alone. Þis ȝere kyng Henry grauntede Englische men meny fredoms,*. [vredoms, γ.] bote he took of hem þe fiftenþe*. [fifteþe, β.] deel of here goodes and catel,*. [catail, Cx.] forto wynne londes byȝonde see þat þe kyng of Fraunce hadde occupied in kyng Henryes tyme; and so he seillede*. [sayled, Cx.] over see wiþ greet strengþe, and dede litel profyȝt. Wiliam de Brewes blamed for Lewelyn prince of Wales his wyf, and prisoned and an*. [an] om. Cx.] honged. Þerfore fyl greet stryf bytwene the kyng and Lewelyn.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Ranulph erle of Chestre, of Lyncolne, and of*. [of] om. α.] Huntyngdone deide at Walyngford, and was i-buried at Chestre in þe chapitre of monkes wiþ his fforfadres. His suster sone Iohn Scot was eorle after hym. This Ranulph deide wiþ oute children, and hadde foure sustres: the eldest of hem,*. [ham, γ.] Molde, was i-maried to David an erle of Scotlond; of hem com þis*. [þis] om. Cx.] Iohn Scott. Þe secounde suster Mabily*. [Mablye, β. and Cx.] was i-maried to þe eorle of Arundel. Þe þridde Agneys*. [Agnes, γ.] to þe erle of Derby, William de Ferrars. Þe fourþe Hawys was maried to þe eorle of Wyn|chestre Page  209, vol.8 Robert [Quyncy.*. [Quynycy, Cx.] Kyng Henry made þe hospital of Seint Iohn wiþ out þe est ȝate at Oxenforde, and leide þe firste stoon. Whanne Richard archebisshop]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of Caunter|bury was dede, seynt Edmond of Abingdon*. [Abendon, Cx.] was archebisshop after hym, that was þo tresorer of Salisbury: he deyde byȝonde see þe eyȝteþe*. [eiȝtenþe, β.; eyghtenth, Cx.] ȝere of his bisshopriche,*. [bisshopriche] age, α.] [and was buryed at Pountney*. [Pontney, β. and γ.] in Burgoyn,*. [Ponteneye in Burguyn, α.] and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe sevenþe ȝere þerafter he was translated by favour of þe fourþe Innocentius þe pope.

Capitulum tricesimum sextum.*. [35, Cx.]

FREDERIK þe emperour wedded Isabel, kyng Henries suster. Þat ȝere þe Iewes were i-brouȝt tofore þe kyng at Westmynstre,*. [Westmestre, Cx.] for þey hadde i-hyd*. [y-hud, γ.] a child al a ȝere in Norþwhiche,*. [Norwich β.] and after þat þei hadde circumcided*. [circumcided, from α., β., and Cx.; i-crucified, MS.] hym þey caste forto naile hym on*. [on] to, β. and Cx.] þe cros. Kyng Henry wedded þe eorles douȝter of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Province. Page  211, vol.8 Iohn Scot, erle of Chestre [and of Hontyngdon, deide wiþ oute children*. [chyldern, γ.] at Derenhale þe sevenþe day of Iune, and was y-buryed at Chestre];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] but for his londes hadde prerogatyf of realte, his erldom fil to þe kyng his hond, and his sustres þat were his heyres*. [eyres, β.] hadde oþer londes þerfore in compensacioun, for so faire lordschip schulde not be deled bytwene distaves of*. [and, α.] wommen. Þis Iohn hadde foure sustres;*. [voure sosters, γ.] oon of hem heet*. [heet] om. β.] Mergrete,*. [Margarete, α.; Margaret, γ. and Cx.] and*. [and] om. α. and β.] was i-wedded [to Aleyn*. [Alayn, γ.] of]*. [From α. β., and Cx.; into, MS.] Galewey,*. [Galwey, γ.] and baar þe maide Devergoile; þis maide was i-wedded to Iohn Baillol, and baar Iohn Baillol kyng of Scotlond; þe oþer suster Isabel was i-maried to Robert de Brus;*. [Bruys, α., β., and Cx.; Bruiȝ, γ.] þe þridde suster Mold deide wiþ oute children; þe fourþe suster Alda was maried to Henry de Hastynges. Also þis ȝere Ottobonus*. [Octobonus, β., γ., and Cx., et infra.] þe legat cam into Engelond, and ordeyned meny goode ordynaunces for the profit of holy chirche. While he passed þoruȝ Oxenforde was [greet]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fiȝtinge bytwene [the]*. [From Cx.] scolers and som of his meyne, so þat oon of his men was i-slawe, and he hymself Ottobon*. [Octobon, β.] was byseged in þe belfray at Osenay*. [Oseney, γ., et infra.] tofore*. [forto, α. and β.; till, Cx.] evesong tyme, and myȝt unneþe be delyvered by meny of þe kynges mynistres*. [meyne, α.] þat come þider from Abingdoun.*. [Abendoun, α.] Þan Page  213, vol.8 he was i-brouȝt at Walyngford, and cursede þe mysdoers, and suspended þe mysdoers and*. [þe mysdoers and] om. β. and Cx.] þe study of Oxenforde, forto þe abbot and þe chanouns of Osenay and maistres regentes of Oxenforde com barefoot and barelegged and ungerd*. [ungurd, γ.] þorugh*. [ungirde þurȝ, β.] Londoun to þe legat his in,*. [his in] om. Cx.; yn, α.] and had forȝifnes unneþe. Þat ȝere a false clerk feyned hym selfe mad, and aspied þe privete of þe kynges court, and cam by a wyndow into þe kynges chambre at Wodestoke forto slee þe kyng; but by þe cry of an holy womman he was i-take and to-drawe at Coventre. Ed|ward, kyng Henry his eldest sone, is i-bore at Westmynstre; hym fulled*. [cristned, Cx.] Ottobon*. [folled Octobon, β.; vollede Oc|tobon, γ.] þe legat, and confermed Edmond arche|bisshop. Þis ȝere þe kynges of Tarters whan þey had over|come þe est londes, þey*. [hy, γ.] departede hem in tweie*. [twy, γ.] companyes, þe oon party þerof destroyed so Hungery and Pannonia þat men of þat lond*. [the countray, Cx.] ete þe flesche of her owne children, and meny scrapede of þe pouder*. [pouþere, α.] of an hil*. [hulle, γ.] and ete it as it were mele. After þe nynþe Gregory, þe ferþe Celestinus was pope Page  215, vol.8 oon monþe, and [the see]*. [From Cx.; þe se, β. and γ.; þis, MS.] was voyde oon ȝere; and after hym þe fourþe Innocent was pope enlevene ȝere and sixe monþes. Oure Savyour*. [saveoure, α.] his crowne of þornes is i-brouȝt into Fraunce. Ottobon*. [Octobon, β.] went out of Engelond, and was i-take in þe see of þe emperoures men. At Chestre kyng Henry entrede into Wales, and David þe prince cam to hym at Ruthelan.*. [Ruthland, Cx.] Þat ȝere deide seynt Edmond of*. [at, α. and β.] Pountenay*. [Pontney, β.] and Bonefas was archebisshop after hym. Þis Edmond was i-bore at Abyngdoun*. [Abendon, Cx.] bysides Oxenforde, and had holy fadir and moder; his fader*. [vader, γ., bis.] heet Edward, Riche by his surname; by assent of his wif he hadde*. [ladde, α., β., and γ.; lad, Cx.] relygious lyf at Evesham. His moder heet Mabily,*. [Mablie, β.; Mabili, γ.] sche*. [heo, β.] usede þe heire*. [here, γ.] and an hauber|geoun,*. [haberion, β.; the heer and an haberion, Cx.] and fauȝt in her flesche and*. [and] om. β. and Cx.] aȝenst her*. [the, α., β., and Cx.] flesche. Edmond was i-bore clene of al wem of childhode, a*. [on, Cx.] seynt Edmondes day þe kyng and martir, and lay al þat day fro þe Page  217, vol.8 morwe tide to eve as þey he were a*. [y, α.] swowe,*. [swowne, Cx.] so þat þey þat were þere wolde have i-buried hym ne hadde*. [nadde, β.] his moder wiþ seide hem. He was i-cleped Edmond, þat is, gracious and clene, for he was i-bore in*. [on, Cx.] a seynt Edmondis day, and also for while his moder ȝede*. [ȝede] was, β. and Cx.] with childe wiþ hym sche wente a pilgrimage and bad here bedes at seynt Edmond his tombe,*. [tumbe, γ.] and þere sche was firste war þat þe child was on*. [on] a, γ.] lyve. From his [firste]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; vurste, γ.] childhod þis used his wittes to þe studie of goodnes by occupacioun of gostliche lyvynge, for good usage and custom schulde afterward have þe maistrie and voyde alle wikked dedes; þey he were schynynge wiþ alle þe floures of vertues, ȝit he chees þe clennes þat makeþ a man be next to*. [to] om. β. and γ.] God. In token þerof he made his avow to Oure Lady; by his moder counsaille he used þe heyre,*. [heer, β. and Cx.] and faste*. [fasted, Cx.] every Friday to*. [with, Cx.] brede and [to]*. [From α., β., and γ.] water, and used every Sonday and holy day*. [dayes, α.] to seie al the Sawter or*. [ar, γ.] he wolde dyne. In his child|hood he lernede*. [lurnde, γ.] his gramere and was so*. [so] om. α.] disesed wiþ þe heed ache þat he hadde non hope to spede afterward in lore. His moder spak to hym and seide, "Sone, I trowe þat þe lewed|nesse*. [lewed, α.; lewd, Cx.] and unsemeliche tonsure*. [tonsour, Cx.] þat þou usest is cause of þy woo:" [þanne afterward he usede tonsure as*. [as] of, Cx.] a clerk, and was hool of al þat woo].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In a tyme he walked by hym Page  219, vol.8 self in a mede bysides Oxenforde, and a faire child appered to hym and seide, "Heyl,*. [hayl, α., β., and Cx.] my leef,*. [luf, γ.] I*. [I] om. α.] wondre þat þou knowest me nouȝt, and nameliche while I am alwey by þy [side]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in scole and in oþer places;*. [plas, γ.] þerfore what þou sixt*. [seest, β. and Cx.; suxt, γ.] in my forheede i-wrete, prynte it everiche nyȝt in þyn owne forheed."*. [vorhed, γ.] Þe writynge was "Iesus Nazarenus rex Iudeorum," þat is, "Iesus of Nazareth kyng of Iewes:" þerafter he lerned to have oure*. [ur, γ.] Lordes passioun alwey in [his]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] mynde. Ones for besynesse of a lessoun þat he moste rede he forȝat it, þan whan þe day gan to spring þe olde enemy bonde*. [boond, β.] faste his*. [bond vast boþe hys, γ.] hondes for he schulde nouȝt blesse hym self, and he prayde in his herte, and þe enemy fil doun from hym bytwene þe bed and þe wal, and he coniured hym by þe schedynge of Goddis blood þat he schulde telle wherwiþ he myȝte be moste i-chastede: "Wiþ þat þou hast now i|nempned," quod þe fend.*. [vend, γ.] Anoþer tyme he hadde forȝete to say*. [sygge, γ.] his*. [þis, α. and Cx.] orisoun, "[O]*. [From β. and γ.] beata et intemerata," and seynt Page  221, vol.8 Iohn þe Evangelist appered to hym in his slepe, and manassede*. [manaced, Cx.] hym to smyte wiþ a pamere.*. [pawmere, β.; paumere, γ.; pawmer, Cx.] And for holy writ seiþ þat he [þat]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] reccheþ nouȝt of þe smale falleþ awey litel [and litel],*. [From α., β., and Cx.; and lytel, γ.] he wolde everiche day schryve hym and clense hym of venial synnes. By entisynge of þe olde enemy, his oost his douȝter nouȝt onliche with signes and bekkes, but also wiþ wordes auntrede*. [aventred, Cx., bis.] her to tempte seynt Edmond forto do amys, and wolde nouȝt cese or heo*. [heo, from β.; cesse ar hue, γ.; he, MS.] came to þe holy man his chambre, and was i-stripte and i-scourged, and so sche putte*. [hue pot, γ.] of her ycchynge.*. [icchyng, β.; utchyng, Cx.] But*. [And, α., β., and Cx.] whanne þe enemy myȝte nouȝt spede by þe wenche, he auntrede*. [aventred, Cx., bis.] by þe wyf to assaile Edmond, but Ed|mond wolde nouȝt fonge her ȝiftes wiþ oute leve of þe hous|bonde, and putte her of so aschamed, and þey he were nouȝt infra sacros he was a maister of aart,*. [art, α., β., and γ.] and usede to here*. [hure, γ., et infra.] a masse and seie*. [sygge, γ.] his houres everiche day or*. [er, β. and Cx.] he wolde rede, and was profitable to his*. [his, from α., β., and Cx.; hys, γ.; hire, MS.] scolers, for he tauȝte hem to*. [to] om. Cx.] here masse also. Whan he feng money of his scolers he leyde it in a wyndowe, and seide, "Pouder to pouder and askes to askes;"*. [asshes to asshes, Cx.] but þe money was ofte i-take awey wiþ his felawes in game oþer elles priveliche wiþ þeofes.*. [þeeves, β.; theeves, Cx.] Whanne he redde*. [rad, β.] arsmetrik*. [arithmetic, α., β., and γ.; arithmetryk, Cx.] his moder þat was deed appered to hym Page  223, vol.8 in his sleep, and axede of hym and seide, "What figures beeþ*. [be, Cx.]þees*. [þues, γ.] þat þou studiest ynne?" and he answerde, "Suche and suche;"*. [siche and siche, β.] and þan sche*. [heo, β., bis.] peynted þre cercles*. [cerkeles, γ.] in her riȝt hond, as þey sche*. [hue, γ.] wolde mene þe Fadir and Sone and Holy Goost, and seide, "Sone, studie þou in þese figures*. [vertues, α.] after þis tyme." Seelde he sat in chirche, but he badde*. [bade, β.] his bedis stondynge oþer knelynge; ffor he was a nobil prechour, a scharp arguer, and a mylde lyster. For he was avised and took heede*. [hyde, γ.] of fallas,*. [fallace, β.; falace, Cx.] and was war*. [waare, Cx.] and wys in asoyllynge of questiouns, and dede greet profit in redynge. For greet ab|stinens his heer fil awey of*. [from, Cx.] his berd [and heed],*. [From Cx.; and hed, β. and γ.] so þat his lippes semed i-clove; he used alwey grete mete, and lefte flesche [on]*. [From Cx.] Monday and Wednesday,*. [Wonesdaye, Cx.] [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] also in Septua|gesme,*. [Septuagesima, β. and Cx.] þat is in*. [in] om. β.] al þe Lente*. [Leynte, β. and γ.] from tyme þat Alleluia is i|cloped,*. [y-closed, α., β., and γ.; closed, Cx.] he wolde taste no flesche*. [vleysch, γ., et infra.] þe day to fore þe day þat he wolde synge his masse; and so ofte it happed þat he eet no flesche in a monþe [al hool]:*. [From β.] he eet but seelde*. [selde, Cx.] twyes a day; he þouȝte not of lettuaries and of medicynes. For greet knelynge his kneen*. [knees, Cx.] were harde as þe sooles of his feet. Everiche day he seide þre payre*. [þre peyre, α. and Cx.] of matyns and of houres of þe day, of oure Lady, of þe Holy Gost, wiþ Placebo and Dirige. A nyȝt after Page  225, vol.8 his firste sleep he wolde aryse*. [advise, Cx.] and seie*. [sygge, γ.] certeyn psalmes*. [salmes, β. and γ.] and prayers.*. [prayeres and psalmes, α. and Cx.] [ȝif eny envious word come in place, he wolde chaunge*. [chaunge . . . wrecche. He woulde] om. Cx.] þe theme,*. [teeme, β.] and passe to þe betir matire; he wolde have no benefice wiþ cure but oon. He made large spences for he wolde nouȝt be helde covetous and [a]*. [From β.] wrecche. He woulde*. [chaunge . . . wrecche. He woulde] om. Cx.] nouȝt be in pledynge of causes. He wolde have men of seculer court wiþ hym to þe mete, for he wolde wynne hem to þe blisse of hevene. He wolde nouȝt visite his hous*. [houses, β. and Cx.] of office noþer here*. [hure, γ.] acountes of his ministres; he spende alwey more þan he hadde. He chalangede*. [chalaunde, γ.] of his servauntes clennes of body by covenaunt-y-wryte, so þat ȝif eny of hem fyl*. [vul, γ.] into leccherye, he schulde fonge his huyre*. [hyer, Cx.] and take his leve and be agoo.*. [be agoo] goo his wey, Cx.] Teþynges and offrynges and redempciouns of synnes he spende onliche in mylde uses. He hadde tofore hym y-peynt*. [peynted, β.] þe ymage of oure Lady, and al aboute hym þe passioun of oure Lord. And so þe lessoun come of þe book, and tofore þe ymage he bad his bedes, and of eiþer come greet devocioun. Þe tyme of etynge and slepynge and rydynge, whanne he myȝte nouȝt studie, he tolde hit al y-lost. As ofte as he openede his bibel he wolde worschippe hit wiþ Page  227, vol.8 a cros.*. [cosse, β.; kos, γ.] Whanne þe legacye of þe cros was commytted to hym he took no procuracies*. [procuratoryes, Cx.] þat hym were y-graunted, but aȝenst þe usages of oþere suche legates he travaylde on his [owne]*. [From β. and Cx.] cost. He prechede at Oxenforde, at Gloucetre, and at Wircetre, and reyn þat fyl on þe peple*. [vul on þe pupel, γ.] he made hit torne aȝen wiþ his prayeres. Hit happede as he sleep*. [slepte, β.; sluep, γ.] in his studie þat a candel fyl doun on his bible*. [bibel, β.] and brende, but whanne he wook and syȝte*. [and syȝte] he sawe, Cx.] no brennynge was y-sene. Also wiþ his penne he made þris croys on a kybe þathe hadde, and hit vansched*. [van sede, γ.; vanysshed, Cx.] awey. His heyres*. [heeres, β.; heres, γ. and Cx.] þat he werede were y-þrowe into þe fuyre whan þey*. [α, γ.] were olde, but þey myȝte nouȝt brenne. And in þe heyres*. [heres, β.] þat he werede unneþe myȝte ony worme*. [eny worme, β.; eny worm, γ.] be y-founde.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Sometyme messangers were i-sent from Caunterbury to Salisbury [for Edmond tresorer of þat place schulde come and be archebisshop of Caunterbury. Þe deen of Salisbury]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he*. [he] om. α.] spak wiþ*. [to, α.] hem and seide, "ȝe beeþwelcome [and yvel come: ȝe beþ welcome],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for ȝe dooþworschippe to oure*. [ur, γ.] cherche; but ȝe beeþ evel come, for ȝe take*. [takiþ, β.] oure tresoure [wiþ þe tresorer]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Hym schamed Page  229, vol.8 nouȝt to drawe of his owne hosen and schoon.*. [schone, β.; hosene and schon, γ.; shone, Cx.] Everiche man þat he mette in þe way þat wolde be schryve to hym, he wolde liȝt doun of his hors and hire hire*. [hire hire] here, α. and Cx.; heere, β.; hure, γ.] his schrifte, and spare for no lette of comynge to his in,*. [ynne, Cx.] neyþer*. [noþer, α.] for wynde ne for rayn ne for oþer wedir. He ferde as þe olyve*. [olif, β.] tree þat holdeþ to itself þe bitternesse in þe rynde, and heldeþ*. [hyldeþ, γ.] out þe*. [to, α. and Cx.] oþer [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] swetnes of þe oyle, so he was hard to hym|self and esiliche*. [easy, Cx.] and goodliche to oþer men. He beet*. [but, γ.] his brest ofte wiþ his hond, and his knees*. [kneen, α. and β.; knen, γ.] aȝenst þe grounde, so þat clerkes þat leye in selers*. [celers, γ.] under hym myȝte unneþe sleepe. For worschippe of oure Lady he worschipped alle wommen,*. [wymmen, Cx.] but þerby was he nevere i-wemmed. But in a tyme oon blamed hym þat was hoomly wiþ hym for a faire wyf þat he wolde ofte speke with, and he answerde and seide, "Seie*. [Seygh, α.; Syȝ, β, and γ.; Sawe, Cx.] þou nouȝt how faire sche*. [heo, β., bis.] was; I knowleche sche*. [hue, γ.]haþ ofte i-sete by me, but by her was I nevere more tempted þan I*. [Ich, β] was by þe wal. And ȝit [more]*. [From β. and γ.] þey al þat þat*. [þat] om. α. and γ.] I have trespased in þat manere synne were i-wrete in Page  231, vol.8 myn*. [me, α.] [forhede],*. [From Cx.; forhed, β.; vorhed, γ.] I ne schulde*. [ne schulde] schulde nouȝt, α. and β.] be aschamed." He hated fongers*. [fangers, β.] of ȝiftes, and seide on*. [on] a, β.; in, Cx.] Frensche,*. [Vreyns, γ.] "Entre prendre et pendre is but oon lettre alone." At þe laste by excitynge of þe devel kyng Henry and þe chapitre*. [chapytre hous, Cx.] of Caunterbury was rebel aȝenst hym. In þat horlynge*. [hurlynge, α. and Cx.; hurlyng, β.; horllyng, γ.] he made it as þey he knewe it not, and kessed hym*. [kuste ham, γ.] þat pursewed hym, and dede to hym [al]*. [From Cx.] oþer hoomliche dedes; and whan his frendes seide he was to mylde, and ȝaf example to oþere men for to arise in þe same wise, he answerde and seide: "Þe*. [þat, α.] swellynge of þe see as mylk we schal souke,*. [soke, γ.] and ete wilde hony in þe wildernesse of þis world wiþ Iohn Baptiste þe forgoer of oure Lord, þe powere of takynge wreche most*. [mot, β.; moote, Cx.] be wiþholde onliche in Goddis hond. I nyl*. [nel, α.] not*. [Y nel noȝt, γ.] of oþere men defautis gete*. [geten, α.] me longe*. [loenge, Cx.] and unprofitable cost and travaille." Þan he hadde prelates to gidres,*. [togedders, γ.] and axede how he myȝte releve holy chirche, þat was i-made sugette and þralle. It was i-counseilled þat þe Page  233, vol.8 kyng and oþere men þat were rebelles schulde be warned, and ȝif þey*. [ef huy, γ.] wolde nouȝt amende, þan þe wreche of censures of holy chirche schulde nouȝt slepe. Þe holy man assentiþ and gooþ to þe kyng; þe kyng axeþ avisement, and he abideþ, but al for nouȝt; þerfore þe kyng was spared allone, and alle oþere þat were rebel were denounsed acursed; but herby wolde nouȝt þe evel doers be amended, þat*. [þan, α., β., and Cx.; þanne, γ.] hym was levere suffre þe malice for a tyme þat*. [þan, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyþe*. [kuyþe, γ.; kyth, Cx.] his myȝt in plee and in stryf; ffor he took hede þat þeyȝ he hadde i-doo al þat he myȝte it myȝte happe þat þe popes legat þat was þoo in Engelond wolde undo al his sentence and dedes, and so conforte*. [comforte, Cx.] þe kyng to worse dedes; but ȝif þe archebisshop were present and corrected nouȝt her trespas and erroures, it myȝte seme þat he wolde alowe his dedes by a manere of*. [of] om. β. and Cx.] feyned suffraunce. Þerfore hym was levere be absent for a tyme, for to schewe þerby þe sorwe of his herte, and [that]*. [From Cx.; þat, β.] he*. [þat, α.] was sore a greved wiþ her malice.*. [malys, γ.] Þanne his laste sikenesse gan for*. [for] om. β. and Cx.] to wexe grevous and strong, and [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] wente out of Pountenye*. [Pontney, β.; Pontiney, γ.] to Soysy, and byhiȝt*. [bihet, β.] hem þat he wolde come aȝen at*. [at] on, β. and Cx.; a, γ.] seynt Page  235, vol.8 Edmondes day. Whan þe sacrament of*. [auter, Cx.] þe auȝter*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] was i|brouȝt to hym he seyde, "Þou art my Lord, þe I*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] have i-loved, in þe I*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] have i-trowed, þe I*. [ich, γ.] have y-prechid, þe I*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] have i-souȝt, and non oþer. Men telliþ þat it gooþ [into þe wombe, bot y*. [Ich, β., quinquies; Ych, γ., quater.] telle þat hit goþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] into þe soule and þouȝt." Þan he wesche*. [weesche, β.; wuesch, γ.] þe woundes of þe ymage of the crucifixe, and kussed hem ful swete, and seide, "Ye schal*. [ȝe schulde, α.; ȝe schal, β.] kecche*. [cleche, β.; ȝe schal kyche, γ.; drawe, Cx.] up water in ioye of oure*. [ur, γ.] Savyour his welles."

Capitulum tricesimum septimum.*. [Cap. 36, Cx.]

Affter Celestinus þe fourþe*. [ferthe, β.; vurde, γ.] Innocencius was pope ellevene ȝere and sixe monþes. He putte honest and noble persones in þe cardinales see*. [sees, β. and γ.] þat were voyde. He made cardynal frere Hewe*. [Huwe, β. and γ.; Hughe, Cx.] of þe ordre of Prechoures, þat expownede al þe bible, and made*. [made a] om. α. and β.] a*. [a] om. Cx.] greet concordaunce*. [concordaunces, β. and Cx.] uppon þe bible. Þis pope made a counsaile at Luduum*. [Lugdun, β.; Lugnum, Cx.] in Fraunce, þere he canoniced*. [canonized, β.; canonysed, Cx.] seynt Page  237, vol.8 Edmond þe archebisshop þe sevenþe ȝere after his deeth, and demede þat þe rebel emperoure Frederik schulde be deposed and i-sette adoun. At Tholet in Spayne a Jewe*. [Juwe, γ.] digged in his orcheȝerd*. [orchard, β., γ., and Cx.] to make hym a more vyneȝerd; þere he fonde*. [vond, γ.] a stoon hool and sownde in everiche side. In þe myddel of þat stoon he fonde*. [foond, β.] a book, also*. [as, β.] greet as a psawter,*. [sauter, γ. and Cx.] wiþ trene*. [treen, β.] leves, i-wrete in Grew,*. [Grue, β.] Hebrew,*. [Grue, Ebrue, Cx.] and Latyn, and spak of þe*. [þe] om. β. and γ.] þre worldes*. [worlles, γ.] from Adam to Antecrist, and declared þe pro|purte*. [proprete, Cx.] of men, and sette þe bygynnynge of þe þridde*. [þrid, β.] world*. [worl, γ.] in Crist in þis manere: "In þe þridde world Goddis sone schal be bore of a*. [a] om. β., γ., and Cx.] mayde Marie, and he schal suffre þe*. [þe] om. α., β., and Cx.] deth for salvacioun of mankynde." Þe Jewe radde þis and was [baptized*. [yfolled, β.; yvolled, γ.; cryst|ned, Cx.] anone. In Engelond þan*. [þan] om. α., β., and Cx.] [was]*. [From Cx.] so grete derþe þat a]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] busshel*. [boschel, γ.] of corn was i-solde for twelf schillynges þat ȝere. Seynt*. [schillyngis. Þat ȝere seynt, β.] Edmond was*. [Þat yere was seynt Edmond, Cx.] translated, and Frederik þe emperour deide accursed. After hym his sone Mamfrede*. [Mamfred, β.; Manifred, Cx.] assaylede þe Page  239, vol.8 kyngdome, and þe tresoure of Cecil*. [Sicil, β. and γ.; Scicile, Cx.] forto Charles þat was þe kyng*. [kynges broþer, α.] of Fraunce prived hym boþe of his*. [his] þe, β.] kyngdom and of his lyf. Whanne þis Frederik was dede, Innocencius þe pope procurede*. [procrede, γ.] þe chesers of þe empere*. [empyre, β.] forto chese many, and so were i-chose þe duke of Thuringe*. [Turing, Cx.] and þe erle of Holond, boþe*. [but, β. and Cx.; bote, γ.] þey deide sone, and som chese þe kynges broþer of Engelond, Richard duke of Cornwayle: þis stryf durede many ȝere wiþ wel greet coste. A versifiour*. [vesifiour, α.] to sette*. [to sette] divided, β. and Cx.] þe silables*. [silabeles, γ.] of his*. [þis, β.; this, Cx.] name Fredericus in þis manere:

"Fre fremit in mundo, de deprimit alta profundo,
Ri*. [Ri mala] Res, Cx.] mala*. [mala] res, β. and γ., wrongly.] rimatur, cus cuspide cuncta minatur."

Þat ȝere at Londoun was i-made a solempne*. [solempnel, Cx.] processioun toward Cristes blood þat þe patriark of Jerusalem had i|sent to kyng Henry. Þe þrittenþe day of Octobre Lowys, kynge of Fraunce, wente to þe Holy Lond, and took Dam|yeta, but in þe ȝere after he was i-take of þe Sowdan*. [Sauden, γ.] in a batayle in þe feeld,*. [veld, γ.] and William longa spata [was dede].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Longa spata is a long swerd. And*. [And] om. α. and β.] an hundred þowsand and fifty þowsand hurdes*. [heerdes, α.; huerdes, β., γ., and Cx.] i-marked wiþ the signe of þe*. [hooly, add. Cx.] cros come Page  241, vol.8 to þe parische,*. [þe parische] Parys, α., β., and γ.; Paris, Cx.] and destroyed hugeliche þe universite, and slouȝ*. [sle, Cx.] many clerkes. Kyng Henry ȝaf to his eldest sone Edward Gaskoyne*. [Gaskuyn, α.; Gasquyn, γ.] Irlond, Wales, and Chestreschire. Þat ȝere for grete hete þe erþe was so drye þat it bare no fruyt. But in þe ende of hervest fil*. [harvost ful, γ.] so grete rayn þat þe erþe myȝt it nouȝt swelowe;*. [swolewe, β.; swolwe, γ.; swo|lowe, Cx.] þerof come meny mescheves. Also þat ȝere deide seint Robert Grosthede,*. [Grosted, α.; Grostet, β.; Gros|seteste, γ.] bisshop of Lyncolne, þe nynþe day of Octobre. He was kunnynge in alle þe liberal artes, and specialliche he expowned meny þinges in logike etykes*. [ethiks, β.] and astrologie. He sente to þe ferþe pope Innocencius a pistel scharp inow*. [ynowȝ, β.; ynough, Cx.] þat bygynneþ in þis manere, "Oure lord Jesus Crist." [He]*. [From Cx.] sente þat pistel for þe pope greved þe chirches of Engelond wiþ taxes and wiþ paiementis undewe and un|custemable." Also for he hadde i-ȝeve his litel nevew a Page  243, vol.8 chauntrie*. [chanunrye, α.; chanonrye, β. and Cx.] whiche [þe]*. [From α.] first voyded*. [wiþ þe first þat voyded, β.; wyþ þe vurste þat voyded, γ.; with the fyrste that voyded, Cx.] in þe chirche of Lyncolne. And þis Robert wolde nouȝt fonge*. [receyve, Cx.] þe childe, but he wroot to þe pope and seide þat he neyþer wolde neyþer schulde putte*. [fonge, α., β., and γ.; receyve, Cx.] suche*. [siche, β.] to þe cure of soule þat kouþe not rule*. [reule, γ.] hem*. [hym, Cx.] self. Þerfore þis Robert was sompned*. [somned, β.] to þe court and acursed: þan from Innocencius court he appeled to Cristes owne trone. Þan aftir Robert his deeþ, it happed in a nyȝt þat þe pope lay in his bedde for*. [for] om. α.] to reste,*. [bed and reste, β.; bedde and reste, Cx.] a bisshop [ap|perede to hym arayed as a bisshop, and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] spak to þe pope and seide, "Arise, wrecche, and come to þe doome;" and smot hym wiþ his cros in þe lift side riȝt to þe herte; þan amorwe to*. [in the morow the, Cx.] popes bedde was i-founde*. [was founden, β.] blody, and þe pope deed: herefore, þey Robert were a noble*. [an holy, α.] man, and dede*. [dude, γ.] often mi|racles, the court suffreþ*. [suffryd, Cx.] hym nouȝt to be canonysed. After Innocencius þe fourþe Alexander was pope sevene ȝere and foure monthes. Pees is reformed bytwene kyng Henry and Page  245, vol.8 Lewelyn prince of Wales at Mountgomorik,*. [Mont gomeryk, Cx.] in þis fourme, þat Lewelyn and his successoures after þat tyme schulde doon*. [do, β.] homage to þe kynges of Engelond, and kyng Henry feng*. [vyng, γ.; toke, Cx.] of hym þre þowsand mark. Hereuppon kyng Henry made his chartre confermed by auctorite of þe pope. Sone þerafter fil so grete hunger þat a busshel*. [boschel, γ.] of corn was solde for sextene schillynges. Þat tyme kyng Henry made his [foure]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] half breþeren so riche þat þey despiseden*. [despysed, Cx.] oþer lordes. Þerfore come to giders at Oxenforde at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] feste of Trinite Symond Mounfort,*. [Symon de Montfort, β.; de Montford, Cx.] erle of Leycestre, Richard de Clare, erle of Gloucetre, and oþere lordes, and chees twelve peeres, and by counsaille of hem þese chaungede þe kynges mynistres and putte þese*. [potte þues, γ.] kynges [foure]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] half [breþeren]*. [despysed, Cx.] out of þe londe: þat dede was cause of þe barouns werre. Kyng Henry seillede into Fraunce, and made schameliche acord wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce, and forȝaf hym Normandie wiþ oþer londes of by|ȝonde*. [byȝunde, γ.] þe*. [þe] om. β.] see, þat hym schulde leve holiche*. [hoole, Cx.] þe lond of Page  247, vol.8 Gaskoyne. After Alexander þe ferþe Urban was pope nygh foure ȝere. Þis was first patriark of Jerusalem; þan by help of hem þat hadde i-take þe signe of þe crosse he chasede þe oost of Rome þat Mainfredus*. [Manifredus, β., et infra; Ma|nyfredus, Cx., et infra.] hadde i-putte in seint Petres lond. Also þe pope ȝaf þe kyngdom of Cecile*. [of Cecile] Cicil, α.; Sicil, β. and γ.; Scicile, Cx.] to Charles þat was þe kynges broþer of Fraunce, ȝif he putte þens Mainfre|dus; and so it was i-doo. Aboute þat tyme at Teukesbury a Jewe fel*. [vul, γ.] into a gonge in a Satirday, and wolde suffre no man drawe hym up for reverence of his holy day. But Richard of Clare, erle of Gloucestre, wolde suffre no man drawe hym up on þe*. [on þe] at, α.] morwe*. [a morowe, β.; op a morowe, γ.] in þe Sonday for reverence of his holy day, and so þe Jewe was dede.*. [the Jewe deyd, Cx.]

Capitulum tricesimum octavum.*. [Cap. 37, Cx.]

THIS ȝere fil strif bytwene þe kyng and þe lordes of Enge|lond, ffor þe kyng wolde not holde þe ordenaunces þat were i-ordeyned in þe parlement at Oxenforde. At*. [aboute, α., β., and Cx.] seynt Ioones*. [John his, α.]Page  249, vol.8 tyde*. [tyde] feste, β. and Cx.] þe nativite þe lordes helde*. [hulde, γ.] in warde*. [word, α.] þe bisshop of Her|ford, þe prioure of Wenlokke, and oþer prelates þat were aliens. Oþere þat were next þe kyng þey chasede out of Engelond, and occupied her good*. [goodes, α., β., and Cx.] and catell,*. [catayll, Cx.] þerfore Henry putte þe universite out of Oxenforde. At þe laste þe kyng and þe barouns*. [barouns, α.] putte hemself touchynge þese*. [the, Cx.] articles*. [þues artykels, γ.] in þe ordy|naunce of þe kyng of Fraunce, and he reproved*. [repreved, β. and Cx.] þese articles everiche one; bote þe lordes of Engelond forsook*. [vorsouke, γ.] his unskil|ful dome, and stood forþ as þey hadde bygonne. Þanne lordes þat mayntened þese ordynaunces come to gidres at Lewes in Souþsex þe fourtenþe day of May, and ȝaf a bataille, and took kyng Henry and his sone*. [broþer, α. and β.; broder, Cx.] Richard duke of Cornewayle, and Edward kyng Henry his eldest sone, and many Page  251, vol.8 oþere grete, and so þey compelled þe kyng to holde þese ordynaunces þat þey hadde i-made, and helde Edward eyȝte monþes at Herforde in warde; þat tyme þe province of Chestre was i-ȝeve [to]*. [From Cx.] Symond de Mounford erle of Chestre.*. [Leycetre, α.] In Trinite even*. [In þe Trinite eve, β.] þe kynges sone Edward at Herforde scapede out of warde by help of sire Roger Mortemer;*. [Mortmere, γ.] for he hadde leve by cause of solas to prike a coursere, and so he scapede anon to þe hille*. [hulle, γ.] of Donnemore, þere he sigh*. [seeþ, α.; sawe, Cx.] þis Roger Mortemer his baner displayed. Herafter aboute Lammes*. [Lammasse, β. and Cx.; Lamb|mas, γ,] was an hard bataille at Evesham bytwene þe kyng and þe barouns, þer wiþ*. [wiþ] by, β. and Cx.] gileful*. [by gylfol, γ.] withdrawynge of þe erle of Gloucestre, þat hylde wiþ Symound toforehonde, þis riȝtful Symond was dede and meny oþer noble men.*. [personnes, Cx.] Of hym greet fame telleþ þat he dede*. [a dude, γ.] many myracles, but þey were nouȝt i-schewed for drede of þe kyng. Þanne Symondes*. [Symon his, α.] knyȝtes helde þe castel of Kelyng|worþe*. [Kenelworþe, α. and Cx.; Ke|nylworþ, β.] half a ȝere aȝenst þe oost of [al]*. [From β. and γ.] Engelond. After Urban þe ferþe Clement was pope as it were foure ȝere. After Page  253, vol.8 hym þe popes see voyded þre ȝere and two monþes. Þis Clement had first wyf and children, and was afterward a famous avok*. [advoket, α.; avocat, β.; avoket, γ.; advocate, Cx.] and cheef counseillour*. [cheef of counseyls, Cx.] wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce. Whan his wyf was dede he was i-made bisshop of Pue, and þan arche|bisshop of Norbone,*. [Narbon, β. and Cx.] and þanne bisshop [of]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Sabyne and cardinal and legat i-sente into Engelond; þere while he was absent he was chose pope; þerafter, as men troweþ, wiþ his mylde levynge in*. [in] and, β.] holy dedes*. [bedes, α., β., and γ.; and hooly bedes, Cx.] he quenched*. [aqueynt, β. and Cx.; aqueynte, γ.] many tribu|laciouns of holy cherche. Also whan Conradinus [wente into Cicil*. [Sicil, β. and γ.] to werre aȝenst Charles, þis pope tolde opounliche in a sermoun þat Conradinus]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] dede schulde come to nouȝt. Þat ȝere aboute all Halewentide, Octobon þe legat come into Engelond and ordeyned many þinges for þe profite of holy chirche. By his counsail kyng Henry grauntede þat he*. [þei, β.; they, Cx.] moste raunsone her londes þat were disherited for þe arisynge aȝenst þe kyng, outake þe erle of Derby, Roberd de Ferrare,*. [Ferrer, Cx.] for it semed þat he hadde most greved þe kyng. Þanne*. [þanne . . . kyng] om. α., but the words are in Cx.] þe next ȝere þerafter he greved þe kyng,*. [þanne . . . kyng] om. α., but the words are in Cx.] and was i-take and dis|herited*. [desherytet, γ,, et supra.] forto he oþer his heires or som who for hem myȝte paye*. [myȝte paye for hem, α.] in oon day fifty þowsand pound. At Londoun Octobon þe legat denounced acorsed*. [acorsed] om. α., β., and Cx.] þe Londoners [and þe purten|aunce*. [portnens, β.; portnens acursyd, Cx.]Page  255, vol.8 acorsed],*. [From α., β., and γ.] and seide þat þey were acursed in pope Clementes counsaile, and he enterdited hem and forbeden*. [forbede, β.; vorbud, γ.; for|bode, Cx] hem þe companye of Cristen men; þan he suspended þe bis|shoppes of Londoun and of Chichestre of her office forto þey were assoyled of þe pope, þerfore þe*. [þe] om. α.] Londoners byseged Oc|toboun in þe toure of Londoun for to*. [till, Cx.] many bisshops i-armed hadden*. [had, Cx.] hym awey. Þis Octoboun took dymes of holy cherche for þre ȝere while he was in Engelond, and so he wente his way, and of a deken cardynal he was made pope. Þat [yere]*. [From Cx.; ȝere, β.] þe sowdan of Babiloyne destroyed Ermonye,*. [Armonie, β.; Armeni, γ.] and took Antiochia, and slouȝ þe men þat wonede þerynne, and destroyed þat*. [þe, α. and Cx.] noble citee. Kyng Henry lay wiþ his oost withouten Londoun at Stretforde, forto pees was made bytwene hym and þe ba|rouns. Octoboun went out of Engelond wiþ huge tresoure;*. [tresorye, α.] and Edward þe kynges sone and many oþere toke þe signe of þe cros. Pope Clement is dede; and seynt Edward kyng and confessoure is i-translated þe fourþe day of Octobre in kyng Henries tyme. And kyng Henry hadde þe twentiþe*. [twentyest, Cx.] peny of Page  257, vol.8 lewed men*. [mennus, β.] catel and þe dymes*. [dismes, γ.] of holy chirche for þre ȝere by assent of þe pope. Þis ȝere [Edward]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe kynges eldest sone, and his wyf, wente to þe Holy Lond. After Clement, þe tenþe Gregory was pope foure ȝere. Þe þridde ȝere of his poperiche he made a*. [a] om. α.] counsaile at Londoua*. [Lugdune, α. and γ.; Lugdun, β.; Lugdnum, Cx.] for profit of þe Holy Lond, for he caste to wende þider in his owne persone. In þat counseile were messangers of þe Tartars and of þe Grekes: þe Grees byheet*. [byhyte, γ.; promysed, Cx.] þat þey wolde come aȝen to þe unyte of holy cherche. Þere were sixe hondred bisshoppes and a þowsand prelates, þerfore oon seide: "Gregorius denus congregat omne genus." He wolde by þis vers*. [these versus, Cx.] mene þat þe tenþe Gregory gadreþ alle manere of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] men. Þere was ordeyned þat noble statute þat was nevere i-herd toforehonde, þat alle persones wiþ cure schulde be preostes*. [prustes, γ.] after þat tyme, and þat after þat tyme no man schulde have leve to assigne his teþynges as toforehonde*. [as he dyd byfore, Cx.] at his owne wille, but all teþynge*. [tueþyng, γ.] schulde be payde to þe moder chirche. [Also þis Gregory charged holy chirche wiþ dymes*. [dismes, γ.] for sixe ȝere. He dampned pluralite of benefices wiþ cure. Also he proved som states of þe ordres of beggers, as Prechoures and Page  259, vol.8 Menoures; and some he suffred, as Carmes and Austynes; and some he reproved, as sacke freres*. [Sacfreres, β., γ., and Cx.] þat were y-cleped de Pœni|tentia and de Valle Viridi and oþere suche.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Also þis ȝere deide kyng Henry of Engelond on seynt Edmondes day of Pounteney,*. [Pontenay, Cx.] and men troweþ þat he skilfully ended his lyf in his day, for he hadde i-travailled hym wrongfulliche while he was onlyve. He hadde i-regned fyve and fifty ȝere. Also þis ȝere deyde Bonefas archebisshop of Canturbury, and þe priour of Caunterbury was i-chose archebisshop. But þe pope fordede*. [fordide, β.; vordude, γ.; for|badde, Cx.] þat eleccioun, and made archebisshop frere Robert of Culwarby*. [Kilwarby, β.; Kylwerby, Cx.] of þe ordre of Prechoures and maister of dyvynyte: among his oþer nobil writynges he made nobil writynge uppon Precian and uppon*. [oppon, γ.] Logyk. Sone hereafter Lowys kyng of Fraunce and his two sones, þe kyng of Naverne, and many prelates went eft to þe Holy Lond; but by greet siknesse and evel, þat was strong in þe see costes of þat lond, þe Cristene oost, þat was of two hondred þowsand, [was]*. [From β. and γ.] deperblede*. [disparpled, β. and Cx.; dys|parpled, γ.] and to-schedde. For þe popes legat þat was rulere*. [reuler of pylgryms, γ.] of pilgremages*. [pylgryms, Cx.] in þe Holy Lond deyde, and þe kyng of Page  261, vol.8 Fraunce also. Þis kyng while he lay seke prayed besiliche in þis manere: "Lord, we prayeþ*. [I pray, Cx.] þat þou make us despise þe welþe of þis world, and drede none of his mescheves."*. [meschyefs, Cx.] And for þe peple he prayde in þis manere: "Be þou, Lord, to þyne owne peple*. [pupel, γ.] halwer*. [halower, Cx.] and wardeyne;" and putte to him*. [him] here, α.; om. Cx.] at þe ende "I schal entre*. [intre, γ.] into þyn hous, and I schal praye to þyn holy temple."

Capitulum tricesimum nonum.*. [Cap. 38, Cx.]

EDWARD, kyng Henries sone, come*. [cam, Cx.] out of þe Holy Lond into Engelond þe secounde day of August, and was i-crowned kyng þe þrittenþe þe day tofore Decembre, and morwe after his coronacioun he fonged*. [feng, β.; toke, Cx.] openliche homage and fewte of Ali|saundre king of Scotlond; þanne þe secounde ȝere he made lawes. After þe tenþe Gregory, þe fifte Innocencius was pope fyve monþes; þis hiȝte*. [het, β.] toforehond Terentacius,*. [Tarantacius, α.; Peter Taren|tasius, γ.] of þe ordre of prechoures, a doctour of dyvynite. After hym þe fifte Adrian Page  263, vol.8 was pope two monþes; somtyme þis was i-sent of pope Clement into Engelond for to abate*. [alegge, β. and γ.; alledge, Cx.] þe stryf bytwene þe kyng and þe barouns. After hym þe oon and twenty Iohn was pope eyȝte monþes; he hiȝte*. [hatt, β.] Petir toforhond, and was famous in meny [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] dyvers*. [devers, γ.] sciens, but after þat he was pope he doted so þat it semed þat hym lakked a greet deel of kyndeliche witte, neverþeles he avaunsed*. [avounsede, γ.] clerkes ofte. In presence of many men þis behiȝte hym self long lyf, but he fel sodenliche*. [fyl doun sodenly, Cx.] of a newe chambre þat he hadde i-bulde at Viterbe, and deyde after þe sixte day after*. [after] of, Cx.] þe fallynge.*. [of þe vallynge, γ.] After Iohn, þe þridde Nichol was pope as it were þre ȝere. Þis ȝere, for Lewely*. [Lewelyn, α., β., and Cx.] prince of Wales wolde nouȝt come to þe kynges parlement into Engelond, kyng Edward wente into Wales, and founded þe castel of Flynt, and strengþed þe castel of Ruthelan.*. [Roþelan, α.; Ruthland, Cx.] Þere Lewelyn submytted hym to þe kyng, and ȝaf hym fifty þowsand pound for þe trespas, and for þe ilond of Man*. [Mon, γ.] a þowsand mark by þe ȝere. Pope Nichol made frere Robert [of Culwarbye]*. [From β. and Cx.] archebisshop [of Caunterbury cardynal, and made frere Iohn Peccham arche|bisshop]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in his stede. Kyng Edward punsched*. [punysshed, Cx.] þe Iewes*. [Juwes, γ., et infra.] and here assentoures for clippynge*. [cryppynge, γ.] of money and for evel chaunges; so þat he made alle þe Iewes [to be taken]*. [From Cx.; ytake, β.] in oon Page  265, vol.8 day, and some he heng, and putte awey þe oþere. Kyng Ed|ward and þe lordes made a statute aȝenst maynmort, so þat after þat tyme no man schulde ȝeve, ne selle,*. [suylle, γ.] ne byqueþe, ne chalange,*. [nother chaunge, Cx.] ne by oþere title assigne londes, tenementis ne oþer rentes to men of religioun wiþouten þe kynges leve. Þe kynge made smyte newe coyne and*. [newe coyne and] in coine, α. and Cx.] newe money, [halfpeny]*. [From Cx.] and ferþing*. [ferdynges, Cx.] al rounde; þeron it semeþ þat Merlynnes prophecie is fulfilled*. [folvuld, γ.] þat seeþ*. [sayth, Cx.] þe halvendel schal be rounde. After Nichol, þe fourþe Honorius was pope as it were sevene ȝere. In his fourþe ȝere he chaungede þe coopes of frere Carmes into clene white, þat were toforehonde raybarred and beemed.*. [bemed, Cx.] Þe false Walsche*. [Walysche, γ.] David roos aȝenst kyng Edward in Palme Sonday, and dede Englische men grete harme and damage. But kyng Edward come aboute seyn Iohn his feste, and wan Wales, and ȝaf townes and londes þat were in þe myddel of Wales to lordes of his lond, and hilde to hym þe castelles þat weren in*. [were on, Cx.] þe see side. Of þat doynge come greet pees and reste after [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] tyme. Hereafter aboute seynt Lukes*. [Luc his, γ.] feste, Lewelyn his heed was i-smyte of and i-brouȝt to the Page  267, vol.8 kyng, and sent to Londoun. And sone þerafter þis Lewelynes broþer David was i-take, þat was exciter of al þis*. [þe, α., β., and Cx.] woo. In þe grete parlement at Schroesbury he was first i-dampned and þan to drawe with horses, and þan an honged by þe þrote, and þan i-quartered, and to*. [to] om. Cx.] deled in [to]*. [to] from β.] dyvers places of Enge|lond. Of þis Lewelyn two men of religioun wreten vers and metre;*. [versus in metre, Cx.] of þe Walsche man in þis manere:

"Hic jacet Anglorum tortor, tutor Venedorum,
Princeps Wallorum Lewelynus, regula morum,
Gemma coevorum, flos regum preteritorum,
Forma futurorum, dux, laus, lex, lux populorum."

Þat is, "Here lieþ*. [liþe, β.] þe tormentour of Englische men, wardeyn and tutor of Englishe*. [Walsche, α., β., γ., and Cx.] men, prince of Walsche men, Lewelyn, rule of good dedes and*. [dedes and] om. α. γ., and Cx.] þewes, cheef precious stoon of hem þat were in his tyme, floure of kynges þat were toforehonde, ensample of hem þat schal be after þis tyme, leder, preysinge, lawe, liȝt of peple."*. [pupel, γ.] But þe Englische man seide in þis manere: Page  269, vol.8

"Hic jacet errorum princeps, et predo virorum
Proditor Anglorum, fax livida, secta reorum;
Numen Wallorum, trux dux, homicida piorum,
Fex Trojanorum, stirps mendax, causa malorum."

Þat is, "Here liþe*. [lyeth, Cx.] "þe prince of erroures, [þeef]*. [þuef, γ.] and robber of men, traytour of Englische men; a dymme brond, and secte*. [set, Cx.] of evel dedes and*. [dedes and] om. Cx.] doers; god of Walsche men, a cruel duke, sleere of god*. [good, Cx.] men; draftes of Trojanes, a false roote, cause of evel dedes." Kyng Edward made Englische lawe i-holde*. [lawes to be holden, Cx.] in Wales, and sette schereves þere. Kyng Edward haþ a sone i-bore at Carnarvan in Wales in a Tewys|day. After þe fourþe Honorius, þe fourþe Nichol*. [of the ordre of Menours, add. β.] was pope as it were sixe ȝere. Þat ȝere Iohn Peccham, þe archebisshop of Caunterbury, come by Chestre into Wales to reform þe staat of holy chirche. Þat ȝere was so grete derþe*. [drouþe, α. and Cx.; druyþe, γ.] and hete þat men deyde for hete. Also þat ȝere was [marchaundise]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-brent*. [ybarnd, γ.] at Seynt Botulph by þe develes children, þat sette fire*. [vur, γ.] in dyvers places of þe towne, for þey wolde more freschlyche*. [vrelich, γ.; frely, Cx.] robbe and reve in oþer places. Men seide þat unneþe al þe Page  271, vol.8 money of Engelond schulde restore þe harme þat was þere i-doo, for stremes of gold and silver and of oþer metal þat was i-molte ran anon in*. [to, α.] þe see; þat ȝere a busshel*. [boschel, γ.] [of]*. [From Cx.] whete was solde for foure pans. On seynt Margrete nyȝt fil tempest of reyne, of þonder*. [þonderynge, α.; thundryng, Cx.] and of liȝtnynge, so þat men had i-herd*. [yhurd, γ.] of none suche tofore þat tyme; for it bete*. [but, γ.] downe [corn]*. [From α. and β. (not Cx.).] and dreynte corn and gras*. [gresse, α.] þat stood on þe grounde, and so corn wax*. [wexe, α.; wexed, Cx.] derrer*. [durer, γ., bis.] and derrer, so þat a Londoun busshel*. [at London a busshel, Cx., et infra.] was solde for two schillynges þat was solde toforehonde for þre pans; and so derþe of corne durede aboute a*. [an, α. and γ.] fourty ȝere anon to þe deth of kyng Edward þe secound after þe conquest, so þat som|tyme a Londoun busshel*. [buschel, β.] was sold for ten schelynges. Aboute þis ȝere by heste of pope Nichol þe chirches of Engelond were i-taxed to þe verray value,*. [verey valu, γ.] and seþþe*. [siþþe, β.; suthe, γ.] voyded þe taxacioun of Norþwiche*. [Norwych, β. and γ.] þat was made by þe fourþe Innocencius. Þe Iewes were i-putte out of Engelond and come nevere aȝen.*. [aȝeyne, α.] After þe fourþe Nichol, þe fifte Celestinus [was y-take from ankeres lyvynge*. [lyf, Cx.] and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was pope fewe ȝeres, as it were þre ȝere. Page  273, vol.8 Somdel for strif þat was in þe court, and somdel by counsaile of his successour Bonefas, he was i-meeved and resigned up*. [op, γ.] þe poperiche; and took aȝen his raþer manere of lyvynge. Also þat ȝere deide Alisaundre kyng of Scotlond; þan was grete stryf bytwene þe Scottes who schulde be kyng after [hym].*. [From γ. and Cx.]

Capitulum quadragesimum.*. [Cap. 39, Cx.]

AFFTER þe deeþ of Alisaundre þe kyng of Scotlond, þat deide withoute children,*. [chyldern, γ.] greet stryf was i-meoved who schulde be kyng of Scotlond after hym. And for many cha|langed*. [chalengiden, β.] þat kyngdom bycause of nyh kynrede and of blood, and þat myȝt nouȝt be determyned at þe fulle*. [al full, Cx.] wiþoute [the]*. [From Cx.] presence of þe cheef lorde, þanne it was i-founde by writynge autentik and olde, þat þe kyng of Engelonde is cheef lord of Scotlond, and þat he schulde knowe and deme in suche [a]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] manere caas. And for þat he*. [he] om. α. and β.; it, Cx.] schulde be knowe after his tyme, þis ȝere kyng Edward made serche*. [sarche, γ.] alle þe abbayes of Page  275, vol.8 Engelond, of Scotlond, and of Wales, for to wete and knowe what riȝt he hadde in þat manere dede. Þanne in the cronykes of Marian þe Scot, of William of Malmesbury, of Rogger*. [Roger, γ.; Rogyer, Cx.] of Huntyngdoun, and of Raaf of*. [Raph le bruys, Cx.] Buȝet, it was i-founde þat in þe ȝere of oure Lord [nyne hondred and ten kyng Edward þe elder made sugett þe kyng of Scottes and of Cumbres. Also in þe same cronykes hit was y-founde þat þe ȝere of oure Lord]*. [From α., β., and γ.] nyne hondred and oon and twenty þis*. [þese, β.] forseide*. [þues vorsede, γ.] men Scottes and Cumbres chese þe forsaide Edward þe elder to be her lorde and here patrone. Also þere it was i-founde þat þe ȝere of oure Lord nyne hondred and sixe and twenty Athelstane*. [Adelstan, Cx., et semper.] kyng of Engelond overcome Constantyn kyng of Scotlond, and suffrede hym eft to reigne under hym. Also Athelstones broþer Edredus kyng of Engelond overcome þe Scottes and þe Northumbres, and þey submytted him self to hym and swore him feaute.*. [feute, β.] And þere it was i-founde þat Edgar*. [Edward, Cx.] kyng of Engelond overcome Alpinus his sone Kenadius*. [Kinadius, γ.] kyng of Scotlond,*. [Scottes, α.] þat swore hym fewte. Also þere it was i-founde þat Canutus kyng of Engelond and of Denmark þe ȝere of his kyng|dom sixtene overcome Malcolyn kyng of Scotlond, and þerafter he was kyng of foure kyngdoms, of Engelond, of Scotlond, and Page  277, vol.8 of Denmark, and of Noreway. Also þere it was i-founde þat seynte Edward ȝaf þe kyngdom of Scotlond to Malcolyn, þat was þe kynges sone of Cumbres, to holde of hym self.*. [self] om. Cx.] Also William Bastard, þe sixte ȝere of his kyngdom, over|come Malcolyn kyng of Scotlond, and feng*. [vyng, γ.] of hym an ooþ of homage and of*. [of] om. β.] fewte. Also William þe Rede dede*. [dude, γ.] in þe same wise as his fader*. [vader, γ.] hadde i-doo to Malcolyne kyng of Scotlond and to Malcolyns two sones þat regned oon after oþer. Also Alisaundre was his broþer successour Edgar in þe rewme*. [royam, Cx.] of Scotlond, by assent of kyng Henry þe firste. Also David kyng of Scotlond dede homage to kyng Stevene. Also William [kyng]*. [From Cx.] of Scotlond dede homage to þe þridde Henry, þe secounde Henries sone, in his coronacioun, and also to Henry þe fader, in þe twentiþe ȝere of his kyngdom, as it is i-wrete in a covenant þat was i-wrete bytwene hem*. [ham, γ.] tweyne. Also Roger of Hontyngdone seiþ þat William kyng of Scotlonde cam to his lord kyng Henry into Normandye, and dede [homage]*. [From Cx.] also to kyng Richard and to kyng Iohn at Lyncolne. Also in Seynt Albons cronikes it was*. [is, Cx.] i-founde þat Alisaundre kyng of Scotlond wedded Margarete kyng Henries douȝter at ȝork, and dede hym homage, þe ȝere of kyng Henry þe fyve and þritty; þe same is i-founde in þe kynges chartres of Scotlond. It is i-fownde*. [it . . . fownde] om. α. and Cx.] also in þe popes billes*. [bulles, γ. and Cx.] þat were i-sente into Scotlond þat þe kynges of Scotlond were accursed for þey wolde nouȝt be buxum*. [boxum, γ.] and obedient to her lordes kynges of Engelond, þat*. [than, Cx.] come to|gidres at Norham, in þe endes of Engelond toward Scotlond, Page  279, vol.8 þe kyng of Engelond wiþ his wise men, and þe kyng of Scotlond wiþ the rediest men and worþyest þat he hadde þere. Þe kyng of Engelond axede first þat þe Scottes schulde be*. [be] om. α. and β.] pecibleliche*. [pessybylych, γ.] [assente]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to his ordinaunce touchynge þe kyng of Scotlonde, nameliche for it bylonged to hym by cause of his cheef lordschippe. Þe Scottes seide þat þey knewe non suche sovereynte þat longed to þe kyng of Enge|lond, and seide þat þei myȝte nouȝt assure*. [answere, α. and γ.; answer, Cx.] to none*. [none] om. Cx.] suche þinges withouten an hede and a kyng to whom it longeþ to here suche tretynges, and þat þey schulde ȝeve non oþer answere at þat tyme, for her ooth*. [, β., et infra, and γ.] þat þey had made everiche to oþer after kyng Alisaundres deeþ, þe whiche ooþ*. [whoche oþ, γ.] þey most*. [must, Cx.] holde uppon peyne of cursynge. Þan kyng Edward took avisement and made his lettres patent to þe Scottes and knowleched þat þe comynge of Scottes into Engelond on his half*. [a þis half, β.; a this half, Cx.] þe water of*. [of] om. β.] Twede schulde nouȝt eft sones be to hem prejudice*. [prejudys, γ.] of*. [and, α.] comynge eft into Engelond. Here after þe grettest of Scotlond and of Engelond þat chalanged*. [calangede, γ.] riȝt of þe successioun in þe kyngdome of Scotlond knowlechid and graunted by here lettres patent þat þey wolde wiþ good wille fonge riȝt tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þis kyng as tofore*. [before, Cx.] þe cheef lord, and þei wolde holde ferme and stable al þat he wolde ordeyne in þis forseide dede. But for it semed wise men at þat tyme kyng Edward myȝte ȝeve riȝt*. [no right, Cx.] of successioun in þat kyngdome to no man, but ȝif he hadde arst*. [erst, Cx.] riȝt and possessioun in þe kyngdom of Scotlond, þerfore in þe kynges side of Engelond suerte*. [surte, γ.]Page  281, vol.8 was i-made to þe Scottes þat þe kyngdom of Scotlonde schulde be restored wiþynne two monþes to hym þat hadde riȝt þerto, uppon*. [oppon, γ.] peyne of an hondred þowsand pound of*. [of] om. Cx.] sterlinges þat schulde be payde to Rome in help of þe Holy Lond, and also uppon peyne of cursynge and enterditynge of þe kyng and of þe rewme*. [royamme, Cx.] of Engelond, ȝif he wolde nouȝt restore þe kyngdom as it is seide. And so the Scottes by*. [with, Cx.] her chartres ȝaf and bytook*. [bitoke, β.] to kyng Edward þe kyngdom of Scotlond, with castels, wiþ riȝt, wiþ customes, wiþ usages, and sette wardeyne*. [wardeynes, α. and Cx.] þat schulde save to hem þat hadde riȝt al þe avauntage and þe profite*. [prophyt, γ.] of þe londe in þe mene tyme. Whan this was i-doo, after long plee and despitesoun*. [disputyson, γ.; disputacion, Cx.] in eyþer side of hem þat chalanged þat kyngdome, þe kyng of Engelonde took hede of þe strengþe of resouns and of evydence*. [and evydences, Cx.] in eiþer side, and ȝaf þe dome for Iohn le Baillol, and Iohn knowleched þat þe kyng of Engelonde is cheef lorde of Scotlonde, and dede hym homage and swoor hym fewte. Þis yere deide frere Iohn Peccham, archebisshop of Caunterbury; maister Robert of Wynchilsee*. [Wynchestre, Cx.] was archebisshop after him. Also þat ȝere Maddok,*. [Madoc, Cx.] a Walsche*. [Madoc a Walysch. γ.] man, rered Page  283, vol.8 werre in Wales in a Michaelmas*. [Myȝhelmasse, α.; Mighelmasse, β.] day. Þerfore kyng Edward come to Chestre aboute seynt Nicholas feste, and took þe ile of Man,*. [Mon, Cx.] þat hiȝte Angleseya a*. [in, α. and Cx.] Latyn, and bulded*. [bulde, γ.] [al]*. [From α., β., and γ. (not Cx.).] newe þe citee and þe castel de Beel Marys. Þat tyme the woodes in Wales were i-hewe*. [yheuwe, γ.] adoun, þat were grete socour to men of þe contray to hyde hem self in werre tyme, and strong castelles were i-made in dyvers places*. [plas, α.] by þe see side; and sone hereafter þis Madok was i-take and i-brouȝt to Londoun. After þat tyme werre cessed in Wales, and Walsche men lyven*. [lyveþ, α. and β.; lyved, Cx.] as Englische men, and gadreþ*. [gadred, Cx.] tresoure, and dredeþ*. [dredde, Cx.] losse of catell. Þat tyme kyng Edwarde made serche alle þe abbayes of Engelond, and brynge to Londoun all þe money þat was founde. Also he made areste*. [arrest, Cx.] alle þe woolles and þe felles, and þerafter fil*. [vul, γ.] greet derþe of corne and of wyne.

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.*. [Cap. 40, Cx.]

AFTER þe fifte Celestinus, þe eyȝteþe Bonefas was pope ellevene ȝere. Þis pope his fifte ȝere*. [This popes fyrst yere, Cx.] was a ȝere of grace,*. [gras, γ.] þat Page  285, vol.8 ȝere he graunted large and greet pardoun to pilgrymes þat wolde come to Rome and visite þe apostles Petre and Poule. He made þe sixte book of Decretales; þerynne he determyned many grete doutes, he encorpered many [grete]*. [From Cx.] constituciouns [ex|travagant, as þe constitucioun]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of Honorius and of Adran|cencius,*. [Adrian, α., β., and Cx.; Adryan, γ.] of Innocencius, of Clement and of oþer popes, and did away þat was unriȝtful.*. [al that was wrongful, Cx.] A constitucioun þat is not i-putte in þe course of lawes is i-cleped a constitucioun extravagant. ℞. Þis begiled his predecessour Celestinus, and made hym resigne up þe poperiche, and torne eft to an acre lyf.*. [to anker's life, β.; anker hys lyf, γ.; to ankers lyf, Cx.] Men seiþ þat þerfore Celestinus prophecied of hym in þis manere: "Þou come up*. [out, α.] as a fox, þou schalt reigne as a lyon, and deye as a*. [an, α.] hound." For he made pope Celestinus make a constitu|cioun þat he and everiche pope myȝte freliche*. [vrelyche, γ.] resigne up*. [op, γ.] the poperiche, and whan he was pope he worschipped*. [revoked, Cx.] þe same constitucion; þan he regned*. [ruled, β. and Cx.; reulede, γ.] sterneliche,*. [stronglyche, γ.] and sette doun some cardinals and gentil men de Columpna, and wiþ|stood þe kyng of Fraunce in many poyntes, and nouȝt onliche þat, but he fondede wiþ [all]*. [From Cx.] his myȝt to sette doun þe kyng of Fraunce. Þerfore the steward*. [stuward, Cx.] of Fraunce, William de Lan|garet, a wise man and a*. [a] om. β.] fer*. [ver, γ.] castynge, and þe forseide breþeren Page  287, vol.8 de Calumpna conspired to gidres, and took pope Bonefas and sette hym uppon a wylde hors wiþouten brydel, and turned his visage*. [face, β.; fas, γ.] toward þe tayle, and made hym so prike aboute to þe laste breeþ, and slow hym so wiþ prekynge and wiþ hunger. Iohn Bayllol þat was made kyng of Scotlond rose aȝenst þe kyng of Engelond and aȝenst his owne ooth,*. [, β.] and þat by coun|seille of some men of Scotlond, and nameliche of þe abbot of Mewerose;*. [Meuros, β. γ., and Cx.] but Iohn was i-take and disherited. Þan þe ȝere after William Waleys of the nacioun of Scottes arrayed werre aȝenst kyng Edward; but he was i-chased the secounde ȝere after, kyng Edward slowȝ sixty þowsand Scottes at Fouli|chirche*. [Fouchirch, Cx.] in a Mary Magdeleyn*. [Mawdeleyn, α.; Maudeleyn, β.] day. But þe Scottes wex*. [wuxe, γ.] strenger and strenger þritty ȝere to gidres anon to kyng Ed|wardes tyme þe þridde after þe conquest, and bete*. [but, γ.] doun Englische men oost*. [ofte, β. and γ.] and Englische men*. [men] om. α., β., and γ.] [oft and Englysshe]*. [From Cx.] places þat were nygh to her marches. Som men seide þat þat myshap fel*. [vul, γ.] for mescheves*. [neschenesse, β.; softnesse, Cx.] of Englisch men, and some seide þat it was Goddes owne wreche, and*. [and] as, β. and Cx.] þe prophecie seide þat Englische men schulde be destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] by Danes, by Frensche*. [Freyns, γ.] men, and by Scottes, as it is i-touched in þe ende of þe firste book. Þe kyng made seyse into his hond al þe temporalte of clerkes, and putte hem out of his protec|cioun, Page  289, vol.8 for þey wolde rewarde hym of her catel þe ȝere to fore|honde aȝenst þe Scottes. For by assent of the clergie, Robert þe archebisshop hadde purchased an inhibicioun of þe pope þat no clerk schulde rewarde þe kyng of holy chirche goodes; but many clerkes purchased for drede þe kynges proteccioun. Wiþ|oute counseille of lordes kyng Edward wiþ litel strengþe of Englische men and Walsche men seilled into Flaundres, as it were aȝenst þe kyng of Fraunce. It was þo*. [þo] om. α.; a, β. and Cx.] comoun*. [comyn, γ.] sawe þat kyng Edward loved [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Blaunche, þe kynges douȝter of Fraunce, þat he wolde gladliche ȝeelde up Gaskoyne*. [Gasquyn, γ.] to þe kyng of Fraunce for his dowter Blaunche; but for Edward was oolde and Blaunche was a ȝong wenche,*. [ȝung weynche, γ.] kyng Edward wedded Margarete, the kynges suster of Fraunce,*. [kyng of Fraunces suster, α.] and gat on here two*. [twy, γ.] sones, Thomas and Edmond. Kyng Edward dampned sodeynliche fals money þat was slyliche*. [slyghtly, Cx.] i-brouȝt up: men cleped*. [clepin, Cx.] þe money pollardes, crocardes and rosaries,*. [Rosoryes, Cx.] and Page  291, vol.8 were putte forþ litel and litel and priveliche in stede of ster|lynges.*. [shyllynges, Cx.] First þey*. [he, γ.] made oon of hem worþ an half peny, and þan he fordede hem all out.*. [forbad hem aboute, Cx.] Also [this yere]*. [From Cx.; þis ȝere, β.] Edmond erle of Cornewayle [deyed wiþoute children; þis Edmund was þe sone of Richard erle of Cornwayle]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and kyng of Almayne, and so þat erldom fel [aȝen]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to the crowne aȝen|ward.*. [aȝenward] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þis ȝere was a ȝere of grace,*. [gras, γ.] in þe whiche ȝede*. [wente, α.; went, β. and γ.] many pilgrimes to Rome.*. [towne, α.] Kyng Edward ȝaf his sone Ed|ward þe principate of Wales and þe erldom of Chestre. At Londoun William Waleys, ledere of Scottes, was an honged*. [anhonge, γ.] and to-drawe, his heed was i-smyte*. [y-smyȝten, α.] of and i-sette uppon þe brigge*. [brugge, γ.] of Londoun, al men to beholde þat þat wey*. [þere, α., β., and Cx.; þar, γ.] wolde passe; his body was i-quartred and i-sent into dyvers places of Engelonde. Þis yere kyng Edward sente to pope Boneface lettres to declare þe ryȝt and þe lordschippe þat þe*. [þe] om. α.] kynges of*. [þe kynges of] om. β., γ., and Cx.] Engelond haþ over þe rewme*. [royamme, Cx., et infra.] and þe*. [þe] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] kynges of Scotlond. For Robert le Bruce*. [Bruse, α.; Bruyȝ, β.; Bruz, γ.; Bruys, Cx.] hadde i-pleyned to þe pope Page  293, vol.8 þat kyng Edward regned*. [greved, α., β., and Cx.] wrongfulliche þe reaume*. [regm, γ.] of Scotlond; þerfore þe pope wroot to þe kyng of Engelond þat he schulde leven of suche*. [leve of sich, β.] grevynge, but he myȝte schewe cleerliche his riȝt.*. [lyȝt, α.] After þe eyȝteþe*. [eyght, Cx.] Bonefas, þe elevenþe Benet, of þe ordre of Prechoures, was pope nouȝt fulliche oon ȝere; of hym oon seid in þis manere:

"A re nomen habe, benedic, benefac, benedicte;
Aut rem perverte, maledic, malefac, maledicte."

Þat is: habe*. [have, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þy name of þy ded, say wel, do wel, i|blessed; oþer turne þe dede, say evel, doo evel, acursed. He seiþ þis*. [þus, α. and Cx.; A seyþ þus, γ.] ffor Benett is Benedictus in*. [on, α.; a, β. and γ.] Latyn, i-blessed in*. [on, α.; an, β. and γ.] Englissche. After Benett,*. [Benet, β.] þe fifte*. [vyfte, γ.] Clement was pope, as it were twelve ȝere: he travayled aboute buldynge of castelles and gadrynge of tresoure; he dampned þe ordre of [Frere]*. [From α. (not Cx.).] Templers, and ordeyned þe sevenþė book*. [bok, γ.] of Decretales þat hatte*. [hyghte, Cx.] Clementynes. And sone þerafter, in a counsaylle þat he Page  295, vol.8 made at Vien, he wiþcleped*. [revoked, Cx.] þe same book; but his succes|sour, þe two and twenty pope John, renewed ofte*. [eft, α.; efte, β., γ., and Cx.] þat book,*. [bok, γ.] and publisched it, and put it to þe cros*. [course, α.; cors, β. and γ.; cours, Cx.] of lawe canoun. Þis Clement was þe firste þat chaunged þe popes see from Rome to Avyon:*. [Avinion, β., γ., and Cx.] men wondreþ*. [wondren, Cx.] of þat dede, wheþer it were i-doo by Goddes ordenaunce or by manis foole*. [foul, β. and γ.; foule, Cx.] hardynesse. Also þat ȝere kyng Edward*. [Henry, α.] made hard inquisicioun aȝenst evel doers, and aȝenst hem þat trespased*. [trespaside, β.] aȝenst þe crowne, þat manere inquisicioun hiȝte trailbastoun.*. [traylbaston, Cx.] Robert le Bruȝ*. [Brus, α.; de Bruys, Cx.] toke wrongfulliche*. [wrongfolliche, γ.] þe kyngdom of Scotlond; and aboute Esterne*. [Eester, Cx.] he slowȝ John le Comyn at Dunfrees,*. [Dunfre, β. and Cx.; Dounfreȝ, γ.] in þe cherche of Frere Menoures, for he wolde not assente to hym in þat tresoun.*. [trayson, Cx.] But þe kyng of Engelond come and chased þis Robert, and heng þe sleers of þis John. Þat ȝere kyng Edward lay besides Karlile,*. [Carlele, α.; Caerleel, β., ct infra; deyd at Carleel, Cx. (sic).] and made Perys Gavestoun,*. [Peres of Gavestoun, β.; Piers of Gaveston, Cx.] þat was prive wiþ his sone, forswere þe erþe*. [londe, Cx.] of Engelond. *. [Here β. marks Cap. 41.; Cx. here marks Capitulum 41.]EdwardusPage  297, vol.8Secundus. Kyng Edward deyde at seynt Thomas day þe translacioun, besides Karlyle at Burgh uppon þe sonde, þe ȝere of his kyngdom fyve and þritty. Robert archebisshop of Canturbury was exiled, and sighe*. [he sawe, Cx.] his deþ in his slepe at Rome. After hym*. [the fyrst Edward, Cx.] his sone was kyng, þe secounde Edward after þe conquest. Anoon he hadde home aȝen his love*. [leef, β. and Cx.] Piers of Gavestoun,*. [Gavaston, γ.] and ȝaf hym þe ducherie of Cornewayle, and made hym wardeyne of Engelonde while he was aboute his owne mariage beȝonde*. [byȝunde, γ.] þe see. At Boloyne*. [Bolayne, α.; Bolayn, β. and γ.] he wedded Isabel þe douȝter onliche*. [oneliche douȝter, α.; onlich douȝter, β.; onlyche douȝter, γ.] of Phelip kyng of Fraunce, and come þens*. [þus, α.] aȝen, and was i-crowned kyng [at Westmynster]*. [From α. and Cx.] þe Sonday in Quinquagesima, þat is þat day a fourtenyȝt after [þat]*. [From α. and Cx.] Alleluya is i-closed: he was i-crowned of þe bisshop of Wynchestre by auctorite of þe pope Clement, for Robert Page  299, vol.8 archebisshop of Caunterbury was tho at Rome exiled out of Enge|lond. Þis Edward was faire*. [veyr, γ.] of body and grete of strengþe, and unstedfast*. [unstidefast, β.] of maneres and of þewes, ȝif men schul*. [schal, α. and Cx.] trowe*. [knowe, α. (not Cx.).] þe comoun tale. For he forsook þe companye of lordes, and drowh*. [drewe, Cx.] hym to harlottes,*. [harlotes and brybours to syng|ers, γ.] to syngers and to gestoures, to carters, to delveres and to*. [to] om. α. and β.] dykers, to rowers, schipmen and bootmen,*. [to rouwers, botmen, & schyp|men, γ.; botemen and shipmen, Cx.; inverted in β.] and to oþer craftesmen,*. [men] om. Cx.] and ȝaf hym to grete drynkynge; he wolde liȝtliche telle out prive counseille, and smyte men þat were aboute hym for wel litel*. [lyght, Cx.] trespas, and dede*. [dide, β.] more by oþer menis counsel þan by his owne. He was to large of ȝiftes and solempne*. [solempnel, Cx.] in makynge of feestes, redy to speke and variaunt of dedes, unhappy aȝenst his enemyes and cruel*. [cruwel, γ.] to his meyne, and loved strongliche oon of his queresters,*. [qwysteres, α.; whistrers, β. and Cx.] and dede*. [dyd, α.] him grete reverence, and wor|schipped*. [worship, Cx.] and made hym greete and riche. Of þis doynge fel vilenye to þe lovyer, yvel speche and bacbitynge to þe love,*. [leef, β. and Cx.] sclaunder to þe peple,*. [pupel, γ.] harme and dame*. [damage, α. and γ.; dammage, Cx.] to þe reume.*. [regm, γ.; Royamme, Cx.] He Page  301, vol.8 avaunced to staates of holy chirche hem þat were unable*. [unhabel, γ.] and unworþy, þat was afterward a stake in his thye,*. [eiȝe, β.; ye, γ.; eye, Cx.] and a spere in his side. In his tyme was so greet derþe*. [durþe, γ.] of whete, and contynuel moreyne of bestes, þat noon suche*. [sich, β.] was i-sene tofore þat tyme: þo were dymes*. [dismes, γ.] alwey i-gadred and contribuciouns i-payde, spiritualte and temporalte*. [spirituale and temporale, Cx.] was alway i-pyled; and by suffraunce of þe pope, and by colour to wiþstonde þe Scottes, moche good fel to þe kynges enchetes,*. [encheytes, β. and Cx.] but by þe kynges outrage al was wasted and i-spended in ydel. But in oon poynt þis kyng happed wel, þat Wales was nevere rebel aȝenst hym. In oþer sides hym myshapped alwey. In his bygynnyng he loved Piers of Gavastoun,*. [Gaveston, Cx.] þat had toforehonde forswore*. [vorswore, γ.] his com|panye at his fadres heste,*. [heeste, β.] but he sente after hym aȝen from byȝonde*. [vram byȝunde, β.] þe see; bycause of hym he was recheles of Isabel þe queene and rouȝt nouȝt of þe lordes of þe lond, þerfore þe lordes had indignacioun, and put out þis Piers over þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] see into Irlond; þere þe kynges tresoure was rabbischelyche*. [rabbischlich, β.; rabbyshly, Cx.] i-wasted and i-spended, ȝit for [more]*. [From α. and Cx.] hope of more pees Piers was i-brouȝt aȝen, but þe kynges tresoure was i-wasted and i-spended as it was toforehonde; and þe lordes arisen*. [aroos, Cx.] and put Piers fro þe kyng, and took her hors*. [horses, β.; his horses and his, Cx.] and here tre|soure Page  303, vol.8 in Norþhumberlond, and chased Piers, and byseged hym in þe castel of Scharburgh,*. [Scardburgh, β. and Cx., et infra.] and took hym, and smoot of his heed at Gaveressiche beside Warwik. But whan Piers was dede, ȝit þe king usede his olde maneres, and drowȝ*. [drewe, Cx.] to oþer men; þerfore Robert archebisshop of Caunterbury made a solempne*. [solemynel, Cx.] counseil of þe province, þere were ordeyned meny nobel statutes in help of þe reume.*. [regm, γ.] Þe kyng was i|swore to holde þese ordenaunces, and Robert þe archebisshop ȝaf his blessynge to alle þat wolde holde hem, and his curs to alle*. [to alle] om. Cx.] þat wolde hem*. [ham, γ.] breke; but þo as alwey þe kyng drouȝ to his fautoures, and dede nouȝt as he hadde i-byhote;*. [promysed, Cx.] þerfore was grete speche among þe comyns, and grucchynge*. [grochynge, γ.] among þe grete, aȝenst þe kyng and hem þat were nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] the kyng. And specialliche Robert þe archebisshop, and Thomas erle of Lancastre, by confort of þis Robert, fondede wiþ hem þat wolde holde wiþ*. [hem þat wolde holde wiþ] om. Cx.] hym many ȝere to wiþstonde þe kynges nysete,*. [nyste, γ.] forto he ȝelde*. [ȝuld, γ.] up þe breeþ in þat stryf at þe laste ende. By lordes aȝenst þe kynges wille Piers of Gavastoun was exiled into Irlond; and þe ȝere after, aboute þe Natyvyte of oure*. [ur, γ.]Page  305, vol.8 Lady, he was i-sent after aȝen, and þe kyng come aȝenst hym to*. [to] at, β., γ., and Cx.] Chestre. But aboute mydwynter Piers was exciled into Flaundres, and aboute Candilmasse i-sent after aȝen aȝenst her wille, þe kyng was wiþ hym a while, and lefte hym in þe castel of Skarburgh.*. [Scardeburgh, γ.; Scardburgh, Cx.] Þere lordes byseged hym and took hym and brouȝte hym to Dadyngtoun,*. [Dadynton, β. and Cx.] and slouȝ hym besides Warwyk: Piers was byheeded at Gaveressiche,*. [Gaversfiche, α.] þe ȝere*. [þe ȝere] upon the daye, Cx.] of seynt Gervasius and Prothasius. And þe same ȝere at*. [in, α.; on, β.] seynt Brises*. [Bryces, β.] day þis kynges eldest sone, þe þridde Edward after þe conquest, was i-bore at Wyndesore;*. [Wyndeshore, β.] þe archebisshop Robert of Wynchilsee*. [Winchestre, Cx.] is deed, and maister Thomas [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Cobham is i-chose, a wel nobel clerk. By instaunce of þe kyng he was put of and translated to Worcestre,*. [Wirceter, γ.; Wyrcetre, Cx.] and Walter Raynalde,*. [Reignald, β.; Reynald, γ.] þe kynges tresorer, was made archebisshop, and sone þerafter þey*. [þey] the kyng, Cx.] went into Scotlond wiþ greet boost and grete aray, and at Strevelyn he and his were*. [was, β.] schameliche overcome in a seynt John his day; gentil men were i-slawe and i-take and tresoure*. [tresourye, α.] i-lost; som þrew awey here wepoun*. [wepne, β.; wepen, Cx.] and took socour onliche Page  307, vol.8 of*. [by, Cx.] fliȝt. Here after [twelve ȝere]*. [From α. and Cx.] contynualliche while þis kyng regnede þe norþ contrayes of Engelond were destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] by þe Scottes. Edward le [Bruȝe, Robert le]*. [From α. and Cx.] Bruce*. [Bruze, α., Bruyȝes, β.; Bruys, Cx.] his broþer, wente into Irlond forto wynne þat lond; but þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] ȝere þerafter he was i-slawe on seynt Calixtes day. Also þis ȝere, aboute Myhelmesse,*. [Mighelmasse, β.; Mychelmasse, Cx.] a knyȝt of Lancastreschire meoved werre aȝenst his owne lord, Thomas eorle of Lancastre, bote aboute Martynmasse he was i-take and byheded.*. [heded, Cx.]

Capitulum quadragesimum tertium.*. [42, β. and Cx.]

AFTER þe firste*. [fifte, α.; fifþe, β.; vyfte, γ.; fourth, Cx.] Clement, þe two and twenty*. [twentiþe, β.; twentyest, Cx.] Iohn was pope aboute [an]*. [From β. and Cx.] eyȝtene ȝere; he remeved*. [renewide, β.] þe sevenþe book*. [renewyd the seven bokes, Cx.] of Decretales, and avaunsed clerkes, and ordeyned in*. [in] om. Cx.] general studies lore of þre longages, of Hebrew and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] Grew and Latyn; and firste, for it schulde seme þat he hated fong|yng*. [fongeres, α.; takyng, Cx.]Page  309, vol.8 of ȝiftes, he dampned pluralite of benefice,*. [benefices, α. and β.] so þat every creature*. [curatour, β. and γ.] schulde holde hym apaide wiþ oon benefice wiþ cure, and þis pope schulde have þe frutes*. [fruytes, β.] of oþer*. [the other, Cx.] benefices þat voyded longe tyme of ȝeres. Also he reserved to hym self þe firste benefice*. [vurste benefys, γ.] þat voyded by deeþ, by resignacioun, oþer by translacioun; so þat þe persone þat were institute schulde chese wheþer*. [weþer, β.] he wolde have þe taxe of þe benefice oþer þe overplus:*. [overpluys, β. and Cx.] by þat cautele come huge tresoure to þe popes honde. But þe duke of Bavarria,*. [Bavaria, Cx.] þat cleped hymself emperoure, werred ofte aȝenst hym, and bare hym doun alway. Also þis ȝere was grete deeþ of men and [of]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] bestes, and greet fallynge*. [vallyng, γ.] of reyne in somer and in hervest; þerof come grete derþe of corne, so þat a quarter of whete was solde for xl. s.*. [fourty schillynges, α., β., and Cx.] A whryter*. [wryter, α. and Cx.; writer, β. and γ.] þat hiȝte Iohn hadde a katte þat was homeliche wiþ hym: aboute Pentecoste, at Oxenforde, þis Iohn seide openliche þat he was heire*. [eyr, β.] of Engelond. Þerfore at Norþhamptoun,*. [Norhampton, β.] tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe kyng and lordes, he was proved fals, and an*. [an] om. Cx.] honged and to-drawe.*. [drawen, Cx.] Þat ȝere two cardynales come into Engelond, and cursed*. [curside, β.] Roberd le Bruȝ and his fautoures, and enterdited Scotlond. Kyng Edward favored þe two Spensers, Hewe*. [Huwe, γ, et passim; Hugh, Cx. (bis), et infra.] þe fadir and Hewe þe sone, aȝenst Page  311, vol.8 þe wille of lordes. Þerfore Thomas eorle of Lancastre, and many oþere, wiþdrewe so þe kynges strengþe, so þat þey made hem as*. [as] om. β. and Cx.] [a]*. [From α. and Cx.] colour as it were by assent of þe kyng, and exciled þese Spencers, and þrewe adoun her castel*. [castels, Cx.] in Wales; þey ladde awey þe bestes, and gadred tresoure, and occupied Glowcestre in þe wyntertyme. And sone þerafter, wiþouten counseile of oþer men, þe kyng sente aȝen for eyþer Hewe. Þanne wraþþe and stryf encresed*. [encreside, β.] from day to day. Among alle þese*. [þis, β.; this, Cx.] two lordes þe*. [þe] de, β. and Cx.] Mortymer took hastiliche citees in þe marches,*. [marche er, α.; in þe march ar, γ.] or*. [or] er, β.] þe erle of Lancastre myȝte be redy, and pursewed þe kynges knyȝtes, forto þe kyng come aboute by Schroysbury*. [Schrosbury, β.; Shrowesbury, Cx.] uppon hem unaware*. [unaware] om. Cx.] wiþ a greet multitude of foot*. [vot, γ.] men; þer for defaute of meyne,*. [money, α., β., and Cx.] and for þe erle of Lancastre was to longe behynde, þe knyȝtes wente away, and þe tweie Mortymers moste nedes ȝilde*. [aȝeld, β.] hem, and so þey dede, and were i-prisoned at Londoun. Þan þe kyng wente to Glowcestre,*. [Gloucetre, Cx.] and hadde wiþ hym þese boþe the Spensers.*. [with hym thens eyther Spenser, Cx.]Page  313, vol.8 Þanne he wente to Lichefeld, aboute seynt Chadde*. [Chaddes, α.; Chedde, β. and Cx.] day, for to take þe erles of Lancastre and of Hereford,*. [Hereford] om. Cx.] and here fautoures þat were at Tutteburye*. [Tutbury, Cx.] and at Burtoun. But while þe kyng passed þe water of Trente*. [of Trente] om. Cx.] at a*. [an, α.] forþe,*. [foorde, β.; out of the toun at a foorde, Cx.] þe erle of Lancastre and his men fligh*. [fled, Cx.] out of þe toun of Burtoun to the citee of Burgbrugge.*. [Burghbrigge, β.] Þere come Andrew of Harkelay in þe kynges syde, and slow þe erle of Herford riȝt uppon þe brigge, þe sixteþe day to fore Averille, and took þe erle of Lancastre and many oþer nobil men. Þe most dele of hem weren in dyvers places an honged by þe þrote, but þe erle was byheded at his owne castel of Pom|freyt,*. [Pountfreyȝte, α.; Pontfret, β.; Pounfret, Cx.] þe tenþe day tofore Averille. Of þis erle and of his dedes is ofte greet stryf among comoun peple, wheþer he schulde be acounted for*. [among, α. and Cx.] seyntes oþer none.*. [noo, Cx.] Some seyn*. [seggeþ, γ.; sayde, Cx.] ȝis,*. [ȝys, α.; ȝus, γ.; yes, Cx.] for he dede many almes dedes, and worschipped men of religioun, and mayntened a trewe querel, as it semed, to his lyves ende; also his enemyes durede afterward but a while, Page  315, vol.8 and deyde in schentful*. [schamful β.; shameful, Cx.] deeþ. Oþer seien*. [seyn, Cx.] þe contrarie, and telleþ þat he was an housbonde man, and rouȝt nouȝt of his wyf, and defouled a greet multitude of [gentil]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wommen and of gentil*. [of gentil] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wenches; ȝif eny man offended hym a lite,*. [a lytel, Cx.] he lete slee hym anon. And postataes*. [And postataes] Apostates, α. and γ.; Apostatas, β. and Cx.] and evel doers he favored strongliche, for he schulde nouȝt be i-punsched by þe lawe. Also he wolde commytte all his doynges*. [doyngis, β.] to oon of his secre|taries to doo wiþ as he wolde. Also þat he foloweþ schame|fulliche*. [flyȝ schamelich, β.; fled shame|ly, Cx.] in tyme of fyȝtinge for þe right anon to þe deth, and suche on*. [sich oon, β.] schulde nouȝt be acounted [a saynt],*. [From Cx.] nameliche whan he was i-take and i-slawe maugre his teeþ. But offrynges and liknes of myracles*. [myrakels, γ.] þat now beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] i-doo in þe place *. [plas, γ.]þere he was byheded what issue þey schulde*. [schul, β.; shal, Cx.] take, it schal be knowe after þis tyme. Fro þat tyme unto þe sixte ȝere after þe fortune of þe Spensers bygan to encrese, and þe condicioun of þe queene drow*. [drouȝ, β.; drough, Cx.] toward servage; forto þe kyng of Fraunce pursued hugeliche*. [hogelyche, γ.] þe kyng of Engelond, for þe homage of Gascoyne was nouȝt i-doo. Aboute þe Ascencioun of oure Lord Page  317, vol.8 þe kyng hilde*. [huld, γ.] a parlement at ȝork; þere he made Hewe Spenser*. [Hugh the Spenser, Cx.] þe elder erle of Wynchestre, and Andrew of Harkeley erle of Karlyle.*. [Carleel, β.; Carleell, Cx.] Þe same ȝere, aboute Lammasse,*. [Lambmas, γ., et infra.] þe kyng wente into Scotlond, and þey he hadde none wiþstonddynge, ȝit he loste many men wiþ siknes and wiþ hunger. Aboute þe Natyvyte of oure Lady þe kyng come homward*. [hamward, β.] aȝeyne, and þe Scottes come after hym, and took þe castel [of]*. [From γ.] Norham. And afterward, aboute seynt Lukes tyme,*. [tide, α.; tyde, β. and Cx.; Luc hys tyde, γ.] at the abbay of Bellalauda uppon Blakamore,*. [Blakhammore, β. and γ.; Blak|ham mor, Cx.] þey hadde nygh take þe kyng at mete, ne hadde*. [nadde, β.] he *. [yf he had not, Cx.] flowe;*. [nadde he yvlowe, γ.] but þey took þe erle of Richemond, and þe kynges tresorye*. [tresour, β. and Cx.; tresor, γ.] was i-loste. Þe same ȝere, þe*. [a, α.] morwe after seynt Chadde*. [Cheddes, β.] day, Andrew of Harkeley was i-take at Carlile*. [Carleel, β.] as a traytour, an honged and to-drawe and byheded, and his bowels i-brent [and y-quartred],*. [From α. and Cx.] and his heed i-sette uppon Londoun brigge.*. [brugge, γ.] At Lammasse Roger Mortymer þe ȝonger, þat was in prisoun, scaped out of þe tour of Lon|doun Page  319, vol.8 by a slepynge drynke*. [drenche, β.; drench, γ.] þat his wardeyn*. [wardeyns, β. and γ.; war|deynes, Cx.] hadde i-dronke. Aboute Mydlente, forto make pees, þe queene of Engelond was sent to her broþer kyng of Fraunce, þat hadde assailled a greet deel of Gascoyne. Aboute þe Nativite of oure Lady þe kyng sent his sone Edward into Fraunce forto doo þe kyng of Fraunce homage for þe ducherie of Gyen,*. [Guyan, Cx.] þat was i-ȝeve hym, and þe kyng of Fraunce made hym abyde wiþ his moder in the counte of Pounteney.*. [Ponty, α. and β.; Pontyen, Cx.] Þe moder and þe sone dwelled so byȝonde þe see, and wolde nouȝt come aȝen, or*. [oþer, β.] durst*. [oþer þorste, γ.] nouȝt for drede of þe Spensers. Þanne þe kyng of Engelond, by counseil of þe tweie Spensers, outlawed and banysched his wif and his sone openliche at Londoun in Chepe,*. [Cheep, β.] as traytoures of þe reaume.*. [Royamme, Cx.]

Capitulum quadragesimum quartum.*. [43, β. and Cx.]

THIS ȝere aboute Myghelmasse*. [Mychelmasse, Cx.] the queene of Engelond and her sone Edward, and Roger Mortymer þat scaped out of þe Page  321, vol.8 toure of Londoun, come into Engelond wiþ litel strengþe of Henaundes,*. [Henawdes, α; Henaudes, β.; Henewers, Cx.] and londed in Estsex*. [Essex, γ.] and wente toward Lon|doun, þere þe kyng was þat tyme; and wonder it is þat þe lond was stille al aboute, wiþouten noyse and schedynge of blood; and þe kyng fleeþ*. [fliȝ, β.; vly, γ.; fledde, Cx.] out of Londoun into West Wales, and þey folwede*. [folewide, β.] hym esiliche a foot*. [vot, γ.] paas. Þat tyme, þe morwe after seynt Kalixtes day, by counsayle of burgeyses*. [bourgeys, Cx.] of Londoun, þe kynges tresorer þe bisshop of Excetere*. [þat wrongly inserted here in MS.; om. Cx.] was byheeded withouten þe norþ dore of seynt Poules chirche. And on þe morwe þe toure of Londoun was i-take by burgeys of Londoun in helpe of þe queene and of her sone. Sone þereafter, on seynt Symond day*. [even, Cx.] and [on]*. [From α. (not Cx.).] seynt*. [seynt] om. Cx.] Jude, þe queene and her men toke þe castel of Bristowe, þere Hewe*. [Hugh, Cx., et infra.] þe Spenser þe elder was honged and to-drawe, and his heed sent to Wynchestre; þe same ȝere on seynt Hewes*. [Huwes, β.; Hughes, Cx.] day þe erle of Arundel was i-take in þe contray of Schroysbury,*. [Schrosbury, β.] but he was byheded at Herforde. Þe same while*. [weke, β. and Cx.; wyke, γ.] þe kyng of Engelond was i-take in þe castel of Neth in West Wales, Page  323, vol.8 and i-putte in ward, in þe castel of Kelyngworþe.*. [Kenelworþe, α., β., and Cx.; Kenelwurth, γ.] Hewe the Spenser ȝe ȝonge*. [þe ȝonger, α. and β.; yonger, Cx.] was i-take wiþ þe kyng, and an|honged*. [and enhonged, α.; om. Cx.] and to-drawe at Hereford, byheded and i-quartred, and his heed was i-sent to Londoun brigge.*. [bridge, Cx.] Also þat ȝere in þe occabis*. [octavas, α.; eotaves, β.; oc|taves, Cx.] of þe twelfþe day was made a parlement at Londoun, þere by comoun ordynaunce weren solempne mes|sangers i-sent to þe kyng þat was in prisoun, þre bisshoppes, þre erles, tweye barouns, two abbottes, and two justices, forto resigne to þe kyng þat was þoo in warde þe homage þat was i-made to hym somtyme, for þey wolde no lenger have hym for her lord. On of hem, sire William Trussele knyȝt, and procuratour of all þe parlement, spak to þe kyng in þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] name of alle þe oþere, and seide þese wordes: "I*. [Ich, β. (bis) and γ.] William Trussell, in þe name of alle men of þe lond of Engelond, and of al þe parlement procuratour, I*. [ych, γ.] resigne to þe, Edward, þe homage þat was i-made to þe somtyme, and fro þis tyme forþward I defie*. [diffye, β.; dyffye, Cx.] þe, and prive þe of al real*. [rial, β.; ryall, Cx.] power, and l*. [Y, β.] schal nevere be tendaunt to þee as for kyng after þis tyme." Also þis was opounliche i-cride at Londoun. Þe Page  325, vol.8 same ȝere on*. [on] a, γ.] Candelmasse eve Edward þe kynges sone was kyng.*. [kyng] y-made knyȝt, α.; made knyȝt, β.; made knyght, Cx.]

Capitulum quadragesimum quintum.*. [44, β. and Cx.]

EDWARD his sone, þe þridde Edward after þe conquest, a ȝong child aboute*. [aboute a] of, Cx.] a*. [an, β.] fiftene ȝere olde, under warde, ȝet levynge his fadir, was crowned kyng at Westmynstre in a Candilmasse day. In his bygynnynge come forþ gracious happes and fortune, þo þe erþe fonge plente, the eyer temperure,*. [þe aer tempreur, γ.] þe see quyet and pees, and holy chirche fredom. Þe þridde day of Averell þe olde kyng was i-brouȝt out of Kelyngworthe*. [Kenelworþe, α., β., and Cx.; Kenelwurth, γ.] to þe castel of Berkeley.*. [Barkley, Cx.] Þere many men conspired forto helpe at*. [at] for, Cx.; to, β.] his de|lyveraunce, but he deyde aboute þe feste of seynt Matheu þe evangeliste: of his levynge and of his dedes is ȝit among þe peple*. [stryf among þe peple, α. and Cx.] stryf, as was somtyme of Thomas of Lancastre, wheþer he schulde be acounted among seyntes oþer no. For noþer*. [neiþer, α.] prisonement ne persecucioun and greves preveþ a man a seynt, Page  327, vol.8 for*. [vor, γ.] evel*. [for evel . . . a seynt] om. β. and Cx.] doer*. [doeres, α.; doers, γ.] suffren suche peynes; neyþer offrynges ne liknes*. [lyckenes, α.] of myracles proveþ a man a seynt,*. [for evel . . . a seynt] om. β. and Cx.] but þe holynes of þe raþer lyf accorde þerto, ffor suche beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] indifferent to gode and to yvel. For everich*. [ever, Cx.] synful man is to*. [is to] hit is, α., it is, Cx.] a faire grace ȝeve*. [ȝif, add. α.; of, add. Cx.] suche*. [hit is a faire grace ȝif siche, β.; hit ys a veyr grace ef soche, γ.] peynes wiþ contricioun dooþ*. [done, Cx.] awey his synnes and lasseþ*. [lasseneþ, α. and β.; lassen, Cx.] his peynes in purgatorie, þey he*. [though they, Cx.] make hym flee anon to hevene wiþouten eny peyne of purgarie.*. [purgatory, β.; purgatorye, Cx.] But pre|sumpcioun and pryde of evel men and synful trusteþ*. [trysteþ, α.] and hopeþ in*. [an, β. and Cx.] idel þat þey and oþere suche schulde have no peyne in purgatorie. Also likynge and wille þat*. [þat, from α. and Cx.; of, MS.] wyves have*. [wille þat wyves haveþ, β.] to wende aboute make*. [makeþ, α.; makiþ, β.] tydinges*. [tyþinges, α.] springe and sprede hugeliche of suche worschippynge, for [to]*. [From α.] þe buldyng uppon [suche]*. [From Cx.] unsiker grounde bygynneþ to slyde. At þe parlement at Wyn|chestre Edmond of Wodestoke was byheded, for he hadde conspired aȝenst þe kyng, as it was i-saide: þe foreside Ed|mond was þis kynges eme, and erle of Kent. Þe sixte*. [syxtenth, Cx.] day to fore Iune þis þridde [kyng]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Edward after the conquest hadde his eldest sone Edward i-bore of his wyf þe queene, þe erles douȝter of Henaunde.*. [Henaud, β. and Cx.] Also þat ȝere, on þe morwe*. [amorowe, β.] after seynt Lukes day, Roger Mortymer, þat made men clepe hym Page  329, vol.8 erle of [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Marche, was i-take at Notyngham, and i-sent to Londoun, and þere by dome of parlement he was an honged and to-drawe on seynt Andrewes even. Aboute Lammasse*. [Lambmas, γ.] Edward le Balliol,*. [Bailol, β.; Bayllol, Cx.] þat was somtyme kyng of Scotlond, entred into Scotlond for to recovere*. [rekever, β.; recuver, γ.] his kyngdome wiþ litel strengþe of Englisshe men, unneþe two þowsand, and slouȝ sixty þow|sand of Scottes*. [of Scottes] om. α. (not Cx.).] at Gledesmore.*. [Gledysmore, β.; Gledismore, γ.] Þe kyng of Engelond come for help of þe kyng of Scotlond, and*. [an, γ.] byseged Berwyk þe twelfþe day of Iul;*. [Juyll, Cx.] William de Reeth,*. [Reth, β. and Cx.] a Scottisshe knyȝt, behiȝt þe kyng þat he wolde at a certeyne day brynge þe oost of Scottes to fiȝte wiþ hym, and to remeve*. [remeove, β.] þe seege, and but if he so dede he wolde ȝelde hym and*. [hym and] om. β.] þe citee of Berwyk to þe kyng*. [he wolde ȝelde to þe kyng þe citee of Berwyk, α. and Cx.] [þan at þe day þat was y-sett].*. [From α.; wrongly inserted by the scribe who has written here the first words of the following sentence.] In þe mene tyme þe Scottes brent in Northumberlond as traytoures schulde, and seged*. [byseged, α.] þe castel of Bamborugh,*. [Bamburgh, α.; Banburgh, Cx.] þerynne lay þe queene of Engelond, ȝif þey myȝte in þat wise breke þe sege of Berwyk. Þanne at þe day þat was i-sette, þe þrittenþe day of*. [to, α.] Lammasse, anon at þe fulle*. [volle, γ.] see, þe Scottes come aȝenst*. [aȝen, α.] Englisshe men in þre bataylles, alle on*. [a, α.] fote and ungert,*. [ungirde, α.; afoote and ungyrd, Cx.] in a place faste Page  331, vol.8 beside Berwik, þat hatte Boothulle,*. [Boothulf, γ.] besides Halyngdoun.*. [Halydoun, β. and γ.; Halydon, Cx.] Englisshe men*. [men] om. α., β., and Cx.] archers beet doun þe Scottes, and horsmen pursued hem and chased hem forto it was nyȝt; so þat þere were dede of Scottes eyȝte erles, a þowsand and þre hondred horsmen, and of oþer men fyve and þritty þowsand. Whan þis was i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] Berwyk was i-ȝolde up to þe kyng of Enge|lond. And wonder it is to telle þere were none dede on þe Englische men side but a knyȝt and a squyer and twelve foot men. In þe feste of Gervasius and Prothasius Edward Baillol,*. [le Bayllol, Cx.] verray kyng of Scotlond, dede*. [dide, β.] homage for þe reme*. [rewme, α.] of Scotlond to Edward kyng of Engelond, at þe newe*. [newe] om. Cx.] castel up*. [uppon, α. and Cx.] Tyne, in presence of þre bisshops, of erles, of barouns, and of grete multitude of peeple, and sone þerafter þe Scottes weren rebel. Þerfore in a cold*. [colde, α.; cold, from β., γ., and Cx.; gold, MS.] wynter þe kyng of Engelond went into*. [in, Cx.] Galeway, and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] þe contrey anon to þe Scottisshe see, and reparailled*. [repayred, Cx.] þe castel of Rokesburgh, and þere he socoured hym and his men alle þe wynter.*. [tyme, add. Cx.] The two and twentiþe*. [twentyest, Cx.] pope Page  333, vol.8 Iohn deyde in þe Advent of oure Lord, and anon in þe same woke*. [wyke, α. and γ.; weke, β.] þe twelfþe Benet was [y-made]*. [From α. and Cx.] pope, þat was first monk and þan abbot of white monkes, and þan bisshop in his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] diocise,*. [diocesy, β.] and þan cardynal, and at þe laste pope. Anoon he made constituciouns to religious men of dyvers ordres touch|ynge her rules and her ordres. Aboute*. [on, add. Cx.] seynt Gregories day in Lente,*. [in þe Leynte, β.] kyng Edward in ful parlement at Londoun made a ducherie of þe erldom of Cornewayle, and ȝaf it to his eldest sone Edward, and þe erldom of Chestre also*. [also] yet, Cx.] þerto. Also þere he ordeyned fyve erles, oon to Derby, anoþer to Norhamptoun, þe þridde to Huntingdoun, þe fourþe to Salisbury, and þe fifte to Glowcetre. Grete stryf byfel bytwene þe kyng*. [kynges, α. and Cx.; kyngis, β.] of Engelond and of Fraunce, for þe kyng of Fraunce hadde wrongfulliche i-take*. [i-take] om. Cx.] in Gascoyne many londes and townes; þerfore þe kyng of Engelond profred þe kyng of Fraunce many faire profres and meke,*. [myke, γ.] for he wolde have his londes aȝen, but al for nouȝt; þan þe kyng gadrede money in eche*. [everyche, α.; every, Cx.] side, and arrayed hym to passe þe see, and aboute seynt Margarete [his]*. [From α. (not γ.).] day kyng Edward passed into Flaundres, and wente þens into*. [to, α., β., and Cx.] Coloyne; þere he socied to hym þe emperour Bevarrus, Page  335, vol.8 þe Brabanes, and þe Flemynges, and by counseil of hem he medled*. [melled, α.] the arms of Fraunce among his owne arms, and brent and destroyed þe*. [his, α.] contrayes*. [the north countrayes, Cx.] of Fraunce anon to Tournaye.*. [Torney, β.] Aboute Candelmasse kyng Edward come into Engelond aȝen; his wyf and his children þat he hadde i-gete on*. [in, α. and Cx.] þat side, he lefte hem at Andwerp in Selond,*. [Braband, Cx.] as it were for suerte of his comynge aȝen; and he made a parlement at Londoun, and ordeyned for þe nedes, and charged Englische men wiþ tribute of þe fifte deel of her goodes and catel, and al men wole;*. [wolle, β.; all mens wolle, Cx.] and þe nynþe, scheef*. [schef, γ.] everich glebe of Enge|lond he ordeyned*. [ordeygned, Cx.] for his owne iourneys, and made lordes of þe next townes aboute answere hym of þe profite þat come þerof. Also þis ȝere was so grete skarste of money and plente of oþer þinges þat men solde a quarter of*. [of] om. β. and Cx.] whete at Londoun for two schillynges, and a fat*. [vat, γ.] ox for [an]*. [From Cx.] half mark. Kyng Edward took þe see toward Flaundres wiþ two hondred schippes on seynt John Baptiste [his]*. [From α.] even; but by þe cooste of Flaundres he mette wiþ þe grete navey of Fraunce strong|liche Page  337, vol.8 arrayed; þerfore al þat day he avised hym and his men what were best to rede, and on þe morwe hym come [to]*. [From Cx.] help a nobel knyȝt, Robert of Morley, wiþ þe norþ navey of Engelond: þere was a strong bataile in þe see; suche*. [sich, β.] a batayle was nevere i-seyn in þe costes of Engelond; þere by Goddis help and favour, Frensche*. [Freyns, γ.] men and Normans were scharpliche i-schote,*. [shoten, Cx.] some i-slawe wiþ strookes, some adraynt*. [drowned, Cx.] by her owne good wille, and some i-take, and her schippes were i-take*. [were i-take] om. Cx.] also, out-take fewe þat flyȝ*. [vewe þat vley, γ.; fledde, Cx.] away as faste as þey myȝte. Þan þe kyng of Engelond come into Flaundres, and hadde a greet oost, and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] þe norþ side of Fraunce, and byseged þe strong citee Tourney*. [Torney, β. and Cx.] somwhat of tyme; but at þe laste, for defaute of money and*. [and] that, Cx.] his [slouȝe]*. [From α.; slowe, Cx.] procuratoures*. [money þat his slowe procura|tours, β.] sent hym nouȝt out of Engelond, for*. [for] om. α., β., and Cx.] trewes*. [truwes, β., et infra.] were i-take bytwene þe kynges in every side,*. [in every side] for þre ȝere, α.; in eyther syde, Cx.] and so eyþer wente his wey; kyng Edward wiþ his navey wente into Lite*. [lytel, α. and Cx.] Bretayne; þere he loste meny of his men by unholsome mete and drynke. Bote tweie cardynales were i-sent by þe Page  339, vol.8 pope, and made trewes i-take bytwene þe kynges*. [bytwene þe kynges] om. α. (not Cx.).] for þre ȝere. In þe whiche tyme þe riȝt þat þe kyng of Engelond chalanged*. [chalengide, β.; calanged, γ.; chalengyd, Cx.] in þe rewme of Fraunce myȝte be declared at þe fulle. In his comynge aȝen out of Bretayne kyng Edward hadde grete disese*. [dessese, γ.] by tempest of þe see, and men seide þat þe kyng of Fraunce*. [Fraunces, α. and Cx.] nygromansers had i-made þat tempest. Pope Benet deyde, and þe archebisshop of Rothomage was pope after hym, and was i-cleped þe sixte Clement; a man of grete clergie, but a grete wastour and a spendour; so þat he ȝaf his cardinals dignytees of holy chirche þat voyded in Engelond, [and fondede to putte þerfore oþere titles in Engelond,]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þerfore þe kyng of Engelond was wrooth, and þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre hondred and foure and fourty þe kyng fordede*. [furdude þe, β.; vordude, γ.; fordyde, Cx.] provisiouns þat*. [þat . . . provisiouns] om. α.] þe pope hadde i-graunted, and hoted*. [bad, Cx.] þat no man schulde after þat tyme brynge suche provisiouns*. [þat . . . provisiouns] om. α.] uppon peyne of prisonement and lesynge of his heed.*. [luesyng, γ.] In þe feste of þe trans|lacioun Page  341, vol.8 of seynt Thomas of Caunterbury kyng Edward took pe see, unweting alle his men whider he wolde wende; but by a*. [þe, α. and β.] ledynge of a knyȝt of her contre*. [of Harecourt, β. and γ rightly.] þat was sometyme out|lawed out of Fraunce, þe kyng londed at Hogges, besides þe ryver of Seyne in þe souþ side of Normandye, and spoylede Cadony and oþere citees, and so his men were made ful riche. But þe kyng of Fraunce had i-broke þe brigges of ryvers in everich side, [for þe ostes schulde not come to gyderes and fyȝte; þerfore kyng Edward rode in Normandye, and took prayes in everyche side].*. [From α. and β.] On seynt Ruphus*. [Rufus, α., β., and γ.] day þe martir, þat is on seynt Austyn þe doctoures*. [þe doctoures] om. α.] eve, þat is þe seven and twenty day of Lamasse monþe, at Cressy in Pycardie,*. [Pykardye, α.] kyng Edward gloriousliche overcome þe kyng of Fraunce, and slowȝ [tweye]*. [From α. and β.] kynges of Beem and of Majorik, þe duke of Lothor|ynge, tweie bisshops, eiȝte erles, many noble lordes, two þowsand knyȝtes, and oþer men wiþ oute noumbre, chased þe peple þat Page  343, vol.8 fliȝ awey on lyve; þere Phelip kyng of Fraunce was i-wounded in þe þigh*. [þeiȝ, β.] and in þe þrote, and tweyes unhorsed of þe kyng of Engelond, as it was i-seide, and scaped awey unneþe. Þerafter þe kyng of Engelond byseged Caleys twelve monþe*. [monþes, α.] and more, for Caleys was somtyme grete enemy to Englische men. Þat ȝere, þe morwe after Myhelmasse*. [Miȝhelmasse, β.] day, in monte Tumba, þat is þe sevenþe*. [xvii., β.] day of Octo|bre, Englische [men],*. [From α.] and specialliche of diocise of ȝork, seculers and regiouns,*. [ruleres, α.; rulers, β.] beet doun þe Scottes [þat]*. [From β.] were i-come by sitynge*. [spyeng, α.; spiȝting, β.] of þe kyng of Fraunce anon to Durham; þere David le*. [þe, α. and β.] Bruce, kyng of Scotlond, William Douglas,*. [Dougelas, α.] and oþere grete lordes, were i-take, and þe oþere were dede and i-chased. Aboute seynt Bartholomeus*. [Barthomeu, γ.] feste,*. [day, α.] Phelip kyng of Fraunce, þat hadde arrayed hym as [hit]*. [From β.] were forto fiȝte, and nameliche for to breke þe sege of Caleys, he flygh awey priviliche in þe dawenynge,*. [dawyng, β.] and lefte þere his tentes and a greet deel of vitaylles þerynne.*. [The last few pages of γ. have suffered so much from the fire that they do not admit of collation.]Page  345, vol.8 The men of Caleys seygh þat, and ȝilded*. [ȝalde, α.; ȝeeld, β.] up þat*. [þe, α.] citee to kyng Edward. Þanne kyng Edward was þere a*. [an, α.] monþe, and ordeyned for Caleys, and wente into Engelond aȝen aboute Mygelmasse,*. [Miȝhelmasse, β.] and graunted trus*. [truwes, β.] for nyne monþes at þe in|staunce of þe pope. But as he hadde somtyme in comynge out of Litel Bretayne, so he hadde at þis tyme greet tempest in þe see, and loste þerby many nobil knyȝtes; þerfore þis noble*. [noble] om. α. and β.] kyng Edward made a wonderful compleynt, and seide, "My goode lady seynt Marye, what is it, and what bodeþ it, þat in my wendynge into Fraunce I*. [Ich, β., bis.] wynde have*. [have wynde, α. and β.] and weder and al þing at my wille, and in my comynge aȝen toward*. [into, α.] Engelond I*. [Ich, β., bis.] have tempest and many hard happes." Þis ȝere fil grete reyne from þe feste of þe Natyvyte of seynt John, and dured forto mydwynter next þerafter, so þat [unneþe]*. [From α. and β.] passid eny day but it reyned by day or by nyght. Þat tyme fel grete deeþ of men in all þe world wyde, and bygan in londes out of þe south est sides; so þat unneþe lefte half þe peple on|lyve,*. [alyve, β.] and in som hous of religioun of twenty lafte*. [lefte, β.] but tweyne. Page  347, vol.8 Þe sixte pope Clement deide at*. [on, β.] seynt Nicolas day, and anon þe popes cheef penytauncer, Stevene bisshop Hostiensis, was i|chosen pope, and was i-cleped þe sixte Innocent. Also þat ȝere bygan grete derþe of þinges þat schulde be soolde,*. [solde, β.] so þat þe sale of þynges was of*. [for, α. and β.] double price to þat it was i-wont. Also þe see and þe lond gan to wexe more bareyne þan þey were to forhonde. Þis ȝere it was accorded and i-swore bytwene þe kynges of Engelond and of Fraunce, oute take þat þe kynges seeles were nouȝt i-sette too þe endentures*. [indenturis, β.] þat were i-wrete: þe accorde was þat þe kyng of Engelond schulde have alle his londes of þe ducherye of Gyan þat were bynome hym to forehonde by þe kyng of Fraunce, [so þat þe kyng of Engelond shulde leve and resigne up to þe kyng of Fraunce]*. [From α. and β.] al þe right and þe cleyme*. [clayme, β.] þat he had to þe reume of Fraunce. Uppon þat doynge were solempne messangers i-sent in*. [to, α.] þe kynges by|half*. [kynges half, β.] of Engelond, Henry þe nobil duke of Lancastre, Henry erle of Arundel, Michel of Norþeburgh bisshop of Londoun, and Gy de Bryan; þese were i-sent to the popes court forto have Page  348, vol.8 þese covenauntes recorded by þe popes billes;*. [bulles, α. and β.] but by sodeyn fraude of Fraunce, and by assent of þe pope,*. [pope scratched thro' in α.] þese covenantes were i-putte of and undo; þerfore Engelond arrayeþ forto fiȝte forto recovere*. [rekever, β.] and wynne þe londes þat were bynome wiþ wrong, and þe kyng of Engelond entred into*. [into] om. β.] Fraunce wiþ greet strengþe of knyȝtes. But he herde telle þat Berwyk was i-take, and come aȝen, and delyvered Berwyk of þe power of þe Scottes. Þis ȝere was so grete drowþe*. [druyþe, β.] þat þre monþes to|gidres, Averel, May, and June, unneþe fel a drope of reyn doun to the erþe. On Friday in Wytsonwyke*. [A Fryday in þe Witsonweke, β.] were tweye freres of þe ordre of Menoures i-brent in Avyoun*. [Avinion, β.] for som fals opiniouns, as it semed þe pope and þe cardynales. Þe same ȝere, at þe Nativite of oure Lord, þe kyng of Engelond his*. [his] om. α.] eldest sone Edward seilled into Gascoyne wiþ many men of armes and archeres, to recovere and wynne þe londes of þe ducherie of Gyan, þat þe kyng of Fraunce hadde long tyme wrongfulliche wiþholde; þere Edward dwelled al a ȝere wiþ oute eny reese*. [rees, β.] of enemyes. But in þe mene tyme he took Page  349, vol.8 and beet doun and spoylled and brent huge citees þat were rebel aȝenst hym, as Narboun,*. [Narbon, β.] Carcason, and oþere; bot in þe ende of þe ȝere of his comynge, þe oon and twenty day of þe monþe of Septembre, while þe duke of Lancastre byseged þe citee Berenens in Bretayne, Edwerd passed by þe brynkes of þe ryver of*. [of] om. β.] Leyr, þat is of the ducherie of Gyan, þere come þe kyng of Fraunce wiþ a greet oost, and fauȝt wiþ hym; but þe kyng of Fraunces men*. [kynges men of Fraunce, β.] weren i-slawe and i-chasede, and þe kyng of Fraunce was i-take and i-brouȝt at Burdewys,*. [Burdeux, α.; Burdeaus, β.] in Gascoyne, and was þere forto Witsontyde.*. [Wyttesontyde, α.] [Þis ȝere about Witsontide]*. [From β.] the forseyde Edward seyled out of Gascoyne into Engelond [with Joon kyng of Frenschemen];*. [From β.] þan*. [þan . . . Engelond] om. α.; and anoon the pope sent twey, &c., β.] tweie cardynales come into Engelond*. [þan . . . Engelond] om. α.; and anoon the pope sent twey, &c., β.] forto to trete of pees bytwene þe tweie kynges. Þese cardynales dwelled in Engelond a ful ȝere, and þe þridde cardynal come of his owne heed to conforte the kyng of Fraunce, and dwellid wiþ the oþere cardynales at Londoun. Also þis ȝere, [þat]*. [From α. and β.] was ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre hondred and seven and fifty, [aboute]*. [From α. and β.] alle Alewen tide,*. [Alhalwentyde, β.] Davyd le Bruce, kyng of Scotlond, Page  350, vol.8 was delyvered, þat hadde i-be long tyme in*. [en, α.] warde enleyene ȝere in þe castel of Odiam,*. [Odyam, α.; Odyham, β.] and he paide a grete raunsoun. Also þis ȝere at þe court of Rome bygan greet stryff bytwene [þe]*. [From β.] primat Armacan and freres beggers. Also þe same ȝere was grete destruccioun in Bretayne and in Normandye, by Phelip þat was þe kynges broþer of Navare,*. [Navarn, β.] and sir Iames Pypyn*. [Pyyp, α.; Pipe, β.] and Robert Knolles, and many oþer Englisshe men wiþ|outen*. [wiþ oute, α.] heed and wiþouten waraunt of þe kyng of Engelond. Þis ȝere aboute þe Assumpcioun of oure Lady, Edward kyng of Engelond, and his eldest sone Edward prince of Wales, þe duke of Lancastre, and nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] alle þe lordes of Engelond, wiþ a greet oost of horsmen and of archers i-gadred wiþ aboute a þowsand chariottes,*. [archeres, α.] dwelled somtyme*. [somdel, α. and β.] longe tyme at Sande|wiche, and*. [and] om. α.] aboute Myghelmasse next þerafter þe forsaide duke seilled*. [seyled, β.] to Caleys; þe kyng and þe prince seilled*. [seylide, β.] to þe same place aboute Candelmasse, and bygunne to ride anon*. [anoon to ryde, α. and β.] in þe reaume*. [rewme, α.] of Fraunce, but þat*. [þat] om. α. and β.] þey lay in þe feelde of Page  351, vol.8 Burgoyne and in þe*. [þe] om. β.] champayne anon to þe Anunciacioun of oure Lady. In þe mene tyme þe Normans londed*. [londide, β.] at Wyn|chilsee wiþ a litel navey in Engelond, þe fifte*. [fiftenþe, α. and β.] day of Marche, and assailled þat toun, and slouȝ men, and brent some of þe toun. But þere meny of þe see þefes*. [þeeves, α. and β.] were i-slawe and i-dreynt, and þe oþere deel of þe see þefes*. [þeeves, α. and β.] flyȝe*. [fleye, α.] to þe*. [þe] her, β.] schippes, and went out of Engelond, as þey were compelled by þe abbot of Bataylle*. [Batail, β.] and strengþe þat was wiþ hym. Þis ȝere, aboute seynt Donstones day*. [Donston his feste, α.; Dunstan's feste, β.] and feste, Edward kyng of Engelond toke trewes*. [truse, α.; truwes, β.] wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce, in hope of pees, and cam wiþ his oost aȝen into Engelond. But he loste many men, horses, and chariottes, besides Parys, the eyȝteþe day after Estre,*. [Esterne, α.] by a storme of weder þat fel þere þat tyme. Aboute Lamasse next þerafter Armacan and þe ordres of beggers of þe stryf þat was bytwene hem cessed*. [ceeside, β.] by heste of þe pope. Also þe same ȝere*. [tyme, α. and β.] þe prince of Wales, þe duke of Lancastre, and many oþer lordes of Engelond, and þe kyng of Fraunce, wente to Caleys to reforme the pees bytwene Enge|lond Page  352, vol.8 and Fraunce. Þere þe pees was refourmed and as|sured wiþ suerte of oþer*. [, from oþer, MS., α.; ooþ, β.] in eyþer side, and þe kynges of Engelond and of Fraunce wente home aȝen to her owne kyng|doms aboute Mychemasse;*. [Miȝhelmasse, β.] and sone þerafter were messan|gers i-sent to Avyon*. [Avinion, β.] to þe pope, to conferme þe pees and covenante in eyþer side.

God be þonked of al his nedes:*. [dedes, α. and β.] þis translacioun is i-ended in a Þorsday, þe eyȝteþe day of Averyl, þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre hondre*. [hundrid, β.] foure score and sevene, þe tenþe ȝere of kyng Richard þe secounde after þe conquest of Engelond, þe ȝere of my lordes age, sire Thomas [lorde]*. [From α. and β.] of Berkeley, þat made me make þis translacioun, fyve and thrytty. Deo gracias.

* Explicit, α. (not β.).

Here is written in α, "secoūde."

Also lower down, "John Knigh|ton," neither in the same hand as the MS.

On the back of this folio, "Wil|liam Knighton."