Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quadragesimum tertium.*. [42, β. and Cx.]

AFTER þe firste*. [fifte, α.; fifþe, β.; vyfte, γ.; fourth, Cx.] Clement, þe two and twenty*. [twentiþe, β.; twentyest, Cx.] Iohn was pope aboute [an]*. [From β. and Cx.] eyȝtene ȝere; he remeved*. [renewide, β.] þe sevenþe book*. [renewyd the seven bokes, Cx.] of Decretales, and avaunsed clerkes, and ordeyned in*. [in] om. Cx.] general studies lore of þre longages, of Hebrew and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] Grew and Latyn; and firste, for it schulde seme þat he hated fong|yng*. [fongeres, α.; takyng, Cx.]Page  309, vol.8 of ȝiftes, he dampned pluralite of benefice,*. [benefices, α. and β.] so þat every creature*. [curatour, β. and γ.] schulde holde hym apaide wiþ oon benefice wiþ cure, and þis pope schulde have þe frutes*. [fruytes, β.] of oþer*. [the other, Cx.] benefices þat voyded longe tyme of ȝeres. Also he reserved to hym self þe firste benefice*. [vurste benefys, γ.] þat voyded by deeþ, by resignacioun, oþer by translacioun; so þat þe persone þat were institute schulde chese wheþer*. [weþer, β.] he wolde have þe taxe of þe benefice oþer þe overplus:*. [overpluys, β. and Cx.] by þat cautele come huge tresoure to þe popes honde. But þe duke of Bavarria,*. [Bavaria, Cx.] þat cleped hymself emperoure, werred ofte aȝenst hym, and bare hym doun alway. Also þis ȝere was grete deeþ of men and [of]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] bestes, and greet fallynge*. [vallyng, γ.] of reyne in somer and in hervest; þerof come grete derþe of corne, so þat a quarter of whete was solde for xl. s.*. [fourty schillynges, α., β., and Cx.] A whryter*. [wryter, α. and Cx.; writer, β. and γ.] þat hiȝte Iohn hadde a katte þat was homeliche wiþ hym: aboute Pentecoste, at Oxenforde, þis Iohn seide openliche þat he was heire*. [eyr, β.] of Engelond. Þerfore at Norþhamptoun,*. [Norhampton, β.] tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe kyng and lordes, he was proved fals, and an*. [an] om. Cx.] honged and to-drawe.*. [drawen, Cx.] Þat ȝere two cardynales come into Engelond, and cursed*. [curside, β.] Roberd le Bruȝ and his fautoures, and enterdited Scotlond. Kyng Edward favored þe two Spensers, Hewe*. [Huwe, γ, et passim; Hugh, Cx. (bis), et infra.] þe fadir and Hewe þe sone, aȝenst Page  311, vol.8 þe wille of lordes. Þerfore Thomas eorle of Lancastre, and many oþere, wiþdrewe so þe kynges strengþe, so þat þey made hem as*. [as] om. β. and Cx.] [a]*. [From α. and Cx.] colour as it were by assent of þe kyng, and exciled þese Spencers, and þrewe adoun her castel*. [castels, Cx.] in Wales; þey ladde awey þe bestes, and gadred tresoure, and occupied Glowcestre in þe wyntertyme. And sone þerafter, wiþouten counseile of oþer men, þe kyng sente aȝen for eyþer Hewe. Þanne wraþþe and stryf encresed*. [encreside, β.] from day to day. Among alle þese*. [þis, β.; this, Cx.] two lordes þe*. [þe] de, β. and Cx.] Mortymer took hastiliche citees in þe marches,*. [marche er, α.; in þe march ar, γ.] or*. [or] er, β.] þe erle of Lancastre myȝte be redy, and pursewed þe kynges knyȝtes, forto þe kyng come aboute by Schroysbury*. [Schrosbury, β.; Shrowesbury, Cx.] uppon hem unaware*. [unaware] om. Cx.] wiþ a greet multitude of foot*. [vot, γ.] men; þer for defaute of meyne,*. [money, α., β., and Cx.] and for þe erle of Lancastre was to longe behynde, þe knyȝtes wente away, and þe tweie Mortymers moste nedes ȝilde*. [aȝeld, β.] hem, and so þey dede, and were i-prisoned at Londoun. Þan þe kyng wente to Glowcestre,*. [Gloucetre, Cx.] and hadde wiþ hym þese boþe the Spensers.*. [with hym thens eyther Spenser, Cx.]Page  313, vol.8 Þanne he wente to Lichefeld, aboute seynt Chadde*. [Chaddes, α.; Chedde, β. and Cx.] day, for to take þe erles of Lancastre and of Hereford,*. [Hereford] om. Cx.] and here fautoures þat were at Tutteburye*. [Tutbury, Cx.] and at Burtoun. But while þe kyng passed þe water of Trente*. [of Trente] om. Cx.] at a*. [an, α.] forþe,*. [foorde, β.; out of the toun at a foorde, Cx.] þe erle of Lancastre and his men fligh*. [fled, Cx.] out of þe toun of Burtoun to the citee of Burgbrugge.*. [Burghbrigge, β.] Þere come Andrew of Harkelay in þe kynges syde, and slow þe erle of Herford riȝt uppon þe brigge, þe sixteþe day to fore Averille, and took þe erle of Lancastre and many oþer nobil men. Þe most dele of hem weren in dyvers places an honged by þe þrote, but þe erle was byheded at his owne castel of Pom|freyt,*. [Pountfreyȝte, α.; Pontfret, β.; Pounfret, Cx.] þe tenþe day tofore Averille. Of þis erle and of his dedes is ofte greet stryf among comoun peple, wheþer he schulde be acounted for*. [among, α. and Cx.] seyntes oþer none.*. [noo, Cx.] Some seyn*. [seggeþ, γ.; sayde, Cx.] ȝis,*. [ȝys, α.; ȝus, γ.; yes, Cx.] for he dede many almes dedes, and worschipped men of religioun, and mayntened a trewe querel, as it semed, to his lyves ende; also his enemyes durede afterward but a while, Page  315, vol.8 and deyde in schentful*. [schamful β.; shameful, Cx.] deeþ. Oþer seien*. [seyn, Cx.] þe contrarie, and telleþ þat he was an housbonde man, and rouȝt nouȝt of his wyf, and defouled a greet multitude of [gentil]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wommen and of gentil*. [of gentil] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wenches; ȝif eny man offended hym a lite,*. [a lytel, Cx.] he lete slee hym anon. And postataes*. [And postataes] Apostates, α. and γ.; Apostatas, β. and Cx.] and evel doers he favored strongliche, for he schulde nouȝt be i-punsched by þe lawe. Also he wolde commytte all his doynges*. [doyngis, β.] to oon of his secre|taries to doo wiþ as he wolde. Also þat he foloweþ schame|fulliche*. [flyȝ schamelich, β.; fled shame|ly, Cx.] in tyme of fyȝtinge for þe right anon to þe deth, and suche on*. [sich oon, β.] schulde nouȝt be acounted [a saynt],*. [From Cx.] nameliche whan he was i-take and i-slawe maugre his teeþ. But offrynges and liknes of myracles*. [myrakels, γ.] þat now beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] i-doo in þe place *. [plas, γ.]þere he was byheded what issue þey schulde*. [schul, β.; shal, Cx.] take, it schal be knowe after þis tyme. Fro þat tyme unto þe sixte ȝere after þe fortune of þe Spensers bygan to encrese, and þe condicioun of þe queene drow*. [drouȝ, β.; drough, Cx.] toward servage; forto þe kyng of Fraunce pursued hugeliche*. [hogelyche, γ.] þe kyng of Engelond, for þe homage of Gascoyne was nouȝt i-doo. Aboute þe Ascencioun of oure Lord Page  317, vol.8 þe kyng hilde*. [huld, γ.] a parlement at ȝork; þere he made Hewe Spenser*. [Hugh the Spenser, Cx.] þe elder erle of Wynchestre, and Andrew of Harkeley erle of Karlyle.*. [Carleel, β.; Carleell, Cx.] Þe same ȝere, aboute Lammasse,*. [Lambmas, γ., et infra.] þe kyng wente into Scotlond, and þey he hadde none wiþstonddynge, ȝit he loste many men wiþ siknes and wiþ hunger. Aboute þe Natyvyte of oure Lady þe kyng come homward*. [hamward, β.] aȝeyne, and þe Scottes come after hym, and took þe castel [of]*. [From γ.] Norham. And afterward, aboute seynt Lukes tyme,*. [tide, α.; tyde, β. and Cx.; Luc hys tyde, γ.] at the abbay of Bellalauda uppon Blakamore,*. [Blakhammore, β. and γ.; Blak|ham mor, Cx.] þey hadde nygh take þe kyng at mete, ne hadde*. [nadde, β.] he *. [yf he had not, Cx.] flowe;*. [nadde he yvlowe, γ.] but þey took þe erle of Richemond, and þe kynges tresorye*. [tresour, β. and Cx.; tresor, γ.] was i-loste. Þe same ȝere, þe*. [a, α.] morwe after seynt Chadde*. [Cheddes, β.] day, Andrew of Harkeley was i-take at Carlile*. [Carleel, β.] as a traytour, an honged and to-drawe and byheded, and his bowels i-brent [and y-quartred],*. [From α. and Cx.] and his heed i-sette uppon Londoun brigge.*. [brugge, γ.] At Lammasse Roger Mortymer þe ȝonger, þat was in prisoun, scaped out of þe tour of Lon|doun Page  319, vol.8 by a slepynge drynke*. [drenche, β.; drench, γ.] þat his wardeyn*. [wardeyns, β. and γ.; war|deynes, Cx.] hadde i-dronke. Aboute Mydlente, forto make pees, þe queene of Engelond was sent to her broþer kyng of Fraunce, þat hadde assailled a greet deel of Gascoyne. Aboute þe Nativite of oure Lady þe kyng sent his sone Edward into Fraunce forto doo þe kyng of Fraunce homage for þe ducherie of Gyen,*. [Guyan, Cx.] þat was i-ȝeve hym, and þe kyng of Fraunce made hym abyde wiþ his moder in the counte of Pounteney.*. [Ponty, α. and β.; Pontyen, Cx.] Þe moder and þe sone dwelled so byȝonde þe see, and wolde nouȝt come aȝen, or*. [oþer, β.] durst*. [oþer þorste, γ.] nouȝt for drede of þe Spensers. Þanne þe kyng of Engelond, by counseil of þe tweie Spensers, outlawed and banysched his wif and his sone openliche at Londoun in Chepe,*. [Cheep, β.] as traytoures of þe reaume.*. [Royamme, Cx.]