Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  39, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

AFFTER Anastasius, þe ferþe*. [fourth, Cx.] Adrian, a man of Englische nacioun, was pope foure ȝere. Þe comoun*. [comyn, β.] fame telleþ þat þis was þe abbotes bonde man of Seynt Albones in Engelond, and þat he prayed somtyme þat he moste somtyme*. [somtyme] om. β.] be*. [he myght be, Cx.] monk in þe*. t, α.] abbay, and was put of and forsake, but he ȝaf hym to clergie*. [clergi, γ.] and to good þewes, and was i-made bisshop Albanensis. In a tyme he was i-made legat to Warmancia,*. [Wormacia, β., γ., and Cx.] and converted þat province to þe riȝt byleve. At the laste i-was*. [he was, Cx.] made pope, and for the woundynge of a*. [α] oon, β.] cardynal he enterdited all þe citee of Rome. He cursede William kyng of Cecile*. [Sicil, β.] [and compellyd hym to submytte hym to his grace. This was the fyrst pope that dwellyd]*. [From γ. and Cx.; and compelled hym to submitte hym to his grace. Þis was þe first pope þat woned, add. β.] wiþ þe cardinales in þe olde citee. Þe [kyng of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Scotlond deide, and nyh alle þe lordes of Enge|lond. In*. [In, α.] þe monþe of Octobre þe signe of þe cros was i-seyne*. [yseye, γ.] in þe mone. Seynt Jame þe apostles hond was*. [was] is, β.]Page  41, vol.8 brouȝt to þe abbot*. [abbay, Cx.] of Redynge. Þat ȝere kyng Henry lad first an oost into Wales, and made a strong castel at Roþelan,*. [Ruthlan, β.; Rutland, Cx.] and foundede þe abbay of Basyngw.*. [Basyngwerk, β. and Cx.] After Adrian, þe þridde Alisaundre was pope xxii. ȝere: he overcome foure false popes þat Frederik þe emperour had i-sette up. Also þis accordeþ Frederik and Emanuel of Constantynnoble and þe kyng of Secile, and socrede*. [sokered, β.; sukerde, γ.; so|cured, Cx.] Thomas of Caunturbury whan he was exiled. Henry þis kynges eldest sone wedded þe kynges douȝter of Fraunce. At Glowcestre Jewes nailled a childe to þe roode. Theobald þe archebisshop deide, and Thomas of Londoun þe kynges chauncelere was i-sacred archebisshop þe secounde day of Juyn, and þe þridde ȝere [þere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] after he went out of Engelond, and come aȝen þe sevenþe ȝere of his exciling, and was i-martired. Foure famous men discreved his lyf and his dedes as it is i-written in his lyf. Aboute þat ȝere abbot Joochym*. [Ioachym, β.; Joachim, γ.; Joachyn, Cx.] was in his floures in Calabria: he wroot þe exposicioun uppon þe Apocolips*. [Apocalips, β.; Apocalypsis, Cx.] and uppon þe bookes of pro|phetes. Page  43, vol.8 Also he warnede Frederik þe emperour þat*. [þat] and, β. and Cx.] oþer kynges þat went to þe Holy Lond þat þey schulde nouȝt profite þere but litel at þat tyme, for the tyme of þe deliver|aunce was nouȝt ȝit i-comen. Me seiþ also þat*. [þat] of, β.] þis Joachyn þat he descryvede as it were by prophecie þe maneres and dedes and*. [of, Cx.] nombre of all popes þat schulde be in holy chirche. But þere he wroot aȝenst þe maister of þe*. [þe] om. β.] sentence, his opinoun was reproved, as it were*. [is, α., β., and Cx.] i-write in þe bygynnynge of decrees*. [decretales, α.; decretals, β. and Cx.] by þe nynþe Gregory. Þe xii. day tofore Octobre aboute prime were i-seyn þre cercles*. [cerkels, γ.] in hevene and two sonnes; þat ȝere roose þe stryf bytwene þe kyng and Thomas. Þat tyme was maister Peres*. [Pyers, Cx.] Comestor*. [Piers Comestorye, α.] in his floures in Fraunce; he wroot a storye of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., and Cx.] eyþer Testament, þat hatte*. [hight, Cx.] Historia Scolastica. Also he wroot allegorias uppon*. [oppon, γ.] eyþer Testament, þat is a book of goostliche understondynge. Also he made a nobil book of sermouns, and made afterward his allegorias in a book of metre, and cleped þe book Aurora.*. [Auroica, Cx.] Rauph*. [Raph, β. and γ.; Raaf, Cx.] bisshop of Coloyne*. [Coleyn, β.; Colayn, γ., bis.] brouȝt þe bodies of þe [þre]*. [From α., β., γ. and, Cx.] kynges of Coloyne*. [Coleyn, β.; Colayn, γ., bis.] out of Melan þat was destroyed by Frederyk. Þis bodies Page  45, vol.8 were first i-brouȝt out of Pers to Constantynnoble, and þan by þe pope Sergius þey were i-brouȝt to Melan. Þis ȝere was Thomas of Caunturbury i-martired: of hym oon seiþ in þis manere:

"Anno milleno centeno septuageno
Anglorum primas coruit*. [corruit, β., γ., and Cx.]ense Thomas."

Þat is to menynge: þe ȝere of oure Lord enleven hondred and seventy Thomas deide by a swerd primat of Englische men. Anoþer seiþ in þis manere:

"Qui*. [Quis, α. and β.]moritur? Præsul. Cur? Pro grege. Qualiter?
Quando? Natali. Quis locus?*. [Quo loco?, Cx.]Ara est*. [est] om. α., β., and Cx.]Dei."

An Englische man*. [man] om. β. and Cx.] who deieþ? A bisshop. Why? For þe folk?*. [vlok, γ.] How? Wiþ a swerd. Whane? At mydwynter. At what place? At Goddis auȝter. Anoþer seiþ in þis manere:

Pro Christi sponsa, [Christi]*. [From β. and Cx.]sub tempore, Christi
In templo, Christi verus amator obit."

Þat is to menynge: for Cristes spouse, in Cristes tyme, in Cristes temple, Cristes trewe lyver*. [lover, α. and Cx.; lovyer, β.] deide.*. [lovyer dyeþ, γ.]Giraldus. After his deeþ þe kynges fortune bygan to wiþdrawe, for þe ȝere after þe kyng wente into Irlond þat he hadde myȝteliche*. [myghtely, Cx.] i-wonne, and made þere counsailles in meny places*. [plas, γ.] by þe popes wille, and nameliche at Cassile,*. [Cassil, Cx.] þen*. [þere, α., β., and Cx.] was nouȝt þe primat of Page  47, vol.8 Armach*. [Armarch, γ.; Arnach, Cx.] for febilnesse of his body: þis primat ladde wiþ hym a white kowe alway aboute, and was susteyned onliche by melk of þat white kow. He reformede al þis Irlond*. [þat ylond, β. and γ.; al that yland, Cx.] wiþ al his myȝt, specialliche in þre poyntes, in rulynge of þe office of holy chirche, in trewe*. [truwe, γ.] paienge of tyþe*. [teþing, β.; teþyng, γ.; tethyng, Cx.] to holy chirche, and in all*. [all] om. Cx.] laweful usage of wedlok. Þoo it was þere i-ordeyned þat men þat deieþ schulde make here testament in presence of here neigheboures,*. [neiȝbors, β.] and ȝif þe man þat deieþ have a wyf and children he schulde*. [childern a scholde, γ.] firste caste what he oweþ and is detted*. [detty, β. and γ.; hys dettys, Cx.] to oþere men and to servauntes for here hire, and þe oþer deel of his nobles*. [meobles, β. and Cx.] schulde be deled in þre, and oon party is*. [is] schuld be, β.; sholde be, Cx.] ordeyned for his children, þat oþer for his wyf, and þe þridde to brynge hym on*. [on] in, β. and Cx.; an, γ.] erþe and to doo for his soule: ȝif he be wiþoute wyf oþer wiþoute children his catel schulde be deled atweyne.*. [in tweyne, Cx.] Whanne þe kyng come out of Irlond he bygan to have revela|ciouns, and specialliche for*. [for] bycause that, Cx.] he schulde amende his lyf: firste in þe castel of Kerdyf*. [Cardef, Cx.] in Walys þe Sonday next after Ester day, whan the kyng hadde i-herd masse and wente to his hors, þere stood*. [stonde, Cx.] a pale*. [pal, γ.] man wiþ rounde tonsure,*. [tonsour, Cx.] lene and Page  49, vol.8 long, barefoot, i-cloþed in a white kirtel. He spak to þe kyng in Duche*. [Duchys, β.] speche in þis manere, and seide, "Good old kyng," and þan he told forþ his tale in þis wise: "Crist greteþ þe and his moder childe,*. [mylde, α. and β.; myld, Cx.] and John þe Baptiste*. [Joon Baptist, β.; Iohan Bap|tist, Cx.] and Peter, and comaundeþ hiȝliche þat no chepynges be i-holde noþer se|veral*. [servyle, β. and Cx.] werkes i-doo in þe Sonday in þy*. [þe, α., β., and Cx.] landes of þy lordschippe, out take þat nedes moste be done to mete.*. [þat nediþ to þe use of greiþinge of mete, β.; to þe use of greyþyng of mete, γ.; oute take doynge that nedith to the usage of dyghtynge of meete, Cx.]ȝif þow doost as I telle, al þat þou bygunnest*. [begynnest, Cx.] þow schalt brynge to a gracious ende." Þe kyng speke Frensche*. [Freyns, γ.] to þe knyȝte þat hilde his bridel, and seide, "Axe of þis clerk*. [cherle, β.; cherl, γ.; chorle, Cx.] ȝif he haþ i-mette*. [ymet, β. and γ., bis; hath ydremed, Cx.] al þis þat he telleþ;" and he expowned it on*. [on] an, β.] Englische. Þan þe man spak in þe forsaide*. [vorseyde, γ.] tonge, and seide, "Wheþer I have i-mette*. [ymet, β. and γ., bis; hath ydremed, Cx.] þis tale or nouȝt, take þou hede what day it is to day, for but þou doo as I ytelle and amende þy lyf þou schalt here suche tydinges*. [tyþyngus, γ.] wiþ ynne þis ȝere þat þou schalt be sory þerfore to þy lyves ende." Page  51, vol.8 Þe man vanysched*. [vansede, γ.] when þis was seide, and wiþ ynne þe ȝere*. [the thre yeres, Cx.] þe kynges sones Henry, Gaufre,*. [Gaufred, Cx.] and Richard turned to the kyng of Fraunce aȝenst here owne fader; þe kyng of Scotlond, þe eorle of Chestre, and þe erle of Leycetre ryse*. [reysed, Cx.] aȝenst þe kyng. And þe kyng hadde meny oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx.] warnynges, but he sette litel by al.*. [by al] therby, Cx.] For þe secounde tyme an Irische*. [Yrysch, γ.] man warnede hym and tolde hym tokenes þat were most trewe priveliche.*. [trewe priveliche] pryvy, Cx. were most privy, β.; were most prive, γ.] Þe þridde tyme a knyȝt of Lyndeseie, Phelip of Chescherby,*. [Chesterby, α.; Chestreby, β. and Cx.] passede the Frensche*. [Vreynse, γ.] see and com to þe kyng into Normandie, and expowned hym þere sevene articles þat he schulde amende, and ȝif þat he dede*. [ef a dude, γ.] he schulde regne worþiliche*. [worshipfully, Cx.] sevene ȝere, and he schulde wynne þe holy croys of*. [of] and, Cx.] his enemyes; and elles he schulde schameliche deie in þe fourþe ȝere. Þre þe firste were þe articules þat he hadde i-swore in his crownynge, þat he schulde holde: oon was of meyntenynge of holy chirche, þat oþer of riȝtful lawes, þe þridde þat he schulde no man dampne wiþouten dome; þe ferþe þat he schulde restore aȝen heritages þat he hadde bynomen; þe fifte Page  53, vol.8 [that he sholde doo ryght withoute meede; the syxthe]*. [From Cx.; þat he schuld do riȝt wiþoute mede, þe sixte, β.; þat a scholde do ryȝt wiþoute myde, þe syxte, γ.] þat he schulde paie þe wages of his servauntes; þe sevenþe þat he schulde doo [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Jewes*. [Juwes, γ.] out of Engelond and leve hem somwhat of money to wende out of þe*. [þe] om. β.] lond. But þe kyng was nouȝt amended, þerfore aroos*. [roos, α.] aȝenst hym [þre]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] strong men and myȝti, his owne þre sones, wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce. But whan kyng Henry had i-visited mekeliche Thomas þe martires tombe, William þe kyng of Scotland and þe two eorles of Chestre and of Lincolne were i-take at Alnewik.*. [Alnewye, γ.] Þis mescheef durede two ȝere, and was unneþe i-cessed, and he accounted þe cesynge þer of to his owne strengþe, and nouȝt to Goddes mercy, and he þat hadde prisoned his wif Eleanore þe queene, and was priveliche a spouse brekere,*. [and, wrongly inserted in MS. om. γ.] leveþ now*. [now from β. and γ. nouȝt MS.] open|liche*. [and lyved now openly, Cx.] in spousebreche,*. [spousbruche, γ.] and is nouȝt aschamed to mysuse þe wenche*. [weynche, γ.] Rosamound. To þis faire wenche þe kyng made at*. [at, from α., β., and Cx. α MS.] Wodestoke a chambre of wonder craft, wonderliche*. [wonder slilyche, α.; wonder slyȝlich, β.; slylych, γ.; slyly, Cx.] i-made by Dedalus*. [dudulus, α.] werke, leste þe queene schulde fynde*. [vynde, γ.] and take Rosamounde: but þe wenche deide sone, and is i-buried in þe Page  55, vol.8 chapitre hous at Godestowe besides Oxenforde wiþ siche a writynge on her tombe:

"Hic jacet in tumba rosa mundi, non rosa munda.
Non redolet, sed olet, quæ redolere solet."

Þat is, Here lieþ*. [liþ, β.] in tombe þe rose of þe world, nouȝt a clene rose; it smelleþ nouȝt swete, but it stinkeþ, þat was wont to smelle ful swete. Þis wenche*. [weynche, γ.] hadde a litel cofre scarsliche of two foot long, i-made by a wonder craft, þat is ȝit i-seyn þere. Þerynne it semeþ þat geantes*. [geauntes, β.] fiȝten,*. [vyȝteþ, γ.; geauntes fyghtyn, Cx.] bestes stertelleþ,*. [startleþ, γ.; startlyn, Cx.] foules fleeþ*. [vlueþ, γ.; fleyn, Cx.] and fisches meoven*. [lepeþ, β. and γ.; leepe, Cx.] wiþ oute manis hond meovynge.*. [withoute ony mannes moevynge, Cx.]