Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.


Capitulum primum.

ALUREDUS, þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] broþer of burþe,*. [birþe, β.] was evere i-holde behynde while his breþeren regnede. But he hadde after hem þe hole*. [hoole, Cx.; kyng is written twice over in MS.] kyngdom of West Saxons nyne and twenty ȝere, and rulede*. [reulede, γ.] it nobilliche,*. [noblich, β.] but with greet travaille. Here take hede*. [hyde, γ.] of his bygynnynge, of his forþ*. [vorþ, γ.] goynge, and of his laste ende, ffor Aluredus was faire*. [feyr, γ.] of shap*. [schap, β.] and more i-loved boþe of fader and of moder þan his oþer breþeren, and dwelled in Page  355, vol.6 his fader court to þe ȝere of his age twelve, and was noȝ itt*. [ȝut, γ.] i-lettred. Þerafter þe childe lerned riȝt wel, and helde*. [huld, γ.] Saxoun poesy*. [Saxon poeysy, β.] in mynde. He passed oþer men in craft of hontynge, and was a sotel*. [sotil, β.; sutyl, γ.; subtyll, Cx.] maister of buldynge*. [buildynge, Cx.] and of oþer werkes; he gadrede psalmes*. [salmes, γ.] and orisouns to gedres*. [gedders, γ.] in a litel book, and cleped þat book manual,*. [manuel, Cx.] þat is an hond book; he hadde þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] book wiþ hym alwey; he kouþe*. [couþe, β.] his gramer but sympilliche,*. [symplich, β.; bote sympellyche γ.; He was but a symple Grama|ryon, Cx.] for þat tyme was nouȝt oon techer of gramer in al his kyngdom. Þerfore by counsail of Neotus þe abbot, whom*. [whom, from α., β., and Cx.; wham, γ.; whan, MS.] he visited ful*. [vysytede vol, γ.] ofte, he was þe firste þat ordeyned comyn scole at Oxenforde of dyverse artes and sciens,*. [sciences, β.] and procrede*. [procured, β.] fredom and priveleges in many articles*. [artykels, γ.] to þat citee; he suffrede*. [suffride β.] no man to stye*. [stye up] take degree or ordre, Cx.] up*. [op, γ.] to what manere dig|nitee it were of holy chirche, but he were wel i-lettred. He tornede þe beste lawes into Englissh tonge. At þe laste he*. [hit, β.]Page  357, vol.6 auntred*. [aventred, Cx.] hym to torne*. [translate, Cx.] þe psauter*. [sauter, β. and γ.] in to Englisshe. But he tornede*. [translated, Cx.] unneþe þe firste party to fore his ende day. Whanne he come to age he wolde stable his herte and his þouȝt in Goddes hestes the*. [of, MS.] leccherie of his flesche*. [vleysch, γ.] greved hym, and lette hym ofte tyme; þerfore for to putte*. [vor to pot, γ.] away þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] tempta|cioun of flescheliche*. [vleyschlyche, γ.] likynge he wente to and visited ful ofte temples of holy seyntes erliche and late and at cokkes*. [cockes, β.] crow|ynge*. [kokene crouwe, γ.] and prayed God þat he wolde chaste*. [chastyse, Cx.] his flesche*. [vleysch, γ.] with suche*. [sich, β.] a siknesse þat he schulde nouȝt be unprofitable*. [unprofythabel, γ.] to worldliche dedes, and þat he myȝte þe more freliche*. [vrelyche, γ.] serve God Almyȝty: at Goddes ordenaunce he hadde many ȝere þe evel þat hatte ficus,*. [fyches, γ.] þat*. [þat is . . . þat evel] om. β. and Cx.] is a schrewed evel, for*. [vor, γ. (semper).] it semeþ þat his bom is oute þat haþ þat evel.*. [þat is . . . þat evel] om. β. and Cx.] At þe laste he was oute of hope to be i-heled, and wente into Cornewayle to Seynt Gueroun*. [Gueron, γ.; Suerons, Cx.] his chirche, þere seynt Neotus resteþ, oþer*. [owþer, Cx., bis.] for to cese*. [ceese, β.; sese, γ.] it oþer for to chaunge it. ℞. But some men telleþ þat seynt Modwenna þe Irisch mayde helede hym of þat evel. At Page  359, vol.6 þe laste, whanne he hadde his wille, a wors evel hym took*. [touk, γ.] in his wedded tyme, and greved hym wel more from his twentiþe ȝere to his ȝere foure*. [fyve, α., β., and Cx.] and fourty.*. [vyve and vourty, γ.] His queene Ethelswida bare hym tweie sones, Edward þe eldere and Egelward; and þre douȝtres, Elfleda lady of Mercia, Ethelgora a mynchoun,*. [monchon, β.; meynchen, γ.; Ethelgota a menchon, Cx.] and Elfrida: [and]*. [From β.] he made hem alle lerne*. [lurne, γ.] gramer and oþere fre artes and science. Þanne Aluredus, ȝever of almesse*. [almus, γ.] and herere of masses, souȝte*. [souȝt, β.] besiliche*. [bisilich, β., et infra.] lore of arte and of craftes þat he knewe nouȝt, and sente for*. [for] after, β. and Cx.] seint Grymbaldus þe monk, a connynge man of lettrure and of song, and prayed hym for to come to hym out of Fraunce into Enge|lond. Also*. [Also . . . Engelond] not in β. and γ.] he sente for Iohn monk, a konnynge man of let|trure and of song, and prayed hym for to come to hym out of Fraunce into Engelond.*. [Also . . . Engelond] not in β. and γ.] Also he sente for Iohn, monk of Seynt Davy his abbay*. [Daviþis abbay, β.] in Menevia, for he schulde come to hym out of þe uttermeste*. [utmeste, α.; ottemeste, γ.] ende of*. [þe . . . ende of] om. β. and Cx.] Wales for to teche hym lettrure and*. [lettrure and] om. Cx.] clergie. [He excitede and confortede þe lordes of his lond to lurne lettrure and clergy,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] so þat þey schulde sette here children*. [childern, γ., bis.] to scole; and ȝif þey hadde no children*. [childern, γ., bis.]Page  361, vol.6 þey schulde graunte here bonde*. [boond, β.] men fredom, and sette hem to scole ȝif þey hadde good witte and were able to lerne. He enquerede and aspiede besiliche þe doynge and deedes of his officers and servauntes, and nameliche of iuges and of domesmen;*. [In this portion the text of γ. is very much injured by fire and water.] and ȝif he knewe*. [he myght understande, Cx.] eny of hem errede and dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] amys, wheþer it were for unkonnynge oþer for covetise, he put*. [a pot, γ.] hym*. [hym] them, Cx.] out of his offys. Also he made Werefredus bisshop of Wircestre*. [Werfredus bischop of Wircetre, β.] translate*. [translated, MS.] and torne*. [and torne] om. Cx.] into Saxoun speche Gre|gory his bookes dialogie.*. [dialogorum, β. and γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. He deled a thre*. [departed in thre, Cx., et infra.] al þat he myȝte spende, and ȝit he delede [þe firste del a þre: þe firste del þerof he delede to þe kynge his mynystres þat were i-deled]*. [From α., β., and γ. (not in Cx.)] in þre parties. For þe tweie parties of þe kynges mynistres were tweyne*. [tweyne] om. β. and Cx.] at home, for to ordeyne for homeliche þinges; in þe þridde monþe everiche partie and companye schulde serve tofore þe kyng. He as|signede þe secounde part of þis firste part to dyverse workmen Page  363, vol.6 þat he*. [he] om. Cx.] gadrede out of everiche side; þe þridde partye he deled to comers and to straungers. Þanne þe secounde cheef*. [chef, β. and γ.; chyef, Cx.] partie of þat he myȝte spende, he deled it*. [it] om. β.] [ȝit]*. [From α. and β.; ȝut, γ.] a foure: þe firste partye þerof he ȝaf to pore men and nedy, þe secounde to foundynge of abbayes, þe þridde to scolers of Oxenforde þat were i-gadered and schulde be i-gadered*. [ygadderd, γ.] þere,*. [and . . . þere] om. α.] and þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.; vurde, γ.] deel to amendynge of chirches. And for he wolde weie his owne lif ariȝt he delede in þre*. [in þre] a þre, α. and β.] þe foure and twenty houres of*. [and, α.] þe day and nyȝt, and spente eyȝte þerof in writynge and in*. [in] om. β.] redynge and biddynge ofbeedes, eyȝte aboute his body*. [bodyly, Cx.] nedes, and eyȝte aboute nedes of þe kyngdom. And to departe þese*. [þues, γ.] houres rediliche he sette a candel in his chapel of foure and twenty parties, and schulde be i-warned of*. [of] by, β.] hem þat were i-ordeyned þerfore as ofte as eny of þilke foure and twenty were i-spend. After þe monþe of his kyngdom he fauȝte*. [voȝt, γ.] wiþ þe Danes at Wiltoun wiþ grete harme of boþe oostes.*. [both the hoostes, Cx.] For Englisshe men were destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] wiþ eiȝte batailles in oon*. [o, γ.] ȝere, and were moche i-feble;*. [mych yfebled, β.; yfebled, γ. febled, Cx.] þerfore þat ȝere Englisshe men Page  365, vol.6 made pees wiþ þe Danes uppon þat covenant þat þey*. [hy, γ., et infra.] schulde wend from hem, and so þey dede. For þat ȝere þey dwellede*. [dwellide, β.; dwelde, γ.] at Londoun, and þe next ȝere after at Lyndeseie, and þe Merces made pees wiþ þe Danes also þat tyme; but [in]*. [From β. and γ.] þe þridde ȝere þe Danes breek*. [breke, γ.] [þe]*. [From β.] pees, and wente out of Lynde|seye anon to Rependoun. Charles þe eldere, þe þridde Lowys his broþer, took þe wey to Rome whanne his broþer was deed, and was i-crowne*. [y-crowned, α.; crowned, β.; y-crouned, γ.] emperour of pope Iohn, and regnede two ȝere. For while*. [whiles, Cx.] he ordeyned at Papy for þe comyn profit of þe empere, he herde*. [a hurde, γ.] of þe comynge of Charloman,*. [Charlomayn, β.] þat was his owne broþer sone, and his herte gan*. [bigan, β.] to falle*. [valle, γ.] for drede, and wente toward Fraunce, and deide among þe grete hilles þat hatte Alpes. After hym his sone Lowys*. [Alpes in MS. by a slip of the scribe.] Balbus regnede two ȝere. After hym Charles þe ȝonger, þat heet*. [hatt, β.] Grossus, þat is greet, þe sone of þe þridde Lowys, regned ten ȝere. Þat ȝere þe Danes lefte Lyndeseie and come to Rependoun; þere þei putte out Burdredus kyng of Mer|cia, and bytook þat*. [bitoke the, Cx.] kyngdom to oon Colwulfus, þat was Burdredus his servaunt, uppon*. [oppon, γ.] suche*. [sich, β.] a condicioun, þat þey Page  367, vol.6 schulde have þat kyngdom aȝe whanne þat þey wolde; but after þre ȝere þey delede som of þe kyngdom bytwene hem, and some byleft to Colwulfus, and þis Colwulfus was þe laste kyng of Mercia. After his deþ Aluredus inned*. [joynede, β.; innede, γ.; joyned, Cx.] Londoun first,*. [vurste, γ.] and Colwulfus deel*. [deel], from α.; del, γ.; of Col|wulfus his deth, MS.; Colwulfus part Cx.] to his owne kyngdom. Also þat ȝere þe Danes come eft*. [ofte, β., γ., and Cx.] to Rependoun, and þe men of Hamburgh, þat is*. [an, add. β.; aboute an, add. γ.] fyve myle from Rependoun, were wonder sore aferd, and took þe body of seynt Werburgh þe mayde, þat hadde longe tyme i-leie*. [ley, Cx.] i-buried þere, and was alwey hool and sounde anon to þat tyme, and translate*. [translatede, γ.] it*. [translatide hir, β.; translated her, Cx.] to Chestre as to a syker*. [seker, Cx.] place.*. [plas, γ.] Also þat ȝere kyng Aluredus made pees wiþ the Danes, and þey slouȝ þe kyng his horsmen alle in oon nyȝt; þerfore þe kyng was i-meoved, and chasede hem anon to Chestre, and þer*. [þe, α., β., and Cx.] Danes delyverede and ȝaf eft plegges,*. [pledges, Cx.] and dwelled a ȝere þere. Henricus, libro 5o. Þat ȝere Rollo þe Dane come first into Normandie, and regnede þere fourty ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. First oon Hastynges*. [Hastingus, β. and γ.] and þanne Rollo Nori|cus, þat is a Dane þat hadde no contray of his owne, bote by Page  369, vol.6 heste of þe kyng he excitede mysdoers þat coveitede oþer men*. [mennus, β.] good and catel,*. [goodes and catayle, Cx.] and brouȝte hem in grete hope of grete wyn|nynge, and ladde hem wiþ hym, and werrede in lond and in see from þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Brittisshe occean anon to þe see þat hatte Mare Tyrenum, þat is þe see þat streccheþ to Italy. Þanne he com to Carnotum, þere þe citeȝeyns truste not on here walles noþer on here strengþe,*. [stryngþe, γ.] but þey took*. [hy touke, γ.] oure lady smok,*. [smocke, Cx.] þat Charles þe Ballede had i-brouȝt wiþ oþer relikes out of Constantyn|noble, and sette þe smok uppon þe pinacles,*. [oppon þe pynnakels, γ.; a py|nacle, Cx.] as it were a baner. Þe enemyes scornede þe smok, and schette*. [schott, β.; schute, γ.; shollen, Cx.] þerto, and were i-smete wiþ blyndenesse, but Rollo*. [Roll, Cx.] scapede and oc|cupiede Rothomage, þe ȝere of oure Lord eiȝte hondred þre score and sixtene,*. [xvii., Cx.] þat was oon ȝere to fore þe deþ of Charles þe Ballede. His sone Lowys overcome þe Normans, but he putte*. [pot. γ.] hem nouȝt out; [and Charles Simplex þat het grossus also, þis Lowys his broþer,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and his broþer*. [and his broþer] om. α., β., and γ.] Charles þe Balled his nevew, was ofte oversette in batailles wiþ Rollo, and took counsaile at þe laste, and cordede*. [acordede, α.; acorde, γ.] with Rollo, so þat he schulde be i-cristned,*. [yfulled, β.; yvolled, γ.] and knowleche þat he hilde*. [huld, γ.] Nor|mandye Page  371, vol.6 and Armorica, þat is Litel Bretayne, of the kyng of Fraunce as of þe cheef*. [chef, β.; chyef, Cx.] lord. Whan þat was i-doo, men þat stood by counsailled Rollo þat he schulde kisse*. [cusse, α.; kusse, γ.] þe kynges feet þat ȝaf hym suche*. [sich, β.] a ȝifte. But he hadde indignacioun, and was to proude to falle*. [valle, γ.] adoun on his knees,*. [knen, β.] and took up þe kynges foot*. [fote, β.; voot, γ.] to his mouth, so þat he þrewe*. [þreu, γ.] þe kyng upriȝt. For þat hap Normans gonne to lauȝe,*. [beanne to laugh, Cx.] and Frensche men wexe riȝt wrooþ; Rollo excuseþ hym of þat boistous*. [boystus, γ.] dede, and alleyeþ þe manere and usage of his contray. Þan Rollo wente aȝe to Rothomage, and ordeyned for his catel and þynges, and deide sone after.*. [þerafter, α., β., and Cx.; þar after, γ.]

Capitulum secundum.

LOWYS Balbus regnede in Fraunce two ȝere. [In his firste ȝer]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe Danes seylede from Warham toward Excetre,*. [Excestre, Cx.] and loste sixe score schippes in a tempest of þe see. Bote som men*. [men] om. α., β., and γ.] of þe Danes occupied þe real*. [rial, β.] toun Cheppenham,*. [Chipenham, α., β., and γ.; Chypenham, Cx.] and Page  373, vol.6 þe contray aboute and chasede awey meny Englisshmen oþer made hem sugette.*. [soget, γ.; subgette, Cx.] In þe mescheef of þat tyme kyng Aluredus with fewe*. [veaw, γ.] men ladde uncerteyn and unesy*. [unnesy, Cx.] lyf in þe wode contrayes of Somersete; for he hadde nouȝt*. [right nought, Cx.] to lyve by but what he myȝte wynne by prayes oþer wiþ hontynge oþer wiþ fisshynge. [In a tyme while his felowes*. [velowys, γ.] were a fyschynge,*. [vyschyng, γ.]]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and he comforted his uncerteyn and unstedefast*. [unstidfast, β. and Cx.] lyf wiþ confort of bookes, a pilgrime com to hym and axede*. [axide almes, β.; almus, γ.] almesse in Goddes name. Þe kyng have*. [haf, β. and γ.] up boþe his hondes to hevene and seide, "I þonke God þat visiteþ*. [visitiþ, β.; vysyted, Cx.] his pore man þis day by a pore man, þat he wole vouchesauf*. [foche saf, γ.] þis day to axe me þat he haþ i-yeve me, and restore aȝe wiþ increse*. [encreace, Cx.] þat he axeþ of me." Anon þe kyng cleþeþ his servaunt, þat hadde but oon loof*. [lofe, β.; lof, γ.] and litel what of wyn, and hete*. [hyt, γ.] hym ȝeve þe halvendel*. [half therof, Cx.] to þe pore man. Þe pore man þonked hym, and vansched*. [vansede, γ.; vanysshed, Cx.] sodenly*. [vanyschide sodeynlich, β.; so|denlich, γ., and puts its after awey.] awey, and noon wey*. [noon wey] no stap, β.; non vore, γ.; noo steppe, Cx.] was i-sene of Page  375, vol.6 his goynge in the nesche moore.*. [more, α.; naysch more, γ.; nesshe more, Cx.] And also al þat was i-ȝeve hym was i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] hool and sounde. And þeyȝ þat were a fisshynge brouȝte fisshe in grete plente.*. [grete plentye of fysshe, Cx.] Þan whanne þe kyng was on slepe oon appered to hym in a bisshoppes wede, and charged*. [chargide, β.] hym þat he schulde love God, and kepe riȝtwisnesse, and be merciable aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.] pore men, and wor|schippe preostes,*. [prustes, Cx.] and seide more to hym,*. [hym] om. β., and puts myn before Aluredus.] "Aluredus,*. [more to. Myne Aluredus, Cx.] Crist knoweþ thy conscience and þy wille, and putteþ*. [potteþ, γ.] an ende of þy*. [þyn, α.; þi, β.; þy, γ.] sorwe and care, ffor tomorwe stronge helperes schal be wiþ þe, by help of hem þu schalt overcome þyn enemyes." "Who art þou," quod*. [quaþ, α. and γ.] þe kyng. "I*. [Ych, α.; Ich, β. and γ.] am Cuthbert,"*. [Cutberth, Cx.] quod he, "þe pilgrym þat was here ȝisterday*. [ȝisterday here, α.; ȝursday here, γ.] wiþ the, to whom þou ȝaf breed and wyn: I am besy for þe and for þyne; have mynde hereof whan it is wel wiþ þe." Bote how he made mynde of his pilgrym, by þe fredom*. [vredom, γ.] and possessioun of þe chirche of Durham it is now i-sene. Willelmus de Regibus, Page  377, vol.6libro 2o. Þan Aluredus com out of prison, and putte hym to a peril of greet fraude and gile.*. [and of gyle, β.] For he wente into þe kyng of Danes his pavilons and tentes in a mynstral his liche,*. [in mynstralles weede, Cx.] and aspied al þat he wolde, and come aȝen to Ethelyng, and declared to his felawes*. [felawe, Cx.] þe sleuþe of his enemyes. Þanne he fil soden|liche*. [fylle sodenly, Cx.] on his enemyes, and slowȝ mo of hem þan me wolde trowe. For þe day after come to hym þe men of Wiltschire,*. [Wyltshir, Cx.] of Somersete, and of Hampschire;*. [Hampteschire, α.; Hamptschire, β.] by help of hem he bulde a toure at Ethelynge, þat is to menynge an*. [in, α., β., and Cx.] Englisshe þat now is i-used, þe ilond of noble men. Out of þat towr he resede*. [reesed, Cx.] ofte on*. [on] om. Cx.] his enemyes and overcome hem, and nameliche bysides Selwode, þat is greet woode in Englische þat now is i-used, so þat he fenge hostages and plegges þe beste þat þey*. [he, Cx.] wolde chese. And Guttrun kyng of Danes was i-cristened,*. [yfolled, β.] and twenty of þe grettest þat were wiþ hym, þe whiche kyng Alfredus feng of þe colde water, and ȝaf hym*. [Guttrun, α., β., and γ.] a name and cleped hym*. [hym] om. α. and γ.] Athelstan;*. [Adelstan, β. and Cx.] þerfore þe*. [to, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng Gurthrym,*. [Guttrun, Cx., ut semper.] þat we clepeþ Gurmundus, were i-ȝeve þe provinces of Est Angles and of Norþhomberlond for to wonye*. [dwelle ynne, Cx.] ynne. But for þe Page  379, vol.6 Blewman*. [Bloman, γ.] chaungeþ nouȝt liȝtliche his skyn, þis Gurthrym destroyed*. [destried, β.] þese*. [þues, γ.] londes with tiraundise*. [tyrauntrie, β.] and wiþ pryde elevene ȝere, [and deide þe twelfþe*. [twellyfyth, Cx.] ȝere. Þe oþer Danes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat he*. [he] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wolde nouȝt be cristene and*. [and] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wente into Fraunce. Þat place*. [plas, γ., et infra.] þat hatte Ethelynge oþer Ethelyngeseye is nouȝt an ilond*. [an Ileland, Cx.] of þe see, but it stondeþ in water mareys*. [marreys, β.] and meores*. [marreys and moores, Cx.] so þat me may nouȝt come þerto [but]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] by schiþ noþer*. [oþer, α., β., γ., and Cx.] by boot; þe place conteyneþ*. [unnethe, add. Cx.] þe space of tweye dayen*. [dayes, β.] erþe*. [twy dawen erþe, γ.] in brede, and ȝit þere is*. [is] ben, Cx.] wylde bestes and venysoun.*. [veneson, Cx.] Charles*. [Carles, β.] þe ȝonger, þat heet Grossus, þat is greet, was þe þridde Lowys his sone, and regnede in Fraunce after his eme*. [eame, Cx.] Lowys Balbus ten ȝere. He wente out of Almayn and occupiede Italy fewe*. [fyve, Cx.] dayes,*. [veaw dawes, γ.] and come to Rome and was i-sacred emperour of pope Iohn.*. [Joon, β.] In his tyme bygan þe erldom*. [erledome, β.] of Flaundres,*. [erldomme of Flaundrys, Cx.] [for þat tyme Flaundres]*. [and] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] was nouȝt of greet name, but it was i-ruled*. [yreuled, γ.] by þe kynges forsters*. [fosters, α.] of Fraunce. Also þis Charles Page  381, vol.6 dede*. [dide, β.] awey his wif*. [his wif] om. γ.] for it semede þat sche was to prive wiþ þe bisshop of Vercelle;*. [Versell, Cx.] þerfore þe kyng of Fraunce knowleched openliche þat he hym self hadde nevere i-seie*. [leye, α.; leyn, β.; ylay, γ.; leyne, Cx.] flescheliche*. [vleyschlyche, γ.] by here; and sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] was glad of here manhode,*. [maydenhod, α., γ., and Cx.; maydenhode, β.] and wente into an abbay whanne sche was forsake. At þe laste, þe tenþe ȝere of his kyngdom, þis Charles wente out of Fraunce into Italy, and was i-poysoned of a Iewe*. [Juwe, γ.] þat hatte*. [het, α. and β.] Sedechias, and deide at þe hulles Alpes. ℞. It semeþe þat þis is þat Charles þat maryed his douȝter Gilla þat he hadde by his raþer wif to duke Rollo, and graunted wiþ here þe ducheries of Normandye and of Litel Bretayne. Bote*. [Bote Rollo . . . noble duke] om. Cx.] Rollo hadde no childe by Gilla, þer|fore he spousede oon Popa, Gy his douȝter erle*. [eorld, α.; þe erle, β.; erl, γ.] of Sil|vanect,*. [Silvanectus, β.] and gat on here a douȝter þat heet Gerlota, and a sone William Longa Spata þat noble duke.*. [Bote Rollo . . . noble duke] om. Cx.]Willelmus de Pontifi|cibus, libro 2o. Also þat ȝere deyde Dunbertus bisshop [of Wynchestre, and kyng Aluredus made Dunewulphus*. [Dunewolfus, Cx.] bysshop in his stede],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat he hadde*. [hadde] om. Cx.] i-founde in þe wode in his Page  383, vol.6 hydynge tyme kepynge bestes. But whanne he knewe his good witte, after grete age he dede*. [a dude, γ,; putte, Cx.] hym to scole to lerne lettrure and clergie. Þat ȝere kyng Alrudus*. [Aluredus, β. and Cx.] amended þe citee of Cepton,*. [Septon, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat is Schaftesbury,*. [Scheftesbury, β.] as a greet stoon witnesseþ þat þere in þe chapitre hous of mynchouns*. [monchons, β.; nonnes, Cx.] lyeþ above erþe. After Iohn, Martyn was pope oon ȝere; he relesed*. [releschede, β.] to þe scole of Saxons al manere tribute at þe prayer of kyng Alrudes.*. [Aluredus, α., β., γ., and Cx., and so below.] Also he sente [to]*. [From α. and β.] Alrudes a greet party of þe holy cros. After Martyn Agapitus was pope oon ȝere; þe whiche ȝere þe Danes come out of Fraunce and byseged*. [bisegide, β.; besyeged, Cx.] Rochestre, and bulde a toure aȝenst þe ȝates of þe citee; bote þe citeȝeyns defended þe citee for to*. [for to] til, β.] [þat]*. [From α. and β.] Aluredus com and took all þe hors*. [horses, Cx.] of þe Danes, and compellede hem to flee: þanne þe Dane wente into Fraunce [aȝe];*. [From α. and β.; ayene, Cx.] and þe kyng sente his navey ful of men of armes out of Kent into Est Anglond, and took sixtene schippes of Danes; bote in þe comynge aȝe*. [ageyne, Cx.] þe kynges navey was overcome.*. [overcomen, Cx.]Trevisa. Est Anglond conteyneþ Norþfolk and Souþfolk: loke more þerof in þe firste book, capitulo 5o. It foloweþ in þe Page  385, vol.6 storie: þat ȝere þe Danes rowede*. [rowide, β.; rouwede, γ.] in þe water of Seyne, and bysegede Parys a ȝere al hool. Þat ȝere kyng Aluredus repa|raylede Londoun, and bytook it to kepynge to Etheldredus kyng*. [eorl, α.; erle, β. and Cx.] of Mercia. Þo þe Englisshe men þat were desperbuled*. [disparpled, β. and Cx.; dys|parpled, γ.] ȝaf hem self*. [hemsylf, β.] to kyng Aluredus. Þat tyme the kyng sente his almesse*. [almes, β.; almus, γ.] to Rome and to Ynde,*. [Inde, γ.] and bulde tweie abbayes, oon of [men at]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Ethelyngeseye, and anoþer of women at Schaftes|bury,*. [Scheftesbury, γ.] and made his dou ȝter Ethelgof*. [Etholgof, Cx.] abbesse*. [abbes, α., β., and Cx.; abbas, γ.] þere. After Agapitus, þe þridde Adrianus was pope oon ȝere; after hym Basilius oon ȝere; after hym Stevene*. [Stephan, γ.] sixe ȝere.

Capitulum tertium.

CHARLES Grossus was i-poysoned*. [poysened, β.] of a Iewe,*. [Juw, γ.] as it is i-seide to forehonde, and wex*. [werþ, β.] strongliche sike; þerfore Arnulphus, sone of his broþer Charlomon, was i-chose kyng; but whan Page  387, vol.6 Charles was dede were i-ordeyned fyve*. [vyf, γ.] kynges, but the empere lefte*. [leste, Cx.] wiþ Arnulphus and was i-crowned at þe laste of Formosus þe pope, þat*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] he beet*. [bute, γ.] adoun þe Normans and þe Danes þat hadde i-werred*. [werride, β.] in Fraunce fourty ȝere; at þe laste he was hard i-holde with a strong sikenesse, and myȝte nouȝt be i-heled noþer i-saved wiþ no manere medecyne, þat he nas destroyed,*. [distruyed, β.] and i-ȝete*. [y-ete, α., β., and γ.] with luys*. [luyse, β.; lues, γ.; that he was destroyed and eten with lyse, Cx.] riȝt to þe deth. Franco archebisshop of Rothomage cristned*. [folled, β.; vollede, γ.] Rollo; and kyng Guttrun is deed. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. For reses of Normans and of Danes, seynt Martyn his body was trans|lated from Turon to Seint German his chirche at Altissiodore, and þere were meny myracles i-doo,*. [many were there myracles done, Cx.] and þe monkes of Turon and of Altissiodore pletede*. [pledide, β.; pledede, γ.] for [the]*. [From α., β., and γ.] offrynge. And for þe seynt schulde deme wheþer of hem hadde riȝt to þe offrynge, þey brouȝte forþ a mesel,*. [leper, Cx.] þat was [i-heled in þat syde of his body þat was toward seynt Martyn, and þe oþer del of his body lefte foul,*. [voul, γ., et infra.] and nouȝt]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-heled; þan for me schulde wene Page  389, vol.6 þat þat was happilyche*. [hapilich, β.] byfalle*. [haplych byvalle, γ.], þey tornede þe oþer foul side toward seynt Martyn, and anon it was i-heled also. Þanne þe monkes of Turon hadde al þe offrynge for to*. [for to] til, β.] þe werre was i-sesede,*. [ceesed, β.; ysessed, γ.; seeced, Cx.] and þanne þei hadde here owne seynt [hoom]*. [From β.; hom, γ.; hoome, Cx.] aȝen to here owne hous. Þis byfel*. [bifil, β.] nouȝt in þis manere for non|power*. [non] no, β.] of seynt German, but he sparede and dede his gest*. [gheste, Cx.] reverence*. [reverauns, γ.] in his owne hous. Henricus, libro 5o. Þat ȝere come foure oostes of Danes aȝenst Aluredus, oon in Norþ|homberlond, anoþer in Est Anglond, þat conteyneþ Norþfolk and Souþfolk, þe þridde at Excetre, þe fourþe*. [ferthe, β.; vurde, γ.] at Chestre; but at Chestre þe Danes were som*. [so, α., β., and γ.; soo, Cx.] byseged þat þey ete here hors*. [horses, β. and Cx.] for honger. Þe*. [þre, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Scottyshe men Dusblan,*. [Dusblay, Cx.] Mahbon,*. [Mahban, γ.] and Malumyn*. [Malmunyn, γ.; Malmmyn, Cx.] desirede to lede pilgryms lyf, and took wiþ hem liflode for oon woke, and took a carabum,*. [karabum, Cx.] þat is a schippe i-made but of tweie hydes*. [huydes, β. and Cx.; hudes, γ.] and an half, and wente þerynne wonderliche withoute seile, wiþoute rope*. [roþer, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and ore*. [hore, γ.] and alle manere craft*. [takel, β. and γ.; tacle, Cx.] [of schiþcraft],*. [From α. and Cx.] and come alonde in Corne|wayle Page  391, vol.6 after sevene dayes, and come to kyng Aluredus. After Stevene, Formosus was pope fyve ȝere. Somtyme, for drede of pope Iohn,*. [Joon, β., et infra.] he left his bisshopriche of Portune, but for whanne he was i-cleped he wolde nouȝt come aȝe, he was acorsed;*. [acursed, β.] at þe laste he com to pope Iohn into Fraunce, and was de|graded anon to þe staat*. [state, β.] of a lewed man. Also he was i-made swere þat he schulde nevere torne aȝen to his bisshop|riche, noþer come into þe citee of Rome; but at þe laste he was restored aȝen by pope Martyn, þat was pope Iohn his successour. Plegmundus archebisshop of Canturbury, þat was a nobil man of clergie, feng*. [vyng, γ.] þe pal of Formosus [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] pope, and ordeyned sevene bisshoppes to chirches of Engelond in oon day. Þat ȝere kyng Aluredus chased þe Danes first out of Kent, of Excetre, and of Chichestre. Henricus, libro 5o. The Danes þat were at Chestre were byseged*. [bisegide, β.] þre dayes, and were compelled for honger to leve þe citee; þanne þey spoylede Norþ Wales, and wente so aboute by Norþhomberlond into Est Anglond, þere here wifes and here schippes were. [Þey]*. [From α. and β.; they, Cx.]Page  393, vol.6 i-entred*. [entride, β.; Hy intrede, γ.] ynto þe ryver Luy,*. [Luya, α.; Luys, β. and Cx.; of Luya, γ.] and bulde a castel þere faste*. [vaste, γ.] by; but þe Londoners, by help of þe kyng, destroyed*. [destruyde, β.] þat castel, and to-deled þat ryver in þre chanelles and*. [and] or, Cx.] stremes, so þat þe Danes myȝte nouȝt brynge out here schippes; [þanne þe Danes lefte here schyppes,]*. [From γ.] and dwelled at þe brigge*. [brugge, β. and γ.] uppon Sevarne, faste by Wales, and bulde þere a strong castel; and also þese*. [þues, γ.] þre ȝere Engelond was hard bysette wiþ þre manere of sorwes,*. [of sorwes] sorwe, α. and γ.; sorowe, β. and Cx.] wiþ werre of þe Danes, moreyn of men, and pestilence*. [pestylens, γ.] of bestes. After Formosus, Bonefas was pope fiftene dayes; after hym þe sixte Stevene oon ȝere and þre monþes; [þerafter]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he lefte þe poperiche,*. [papacye, Cx.] and was i-made monk, þat*. [þis, α. and β.] was somtyme [i-made bishop of Angun*. [Augum, Cx.] by pope Formosus]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] Ysus;*. [Ysus] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] but afterward, whanne he was pope, he pursuede so Formosus, þat noȝt onliche he wiþcleped*. [withsayde, Cx.] his doynge and his dedes, but also he leet take up*. [op, γ.] Formosus his body whan he was deed out of þe eorþe,*. [erþe, β.] and made men brynge Page  395, vol.6 hym in to [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] pleyn*. [playne, Cx.] conscistorie*. [consistorye. β.; consistory, γ.] i-cloþed as a pope, and þanne he made men uncloþe hym, and take of hym þat manere cloþinge, and cloþe hym as a lewed*. [flewide, β.] man, and kutte*. [kytte, Cx.] of tweie fyngres*. [kut of twy vyngers, γ.] of his riȝt hond, and caste hym into Tyber. After þis Stevene, Romanus was pope foure monþes. Lowys, Arnulphus his sone, regnede in Fraunce twelve ȝere, but he hadde nevere the crowne of þe empere,*. [empyre, Cx.] and in hym was þe ende of þe empere touchynge Charles his ofspringe. In his tyme were fyve popes, Theodorus, Iohn,*. [Joon, β., et infra.] Benet, Leo and Cristofre.*. [Crystofor, Cx.] Of hem Theodorus þe secounde, þeyȝ he were pope [but]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] oon monþe, ȝit he roos aȝenst pope Stevene his doynge, and withcleped*. [withsayd, Cx.] his dedes, and confermede þe dedes of pope Formosus. Þe nynþe Iohn was pope two ȝere; he made a counseile at Ravenna, and dampnede pope Stevene his dedes, and fauȝt*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst þe Romayns. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Þis ȝere deide kyng Aluredus, and was first i-buried in þe cathe|dral chirche at Wynchestre; but for þe madnesse and ravynge of þe chanouns, þat*. [þat, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; þei, MS] seide þat spirites of kynges takeþ*. [taken, Cx.] þe careyn and walkeþ aboute by nyȝte from*. [vram, γ.] hous to hous, his Page  397, vol.6 sone Edward took*. [take, Cx.] þe fadres body and dede*. [dude, γ.] it in [þe]*. [From β. and γ.] New*. [the Newe, Cx.] abbay. Þis and oþere suche*. [siche, β.] lewed*. [feyned magel, γ.] tales Englisshe men holdeþ*. [holden, Cx.] by a mysbyleve þat haþ ful*. [fol, γ.] longe i-dured, and boroweþ*. [borowed, Cx.] it of mysbileved men þat þey troweþ not, þat after a manis deth þe body walkeþ and gooþ aboute by mevynge*. [meovyng, β.] of þe fende;*. [vend, γ.] þerof spekeþ Virgil, and seiþ whan deþ comeþ what semynge schappes fleeþ*. [vleet, γ.] aboute. [℞.] In preisynge of þis kyng, Henricus libro primo setteþ vers*. [versus, Cx.] in þis manere: "Kyndeliche*. [Kundlych, γ.] nobelnesse and*. [of, α. and β.] goodnesse*. [Kyndly noblesse of goodness, Cx.] ȝeveþ*. [ȝefþ, γ.] to þe*. [þee, β.] worschippe, and goodnesse travaille, myȝty werriour Alu|redus, and travaille name to þe wiþoute eny ende. Ioye with woo medled [he]*. [From β. and Cx.] hadde*. [melled haddest, γ.] in every*. [everech, β.] tyme. Alwey þin hope was medled*. [melled, γ.] wiþ gretene*. [grete, Cx.] drede. Þey*. [Though, Cx.] he were now doun, he rayed bataille amorwe. [ȝif he were wictord*. [victor, β. and γ.; vyctor, Cx.] he dredde þe batayle a morwe.]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] After travaille of lyf of rennynge*. [regnyng, β.; regninge, γ.; regn|ynge, Cx.] boþe nowþe*. [nowþe] om. Cx.] his verray*. [verrey, β.] reste by*. [by] be, β. and γ.] Crist wiþ oute eny ende."

Page  399, vol.6

Capitulum quartum. Mar., libro 2o.

EDWARD, þe Eldere by his surname, regned after his fader*. [vader, γ., et infra.] foure and twenty ȝere; he was lowere þan his fader in*. [y, α.] wor|shippe of lettrure,*. [letture, γ.] and heyere*. [hyȝer, α.; heiȝer, β.; heyȝher, γ.; hygher, Cx.] þan he in worldliche*. [worllych, γ.] ioye and worshippe, for he bulde newe citees and amended*. [repayred, Cx.] citees þat were*. [α, α., γ., and Cx.] i-peyred*. [appayred, β.] and sprad þe endes of his kyngdom wydder*. [wyddur, γ.] þan dede his fader. He made þe kynges of Scottes and of Combres*. [Cambers, γ.] and of Walschemen*. [to, add. β.] ȝelde*. [ȝulde, γ.] hem to hym. He wan Estsex, Norþhumberlond, and Mercia wiþ strengþe*. [stryngþe, γ.] out of þe honde*. [hondes, α., β., γ., and Cx.] of Danes, and hadde all Mercia after þe deth of his suster*. [soster, γ.] Elfleda. On his firste wyf*. [Edelstan, Cx.] Egwyna he gat his eldest sone Ethelstan;*. [Edelstan, Cx.] oon*. [vurste vyf, γ.] queene Edgiva he gat Edredus and Edwynus and sevene douȝtres; he maried oon*. [on, β. and γ.] of hem*. [ham, γ.] to Otho þe emperour, and anoþer to Charles kyng of West Fraunce, and þe þridde to Siththricus*. [Sihthricus, β.; Sihthiricus, γ.; Sythyrycus, Cx.] duke of Norþhomber|lond. Page  401, vol.6Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2 o. On his þridde wif Ethelswitha he gat*. [bygate, Cx., et infra.] Edmond and Edred; eiþer of hem reg|nede after here broþer Athelston;*. [Ethelstan, α., β., γ., and Cx.] he gat also tweie douȝtres, seint Edburgh*. [Edburg, β; Edburge, γ.] þat was i-sacred to God, and resteþ at Wyn|chestre, and Edgiva þe faire,*. [veyr, γ.] þat was i-maried to Lowys kyng of Gyan.*. [Gyean, γ.; Guyan, Cx.] Also þis made his sones lerne*. [lurne, γ.] lettrure;*. [letture, γ., et infra.] and he made his douȝtres firste lerne lettrure, and þerafter he made hem lese*. [use, α., β., and Cx.] þe nedle*. [a mad ham use þe neld, γ.; nelde, β.; nylde, Cx.] and þe distaf. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2 o. Of þis mayde Edburga it is i-rad þat whanne sche*. [heo, β.] was þre ȝere olde here fader wolde wete*. [y-wyte, α. and γ.; wite, β.; wytte, Cx.] and assaye*. [essay, Cx.] wheþer sche wolde*. [heo schuld, β.] torne to God oþer to þe world,*. [worl, γ.] and dede*. [leyde, Cx.] in þe*. [þat, β.] oon side of his chambre meny faire iewelles*. [veyr juwels, γ.] and dyvers and grete richesse, and in*. [þat, add. β.] oþer side chalys and gospelles, þanne in anoþer place he dede*. [putt, Cx.] be|sauntes,*. [besaundes, γ.] broches, and rynges, þanne þe norse*. [norice, β.; nors, γ.] brouȝt forþ þe childe, þanne þe childe was i-bede*. [boden, Cx.] chese and take what he*. [he] a, γ.; heo, β.; she, Cx.]Page  403, vol.6 wolde; and sche creep*. [heo creop, β.; crep, γ.] on honde and on*. [on] om. α., β., and γ.] foot*. [voot, γ.] and took þe gospel. Þanne þe fader custe*. [kissed, β.] þe childe, and seide, "Goo þider as God clepeþ þe; sewe hym with a gracious foot þat ledeþ the;" and so þerafter sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] was i-made mynchoun;*. [monchon, β.; meynchyn, γ.; nonne, Cx.] kyng his blood made here nevere*. [never made her, Cx.] torne aweyward, but sche*. [hue, γ.] wolde take þe schoon*. [shoes, Cx.] of here sustres priveliche by nyȝte and*. [and] from α., β., γ., and Cx.; of, MS.] wasche*. [wasse, α; waysche, γ.] hem and smere hem, and priveliche brynge hem aȝen.*. [priveliche before aȝen, α., β., and γ. Cx. adds: that sygnefyed mekenes.] After Iohn þe fourþe Benet was pope þre ȝere. Also þat ȝere seynt Grymbalde þe confessour, þat was kyng Alure|dus his techer, deide at Wynchestre. Þat ȝere Plegmundus þe archebisshop in*. [in] of, β. and Cx.] þe citee Dorobernia, þat is Caunturbury, ordeyned sevene bisshoppes to þe chirches of Engelond; fyve to þe lond of Giweysys,*. [Giwyseyes, β.; Guyseyes, Cx.] þat beeþ West Saxons, [oon]*. [From β.] at Wynchestre, oon in Cornwaile, oon at Shireborne, oon at Welles, [oon]*. [From β.] at Crittoun.*. [Kirtoun, β.; Crytton, γ.; Kyrton, Cx.] Also among þe Souþ Saxons oon, and in Mercia oon at Dorkynga,*. [Dorkyngam, Cx.] þat is now*. [now] om. β. and γ.] Dorchestre bysides Oxenforde; for Formosus þe pope hadde i-ȝeve*. [yeven, Cx.] his curse*. [cours, α. and Cx.; cors, β. and γ.]Page  405, vol.6 to kyng Edward and to Englisshe men for*. [bycause of, Cx.] scarste*. [skarste, β.] of bis|shoppes in here lond, þat hadde i-be bisshoples sevene ȝere to gidres. Þat ȝere brede faillede in Irlond, for wormes þat were tweie*. [twy, γ.] toþed and i-liche to wontes fil*. [vul, γ.] doun from hevene and ete*. [yte, γ.] þe brede corne. But þe wormes were i-doo awey by pray|enge and fastynge. Clito Ethelwoldus, kyng Edward his emes sone, roos*. [ros, β. and γ.; or rebellyd, add. Cx.] aȝenst þe kyng, and occupiede þe citee of Wyne|borne*. [Wynburn, β. and Cx., et infra.] besides Bathe, and seide, þat he wolde have þe maistrie oþer deie þere; but he ravisched*. [ravesched, β.; raveste, γ.] and tok awey a mynchoun*. [monchon, β., et infra, meynchyn, γ.; toke with hym a nonne, Cx.] of þe abbay of Wynborne, and wente þens to þe Danes of Norþhomberlond, and prayed hem of helpe. But þe kyng pursewede*. [pursued, β.] hem so strongliche þat he forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] Engelond, and wente*. [flyȝ, β.] into Fraunce; but þe kyng brouȝte wiþ hym þe mynchoun*. [meynchen, γ.; nonne, Cx.] aȝen, and restored here into here abbay: but þe same ȝere Ethelwoldus*. [Ethelwulfus, Cx.] com aȝen wiþ schippes in grete array, and took wiþ hym þe Danes þat woned in Est Anglond, and assailede and destroyede al þat he myȝte fynde*. [yvynde, γ.] anon to Page  407, vol.6 Crekanforde, þat is Crekelade;*. [Criklade, β.; Crekelad, γ.] þanne he passede Tempse,*. [Temse, β. and γ.] and spoillede and robbede þe londe anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] to Bradenestok, and so he wente aȝen to Est Anglond, þat conteyneþ Northfolk and Souþfolk, as it is i-seide to forehonde*. [vorhond, γ.] ofte tyme. Þe kyng folowede after, and destroyede*. [distried, β.] and spoylede þe londe of his enemyes from þe ryvors*. [ryver Ous, α., β., and Cx.] to þe bondes*. [boundes, Cx.] of seint Edmond his lond, and heet*. [hyte, γ.] his men þat non of hem schulde abyde by|hynde; bot þe Kentisshe men forgendrede*. [vorgenderde, γ.] þe kynges heste,*. [heeste, β.] and abide þere, and were i-slawe nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] alle [of]*. [From γ. and Cx.] þe Danes; meny were i-slawe in eiþer side, bote Clito Ethelwoldus was i-slawe among his enemyes: þanne þe Danes sigh þat kyng Edward myȝte nouȝt be overcome, and made pees wiþ hym. After Benet, þe fifte Leo was pope twenty*. [twey, β. and Cx.] monþes, for his preost*. [prust, γ.] Cristofre prisoned hym, and toke*. [touk, γ.] þe poperiche*. [papasye, Cx.] [so by maystrie, but he was cast out after þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ., bis.] monþe. Þe fourþe,*. [vurde, γ., bis.] Sergius put out Cristofre,*. [Crystofor, Cx., et infra.] and was pope]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þerafter seven ȝere. [Som tyme he was decon*. [dekene, β.] cardynal, and reproved*. [repreved, γ.] of Formosus þe pope, and wente to Frensche*. [þe Vreyns, γ.]Page  409, vol.6 men. By help of hem he prisoned Cristofre þat assaylede*. [gate, Cx.] þe poperiche and hylde*. [heelde, β.; huld, γ.] hit by strengþe, and þanne he hym self occupiede þe poperiche. And in wreche of his [of]*. [From β.] put|tynge*. [of-pottyng, γ.] he made hem take up*. [op, γ.] Formosus þe pope out of his grave, and smyte of his heed,*. [hed, β.] and þrewe þe body into Tyber. Bote at þe laste fischers founde*. [vyschers vonde, γ.] þat body, and brouȝte it to Seynt Peter his cherche, and þe ymages of holy seyntes dede þat body greet reverens*. [reverauns, γ.] and worschippe in his comynge.]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] Þat ȝere þe citee Carlegioun,*. [Caerleon, Cx.] þat is Legecestria, þat now hatte Chestre, after þat he*. [he] hit, β.; a, γ.] was destroyede*. [distruyed, β.] by þe Danes, was re|stored aȝen by help of Etheldredus duke of Mercia, and of his wif Elfleda; þat citee was þoo i-closed aboute wiþ newe walles, and i-made nyh suche*. [neiȝ sich, β.] two as it was raþer.*. [byfore, Cx.] So þat þe castel þat was somtyme by þe water wiþ oute þe walles is now in þe toun wiþ ynne þe walles. ℞. Kyng Edward bulde*. [buyld, Cx., et infra.] a castel at Hereforde; þat tyme was þe abbay of Cluni i-founded of William þe mylde, prince of Burgoyne. Þe firste abbot of þat place*. [plas, γ., bis.] was seint Odo, þe secounde Majolus.*. [Mayclus, Cx.] William de Page  411, vol.6 Pontificibus, libro 4o, seiþ þat firste þe monkes of þat place were riche in þe worlde, and of cleer religioun in God. Þat tyme Etheldredus duke of Mercia and his wif Elfleda translated þe bones of seint Edward*. [Oswald, β. and γ.] þe kyng from Bardeneye to Gloucetre,*. [Glouceter, γ.] þere þey bulde an abbay in worschippe of seint Peter.

Capitulum quintum.

CONRADUS after Lowys*. [Lowes, γ.] was i-made prince among þe Al|maignes,*. [Almayns, β.] but for he was nouȝt emperour in Italy he is nouȝt*. [nouȝt] wrongly omitted in β.] i-rekened among emperours, noþer he was i-hiȝt wiþ sacrynge and benesouns,*. [benesons, γ.; ne he is not en|haunced with sacryng and blessynges, Cx.] but he regnede sevene ȝere. In þis*. [þes, γ.] [yere]*. [From Cx.] þe empere gan to passe from þe Frensche*. [Freyns, γ., et infra.] men to þe Almayns, for Lowys þe predecessour of þis myȝte noȝt diffende þe Ro|mayns aȝenst þe Longobardes; þe empere passede from þe Frensche men, and so were tweye emperoures, oon in Almayne and anoþer in Italy, and*. [anon, α. and β.; unto the fyrst, Cx.] to þe firste Otho, þat was emperour of Page  413, vol.6 boþe. Þat ȝere in þe province of Stafford at Thotenhale*. [Totenhale, β. and Cx.] þe Englisshe men overcome þe Danes; and afterward at Wode|nesfeld*. [Wodenysfelde, Cx.] kyng Edward slouȝ of þe Danes tweye*. [twy, γ.] kynges, tweye erles, and meny þowsand of men of Danes*. [þowsandes of Danes, α., β., γ. and Cx.] of North|umberlond. Etheldredus, duke and ledere,*. [ledere] om. γ.] under-kyng of Mercia, deide, and his wyf Elfleda, kyng Edward his suster,*. [soster, γ.] regnede nobleliche*. [noblich, β.] longe tyme in al Mercia, outtake Londoun and Oxenforde, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] þe kynge hylde to hymselfward. Sche bulde meny citees and townes, and amendede meny oon, þat beeþ Brymmesbury, Brygge*. [bridge, Cx.] uppon Sevarn, Thomeworþ*. [Thomworth, Cx.] be|sides Lichefeld, Stafford, Warwyk, Shroysbury*. [Sherisbury, α.; Schyresbury, β.; Chyrysbury, γ.; Shiresbury, Cx.] brigge uppon Sevarn,*. [brigge upon Sevarn] om. β., γ., and Cx.] Watusbury,*. [Watrisbury, Cx.] Edisbury in þe forest bysides Chestre, þat now is al destroyed. Also sche*. [heo, β., et infra.; hue, γ., et infra.] bulde a citee wiþ a castel in þe norþ endes of Mercia, uppon þe ryver Merce, þat þoo heet Runcofan, but now it hatte Runcorn. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. The*. [Þis, α., β., and Cx.; Þues, γ.] strong virago Elfleda, favour of citeȝeynes Page  415, vol.6 and drede of enemyes, halp moche*. [myche, β.] her broþer þe kyng in ȝevynge of counsaile and in buldynge of citees; whanne sche hadde*. [ones, add. Cx.] assayed þe woo and þe sorwe onlich of oon childe þat sche bare, sche hatede þe clippynge*. [embracyng, Cx.] of a man þerafter for everemore, and took witnesse of God, and seide þat it was nouȝt semeliche to a kynges douȝter to use [suche]*. [From α. (not Cx.); sich, β.; soche, γ.] flesche|liche*. [vleyschlych, γ.] likynge, þere suche sorwe moste*. [most come nedes] shold come, Cx.] come nedes*. [nede come, β.] after. Þe see*. [Þe see] þes, γ.] þeves of Danes þat wente out of Engelond into Fraunce aboute [an]*. [From α., β., and γ. (not Cx.).] nyntene ȝere toforehonde, come newe*. [now, α. and γ.; om. Cx.] aȝe into Engelond, and seillede*. [seylide, β.] aboute Cornewayle and come into Sevarne see, and took prayes, and took a Britisshe bisshop in Irchenefeld, þe whiche bisshop kyng Edwarde raunsoned*. [raunsede, α. and γ.] for fourty pounde, and chasede þe enemyes into Irlond; and made a castel at þe mouth of þe water of Avene, and oþere castelles at Bokyngham in þe eiþer side of þe ryver Ouse, and made sugette þe Danes þat woned at Bedeford*. [Betford, Cx.] and at Norþhamp|toun, and here kyng Turketillus. Anastacius was pope two ȝere. After hym Laudo was pope fyve ȝere;*. [ȝere] monethes, Cx.] þat ȝere þe Page  417, vol.6 Hungaries þat beeþ by þe ryver Danubius*. [Dono, written above in a later hand in β.] destroyed Italy. Þe tenþe Iohn was pope fourtene ȝere, þis was pope Sergius his sone and bisshop of Raven. By his help Albericus the markys put*. [pot, γ., et infra.] out þe Sarsyns out of Irlond.*. [Irlond] Ytalye, Cx.] At þe laste fil strif and dis|cord bytwene hem, and þe pope and*. [and] om. α., γ., and Cx.] putte þe markys out of þe citee; þerfore he was wrooþ, and brouȝte þe Hungaries þat hadde destroyed*. [distruyde, β.] Italy; þerfore þe markys was i-slawe, bote þe pope was i-strangled of þe markes*. [markys, β.] his knyȝtes. Þat ȝere deide Rollo þe firste duke of Normandye i-translated out*. [i-translated out] om. β., γ., and Cx.] after þe fourþe*. [fourtenth, Cx.] ȝere of his ducherie; his sone William Longa Spata was duke after hym fyve and twenty ȝere. Elfleda queene of Mercia toke prayes in þe lond of Bretouns at Brehnok,*. [Breghnok, β.; Brehnoc, γ.; Brechnok, Cx.] and took þe kynges wyf of Wales, and renewede*. [renewide, β.] Legecestre, þat is Chestre. Kyng Edward bulde þe citee of Toucestre*. [Toucetre, β.; Touceter, γ.] and of Wiggemore,*. [Wygmere, β.; Wyggemere, γ.] and destroyed*. [distryed, β.] þe castel þat þe Danes hadde y-buld*. [y-buld, from α. and γ.; bilde, β.; made, Cx.; destroyd, MS.] at Themesforde.*. [Temeseford, γ.] Elfleda took þe citee of Derby uppon*. [oppon, γ.] þe Danes; here foure mynistres [were Page  419, vol.6 i-slawe].*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; were slayn, β.] Henry,*. [Harry, Cx.] þe sone of duke Otho of Saxon, regnede eyȝtene*. [eyȝtetene, α. and γ.] ȝere over þe Almayns, bote nouȝt in Italy, and þer|fore he is nouȝt acounted among þe emperours. Þis overcome þe Hungaries, and tornede to þe fey*. [feiþ of, wrongly, β.] þe duke of Normandye, William Longa Spata. Longa spata is a long swerd in*. [an, α., β., and γ.] Englisshe. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Þat ȝere deide Elfleda, eiȝtene dayes tofore Iuyl,*. [Jul, γ.; byfore Julii, Cx.] fyve ȝere tofore þe deþ of hire broþer kyng Edward. And sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ. bis.] was i-buried at Glow|cestre in Seynt Peter his cherche, þat sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ. bis.] and hire housbonde hadde i-bulde uppon kyng Oswaldes bones, þat þey hadde i-brouȝt þider from*. [þuder vram, γ.] Bardeneye; bote þe Danes destroyed þat cherche, and Aldredus, bisshop boþe of ȝork and of Worcestre,*. [Wircetre, β.]Page  421, vol.6 repayrallede*. [reparyelde, γ.] anoþer þat is now þe cheef*. [chef, β. and γ.] abbay of þe citee. Kyng Edward took þe power of Mercia from Elfwyna*. [Elswyna, Cx.] þe douȝter of Elfleda, and lad here wiþ hym into West Saxon ℞. In preysinge of þis*. [þues, γ.] Elfleda, Henricus, libro 5o. O Elflede*. [Elfled, β. and γ.] myȝti,*. [myghty, Cx.] O mayde mennene*. [mennes, β. and Cx.] drede; victrice of kynd,*. [vyctrys of kunde, γ.] wel worþy þy*. [þe, α., β., γ., and Cx.] name [of a manne];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and þe*. [þee, β.] wel*. [wele, Cx.] briȝter now kynde*. [kunde, γ., et infra.] haþ i-maked a mayde; goodnesse haþ þe made to have þe name of a manne; kynde techeþ*. [techiþ þee, β.] þe to chaunge nouȝt*. [nothinge, Cx.] but þe name; myȝte queene and kyng*. [kyng and quene, α.; nuȝty kyng and queen, β.; kyng and queene, γ.; kynge and quene, Cx.] victorious*. [victoryes, α., β., γ., and Cx.] to arraye. Cesar*. [Cesars, β.] triumphus*. [Cesar hys triumphes, γ.; Cesars tryumphes, Cx.] were nouȝt so moche*. [myche, β.] worþy; Nobler þan Cesar, mayde Virago, farewel.*. [varewel, γ.] Whan kyng Edward herde*. [hurde, γ.] of þe deeþ of his suster he made suget to hym Thomeworth*. [Thomworth, Cx.] and Snotyngham, þat now hatte Notyngham;*. [Nothyngham, Cx.] þere he bulde a new citee in þe souþ side riȝt aȝenst þe olde Page  423, vol.6 citee, and sette a brugge*. [lrygge, Cx.] uppon*. [oppon, γ.] Trente, bytwene þe tweie*. [twy, γ.] citees. Þerafter þe same ȝere þre*. [þre] twey, Cx.] kynges ȝelde*. [ȝuld, γ.] hem freliche to hym, þat were þe kynges of Scotland, of Danes, and of Wales. Þat ȝere kyng Edward bulde a citee at Thelwal,*. [Thylwal, Cx.] þat is in þe norþ endes of Mercia*. [Mersea, Cx.] by þe water of Mercie,*. [Merse, α. and γ., and so con|tinually; Mersee, β.; Mersee, Cx., et infra.] and þere he sette kepynge of knyȝtes. Þanne he passede þe water of Mercie,*. [Mersea, Cx.] and restored þe citee of Manchestre,*. [Manichester, γ.] þat is in þe souþ endes of Norþhumberlond. Kyng Edward deide at Faryngdoun twelve myle be*. [be] by, β.] west Oxenford, and was i-buryed at Wynchestre in þe newe abbay.

Capitulum sextum. Athelstanus.*. [Ethelstanus, α., and so below.]

ATHELSTAN,*. [Ethelstan, β. and γ.; Edelstan, Cx., et infra.] kyng Edward his eldeste sone, was i-made kyng of*. [at, α., β., and γ.] Kyngestoun besides Londoun in Southeray;*. [Souþerey, β.; Southereye, γ.; Southrey, Cx.] he Page  425, vol.6 regnede sextene ȝere. In his firste yere þe nobel child Don|ston was i-bore in þe contray of Glastenbury; al his lif from his burþe*. [from his burþe] om. Cx.] to his ende day schoon*. [schone, γ.] by vertues and by myracles. Alfridus. Kyng Athelston*. [Ethelstan, γ., et infra.] maried his suster*. [soster, γ.] to Sithricus [kynge of the Danes of Northumberlonde. Sythrycus dyed sone after, and the kynge put oute Sythrycus]*. [From Cx.] his sone, and ioynede*. [innede, γ.] þat kyngdom to his owne. Þanne by bataille he made suget*. [subgett, Cx.] Hoelus kyng of Britouns, and Constantyn kyng of*. [the, add. Cx.] Scottes, and fenge hem*. [vyng ham, γ.] whanne þey were i-ȝolde. Kyng Athelston*. [Ethelstan, β., et infra.] made þis Constantyn [kyng of Scotland; þanne Con|stantyn]*. [From α. and Cx.] seie,*. [seide, α. and γ.; seyde, β.; sayde, Cx.] "It is more worschippe to make a kyng þan it is to be a kyng." Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Also kyng Athelston maried his oþer suster to Otho þe emperour, and feng of hym hors*. [horses, β.] and precious*. [horses and other precious, Cx.] stones, and a maner vessel*. [vessal, γ.] i-made of a stoon þat hatte onichinus,*. [onychinus, β.] þat was cleer and briȝt, and lettede nouȝt the passynge of liȝt noþer of siȝt, and it was i-made sotilliche*. [sotylych, γ.; subtylly, Cx.] by gravynge craft þat it semed ver|railiche*. [verreylyche, γ.] þat corn growynge þerynne wawed*. [wawide, β.] hider and Page  427, vol.6 þider,*. [wawede huder and þuder, γ.] as longe corn dooþ in feeldes, and þat vynes burgonede,*. [burgede, α.; burgened, β.; borgede, γ.; bourgened, Cx.] and ymages of men moevede. Also he feng*. [vyng, γ.] of hym þe grete Constantyn his swerde. In þat [swerd]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe ownere his name was i-rad in lettres of gold in þe hilt þerof; uppon*. [uppon] in, Cx.] grete plates of gold was i-steked*. [y-stiked, β.; stykked, Cx.] on [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe foure irene*. [yren, β.; voure yrene, γ.; yron, Cx.] nayles þat Crist was i-nayled with to þe rode. He fenge*. [A vyng, γ., et infra.] of hym þe grete Charls his spere; evere whanne Charles schook*. [schoke, β. and γ.] þat spere he hadde þe maistrie; me telleþ þat þat spere opened Cristes side;*. [Crist his owne syde, α., β., and γ.; Crystes owne syde, Cx.] and sente out*. [sente out] seynt, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Morys his baner. [That baner]*. [From Cx.; þat baner, β.] Charles usede aȝenst þe Saresyns. Also he feng a party of þe holy crosse, and som of þe crowne of þorne.*. [þornene crowne, α. and γ.; þorn|nen coroun, β.; somme of the thorned crowne, Cx.] Kyng Athel|ston*. [Ethelstan, β.] brouȝte*. [ordeynede, α., β., and Cx. ordeynde, γ.] som of þese*. [þues, γ.] relikes to þe abbay of Malmes|bury. Marcianus. Þe sexte Leo was pope foure yere and sevene monþes. Odo is i-made bisshop of Wiltoun. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Frithstan*. [Frystan, Cx.] bisshop of Wyn|chestre deide, and Birstan was bisshop after hym. Of þis Page  429, vol.6 Birstan it is i-rad þat he song every*. [every] as hit were eche, α.; as as it were exerech, β.; as hyt were everyche, γ.; as it were every, Cx.] day for alle Cristen soules; þanne in a nyȝt he ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.] aboute a chirche hawe,*. [hawe] yerde, Cx.; hey, β.; cherche hey, γ.] and seide salmes*. [psalmes, β.] for alle Cristene soules; þanne in a nyȝt*. [þanne in n nyȝt] And, β.] whanne [he hadde]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; a hadde, γ.] all i-seide, þanne he seide "Requies|cant in pace," [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he herde*. [hurde, γ.] a voys of a grete oost answere out of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] graves, and seide Amen. Odo bisshop of Wyn|chestre is i-made archebisshop of Dorobernia, þat is Caun|terbury. Þo Stevene was pope sevene ȝere. Odo bisshop of Wynchestre is dede;*. [ded, β.] after hym Elpheges*. [Elphegus, β., γ., and Cx.] þe ballede was bisshop of Wynchestre, þat man was a prophete, and nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] of seynt Donstan his kynne. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. In an Aschewednesday,*. [Axwendesday, β. and γ.; On Asshe Wonesdaye, Cx.] as þe manere is, he dede*. [dide, β.] hem þat schulde doo open penaunce out of cherche, and chardede*. [chargide, β.; chargede, γ. and Cx.] oþer men þat þey schulde in þilke*. [þelke, γ.] dayes faste*. [vaste, γ.] and be chaste, and spare þe likynge of here wifes.*. [wyves, α., β., and Cx.] Among hem alle oon spak, and seide: "Sire,*. [Sere, γ.] I may not at þis tyme leve*. [leeve, β.] boþe my feste and Page  431, vol.6 my wif. Bote þe wif þat I*. [Ich, β.] have put*. [ich have ypot, γ.] awey for þe tyme I*. [y, β.] schal sone take*. [take hir, β.; here, add. γ.; her, add. Cx.] aȝen." "Wrecche," quoþ þe bisshop, "þou makest me sory, þou wost not*. [knowest not, Cx.] what is i-ordeyned for þe*. [þee, β.] aȝenst tomorwe:" þanne a morwe he was i-founde*. [founden, Cx.] deed*. [founden ded, β.; a was yvounde ded, γ.] in his bed. Also in a tyme þis Elfleges*. [Ethelphegus, β. and Cx.; El|phegus, γ.] made þre monkes preostes, Dunston, Ethelwolde, and Ethelstan. And whanne þe service was i-doo,*. [doon, β.] he spak to hem, and seide, "Þis day [to fore God]*. [From α. and γ.; before God, Cx.] I*. [Ich, β., et infra.] have i-sette my honde uppon þre men; tweyne of hem schul be bisshoppes, bote þe þridde schal make a wrecched ende." Þanne Athelstan*. [Ethelstan, β. and Cx.] was þe more home|liche*. [homlych, γ.] by cause of kynrede,*. [kynrade, Cx.] and spak and seide, "Schal I be a bisshop?" "Þou schalt have no part in þis ordre," quod Elphegus; "noþer þou schalt not*. [not] om. β. and Cx.] long bere þis cloþ|inge." For Sconstantyn*. [Constantyn, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Scottes hadde i-broke covenant, kyng Ethelstan arayed hym toward Scotland, and in þe way he wente a*. [α] on, Cx.] pilgrymage to seint Iohn of*. [of] om. α. and γ.] Be|verley, Page  433, vol.6 and leyde his knyf to wedde uppon seint Iohn his auȝter,*. [oppon seynt Jon auter, γ.] and heet*. [seyde, β.; hyt, γ.] þat ȝif he come aȝen wiþ þe victorie, he wolde raunsoun his knyf wiþ a worþy prys. After þe victorie, whanne he come aȝen, he prayed God [þat he wolde],*. [From β.; þat a wolde, γ.] þoruȝ þe prayer of seint Iohn of Beverlay, schewe som open tokene by þe whiche tokone*. [by which token, Cx.] þey þat beeþ and schal be mowe*. [maye, Cx.] knowe þat the Scottes by riȝt schulde be suget to Englische men. Þanne þe kynges*. [kyng wiþ his, α., β., γ., and Cx.] swerd smoot on a greet stoon faste by þe castel of Dunbarre. In þat stoon ȝit to þis day is i-sene of þat strook a chene*. [chyne, α. and β.; chynne, Cx.] of an elne longe. Þanne þe kyng com aȝen, and raunsoned his knyf wiþ worþy doynge. Þe enlevenþe Iohn was pope oon ȝere; [after hym þe sevenþe Leo was pope þre ȝer]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and sixe monþes. Lowys þe sone of Charles þe symple, and of*. [and of, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; of þat, MS.] kyng Edward his douȝter, regnede after his fader in West Fraunce nyntene ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. He was in a tyme i-pursewed of oon Isenbardus, and axede help of þe lordes of his lond, and þey ȝaf hym non answere; þanne Huwe*. [Huge, β., et infra; Hughe, Cx.] a symple knyȝt, eorle Roberd*. [erle Robertes, β.] his sone of Mont Desire, Page  435, vol.6 took wilfulliche*. [wylfolliche, γ.] þe bataille for his lord, and slouȝ hym wiþ ynne þe lystes þat woldes nedes fiȝte.*. [vyȝte, γ.] Þanne*. [þerfore, α., β., γ., and Cx.] sone þerafter,*. [sone ater, Cx.] whanne þis kyng was feble,*. [febel, γ.] he made þis Huwe*. [Hugh, Cx., et infra.] his heyre,*. [eyr, β.] and so cesede þe ofspringe of Charls, oþer for his wif was ba|reyne,*. [barayn, γ.] oþer for he lyved but a schort tyme: þanne þis Huwe wedded kyng Edwardes oþer douȝter. Þe firste Otho þe sone of þe firste Herry,*. [Henry, β. and γ.; Harry, Cx.] was þe firste emperour of Duches men,*. [Duches men] Almayn, γ.; Duchemen, Cx.] and regnede sevene and þritty ȝere. In a Ester tyme he made a grete feste to his princes and lordes, and or*. [or] er, β.; ar, γ.] þei were al i-sette*. [yserved, β.; er they were all servyd, Cx.] a prince his sone took a messe of þe borde, as a childe [schulde],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and þe kynges sewer smoot þe childe wiþ a staf; þe childes maister siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and slow þe sewere anon. Þanne þe emperour wolde have i-dampned hym wiþ oute audience,*. [audiens, γ.] he þrewe*. [þru, γ.] doun þe emperour to þe erþe, and strangled hym almost;*. [almest, γ.] þe emperour was unneþe delyvered out of þis childes maister hondes. But þanne he heet*. [bade, β.; hyte, γ.] save þe childe his maister [lyf],*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; lif, β.] and cride and seide þat he hymself was to blame, for he hadde nouȝt i-spared hym for soo greet a feste. Page  437, vol.6 Þat ȝere Anlaf, a paynym, kyng of Irlond*. [Irlond, from β.; Engelond, MS.] and of meny ilondes, Sithiricus*. [Sihtricus, β.; Sithricus, γ.] his sone, by visitynge*. [incitynge, α. and γ.; excityng, β.; exytynge, Cx.] of his wifes fader, þat was Constantyn kyng of Scotland, Anlaf entrede*. [entride, β.] into þe mouth of þe ryver of Humber wiþ a strong navey. Kyng Athelstan*. [Ethelstan, β.; Edelstan, Cx.] and his broþer Edmond mette hym at Brun|fort.*. [Brymford, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Whanne þe hostes were i-gadred Anlaf by þouȝte hym of a queynt gyle, and took an harpe on honde, and come into Ethelstan his tente*. [tenth, Cx.] in an harpour [his]*. [From α.] lich.*. [harpur hys lych, γ.; in harper's arraye, Cx.] Þere in þe mete tyme he aspyed al þat he wolde, and hadde money for his harpynge. He hadde þe money aȝenst herte, and buried it priveliche under [hym in þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] eorþe; þat was aspied of oon þat hadde i-be somtyme a soudeour*. [saudeor, γ.; soudyour, Cx.] wiþ Anlaf, and he warned Ethelstan whan Anlaf was a goo; þe kyng blamede hym for he warned hym nouȝt raþer;*. [noo rather, Cx.] he answerde and seide: "O kyng, þe same fey þat I*. [ich, γ.] owe now to þe I*. [ych, γ.] ȝaf to Anlaf somtyme; þerfore ȝif I*. [ich, β. bis.] breke*. [had broken, Cx.] þat fey now to hym þou woldest*. [wost, γ.] wene þat I*. [ich, β. bis.] wolde Page  439, vol.6 doo þe same to þe anoþer tyme. But now take hede*. [hyde, γ.] of my counsaille, and*. [and] om. Cx.] remeve*. [remeove, β.] þy tente out of þis place,*. [þat plas, γ.] þat whanne he comeþ unwiseliche he*. [he] a, γ.] mowe faille of his purpose þat þou myȝte*. [may, Cx.] overcome hym wiþ grete sobernesse." Þis was i-doo, and Anlaf come hastiliche by nyȝte, and in þe wey he slouȝ a bisshop þat remevede*. [remeoved, β.] his tente and his meyne, and passed forþ and fil*. [vul, γ., bis.] on þe kynges tente, but þe kyng was awaked wiþ so grete noyse, and his swerd fil out of his sca|berge,*. [scabarge, γ., bis.; forth of his skaberd, Cx.] and he cride to God and seint Aldelyn.*. [Aldelm. β.] And at þe prayere of Odo þe archebisshop þat was þoo wiþ þe kyng, þe kyng fonde his swerd i-falle*. [fallen, β.; avalle, γ.] into his scaberge*. [scaberd, Cx.] aȝen; þat swerd is ȝit i-kept in the kynges tresorye, þat swerde is ȝit*. [ȝit] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] kervynge in þe oon side, and fongeþ*. [fangeþ, β.; vangeþ, γ.] in no place noþer gold ne silver. But*. [But] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] by þat ȝifte of God þe kyng was þo i-holpe,*. [was thenne holpen, Cx.] and chasede his enemyes al þat dawenynge*. [dawyng, β.] and al day amorwe:*. [dawynge and al day on the morow, Cx.] Þere kyng Constantyn was i-slawe, and fyve oþer smale kynges Page  441, vol.6 and twelve dukes, and wel nyȝ*. [neiȝ, β.] al þe gaderynge of straunge naciouns. Here after he chasede*. [chasted, β.; chastede, γ.] þe Norþ Britouns at Herford, so þat þey schulde paye hym every ȝere twenty pound of gold, and þre hondred pound of silver, and fyve and twenty hondred reþeren:*. [ruþeren, β.; roþern, γ.; heede of neetede, Cx.] þanne he took to his subieccioun Cornugallia, and amendede Excetre. In preysinge of hym oon made þis ditee: "Kynges blood brouȝte forþ a man*. [a man] om. Cx.] ful*. [fol, γ.] noble a knyȝt briȝt precious stone þo byschone*. [bischoon, β.] oure derke so briȝt*. [þo byschon ure derke so bryȝte, γ.] greet Ethelstanus hiȝte of lond paþ*. [paþ, from α. and Cx.; paþe, β.; path, γ.; pray, MS.] to þe ryȝt noble worþynesse þe soþe forsake ne myȝte." After Leo þe þridde Martyn was pope þre ȝere and sixe monþes; also þat ȝere Ethelstan deide at Gloucestre, and hadde no children,*. [chyldern, γ.; chylde, Cx.] and he was i-buried at Madulf.

Capitulum septimum.

WHANNE*. [Thanne, α., β., and γ.] Athelstan was dede*. [was dede] om. β. and γ.] his broþer Edmond bygan*. [Than Athelstan's brother Ed|mundus biganne, Cx.] to regne in his twentiþe ȝere of age, and regnede aboute Page  443, vol.6 an*. [an] om. Cx.] sevene ȝere; and gat on his queene Elgiva tweie sones, Edwyn and Edgar þe pesible.*. [pesybel, γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. In þis Edmond his tyme þe Norþhombres become*. [bicome, β.] rebel, and sent for Anlaf out of Irlond. But kyng Edmond overcome hym, and Reynold*. [Reynald, β.] Gormundus*. [Gurmundus, Cx.] his sone, and outlawed hem, and took Norþhomberlond to his owne worschippe,*. [lordschip, β.] and bet*. [beet, β.] doun Comberlond þat was rebel, and ȝaf it to Malcolyn*. [Malcolm, γ.] kyng of Scotlond, so þat he schulde helpe hym in everiche side*. [side] plas, γ.; place, β. and Cx.] where he were. It semeth þat in þis iorney kyng Edmond took wiþ hym þe bones of Colfridus þe abbot, and of Hilda þe abbas,*. [abbes, β.] and brouȝte hem to Glastenbury. Alfridus seiþ, and Marianus also, þat þis kyng in þe sevenþe ȝere of his kyngdom wolde delyvere his sewere out of his enemyes hondes, and was þo*. [þo] om. Cx.] i-slawe of hem riȝt þere at Pulkyrcherche;*. [Pulkirchirche, β., et infra; Pulkyrchirche, γ., et infra.] but Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o, seiþ þat þe kyng was at þe*. [α, α., β., and Cx.] feste at Pulkercherche in a seynt Austyns day, and he seigh on*. [oon, β.] Leof, a þeef*. [þef, γ., et infra.] þat he hadde exciled for his trespas, sitte þere at mete Page  445, vol.6 among oþer men; and þe kyng leep*. [lup, γ.; lepte, Cx.] over þe borde, and took þe þeof by þe heere,*. [here, γ.] and þrewe hym to grounde, and þe þeef glotoun*. [gloten, γ.; gloton, Cx.] wiþ his knyf rent out þe kynges bowels; þanne þe þeof, bytwene þe hondes of hem þat made noyse and cryde,*. [cry, α. and γ.; crye, β. and Cx.] woundede and slouȝ meny men, and was al to-hakked*. [hacked, β.] of knyȝtes and of oþere men. After Martyn þe secounde Aga|pitis was pope sexe ȝere. Þat ȝere Lowys kyng of Fraunce, þe sone of Charles, made slee gilefulliche*. [gylfollich, γ.; Cx. puts be slayn gylefully after Longa Spata.] William Longa Spata, þe secounde duke of Normandye, þe sone of Rollo; þerfore þe lordes of Normandye were wrooþ, and took*. [and took] bis in MS.] þe kyng, and hilde*. [heelde, β.; hulde, γ.; helde, Cx.] hym in Rothomage for to*. [for to] til, β.] þat he hadde byhote and i-swore þat he schulde ȝelde Normandye to Richard, duke William his sone, and þat ever after þat tyme, in everiche speche whan þe kyng and þe duke speke*. [spoke, α.; spake, β. spak, Cx.] to giders þe duke schulde be i-gerd*. [gurd, β. and γ.; gyrde, Cx.] wiþ a swerd, and þe kyng schulde noþer bere swerd ne knyf. After þis duke William his ȝonge sone Richard was a*. [α] om. α., β., and Cx.] duke. Page  447, vol.6 And ȝit while þis Richard was ȝong he was i-cleped Richard þe olde, and wiþ oute drede, for he dradde nevere; he was duke*. [duyk, γ.] of Normandye two and fifty ȝere, and come to his ducherie by hard travaille and greet;*. [greet and, α., β., and Cx.; grete and, γ.] on his wyf Gunora, a Dane, [he gat]*. [From α. and γ,; he gate, β.; he bygate, Cx.] fyve*. [vyf, γ.] sones and tweie*. [twy, γ.] douȝtres; þe firste heet Emma, and was þe floure of Normandye; her fader maried hire to Etheldredus kyng of Englond. Þis duke Richard usede to bidde his bedes in everiche cherche þat he com nyh,*. [by, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and nameliche wiþoute ȝif*. [ef, γ.] he myȝte nouȝt com into þe chirche. In a nyȝt he come into þe*. [α, α., β., γ., and Cx.] chirche allone,*. [aloon, β.] and fonde*. [vond, γ.] a cors þere ligge*. [lye, β.; lye there, Cx.] in a bere, and no man þerwiþ. While he badde his bedes, he leyde his gloves on a desk, and forȝat*. [vorȝate, γ.] hem þere, and wente on*. [in, β.] his way. Þanne the dede man aroos wiþ a greet noyse, and spradde his armes in þe cherche dore aȝenst þe duke. Þe duke made þe signe of þe crosse in his forhede*. [vorhed, γ.] wiþ his þombe,*. [þome, γ.] and coniured þe dede man þat he schulde reste, bot al for nouȝt, for it wolde nouȝt bee. Þanne þe duke wiþ his swerd smote þe cors atweyne,*. [in twey, Cx.] and beþouȝte*. [by, β.] hym whan he was oute þat Page  449, vol.6 he hadde forȝete*. [vorȝete, γ.] his gloves, þanne he tornede aȝen and fette*. [vette, γ.] his gloves. Afterward he ordeyned in al his lond þat aboute a dede cors schulde be wacche*. [waych, γ.; a watche, Cx.] al þe nyȝt longe. Hit happede*. [It happeth, Cx.] þat a monke of Seint Audoenus of Rothomage wolde in a nyȝt goo to his lemman, and fil doun of a brigge*. [brugge, γ., et infra.] into a water, and was i-stufled;*. [y-stoffed, α., β., and γ.; drowned, Cx.] þanne for his soule was strif by|twene an aungel and a fende,*. [vend, γ.] and eiþer [of hem]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] putte*. [potte, γ.] the cause uppon duke William*. [Rychardes, Cx.] his*. [Richardes doom, β.] doome; and he ȝaf suche a dome, þat þe soule schulde be restored aȝen to þe body, and þe body schulde be [y]*. [From γ.]-sette on þe brygge of þe whiche he hadde i-falle. And ȝif he ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.; went, Cx.] þanne to doo þe synne he schulde be i-dampned, and elles he schulde be i-saved. Whanne þis was i-doo*. [doon, β.] þe monk fleigh*. [flyȝ, β. and γ.; fledde, Cx.] to chirche; þe duke wente amorwe*. [on the morowe, Cx.] erliche*. [erliche] om. Cx.] to þe same chirche, and fonde*. [vond, γ.] þe monkes cloþes ȝit al wete,*. [weet, β.] and tolde þe abbot of þe place þe dede þat was byfalle. Whanne þe duke and Gunnora hadde i-lyved Page  451, vol.6 longe in hordom*. [This word has been erased in β., and dishonest lif substituted; hourdom, γ.; dishonest lyf, Cx.] þe peple spak moche*. [myche, β.] þerof, and þe duke by counsaille of þe peple wedded hire at þe laste. Þanne the firste nyȝt after þe weddynge, whanne þey come to bedde, wheþer it were in game or in ernest, Gunnora tornede here bak and here buttokes*. [bottoks, γ.] toward þe duke, as sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] hadde nevere to forehonde i-doo;*. [before done, Cx.] me axede of hire why sche dede soo; "For now first," quoþ sche, "I may doo now what me likeþ."*. [likiþ, β.] Also þis duke werþe*. [waxe, Cx.] sike in a tyme, and made hym a greet cheste,*. [cheeste, β.; chyste, Cx.] and filled it ful*. [vullede hyt vol, γ.] of whete, and deled it to pore men every*. [evereche, β.] Friday*. [Vryday, γ.] to his lyves ende. Henricus. Edmond kyng of Engelond took and wan out of þe Dane hondes, þat were paynyms, fyve noble citees, Lyncolne, Snot|yngham, þat is*. [γ. inserts now.] Notingham, Derby, Stafford, and Lege|cestre. He bynam*. [toke to hem, Cx.] hem þese citees [in þat þat þey were pay|nyms, and he by schoon þese citees]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ lawhe*. [lyȝe, α. and β.; lyȝt, γ.] of riȝt byleve,*. [and caused these cytees to be of ryght byleve, Cx.] ffor he feng Anlaf of þe colde water. Anlaf was i-cristened*. [fulled, β.; yvolled, γ.] more by strengþe þan by prechynge of Goddes Page  453, vol.6 word. Also þis kyng*. [conseil, β.] ordeyned and made ordynaunces, and amended what schulde be amended by counsaile of Donstan, and made þe abbay of Glastenbury*. [Glastonburi, γ.] nobel in catel and in monkes. ℞. As it is i-seide to forehonde, at þe laste he deide at Pultercherche,*. [Pulcrecherche, α.; Pulkir|chirche, β.; Pulkerchirche, Cx.] and was i-buried at Glastingbury.

Capitulum octavum. Marianus, libro 2o.

ODREDUS*. [Edredus, β. and Cx.] was anoynt at Kyngestoun of Odo þe archebis|shop, and regned after his broþer Edmond ten ȝere. For Edmond his sones Edwyn and Edgar were ȝit*. [ȝet, α.] of ȝong age, and to ȝonge for to regne. Þis Edredus, in þe firste ȝere of his kyngdom, beet*. [bute, γ.] doun strongliche þe Norþhumbres þat were rebel.*. [rebelles, Cx.] Þerfore þe Scottes dredde*. [dradde, β.] hem,*. [dradde ham, γ.] and ȝelde hem to hym. After Agapitus þe twelfþe Iohn was pope [þe]*. [From α. (not Cx.)] eyȝte ȝere. His fader Albertus*. [Albericus, α., β., and γ.; Al|berycus, Cx.] was myȝti in þe citee of Rome, and made þe noble men of þe citee*. [to] add. Cx.] swere*. [swerye, γ.] þat þey schulde Page  455, vol.6 make his sone Octavianus*. [Octovianus, γ.] pope whanne Agapitus were deed; and so þey dede,*. [hy dude, γ.] and chaungede his name, and cleped*. [clepide, β.] hym Iohn. He was an hunter and a leccherous man, so þat he helde*. [heelde, β.] wommen wiþ hym opounliche.*. [openly, Cx.] Þerfore some of þe cardinales write*. [wrote, Cx.] to Otho emperour of Saxons, and prayed hym þat he wolde come to Rome and helpe [to]*. [From β. and Cx.] do awey þe sclaundre of holy cherche. Þe pope was war þerof, and made kutte*. [made kutte] kytt, Cx.; kitte, β.] of þe nose of þe conselour, and þe hond of the writer þat wroot þat lettre. Þanne he*. [he] a, γ., quater.] was ofte i-warned by þe emperour and by þe clergie þat he schulde amende hym self; and for he wolde nouȝt he was i-sette doun,*. [deposed, Cx.] and Leo was i-made pope in his stede. But whan þe emperour was agoo, Benet was i-putte in þe poperiche;*. [Benett was made pope, Cx.] þerfore þe emperour come aȝen, and byseged*. [bisegide, β.] Rome, for to*. [for to] til, β.] þey ȝelde*. [til they yelde, Cx.] Benet to hym, and restored Leo aȝen. Lowys þe kyng of West Fraunce is dede, þe sone of Charles þe symple; after hym his sone Lotharius was kyng sevene and þritty ȝere, and deide with oute Page  457, vol.6 children;*. [chyldern, γ.] he pursewede*. [pursued, β., bis.] Richard duke of Normandye, as his fader hadde i-pursewed*. [pursued, β., bis.] Richard*. [William, Cx.] his fader. Marcianus. Bote at þe laste, [Edredus]*. [From β.] for þe untrowþe*. [untruþe, β.; untrewþe, γ.; Edredus for the untruth, Cx.] of [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Norþ|hombres, he destroyed here lond, and sette þe abbay of Ripoun a fire.*. [Rypon afuyre, β.; Rypon a vure, γ.; and brent thabbay of Rypon with fyre, Cx.] Whanne þe kyng wente þennes homward*. [hamward, β.] an oost brak outward*. [out, α., β., γ., and Cx.] of ȝork, and dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ., et infra.] greet harme on þe laste partye of þe kynges oost; þerfore þe kyng was wrooþ, and þouȝte to destroye*. [destruye, γ.] al Northumberlond; but þe Norþhombres dede awey Hircus, þat þey hadde i-made here kyng, and plesede*. [pleside, β.] kyng Edredus wiþ ȝiftes. Kyng Edredus werþ*. [worþ, γ.] sore seek,*. [bygan to be soore seke, Cx.] and sente to*. [for, α., β., and Cx.; vor, γ.] his schriftfader*. [schrefvader, γ.; goostly fader, Cx.] Donstan, and he com wiþ grete spede;*. [spyde, γ.] and as he cam in þey*. [þey] þe, β., γ., and Cx.] weye a voys cam and*. [cam and] om. β. and Cx.] spak to hym clerliche and seide: "Now resteþ kyng Edredus in pees." At þat voys þe hors þat Donstan sat uppon fil*. [vul, γ.] doun and deide, wiþoute hurtynge of hym þat satte above. Donstan buried*. [byryed, Cx.] þe kyng at Wynchestre in þe olde Page  459, vol.6 abbay. After þis kyng, þat diede wiþ oute children,*. [yssue, Cx.] Edwynus was kyng, Edmund his eldeste sone, and was anoynt*. [anoynted, β.; enoynted, Cx.] kyng of Engelond in þe real*. [rial, β.; royal, Cx.] toun Kyngestoun besides Londoun, of Odo þe archebisshop. Þe firste day of his sacrynge he fil into an unlawful leccherie, þerfore Dunstan wiþ*. [wiþ] mis-, Cx.] [seide hym, and undertook*. [and undertook] om. Cx.; hym, add. β.] and blamed hym þerfore. And þerfore he ex|ciled Donston],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and meny monkes, and bynam*. [toke fro hem, Cx.] hem what hey hadde; he put out þe monkes of Malmesbury, and ȝaf the abbay to his clerkes. At þe last þe Merces and þe Northumbres put þis Edwyn out of his kyngdom for his evel lyvynge, and made his broþer Edgar kyng whan he was sixtene ȝere olde. In Edgar his bygynnynge seynt Donston herde*. [hurde, γ.] aungels synge in þis manere: "Pees be to þe lond of Englisshe men in þe childes tyme þat now is i-bore, and in Donston his tyme." And so it was þoo i-made þat þe ryver of Tempse*. [Temse, β.] to dele*. [to delede, α. and γ.; to deled, β.; departed, Cx.] þe tweie kyngene londes, and Edwyn regnede an*. [an] om. Cx.] foure ȝere, and deide at þe laste, and was i-beried at Wynchestre. But his soule was delyvered out of helle by þe prayere of seynt Don|ston, Page  461, vol.6 and translated to þe lot of*. [lot of] om. Cx.] soules þat doþ penaunce*. [penauns, γ.] in þe wey of savacioun. Trevisa. Here take hede, Cristene men, of þe menynge,*. [understandyng, Cx., et infra.] for þe wordes beeþ perilousliche i-sette; þerfore haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] mynde now of tweie manere helles; in þe*. [þe] þat, β.] oon was Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, and oþere holy forfadres*. [vorvaders, γ.] þat deide tofore Crist. Into þat helle Crist aliȝte*. [descended, β. and Cx.] after his passioun, and brouȝte wiþ hym þens þe*. [þe] om. β.] holy fadres þat þere were. Þe oþer helle is a place*. [plas, γ.] for hem þat beeþ and schal be i-dampned for everemore; who þat comeþ in þat helle schal nevere after be [saved]*. [From β.; ysaved, γ. MS. has i-dampned for evere.] noþer come*. [savid ne come, Cx.] out of peyne. But as me seiþ in comyn speche þat a þeef*. [þef, γ.] is delyvered from*. [vram, γ.] hongynge and from þe galowes*. [galwes, β.; galues, γ., bis.] [þeyȝ he come not þere,*. [þare, β.] ȝif he is delyvered out of here power þat wolde lede hym to þe galewes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and honge hym þeruppon,*. [þaroppon, γ.] so in som manere menynge he þat is delyvered out of þe fendes*. [vend hys, γ.] power þat wolde brynge hym in*. [in] to, Cx.] helle, is delivered out of helle, þeyȝ*. [þouȝ, β.] he come nouȝt þere. So meneþ þe prophete in þe sawter, and seiþ: "Þou hast delyvered my soule out of þe lowere helle." Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. And as þe same lond bereþ evel herbes and good, as*. [and, α., γ., and Cx.] þe netle*. [netel, β. and γ.; netylle, Cx.] groweþ somtyme next þe rose, so of þe same mylde Edmond com Edwyn þe worste and Edgar þe beste.

Page  463, vol.6

Capitulum novum. Edgarus.

EDGAR ȝong*. [ȝung, γ.] of sixtene ȝere olde was i-made kyng, and regnede after his broþer aboute an sixtene [yere].*. [From Cx.; ȝere, β., ȝer, γ.] In þe twelþe ȝere of hym*. [ham, β. and γ.] in Athamannus*. [Athamannes, β.] his citee,*. [Athamannes cyte, Cx.] þat is Baþe, þe fifteþe*. [fiftenþe, β.; vyfteþe, γ.] day of May, in a Witsonday, he was anoynt*. [anoynted, β.; enoynted, Cx.] kyng of þe holy bisshops Donston and Oswold; anon he reconsilede Donston, and made hym of þe abbot of Gastyngbury*. [Glastonbury, γ., et infra.] bisshop of Wircestre;*. [Wircetre, β.; Wyrcetre, Cx.] he onede*. [oned, β.; connexyd, Cx.] þe kyngdoms þat were to deled,*. [to deled] divided, β.; devyded, Cx.] and made þerof*. [but, add. Cx.] oon kyngdom. He bare doun wickded*. [wicked, β.; wykked, Cx.] men, and chastede hem þat were rebel; he loved wel good men and sobre;*. [sober, γ.] he rapayralde*. [reparailed, β.] and amendes*. [amended, β.; amendede, γ.] chirches. In meny places he dede*. [plas he dude, γ.] awey clerkes þat lyvede in outrage, and dede þere oþer*. [oþer] om. α., β., and Cx.] monkes. Trevisa. In þat, save reverens*. [reverence, β. and Cx.; reve|rauns, γ.] of Edgar, he was lewedlich i-meoved, while þere were oþer clerkes þat lyvede wel i-now.*. [ynowȝ, β.] Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie: he bulde moo þan fourty abbayes, amonge þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he made Page  465, vol.6 riche Glastyngbury,*. [Glastenbury, β. and Cx.] Abyngdoun, Burgh, Thorney, Ramsey, Wiltoun, and Wynchestre; but at Wynchestre, in þe newe abbay þat now hatte Hida*. [Hyda, β. and γ.] for an happe þat þere byfel,*. [bifil, β.; byvul, γ.] he was þe firste þat dued*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] monkes in stede*. [put in monkes instede, Cx.] of clerkes,*. [monkes, α.] for clerkes fliȝ þe travayle of þe queere,*. [kere, γ.] and spended*. [spende, γ.] þe catel of holy cherche in oþer places*. [plas, γ.] at here owne wille, and dede*. [dede] om. β. and Cx.] vikers*. [dude vykers, γ.] in here stede þat hadde ful*. [fol, γ.] litel for to lyve by; and whanne þey wolde nouȝt be amended by warnynge of*. [warnynge of] om. Cx.] kyng Edgar, noþer of bisshop Ethelwolde, noþer of þe arche|bisshop Donston, þe kyng ȝaf þe provendres*. [provendes, Cx.] of þese*. [þues, γ.] chirches*. [clerkes, β. and Cx.] to þe forseide*. [vorseyd, γ.] vikers. But þe*. [þese, β.] vikers were worse þanne þe raþere whan þey were i-made persouns, and lyvede in more out|rage þan þe raþer dede; and*. [and now . . . hem nedede (page 467)] om. β., γ., and Cx.] now for þe moste partie monkes beeþ worste of alle, for þey beþ to riche, and þat makeþ hem to take more hede aboute seculer besynesse þan gostely devo|cioun; þerfore, as it is i-seide bifore in 4o. libro in þe 26 capitulo, by Ierom, seþþe holy cherche encresede in possessiouns hit haþ decresed in vertues. Þerfore seculer lordes schulde take awey the superfluyte of here possessiouns, and ȝeve it to hem þat nedeþ, or elles whan þey knowen þat, þey beeþ cause and mayn|tenours of here evel dedes, seþþe þey helpeþ nouȝt to amende hit while it is in hir power, what evere covetous preostes seyn. Page  467, vol.6 For it were almesse to take awey þe superfluite of here pos|sessiouns now, þan it was at þe firste fundacioun to ȝeve hem what hem nedede.*. [See note 19, page 465.] Þanne þe kyng was agreved, and by assent of þe þrittenteþe*. [þritteþe, α.; xiii., Cx.] pope Iohn he put*. [pot, γ.] awey*. [awey] out, Cx.] þe clerkes and brouȝt*. [brouȝt] put, Cx.] þere*. [þare, γ.] monkes. Willelmus ubi supra. In his tyme was noon þeof i-take,*. [þef ytake, γ.] open ne prive, þat he ne hadde his peyne. Also þis kyng caste to destroye*. [distruye, β.; destruye, γ.] þe wilde bestes*. [beestis, β.] þat desireþ blood, þerfore he made Ludwallus kyng of Wales bere*. [to bere, β.] hym certeyne ȝeres a tribute of þre hondred wolfes, and whanne he hadde payed þus*. [þese, α.; þys, γ.; this, Cx.] þre ȝere to giders, in þe fourþe ȝere myȝte nevere a wolf be founde.*. [founden, β. and Cx.; yvound, γ.]Item Willelmus. Þeigh*. [Þouȝ, β.] þis Edgar were smal and litel of stature he wolde overcome everich man, were he evere so strong, þat wolde wiþ hym fiȝte.*. [vyȝte, γ.] In a tyme at a feste þere*. [þere] from β.; where, Cx.; þre, MS.] iangelers*. [þare jangulers, γ.] scheweþ hem self most, me seiþ þat Kynadius,*. [Kynadus, Cx., et infra.] kyng of Scottes, seide in his game þat it semede wonder þat so meny provinces and londes were suget to so litel a man as Edgar was. A mynstral herde*. [mynystral hurde, γ.] þat worde and tolde Page  469, vol.6 þe kyng fore,*. [fore] om. Cx.; vore, γ.] and he tolde nouȝt his men [fore],*. [From α. (not β. and Cx.); vore, γ.] but aroos*. [he aros, β.] up from*. [bote aros vram, γ.] þe feste þere Kynadius was, and hadde Kynadius to hym as it were for a greet counsaile, and ladde hym fer*. [ver, γ.] into a wode, and took hym oon of tweie swerdes þat he hadde brouȝt wiþ hym, and spak to Kynadius, and seide: "Now þou hast leve to kyþe*. [kiþe, β.; kuþe, γ.] þy strengeþe, and assaye*. [assaye] from β.; stryngþe and assaye, γ.; essay, Cx.; assaile, MS.] wheþer of us tweyne schal be suget to oþer, for now we beeþ here al*. [al] om. γ. and Cx.] alone:*. [here aloon, β.] hit is a foule*. [voul, γ.] þing for a kyng to iangle moche*. [myche, β.] at þe feste and nouȝt fiȝte*. [vyȝte, γ.] in batayle." Kynadius was aschamed,*. [abasshyd, Cx.] and fil doun to Edgar his feet, and prayed hym for|ȝifnesse of þat symple word þat he hadde i-seide in his game. Everich somer after he wolde gadre*. [gaddre, γ.] schippes to gidres, and departe hem afoure, and sette hem in þe foure parties of Enge|lond. Þanne wiþ þe weste navey he wolde seile*. [seyle, β.] into þe norþ contrey,*. [cuntray (quater), β.] wiþ þe norþ navey he wolde seyle into þe est*. [est] from α., β., γ., and Cx.; west, MS.] contray, wiþ þe est navey he wolde seille into þe souþ contray, and wiþ þe souþ navey into þe west*. [west] from α., β., γ., and Cx.; est, MS.] contray. In þat doynge Page  471, vol.6 he was a mylde aspie for see*. [see] þe, β.; se, γ.] þeves*. [espye for the theves, Cx.] schulde nouȝt greve in water noþer in londe. In þe wynter tyme he wolde ryde aboute in þe lond, and enquere and aspye for see þeeves and*. [for . . . and] om. α. and β.] þe domes and dedes of his ministres. He wolde take cruel*. [cruwel, β. and γ.] wreche of hem þat trespased aȝenst*. [trespaside aȝenus, β.] þe law. At al tyme he was a profitable*. [profithabel, γ.] counsaillour for þe comynte; but he favored þe Danes unwisely in hire axynge, ffor unneþe was þere oon street in Engelonde but Danes woned þerynne with Englische men. Þat was i-suffred wiþ a good herte, but þerof com a wel*. [wel] ryght, Cx.] grevous ende, for þe Danes were grete drynkers by kynde,*. [kunde, γ.] and lefte wiþ Englisshe men þat oon doynge þat is i-knowe*. [knowen, β.] and dureþ alwey, so þat now þe doynge of Englisshe men doþ preiudice*. [pryjudice, Cx.] to al þe world in emptynge*. [amtyng, β.] of cuppes.*. [worl in amtynge of coppes, γ.] Þerfore kyng Edgar made stike nayles in þe cuppes,*. [coppes, γ., bis.] and marked*. [merked, β.] so þe cuppes, for þey schulde drynke by mesure anon to þe nayles. Willelmus de Regibus et Pontificibus, libro 2o. Þan þis Edgar on his wif Egelfleda, þe white by hir surname,*. [surname] om. Cx.] he ghat*. [gate, β.; bygate, Cx.] his eldest sone Edward, þat was aftirward*. [Edward, add. Cx.] kyng and martir. Þan oon Alfritha, þe duke his douȝter of Page  473, vol.6 Devenschire, he gat Edmond þat deide tofore his fader, and Egelredus þat regnede after seint Edward. At þe laste*. [laste] om. β.] on seint Wilfritha he gat seint Edithe þe mayde. Þis Wilfritha was nouȝt verrayliche*. [verreylyche, γ.; verely, Cx.] a mynchoun,*. [monchon, β., et infra; meyn|chyn, γ.; menchon, Cx.] as þe comoun*. [comyn, β. and γ.] sawe madliche meneþ, but for drede*. [deede, Cx.] of kyng Edgar, þat desirede here unlawfulliche,*. [unlawefollych, γ.] sche took*. [heo toke, β.] mynchene*. [monchon, β.; nonnes, Cx.; he touk meynchene, γ.] cloþynge, but so sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] was i-brouȝt to þe kynges bed: and for þe kyng lay by þat womman þat was i-hold and semede a mynchoun,*. [meynchen, γ.; nonne, Cx.] he was i-blamed of seynt Donston, and dede penaunce sevene ȝere. Also whan sche*. [heo, β., bis, et infra; hue, γ., bis.] hadde childe sche*. [heo, β., bis, et infra; hue, γ., bis.] forsook flescheliche*. [vleyshliche, γ.] likinge and manis companye, and lyvede religiousliche,*. [relygyously, Cx.] and is i-holde a seynt in þe abbay of Wiltoun, so it is i-seide. Also of here douȝter Edithe it is i-seide þat while sche was a myn|choun*. [menchon, Cx.; hue was meyn|chen, γ.] at Wiltoun sche*. [hue, γ., quater.] used ofter*. [ofte, Cx.] gayer cloþes þan here professioun axede,*. [axide, β.] and sche*. [hue, γ., quater.] was þerfore i-blamed of seint Ethelwold,*. [Ethelword, α.] and sche*. [hue, γ., quater.] answerde noþer unkovenabeliche*. [uncovenablich, β.; unkuvena|beliche, γ.; uncovenably, Cx.] noþer ful curteisliche:*. [curtously, Cx.; fol corteys|lyche, γ.] "Goddes dome," quod sche,*. [hue, γ., quater.] "[þat]*. [From α. and Cx.] may Page  475, vol.6 nouȝt faille, he*. [he] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] is i-plesed onliche wiþ conscience; þerfore I trowe þat as clene a soule may be under þis*. [þues, γ.; these, Cx.] cloþes þat beeþ arayed wiþ golde, as under þyn slit furrour*. [slyt forour, β., γ., and Cx.] skynnes." In a tyme while Donston halowed*. [halewide, β.] a chirche, he sigh*. [syȝ, β.] þis*. [þues, γ.] mayde croyse ofte here owne forhede wiþ here riȝt þombe. Donston was glad þerof, and seide: "I praye God þat þat þombe mote nevere roote."*. [rotye, α., β., and γ.; rotte, Cx.] And anon at þe masse Donston gan to wepe,*. [weope, β.] and seide, "Anon after sexe wokes þis faire*. [þues veyre, γ.] rose schal folwe:"*. [welwye, β.; wolwe, γ.; wel wydre, Cx.] and so it byfel.*. [hit bifil, β.] For afterward whan here body was i-take up of þe erþe it was i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] al i-roted*. [founden al rooted, β.] and*. [i-roted and] om. γ.] i-torned into powder,*. [to pouþere, α.] out take þe*. [þat, α.] thombe and here wombe wiþ þe prive chose byneþe. Donston hadde þerof greet won|der, and þouȝte moche þerynne, and why it myȝte be. Þanne sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ., and to the end of the chapter.] appered to hym, and tolde hym þe cause, and seide: "Wonder þow riȝt nowt þey I*. [þouȝ ich, β.; þeyȝ ich, γ.] be hole*. [hool, β.; hol, γ.] and sownde in þe neþer partie*. [partyes, α. and γ.; parties, β.; partes, Cx.] of my body, for I*. [ich, γ.] was nevere gilty*. [gulty, γ.] of out|rage Page  477, vol.6 of mete and drynke, noþer of flescheliche likynge." Also of þis holy mayde it is i-rad þat while*. [wile, β.] kyng Canutus lyvede litel*. [lovede lyte, α. and γ.; loved litel, β.; loved lytel sayntes, Cx.] on*. [on] om. α., β., and γ.] seyntes of Engelond, ones in a Witsontyde at Wiltoun at a feste he made open*. [oppen, γ.] mowes, and scornede seint Edithe, and seide þat he wolde nevere trowe þat of Edgar his children,*. [chyldern, γ.] þat was leccherous and a greet tyraunt, schulde be a seynt. Ednotus þe archebisshop wiþseide, þat þo was present þere,*. [þere present, α. and β.] and opened anon þe grave of þe mayde. Þanne sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] arered here self up [to]*. [From β. and γ.] þe girdel stede, so þat it semede as þeyȝ sche schulde*. [schulde] wolde, β.; wold, Cx.] have i-resed on þe rebel kyng. For*. [vor, γ.] þat drede*. [dede, Cx.] þe kyng was astonyed,*. [astoneyed, γ.] and fil*. [vul, γ.] doun to þe grounde as þeyȝ he were i-sowe,*. [a swowe, β.; y-swowe, γ.; in a swoun, Cx.] and drowȝ breth at þe laste, and was aschamed, and glad þat he was i-saved and i-kept*. [entended, Cx.] to do worþy penaunce.*. [penauns, γ.]

Page  [3], vol.7

Capitulum decimum.

ABOUTE þat tyme deide Odo, archebisshop of Caunterbury; þis was of þe nacioun of Danes, but he dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] awey his wylde|nesse at þe laste, and servede kyng Edward at þe laste*. [at þe laste] þe elþere, α.; þe elder, γ.] in chivalrie; and nouȝt long þerafter he took þe tonsure of clerk, and was i-made bisshop of Wynchestre. He hadde i-made*. [kyng, add. β.] Athelston*. [Adelston, γ] his frend by þe comynge of þe swerd þat was i-lost into þe scaberge*. [scabarge, β. and γ.] aȝen; so þat he was i-made archebisshop of Caunterbury; and for he wolde take þat dignytee þe more holy|liche, for al his predecessoures [hadde y-be monkes, he passed Page  5, vol.7 þe see, and took*. [touk, γ.] monk his wede at Floriacensis]*. [From α., β., and γ.] besides Aure|lian. Trevisa. Odo was lewedliche*. [lewidlich, β.] i-meoved þerfore to make hym a monk, ffor Crist, ne non of alle his postles, was nevere monk nor*. [ne, β.] frere. Þan it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie: Odo com aȝen, and was nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] þe kyng, and wente at þe laste wiþ kyng Edredus into Norþhomberlond, and brouȝte wiþ hym to Cauntur|bury þe holy axes of seint Wilfrede*. [Wilfride, β.] þe bisshop: þerof is ȝit contynual strif bytwene hem of ȝork and of Caunturbury, wheþer þe more Wilfridus bones, þat was i-buried in þe chirche of Rypoun, beeþ þese forseide*. [þues vorsede, γ.] bones, oþer þe bones of þe lasse Wilfrede, þat was seint Iohn his*. [Joones, β.] preost, and his successour in þe see of ȝork. Also þis Odo suspendede*. [suspendide, β.; suspendedd, γ.] kyng Edwynus of Cristendom, for he was to fervent in leccherie, and out of a good fame. Þerfore Edwynus took wreche of alle þe monkes of Engelond, [for in al Englond]*. [From α., β., and γ.] was no man þat hym dorste*. [þurste, γ.] wiþstonde*. [wistonde, β. and γ.] outtake Odo and Donston. For, as Seneca seiþ, a cok*. [kok, β. and γ.] is most myȝty on his dongehille.*. [donghulle, γ.] Also in a tyme Odo his temple was unheled, and al þe tyme þat þe helynge was in makynge*. [was a makyng, β.] of þe temple*. [of þe temple] and þe temple an helynge, α.; in heliyng, β.] he heled it so wiþ his bedes þat þere Page  7, vol.7 fil nouȝt oon drope of reyn in al þe place*. [plas, γ.] aboute, and ȝit þat tyme was so greet tempest*. [tempast, γ.] and reyn of weder þat it semede þat al þe worlde*. [worl, γ.] schulde goo to giders.*. [togidres, β.] Also in anoþer tyme, whanne he*. [þe, β. and γ.] sacrede seint Donston bisshop of Worcestre,*. [Wircetre, β.] he dede so þe ordre of þe service as þey he*. [α, γ.] hadde i-sacred þe arche|bisshop of Canturbury; and whanne his clerkes blamede hym þerfore "I wote, sones," quod Donston, "what þe Holy Gost worcheþ on me." And into*. [in, α. and β.] þe trewe forbedynge lakkede no sobre fey, þeigh Elsynus bisshop of Wynchestre evere among fondede to have þe*. [þat, α. and β.] see.*. [vondede to habbe þat se, γ.] For whanne Odo was dede þis Elsinus ordeyned hym advoketes,*. [avokatis, β.; avoketes, γ.] and groped here hondes, and gat slyliche a maundmente of þe kyng, and was i-put*. [y-pot, γ.] in at Caunterbury. In þe firste day þat he was in þere he sparede nouȝt, but he caste out of his woodnesse þat he hadde longe i-kept in his herte, and putte wiþ his feet*. [veet, γ.] on sent Odo his tombe, and despisede*. [dispised, β.] his soule, and spak to hym in þis manere: "Þou worste olde man, thy soule is a goo late inow; þou hast i-made a place to a betre þan þou were. What I*. [ych, γ.] have longe desired now I have it maugre þyn teeth.*. [maugreþ þi teeþ, β.; magre þyn teþ, γ.] Þerfore I kan þe Page  9, vol.7 ful evel þonk at þis tyme." Bote whan þat day was a goo and þis blowere of woodnesse i-brouȝt on his bedde, he sigh þe schap of seynt Odo, and blamed*. [blame, α., β., and γ.] hym and despised*. [despise, α.; dispise, β.; des|pyse, γ.] hym, and manassed*. [manace, α. and β.; manase, γ.] þat he schulde deie. But he wende þat he*. [þey, α.; he, β.] were i-scorned of a fleynge*. [vleyng, γ.] fantasye, and spared nouȝt þer|fore but he wente toward Rome to fonge þe palle*. [fang þe pal, β.] of þe pope, and passede by þe hilles Alpes, and was i-frore*. [y-vrore, γ.] in a colde snowe; and in hors bowels, þat were i-oponed for to have som hete, he wrapped his feet*. [veet, γ.] þat he hadde with i-putte*. [y-put, β.] seint Odo his tombe, and deide so þere. After hym Brythelynus,*. [Brihtelinus, β.] bisshop of Wynchestre, was archebisshop of Caunterbury; and [for]*. [From α., β., and γ.] he was nouȝt suffisaunt to so grete a charge,*. [charche, γ.] he went aȝen to Wynchestre by heste of þe kyng, and Donston, bisshop of London and of Wircestre, was i-made archebisshop of Caunter|bury, and wente to Rome, and fenge*. [vyng, γ.] the pal of pope Iohn. He com aȝen, and gat of þe kyng þat Oswold, þat was Odo his broþer sone, schulde be bisshop of Wircetre. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Donston was first abbot of Page  11, vol.7 Glastyngbury,*. [Glastenbury, β.] and was alwey ful*. [vol, γ.] of vertues, and made hym besy*. [busy, β.] to torne kyng Edgar his herte to dedes of savacioun, and to make þe kynges levynge to be a myrrour*. [merour, γ.] and ensample to alle his sugettes;*. [sugettis, β.] and ȝif þe kyng trespased he studied fast*. [vast, γ.] hym to amende, and so he made hym do penaunce seven*. [seve, γ.] ȝere for unlaweful liggynge by a mynchoun.*. [monchon, β.; meynchen, γ.] By þat ensample he chastede*. [chastide, β.] þe comynte, and mades knyȝtes doo as þey schulde, and ferede þeves and refraynede [hem].*. [From β.; ham, γ.] Þe ordre of monkes was þrifty þat tyme, for it hadde religious rulers,*. [reulers, γ.] cleer of sciens and of clergy; and so bytwene þe accord of þe good lyvynge of þe kyng and of þe archebisshop, clerkes hadden choys wheþer þey wolde amende here lyf oþer bydde*. [bid, β.] here benefice farewel,*. [varwel, γ.] and leve wonynge places to bettre þan þey were. For so schulde be no discord bytwene þe fairenesse*. [feirnesse, β.; veyrnes, γ.] of hous and þe levynge of hem þat woned þerynne. Þoo þe feeldes*. [veldes, γ.] answerde þe tiliers of plente of corn and of fruyt; everiche grove schoon*. [schone, γ.] wiþ horten*. [hurten, β.] treen [and oþer tren]*. [From β.; tren and oþer tren, γ.] ful of fruyt. Þe elementes were cleer and likynge; unneþe þo was eny distemperynge of Page  13, vol.7 weder; pestilence and enemyes boþe were fer*. [þere, MS.; ver, γ.] þat tyme. Aute þat tyme in Gascoyne*. [Gaskoyne, α.; Gasquen, γ.] was a womman departed and to deled*. [dyvyded, β.] from þe navel upward,*. [opward, γ.] and hadde tweye hedes and tweie brestes,*. [brustes, γ.] so þat somtyme þe oon sleep*. [slup, γ.] oþer eet whanne þe oþer dede nevere noþer; and þey lyvede so to giders*. [and a lyvede so to gedders, γ.] boþe longe tyme, and deyde nouȝt boþe attones.*. [at oones, β.] After þe twelfþe Iohn þe fift Benet was pope þre monþes. Nichoforus, kyng of Grees, was an olde man, and dradde leste his owne sones wolde put*. [potte, γ.] hym out of his kyngdom, and demede þat his sones schulde be i-gilded;*. [gelded, β.] but þe queene counsaylede oon Iohn þat he schulde slee þe kyng and regne, and so it was i-doo. After Benet, þe eiȝteþe Leo was pope a ȝere and foure monþes; for þe malys of þe Romayns, þat made of hem self*. [silf, β.] unlaweful*. [unlawfulich, β.; unlawefol|lyche, γ.] popes, he ordeyned þat no pope schulde be i-made wiþoute assente of þe emperour. After hym þe þrittenþe Iohn was emperour,*. [Sic in MS.] as it were eiȝte ȝere. At þe laste he was i-take of þe prefecte of þe citee and excilede,*. [exiled, β.] but þe emperour re|stored Page  15, vol.7 hym aȝen, and slouȝ his enemyes. After Iohn, þe sixte Benet was pope on ȝere, and sixe monþes. After hym þe eyȝte*. [eyȝteþe, α.] Bonefas was pope þre ȝere; he myȝte nouȝt abyde at Rome, but he spoylede Seynt Petir his chirche, and wente to Constantynnoble, and com aȝen to Rome with grete pompe and boost; and whanne he myȝte nouȝt have his purpos he took þe cardinal Iohn and putte out boþe his eyȝen,*. [yene, γ.] and deide sone after. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Whanne Asketillus, archebisshop of ȝork, was dede, seynt Oswolde, bis|shop of Worcetre,*. [Wircetre, β., passim.] fenge*. [vyng, γ.] þe archebisshopriche, and governed boþe þat and þe bisshopriche of Worcestre. [Bysides þe cathe|dral cherche of Seynt Peter at Wircetre]*. [From α., β., and γ.] he bulde anoþer chirche of oure lady, þat he myȝte þere be þe more homeliche wiþ his monkes, and þerby he hadde greet love of þe peple.*. [pupel, γ.] Þe*. [þere, α.] clerkes of þe next cherche, whanne þey sigh þat, hadde levere be monkes þan be so despised and forsake.*. [vorsake, γ.] Whanne Oswald was i-stalled*. [y-staled, γ.] at ȝork he brouȝte lettred men into*. [Sic in MS.] contray, for þe contray schulde nouȝt be defrauded and be wiþ Page  17, vol.7 oute suche*. [soche, γ.] goodnesse, [wiþ out þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] goodnesse, oþer goodnesse]*. [From α., β., and γ.] semeþ me but a vanitee. Abbo, monk of Floriac, was oon of þilke lettred men: wiþ oute moche fruyt*. [frut, γ.] of clergie þat he brouȝte into Engelond, he descreved and wroot þe lyf of seynt Edmond, kyng and martir, at þe prayer of seynt Donston. Þis Abbo tornede hoome after, and was i-made abbot. Þanne in a tyme in a celle of Gascoyne*. [Gaskuyn, α., and so below; in Gaskoyne, β.; Gasquyn, γ.] þat hatte*. [þat hatte] om. γ.] Alkereul,*. [Alereul, α., β., and γ.] and longed to his abbay, he wolde have i-used þe strengþe of reli|gioun, but þe cruelte*. [cruwelte, β.] of Gascoyns wolde nouȝt suffre it, and kutte*. [kitte, β.] his þrote, and so he deyde: and Oswold lyvede fyve ȝere after, and knelede adoun in a tyme to wasche pore men feet,*. [pour men veet, γ.] and seide, "Gloria Patri," and deide riȝt so. Wil|lelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Kyng Edgar, in þe twelfþe ȝere of his kyngdom, was anoynt kyng and [y]*. [From α.]-sacred at Bathe, and seillede aboute Norþ Britayne, and com alonde at Legioun,*. [Legio, γ.] þat now hatte Chestre, eiȝte hondred*. [under, β. and γ. (correctly).] kynges com aȝenst hym; wiþ þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] kynges he wente into a boot in a day in þe ryver Dee, and took þe helme in his hond, and was steres|man,*. [stuerhysman, γ.] and þe oþere kynges were i-sette to rowe with oores; and so he com rowynge to Seint Iohn his chirche, and com rowynge wiþ a grete pompe and bost to his [owne]*. [From α., β., and γ.] paleys, Page  19, vol.7 and me seiþ þat he seide: þanne þat every*. [eny, α., β., and γ.] of his sucessours myȝte*. [be, add. α. β., and γ.] ioyeful*. [joyful, γ.] and glad be*. [be] om. α., β., and.] whanne he hadde so grete worschippe and pompe.*. [pompe and worschippe, α. and γ.; pomp and worschip, β.]

Capitulum undecimum.

EDGAR, emperour, flour and fairenesse*. [veyrnes, γ.] of Engelond, deyde þe fifteþe day of Iuyl,*. [Jul, γ.] þe ȝere of his lyf sevene and þritty, and of his kyngdom wiþ his broþer and*. [and] om. γ.] after oon and twenty, and was i-buried at Glastyngbury. He is no lasse worþy to be in mynde to Englisshe men þan Cirus to þe Pers,*. [Perses, β.] oþer Romulus to þe Romayns, oþer Alisaundre to þe Grees, oþer Charles to þe Frensche men. Willelmus ubi supra. At Glastyngbury, Page  21, vol.7 þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand and two and fifty, whan abbot*. [abboy, MS.] Ayleward hadde i-digged up*. [up] om. α. and β.] unworþiliche*. [unworschipliche, β.; unwor|schyplyche y-dyegged, γ.] Edgar his grave, þe body was i-founde*. [y-vounde, γ.] hool and sownde, and so ful of flesche þat it myȝte nouȝte entre*. [intre, γ.] into a newe cheste, also fresche*. [vreysch, γ.] blood was i-seie droppe*. [seen droppe, β.] out of the body. And so þat body was i-doo in a schryne þat he hadde i-ȝeve to þat chirche, and i-sette up*. [uppon þe, α. and β.] an auȝter*. [y-set oppon þe auter, γ.] with Apollinaris his heed, and oþer relikes of seynt Vincent, þat þe same kyng hadde i-brouȝt*. [y-bouȝt, α.; brouȝt, β.] for greet pris, and i-ȝeve to þat hous. But þat nyse abbot werþe wood, and wente out of cherche, and brak his nekke*. [neyke, γ.] and deide. ℞. Þe Britisshe book*. [story, β. and γ.] telleþ in seynt Eltutus his lyf, þat whanne kyng Edgar destroyed*. [destruyed, β.] þe contray of Glomorgan*. [Glonmorgan, β.] for þe rebelnesse of þe peple,*. [pupel, γ.] seynt Eltutus his belle was i-take awey, and i-honged Page  23, vol.7 aboute a horses nekke.*. [an hors nek, β.] Þerfore in an underentyde,*. [hondertyde, α.; undertyde, β. and γ.] while kyng Edgar lay on his bed to reste [hym],*. [From β.] on appered to hym and smot hym on þe breest wiþ a spere. Þanne whan þe kyng was i-waked, he het*. [a hyt, γ.] restore aȝen al þat was i-take, bote þe kyng deyde after nyne dayes. In preysynge of hym oon seide in þis manere. Henricus, libro 5o. Helper, punscher*. [punyscher, β.; Helpour, punser, γ.] of trespas, and ȝever of worschippe, kyng Edgar is a goo to þe kyng|dom of hevene. Þis oþer Salomon, Loweys*. [lawes, β. and γ.] fader, wey to þe pees,*. [pese, γ.] nobel in batails, þanne more nobel he was temples.*. [temples] om. α. and β.] Temples to good*. [gode, β.] monkes to the monk temples ȝaf he feeldes.*. [veldes, γ.] Al wrong þis putte awey so þis ȝaf place to [þe]*. [From α., β., and γ.] riȝt. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. But some men fondeþ*. [vondeþ, γ.] to putte venym to þe ioye and goodnesse of Edgar, and telleþ þat he was cruel*. [cruwel, β.] in his bygynnynge to citeseyns, and leccherous to maydens, as in þis manere: Oon Ethewold, an eorle, was prive wiþ hym; and in a tyme he charged*. [chargide, β.] þis eorle þat he schulde Page  25, vol.7 goo to Ethelfrith,*. [Elfrytha, α.; Elfritha, γ] Orgarus his douȝter, erle of Devenschire,*. [Deveschyre, γ.] þat was a wonder faire*. [veyr, γ.] mayde, and counsailled*. [counsayl, α.; counseyl, β.; con|sayle, γ.] here, and brouȝte*. [brynge, α., β.; bringe, γ.] here for to be i-wedded to þe kyng, ȝif*. [ef, γ.] it were so þat þe fairnesse*. [veyrnes, γ., et infra.] of here were accordynge to þe lose*. [loos, β.] and to the fame, and þe soþe accordynge to þe fame. Þe eorle went his wey, and took þe mayde to his owne store,*. [use, β. and γ.] and com aȝen to þe kyng and alleyede hym*. [alleyde for hym, β.; alleyde vor hym, γ.] and for his side, as he trowed*. [trowide, β.] wolde helpe hem,*. [hem] om. β.] and seide þat þat wenche*. [weynche, γ.] was but of comoun*. [comyn, β.] fairenesse and schap, suche as me seeþ al day, nouȝt covenable to be a kynges wyf: bote in a tyme tale-tellers warnede þe kyng how gilfulliche Ethelwolde hadde i-served hym. Þanne þe kyng drof out on*. [oon, β.; o, γ.] nayle wiþ anoþer, and took wreche of a gyle by a*. [α] om. γ.] gyle, and made good face to þe eorle and semblant, and sette hym a day as it were in his game whanne he wolde visite þat womman. For so dredful a game þe kyng*. [Sic in MS.] erle was al comfortlees, and nyh*. [neiȝ, β.] dede for fere, and ran home tofore, and prayed his wyf þat sche*. [heo, β., et infra.; hue, γ.] wolde helpe for to save hym, and that as moche as sche myȝht sche schulde make her selfe foule*. [voul, γ., et infra.] and unsemeliche in þe kynges siȝt wiþ cloþynge Page  27, vol.7 and foule aray, but what sche durste*. [hue þorste, γ.] nouȝt; but sche dede*. [a dude, γ.] the contrarye, and took a myrour, and kembed*. [kemede, β. and γ.] hire, and arrayed here body and heed as gay and as faire as he couþe,*. [veyr as couþe, γ.] and lefte no þing þat schulde make hir fayre and likynge to*. [α, add. β.] manis sight. Þanne whan þe kyng siȝ*. [seyȝ, β.] þe womman, he gan to brenne in here love, and made it as þey were nouȝt wrooþ, and hadde the eorle wiþ hym for to hunte in to þe wode of Werwelle, þat now hatte Horwode;*. [Hoorewode, β.] þere þe kyng smoot hym þorow*. [þurȝ, β.] wiþ a schafte.*. [scheft, γ.] Þere þe kyng axed*. [axide, β.] of þe erle his bast*. [baste, β.] sone how hym liked suche hontynge, and me seiþ þat he answerde and seide "Wel, lord kyng, what pleseþ þe schal nouȝt displese me." By þat word he meked*. [mykede, γ.] so þe kynges herte, þat was to swolle for wrethe, þat no þing was afterward levere*. [luver, γ.] to þe kyng þanne þe sone of þe erle þat was i-slawe.*. [slayn, β.] Afterward for clensynge of þis dede þis*. [þues, γ.] Elfritha bulde*. [bylde, β.] an abbay of mynchouns*. [monchons, β.; meynchens, γ.] at Werewell. ℞. Bote more verray|iche*. [verreilich, β.] for þe slauȝter*. [slauȝt, γ.] of here stepsone Edward, þat sche made i-slawe*. [heo made slayn, β.] for here owne sone Ethelredus*. [Egelredus, α., β., and γ.] schulde regne Page  29, vol.7Willelmus, ubi supra. To þe*. [þis, α.] ensample of cruelnesse*. [cruwelnesse, β.] þei telleþ anoþer of leccherie, and meneþ þat he took a mayde þat was i-sacred to God out of an abbay, and lay by here.*. [hir, β.] Also þat he was in a nyȝt*. [in a tyme by nyȝte, α. and β.] at Andovere,*. [Andever, β.] nouȝt fer*. [ver, γ.] from Wynchestre, and bad brynge to his bed a duke his douȝter, þat was a wel faire mayde; but þe moder of þat mayde vouched nouȝt sauf*. [saaf, β.; saf, γ.] þat here douȝter schulde so be*. [be so, α. and β.] defouled, and hadde a bonde*. [boonde, β.] servaunt þat was a mayde faire and*. [and] om. α. and β.] smoþe and likynge, and dede*. [dide, β.] here to þe kynges bed. Amorwe*. [Amorowe, β.] whan þe dawenynge gan*. [dawyng bigan, β.] to springe, þe womman fonded*. [vondede, γ.] for to arise; þanne me axed of here why sche hyȝed.*. [hue hyede, γ.] "For to doo my work," quoþ sche, "as I*. [ich, β.] am i-woned*. [ich am ywond, γ.] every day." Þanne for þat nyȝtes iornay*. [journey, γ.] sche axede fredom for here mede,*. [myde, γ.] ffor sche þat was assentynge to þe kynges likynge schulde no more be under þe hestes of cruel lordes. Anon þe kyng gan to lawhe,*. [lauȝe, β.] and made þat bonde*. [boond, β.] womman lady of lordes. Bote how*. [hou, γ.] it evere be of suche*. [siche, β., bis.; soche, γ.] dedes it is sooþ þat Page  31, vol.7 he clensed hym of suche*. [siche, β.; soche, γ.] dedes by verray and worþy penaunce. After Bonefas, þe sevenþe Benet was pope eiȝte ȝere and sixe monþes. Þe secounde Otho, þe sone of þe firste Otho, regnede after his fader among Duchesmen*. [Duchysch, β. and γ.] ten ȝere and sixe monþes. Þe sevenþe ȝere of his kyngdom he was i-crowned at Rome of pope Benet. Whanne þe Italies*. [Italyens, β.] breke þe pees, þis made a greet feste to þe lordes of Italy at þe grees of þe chirche at Rome; and while þey were at þe mete he made men of armes byclippe hem priveliche aboute, and mevede a pleynt at þe laste of brekynge of þe pees, and heet take hym þe names i-wrete of hem þat were*. [weren, β.] gilty,*. [gulty, γ.] and made hem byheeded*. [biheded, β.] riȝt þere everichone, and made þe oþere ete here mete in pees.

Capitulum duodecimum. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o.

ȝONG Edward, by help of Dunston and of oþere bisshoppes, was i-made kyng aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.] þe wille of som oþer lordes, and Page  33, vol.7 specialliche aȝenst þe will of his stepdame Elfrida,*. [Elfritha, β., et infra, and γ.] þat fondede to make here*. [hir, β.] owne sone Egelredus kyng, a childe of sevene ȝere olde, þat sche myȝte so regne under þe childes name. Þis*. [Þes, γ.] Edward regnede as it were foure ȝere; þerafter waned þe grace*. [grasce, γ.] of þe kyngdom, for in þe welcon*. [wolken, β. and γ.] was i-seie stella comata,*. [cometa, β. and γ.] þat is, a sterre wiþ a briȝt shynynge crest, þat bodeþ alwey pestilence in þe province oþer chaungynge of þe kyng|dom. And longe þerafter fil bareynes*. [bareynesse, β.; vul baraynes, γ.] of feeldes, honger of men, and deeþ of bestes; and Alferus, prince of Mercia, favored*. [favered, β.] Elfritha þe queene wiþ al þat he myȝte, and put out monkes þat Edgar hadde i-ordeyned, and brouȝt yn clerkes wiþ concu|bynes; bote Donston and þe eorle of Est Anglond wiþstood hem manlich. For þe clerkes þat were somtyme i-put out rerede stryf aȝen, and seide þat it were a wrecched schame*. [schame, from β.; wrecchesch schame, γ.; name, MS.] þat a newe comynge schulde putte olde londesmen out of here place,*. [plas, γ., et infra.] þat is nouȝt plesynge to God, þat graunted þe place to þe olde wonyer, noþer a good man aloweþ it nouȝt þat may drede þat me wolde doo to hemself as he seeþ*. [as a sueþ, γ.] þat me doþ to oþere. Here|fore*. [Herfore, β.] was a solempne counsaile i-made at Wynchestre; þere þe Page  35, vol.7 ymage of þe rode spak out of þe wal, and seide þat Donnston his wey was good and trewe. But ȝit cesed*. [ceeside, β.] nouȝt þe hertes*. [þe hertes, from α. and β.; þere er, MS.] of unskilful men, þerfore was i-made a counsaile at þe real*. [rial, β.] strete of Calne; þere þe kyng was absent, for he was ȝit of tendre age, and þere seten*. [seet, α.; sate, β.] in an hiȝe*. [heiȝ, β.] hous þe senatoures of Engelond; þere Dunston was strongliche despised and i-ched*. [y-chidde, β.; y-chyd, γ.]; þanne þe giestes*. [gystes, γ.] and þe bemes of þe soler al to fligh,*. [flyȝ, β.; vlyȝ, γ.] and þe soler fil doun; and som were dede, and some i-hurt and i-maymed for evere more. So al þat þere were, [were]*. [From β. and γ.] dede oþer i-hurt ful sore, outtake Dunston alone þat scapede graciousliche and wyseliche. Þat myracle*. [myrakel, γ.] brouȝte forþ scilence*. [silence, β.; sylens, γ.] to hem þat wolde afterward meyntene þat querel. Þe ȝonge Edward com from hontynge wery and afirst,*. [aþurst, β.; furst, γ.] and his stepdame ȝaf hym drynke, and þe mene tyme he was i-styked wiþ a swerd. Þanne he gan*. [bigan, β.] to pryke his hors wiþ al þat he myȝte, þennes for to flee; þanne his oon foot*. [o vot, γ.] slood*. [slode, β.; slod, γ.] out of þe styrop, and he was i-drawe*. [to-drawe, β.] by þe oþer foot*. [voot, γ.] al aboute þe feeldes and þwart*. [þwert, β.] over weies, and al forbled, and at Cornesgate*. [Cornysgate, β.] he ȝaf þe signes and tokenes of deth. Þanne he was i-buried unworþiliche þre Page  37, vol.7 ȝere at Warham; þere God for hym wrouȝte meny myracles and grete, for þere gret light com doun from hevene, and þe halt man feng*. [vyng, γ., et infra.] his goynge ariȝt, þe doumbe fenge his speche, þe deef his herynge, and þe blynde his sight; þere alle manere sike*. [seke, β.] men took þe state*. [staat, α] of helþe. By þat rumour sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] þat slouȝ hym was i-meoved, and cam ridynge on a beest þat myȝte nouȝt come nygh þe place for no betynge noþer for no*. [no] om. β.] cryenge; þe best*. [beest, β.] was ofte i-chaunged, but it was al for nouȝt. Þerfore what sche myȝte nouȝt doo in here owne persone*. [persoone, β.] sche dede by anoþer; for here mynister Elferus, þat hadde somtyme i-put out monkes in Mercia, and i-brouȝt clerkes in here stede, he took Edwardes body and buried it solempliche at Septoun, þat is Schaftesbury. ℞. In tyme afterward som of his body was translated to Leof Ma|naster,*. [Leofmonastre, β. and γ.] besides Herford, and som to Abyndoun. Þe place at Schaftesbury þere his longes ȝit quaveþ al fresche and sound hatte Edwardstowe. Willelmus ubi supra. For þis slauȝter Elfritha bulde tweie abbeyes of wommen,*. [wymmen, α.] nouȝt fer from Salisbury, oon hatte Ambresbury, and anoþer at Werewelle. Page  39, vol.7 Sche dede*. [dide, β., et infra.] awey þe pompe of þe worlde, and dede longe tyme harde penaunce at Werewell, and usede alwey þe heyre*. [heer, β.] and fastinge,*. [vastynge, γ.] and chastede here body, þat was ful faire som|tyme, and alwey as sche myȝte sche croysede here forhede and brest,*. [vorhed and brust, γ.] and lyeþ*. [lyþ, β.] i-buried þere. Bote þe forsaide Alferus*. [So in β. too.] scapede nouȝt al manere wreche, ffor he was i-ete al wiþ luys*. [lues, γ.] after oon ȝere after þe burienge of þe forsaide martir. Aboute þat tyme was Fulbertus in his floures, bisshop of Carnot, an excellent man in oure*. [ure, γ., et infra.] lady love. Amonge his oþere noble workes he made in preysinge of oure lady þe respondes "Stirps Iesse" and "Solem iusticie," and þis ympne, "Chorus, nove Ierusalem." In a tyme he was seke at þe ȝeate*. [ȝate, β.] of deth, and oure lady apperede to hym, and axede of hem wherof he dredde.*. [dradde, β.] "My lady," quoþ he, "I*. [Ich, β. and γ., et infra.] trust on þy mercy, but I drede ful sore þyn owne sones dome." "Drede þou not," quoþ sche; "and for to make þe þe more siker here after, I schal now make þe al hool;" and anon sche took here*. [hir, β.] brest out of here*. [hir, β.] bosom, and dropped on his face*. [fas, γ.] þre dropes of precious licour*. [likour, α.] of mylk, and wente Page  41, vol.7 forþ her way; he was hool anon, and dede þat swete licoure of hevene in a vessel of silver, and heet*. [hyte, γ.] keep it in mynde.

Capitulum decimum tertium.

EGELREDUS, Edgar his sone, i-gete on his secounde wif Elfritha, was i-made kyng after his secounde*. [elder, γ.] broþer Edward, at Kyngestoun. He was a faire*. [feir, β.] knyȝt and a loveliche; eiȝte and þritty ȝere he byseged*. [bisegide, β.] þe kyngdom more verrayliche*. [verreilich, β.; vereylich, γ.] þan rulede it*. [reulede hyt, γ.]; for þe cours of his lyf was cruel and ungracious in þe bygynnynge, wrecched in þe myddel, and foule*. [voul, γ.] in þe ende. For while seint Donston cristned*. [in, add. γ.] hym he defouled*. [folled, β.; vullede, γ.] þe font ston wiþ þe fruyt*. [frut, γ.] of his wombe; þerfore Donston seide, "By God and his moder þis schal be unkynde." And in þe day of his crownement he tolde þis prophecie: "For þou come to þe kyngdom by þe deth of þy broþer, in whos deth Englisshe men conspired wiþ þat wikked womman þy moder, Page  43, vol.7 þey schulleþ*. [hy scholleþ, γ.] nouȝt be wiþ oute blood and swerd, or*. [er, β.; ar, γ.] þere come a peple*. [pupel, γ.] of an unknowen tonge, and brynge hem into þe laste þraldom, þis trespas schal not be i-clensed wiþ oute longe vengeaunce."*. [veniaunce, β.; veyngeauns, γ.] Whan þis Egelredus was a child of ten ȝere olde, and herde*. [hurde, γ.] telle þat his broþer Edward was so i-slawe, he meved*. [meoved, β.] so his wode moder with wepinge and wiþ ȝellynge,*. [ȝollyng, γ.] þat sche beet*. [hue bute, γ.] hym almost to þe deth wiþ tapers, for sche hadde nouȝt elles in honde, þerfore he hated taperes*. [taperlyȝt, γ.] al his lyftyme. Also oon*. [on, β.] Ethelgiva, eorle Egbertus his douȝter, he gat Edmond Ireneside by his surname, and Edwyn and Ethelstan, and oon douȝter þat heet Edgiva. After|ward oon Emma of Normandie he gat Alfredus and Edward. Half a nyȝt a clowde was i-seie into al Engelond, now blody, now fuyry,*. [vury, γ.] þanne i-chaunged by dyvers coloures and bemes,*. [beemes, β.] and wente awey in þe dawenynge.*. [dawyng, β.] Þat ȝere Souþhamptoun, and the Ile of Thanet, besides Kent,*. [yl of Dent bysydes Kynt, γ.] and Seynt Petrok his abbay in Cornewayle, and þe province of Chestre, were de|stroyed by þe þeves of Danes. Þe citee of Londoun was Page  45, vol.7 i-brent wiþ fuyre*. [fier, β.; vur, γ.] of þe same citee.*. [So in β. also; cyte, γ.] Seynt Ethelwold, bis|shop of Wynchestre, is dede; he was i-bore at Wynchestre, and i-norsched*. [norischide, β.] up under Donston at Glastyngbury, and i-made monk. And he was i-made*. [maad, β.] abbot of Abyndoun in kyng Edredus his tyme, and he was i-made bisshop of Wynchestre in Edgar his tyme. Þere he made an abbay of mynchouns,*. [monchons, β.; meynchens, γ.] and translated seynt Swythyn his body out of þe eorþe. After hym seynt Alphegus,*. [Elphegus, β.] abbot of Bathe, and afterward arche|bisshop of Caunturbury, and was i-slawe of þe Danes. Of hym innere*. [ynner, β.; inner, γ.] more me schal speke. Þe þridde Otho, þe se|counde Otho his sone, regnede among Duchesmen*. [Duchesche men, α.; Duchys|men, β.; Duchysch, γ.] after his fader eyȝtene ȝere; þis hadde a wonder surname, and was i|cleped*. [y-clepet, γ.] Otho þe wondres of þe world,*. [worl, γ.] Mirabilia mundi, and he was i-crowned at Rome of þe fifte pope Gregorye; and þeigh þese thre Othones were emperours arewe as it were by kynde heritage, ȝit aftirward it was i-ordeyned þat the emperour Page  47, vol.7 schulde be i-chose by þe officers of þe empere; þese officers beeþ sevene, of hem is vers*. [beþ versus, β.] i-made:

"Maguntinensis, Treverensis, Coloniensis,
Quilibet imperii fit cancellarius horum,
Et Palatinus dapifer dux Porty*. [porti, α.] Torensis,*. [Portitor ensis, β. and γ.]
Marchio prepositus camere, pincerna Boemius:*. [Boemus, β. and γ.]
Hii statuunt dominum [cunctis]*. [From γ.] per secula summum."

[Þat is to menyng, "Bysshop Maguns,*. [Over Maguns is written Meinse in β.] Trever, and Colonna,*. [Colonia, β. and γ.] þees þre,]*. [From α., β., and γ.] everichone of þese*. [þues, γ., et infra.] is i-made riȝt chaunceller of þe empere; eorle Palatinus sewer, duke of Ostriche,*. [Oustryche, α. and γ,; Oust|riche, β.] bereþ þe swerd; Markis*. [Marchys, γ.] chamburleyn, Boteller*. [Botiler, β.; Botyller, γ.] kyng is of Beeme: þese*. [þues, γ., et infra.] cheseþ to men al þe lord hiȝest*. [heyȝeste, γ.] for evere." Þe þridde Otho hadde a wif þat wolde have i-hadde an hous|bonde man to ligge by here, but þe man wolde nouȝt assente to [the]*. [From α., β., and γ.] spousebreche;*. [spousbruche, γ.] þanne it was i-hote þat his hede schulde be i-smyte of wiþoute eny dome. But or*. [er, β.] he deide he*. [he] om. α.] heet*. [hoote, β.; a hyt, γ.] his wif þat sche schulde after his deth preve*. [preove, α.; pruve, γ.] hym gilteles by þe dome of fuyre*. [vure, γ.] brennynge iren. Þe day cam Page  49, vol.7 whanne þe emperour seide þat he wolde doo riȝt to faderles and moderles children and to wydewes*. [widues, β.]; þis wedewe cam and brouȝt wiþ here hir housbondes hede, and axede what deth he were worthy þat had i-slawe a man wrongfulliche. "He is worþy to lese*. [luse, γ.] his heed," quoþ þe emperour. "Þou art þat man," quoþ the widewe,*. [widue, β., et infra.] "and þat I schal preve anon by þe dome of fuyre*. [vure, γ.] brennynge iren." Whanne þe dome was fulfilled*. [folfelled, γ.] the emperour ȝaf hym self to þe womman for sche schulde punsche*. [punysche, β.; punse, γ.] hym as sche wolde; but at þe prayenge of bisshoppes first*. [furst, β.; vurst, γ., et infra.] of ten dayes were i-graunted, and þanne of [eyȝte, and þanne of]*. [From α. and β.] sevene, and at þe laste of sixe. In the whiche*. [whoche, γ.] dayes þe emperour examyned þe cause at þe fulle,*. [folle, γ.] and brende his owne wyf, and for suche*. [vor soche, γ.] a raunsoun he ȝaf the wedewe foure castel townes in þe bisshopriche of Bry|nensis, þat ȝit haveþ*. [ȝet habbeþ, γ.] the names and beeþ i-cleped by þe firste*. [furst, β.; vurst, γ., et infra.] dayes, Ten, Eyȝte, Sevene, and Sixe. Þe fourtenþe*. [fourteþe, α.] Iohn was pope eyȝte monþes. After hym þe fifteþe Iohn [foure Page  51, vol.7 monþes. After hym þe sixteþe Iohn]*. [From α. and β.] was pope ten ȝere. Willelmus ubi supra. Kyng Egelredus, for stryf þat was bytwene hym and the bisshop of Rouchestre, bysegede þe bisshop of Rochestre. Donston sendeþ to hym þat he schulde leve his woodnesse,*. [wodnes, γ.] and þat he schulde nouȝt offende seynt Andrew, patroun*. [patrone, β.] of þat place.*. [plas, γ.] Þe kyng rouȝt nouȝt of bare wordes. Þanne Donston hyȝte and arraysede*. [arayed, β.] his heste*. [heest, β.] fayre*. [veyr, γ.] wiþ money, and sente him an hondred pound for he schulde breke of þe sege; þe money was i-fonge,*. [y-vonge, γ.] and Donston wondreþ of the man his covetise, and sente hym word by þe messangers in þis manere: "For þou hast i-put gold tofore God, and silver tofore þe apostle, and covetise tofore me, riȝt sone*. [soone, β.] evel happes schal come uppon*. [oppon, γ.] þe, but not while I am on lyve."*. [ich am alyve, β.; ych am alyve, γ.] Þanne two ȝere after cam the Danes. Whanne Donston was dede þat ȝere tweie pestilencis þat were unknowe to forhonde fil*. [vul, γ.] in Engelond, for men had þe feveres, and bestes þe schyt. Seynt Donston deide, his lyf ful Page  53, vol.7 of vertues and of wondres discreved Osbertus, monk of Caun|terbury. He telleþ in seynt Donston his lyf, þe*. [þat, α. and β.] while seint Donston hiȝtede þe ymages of þe apostles*. [postels, β.] and of martires wiþ þe stole of a preost, an harpe þat heng on a*. [þe, β.] wal was i-herde*. [y-hurd, γ.] make sweteliche melodie wiþ oute manis hond; þe me|lodye was the note of þis antym of þe apostles, "Gaudent in celis anime sanctorum;" þat is, "Holy men soules makeþ ioye in hevene." Also he telleþ þat Donston cowde*. [couþe, β.] many Page  55, vol.7 craftes, and wrouȝte wiþ his hondes, and made in a tyme a chalys by goldsmethes*. [goldsmyþes, β.; goldsmyth hys, γ.] craft in a celle faste*. [vast, γ.] by Glastyng|bury; þere þe fend*. [vend, γ., et infra.] cam in likenesse of a womman, and tempted hym by fantasies of divers likynge. Dunston in his spirit was war þerof, and cauȝte hym by þe nose wiþ his fuyry*. [vure, γ.] hote tonges, and hilde*. [huld, γ.] him so stille*. [and . . . stille] om. β.] for to þat dede was i-knowe of neiȝeboures aboute by crienge*. [criyng, β.] and ȝellynge of þe fende. Also in a tyme Donston was slepy, and herde aungels synge ful*. [fol, γ.] sweteliche "Kyrieleyson, Christeleyson;" þe melodye and note of þat armonye is ȝit famous among Englischemen, and i-used on þat "Kyrie, Kyrie, Rex splendens." Þanne whan Donston was deed þe Danes come into everiche havene of Engelond, so þat me wost*. [me wus, γ.] not where me myȝte mete*. [myte, γ.] hem; þerfore men myȝte nouȝt putte hem awey wiþ iren,*. [yre, γ.] and put hem awey wiþ silver, and paied hem þe firste ȝere ten þowsand pounde, by counsaile of Siricus, þat was archebisshop next after Donston, and þe secounde ȝere sextene Page  57, vol.7 þowsand pound; þe þridde ȝere twenty þowsand pound; þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] ȝere foure and twenty þowsand pound, þe fifte ȝere þritty þowsand pounde; at þe laste fourty þowsand pounde, for to all þe money failled.*. [fayled, β.] Þanne þe Danes gonne*. [bigunne, β.] aȝen to robbe and to reve. And ȝit herto oon Elfricus, maister of þe kynges schippes, flyȝ to þe enemyes, as a vile flemed harlot, þe nyȝt tofore þe batayle, and warned hem of whom þey schulde take hede*. [hyde, γ.] and be war. For þat dede me took his sone Algarus and put*. [pot, γ.] out boþe his eyȝen,*. [yene, γ.] but ȝit Elfricus cam aȝen, [but he fayllede aȝen;]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þanne þe Danes spoylede and robbede al Northumberlond, and byseged Londoun, and make þe kyng paie tribut by strengþe.*. [stryngþe, γ.] Þe mene tyme Elphegus bisshop of Wynchestre ȝaf plegges, and brouȝt Anlaf kyng of Danes to kyng Egelredus, and kyng Egelredus feng*. [vyng, γ.] hym of þe colde water, and þe bisshop confermed hym. Therafter he wente to his owne, and dede none harme;*. [hard, α.] but ȝit so cesed*. [ȝitt so ceeside, β.; cessete, γ.] nouȝt þe*. [þe] om. α., β., and γ.] harme, bote as þe hedes of Idra, whanne som enemyes were aweie, come up oþer enemyes and destroyed þe contray. Þe cheventeyn his*. [cheveteyns, β.] presence is moche Page  59, vol.7 worþy*. [myche worþe, β.] to be knowe in werre and in batayle, so is hardynesse, use, and lore of dedes of armes. Þese*. [þues, γ.] faillede þat tyme among Englisshemen, ffor ȝif*. [ef, γ.] þe oost were in any tyme i-gadered, ȝif*. [ef, γ.] schippes were i-made no þing spedde ariȝt; for oure men were nouȝt i-chasted ariȝt þey ȝaf hem to þefte and to robbory, ffor þey were nouȝt i-conforted þey wolde liȝtliche flee.*. [fleo, β.; vlue, γ.] Oure schippes were destroyed wiþ greet tempest; oon Wilnotus, þat þe kyng hadde exciled, occupiede þe schippes þat were i-left, [and drenchide*. [drynchede, γ.] hem oþer brende hem].*. [From α., β., and γ.] ȝif*. [Þe, β.; Ef, γ.] lordes come to counsaile in eny tyme þey were nouȝt of oon assent, but þey tretede more of discord and stryf þat was among hem self þan of þe comyn profit; and ȝif any good counsaile and profitable were i-ȝeve, anon enemyes schulde wite*. [ywete, α.] for al; wiþ oute*. [wite; for wiþout, β.] þe forseide*. [vorsede, γ.] Elfricus, oon Edricus, þat þe kyng hadde i-made lord of Mercia, a wel false traytour and a sligh,*. [slyȝ, γ.] þat couþe wel feyne hym self trewe frende*. [vrend, γ.] þeyȝ he were false; he aspied þe kynges counsaile, as he were trewe and trusty,*. [tristy, β.] and warned enemyes þerof as a false traytour and a gyleful. In þe mene tyme meschief*. [meschef, β.] and honger encressed faste;*. [vast, γ.] enemyes myȝte goo freliche*. [vrelyche, γ.] fifty myle, and take prayes and lede to hire schippes; þanne þey payed more tribute to þe Danes. Þe kyng hadde suche*. [siche, β.] a condicioun þat he wolde liȝtliche disherite Englisshe Page  61, vol.7 men, and feyne trespas for to byneme*. [bynyme, β. and γ.] hem here money, and what [þat]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þey hadde. He was so froward *. [vroward, γ.] to his wif Emma þat sche com seelde in his bed; he [walwede]*. [From γ.; walwide, β.] in leccherie with strompettes and wiþ hores.*. [houres, γ.]

Capitulum decimum quartum.

LOTHARIUS, Lowys his sone, was kyng of West Fraunce, and deide wiþ oute children. In hym þe grete Charles his of|spring loste þe kyngdom. Som men meneþ*. [meeneþ, β.] þat þis Lotharius hadde children þat regnede not after hym, by help of Richarde duke of Normandye, þat was somtyme hugeliche*. [hongelyche, γ.] i-greved by Lotharius. Lotharius his sone*. [sones, α. and β.] was*. [were, α. and β.] i-take, and þe grete Hewe*. [Huge, β., et infra.] Capet was i-made kyng of Fraunce, and regned nyne ȝere. Þis Huwe Capet was þe sone of duke Huwe, whos suster duke Richard [hadde y-]*. [From α., β., and γ.] spoused. Seynt Oswalde, arche|bisshop of ȝork and of Wircestre, [also deyde, and was y-buryed Page  63, vol.7 at Wircetre].*. [From α., β., and γ.] Þe fifte Gregory was pope as it were þre ȝere; þis was to forehonde i-cleped Brunus, and was Otho þe em|perour his kynnesman. At his instaunce*. [instans, γ.] he was i-chose pope; bote aftirward, whanne þe emperour was absent, oon Crescencius, prefect of þe citee, took oon Plascentinus, a riche man of money, and putte hym in þe poperiche, and cleped hym þe sevenþe*. [seventeþe, β] Iohn. Bote þe emperour cam aȝe, and putte out þis Iohn, and brouȝt yn þe secounde Silvestre. Þat ȝere þe bis|shops Page  65, vol.7 see þat somtyme heet Lyndefarn*. [Lyndisfarn, β.] was i-chaunged to Durham, and seynt Cuthbert his body was i-translated þider*. [þuder, γ.] also, þe whiche body Ardulphus ladde aboute wiþ hym somtyme. Þe firste Richard, þe þridde duke of Normandye, is deed; after hym his sone þe secounde Richard was duke eyȝte and twenty ȝere;*. [wynter, α.] for his*. [grete, add. β.] goodnesse he was i-cleped þe goode Richard. He was devoute in Goddes service, and wise and redy to þe world ward,*. [worlward, γ.] and large and curtays of ȝiftes. On his firste wyf he gat þre sones, Richard, Robert, and William, and þre douȝtres; on his secounde wif he gat William, and Robert archebisshop of Rothomage. Oon of þis secounde Richard his knyȝtes staal a spone, and leyde it to wedde among oþer þinges; þe duke aspied it, and non oþer man, and lete quyte out al þe knyȝtes weddes; þe knyȝte aspied þat þe spone was so aspied, and was so aschamed þat he fliȝ priveliche awey. Þe kyng wente after þe knyȝt þat fliȝ,*. [vlyȝ, γ.] and brouȝte hym aȝe, and made hym riche, and loved hym afterward riȝt wel. Oon maister Bernard herde þe dukes lose,*. [loos, β.] and wolde be i-knowe to hym, and byþouȝte hym in every side how he myȝte best doo forto come þerto. He come at þe laste wiþ a bowe and an arwe*. [arowe, β.] to a Page  67, vol.7 wyndowe of þe castel, þere*. [þar, γ.] the duke was i-woned for to stond, and walkede hider and þider*. [huder and þuder, γ.] as þey he wolde have i-schote*. [y-schott, β.] to þe duke. Þe duke was war þerof, and aspye what þe cause was, and loved hym riȝt wel. After þat þe sevenþe*. [seventeþe, β.] Iohn was i-put out, þe secounde Silvestre was pope foure ȝere and twenty*. [twey, β.] monþes. Willelmus de Regibus, ubi supra. Þis heet first*. [vurst, γ.] Girebertus*. [Gerebertus, β. and γ., et infra.] by his name, and was of þe nacioun of Frensche men, and was i-schore monk at Floriac, besides Aurelians. Whanne he com to Pictagoras his double*. [dubel, γ.] wey, he was i-cauȝt wiþ noye*. [noys, γ.] of his ordre, oþer wiþ covetise of wor|schippe, Page  69, vol.7 and lefte his abite*. [abbyte, α.] in a nyȝt, and fliȝ into Hispalys, a citee of Spayne, forto lerne curious and sotil*. [The adjectives are in the re|verse order in β.; sutyl, γ. (where these adjectives are transposed).] artes and sciens þere. [As Cristen men haveþ Tolet for lore so Sarsyns haveþ Hispalis.]*. [From β.; Þare as Cristene men habbeþ Tolet for lore, Sarsyns habbeþ Hispalis, γ.; þat Cristene men haveþ tolde it for lore Sarsyns haveþ his, MS.] [Þere Gerebertus lernede, and pas|sede]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Ptholomeus in astronomye, and Alcandrius in þe space*. [spase, γ.] bytwene þe sterres, and Iulius Firmicus in destenye. Þere he lerneþ*. [lerned, β.; lurnde, γ.] what bodeth song and fliȝt of foules; what þe curiouste of mankynde*. [kunde, γ.] may take þat carfouk ich leve;*. [leeve, β.] but he drank þerof þat he passed alle oþere. He was þe firste þat took*. [touk, γ.] abacus*. [Agabus, MSS.] of Sarsyns, and ȝaf rules*. [reules, γ.] þerynne, þat mowe unneþe be understonde of þe kunnyngeste men of þe craft, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] craftes men beþ cleped abaciste. Marianus.*. [Marianus] Trevysa, γ.] Abacus is a table wiþ þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] schappes beþ portrayed and i-peynt in powdre, and abacus is a craft of geometrie. Þan it foloweþ in þe storie:*. [Marianus . . . storie] om. β.] Gerebertus was at inne wiþ oon þat was most connynge philosofer, þat was i-bend wiþ byhestes*. [biheestis, β.] and wiþ ȝiftes. Gerebertus hadde i-write and i-copied al þis philo|sofres bookes, outake oon þat conteynede al þe privete of þe craft, ffor þat book myȝte [he]*. [From α., β., and γ.] nouȝt begete*. [gete, α., β., and γ.] by no manere sleiþe.*. [sleiȝþe, β.] Bote þe philosofer was oþerwhile dronke; and so Gerebertus awaytede his tyme, and took þe book þat was under Page  71, vol.7 þe philosofer [his heed],*. [From α., β., and γ.] and fliȝ awey þerwiþ. Þanne he awook and pursewed*. [pursywede, γ.] Gerebertus by craft [of the sterres, in þe whiche craft]*. [From α., β., and γ.] he was perfit inow.*. [ynowȝ, β.] By þe same craft he þat fliȝ was war of þe peril, and dressed hym under a treen brugge*. [brigge, β.] þat was þere next, and heng*. [hyng, γ.] by þe armes, so þat he touchede noþer erþe noþer*. [ne, α., β., and γ.] water; and so by þat craft he was begiled þat souȝte hym wel besiliche, and wiþ drowe hym, and tornede home aȝen. Þanne Girebertus come to þe see, and cleped forþ þe fend,*. [vorþ þe vend, γ.] and byhet hym homage ȝif he wolde bere hym over þe see, and save hym from hym þat pursewed hym; and so it was i-doo. Þanne he come aȝen into Fraunce, and hilde open scole, and hadde wiþ hym Constantyn þe abbot of Seynt Maximum,*. [Maximin, α. and β.; Maxmin, γ.] bysides Aurelians; to hym he made and ȝaf a rule*. [reul, γ.] of abacus. Also he tolde þe skile and resoun of þe dyameter above Macrobius. Trevisa. Þe dyameter is*. [is] of, γ.] [of]*. [From β.] a figure oþer of [a]*. [From α. and β. (not in γ).] schap of þe lengest even lyne þat is de|vysed*. [dyvided, β.] þerynne, take who þat may. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie: Gerebertus hadde scolers, Robert*. [Robart, β., et infra.] þe sone of Huwe Page  73, vol.7 Capet, kyng of Fraunce, and [Otho]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Otho þe emperoures sone. Bote Robert was afterward kyng of Fraunce, and made þis Gerebertus archebisshop of Remensis: ȝit in þat chirche is mynde of his lore, for þere is an orloge*. [horolegge, γ.] i-made by craft of honde, and water organs þat sowneþ by ayer*. [eyr, β.; aer, γ.] and water; þere by strengþe of [hot water þe wynd brekeþ out and fylleþ*. [vulleþ, γ.]]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þe holownesse of þe organs, and þanne by schapliche drauȝtres*. [drauȝtes, β. and γ.] þe brasene pipes sendeþ out swete cry and noyse of melodye. Þerafter Otho was emperour, and made Girebertus bisshop of Ravenna, and sone þerafter pope. Marcianus. Of þat hap is vers i-made: "Scandit ad R. Gerebertus ab R., post papa vigens in R." Þat is, Gerebertus passeþ up to R. out of R., and is þerafter pope in his floures in R. ℞. He passeþ*. [passed, β.] out of Ramens to Ravenna, and þe þridde tyme to Rome. Willelmus de Regibus. Favour of þe fend droof*. [drof, β.] forþ his fortune. For by helpe of þe fende and by craft of nygromancie he fonde*. [vond, γ.] tresour þat was i-hidde*. [y-hud, γ.] of olde tyme. In þat feelde þat hatte Campus Marcius, bysides Rome, was an ymage [þat tyme]*. [From β.] þat hilde*. [huld, γ.] streiȝt out þe fynger*. [vynger, γ., et infra.] of his riȝt honde, þe whiche fynger som men clepeþ likpot,*. [lykpot, α.; lykepot, γ.] þat is þe fynger next þe thombe; and on*. [oon, β.] þe ymages heed it was i-write "Smyte here." Men of olde tyme wende and trowede tresour [þer]*. [From α.]Page  75, vol.7 to fynde,*. [vynde, γ.] and brak som what of þe ymage wiþ many harde strokes; Gerebertus blamede hem þerfore, and evene at myd|day, whan þe sonne was hiȝest,*. [heiȝest, β.] he took hede*. [touk hyde, γ.] where þe schadowe of þat fynger fil*. [vul, γ.] on þe grounde, and piȝte þere a stake. And at nyȝt he took wiþ hym [his chamberlayn alone, þat bar wiþ him]*. [From α., β., and γ.] liȝt, and oponed þe erþe þere þe stake was i-pight, and wente inne, and sigh þere a kynges hous of gold, and knyȝtes of golde, pleyenge*. [pleyyng, β.; pleyng, γ.] wiþ dees of gold, and kynge and queene of metall,*. [metayl, γ.] sittynge at þe borde, and i-served wiþ mete i-set on þe borde, servauntes stondynge to fore hem, and cuppes*. [coppes, γ.] of greet weyȝte*. [wiȝt, β.] and pris; in þe ynnere*. [ynne, α.] place*. [inner plas, γ.] of þe hous a carbuncle stoon þat schoon cleerliche, and dede awey al the derkenes of þe nyȝt. In þe oþer side stood a ȝongelynge wiþ a bowe i-bent. But among al þis*. [þues, γ.] myȝte no þing be touched, þeyȝ it myȝte be i-seie. ȝif*. [Ef, γ.] eny man ȝede nere for to be handeled*. [for to handle, α] eny þing hereof, it semede þat al þe ymages wolde on hym rese. Gerebertus was war þerof, and absteynede hym, and with stood*. [wiþstode, β.] his covetise, and de|sire; but þe chamberlayn absteynede nouȝt at þe fulle, Page  77, vol.7 for he took a knyf þat lay on þe boorde. Anoon as he hadde i-take þe knyf alle þe ymages gonne*. [gunne, γ.] to grucche*. [groche, γ.] and to aryse, and þe childe losed and schette,*. [loused and schott, β.; loused and scheet, γ.] and hitte þe char|buncle*. [carbuncle, β.] stoon wiþ a reed,*. [reode, β.; rued, γ.] and made al þe hous ful*. [vol, γ.] of derkenesse. So þat but he hadde i-leide doun his knyf, as þe loord heet hym, boþe schul have i-payde þe payne. So it is i-rad þat Ioseph dalf wiþ his fader moche*. [myche, β.] tresour in þe erþe, and Hircanus took up*. [op, γ.] þre þowsand talentes of kyng David his*. [Daviþes, β.] grave for to breke up*. [op, γ.] þe sege of Ierusalem. Also it is comyn fame þat þis Gerebertus, by certeyne craft of þe sterres, dede ȝote*. [ȝeote, β.] an hede þat spak nouȝt but whanne me axede of hym, and seide nouȝ but*. [but] om. γ.; bot, α.] sooþ. Þe*. [þat, α.] heed warnede Gere|bertus þat he schulde be pope, and þat he schulde nevere dei or*. [er, β.] he hadde*. [ar a hadde, γ.] i-songe a masse in Ierusalem. But he was nouȝt war þat in Rome was a chirche þat heet in*. [in] om. α.] Ierusalem, þere þe pope syngeþ þe masse þre Sondayes*. [Sondawes, γ., et infra.] in þe ȝere in þe stacioun tyme. In þat chirche he arrayede hym to masse Page  79, vol.7 warde in oon of þe*. [þese, α.; þues, γ.] Sondayes, and was i-take wiþ strengþe of siknes, and lay seek on his bed, and counsailed with his ymage, and knewe þat he was begiled, and was war of his owne deth. He sente for þe cardinalles, and knowleched*. [knewlechede, γ.] his evel dedes, and weep ful*. [wep fol, γ.] sore. And as it were a wood*. [wode, β.; wod, γ.] man for sorwe of his synnes, he made men kutte hym*. [Here MS. Addit. 24194 (i.e. α.) ceases for several chapters, and MS. Harl. 1900 i.e. β., (f. 248 a, three lines from bottom) varies very much from the text which is here printed. For instance, taking up the text where MS. Addit. leaves off: "he made men kitt hym self lym|mele, and þrowe out his lymmes, and seide, 'Lete hym have þe office of þe lymes þt axide homage of hem, and lete þe spirit go to God þt made hym of nouȝt. Marc'. Þanne he bade do þe stok of his body uppon a cart, and burye hit where þe bestes wolde abide, and it was so doon," &c. &c. β., γ., and Cx. also vary so much at this point from the printed text, that it has been thought better to print the text of β. in an Appendix, and collate γ. and Cx. therewith in this varying passage. For an account of the varying passage, see Introduction.] and his membres membre by membre, and caste hem out. "Have ȝe þay," quod þe officer, "of þe membres þat desiren hem, and souȝte þe homage of þaym, and þe spirit goo unto God þat made it." Martinus. Þanne commanded he his body, þat was bote a stok, to be putte in a carte, and where so evere þe bestes rested, þere for to be buryed; þe whiche was i-doo; for why þe oxen stood stille at Seint Iohn Laterens cherche, where þat he is i-buried; wherefore also, in tokene of forgifnes folwynge, his grave also wele of the noyse of þe bones þat conteyned as of þe swetynge of þe gravestone þere is taken a forwetynge or tokenynge of þe pope sone for to deie, as þere is wreten in lettres.

Page  81, vol.7

Capitulum quintumdecimum.

HUWE Capet, þe kyng of Weste Fraunce after þat he hadde regned nyne deide, to whom com after Robert his sone, whiche he gat of þe douȝter of olde kyng Edward kyng of Engelond and he regned aboute xxxti ȝere. In whos tyme come a religious pilgrime from Ierusalem into Sicile, and he lerned of a man recluse þat in Wlcanes potte, þat breþeþ out flammes, þe soules of dede men were tormented for dyversete of trespas, þe voyces of gnastynge of whom he witnessed þat he hadde oftetyme herde, þe whiche by almes and prayers of trewe men were delyvered, and nameliche þat tyme by þe prayer of þe monkes of Cluniacensis; wherefore Odilio, þe abbot of Clunia|censis, whanne þat was knowen, ordeyned þat þe next fery after þe feste of All Halwes schulde be hadde þe memorie for dede men soules, whiche custome afterward passed forth into al þe world. Also þis Robert was ful clere in sciens and konnynge in grete festes of seyntes in som mynstre or abbeye of his reaume, ouþer synge*. [lege syngynge.] with monkes, or elles berynge a cope to governe þe queere. Wherfore in þe feste of seynt Anyan Page  83, vol.7 bisshop of Aurelianes, whenne he hadde lefte his oost aboute a castel þat he hadde byseged, and song þries Agnus Dei et cetera, berynge a cope, and knelynge on his knees, þe walles of þe castel byseged sodenly fil downe. Þis is þat Robert þat made þe sequence of þe Holy Gost, "Sancti Spiritus assit nobis gratia," and also þat respons of þe vigil of þe Na|tivite of oure Lord, "O Iuda et Ierusalem, nolite timere." Also þis ȝere Develyne, þe moder citee of Irlond, was wasted of þe Scottes, and þe navey of Danes wente to Normandye, and kyng Egelrede wasted Comberlond, and þe Ile of Man or Angleseie. [About this time] was þe fyndynge of þe body of seynt Ive. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Þis Ive, of þe nacioun of Perce, forsaked al þe delites of þe world, and over|ȝede þe spaces of many landes in a cherles cloþinge, wiþ þre felawes allone at þe ile of Rameseie ledde his lyf; whos grave and name, when it was long unknowen of þe dwellers in þe contray. seynt Yve hym self apperede to a symple man, schewynge his name, his place, and his degre; and he warned hym þat he schulde goo to þe abbot of Ramesey, þat he wiþ hym myȝte take up his body of þe erþe; whiche when it was done a welle heleful to al sekenes sprang out of þe grave, so þat to þis day in al Enge|londe unneþe is eny seynt more esy of prayere or more helpynge Page  85, vol.7 þan seynt Ive is. Also þis ȝere kyng Egelrede wedded Emme, þe perle and þe precious stone of Normanes, þe douȝter of Richard first duke of Normandie; by þe whiche profitt, en|printed in his lettres sent to þe citees of Engelond, he comaunded al þe Danes in oon nyȝt to be slayne; whiche was done in þe nyȝt of seint Brise. In whiche ȝere also þe abbey of Burtoun uppon Trente was founded by a worþy man, Wlrik Spot. Henry þe firste, whiche was called benigne and merci|ful, after Othoun þe þridde, was emperour in Almayn two and twenty ȝere, whom þe archebisshop of Mens coroned. ℞. Here it is for to wete þat þere was mo Henries kynges þan emperours; þerfor when it is red Henry firste, secounde, or þridde, by resoun of like name, in þe empere it is þe firste or þe secounde; understonde þe same of Conradus and of Othouns. Þis firste Henry dwelled perfitly a mayden and a virgyne wiþ his wyf. Martinus. Þe pope Iohn satte in his popehode sex monthes. Suane kyng of Denmarch, whan he herde of þe deth of Danes done prively in þe citees of Engelond, wiþ a grete navey he ryved up at Cornwayle; wherby, by tresoun of Hewe þe eorl of Normandie, whom þe quene Emme hadde newely put byfore unto Devenschire, Suane took Excetre, and destroyed þe walles; to whom men of Westsex manfully come aȝen; but als ofte as þe hostes neyȝed nere to gidre, duke Edrik, traytour of Englisshe men, feynynge a vomet or brak|ynge, seide þat he was seek; wherfore Englisshemen twynned, Page  87, vol.7 and kyng Swane robbed Wiltoun and Schirborne, and wente aȝen to his schippes. In þe ȝere folowynge he brouȝt up at Norþwhiche, wasted þe contre, and brende Tedforþ; whiche is knowe*. [Sic in MS., but see Harl. below.] duke Usketil sente unto þe men of þe province þat þey schulde brenne þe schippes of þe enemyes; bote þey ouþer makynge dissimulacioun, or elles beyng unhardy for to doo it, þe duke hym self, wiþ whome þat he myȝte, brouȝt a ful scharp bataile aȝen þe Danes; but for a ful strong honger hadde assailled Engelond, kyng Suane wente aȝen to Denmark, þe ȝere þe folowynge for to torne aȝen. Iohn þe nyntenþe, pope, satte in þe popehede fyve ȝere. Þis ȝere Elphegus bisshop of Wynchestre, when Ulricus metropolitane of Doverus was dede, was madde erchebisshop. After þis, in þe monþe of Iule, þe navy of Danes rove up at Sandwyche, and robbed Kent and Southsex, and vexed þe Englische eft wiþ manyfolde desceyv|ynge, now robbynge, now aȝen comynge. Whom folwede evermore þe*. [Sic in MS., but see Harl. below.] felowys, þat is robbynge, sleynge, and brennynge. For why kyng Egelrede, whiche þat tyme dwelled in Schroves|bury, myȝt nouȝt hastily put abak the Danes unto þe tyme þat þey hadde wasted Barrokschire, þerfore kyng Egelrede, by þe counseille of his gentilles, paied to þe Danes a tribute of þritty thousand pounde for to have reste. In whiche ȝere, forsoþe, he ordeyned Edric, traytour, duke of Merschelonde, a man for|soþe Page  89, vol.7 low and pore of kynne, bot riche of tonge, wily and witty, softe of speche, but ful faste of herte. Sergius þe þridde satte in þe popehode þre ȝere. Henricus, libro 6o. Turkullus erle of Denmark rove up in Kent, to whom men of Caunterbury gaf þre þowsand pounde for pees, and þe Danes goynge toward þe Ile of Wight did moche robberie. Ageynes whom as ofte as þe kyng precede, þe erle Edrik counseille nouȝt to ȝeve bataille; wherfore þe Danes were made ful riche þis ȝere, and wasted almost half Engelond from Norhamptoun unto þe Ile of Wight.

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

ABOUTE þe feste of seynt Matheu þe Danes byseged Caunter|bury, whiche citee, þe twentiþe day of þe byseging, was taken and brent þoruȝ bytrayeng of Almarus, a deken whom seynt Elphege newly byfore and*. [and] sic in MS. lege had.] delyvered from deth. Þe abbot of Seynt Austyns was suffred for to goo awey; þe folk of Crist was tiþed, þat is to seie, nyne slayn and þe tenþe i-kepte; of þe whiche som deide with yren, som by castynge doun and þe heved byfore, som i-honged by þe prive membres, and som Page  91, vol.7 i-drawen by þe heres. Among whom þe bisshop Elphegus was taken and sevene monþes i-bounde in iren, and wiþ dyverse peynes i-scorned among þaym. For whiche þing þe yre of God was so woode in þe folk þat were men sleers, þat woo and sorenes of þe entrelles wasted now ten, now twenty, unto a greet nombre. Wherfore þe Danes were monested of þe trewe men þat þey schulde make a sethe to þe bisshop, bot þay differred it, for why in holy Saterday of Pask þey putte þe bisshop to chese þat ouþer he paye þre þowsand pounde, or elles wante his lyf, he soþe forsakynge al þat, forbode besily to his trewe peple, þat none schulde ȝeve ony þing for his raunsoun; wherfore þe Danes of þat more grevously angred, and þey dronken of wyn, in the Satirday sewynge brouȝt forþ þe bisshop in þe þrittene kl of May; þere þey slow þe holy man wiþ stones and neten bones. Sepulcre was denyed hym unto þat a dykere in þe day after i-depped in his blood wex greved, whos body in þe day folowynge was ledde unto Londoun, and in þe chirche of Seynt Poule ful worschip|fully i-buryed. Noþeles afterward Canut þe Danes kyng grauntynge, it was brouȝt aȝene to his chirche, þe body al hool. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Þis Elphegus, after þe abite of monk i-taken at Durhurst, lyved like any Page  93, vol.7 anker at Bathe; afterward he gedered þere monkes, whiche drew corrupcioun, as it is wont to be done in grete colege. For why some of þaym, unwetynge þe fader, made festes on nyȝtes, and extended to drynkynges nere honde unto day lyȝt. But he þat was i-made cheef banerer of þis doynge, þoruȝ good werchynge, deied in þe myddes of þe drynkynge; whiche þe fader knowinge be noyse, went to þe wedewe,*. [Sic in MS.] and he seigh two develes,*. [Here is an omission in MS. through the oversight of the scribe; see Harleian text below.] answerde "Nouþer þou obeyedest to God, ne we schal obeye to the." At þe laste, þoruȝ þe amonyschynge of seint Andrewe apperynge unto seynt Donston, seynt Alphegus was i-made bisshop of Wynchestre, whiche Elphege entended Page  95, vol.7 nevere forto ete flesche but if he were seek. Henricus, libro 6o. Swane þe kyng of Danes, whanne he hadde schipped aboute Est Engelonde, entred wiþ his navey in to Humbre flood, and wente forþ by þe flood of Trente unto Geynesburgh; to whom þe men of þe contre þat dwelled at þe norþ side of Watlyng strete gefen ostage and sworen feutee. He forsoþe commaunded his navey wiþ þe ostage to Canute his sone, while he wasted þe south marche, sleynge þe males, reservynge þe females to his lust and to þe lust of his men. After he took Oxenforde and Wynchestre; but goynge to Londoun warde, whiles he souȝte no brigge, he loste meny men of his in þe flood of Temse. Neverþeles he was put out of Londoun by þe presence of kyng Egelred; but he putte Westsex in subieccioun; þat seand, þe men of Londoun sent hym ostage; þerfore þe kyng Egelrede abasshed sent Emme his wyf, wiþ his two sones, and wiþ þe bisshop of Londoun, to Richard the secounde, þe erle of Normandye, þe broþer of Emme; hym self in þe mene tyme ful wilsom at þe Ile of Wight halowede Cristemasse, þat is þe nativite of oure Lord. At þe laste utterly all þinges in dispeire, hym self schipped unto Normandie. Kyng Swane more enprided of þat unto þe encresynge of his owne dampnacioun, Page  97, vol.7 asked tribute of Edmondbury, þe citee of seynt Edmond martir, whiche bot if it were i-paide he manassed brennynge to þe citeseyns; over þat ful proudely he bakbited seynt Edmond. But þe eventide comynge toward, in myddes of his knyȝtes at þe towne of Geynesburgh, wiþ þe swerde of seynt Edmond was he stiked, and so cryenge in þe twyliȝtynge of þe nyȝt he deide þe þridde nonas of Februarii. Willelmus de Pontifici|bus, libro 2o. Canute his sone seynge þat, afterwarde dede more myldely wiþ seynt Edmond, for why he lete brynge abouȝte al his lond a diche, and graunted it fredome for al askynge; fro þat tyme it was custome þat þe kynges of Enge|lond sent þaire corones to seint Edmond, whiche þey bouȝte agayn for grete prys if þey wolde were þaym; þe askers of þe toll, þat were fel in oþer place of Engelond, lowely lafte þaire strifes of þis side þe diche of seynt Edmond.

Capitulum septimum decimum.

SUANE þerfore [being dead,]*. [þy deth, MS. In a few places, in these chapters where no collation is possible and the MS. reading is utterly wrong, a translation of the Latin is inserted in brackets and the reading of the MS. put in the foot note.] þe Danes raysed Canute his sone into kyng. Þe Englisshe men forsoþe sent to kyng Egelrede Page  99, vol.7 at Normandye, byhetynge þat ȝif he wolde bere hym more benigne to þaym, þan he was wont, þat Canute i-putte out þey wolde desire hym. He fforsoþe assentynge to þing i-profred to hym, for pees to be affermed sent byfore his sone Edward. Afterward, aboute Lenten, þe kyng comynge hastely drof Canut out of Lyndeseie. Þan Canut in fleynge, takynge counsail unto hym at Sandwiche in Kent, made alle þe ostage, þat ware som|tyme ȝiffen to his fader, for be kutte handes and nose; and schipped unto Denmark, þat ȝere folowynge for to torne aȝen. Þis ȝere Canute i-schipped aboute Est Engelond, robbed þe parties; aȝenst whom manfully comynge Edmond Irenside; but he perceyved and i-proved þe deceyvynge of Edrik with|drew hym. Edrik wiþ his men fil unto Canute, þat saved Westsex. Kyng Egelred deide at Londoun þe ix. kl of May, and was i-buried in þe chirche of Seynt Poule. After whos deþ þe bisshoppes, abbotes, and gentiles of þe lond, forsaken his kynreden and progenie, knowleched at Souþhamptoun Canute for to be þaire kyng; he forsoþe swore þat he schulde be to hem trewe lorde aȝenst God and þe world. Men of Lon|doun forsoþe, wiþ a partie of gentiles, raised Edmond Yrenside into kyng, whiche also sone put underneþe Westsex, in party for drede, and in partie wilfully. In þe mene tyme Canute Page  101, vol.7 byseged Londoun, bot he was putte abak; and in Dorcestre province, besides Gillyngham, he fauȝt aȝenst Edmond, but he was overcomen; after þat the mydsomer over passed, Edmond wiþ a gretter oste in Wiltschire fauȝt so scharply aȝenst Canute þat for werynesse eiþer ooste departed asondre. Alfri|dus et Marianus. Bot þe day after Edmond had al forbroken þe Danes, but þat false wikked duke Edric schewed unto þe oost þe heved of a knyȝt þat was most like to Edmond, seienge, " Fleeþ, Englische men, loo þe heved of Edmond ȝoure lord." But Edmond þat i-knowen stood more scharply fiȝtenge evene to þe nyȝt. Canute in þe nyȝt wente to Lon|doun; Edmond, folwynge at þe bak, delyverede þe citee. Þe þridde tyme also Tempse overpassed [at] Brendford, þe Danes were overcomen, þe Danes robbynge att Otteforde in Kent, and droof hem into þe ile of Schepey. Þerfore turnynge aȝen Edmond to Westsex, Canute robbed Merscheland; for þat þing Edmond com aȝen at Aschedowne, where it was fouȝten man|fully on þe to syde and þe oþer. Duke Edrik, when he saw þe Danes to be enclyned, he bygan to take fliȝt falsely; wherfore many worþy men fill of Edmond side, wiþ þe bisshop of Lyncolne and þe abbot of Rameseye, whiche come for to praye for þe Page  103, vol.7 kyng. Þerfore after þe counseille of Edrik, ostage i-gyffen on boþe two sides atwixe þe two kynges at Durhurst in Severne bonke, pees was reformed in þis manere. One of the knyȝtes rose up in myddes of þe ostes, seyenge þus: "We dye alday, but none overcomeþ. Edmond is unable to be overcomen, for his strengþe þat may not be overcomen; Canute is unable to be overcomen ffor his favour of fortune; bot what schal be þe fruyt of þis contynual peril, bot þat oure knyȝtes of eiþer partie is slayn, þe dukes þat beeþ kynges compelled by nede acorde þaym, or elles certes þey fiȝte hem self allone wiþ any knyȝt, wherfore þan doo þey nouȝt now þe tone of þese; þat if þey accorde whi schal not þe kyngdom, þat is richer þan it was wonte, suffice unto two, þat somtyme was inow to fyve kynges; þat if þere be in þaym so moche lost of lordschipe þat eiþer dedeyne for to have partie wiþ þe oþere, oþer for to be underneþe þe oþere, þan let þaym fiȝte allone þat covaite for to have lordshipe allone; þat if alle fiȝte and alle i-slayn þere ben none knyȝtes to wonie þey comande; and also þat þere be none þat may defende þe kyngdom aȝenst straungers." Þere þey comynge to gidre wiþ þaire ostes at þe ile of Olney beside Gloucestre, it was cried of alle men þat oþer þey schulde accorde oþer elles fiȝte allone. Þerfore þese kynges rennynge to gidres in myddes of þe ile, þe peple byholdynge on þe oon side, and þe oþer on þe oþer side, firste on horse and after on foot þay Page  105, vol.7 dede a syngular bataille. But when þat Canute perceyved and fande þat Edmond unable forto be overcomen, he accorded of party to be overcomen of þe kyndome; þerfore þaire armes i-kaste awey, þey fil into kissinges aiþer of oþer, alle men þerof marveillynge, and ioyenge to see þise þus doo. Edric þe traytour coveytinge to make hym self kynde and plesynge to Canute, at Oxenforde, where þat Edmond wente to esement, and Edrik prively hid hym under þe prive hous, and wiþ an iren stiked hym in þe prive membres as he satte at his esement; ffro þens goynge to Canute seide: "Heil kyng allone!" To whom þe kyng answerde þus: "I knowe wel," he seide, "for þou sup|posest to plese me wiþ suche service, and hast i-slayn þe beste man of þe world, I schal raise þyn heved aboven alle þe gentiles of Engelond." Also sone Edrik his hede was kutte of, and satte uppon þe hiȝest ȝate of Londoun aboute. ℞. Neverþeles som croniculers telleþ and most Marianus, þat Edmond dede nouȝt þus, but þat after broþerhede and fraternite confermed atwene þe kynges as it is seide, and after þe partynge of þe reame atwene hem, Edmond deide at Londoun aboute þe feste of seynt Andrew, and i-buried at Glastyngbury with his grauntsire Edgare, whiche sekerly semeþ like sooþ, for þat þat Page  107, vol.7 comoun cronicles telleþ þat Canute kyng, after þe deth of Edmond,*. [A part of the text is here untranslated, perhaps through an omission of the scribe.] and dede many oþer þinges þoruȝ þe counseile of Edrik, whiche forsoþe myȝte not stonde, if he hadde first be heveded.

Capitulum octavum decimum.

CANUTE of Denmark, after þe deth of Edmond made kyng allone, regned almost xix. ȝere; he devided and departed þe reame of Engelond into foure parties, assygnynge Westsex unto hym self, Est Angle to þe erle Turkylle, Merschelonde to false Edrik, Norþhumberlond to Hiricus; þerfore a counsaile i-made at Londoun, he asked of his gentilles wheþer in þat bonde of felawschippe confermed atwixe hem and Edmond, ȝif þere was made eny mencioun of successioun of breþeren and sones of Edmond after þe deth of hym; bot þey answerde ful falsely and flateryngly þat nay, supposynge for þat þat þey schulde take þe same, and be gretter enence þe kyng; over þat also þey swore þat þey schulde take þe same Canute for þaire kyng, and schulde putte out þam þat were nere to Edmond: wherfore som of þaym þoruȝ þe riȝt dome of God war slayne, and som put out of þe lond, ffor why, by þe counsaile of Edrik, þe kyng Page  109, vol.7 outlawed Edwyne þe broþer of Edmond, whiche was called þe kyng of cherles or of uplondische men, neverþeles aftirward he was reconsiled desceyvablely, and i-slayn, þoruȝ þe traytours of his men. Also kyng Kanute, as wel for schame as for þe counsaile of Edrik, dredynge for to slee þe sones of Edmond, þat is to wite, Edmond and Edward, sent þaym to þe kyng of Sweþerlond for to be slayn; whiche dredynge God, sent þaym oversee to Salamon þe kyng of Hongery, for to be keped to þe lyf. [But]*. [Of, MS.] Edmond, wedded þe douȝter of þat kyng, but sone after he deide wiþ oute children. Edward forsoþe wedded Agath, þe douȝter of Henricus emperour, of whome he gat Margarete, þat was aftirward queene of Scotland, and Cristean þat was a nonne, and Edgar Adelynge. Henricus, libro 6o. Þis word Adelyng is compowned in Duche and in Saxon of Adel, þat is noble, and lyng, þat is image, as it were a noble ymage; wherefore Westsex men haveþ in proverbe of hiȝe despite hynderlyng, whiche sowneþ i-cast doun fro honeste, or any ymage goynge bakward. Seynt Edward kyng aftir|ward purposed for to have made þis Edgare Adelyng heire of Engelond; bot dredynge þe wikkednes of his owne peple and þe sones of Godewyne, he chese William of Normandye. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Kyng Kanute, in þe monþe of Iule, þat he myȝte streyne þe reme of Engelond more faste Page  111, vol.7 unto hym, wedded to his wyf Emme the queene, of whom he gatte Hardeknute. After þat, in þe Nativite of oure Lord, at Londoun in his paleys, he commaunded false Edrik forto be slayne, whiche upbrayded hym þe benefetes þat were done unto hym, and his body to be i-cast by þe walles into Tempse, seynge and byholdynge to hym self in þat þat he schulde nouȝt be desceyved by his aspyenges; and oþer gentil men he drove out; but he hilde everemore þe erle Leofric dere. After þis at Oxenforde he made a parlement, where boþe Englisshe men and Danes were made acorde for to kepe þe lawes of kyng Edgare. Henricus, libro 6o. Þis ȝere Canute wente unto Denmark, ledynge Englisshe men wiþ hym aȝenst þe Wandales, þat war disesy unto hym; wherfore in þe nyȝt þat went bifore þe bataile, Englische men wiþ Godwyne þaire ledere, unwetynge þe kyng, disperbled and chased þe enemyes unpurveied. For whiche cause fro þat tyme forþ þe kyng hadde Englisshemen in sovereigne worschippe, and þat same ȝere he come aȝen. Alfridus. Þis ȝere Aldelme þe bisshop of Lindisfarn Doreyn is deed, and þe see is voyde almost þre ȝere. Þere was i-made a seyne and a convocacioun aboute þe chesyng of þe bisshop, were a preost Edmond comynge, seide in game, "Why chese ȝe nouȝt me myself;" whos gaume oþere nouȝt takynge gamfully, þre dayes fastynge y-bode for þat, þay counsailled Page  113, vol.7 þe will of seynt Cuthbert. Wherfore þe preost syngynge masse, in myddes of þe canoun a voyce was herde þre tymes sowne out of þe tombe of seynt Cuthbert, "Edmond oweþ to be take into bisshop." Also this ȝere byfell þat unwont myracle in Saxon, in þe chirche of seint Magne martir, forsoþe xv. men and iii. wommen, in the nyȝt of þe Nativite of oure Lorde, ledynge a daunce in þe chirche ȝerde, þe preost of þe chirche stirred in ire bysouȝt þe vengeaunce of God, seienge þus: "God graunte þoruȝ þe merytes of seint Magne his martir þat ȝe lede þus ȝour daunce;" þey ete nouȝt, ne drank nouȝt, ne sleped nouȝt, unto þey were delyvered by þe prayer of seint Cuthbert, þe bisshop of Coloun; whiche when þey were i-drawe out of þe erþe, þey caste þeymself doun byfore þe auȝter; of whom som deyed sone; and som i-kept unto þe lyf schewed þe greet werchynge of God in þaym self. One forsoþe of þe þre wommen was þe douȝter of þe same preost þat asked vengeaunce, whiche when here broþer as|sayed for to drawe hir out fro the daunce*. [Some omission of words by the scribe. See Harl. version below.] wiþ þe oþer al þat ȝere. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Aboute þis tyme Briȝtwolde, monk of Glastyngbury, whiche was aftir|ward þe firste bisshop of Wiltoun, whiles he þouȝt in contem|placioun Page  115, vol.7 of þe kynges of Engelond progenye, þat was almost þanne fordone, slomberynge fil on hym, and lo he sawe seynt Peter apostel holde in his hond Edward þe sone of Egelrede, outlawed þan in Normandye, and consecrat hym kyng, and schewe fully his holynes in nombre of xxiii. ȝere in whiche he schulde regne. And whan þe monk asked of þe posterite of Edward and of þe successours of reignynge, seynt Peter answerde, "Þe reme of Engelond is þe reme of God; after þis God schal purveie." Henricus, libro 6o. Aboute þese dayes a Goddes man seide byfore to Englische men þat þere was to comen and untristed a lordschipe fro Fraunce, þat schulde opresse þaym; as above in the ende of þe firste book. Willel|mus Page  117, vol.7 de Regibus, libro 2o. Þis ȝere Henricus þat was called benigne, þe emperour of Almayne, deide; whom folwede Con|radus þe firste, whiche regned xv. ȝere; whiche ordeyned a lawe þat who so evere brak þe lawe of þe lond schulde lese his heved. Of þe whiche statut þe firste trespasour was þe erle*. [An omission of the scribe; for the sense see Harl. translation below.] þat is heremyte, whiche is now freschely born schal be to þe sone in lawe and successour; for whyche þing he hadde dedeyn, and comaunded þe herte of þe childe for to be brouȝt unto hym; but þe messangers dredynge God, kest þe childe quik in þe woode, and brouȝt the kyng þe herte of an hare. It byfel forsoþe þat sone after þis, þat a duke me called Henry pass|ynge þerby, herde þe childe squeke, and he sente it to his wyf, þat was bareyne, for to be norsched, giffynge to hit his owne name, Henry. And when þat Conradus þe emperour somtyme byheld wiþ hym i-woxen a ȝong man, and turned up and doun in his mynde þe forwittynge þat was passed, þe kyng helde wiþ hym þe ȝonge man, þe man þat was supposed þe fadir of þe childe aȝenseyinge; and alwayes he ymagyned aȝenst hym|self how he myȝte fordo þe child; wherefore he sent hym to þe emperour*. [Sic in MS.] wiþ lettres þus writen, þat þe lettres i-sene, þe same day he schulde be dede. Bot while þe ȝonge man was her|berwed Page  119, vol.7 a nyȝt at a preste his house, þe preost oponynge þe lettres whiles he sleped, wrote for þat word, be he dede, be he maryed to oure douȝter; which þing was i-doo, wherfore þerof al þe empere was astonyed; neverþeles þinkynge þat he was þe sone of a worþy erle, he suffred it more liȝtly. But in þe place of wildernesse where he was i-borne he made an abbay þat unto þis day is i-called Vesanya.

Capitulum nonum decimum.

ALSO þis ȝere deide þe secounde Richard, þe fourþe duke of Normandie, to whom succedid his sone Richard þe þridde, whom afterward a ȝere of his ducherie his ȝong broþer Robert slow wiþ venym; for whiche cause þe same Robert succedynge hym, after þe sevenþe ȝere of his ducherie, havynge compunc|cioun in his herte, wente in pilgrimage to Ierusalem barefoot, and deide at Bithanye; of whom it was tolde þat in fiȝtinge he was strong, in giffynge liberal, in festynge and mete ȝevynge large. Wherfore it byfel in a festivite þat alle oþer knyȝtes offerynge at a messe, o knyght offred nouȝt; þe duke forsoþe supposynge þat he hadde nouȝt wherof he myȝte offre, co|maunded for to giff hym an hondred pounde, whiche al so sone Page  121, vol.7 as he hadde receyved, þan he putte holy all up on þe auȝter; and when he was i-asked why he hadde done so, he answerde, "For þey were gyffen for to offre." When þe duke herde þat, he ȝaf hym an oþer hondred pound to his owne use. Anoþer tyme, when þe same duke plaied at þe chesse, hym was ȝoven a viste of gold, honoured wonderfully wiþ precious stones, and he also sone ȝaf it to þe clerk þat pleyde with hym, and þe clerk also sone deide; of whiche þing phiciciens and leches tolde þe cause, seienge þat riȝt as for overmoche sorwe the herte is stoken and spered, and bot it be þe sonner opned, it bryngeþ yn deth, riȝt so for overmoche gladnesse þe herte is oponed, and bot it be þe sonner spered it schal be cause of deth. Also anoþer tyme a man brouȝte to Robert þe duke two ful faire knyȝtes,*. [Sic in MS., see Harl.] to whom he made giffe al so sone an hondred pound, and whiles he tolde þe penyes two gentil hors were ȝefen to þe duke, whiche al so sone he ȝaf to þe same man; and he, when he hadde taken þese, hastily wente awey, þat þere schulde no lettynge peradventure come unto hym. In þe mene tyme a selver cuppe was ȝefen to þe duke, and he þat brouȝt þe knyves i-souȝt and nouȝt i-founde, þe duke pleyned hym þat he hadde i-take to litel rewardynge. It was seide of þis Robert þat what some evere was ȝeven hym, he wolde ȝeve it unto hym þat ȝaf hym any worschipful þing þat day, but if peraventure þe ȝifte war Page  123, vol.7 able to be eten. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. Þis Robert somtyme passynge þoruȝ Phalesiam, a citee of Normandy, he saw a mayden, Arlek by name, þe douȝter of a skynner, daunsynge in a carroll among oþer maydouns; þat nyȝt he took hir to hym, þe whiche he hilde longe tyme in stede of his wif, and on hir he gat William conquerour, whos gretnes to come bytokened þe dreeme of his moder, in whiche sche saw hir bowels spred þoruȝ Engelond and Normandye. And also in þe schedynge of þe burþe, þe ȝong childe, when he touched þe erþe, he filled boþe his hondes of poudre of þe pavement, he constreyned and helde to gidre; of þat the mydwif schewed byfore þat he schulde be a kyng. Þis mayden forsoþe Arlek, þe firste nyȝt þat sche was ledde to þe duke Robert his bedde, sche brak hire owne smok fro the chyn unto þe foot, and when sche was asked of þe duke why sche dede so, sche answerde þat it was nouȝt laweful nor curtesye þat þe lowest party of hir smok, þat hadde gone aboute hir fete, schulde be torned to his lordes mouth. Þe duke Robert þerfore goynge to Ierusalem, i-called alle his gentiles at Fiscan, and he made þaim alle for to swere truþe and feaute to William his sone, seven ȝere of age þat tyme; to whom he ordeyned child Page  125, vol.7 Gilbert to be tutour, and he assigned the kepynge and defend|ynge of his tutour to kyng Henry of Fraunce. Þe gentiles keped hir feiþ to þe childe unto þe deienge of Robert, but his dede i-herde, everichon loked to hym self, and was necligent to þe childe. At þe laste þe forseide Gilbert i-slay by Rauf, þe childes eme sone and cosyn, over al was done menslauȝter, and þe contray was alto wounded wiþ ynward dissenciouns. William, whan he was wexynge in armes, toke Gy of Burgoyn, þat was cosyn to hym, of þe douȝter of Richard þe secounde, auctour of alle þe doyng, and slow hym; he made Odoun, þe kynges broþer of Fraunce comynge agayne hym, for to flee; whiche i-herde, kyng Henry of Fraunce, comynge wiþ a greet multitude, was made fouly for to flee, but mediatours goynge bytwixe, pees was made and þe kynges prisoners delyvered. Where it is sovereynly for to wite þat when þis William often tymes fauȝt wiþ þe kyng of Fraunce, nevere sodenly, as oure men doþ now, but þe day of batayle i-schewed, and assigned byfore, evermore i-bore awey þe overmore and þe hyȝer hond; afterward þe kyng of Fraunce cesede þe londes þat were appen|daunt to Normandie, as þe erldome of Cene and þe lasse Page  127, vol.7 Britayne whiche kyng Charles ȝaf wiþ Gille his douȝter to Rolloun, worþely he wan it. In whiche bataille was Harold of Engelond, as it schal be seide wiþynne. Þe duke Robert þer|fore goynge to Ierusalem wente þoruȝ Burgoyne, where whiles he went out at þe ȝate in a mornynge laste of alle þe pilgrimes, he was smeten of þe porter wiþ a staf, and also sone doynge þankes to God, seide to his men: "Keþe nouȝt in wil for to venge me, ffor I am worþy moche more evel; I love bettre þis stroke þan al Rothomage." Fro þens comynge to Rome þat he myȝte receyve þe croyce of þe pope, he put his mantel, þat was precious and riche, on þe ymage of Constantyn þe grete, skornynge in þat þe Romayns, þat wolde nouȝt ones a ȝere at þe leste ȝeve þaire lord a cloþe. He made also þe mule þat he rood uppon for to be schodde uppon*. [Sic in MS.] wiþ gold, forbedyng al his men þat when þe schone fel awey þat non schulde gadre þaym up. Also tornynge by þe emperour of Constantynnoble whiles he spak wiþ hym, sawe þat þere was no benche in þe hous, satte on his owne mantel, after þe manere and þe custume of his contre, and þat same dede his knyȝtes; and whan þey rose þay lefte þaire mantels þere as þe duke comaunded, seienge þat þey oghte nouȝt for to take awey wiþ þaym þaire benches and þaire sittynges; and whenne þe duke was prayed of þe emperour for to take costage and spence for the way, he answerde þat he Page  129, vol.7 wolde whiles he schulde goo in pilgrimage lyve on his owne, bote in comynge aȝen he wolde doo the emperours will; wherfore þe kyng and emperour forbeed þat any schulde selle hym woode ȝe forto seþe his mete and vitailles wiþ, but þe duke bouȝte notes wiþ þe whiche he seþe his mete and vitailles; þe emperour forsoþe, wondrynge þe worþynesse of þe duke, fro*. [for MS.] þat tyme forthe he ordeyned benches in his court in stede of þe forsaide mantelles. It was þat tyme forsoþe custome þat none schulde entre into þe holy citee, but he gaf prise or mede, wherfor meny men herynge of þe comynge of þis duke, asked help of hym; to whom he swore by þe herte of his body þat also longe as o peny he schulde hym self entre þe laste; whiche herynge a noble Sarcene þat was lord of þat citee, which also hadde herde of þe worþynesse of þis duke, forbede also sone þat þere schulde noþing be taken of hym ne none þat folowed hym, and þat al þe offrynge þat was made þat day schulde be gyfen aȝen to þe duke; whiche also sone as he receyved it, he ȝaf it unto pore men; and sone aftir, as it saide bifore, he deide in Bithinie.

Page  131, vol.7

Capitulum vicesimum.

IOHN þe twentiþe pope satte in þe popehode after Benet ix. ȝere. Þis ȝere was Marianus of Scotland i-borne, by whos labour þis present cronycle is moche ledde. Marianus. Nor|weies forsakyng þair kyng seint Olavum for his sympelnes, brouȝte yn kyng Kanut;*. [wickedly slayn wrongly repeated here in MS.] whiche Olayve in þe fourþe ȝere after was wickedly slayn. Robert þe kyng of Fraunce deide, to whom succede his sone Hewe; whiche ȝere also Canute wente out of Denmarch into Rome; he ȝaf large ȝiftes to seint Petre; he delyvered þere þe scole of Saxons of al tribut; in comynge aȝen toward Engelond, he deled large almesse; he raunsoned out þe passage of pilgrimes in many places for gret prys and payment, þat þe primates of his reme were wont for to giffe unto þe pope: for to relese it of al whiche þinges he sent a lettre and a pistle to þe gentiles of Engelond, warnynge and amonyshynge þaym þat bifore his comynge þey schulde amende all evelles. Bene*. [Sic in MS.] IX., after Iohn, sat in þe popehode eiȝte ȝere; þese was cast out of þe popehode, and anoþer Silvestre by name undir ordeyned; but he also i-cast downe, Benet was restored. Bot ȝif eft he cast out, Iohn þe archepreest, þat is þe cheef preest of Seynt Iohn Portlatyn, was ordeyned, whiche wiþynne is i-called Gregorius VI. Þis Benette, Page  133, vol.7 whenne he hadde i-geten þe popehode for he was boistous and symple of lettrure and konnynge, he ordeyned anoþer pope for to execute þe office of holy chirche, whiche, when it displesed many men, þere was brouȝt in þe þridde, whiche schulde fulfille þe holy office of boþe, oon stryvynge aȝen two, and two aȝenst oon for þe popehode. Henry emperour, þe sone in lawe and suc|cessour of Conrad, þise þre i-put doun, violentliche ordeyned þe bisshop Rambergensis, whiche was called Clement þe secounde, of whom Henry hymself was corowned. Also his Henry com|pelled þe Romayns for to swere þat þey schulde nevere chese pope wiþ oute his consente. Þis pope Benet after his deth appered to a man in a wonderful liknesse, wiþ an asse tayle and a beres heved, seynge þat he apperede so as he lyved byfore. Þis ȝere deide Robert duke of Normandye, in pilgre|mage; to whome succeded William, his sone, waxynge a ȝong man, of whom it is told above. Marianus. Þis ȝere also kyng Canute, a litel bifore his deienge, made Swane kyng uppon Norway, whiche was supposed þe sone of þe self Canute and Elgyve of Hamptoun. Som men seiþ þat Elgyve, when sche myȝte nouȝt conceyve a child of þe kyng, þat sche underput to hir self lyenge in childebedde þe forseide Swane, þat was freschely borne of a preostes womman, and wilily enclyned. Page  135, vol.7 Kyng Canute deide at Septoun, bote he was buried in þe olde abbay at Wynchestre. Henricus, libro 6o. Of whom are tolde prevable and famous þinges: first þat he maried his douȝter to þe emperour Conrade; þe secounde þat solempnely he visited Rome, and come aȝen bryngynge wiþ hym a grete partie of þe crosse of our Lorde; þe þridde þat he sette ones his sittynge and his chaier in þe banke of þe see, when it bygan to folowe, comaundynge þe see þat it schulde nouȝt ascende uppon his londe, or þat it schulde nouȝt wete his lordes cloþes; þe see forsoþe of þe custome of his kynde ascended and weted þe kynges legges: þe kyng forsoþe, lepynge abak, seide: "Witeþ al mortal and dedley men þat the power of kynges is vayne, ne none worþy of þe name of kyng, outtake hym to whos lawes all þinges are underloute;" and fro þat tyme and houre he bare no crowne on his heved, but sette it on þe heved of þe crucifex at Wynchestre. Canute is dede; þere was a greet stryvynge at Oxenforde for successioun of þe rewme, for why Leofricus erle of Chestre, and oþer prynces and lordes of þe norþ partie of Tempse, wiþ men of Londoun, reysed up Harold Harefoot, as it was supposed, þe sone of Canute and Elgyve of Hamptoun, ȝaf al Godwyn desired for Hardeknute. Mari|anus. Som men tolde þat þis Harold was a sowter sone, and*. [Sic in MS.]Page  137, vol.7 queyntly underput by þe forseide Elgive, as somtyme sche underput Swane. Harold þerfore reysed up into kyng, takynge fro some þe kynges richesse, put hir out of Engelond. Never|þeles þe erle of Flaundres norsched hir ful reverently. Ethel|noth archebisshop of Dover deide; after whom þe sevenþe day deide Ethelrik bisshop of Wynchestre, whiche hadde prayed God besily þat he schulde nouȝt longe overleve Ethel|noth. Wherfore Edsius, þe chapeleyne of Harold, succeded to þe see of Dover, and Stigand, anoþer chapeleyn of þe kynges, on to þe see of Wynchestre: þe whiche aftirward usurped þe see of Caunterbury after Edsius.*. [Edsium MS.] Þis Harold, after þe fourþ yere of his reigne, deide at Londoun, and i-buried at West|mynstre; þe whiche whan he was deed, þe gentiles of þe lond sente for Hardeknute þe kyng of Denmark, dwellynge wiþ his moder at Flaundres.

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

Hardeknute comynge to Engelond, regned þre yere. Never|þeles he dede noþing þat was worþy of lovynge of fame; for why also sone he sente away Alfricus archebisshop of ȝork wiþ Godewyn bisshop of Londoun; he made þe body of Page  139, vol.7 kyng Harold newely i-buried in vengeaunce of his modir wronges, and þe heved i-kutte of to be cast into Tempse; but fisshers fyndynge his body, ȝaf it to covenable sepulture. Also Hardeknute, of the unportable tribute of Engelond, made viii. marc to be paide to every steresman of his navy; alle þe governaunce of his reme commytted he to þe counseil of his modir and Goodwyn. Þis kyng whiles he put a tribut to Eng|lisshe men þat myȝte nouȝt be borne, two*. [to MS.] mynystres of þe kyng for þat erand were slayn at Worcestre, for whiche cause þe citee was destroyed and brend. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Also þis kyng coupled to Henry emperour Gonnyld his suster, a ful faire womman i-getten of Canute and Emme, de|sired moche of many gentiles in his moder tyme, bot not i-graunted ne geten; whiche was longtyme after accused of avow|trye; sche putte hir nurri, whiche sche had brouȝt with hir out of Engelond, for to fiȝte aȝenst þe accuser, a man of ageantȝ mochilnesse, whiche þoruȝ Goddes grace, þe hamme i-kut and hoxened, overcome þe accusour. Guynuld glad for þat, and gaf to hire housbonde a perpetuel dyvorsynge and forsakynge, ne for no prayere assented to her housbonde halsynges, but took þe holy veyle. Henricus, libro 6o, et Marianus. In þe tyme of þis Hardeknute, Alfrede and Edward, þe sones of Egelrede Page  141, vol.7 somtyme and of Emmes, after longe dwellynge in Normandie, i-taken many knyȝtes of Normandie, come to Wynchestre to speke wiþ þer moder. Godwyne þynkynge byfore for to marie his douȝter to Edward, as to þe ȝonge and þe more symple, and þat Alfrede wolde sette suche weddynge at litel, schewed to þe gentiles of Engelond, þat it was nouȝt siker if any man under colour and geting of kynrede schulde brynge so greet plente of straungers and deceyvable folk, wherfore it byhoved hem þat were i-comen be punsched. Þerfore at Gildeforde he slew sixe hondred men, ffor why of the Nor|mandes þat war i-brouȝt þider nyne evermore i-heveded þe tenþe abood; but ȝit when hym þouȝte þat þere was lefte to manye, he made ȝit þe tenþe parte to be tiþed, of þe whiche he made þe firste endes of her bowels to be festned to stakes reised up, and þanne þe bodies for to be led aboute unto þe laste of þaire entreilles were drawen out. Alfridus forsoþe after his blyndynge sent unto Hely liffed over but fewe dayes. Þis þing i-herd, Emme sent hastily Edward hir sone to Normandie. Godwyne forsoþe, blamed aftirward of þe kyng Hardeknute and þe gentiles of þise þinges, swore þat he didde nevere suche þinges, bot constreyned by þe force of kyng Harold. Þe em|perour Conrade þe firste deide, succeded Henry þe secounde, Page  143, vol.7 his sone-in-lawe, of whom above and wiþynne ben red wonder|ful þinges, and he regnede seventene yere, forsoþe he gaf to pore folk.*. [The scribe has made some omission here. See Harl. below.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. He also hadde a suster a nonne, and he loved hire so moche þat unneþe any tyme wolde he suffre hir be fro his side; wherfore whiles uppon a nyght a clerk of þe court hadde i-sleped wiþ hire unto þe mornynge, and snow had covered al þe erþe, by counseil avised atwixe hem, þe clerk made hire for to bere hym on hir bak out of þe court, whiche þe kyng sawe out at a wyndowe whiles he rose for to pisse. He hilde hym stille unto þe tyme þat a bisshopriche was vacant, and þan he seide unto þe clerk þus: "Take þis bisshopriche, and loke þat over þis tyme þou ride not on a wommans bak." And eftsones an abbey of nonnes vacant, he seide to his suster, "Take þis abbay,*. [Bis in MS.] take þis abbay, and loke þat þou bere nevere no clerk rydynge." Þey forsoþe taken absteyned þaym ever aftirward. Also þe emperour comynge ones on þe Sonday of Quynquagesme to a chapel beside þe forest, þat he myȝte prively here a masse, where a foule and unschaply preost mynistred, þe kyng forsoþe marveilled why God, þat was so Page  145, vol.7 faire, wolde suffre his creature, þat was so foule, for to trete and handele his sacramentes; when forsoþe it was comen toward þe tracte in whiche it is songen, Scitote quoniam Dominus ipse est Deus,—þat is, "Wete ȝe oure Lord hym self is God," þe preost, as it ware blamynge þe dulnes and sleuþe of his clerk, byholdynge to þe emperour, seide, Ipse fecit nos, et non ipsi nos,—þat is, "He made us, and nouȝt we oureself." Þe whiche i-seide, þe emperour i-smyten aȝen promoted hym sone into a bisshop; whiche honested with worþy maneres his place and his degre. For why he parted and dissevered a riche man þat hadde ladde away a nonne from hir,*. [Sic in MS.] and restored here aȝen to hir abbay. Bot afterward þe same man fallynge aȝen, he cursed hym and alle þo þat comuned with him; he forsoþe dwellynge so in his gardyne unto his laste infirmite, prayed þe bisshop þat he wolde assoyle hym. To whome he answerde, "If þat cursed man leve þat cursed woman, assoilede be he; and if he wil nouȝt, þis day twelf|monþe, what houre I die, he schal die, and answere byfore hiȝe God of his dede:" whiche þing was i-doo; for why suche a day þe ȝere overtorned þey boþe deide. The same kyng hadde in his chapel a clerk passing in konnynge of lettrure and semelynes of voyce, but travailled wiþ freeltee of flesche, whome þe emperour in a solempne day commaunded to rede þe gospel, but he refused it, for in þe nyȝt byfore he Page  147, vol.7 viled hym self with a comoun womman. "Þan," seide þe emperoure, "ouþer rede it, or forsake my lond." Also sone his bagges and harneys i-gadred to gidre, he made hym redy for to goo, þe emperour forsoþe commaunded to his mynistres þat prively sche*. [Sic in MS.] schulde folwe hym, and if he wente away þat þey schulde calle hym aȝen; whiche whiles it was i-done þe kyng seide unto hym, "I am glad of þy stedfastnesse, þat þu settest more by þe drede of God þan be my lond and my contre, and more reward of hevenly wreþþe þan of my manassynges, þerfore leve þat wode love þat þou labourest with, and I schal make the a bisshop." Also þis Henry whan he was in þe court of Conrad, he took fro a clerk a silver pipe, as childre be wont to playe wiþ, for the whiche he hiȝt to þe clerk by covenant a bisshopriche whan he were emperour; at þe laste, whan he was emperor, þe þing þat was somtyme hiȝt was asked and graunted. Sone after þe emperour was i-smyte with a grevous seeknes, so þat adaies he felt noþing ne tasted. At þe laste, after þe prayers of good men þat stood beside he i-quykned aȝen, called to hym þe clerk þat was so promoted, and þoruȝ sentence of counseile he made hym be deposed. He knowleched forsoþe þat by þe space of þo þre dayes he was dissesed of þe develes, whiche kest on hym þoruȝ myddes of þat pipe most brennynge flamme, in reward of whiche flamme Page  149, vol.7 oure fire is but lewk. Bot a ȝong man comynge to hym wiþ a chalice of gold filled ful of water, with sprinkelynge of þe water quenched þoo brennynges. Þat ȝong man, he seide, was seint Laurence, whos chirche dissolved and lowsed þoruȝ longe rotnes he reparailde and made aȝen, and ȝaf a chalys. Martinus. In tyme of þis Henry, so moche scismacye was in þe chirche of Rome, þat þre men were chosen popes, for why a preost, Gracianus by name, gat þe popehode for money i-giffen; bote þogh al þis Gracianus by name profred a crowne of golde to þis Henry comynge to Rome for to cese þe cismacie, neverþeles he was convicte of symonye and deposed, and anoþer i-ordeyned and underput. Also in þe dayes of þis emperour was i-founde at Rome þe body of Pallantes, unroten and incorupt, wiþ openynge and gapynge of a wounde of foure feet and an half, his body overcomen þe heiȝt of þe wal; at his heved was a lanterne unquenchable, þat myȝt nouȝt be quenched nouþer wiþ wynde ne wiþ none moysture ne wetnes, unto þe tyme þat a litel hole y-made under þe flamme þe eyer entred in. His epithphy*. [Sic in MS.]—þat is, writynge on his grave—helde þese two vers: Filius Evandri Pallas, quem lancea Turni militis*. [militus, MS.]occidit, more suo jacet hic;—þat is, "Pallas Evandre sone,*. [sone] bis in MS.] whom knyȝte Turnus spere slew, lieth here on his manere." Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. I trowe þat þise vers was nouȝt made þan whenne þis geaunt was i-buryed, þouȝ alle Carment, Evandre modir, fonde first Latines lettres; bot raþer I trowe þat þey were i-made aftirward, of Ennyo or som oþer poete. And in Page  151, vol.7 processe of tyme þat body y-wette wiþ dewy droppes knowe þe comoun corrupcioun of dedly men, þe snowe*. [Sic in MS.; lege senowe.] folwynge and þe skyn y-loused.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.*. [On the margin of MS. is written: Thys chapter ys good to be sene well.]

GREGORIE þe sixte, first called Gracianus, after Benet, sat almost foure ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 3o. Þis man was a man of religioun and felnes, dede bataille som|tyme wiþ Henricus emperour. Also he fonde þe state of þe popehede of Rome so i-fallen doun þat outtake a fewe walled townes þat were nere to þe citee, and þe offrynges of trewe men unneþe hadde he to hym and his cardinals any þing to lyflode; al oþer were taken away of robbours, oþer elles oþere hadde possessioun, in so moche þat þe self offrynges were reft fro þe autters under naked swerdes, or elles þay were robbed in open wayes. Wherfore eche province cessed for to take Rome way, for robbours and for brigantes þat was ther armed þeves in Seynt Petres chirche self. Þis Gregorie seynge þese bygan for to do softely wiþ þaym wiþ love and wordes, but when he profite no þing, wiþ þe sentence of cursynge he cutte þaym fro þe body of holy chirche þat dide such þinges or ham þat comuned wiþ hem þat dide so. Forsoþe when þe pope sigh it Page  153, vol.7 profited nouȝt, but stired more perille of deth ageyns hym self, he wroot unto the emperour þat he schulde helpe holy chirche in hir labour. He forsothe excusynge hym by the Wandale bataille, prayed to the pope þat in þe emperoures stede, and wiþ þe emperours costage, he wolde putte to his handes. Wherfore þe pope demynge þat it was for to use cuttynge and scherynge iren, he gat hym armes and horsmen on every side, whiche occupienge first Seint Peter chirche, ouþer they drowe out or slow þe robbours of þe offringes. After þe pope recovered his lordschippes þat were ilost. In þe mene tyme þe Romayns knyȝtes þat were wont for to lyve of ravayne, called þe pope a blood schewere, unworþy to þe office of þe autre, in so moche þat many of þe cardinals enclyned into þilke sentence, ordeyned and demed þat þe pope be not beried in holy chirche. Whiche in his last sekenes perseyvynge þat, he aresoned þe companye of cardynales*. [enclyned . . . cardynales] re|peated in MS. by error of scribe.] in þis manere: "Breþeren, I mervaille moche þat ȝe deme so hastely ȝoure pope þat haþ lyved so þat I have ȝitte out all my patrimonye into ȝoure prophetes, þat I have despised þe loose and þe fame of þe world for ȝoure delyver|ynge; wherfore if oþere wolde have made suche froward þinges aȝenst me ȝe auȝt for to soften þe opiniouns of fonde men wiþ better interpretacioun*. [Something omitted.] þe robbours; þerfore siþen eche Page  155, vol.7 man dede aught to be poundred or demed after þe entencioun of hym þat doþ, after þis, ȝif þyn eyȝen be symple, þat is þyn intencioun riȝt, al þy body schal be briȝt, þat is al þe hepe of þy dedes. I dede somtyme almesse to a pore man, he schewed my benefete to a robbour, wherfore he was spoylled and slayne. Whether þat I am to be blamed for I gaf to a pilgryme whereþoruȝ he wente into deth? God forbede, ffor þe covetise forsoþe stered þe robbour þerto, and nouȝt my liberalnes. So also in þe lawes, for in dyvers rewardes on dede is punsched, and a knyȝt þat cast doun his enemy in bataille is loved, for þe firste sleuþe for covetise, and the secounde for helþe of þe contre. Also somtyme pope Adrian þe firste was praysed for þat he graunted to Charles þe mynistres of prelates,*. [of prelates] bis in MS.] oure prelates aren loved for þat þey doon þe contrarie, takynge away suche power fro princes: þan was it graunted resonably for som cause þere beynge þat now resonably is denyed, for þan Charles soule was nouȝt infecte wiþ covetise, and þe pope see was fer fro þe elites, and þe prince disposed noþing by avarice. But now þe covetise of princes feleþ al þing. On þis manere may my cause be in|clyned Page  157, vol.7 into anoþer partie, it may be made lethy, and it may be reysed up. But ȝe say it is nouȝt þe office of a bisshop þat he schede blood or for to make it to be sched. I graunte, neverþeles it is byholdinge to hym þat if he se an innocent perische, þat he goo þere agayne wiþ tonge and hond, for why Ezechiel accuseþ þe preostes þat þey stood nouȝt agayn þe contrarie party, he*. [Sic.] made nouȝt þeym self a walle for þe house of oure Lord. Þere beeþ two persones in þe chirche of God ordeyned for to kutte away synnes, oon þat scharpeþ his spekynge, þe toþer þat bereþ a swerd. Witnes God and ȝow, I armed my tonge aȝenst enemyes of holy chirche als longe as I myȝte profete by messangers, and by epistles and lettres I certefied hym whom it falleþ for to doo any þing with þe swerd. He wroot agayn þat he was occupied wiþ the bataille of Wandale, prayeng þat wiþ my labour and his costage I wolde destourble þe þeves, þerfore what schulde I doo þanne whanne he sente me his partys, seynge þe sleynge of þe citeseyns, þe harmynge of pilgrymes, myscheve and poverte of þe pope and cardinales? And who so spareth a þeef he geveþ cause þat an innocent be slayn. Bot pera|venture þere is an objectioun, it falleþ nouȝt a preost þat he schede blood; I graunte wele. But if þat he fele hym self þat delivereþ þe innocent, and oppressith þe gilty, and þey beþ blessed þat kepeþ dome and doþ rightwisnesse, and Phi|nees Page  159, vol.7 and Mathathias ben praysed, whiche stiked þaym þat trespassed. Bot moche lesse*. [awe, wrongly inserted in MS.] owe we for to suffre oure holy sacramentes for to be polute and defouled, þan þay þaire derke privetees; and Zacharie the bisshop put out of þe temple þe kyng Osyam þat encensed, and wiþ oute doute he hadde slayn hym, bote if he hadde gyfen stede. For soþe I gaf benefice to þaym þat to whiche me semeþ have giffen torment or deþ. For why? a wicked synful man þe lenger he lyveþ þe more synne and payne he geteþ, þerfore who so schorteþ hym his lyf, he lesneþ hym syn and payne, and so he gyfeþ hym benefeet. But þat in þese þinges noþer I be bygiled ne ȝe be bygiled, put my body when I am dede bifore þe dores of þe chirche ful faste spered, and ȝif þe dores þoruȝ þe sonde of God be nouȝt opened dooþ of my body what so ȝe wil." And when it was done, as he com|maunded, sodenly a whirlewynd comynge caste doun the dores wiþ þe lokkes, and keste in þe dede body unto þe innere wall of þe chirche; whiche myracle i-sene þe cardinals with þe peple beried hym in Seynt Peter his chirche. Also in þis ȝere when Hardeknute þe kyng at a bridale feste at Lambehithe beside Londoun drank stondynge hole and murye, sodenly he fil doun, and so waxynge dombe he deide þe vi. idus of Iunii, and i-buried at Wynchestre wiþ his fadir. Henricus, libro 6o. Whiche was seide þat he was of so moche liberalte þat he made Page  161, vol.7 þe kynges and messes be diȝt redy foure tymes in a day, for hym had lever þat þe metes þat were sette bifore þaym þat were boden were i-left, þan eny þing þat schulde be sette to fore þaym schulde be asked. Willielmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Also sone it was sent into Normandye ffor Edward to be coroned kyng, hostage i-giffen, so ferforþ þat he brynge wiþ hym but fewe Normandyes. Þan helped the partie of Edward Leofric erle of Chestre, Godwyn duke of Westsex, and Lev|ynge, bisshop of Worcester. ℞. Neverþeles Marianus telleþ þat Hardeknute sent first for Edward his broþer, þat he schulde make hym abide wiþ hym in his contree. Willielmus de Regibus et Marianus.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

EDWARD þerfore comynge to Engelonde was corowned kyng at Westmynster of Edsye, archebisshop of Canturbury, and he regned almost foure and twenty ȝere. This kyng forsoþe wedded Edithe, Edwynus douȝter, whiche he treted wiþ suche craft, þat nouþer he removed hir fro his bed, ne he knewe her nouȝt on womanis manere, whiche wheþer he dede for hatre|den of hir kynrede or for love of chastite I have nouȝt certayn proved. Neverþeles þis is seide most comounly, þat þe kyng lyved evermore wiþoute touchynge of woman: his owne moder Page  163, vol.7 forsoþe nouþer he worschipped fully ne confounded hire openly. Neverþeles by þe counseille of Godwyne he took fro hire al hire precious þinges oþer for sche was over hard unto hym, or for sche charged to litel to gif hym any þing. Also he called out of Normandie some þat was famuliar to hym, þerfore to be rewarded, among whiche he made oon Robert, a monk of Gementicus, bisshop of Londoun, and after archebisshop of Canturbury; in whos counseilles þe kyng hym self, þat was symple, so moche rested þat, opportunite i-gete, he outlawed Godwyne his fader in lawe wiþ his sones, his owne moder for suspecte famuliarite and homlynes deprived of al hire goodes, putte hire in þe abbay of Werwelle, and prisoned bisshop Aylewyn. But Emme lousely i-kept, wroot unto þe bisshoppis of Engelond, in whiche sche tristed þat sche was more tor|mented and disesed of the unworschippe and blamynge of þe bisshop þan of hire own schame, and þat sche was redy for to prove by þe dome of God and examynynge of þe brennynge fire þat þe bisshop was unriȝtfully diffamed. At þe laste þe bis|shoppes comynge to þe kyng, þey hadde inclyned hym [by] þeyre prayers, bot þat Robert bisshop of Caunterbury agayn-stood it. "How," quod he, "breþeren and bisshoppes, dar ȝe diffende þat wood best and no womman, whiche diffamede þe kyng hir sone, whiche calleþ her leccherous lemman oure Lordes preest? But Page  165, vol.7 siþen a womman wil purge the bisshop, who schal purge hire, whiche is seide [to] have consented unto þe deth of hir sone Alurede, and procurede venym unto Edward? Bot be it þat sche have auctorite above þe condicioun of hire kynde. Never|þeles if sche passe unhurte bare foot and fulsteppes foure paas for her self, andfyve contynued paas forþe bisshop, uppon nyne brennynge cultres or schares, let here eskape of his enpeche|ment." Also sone þe day of examinacioun was sette, in þe whiche þe kyng and all oþer gentiles out take bisshop Robert come þider. Bot þe nyȝt þat went byfore þe day of exame|nynge, þe womman prayenge at þe sepulcre of seynt Swithyne of Wynchestre was conforted; wher yn þe day folwynge, hir eyȝen i-covered, sche passed unhert nyne brennynge cultres. Þan þe kyng sorwynge, and askynge forgifnes, took discipline of eiþer bisshop, and also of his moder, and restored þat he hadde taken fro þaym. Þan þe queene Emme gaf unto seynt Swithyn nyne maneres for þe nyne cultres þat sche hadde passed. Robert forsoþe þe bisshop of Canturbury fled unto Normandie. Ma|rianus. Elfworde bisshop of Londoun, and somtyme abbot of Evesham, for he sufficed not inow for overmoche seeknes of his body unto so moche governaunce, wolde have bene president at Evesham, but þe breþer of þe place denyenge þat, godes and bookes þat oþer he or his predecessours hadde giffen Page  167, vol.7 to Evesham i-taken away, he wente to Ramesey, and þere sone aftir he deide and was i-buried; to whom succedit Robert. Marianus. Kyng Edward gedred a strong navey at Sand|wiche haven, in wil for to fiȝte aȝenst Harold Harfage, kyng of Norwaye, but þe bataile*. [was here inserted in MS.] giffen hym by Swane þe kyng of Denmark letted alle. Anoþer tyme þey telle þat kyng Edward agayns his custome lough among þe solempnetes of þe masses. Þey þat stood aboute merveillynge, and askynge the cause, þe kyng seide: "It was acorded atwixe þe Danes and þe Nor|weyes for to assaille Engelond, bot alle þyng redy for to schippe profred to þaym þat schulde shippe a coppe of meth for to drynke, prayeng a opprobrious a reprevynge name unto þaym but if they drank, and whiles coppe foloweþ to cuppe dronkenhede was torned into jangelynge, jangelynge into stryvynge, stryvynge into fiȝtynge, and so disparbled þay and twynned asondre. And I trowe þat in my dayes aliens schal nouȝt wexe in my land." Benette þe tenþe, pope after Gre|gory, Page  169, vol.7 was pope almost two ȝere, þe whiche for he hadde bouȝt þe popehede was deposed of þe emperour Henry, and Clement þe secounde i-ordeyned, þe whiche of oo ȝere in dede succedid Poppo, whiche was called Damasus þe secounde, and he was two monþes, whiche in dede succedid Leo þe nynþe fyve ȝere. Þe forseide Harolde, kyng of Norway, þe broþer of seint Olave on þe modir side, subjectid unto hym Denmark, Svane þe kyng of Denmark dryven out. Kyng Svane forsoþe so i-put out, asked help of þe kyng of Engelond. Þe erle Godwyn assented, and oþer gentiles counseilled nay; wherfore kyng Harolde y|ded Svane recovered Denmark. Þis ȝere Levyngus þe bisshop of Worcestre y-dede, Alrede, whiche was monk at Wynches|tre, and after was abbot at Tavestok, suceeded in þe see of Worcestre. Marianus. A greet snow*. [swow, MS.] fil in þe west parties of Engelond, so þat it brak þe trees of þe wodes, and it dured fro þe kalends of Januarii unto seynt Patrik his day; after þat fol|wede Page  171, vol.7 mortalite of men, rotynge of bestes, and thunder lemynge brend þe cornes. Þis ȝere also was done a bataille atwix þe kyng of Fraunce and þe gentiles of Normandie, for þat þey wolde nouȝt admitte William for duke; whiche when þey were overcomen, duke William outlawed some of þaym, and som he honged. Aboute þise tymes knyȝte Harlewyne in Normandie, temporal knyȝthode forsakyn, he made Becc abbey in Nor|mandie, þat ȝit is called Becherlewyn; hym self abbot and governour was nouȝt aschamed for to bere stones and cement and morter to þe makynge, for to bake brede, and forto doo oþer unclennesse. To whom God sente in helpynge and coun|seillynge two lanternes of þe world, men of ful passynge letterature, Lanfranc and Anselme, of þe whiche þat one after þat oþer was i-made priour in þe forseide place, and afterward archebisshop of Canturbury. Marianus. Þis ȝere pope Leo, and Svane kyng of Denmark, went wiþ Henry emperour ageyns Baldewyne erle of Flaundres; and Edward kyng of Engelond keped þe see wiþ his navey unto þe tyme þe empe|rour hadde geten his wille. Also þis pope Leo þe nynþe havynge remorse of conscience þat he was somwhat put yn by þe empe|roure lefte the popehede but eft sones was he chosen truly. Also þis ȝere Irische men were robbours on þe see, and entred into þe see of Severne, and wiþ the help of Gryffyn, kyng of Page  173, vol.7 Wales, þey dede moche robberie about þe water of Vaga. In þe mene tyme Svane, þe eldest sone of Godwyne, þat late hadde leyne by Edgyve abbesse of Leof abbay, and hadde purposed to have wedded here, and þerfore hadde forsaken and left Engelond, come aȝen to Engelond ȝif peraventure he myȝte be accorded wiþ the kyng. Bot in his comynge he slowȝ erle Beorne, his sustre sone, whiche purposed for to have accorded hym; þerfore he fledde into Flaunders unto the tyme þat he myȝte be reconciled by Aldrede þe archebisshop of ȝork and by þe bisshop of Worcestre. Marianus.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

KYNG Edward discharged Englische men of þe grevous tribute þat Egelrede his fader made for to be paide to þe Dan|ysche soudeours, and it hadde endured þanne fourty ȝere. Þis ȝere Edsy, þe archebisshop of Dovore, deide. Kyng Edward ȝaf þe archebisshopriche to Robert his familier, whom he made somtyme bisshop of Londoun. After þis, in þe monþe of Sep|tembre, Eustache þe erle of Bonone, whiche hadde wedded Godan, kyng Edward his suster, rove up at Dovere, whos Page  175, vol.7 knyȝtes, whiles þey souȝte unwisly þaire herbergage, þey slouȝ oon of þe men of þe citee; the citeseyns forsoþe slowȝ oon of his knyȝtes. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o, et Marianus. At þe laste þere i-made a greet fiȝtynge, þe men of þe citee slowȝ twenty men of þe companye of þe erles, oþer wiþoute noumbre i-wounded, þe erle hym self wiþ anoþer felawe unneþe eschapynge*. [Sic in MS. For the sense see Harleian below.] when the kyng of Gloucestre, whom he stired grevously ageyns Englische men: wherfore Godwyn erle of Kent was warned by þe kynges court þat he wiþ his oost venged þe wrong of þe erle. He forsoþe seynge þat aliens were more myȝti anence þe kyng, and willynge þat his owne citeseyns were defended, answerd þat it were riȝt þat þe kepers of þe castel of Dover were called and aresoned, whiche ȝif þey myȝte excuse þaym self and make an ende, þey myȝte goo away unharmed, and elles þat þey schulde make satisfaccioun to þe kyng and to þe erle in þeire goodes and þaire bodies þerfore. For it semed to þe kyng þat his comaundement was sette litel by. Þe gentiles of þe reme ware called to gedre at Gloucestre, namely, Leofric Page  177, vol.7 erle of Merscheland and Siward of Norþhumberlond, þat þey schulde agaynestonde Godwyn, þe whiche of his erldomes of Kent, Sotheraye and Westsex; and also Suano, his first sone, þe whiche of his erldomes and schires of Barkschire, Oxenford|schire and Gloucestreschire; and Harolde, þe whiche of his erldome and schires Essex, Estangle and Huntyngdon had gedred a greet hoste at Beverston. Godwyne i-blamed þat he hadde gadred to gedre so greet an oost, he answerde þat he did so forto pese and refreyne Walschemen; bot men of Wales turned þe greve and þe offense unto hym. Þerfore a litel somwhat accordement procured, a counseille was assigned at Londoun for þis þing, so forsoþe þat Godwyne wiþ Harold and twelve men allone schulde come to þe court unarmed, and þat þey schulde gif ageyn to þe kyng þe knyȝtes service þat were dewe to þaym þoruȝ Engelond. Agaynward þay allegged þat þay myȝte not wiþ oute plegges and ostage come ne goo to þe semble of deceyvable peple, ne wiþ oute perille ne reprove þey myȝte nouȝt walke wiþ so fewe men and unwarned. In þe mene tyme þe knyȝtes of Godwyn wiþdrawynge þaym for drede of þe kynges hooste, it was opounly cried by þe kynges criers and bedelles, þat oþer Godwyn schulde presente hym self to þe kynges court in þe forme written bifore, or elles þat he schulde go out of Engelond wiþ ynne fyve dayes; wherfore Godwyn Page  179, vol.7 wiþ his þre sones, Suane, Tosty, and Gurth, by þe ile of Thorney schipped into Flaundres to þe erle Baldewyne, whos douȝter Judith Swane his sone hadde wedded. Harold forsoþe and Leofwyne at Bristoll wer ledde unto Irlond, whos irldom Algar Leofrices sone receyvynge governed it nobly. After|ward unto Harold i-comen agayn he restored it gladly, and after Harold translated unto his fadres erldom he asked it man|fully; wherfore kyng Edward in pleyn parlement outlawed Godwyne wiþ his sones, his owne queene, forsoȝe Edithe God|wyne his douȝter, wiþ one mayden, he putte with oute any worschippe at þe abbey of Werwell. Þe fader of þe sones outlawed þerfore two ȝere fully, þey dede moche robberie in the marches and costes of Yngelond, in so moche þat a grete navey i-gedred þey ordeyned for to have fouȝten by schippe wiþ the kyng; but þe gentiles goynge bytwixe at the laste, after two ȝere pees was reformed atwixe hem, and queene i-called agayne so forsoþe þat Wilnote, Godewyn sone, and Hacun Suane sone, were giffen ostages and plegge of þe pese, þe whiche kyng Edward sent also sone unto William duke of Normandye for to be keped. Neverþeles*. [A part of this sentence is written twice in MS.] durynge þe outlawynge, William þe erle and duke of Normandye come into Engelond, þe Page  181, vol.7 whiche liberally rewarded and ȝeven ȝiftes went aȝen to Nor|mandye. And queene Emme, the kynges moder, deide and was i-buried at Wynchestre. Also Mariane of Scotlond, in þe fyve and þritty ȝere of his age, lefte þe world, and goynge in pilgrym|age, he was schaven in an abbey of Scottische men at Coloyne, a citee in Almeyn. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 1o, et Marianus. Þis ȝere were accorded wiþ kyng Edward God|wyne and al his children, out take Suane his firste sone, whiche i-led by repentaunce for þe deþ of Beorn his suster son,*. [som, MS.] wente barefoot out of Flaundres unto Ierusalem, and fro þens, goynge unto Luciam, deide for cold þat he hadde taken. Fro þis tyme forþ þe Normandes, þat were þe kynges counseillours, and hadde counseilled þe kynge any evel þinges or wicked, war outlawed, namely, Robert archebisshop of Canturbury, þat agayns Godwyne and Englisshe men first in þis partie hadde souned more cleerly his horne and his voys, whiche dredynge hym and goynge byfore his preiudice, went unto Rome, and comynge agayn wiþ the popes lettres, deide at his owne abbey of Gementicum. To whom succeded Stigand, whiche somtyme admitted in þe bisshopriche of Schirbourne, assailled þe bis|shopriche of Wynchestre; a man forsoþe, as almost al oþer bisshoppes þat tyme in Engelond, þat was unlettred, but ful Page  183, vol.7 myghty in money, and plesynge, and fongyng; wherfore he deserveþ nevere for to gete his pal to Rome þouȝ al þat byenge and sellynge wirk moche þere. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Þan was it openly songen in þe hiȝe weies þat he was not able*. [Sic in MS.] a bisshopriche þat couthe nouȝt mysuse þe pompis of þe world, þe hauntinge of leccherous þynges, þe entisementis of glotenye, þe apparaillynge of cloþinge, þe noyse and crienge of mynystres, þe folwynge and companye of horsmen; but litel for to þynke of þe profete and wynnynge of soules. And when it was put unto þaym þat a bisshop auȝte for to þinke on religioun a lecchour,*. [Sic in MS.] and nouȝt of ambicioun and covetise and moneye, þey answerde þis vers of metre: "Nunc aliud tempus, alii pro tempore mores;" þat is, Now it is anoþer tyme, and oþer maneres for þe tyme; so by þe auctorite of þe þing softnynge þe liȝtnesse of þe answere. Marianus. In þese dayes a famous clerk, Barbosus, was at Irland, and a man of wonderful religioun, so moche þat he helde a greet scole of clerkes and lewed men and maydons; but, for he schare þe maydens in manere of his scolers, he was put out of Irlond. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Aboute þese dayes deide seynt Alfwold, þe laste bisshop of Schirborne, whiche of a monk of Wynchestre was made bisshop. Among þe grete festes þat þan were holden and customed in Engelond fro þe comynge of þe Danes, he usede breed and water; a man þat was devoute Page  185, vol.7 in alle þinges to seint Marie and seint Cuthbert; whos see after his deth none myȝte oppresse slepyng unpunsched, þat he ne schulde sterte aȝe afferd wiþ blak and foule ymages. Þerfore somtyme when þer was risen a disesy discord atwixe hym and erle Godewyn, and myȝt nouȝt be seced þe day þat was set for to have peesed it, þe bisshop wrooþ seide in goynge away: "By my lady seint Marie, it schal be evel unto hym;" and Godwyne fro þat houre hadde no rest for gnawynge of his bowels, unto he hadde taken þe blessing of þe bisshop. At þe laste þis bisshop wente unto Duram, where, as it semed of greet booldenesse and hardinesse, þe grave i-pulled away, he spak to seint Cuthbert as to his frend, where he put doun þe gifte of his love and wente away.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

VICTOR þe secounde, after Leon, satte in þe popehede two ȝere and þre monþes, whiche, a seyne and a convocacioun made at Florence of Italie, deposed many bisshoppes for symony and fornicacioun. Marianus. Þis ȝere þe noble duke Siward of Norþhumberland, by þe comaundement of kyng Edward, with an ooste of horsmen and wiþ a navey, al to-brak and defouled Scotland; he droof out þe kyng, and ordeyned Malcolne, þe Page  187, vol.7 kynges sone of Comberlond, kyng þerynne. Neverþeles in þat bataille Siward sone was slayn; whiche when þe fadir knewe þat he deide of a wounde receyved in þe furþer partie of his body, al þogh he sorwed of þe deeth, neverþeles of þe har|dines of his sone he ioyed. Þis ȝere Wolsy þe bisshop of Lichefeeld deide, to whom succeded Leofwyne, þe abbot of Coventre. Also þis ȝere in þe morn after Esterne, while God|wyn satt at kyng Edward his bord at Wyndesore, it byfel þat oon of þe kynges children com yn wiþ þe kynges cuppe, and þat oon foot snaperid, and he hilde hym up wiþ þe oþer, and spilt nauȝt þe drynke; whiche Godwyne seynge seide lawhynge: "Now oo broþer helped anoþer." Þerto þe kyng answerde: "So hadde Alfrede my broþer helped me, if Godwyn had i-suffred." Þe erle perceyvynge of þise þat he hadde seide to moche, and þat þe kyng mente of þe tresone of his broþer, he seide to þe king: "Sire, as I see it is ofte tymes tolde to þe þat I schulde have travailled and besied me unto þe deth of þi broþer, and to þi tresoun, so myȝte I swolowe wiþ heele þe morsel of brede þat I holde in my hond, as I am nouȝt blamable ne gilty in þise þinges." And also sone he was choked. Harold, forsoþe at þe comaundement of þe kyng, drewe Page  189, vol.7 hym out fro underneþe þe bord, and buried hym at Wynchestre. Neverþeles Marianus telleþ þat Godwyne sittynge at þe mete wiþ þe kyng at Wynchestre, was taken wiþ a sodeyn seeknesse on a Moneday, þe morne after Esterne, and deide þe fifte day, þat is, on a Þorsday. Also þan þe erldome of Godewyne was giffen unto Harold, and þe erldome of Harold unto Algare, erle Leofric sone. Þis ȝere sent kyng Edward Aldred bisshop of Worcetre to þe emperoure Henri þe secounde, praying hym þat he wolde sende lettres unto Hungrie, and sende hym þens into Engelond his broþer sone Edward, þe sone of Edmond Irenside; for þe kyng had ordeyned for to have made hym his heire in Engelond. But þe þridde ȝere after comynge to Engelond he deide at Londoun, long bifor þe king. Þis Edward was þe fadir of Margarete þe queene of Scotland, and Edgar Adlyn; but Margarete bar kyng David of Malcolme, and Moold queene of Engelond. Item Marianus. Þis ȝere kyng Edward outlawed Algare Leofric sone wiþoute any gilt or blame, whiche also sone boden and profred and associed to Griffen kyng of Wales, þai wasted Herfordschire, þey took Herford, and brent þe mynster, and slowȝ vij. chanouns. Bot erle Harald sewid þaym fleynge, and stored Herford, and closid it with kesting up of a diche; but he pesid þaym þat were out|lawed Page  191, vol.7 and exciled wiþ þe kyng. Item Marianus. Also þis ȝere Siward, þe noble duke of Norþhumberlond, deide at ȝork of þe flux in his wombe, and was buried in þe abbay of Gal|manho, þe whiche he made hymself; and neverþeles bifore þat he deide-he made hym self to be armed, and sittynge upriȝt, seide: "Þus it seemeþ a knyȝt for [to] die, nouȝt for to be en febled as an oxlyvynge." But for his sone Waltef was a litel child lieng in cradel, his erldome was giffen to Tosty, Harold broþer, whiche was þere almost ten ȝere. Item, Marianus et Willelmus. Þis ȝere Herman of Flaundres, somtyme kyng Edward chapeleyne, bot þan bisshop of Wiltoun or of Ramis|bury, i-noyed of angwisch, askid of þe kyng, and almost had geten graunt, þat he myȝte ordeyne and sette his see or þe abbay of Malmesbury. Bote þe gentiles of þe reame nouȝt willynge þat, Herman i-greved lefte his bisshopriche, and wente over þe see, and at Seint Bertyne toke þe abite of monk, and so lyved he þre ȝere, Aldred þe bisshop of Worcestre in þe mene tyme mynistrynge his bisshopriche; bot as it is i-doone ofte tyme in suche men, þe sodeyn hastynes of religioun bygynnynge to wex colde, Herman after þre ȝere come ageyn to Engelond. It irked and weried a man þat was wont to service, þat was norsched with delices, for to wante his sustenynge þat he hadde felt and knowe fro his ȝouþe. And over þat a good tiding Page  193, vol.7 blowe in his ere, þat Godewyn þat wiþ stood agayn hym was deed, and þe bisshop of Shirburne deide, whos bisshopriche he had þouȝt longe for to have ooned unto his for þe olde byhestes of þe queene. Þis bisshopriche forsoþe þus ooned, wiþ þre townes of his, he helde longe, unto þe nynþe ȝere of William Conquerour, when he passid fro Shirburne unto Salesbury. Willelmus de Regibus. Þis ȝere Harold and Tosty playenge to gidre byfore þe kyng sittynge at a feste, Harold drouȝ his broþer by þe heer more bitterly þan þe play asked, and keste hym to the grounde; and, but if he hadde bene sonner refte out of his handes, he hadde strangled hym. Whiche þing i-sene, þe kyng schewed to þaym þat satte beside hym þat þere schulde come greet discord atwixe þese two breþeren, and þat þe oon schulde slee þat oþer. Forsoþe þe erle Godwyne had his first wif of kyng Canute, of þe whiche he gat a sone, whom an hors wantounly dryven and stired drowned in Tempse: þe modir forsoþe persched with þe strook of þe thunder lyȝtnynge, and no wonder, forþy þat sche putte to the bordel faire may|dons for hir riches. Aftir whos deth Godwyn wedded anoþer wif, of þe whiche he took sixe sones, þat is Swane, Harold, Tosty, Wilnot, and Gurth, and Leofric, of whos ende and passing forþ it is expressid in þinges þat gooþ bifore and þinges Page  195, vol.7 þat gooþ aftir. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Aboute þis tyme a womman in Berkelay, þat was wont and customed to evel craftes, as sche satte at hir mete at a feeste, a chowȝe þat sche hadde nursched delicatly, chatered more lowde þan it was wonte, þe whiche i-herde þe knyf fell out of þe womman's hond, hir visage wex pale, and sorowyng, and mournynge i|brouȝt forþ wiþ siȝhynge, "Now to day," quod sche, "my plowȝ is comen to þe laste sorwe;" whiche i-seide, a mes|sanger entrynge in tolde hir of þe deeþ of hir sone and perischynge of al hir meyny, of dounfallynge of hire hous. Also sone þe womman lay doun seke, and callede here hir childre þat were on lyve, a monk and a nonne, whiche comynge yn sche spak to hem þus: "I folwer of evel craft and of wikked lif trowed vaynly for to be defended and helped by ȝoure prayers, neverþeles I pray ȝow now þat ȝe allegge my tour|mentes, for of my soule is sentence i-brouȝt forþ; peraventure ȝe schal kepe my body if it be sewed in a hertes skyn, þe whiche ȝe leie wide open in a grave of stoon; þe coveryng stoon i-glewed wiþ lede and iron, constreyne it and fastne it wiþ þre cheynes of iren, and þat ȝe have psalmystres or saienge of psalmes of þe psawtre fourty nyȝtes, and dooþ also many masses by day; þat ȝif I leie so þre nyȝtes, þe fourþe day berieþ my body in þe erþe." Bot al for nouȝt, for why, þe two firste nyȝtes þe psalmes sownand, þe doores Page  197, vol.7 i-broken, þe develes wiþ liȝt besynes brak þe two uttermeste cheynes; þe þridde nyȝt, þe place tremelynge and quakynge, aboute þe cok crowynge, one þat was more feerful and uggle of visage and hyȝere of stature, þe ȝates i-bursten, comaunded þe dede body*. [boy, MS.] þat it schulde rise, whiche answerynge þat it myȝt nouȝt for þe bondes "Þu schalt be loused," quod he, "but for þyn evel and harme." Also sone al þe obstacles broken, he took her by þe hand, and drowh hir out of þe chirche, and putte her on a blak hors neyhynge bifore þe ȝates; and so went sche away wiþ hyȝ and loude crieng, i-herd by foure myle. Þis þowȝ al þe it be wonderful, never|þeles he schal nouȝt deme þaym untrowable þat haþ rad þe fourþe book of dyalogus of seint Gregorie, where þe develes cast out þe wicked man þat was i-buried in þe chirche, and also þe same is schewed above of Charles Marcello.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

HENRY þe þridde, þe sone of Henry þe secounde, regned at Almayne and Duchelond as it were fifty ȝere. He þis somtyme destorubled holy chirche agayns pope Hildebrand, willynge if he myȝte put*. [þat, MS.] in anoþer pope; but at þe laste, pesed and Page  199, vol.7 acorded, he went to þe holy lond wiþ duke Godfray and Beau|mond, of þe whiche it schal be seide wiþ ynne in þaire place. Stephene þe nynþe abbot of Mount Cassyn, after Victor sat pope viij. monþes. After whom Benet þe tenþe sat nyne monþes, whiche violently put yn afterward cesed. Agelric bisshop of Duram wilfully lefte þe bisshopriche, and went to þe abbay of Borgh, wher he was norsched and i-brouȝt [up,] where he lyved xij. ȝere in reste; to whom succedid Agelwyne his broþer. Marianus. Also þis ȝere loveable erle Leofric, sone of Leofwyn duke of Merschlond, deide þe secounde kalends of Octobre at his towne of Bromle, and i-buried at Coventre in þe abbey þat hym self made; þe whiche somtyme, by þe counseil of Godwyne*. [Sic MS., et infra.] his wif, þat was worschipper of God and our blessid lady seint Marie, reparailled and made riche þe abbeies of Leonensis beside Herford, Walacensis, Worcestre, Evysham, and two chirches in Leycestre, þat is of Seynt Iohn and Seint Warburgh; whos circumspeccioun whiles þat he lyved was moche profitable to þe erþe of Engelond. Also at þat besy instaunce of his wif he made his citee Coventre fre of all toll out take of hors, for þe whiche þing forto gete and pur|chase, his wif þe countesse Godwyne in a mornynge rood naked, Page  201, vol.7 but covered wiþ heere, þoruȝ þe myddes of þe citee. After þe deeth of Leoffric, Algar his sone took þe erldom of Mersche|lond. But þe same ȝere, convicted in tresoun agayns þe kyng, he was outlawed; but he was receyved of Griffyn kyng of Wales, as he was late byfore, and reconciled. Willelmus de Regibus. A citeseyne of þe citee of Rome, ȝong of age, Lucian by name, riche of money, hiȝe of kyn, wedded a noble wif, for whiche cause, his felawes called þerto, he made a feeste. After mete þey wente into þe feeld by cause for to uncharge þaire stomakes. Þe spouse hym self forsoþe, for he schulde use hym wiþ a bal, he putte his wedding ryng uppon þe fynger of an ymage þat was nere beside. But at þe laste, his bowels beynge warm for play, he wiþ drow hym self first out of þe play; but, þinkynge to take his ryng aȝen, he fand þe fynger of þe ymage wiþ þe ryng croked into þe palme of þe hond; and when he hadde stryven and wrastled þere longe, and anoþer myȝt pull awey in þe mene tyme, þe þing hid to his felawes, or þat þey schulde nouȝt scorne hym while he was present, ouþer þat þei schulde nouȝt aliene ne deceyve hym of þe ryng when he was absent; at þe laste in þe blake nyȝt, hymself with his servauntes comynge agayne, he wondred þat þe fynger was strecched out, and þe ryng taken away: and whanne he wolde dresse*. [dressed, MS.] hym toward his wif in tyme of lyeng and of slepynge, Page  203, vol.7 he feled a þing þat was myȝti and þicke waltre and turne atwixe hym and his wif, saienge þus: "Ly wiþ me, for to day þow despousedest and weddest me. I am þy god Venus." And he, aferde and affraied, ledde þat nyȝt wiþ oute slepe; and whan þis was i-done þus as it were every nyȝt, he amone|scheþ and warned for þe pleynynges and lamentacioun of his wif, tolde þe þing to his fadir and moder.*. [Here the collation with α., β., and γ. commences again, and the translations accord.] Þanne his fadir and [his]*. [From α.] moder warnede Palumbus þe preost of þe subarbes, þat was þe grettest nygromancer þat was þo onlyve. He fenge grete mede, and ȝaf þe ȝong man a lettre þat he schulde take to hym þat he mette last a nyȝt comynge aȝenst hym wiþ a chare in þe metynge of tweie weies. Þe ȝong man*. [Þe ȝong man] bis in MS.] stood in þe metyng of tweie weies at nyȝt, and sigh a womman sitte on a mule, arayed as an hoore, and her here abrood, wiþ a chapelet of gold on here heed, and a ȝerde of gold in here hond. Þanne he took his lettre to hym þat com laste ridynge. Whanne þe lettre was i-rad, þat principal feend have up boþe hondes to hevene, and seide: "Almyȝti God, how longe schal þe wickednesse of Palumbus þe preost dure?" Anon his knyȝtes com to Venus to have þe ryng, bot sche Page  205, vol.7 wrynchede, and blynchede, and stroof longe tyme; but at þe laste þe knyȝtes wreste of her [þe]*. [From α.] ryng, and took it to þe ȝonge man aȝe: and so he hadde his wille and ioye of his love þat he hadde longe desired. But Palumbus herde þe fend crye of hym into hevene, and kutte of his owne lymes, and know|leched al his trespas to þe pope in presens and hering of all þe peple. Marianus. Alredus bisshop of Worcestre made seynt Wulstan priour of Worcetre by leve of þe kyng, and ȝaf the bisshopriche of Wiltoun to Herman þat was i-come aȝen from byȝonde þe*. [þe] om. α.] see. And Alredus went over þe*. [þe] om. α.] see, and forþ by Hongarie a pilgrimage to Ierusalem; me redeþ of no bisshop of Engelond þat so dede to fore þat tyme. At Coleyn in Almayne tweie abbaies of Scottes were i-brent wiþ hir owne fire. Oon Patricius,*. [Paternus, α.] a monk þat was þere i-closed, warned hem of þat brennynge longe tyme toforehonde. But afterward þe fuyre was i-come, he wolde out in no manere wise; but þere he was i-brent for love of martirdom. Trevisa. In þat doynge Pater|nus*. [Patronus, Cx. et infra.] the monk semeþ a lewed*. [lewide, β.] goost, þat kouþe not [y-]*. [From α.] knowe þe cause and þe circumstaunce*. [circumstauns, α.] of verray martirdom; [for þere is no verrey matirdom]*. [From α.] bot it be by meynteninge of truþe*. [truwþe, γ.] and wiþstondynge of wrong and*. [and] om. γ.] of synne. Bote God graunte, ȝif it is in his wille, þat Paternus be nouȝt i-dampned for his blynde devocioun. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie: aboute þat tyme in [þe]*. [From α.] province of Apulia was Page  207, vol.7 i-founde an ymage of marbil*. [marbul, β.] wiþ an heed of bras, and hadde a gerland,*. [girlound, α., bis; garlaund, γ.] in þe whiche gerland it was i-write: "In þe firste day of May*. [Maii, β., and Cx. et infra.] at þe sonne risyng I schal have an hede of gold." A Sarsyne þat þe duke of Longobardes hadde i-take prisoner, understood what it schulde mene,*. [what it meaned, Cx.] and come þe first day of May, and took hede*. [touk hyde, γ.] of þe schadowe of þe ymage in lengþe*. [lyngþe, γ.] and in brede, and fonde in þe schadowe wonder gret tresour, and paide it*. [hit, α. and β.; hyt, γ.; om. Cx.] for his raunsoun. Willelmus de Regibus.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

WHANNE Benet was i-put out, þe secounde Nichol*. [Nicol, β.; Nycolaus, Cx.] was pope [aboute]*. [From α.] an two ȝere. In his tyme holy chirche in Fraunce was hugeliche destourbed by Berengarius archedel on of Turon.*. [Toreyn, Cx.] He seide þat þe ooste*. [oyst, β. and γ.] in þe auȝter is nouȝt verray Cristes*. [Christis, β.] body, but þat it is figure þerof. Aȝenst hym þe pope made a counsaile [at Verecele*. [Versel, Cx.] yn Italy of an hondred Page  209, vol.7 bisshops and þrittene. In þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] counsail]*. [From α.] Berengarius wiþ cleped*. [withsayde, Cx.] his errour, as it is i-seide in decrees de consecra|cione, distinctione 2a, Ego Berengarius. But after þe pope his deeþ, his heresie gan eft to spring. Þanne Hiltebrandus þe pope determyned and ȝaf þe dome aȝenst his fautoures;*. [fauctours, Cx.] to his errours answerde Lanfrank priour of Beccens, in his book þat hatte Liber Sintillarum; and specialliche Wymond, þat was a monk of Normandic, and after bisshop of Aversan in Apulia, þat was [þo]*. [From α. (not γ.)] most perfit*. [proufyte, Cx., omitting in spe|kynge.] in spekynge. So þat Berengarius amended his lyf at þe laste, so þat [som]*. [From α.] men helde*. [huld, γ.] hym a [holy]*. [From α., β., γ, and Cx.] seynt. He expowned þe Apochalips, and usede mekenesse and almesdede,*. [almusdede, γ.] and voided*. [foydede, α.] þe siȝt of wommen, and usede symple mete and clooþ, and þat by þe apostles loore. Hildebertus bisshop of Cenonia in his vers*. [versus, β. and Cx.] preseþ hym most in þis manere:

"Of hym noo*. [now, α.] wondrynge schal wondre þe world evermore,
[Þis Berengarius deide þat scal deye na more"].*. [From α.]

And þanne þus:

"After deþ wiþ hym leve*. [lyve, α.] bidde*. [byd, α. and Cx.; bid ich, β. and γ.] I in even reste;
No bettre be my lot, I praye, þanne is his lott." Page  211, vol.7

Loo here me may see how þe noble bisshop passeþ in þe manere of praysinge, but þe rethorike wiþ his faire*. [veyr, γ., et infra.] speche brekeþ out ofte tyme in þat manere. Þerfore þe poet seiþ: "Riche speche*. [brekeþ . . . speche] bis in MS.] schedeþ out ofte wel fayre redene*. [reden, β.; reede, Cx.] floures." But among al þis take hede, þat þeyȝ Berengarius amended his sentence, ȝit he myȝte nouȝt amende al þat he hadde appeyred wiþ his lore in dyvers londers. Suche*. [Sich, β.] it is to peyre*. [apeyre, α.; peyr, Cx.] oþer men by word oþer by evel ensample, þat whanne by*. [by] om. β. and Cx. (not α).] his owne synne is awey ȝit noyeþ*. [it, add. Cx.] and greveþ oþer men synnes. Me seiþ þat þe nobel bisshop of Carnotens Fulbertus spak þerof moche in his last siknes. For whan he sigh Berengarius come to hym among oþer men, "Dooþ hym awey," quod þe bisshop, "for I see a fend folowe*. [folewe, β.; vend volve, γ.] hym, þat appeyreþ þe ayer*. [eyr, β.; aer, γ.] al aboute." Also þis Berengarius whanne he deide, in a twelfþe*. [twellifth, Cx.] day, had mynde*. [munde, γ.] how many wrecches*. [wrechches, γ.] he hadde i-peyred*. [apeyred, α.] by his evel lore while he was a ȝong*. [ȝung, γ.] man, and seide: "Þis day I hope þat Crist wil*. [wole, β.] schewe hym to me in þe day of His owne schewynge, or*. [oþer, α. and β.] for my penaunce toward blisse, oþer for oþer þat iche have appeyred to*. [by, α.] myn evel lore*. [while . . . lore] bis in MS.]Page  213, vol.7 toward peyne." Aboute þis tyme Marianus þe Scot was i-closed in þe abbay Fuldense, and was þere ten ȝere. Whanne Kynsius archebisshop of ȝork was dede, Aldredus bisshop of Wircestre was archebisshop after hym, and wente to Rome wiþ Tostius erle of Norþhumberlond for to fonge þe palle. Bote*. [Bete, α.] he was i-founde blameworþy in his answere, and he was i-prived of all manere worschippe; and as he went homward,*. [hamward, β. and γ.] he was i-robbed of al þat he hadde. Þerfore Tostius þe erle wente ageyne to Rome, and he welded*. [and awelde, β. and γ.] so þe pope wiþ skilles þat he alleide*. [allegged, β.; ailedged, Cx.] þat þe pope ȝaf Aldredus þe archebisshopriche. Tostius seide þat naciouns of fer londes schulde sette riȝt litel by þe pope his curs,*. [cors, γ.] while it was so i-scorned of þeoves*. [þueues, γ.; þeeves, Cx.] þat wonede þer nyh; þerfore oþer Aluredus*. [Aldredus, α. and β.] schulde have his catayll*. [catayll] from Cx.; castel, MS. and α.; catel, β. and γ.] restored, oþer it wolde seme þat he was i-robbed by fraude of þe pope. Also þe kyng of Engelond schal here þerof, and wiþdrawe þe tribut of seint Peter. "Hit is evel i-doo," quod þe eorle, "þat Aldredus schal goo hoom worschiples, and be robbed of al þat he hadde." And so Aldredus hadde þe palle, and wente into Engelond aȝen, and mad Wulstane þe priour bisshop of Worcester. No man wolde gladliche of*. [of] from α., β., γ., and Cx.; fonge, MS.] Stigandus, þe archebisshop of Caunterbury, fenge*. [vonge, γ.] þe ȝifte of bisshopriche; noþer William Conquerour, whanne Page  215, vol.7 he was i-come, wolde fonge þe blessynge of hym. After Nichol þe secounde Alisaundre was pope enleven ȝere, and was i-chose by þe cardinales, and defended hym manliche aȝenst oon Candulus þat þe Italies hadde i-chose pope. Þey seide þat no man schulde be i-chose pope but he were of þe paradys of Italy i-bore. Harold*. [Herald, Cx.] duke of West Saxon, by heste*. [commaundement, Cx.] of kyng Edward, went in to Wales wiþ few*. [veaw, γ.] horsmen after mydwynter, and sette kyng Griffyn his paleys at Ruthelan*. [Ruthlan, Cx.] afyre,*. [afuyre, α; a vure, γ.] and his schippes also. Bote Gryffyn fliȝ and scapede. Þerfore, aboute þe Rogacioun tyme, he went out of Bristowe wiþ a greet navey, and seilled nyȝ al aboute Wales. And his broþer Tostius eorle of Norþhumberlond mette hym wiþ an oost of horsmen, and destroyed so þe contray of Wales, þat þe*. [Walyschmen, γ.] Walsche men delyvered plegges and payed tribute as þey were i-woned, and outlawed and put out her kyng Gryffyn, and slow hym at þe laste aboute þe fiftenþe day of August, and sent his heed to Harold þe kyng.*. [þe erle, β. and γ.; therle, Cx.] Þere after kyng Edward grauntede þe lond of Wales to Griffyn his twey breþeren, þat swore to hym fewte. Henricus, libro 7o. Þis ȝere Harald wente toward Normandie to speke wiþ his broþer Wilmotus,*. [Wilynotus, β.; Wilinotus, γ., bis; Wylynotus, Cx., et infra.] and wiþ his broþer sone Hacun, þat were in plegge wiþ duke Page  217, vol.7 William. But he was i-dreve with tempest into þe province of Pontus.*. [Pountyf, Cx.] Þe duke of þat lond took hym, and sent hym to duke William. Me seiþ þat þere Harald, þat*. [þat] er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] he myȝte askape, swoor þat he schulde*. [a scholde, γ., bis.] wedde duke William his douȝter, and þat he schulde*. [a scholde, γ., bis.] kepe for hym Engelond whan kyng Edward were deed; and so he hadde his neveu*. [nevew, α.] wiþ hym, and cam into Engelond aȝen. ℞. But his broþer Wilmotus*. [Wylynotus, α., and it may be that it is Wilinotus in MS. et supra.] lefte in duke William his tyme, alway ȝit whanne*. [yet while, Cx.] he regnede. Henricus, ubi supra. Also þis ȝere, in kyng Edwardes court at Wynde|sore, Tostius was agreeved and was wrooþe, and wente þennes to Herford, þere Harald had arayed a feste for þe kyng. Þere Tostius hakked*. [to hakkede, γ.] his broþer servantes, and sowsede*. [sosede, γ.; souced, Cx.] here lemes, and sente word to þe kyng þat ȝif he wolde come to his form,*. [ferme, α.; feste, β. and Cx.] he schulde have salt mete i-now. Þe Norþhumbres herde hereof, and put out her duke Tostius, and slouȝ his servantes also; and þey breke his tresorye, and made hym flee*. [vle, γ.] into Flaundres. Willelmus de Regibus. Bote þe kyng herde þerof, and sente Harald to take wrech of þe wrong þat was of his Page  219, vol.7 broþer. Þey alleyed þat þey were freliche*. [vreliche, γ., bis.] i-bore and freliche i-norsched, þat þey myȝte nouȝt suffre þe cruelnesse*. [cruwelnes, β.] of dukes; also þat þey hadde i-lerned*. [ylurned, γ.] of here sovereynes to meyntene fredom or elles take þe deeþ; also þat þei*. [they, α.] schulde liȝtliche be i-lad by an esy duke. Þanne Harald semede þat it were more wisliche*. [wysedome, Cx.] to favere þe contray þanne to take hede*. [hyde, γ.] to þe singuler profite of his broþer, and sente þat his oost schulde come aȝen; and wente to þe kyng, and procurede þat Malcherus schulde be her eorle. Al þis greved Tostius, and þerfore*. [þarevore, γ.] he wente in to Flaundres wiþ his wif and his children, and was þere anon to þe kynges deth.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

KYNG Edward sat at þe mete at Westmynstre*. [Westmonaster, γ.] in an Ester day, and while oþer men ete besiliche*. [bisilich, β.] he fel*. [vul, γ.] in a þouȝt, and louȝ while oþer men ete.*. [yte, γ.] Me axede hym in chambre after mete what hym eylede so forto lawȝhe.*. [laugh, Cx.] "For seven slepers," quoþ he, "in þe mont Selyon*. [Selio, γ.] besides Ephesym*. [Ephesum, β. and γ.] in þe lasse Asia haþ i-slepe seven hondred ȝere on þe riȝt side, and Page  221, vol.7 tornede hem to the liftside [in my lauȝhynge tyme, and þey shulleþ*. [hy scholleþ, γ.] so ligge on þe left side]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þre score ȝere and fourtene. Þat tyme schal com among mankynde*. [mankunde, γ.] þat hard sawe þat Crist manasseþ*. [menaceth, Cx.] in the gospel, Men schal arise aȝenst men, and so forþe; ffor þe Sarsyns schal arise aȝenst Cristen men, and Cristen men aȝenst Sarsyns." And also þe kyng tolde how þe seven*. [seve, γ.] slepers were*. [weren, β. and Cx.] arayed, and so telleþ non oþer storie. Anon þe kynges mynistres sente*. [sent vorþ messagers, γ.] to Nicetes,*. [Nicetis, α.] emperour of Constantynnoble, to aspye þe soþe of þis sawe. He feng hem goodliche, and sent furþer*. [vorþer, γ.] to þe bishop of Ephesy*. [Ephesie, β.] þat he schulde shewe þe array of þe sevene slepers to þe messangers of Engelond, and so it was i-found as þe kyng haþ i-seide; and sone þerafter þe Sarasyns and þe Turkes arise*. [arysen, Cx.] and occu|pied Siria, þe lasse Asia, and Ierusalem; þe þridde Henry þe emperour deide sone after.*. [þereafter, α.] And Henry kyng of Fraunce was i-poysoned, and deide. Seven dayes*. [dawes, γ., et infra.] tofore May, [a starre]*. [From α. and Cx.] wiþ a briȝt blasyng crest was i-seie into al þe world*. [worle, γ.] wyde, [and was so y-seie]*. [From α.] seven dayes continuallyche. Olyver Page  223, vol.7 monk of Malmesbury grette þe sterre, and spak þerto in þis manere: "Þow art i-come, [now]*. [From α.] þu art i-come, dwel*. [deol, β.; duel, γ.; doole, Cx.] and sorwe to wel many modres; it is ȝore þat I seie þe, but now I see þe more dredeful*. [dredfol, γ.] and griseliche, þat*. [þat] thou, Cx.] manassest destroyenge of þis contray." Þis Olyver was þoo a kunnyng man of lettrure,*. [lettre, α.; lettere, γ.] and a man of grete age; but in his ȝowþe by greet hardynesse he fondede forto flee*. [vondede vor to vle, γ.] as a bridde wiþ wynges.*. [whynges, γ. and Cx.] I not*. [note, β.] by what craft he feþered*. [vyþerded, γ.] his feet and his hondes, for he wolde flee in Dedalus his wise, and so he took a fable in stede of a sooþ sawe; and so he stood on a hyȝ toures,*. [an hye toure, Cx.] and took þe wynde, and fliȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.; flough, Cx.] þe space of a furlong and more. But he was aferd of þe grete strengþe of þe wynd and of þe whirlewynde, and on caas of his awne folie dede, and fel*. [fil, β.] doun so þat he was lame in his þyhes*. [þyȝes, α.; thyes, Cx.] terme of his lyf. Also þis ȝere, whanne Children masse*. [Childermas, Cx.] day was i|halowed*. [halewide, β.] at Westmynstre, kyng Edward werþe sike.*. [wurþ syk, γ.] In his last siknes he sigh a siȝt, and tolde it to hem þat stood aboute hym. "Tweie men of religioun," quod þe kyng, "come to me þat I knewe somtyme in Normandie, and seide*. [sayden, Cx.] þat God hem hadde i-sent to warne me herof. For þe raþer Page  225, vol.7 dukes,*. [dukes] erased in α.] bisshoppes, and abbottes of Engelond beeþ nouȝt Goddes children or*. [children or] om. α.] servauntes, but þe develes,*. [devel hys, γ.] God haþ i-take þe kyngdom into þe enemyes hondes for twelve monþes and a day, and feendes*. [vendes, γ.] schal walke and torne*. [hurle, β., γ., and Cx.] aboute in al þis lond. I prayed and bysouȝte þat þey moste, be my warnynge, do penaunce and be delyvered, by ensample of þe men of Nineve. 'Nay,' quod þey, 'for noþer schal be, for þese*. [þues, γ.] men schal nouȝt doo worþy penaunce, noþer God schal have mercy of hem.' Þanne I seide, 'Whan may be hope and triste*. [truste, Cx.] of forȝifnes?' Þey answerde and seide: 'Whan a gret*. [grene, β. and γ.] tre is i-hewe adoun, and a party þerof, i-kut fro*. [vram, γ.] þe stok, and i-leide þre teme*. [temene, α. and γ.] lengþe from þe stok, burgeþ and bloweþ and bereþ fruyt wiþ oute eny help and socour of þe stok."*. [burgeþ . . . stok] om. Cx.] Þere stood*. [tho, add. Cx.] Stigandus þe archebisshop, and seide þat þe olde man ravede and dotede*. [dodede, γ.] as olde men seiþ and*. [seiþ and] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] dooþ, and was out of his witte, and spak folie and vanite; but afterward Engelond felede þe soþe and þe truþe of his prophecie, whan it was i-done*. [adoun, α., β., and γ.; in subjec|tion, Cx.] and destroyed wiþ aliens and men of straunge landes. Þanne kyng Edward deide at West|mynstre*. [Westmonaster, γ.]Page  227, vol.7 in a twelfþe*. [twellyfth, Cx.] eve, whan he hadde i-regned þre and twenty ȝere and seven monþes. ℞ Aluredus of Ryvalle dis|creved cleerliche kyng Edward his lyf, and sent it to Laurence abbot of Westmynstre, and he sent þat lyf, þat was so des|creved, forþ to þe secounde Henry. Willelmus de Regibus, ubi supra. Anon Harald occupied þe kyngdom, and hilde*. [huld, γ.] aboute a nyne monþes; bote some men*. [men] om. β., γ., and Cx.] fondede*. [entended, Cx.] to make Edgar Adelyng kyng. Edgar Adelyng was [þe sone of Edward, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] Edward was]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þe sone of Edmond yrenside; but for þe child was insuffisant*. [unsuffisaunt, β.] to so grete a charge, erle Harald, þat was fellere of wit, and richere in þe purs,*. [pors, γ.] and strengere of knyȝtes, occupied þe kyngdom, and*. [and . . . monþes] om. α.] hilde it aboute a nyne monþes by an ungracious hap. ℞. But Marianus seiþ þat kyng Edward to fore his deþ ordeynede þat Harald schulde be kyng after hym, and þat þe lordes made hym kyng anon. Item Maria|nus. Þis was i-sacred of Aluredus*. [Aldredus, α.] archebisshop of ȝork, and gan anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] to destroye evel lawes, and to make good lawes and riȝtful,*. [ryȝtfol, γ.] to defende holy chirche, to worschippe good men, to punsche*. [punyse, γ.] evel doers, and to save and defende þe londe. But Page  229, vol.7 his broþer Tostius herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, and þan he wakened*. [þan he wakened] þat he wa kyng, α., β., γ., and Cx., but γ omits þerof and.] and com wiþ twenty*. [syxty, β., γ., and Cx.] schippes out of Flaundres, and took payementes and tributes of þe Ile*. [yl, γ.] of Wight, and took prayes in Kent in þe see coostes; bote he dradde þe array of his broþer Harald, and wente by þe see into Lyndesey, and brende þere townes, and slowȝ men, forto þat he was dryve þennes by Edwyne and Morkar,*. [Morkar, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; Mokar, MS.] dukes of Mercia and of Norþhumberlond: þanne he wente to Malcolyn kyng of Scotlond, and was wiþ hym al þe somertyme. In þe mene tyme kyng of Noreganes, Harald Harefoot,*. [Harfage, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Olavus his broþer, cam wiþ þre hondred schippes in þe mowþe of þe ryver [of]*. [From α.] Tyne, þanne Tostius cam to hym with his strengþe, as þey were accorded to forehonde. Kyng Harald was i-warned þerof, and ordeyned þider greet strengþe, but or he were i-come þe tweie breþeren eorles þat we speke of raþer, Edwyne and Morkar,*. [Morkar, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; Mokar, MS.] hadde stalworthliche i-fouȝte,*. [yvoȝte, γ.] and were overcome at þe laste, and þere were delyvered plegges in eiþer side an hondred and fifty.*. [vyfty, γ.] Here after þe fifte day kyng Harald cam to Stemesfordburgh,*. [-brugge, β.; -brugh, γ.; -brydge, Cx.] and had a strong batataile Page  231, vol.7 and a strong*. [hard, α., γ., and Cx.] fiȝtinge; but he slowȝ þe kyng of Noriganes and his owne broþer Tostius; but he made Olavus þe kynges bro|þer of Noriganes, and Paul duke of þe ilond Orcades, swere*. [swerye, γ.] to hym, and took plegges of hem, and lete hem goo hoom aȝen. Bote one of þe Noreganes bare hym so þere þat he was worþy to have a name for evermore, for he stood allone on þe brygge*. [brugge, γ.] of Stemesford,*. [Stemesfordbrugg, α. and γ.] and slouȝ moo þan fourty Englische men with his owne axe, and lette þe passage of all þe Englische oost forto it was none of þe day, forto an Englisshe man took a boot and cam under þe brigge, [and foynede*. [fuynede, γ.] upward under*. [under] þurȝ, β.; þorouȝ, γ.] þe brugge,]*. [From α. and β. (not in Cx.)] and stiked*. [stikide, β.] þe Noregan þoruȝ an hoole wiþ a*. [his, α. and Cx.; hys, γ.] speere. For þat hap Harald was proude,*. [prout, γ.] and wolde nouȝt parte wiþ his knyȝtes þe prayes þat were i-take, þerfore meny of þe lordes, and of þe comynte,*. [comente, γ.; comonte, Cx.] were wrooþ and agreved, and forsook hym whan he wente to þe bataille of Hastynge aȝenst William. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo.

Page  233, vol.7

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

WHANNE Harald was i-set up in þe kyngdom, and þouȝt not on þe covenantes þat were i-made bytwene hym and William, he hilde*. [huld, γ.] hym self discharged*. [deschargide, β.] of þe ooþ, for William his douȝter þat he had i-spoused was dede wiþ ynne age of wedlok, and also for William was occupied wiþ werres in londes þat were nigh hym. Bote William warnede hym of covenant i-broke and melled manas*. [medled manassis, β.; medled menaces, Cx.] wiþ praiers. Harald seide þat a nyce folie covenant schulde nouȝt be i-holde, and nameliche þe byhest of oþer men*. [menne, γ.] kyngdom wiþ oute comyn*. [comune, Cx.] assent of alle þe sena|toures þere a lewed*. [lewide, β.] oth schulde be i-broke, nameliche while it was compelled to be i-swore for nede in a nedeful*. [nedfol, γ.] tyme. In þe mene tyme William arayeþ al þat nedeþ*. [arayed . . . neded, Cx.] for þe iornay, and geteþ*. [gate, Cx.] assent of þe lordes of his lond, and purchaseþ*. [purchased, Cx.] favour of Alisaundre þe pope wiþ a banere þat hym was i-sent. Þese*. [þues, γ.] were þe causes why duke William axede and chalanged*. [axide and chalangide, β.] Enge|lond Page  235, vol.7 aȝenst Harald; þe deeþ of Aluredus þat was his cosyn, þe sone of Emma, on Aluredus [he]*. [From Cx.] had i-procured*. [yprocred, γ.] his deth; þe secounde þe excilynge of Robert archebisshop of Caunterbury; þe þridde cause was for kyng Edward hadde byhote duke William þat he schulde*. [a scholde, γ.] be kyng after hym ȝif he deide wiþ oute children,*. [chyldern, γ.] and Harald was i-swore to fulfille*. [volvulle, γ.] þat heste.*. [byheste, β.; commaundement, Cx.]Henricus, libro 6o. Þe lordes of Normandie counsaillede*. [counsailde, α.] among hem self*. [silf, β,; hamsylf, γ.] what were best to doo of þis iornay, and William þat was þe dukes sewere, þe sone of Osbert, coun|saillede to leve and forsake þe iornay, boþe for scarsite of fiȝtinge men and for strengþe, hardines, and sternesse,*. [steernesse, α.; stiernesse, Cx.] and cruelnesse*. [sturnnes and cruwelnes, γ.] of enemyes. Þe oþer lordes were glad here of, and putte here*. [her, β.] answere*. [onswere, α.] and here wordes uppon þis*. [þes, γ.] William his mowþ al as he wolde seie.*. [sygge, γ.] Whanne he come to fore þe duke, he seide þat he was redy to þe iornay, and alle þe oþere lordes; þanne myȝt nouȝt þe lordes wiþ drawe hem for schame. Willielmus de Regibus, libro 3o. Whanne duke William and his men were longe i-taried in Seynt Valerik*. [Waleryes, Cx.] his haven, for þe wynd was aȝenst hem, þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] grucched,*. [grucchide, β.] and seide þat Page  237, vol.7 it was a woodnesse to chalange by strengþe oþer men*. [menne, γ.] lond, and nameliche while God stroof aȝenst hem, and [God]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] most graunte hem good wynd ȝif þey schulde seille. Duke William make brynke*. [brynge, α. and Cx.] out seint Valericus his*. [Waleryus, Cx.] holy body, and sette hym þeroute forto have wynde. Anon likynge wynd filled*. [vulde, γ.] the sailles;*. [seilles, α.] þanne duke William com toward Engelond after Michelmasse day, and londede at Hastynge in a place*. [plas, γ.] þat hatte Pevenessey.*. [Peveneseye, γ.] In his goynge out of his schip he slood*. [slode, β. and Cx.; a slod, γ.] wiþ his oon foot,*. [o voot, γ.] and stiked in þe sond,*. [soond, β.] and þe knyȝt þat was next cried to hym [anon]*. [From α. and Cx.] and seide: "Now sire eorle, þu holdest Engelond, þu schalt riȝt newliche*. [neulich, γ.] be kyng." Þanne he chargede þa þei schulde take no prayes, and seide þat he moste spare þinges*. [þingis, β.] þat schulde be his owne; and he lefte so þe*. [þe] om. α., γ., and Cx.] fiftene dayes. Harold come fro the werre of Noreganes and herde*. [hurde, γ.] tyþinges here of, and hiȝed ful*. [wel, α. and Cx.] faste,*. [hyede wel vast, γ.] and hadde but fewe*. [veaw, γ.] kniȝtes aboute hym, for he hadde i-lost meny stalworth men in þe raþer bataille, and he hadde nouȝt i-send for more help, and þey*. [þeyȝ, α. and γ.; þouȝ, β.; though, Cx.] he hadde, men were wrooþ, and wolde have Page  239, vol.7 wiþ drawe hem, for þey moste have no part of þe*. [part of þe] om. Cx.] prayes at þe bataile of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] Norganes; but Harald sent forþ spies for to awaite [and see]*. [þese, α. and Cx.] þe nombre and þe strengþe of his enemyes. Duke William took þe*. [þese, α. and Cx.] spies, and hadde*. [ladde, α.; ledde, Cx.] hem aboute his tentes and his pavylons, and fedde*. [vedde, γ.] hem riȝt realliche, and sent hem to Harold aȝen. Þanne þey tolde Harald tiþinges, and seide þat al þat were in duke William his oost were preostes, for þey hadde boþe*. [boþe] þe, γ.] chookes*. [the chekes, Cx.] and boþe lippes i-schave. En|glisshe men þat tyme usede þat*. [þe, α. and γ.] heer of hire overlippes to*. [to] om. Cx.] schede*. [yschedde, β.] and nouȝt i-schore. "Nay," quod Harald, "þey beeþ no preostes, but þei beeþ wel stalworþ*. [stalword, γ; strong, Cx.] knyȝtes," "Þanne," quoþ Gurth, Harald his ȝongest broþer, "why wilt þu unware fiȝte with so meny orped men? we swore*. [swoor, α.] hym nevere non oþe; þanne it is better þat þu þat art i-swore to hym, wiþ drawe þe for a tyme, and lete us þat beeþ nouȝt i-swore fiȝte for þe contray. And ȝif we haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þe maistrie, wel it is; and ȝif we beeþ overcome, þe cause and þe querel is sauf to þe." ȝit duke William sente a monk to Harald, and profred hym þere þre weyes, oþer [þat]*. [From α., γ, and Cx.] he schulde holde þe kyngdom freliche*. [freliche . . . kyngdom] om. α., γ., and Cx.] for a certeyn trbute, oþer holde þe kyngdom of duke William, Page  241, vol.7 and regne under*. [undyr, γ.] hym, oþer þey tweyne schulde fiȝte to gidre*. [to gidre] om. α. and β.] eiþer wiþ oþer in þat querel, in siȝt of boþe oostes, nameliche while kyng Edward was dede þat hadde i-graunted hym Enge|lond, ȝif he deide wiþ oute heire, and by counseile and assent of Stigandus þe archebisshop [and]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of þe orles*. [erles, γ.] Godwyn and Syward; in token þerof Godwyn, and Syward*. [and Syward] om. Cx.] his sone, and his nevew, were i-sent to duke William. But Harolde wolde nouȝt assente to þe monkes message, but seide þat þe cause schulde be dereynede by dent*. [dynt, α. and Cx.] of swerd, and prayed oonliche þat God schulde deeme bytwene hem tweyne. Þanne the oostes in eiþer side come to þe place of þe bataille in þe day of seint Calixte þe pope, þe fourtenþe day of Octobre, in a Satirday, in þe place*. [plas, γ.] þere þe abbay of Bataille is i-buld. As we beeþ i|formed,*. [enformed, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe nyȝt tofore þe bataille, Englisshe men ȝaf hem to songe and to drinke*. [drynke and woke al nyȝt, γ.] alnyȝt, and wook*. [and wook alnyȝt, α.] [al nyȝt].*. [From Cx.] Erliche amorwe foot men wiþ her axes made a greet strengþe of schildes, and sette hem to gidres, and hadde i-had þe maistrie ne hadde*. [nadde, α., β. and γ.; ne had be that, Cx.] þe Normans i-feyned to flee. Kyng Harald stood on his feet*. [veet, γ.] by his baner wiþ his tweie breþeren: þat baner was afterward i-sent to þe pope. Þe Normans þe nyȝt tofore þe bataile schroof*. [schrof, β. and γ.; shrofe, Cx.] hem of her synnes, and were i-houseled erliche amorwe. Foot men and archeres were i-set in þe bataille, and þanne knyȝtes wiþ wynges*. [whynges, γ.] in eiþer side. Duke Page  243, vol.7 William confortede hym*. [hym] his men, β. and Cx. .; hys men, γ.] to þe bataile, and was war þat his habergeon*. [haberioun, α. and β.; haburion, γ.; haberion, Cx.] was i-torned yn and out, and amended þat hap wiþ a bourde, and seide þe strengþe of an erldome schal torne into a kyngdom. Henricus. Bote or*. [ar, γ.] þe scheltroms*. [scheltrons, α. and β.; er that the shiltrons, Cx.] com to gidres, oon of þe Normans side,*. [syde, α.] þat heet Talyfer by his name, cast his swerd and pleide tofore þe oostes, and slowȝ þe bane|rer*. [banyour, α., β., γ., and Cx.] of Englisshemen þat cam aȝenst hym, and dede*. [dude, γ.] eft þe same of anoþer; also he slowȝ þe þridde, and was i-slawe hym self. Þanne anon þe scheltrons smyte to gidres wiþ Rolond*. [Roulandes, β.; Roland, γ.] his song, þat was bygonne in þe Normans side. Þe bataille dured from underne of þe day to evesong*. [eveson, γ.] tyme, and never noþer partie wolde wiþ drawe. Bote þe dukes archers hadde here forþ, þanne þe duke made a tokene to his men þat þei schulde feyne to flee. And by þat wile Englische men were begiled, and disarayed hem as it were for to pursewe,*. [pursywe, γ.] and to rese on her enemyes; bote whan þe*. [þe] om. α.] Englische men [were so out of aray, þe Normans arrayed hem eft, and tornede aȝen uppon þe Englische men]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] þat outrayed,*. [outrayed] were out of aray, α., γ., and Cx.] and chased hem in every side. Page  245, vol.7 At þe laste Haralde was i-hit*. [smyten, Cx.] wiþ an arwe, and lost his oon eyȝe,*. [on ye, γ.] and was i-hurt in þe brayn and fil*. [on þe breyn and vul, γ.] downe in þat place. And oon of þe knyȝtes [smote hym]*. [From β. and Cx.] in þe þigh while he lay þere: þerfore William put þat knyȝt out of þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] chivalrie, for he hadde i-doo an unkonnynge dede. Þat day William lost þre þe beste hors þat he hadde, and tweie*. [were, α., γ., and Cx.] i-stiked riȝt under hym; but he bare hym so þat no blood come out of his body. Whanne þe victorie was i-doo, William buried his men þat were i-slawe, and graunted his enemyes to doo þe same who þat wolde, and sente Harald his body to Harald his moder wiþ oute eny mede,*. [myde, γ.] as sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] hadde i-prayed, and sche buried hym at Waltham in þe abbay of chanouns þat Harald hadde i-founded. ℞. Bote Giralde Cambrensis in his book þat hatte Itinerarius wolde mene þat Harald hadde many woundes and loste his left yȝe*. [ye, γ.; lyft eye, Cx.] wiþ a strook of an arwe,*. [arewe, γ.] and was overcome, and scapede to þe contray of Chestre, and lyvede þere holily, as me troweþ, an ankers lyf in Seint Iames celle faste*. [vaste, γ.] by Seint Iohn his chirche, and made a gracious ende, and þat was i-knowe by his laste confessioun; and þe comyn*. [commune, Cx.] fame accordeþ in þat citee to þat sawe. Also Aluredus Page  247, vol.7 Rivallensis [in]*. [From Cx.; and MS.] seint Edward his lyf, capitulo 26o in þe ende, þere*. [he] add. β.] seiþ þat Harald oþer deide wrecchedly, oþer he askapede, and was i-kept to do verray*. [worþy, α. and Cx.] penaunce. ℞. Þanne whanne king Haraldes deeþ was i-knowe, þe erles of Norþhum|berlond and of Mercia, Edwyn and Markarus, þat hadde wiþ|drawe hem self*. [hamsylf, γ.] from Harald for streytenes of places, oþer more verrayliche*. [vereylich, γ.] for wreþþe þat þe prayes were nouȝt i-deled at þe bataile of Noregane, þei*. [hy, γ.] come to Londoun, and took [her]*. [From β. and Cx; here, α. and γ.] suster Algitha, Harald his wif, and sent hire to Chestre; and þei and Aluredus*. [Aldredus, α. and Cx.] archebisshop of ȝork and þe Londoners byhet*. [byhyte, γ.] þat þei wolde make Edgar Adlyng kyng, and fiȝte for hym; but for þe drede of William encresed þey wiþ drow hem, and fulfilled*. [folvullede, γ.] nouȝt þat þey hadde byhote. And alle þese*. [þues, γ.] wiþ oþere noble men come to William and ȝaf hym plegges, and swoor hym fewte and dede hym suerte.*. [surte, γ.]

Explicit liber sextus.