Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.


Incipit Liber Quintus.

[Capitulum primum.]

MARCIANUS wedded Theodocius his suster, and regnede*. [regnede] was, β.] emperour as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] sevene ȝere. In his firste*. [furste, γ.] tyme was the counsaille Calcidonence i-made aȝenst Entices*. [Eutices, γ.] and Dioscorus, as it is i-seide to forehonde; at þe laste þis Marcianus was i|slawe at Constantynnoble by conspiracie of his owne men, and þe Hunnes and Wandales destroyed*. [distrieden, β.; destroieden, Cx.] þe citees of Gallia þat stood uppon þe Ryne.*. [Ryn, Cx.] Þat tyme Vortigernus regnede in Bre|tayne, Page  259, vol.5 and þo fel*. [ful, γ.] so grete plente of corne and of*. [of] om. Cx.] fruyt þat non suche plente was i-seie in none tyme þere aforhonde; and with þat plente leccherie and pestilence of al evel doynge gan*. [bigan to, Cx.] encrese.*. [encreesse, γ.] Cruelnesse and wreþþe, nouȝt onliche in seculer men but also in þe folk*. [flok, α.; flock, Cx.] of oure Lorde, [and in þe hyrdes*. [heordes, β.; hurdes, γ.; and governours, added in Cx.] of þe flok of oure Lord,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] were boþe stronge and grete. So þat everiche man turnede his spere aȝenst þe trewe man, as it were aȝenst þe traytour of Bretayne, and þey ȝaf hem al*. [al] om. Cx.] to dronkenesse,*. [drongnes, γ.] kokkynge,*. [cokkynge, α.; cokking, β.; fyghtyng, Cx.] strif, and envie. Þanne sodenliche so grete pesti|lence of deth*. [of deth] om. Cx.] fil*. [ful, γ.] on þe men of evel lyvynge, so*. [so] om. Cx.] þat þey þat were lefte on lyve myȝte unneþe awelde forto*. [awelde forto] om. Cx.] burye hem þat were dede, but þey þat lefte [onlyve]*. [From α.; alyve, β., γ., and Cx.] were nouȝt sone amended þerby. Þerfore an hardere wreche*. [a gretter vengeaunce, Cx.] come afterward, for Vortigernus and his counseil*. [counseil] om. α. and β.] took hem to rede to goo*. [to goo] and sente, α., β., γ., and Cx.] over see*. [over see] om. Cx.] after paynyms of Saxon, and prayed hem to come from byȝonde þe*. [þe] om. γ.] see to doo hem help and socour:*. [sokour, γ.] it is i-knowe*. [unknowen, Cx.] þat Page  261, vol.5 it was God his owne dede, for harme schulde falle upon Cristen*. [wicked, β.; wykked, γ.; wycked, Cx.] men. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Vortigernus dradde þe Pictes þat [he]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] hadde i-greved to forhonde, and in þe oþer side he dradde þe comynge of Aurelius Ambrosius, for he hadde i-herde*. [y-hurd, γ.] þat he hadde made redy his schippes for to passe þe see; þerfore he took hym to reede*. [took hym to reede] concluded, Cx.] to sende for þe Saxons, þat were noble werriours and strong in batayle. Beda, libro primo. Þanne þe Saxons,*. [Saxon, α.] strong men of armes, and placelees*. [placeles, β.] to wone*. [wonye, β. and γ.] ynne,*. [havyng no place to dwelle in, Cx.] were i-prayed of þe Britouns forto come in to Bretayne,*. [into Bretayne] om. α., β., and Cx.] and come*. [and come] om. Cx.] in þre longe schippes, þat þey clepeþ oblias,*. [obilas, α., β., and γ.; obylas, Cx.] in to Bre|tayne, and fenge*. [resseyve, Cx.] a place to wonye in*. [wonye ynne, γ.] þe est side þerof, in þe ilond Thanet bysides Kent, as it were for to fiȝte for þe contray, but it was more forto werrey and fiȝte aȝenst the contray. Willelmus de Regibus. Wel nygh al þe lond þat lyeth*. [liþ, β.] norþ|ward over þe see occean of Bretayne is i-cleped Germania, for it bryngeþ forþ so moche*. [mych, β.; muche, γ.] folk. Germania [comeþ]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] of Germinare Page  263, vol.5 þat is, for to burge*. [borge, β., γ., and Cx.] and bringe forþ. Þerfore as water bowes beeþ i-kutte*. [buþ y-kut, γ.] and i-hewe*. [hewen, Cx.] of treen,*. [tren, β. and γ.] for þe fastnesse*. [fatnesse, α.; fattnesse, β.; fat|nes, γ. and Cx.] of þe erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] schulde suffice to þe lyf of þe oþer deel of þe tree; so men of Germania revyleþ*. [releveþ, α., β., and γ.; releve, Cx.] þat lond þat is here moder by puttinge out of þe eldere*. [þe eldere] om. Cx. elþer, γ.] men þat beeþ stronge for to fiȝte, lest þey schulde be overcome wiþ to meny children ȝif þey abide al at home. But for to hele*. [covere, Cx.] þe envie of doynge þey telleþ*. [saye, Cx.] þat þey beeþ*. [þat a buþ, γ.] i-send out by lot; þerfore it is þat men of þat lond maketh hem strengþe of nede*. [neode, γ.] for to chalange strounge*. [straunge, α. and Cx.] londes to wonye*. [dwelle, Cx.] ynne, whanne þey beeþ i-put out of here owne lond. As þe Wandales somtyme wan Affrica, and þe Longebardes Italy, and þe Normans Gallia, so first come tweye breþeren*. [breþeron, γ.] out of Germania, Engistus and Horsus, wiþ a litel strengþe, and were Woden his nevewes; and as þey come of Woden, so wel nygh al þe kyngyn*. [kyngen, β.; kyngene, γ.; kyn|ges, Cx.] lynage of straunge naciouns come of þis Woden; and for*. [for] for as moche as, Cx.] þe Saxons þo hilde hym a god, þei cleped*. [clepide, β.] þe fourþe day of þe woke Wodenysday,*. [Woden his day, α.] in worschepe of þis Woden; and þe sixte day Friday, in worschippe of his wif Page  265, vol.5 Frea; þus þey dede be sacrelegie*. [hy dude by sacrylegy, γ.] þat lasteþ*. [the lestel, Cx.] evermore.*. [evermore] om. γ.]Beda, libro primo. Þere come of þre*. [of þre] thre of, Cx.] þe strengest peple of Germania into Bretayne, Saxons, Angles, and Pictes,*. [Jutes, α., β., and Cx.] of þe Iutes com þe Kentiche*. [Kentisch, β.; Kentysch, γ.; Kentysshe, Cx.] men, and þe men of þe yle of Wight, and þe men þat woneþ aȝenst þe ile of Wight.*. [Weyght, Cx.] Of þe Saxons come þe Est Saxons, þe Souþ Saxons, and þe West Saxons. Of þe Angles come þe Est Angles and Myddel Angels, þat is þe Mercies, and hadde myddel Engelond, þat strecceþ westward to þe ryver Dea*. [Dee, β. and Cx.] besides Chestre, and to Sevarne besides Shroesbury,*. [Shrovesbury, α. and β.; Schroys|bury, γ.; Shrowesbury, Cx.] and so forþ to Bristowe, and estward to*. [to] toward, Cx.] þe Est*. [Est] om. Cx.] see, and souþward to Tempse,*. [Temse, β. and γ.] and so [forþ]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to London, and northward to Hum|ber, and torneþ downward and westward to þe ryver Mersea,*. [Mercea, γ.] and so forth to þe West see. Also of þe Angles come þe men of Norþhumberlond, and Horsus and Engistus were lederes of hem alle. Trevisa. Forto know rediliche þe meres and þe*. [þe] om. α., γ., and Cx.] merkes of þe contrayes where þese*. [whar þeos, γ.] men were to set, loke in þe firste book, capitulo 51o. Henricus, libro 2o. Þese*. [þeose, γ.] men seillede*. [seilide, β.] into Bretayne, and bete*. [bente, α.; bent, γ.; bete doune, Cx.] þe enemyes of Bretouns;*. [Brytayne, Cx.] þe enemyes were i-come anon to Staunford,*. [Stanford, Cx.] þat is fourty myle out of Page  267, vol.5 Lincolne*. [Lyncolum, Cx.] souþward. Whanne þe Pictes and þe Scottes usede longe schaftes*. [scheftes, γ.] and speres, þe Saxons foughte wiþ longe swerdes*. [sweordes, γ.] and axes. Gaufridus. And so Vortigernus hadde þe victorie by help of þe Saxons, and ȝaf to Engistus lond in Lindeseye, þere he bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] a castel [þat hatte Þwongcastre,*. [þongcastre, γ.; Thongcastre, Cx.] for hym was i-graunted as moche londe to bulde on a castel]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] as a þwonge myȝte bycleppe.*. [biclippe, β.] Þerefore Engistus kutte*. [ki tte, β.] a bole hyde*. [huyde, α., β., γ., and Cx.] alto oon þong,*. [þwong, γ.] and byclipped þerwiþ al þat place. Beda, libro primo. Þanne tyþinges come home of þe goodnesse of þe londe of Bretayne, and of þe feblenesse of men þat wonede þerynne; þanne was i-sende a gretter navey forto make more nombre of Saxons, and þey feng and undertook þe werre*. [they to toke on them the warre, Cx.] uppon [þat].*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] covenaunt þat þey schulde fiȝte for þe contray, and þe Bretouns schulde fynde hem mete and wages. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þanne at þe secounde tyme þe Saxons come wiþ sixtene schippes, and brouȝte wiþ hem Hengistus Page  269, vol.5 his douȝter, a wonder faire mayde, merveillous*. [merveyl, α.; merveyl of kuynde and wonder syȝt, γ.; mervayle, Cx.] of kynde, and wonder siȝty*. [of siȝt, β.; of sighte, Cx.] for men to byholde. Þe kyng Vortigernus byhelde*. [byhuld, γ.] hir ofte, and heet þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] schulde serve hym in|stede of his boteler, and þe kyng axeþ here to wif, and eggeþ*. [egged, Cx.] hir fader þerto, as þey it were aȝenst his wille, and ȝaf Kent in stede of a ȝifte, and ȝaf Engistus leve to sende*. [consented that Engistus shold sende, Cx.] for his sone.*. [On the margin of MS. Addit. there is written in red chalk "John Wynter."]Gaufridus et Alfridus. Þis weddynge was i-made, and þe kyng putte away his laweful wif, on þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he hadde i-gete þre noble ȝongelynges, Vortimerus, Categirnus, and Pascencius. Beda, libro primo. Þanne þe Saxons con|spirede wiþ þe Pictes þat þey hadde i-putte out to forhond, and tornede to*. [to] for to, Cx.] fiȝte aȝenst here felawes þe Britouns; and firste þey axede*. [axiden, β.] more corne, and for it was noȝt i-ȝeve hem þey destroyede*. [distruyde, β.] þe contray, and slouȝ*. [slowe, Cx.] þe bisshoppes and þe peple. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Þanne þe Bretouns sigh þat þey were overset wiþ multitude of Saxons, and [counsailede*. [counceyleden, Cx.] þe kyng to forsake þe Saxons; and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] forsake*. [forsake] for, γ.; bycause, Cx.] he wolde nouȝt assente, Page  271, vol.5 þey took his sone Vortimerus and made hym kyng.*. [kyng] om. γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. After þe sevenþe ȝere of þe confeþe|racye he fauȝt aȝenst þe Angles ofte in smal bataylles, but fyve*. [fyf, γ.] siþes scharpliche wiþ al the companye. Henricus et Gaufridus. Þe firste of þese*. [þeos, γ.] batailles was uppon þe ryver Derwent,*. [Derwont, Cx.] and þe secounde uppon þe forde*. [apon vord, γ.] Epiforde, þere Horsus and Catagirnus wounded*. [wondide, β.] eiþer*. [eche, Cx.] oþer. Þe þridde was i-do by help of Seint Germayn þe*. [tho, Cx.] bisshop; at þat bataille me cryde þreis Alleluya, and þe Saxons fliȝ.*. [fledde, Cx.] Þe fourþe bataille was uppon þe see brynke,*. [bryngke, γ.] þere þe Saxons fleiȝ in to þe ylond Thanet. Whanne Page  273, vol.5 þe*. [þese, α. and Cx.; þeose, γ.] batailles were i-doo Vortymerus deide, þoruȝ venym of his stedame*. [stepdame, β. and γ.; stepdam, Cx.] Rowen, [℞]*. [From Cx.] but William seiþ þat whanne Fortimerus*. [Vortimerus, β., γ., and Cx.] hadde i-fouȝte twenty ȝere stalworthliche*. [manly, Cx.] aȝenst þe Angles, he was i-take awey by lotte of destenye. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Whan Vortimerus hadde i-fouȝte and*. [hadde i-fouȝte and] om. α. and Cx.] was deed, Vortigernus was efte restored in*. [in] to, Cx.] þe kyndom. Þanne, in hope of pees, boþe Bretouns and Angles come to gidres besides þe abbay Ambrius,*. [Above the line, in a later hand, is written, "now called Anmesbere."] þe firste day of May,*. [Maii, γ.] for to trete of pees bytwene hem þere. Þere Hengistus usede a newe manere of tresoun, and seide to [his]*. [From Cx.] knyȝtes, þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] whan he cride an Englisch*. [Anglysch, γ.] "Nemeþ*. [Nymeþ, α., γ., and Cx.; Ny|meth, β.] ȝoure sexes,"*. [sexses, γ.] þanne anon þey schulde slee here felawes þe Bretouns with knyfes þat þey hadde i-hydde in her hosen;*. [hoson, γ.] and so it was i-doo. But Edol,*. [Eldol, β., γ., and Cx.] duke of Gloucestre, cauȝte a stable,*. [stake, α., γ., and Cx.] and de|fended [hym]*. [From Cx.] manliche, and slouȝ seventy*. [seventen, Cx.] Saxons; but þe Sax|ons Page  275, vol.5 wolde nouȝte slee Vortigernus, but þey feng for*. [feng for] resseyved, Cx.] his raun|soun noble citees of Bretayne, and he wente into þe west contray of Wales, and abood at Gevoren*. [Genoren, β. and Cx.] uppon þe ryver Gwania, in þe hille Gloarvus;*. [Cloarcius, β. and Cx.; Cloar|vus, γ.] þo Aurelius Ambrosius come aftirward uppon hym, and brende hym in his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] toure. But Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo, meneþ oþerwise, and seiþ þat Engistus, by tresoun and fraude, prayde his douȝter housbonde Vorti|gernus, to a feste with þre hondred of his men, and whanne the gestes*. [gistes, γ.; ghestys, Cx.] hadde wel i-dronke, þanne by sleiþe þey were i-made *. [to] added in Cx.]stryve and chyde, and after strif þey took hem to here wepoun.*. [wepne, γ.; and after toke theyr wepens and foughte, Cx.] Þanne þe Britouns were i-slawe, and þe kyng was i-take and i-raunsond for þre provinces of þe Est. Also Willelmus, libro primo, et Henricus, libro 2o, telleþ þat Vortigernus lay by his owne douȝter, in hope þat kynges schulde come of hym, and gat on here a sone; þerfore he was acursed of Seint Ger|mayn and of al þe companye*. [compeny, β.] of preostes, and fliȝ into þe west|side Page  277, vol.5 of Wales; also it is i-wrete þat Seint German fliȝ, and he pursewed*. [poursiewed, Cx.] after hym, and*. [after, added in Cx.] was i-brent in his toure wiþ fuyre þat cam doun from hevene. Þanne þe Bretouns gadrede an oost, and Aurelius Ambrosius was duke, and hadde þat oost aȝenst Horsus and Hengistus in Kent; but Gaufre,*. [Gaufridus, α.; Gaufr., Cx.] in his Brittish book, wil mene þat after þat Aurelius Ambrosius was i-come*. [comen, β.] from byȝonde see, he brende Vortigernus in his [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] tour. And þanne he passed Homber, and made Hengistus be byheded at Conyngesburgh, and spared his sone Occe,*. [Otte, γ.; Octe, Cx.] þat was byseged at ȝork, and [i]*. [From α.] brouȝte lowe;*. [louȝ, γ.] after þis he overcome Pascen|cius, Vortigernus his sone,*. [his sone] om. Cx.] and his helpere Collomaurus*. [Gillomaurus, α., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Irlond; at þe laste he werþe*. [worþe, β.; a werþ, γ.; waxe, Cx.] sike at Wynchestre, and a Saxon þat heet Eopa ȝaf hym venym to drynke*. [dryngke, γ.] instede of medicyne, and so Aurelius deide; oon Pascencius hadde i-hired*. [y-huyred, γ.] Eopa, as it were a leche, for to doo þat dede. It is i-write*. [wreton, Cx.] in Seint German his legende, þat Vortigernus werned*. [weornede, γ.] Seint Ger|man harburgh,*. [herber, β.; lodgynge, Cx.] and a herde*. [heorde, β.; an heurde, γ.] þat kepte þe kynges bestes sigh þat Goddes holy*. [holy] om. Cx.] servauntes were i-greved, and herborwed*. [herberowed, β.; harburwede, γ.; lodged, Cx.] Seint Page  279, vol.5 German, and slowȝ a calf to þe*. [to þe] for his, Cx.] soper; but after þe soper Seint German arered the*. [reysed that calf, Cx.] calf fro deþ to lyve. Amorwe by heste of God German putte doun Vortigernus of his kyngdom, and took þe forseide herde*. [heurde, β.; heurde, γ.] and made hym kyng; þo alle men were astonyed*. [astoned, Cx.] for þat doynge;*. [þat doynge] wonder, α., γ., and Cx.] and from þat tyme forþward*. [forthon, Cx.] þe kynges of Bretouns come of þe herdes*. [heordes, β.; hurde, γ.] kynde; but Gildas, in his storie, seith þat þis byfel*. [bifil, β.] of þe kyng of Poysie*. [Powysye, β., γ., and Cx.] þat heet Bully,*. [Buly, γ. and Cx.] and nouȝte of Vortigernus, and seith þat Buly his suc|cessoures come of þis herde*. [hurdes, β.; heurde, γ.] his kynde, þat were kynges in þat side of Wales; þanne what is i-seide her of Vortigernus his ende is i-seide as it were in a manere for spekynge,*. [is i-seide . . . spekynge] it is in a manere doubte as, Cx.] forto kepe þe storie hool. Furþermore, what is i-seide of þe ponde of þe tweie dragouns, white and rede, of Vortigernus his buldynge, of Merlyn his fantastik getynge,*. [getynk, γ.] and of his prophecie þat is so derk, is conteyned in the Brittishe book, and I*. [ich, β.] wolde putte it to þis*. [þes, γ.] storie ȝif I trowed þat it be*. [hyt ys, γ.] i-holpe by soþenesse.*. [yf I supposed that it were trewe, Cx.]

Page  281, vol.5

Capitulum secundum.

VALENTIANUS*. [Valentinianus, β., γ., and Cx.] Augustus his tyme is acounted to þe cours of Theodocius and of Martinianus. Eutropius. He dradde þe fortune of Aecius and*. [and] om. γ.] patricius, and made hym i-slawe at Car|tage, [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe fortune of the west empere fil*. [ful, γ.] doun wiþ hym. But in þe same ȝere Valentinianus was i-slawe of Aecius his frendes in þe felde Marcius, twelve dayes to fore Averel,*. [Aprill, Cx.] þe day [after]*. [From Cx.] oon Maximus, a man of tweie consulates,*. [consulatus, Cx.] took þe em|pere of*. [of] at, γ.] Rome. He herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat Gisericus, kyng of þe Wandales, was comynge out of Affrica, and arrayed him for to flee, and was alto hakked*. [hewed, Cx.] of Valentinianus his servauntes, and i-þrowe lyme meele*. [lymmele, β., throwen lymmele, Cx.] into Tyber. Þanne Gisericus com to þe citee of Rome, and Leo þe pope mette hym, [and plesed him,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] so þat he sparede brennynge and manslauȝt,*. [manslaughter, Cx.] and took prisoners and Page  283, vol.5 richesse of þe see,*. [ryches of the cyte, Cx.] and ladde wiþ hym in to Affrica; among þe which*. [whuch, γ.] prisoners Eudoxia Augusta was i-take prisoner; sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] hadde i-prayed Gisericus to doo þat corsede dede. In þe tornynge aȝen toward Affrica Gesericus destroyed þe noble citees of Campania, Nola and Capua. Þanne, as Gregory*. [Gregori, γ.] seiþ in Libro decaleg,*. [dialog, α.; dialogorum, γ. and Cx.] Paulinus, bysshop of þe citee Nola, whanne he hadde i-spend al þat he hadde in raunsoun*. [raunsoms, α.; raunsons, Cx.] of prisoners, he wente into Affrica, and ȝaf hym self to be a man of straunge nacioun his*. [his] and, Cx.] bonde man, for þe ransoun of a wedewe*. [wydowes, Cx.] sone, and was his lordes gardener, and bare hym*. [bare hym] dyde soo, Cx.] wel in his office,*. [offys, γ.] and*. [and] that he, Cx.] tornede his lorde to Cristendome, and wan*. [and gate, added in Cx.] fredom to men of his nacioun. Marcianus, libro primo. In Marcianus his*. [his] om. Cx.] firste*. [vyfte, γ.; fyfih, Cx.] ȝere, Horsus and Hengistus fauȝte aȝenst þe Bretouns in a place þat hatte Aglischthorpe;*. [Aeglysthorp, α. and γ.; Aeglis|thorp, β.; Aglystorp, Cx.] þere Horsus and Catagirnus*. [Cartigernus, Cx.] slowȝ eiþer*. [eche, Cx.] oþer, but Hengistus hadde þe victorie. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 17o. Þat tyme þe fey of Bretouns dede Page  285, vol.5 waste*. [faste, β.] awey and*. [and] om. α. and β.] slide*. [waste . . . slide] faste fayle, Cx.]*. [dude fast awey slyde, γ.] for companye of Saxons, þat were straunge men and of mysbileve, and also for*. [for] bycause of, Cx.] Pelagius his here|sye, þat gan among hem to springe; þerfore þey sente into Fraunce forto have help and socour*. [sokour, γ.] aȝenst mysbileved men; and to hem were i-send Germanus Altissiodorus*. [Altisiodorus, β.] and Lupus Trecasinus bisshoppes. In seillynge þey sesede*. [þey sesede] om. Cx.; þey cee|side, β.; hy cesede, γ.] þe tempest of þe see*. [seecyd, added in Cx.] by here holy prayers, and*. [they, added in Cx.] destroyed þat heresye by soþenesse*. [trouthe, Cx.] of lore,*. [loore, γ.; and techyng, Cx.] by schewynge of myracles, and by holynesse of lyf; þei helede*. [helide, β.; hy heelede, γ.] a blynde wenche*. [damysel, Cx.] of ten ȝere olde. Þan*. [Saynt, added in Cx.] Germayn wente anon to þe sepulcre of Seint Albon, and dede*. [dede] lefte, Cx.] þere holy relikes*. [relyquyes, Cx.] of apostles and of holy*. [holy] om. Cx.] martires; but he took wiþ hym reed erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] of þat*. [of þat] out of that holy, Cx.] place; þanne he wente forþ and savede þe place of his harborwe*. [harburgh, γ.; lodgynge, Cx.] wiþ al þat was hym bytake*. [hym bytake] delyverd hym, Cx.] from brennynge whan oþer men*. [mennes, Cx.] þinges were i-brend wiþ fuyre. And þanne he wente wiþ þe Britouns aȝenst þe Saxons*. [þe Saxons] om. γ.] þat were Page  287, vol.5 associed to*. [associat unto, Cx.] þe Pictes; he cried þreis "Alleluia," and overcom þe enemyes wiþout schedynge of blood; and so þe ilond was i-clensed, and German tornede home aȝe. But þat heresye bygan to springe aȝen, and German was efte i-prayed forto come and helpe; þanne he come wiþ Lupus*. [and] added in γ.] his disciple Severus, and destroyede and dede awey þe errour, and tornede home aȝe; but he prayede Valentinianus at Raven for þe pees of*. [þe pees of] om. Cx.] men of Armorica, þat is Litel Bretayne, and deide; and by heste of þe emperour he was i-bore forto be buried at his owne chirche. After Marcianus Leo regnede seventene ȝere. In his firste ȝere Vortimerus [Vortigerus]*. [From Cx.] his sone deyde in a strong evel, and Hengistus, with his sone Osca, gadrede strengþe, and brouȝte to gydres his knyȝtes and men of arms þat were to*. [to] so, Cx.] sparpled*. [were dysparpled, γ.] and to schad,*. [to schad] departed, Cx.] and fouȝt strongliche aȝenst þe Bretouns at Krekanford.*. [Crecanford, β.; Crekenford, Cx.] Of hem were i-slawe foure dukes and foure þowsand of oþere men, and he chasede þe oþer del out of Kent anon to Londoun and þey tornede nevere after ward in to Kent, for his broþer Horsus was dede wiþ Categirnus to forhond; Page  289, vol.5 his buriel is ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] i-schewed in þe est side of Kent; and [soo]*. [soo, added from Cx.] þe kyndom of Kent bygan under Hengistus, þe eiȝteþe*. [eyghten, Cx.] ȝere after þe comynge of Saxons into Bretayne, and Hengistus regnede in Kent after [that]*. [From Cx.] foure and twenty ȝere. Þe heresye of the Acephales*. [Acepheles, Cx.] springeþ and encreseth; þey wiþseide*. [agaynesayd, Cx.] þe counsail Calsadonence;*. [Calcedonense, α.; Calcydo|nense, Cx.] þe Acephales beeþ i-seide as it were men wiþ oute hede, for hire auctor is unknowe. After Leo Hillari was pope seven ȝere. Hengistus and his sone Osca, atte Whiptes|flete,*. [Wyptisflete, α. and γ.; Wiptis|flete, β.; Wyptysflete, Cx.] slouȝ twelve dukes of Britouns, and was of þe Angeles i-slawe but oon þat heet Wypet, and þe place haþ þe name of hym þat hatte Wypetesflete,*. [Wypetysfleet, γ.] as it were þe fletyng*. [vletyng, γ.] of Wepet.*. [and þe place . . Wepet] om. Cx.] After Hillary Simplicius was pope fiftene ȝere; he ordeyned þat no clerk schulde fonge þe investiture of his benefys noþer of his offys of a lewed man his hond.

Page  291, vol.5

Capitulum tertium.

ZENO þe emperour regned after Leo seventene ȝere. In his tyme deyde Childericus þe fourþe kyng of Frensche men, and after hym his sone Clodoneus*. [Clodenus, Cx.] Loweys*. [Lewes, α.; Lewis, β.; Lewuys, γ.; Lewys, Cx.] regnede þritty ȝere.*. [ȝere] om. γ.] Þis in þe fifteþe*. [fyften, Cx.] ȝere of his kyndom, while he ladde his oost and schulde fiȝte aȝenst a wondre huge*. [wondre huge] grete, Cx.] nombre of Almayne,*. [Almayns, α., γ., and Cx.] he byhelde*. [a byhuld, γ.; loked, Cx.] into hevene and seide, "Lord Iesu Crist, whom my wif worschippeþ, ȝif þu ȝevest me þis day þe victorie I shal be i-cristened*. [folled, β., et infra.; y-folled, γ.] in þy name." Þe Almayns fleeþ, and he and his tweie sustres,*. [sosters, γ.] and þre þowsand of his men, beeþ i-cristened*. [buþ y-folled, γ.] in an Esterday of Seint Remigius bisshop of Ramens.*. [Raynes, Cx.] And for þei hadde no crisma,*. [crysma, Cx., et infra.] lo a colver*. [dowve, Cx.] brouȝte him in his bile*. [byle, γ.] a viol wiþ crisma, and þe bisshop anoynted þe kyng þerwiþ; þat viol is i|kept in þe chirche Ramensis,*. [of Raynes, Cx.] and wiþ þat crisma þe kynges beþ anoynt. Sone after þis, while þe kynge wente to a bataile aȝenst Page  293, vol.5 oon Alaricus*. [Aladericus, Cx.] þat werred*. [werride, β.] in Gyan,*. [Gyean, γ., et infra; Guyan, Cx., et infra.] Remygius took hym a flaket ful of holy wyne, and byheet*. [promysed, Cx.] hym þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] victorie, and seide, "Goo forth as longe as þis wyne dureþ;" þanne þe kyng drank and his servauntes, and þe wyne faillede in none place. Þanne he occupiede Gyan, and passede þe ryver of Leyre, and Turon, [and]*. [From γ. and Cx.] in Seint Martyns chirche he herde þe*. [þat, β.; hurde þat, γ.] vers of þe sawter, Precinxisti me, Domine, in*. [in] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] virtute tua*. [tua] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] ad bellum; þat is, Lord, þou hast byclipped me wiþ virtue and wiþ*. [wiþ] om. Cx.] strengþe to þe bataille. Þerfore þe kyng was glad wiþ al, and arrayed hym for to passe þe forde of þe ryver Vincenna, but þe water bygan hugeliche*. [hogelych, γ.] for*. [for] om. Cx.] to arise, and an hynde appered sodenliche, and passede þe water to fore þe kyng, and schewed him*. [hym, α. and Cx.] þe forde. Þanne þe kyng made þe kyngdom of Fraunce strecche*. [strechche, γ.] anon to þe [hyȝe]*. [From α. and β.; hye, Cx.] hilles*. [hyȝ hulles, γ.] of*. [of] om. γ.] Arregonia*. [Arrogonia, β.; Arrogonnia, γ.; Aragon, Cx.] þat beeþ i-cleped montes Pireney.*. [Pireni, Cx.] Þerfore þe emperour Anastacius herde of his name, and sente hym a crowne of gold richeliche arayed*. [besette, Cx.] wiþ precious stones, wiþ a kirtel and a girdle,*. [curtel and a gurdel, γ.] and from þat tyme he was assigned to be consul and Augustus for þe comyn profite*. [prouffyt, Cx.] of þe empere, and he was i-cloþed in a consuls gowne. Also from þat tyme þe empere of Rome, Page  295, vol.5 þat was somtyme translated to Constantynnoble, bygan to wexe lasse*. [las (bis), γ.] and lasse from day to day, and þe kyngdom of Fraunce bygan to sprede and wexe more and more. Whanne Gisericus kyng of Wandales was dede, his eldere*. [elþer, γ.] sone Hunericus*. [Homericus, Cx.] regnede in Affrica eyȝte ȝere; by sleiþe of straunge naciouns þis bygan firste to doo myldeliche with Cristene men; but at þe ende he het*. [commaunded to, Cx.] putte fury*. [fuyry, α., β., and γ.; fyry, Cx.] plates to brestes of holy maydens ffor*. [by cause, Cx.] þey*. [þey] a, γ.] schulde knowleche*. [and sygge, added in γ.] þat bisshoppes and clerkes hadde i-leye by hem. Also he dede*. [put, Cx.] a greet multitude of Cristen men in a streiȝt prisoun for þey shoulde late*. [lete, Cx.] falle ureyne and dritte everiche*. [uryne and foul ordure eche, Cx.] uppon oþer, and so it semede þat þe stenche*. [stynch, γ.] þerof passede al oþer peyne.*. [paine, Cx.] Aboute þat tyme were seyn Medardus þe confessour and Gildardus bisshop of Rothomagensis*. [Seynt Medard and Seynt Gyl|dard, bisshops of Roen, confessors were, Cx.] in hir floures, þey were breþeren of oon wombe i-bore in oon day, i-sacred bis|shoppes in oon day, and dede in oon day. Henricus, libro 2o. Elle and his þre sones, Cunen,*. [Cimen, α., β., and γ.; Cymen, Cx.] Plectyng,*. [Plettinger, β.; Plegtinger, γ.; Plettynger, Cx.] and Cissa, come Page  297, vol.5 into Bretayne wiþ þre schippes þe ȝere after þe firste comynge of Angles þritty, and slouȝ meny Bretouns [at]*. [From Cx.] Conneneshore,*. [Cuneneshore, β. and Cx.] and chasede [menye]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] anon to þe wode Andresleg,*. [Andresleger, β., et infra, and Cx; Addresleger, γ. (bis).] and so he occupied Souþsex. Henricus, libro 5o. Andresleg*. [Andrysleger, Cx.] is a greet wode on þe souþ side of Kent bysides þe haven Lynme,*. [Lymme, Cx.] and conteyneþ fourty myle in lengþe and þritty in brede. After Simplicius Felix was pope eiȝte ȝere. Seinte Barnabe*. [Barnabas, Cx.] his body was founde in a den*. [cave, Cx.] þere his disciple Iohn hadde i-hud it, with þe gospel of Mathew þat he hadde i-write wiþ his owne stile.*. [styyl, γ.] Barnabe prechede first [of Crist]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] at Rome, and was first bisshop i-made of Melan. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þat ȝere Hengistus deide in Kent two and þritty ȝere after his comynge.*. [into Engelond, added in γ.; into Englond, added in Cx.] He droof*. [drof, β. and γ.] forþ his tyme and dede his dedes as moche wiþ fraude as with strengþe, and hym was levere*. [leover, γ.] do cruelliche þanne lawfulliche.*. [cruwelych þan lawefolych, γ.] After hym his sone Osca was kyng foure and twenty ȝere; he defendede þe kyngdom, and made it no more, and hilde*. [heuld, γ.] hym apaide with his fader kyngdom, and passed nowher*. [noȝwhar, γ.] his fader Page  299, vol.5 bondes. Eutropius, libro 4o. Also in þis Zeno þe emperour his tyme Aurelius Ambrosius usede þe purpure in Bretayne uppon*. [apon, α., passim.] caas*. [uppon caas] om. Cx.] after þe fiȝtinge of Saxons he was left on lyve, and no mo of þe Romayns, and overcome ofte þe Saxons þat were victors; and from þat tyme forþ, now þe oon, now þe oþer hadde þe maistrie and [þe victorye, forto þe Saxons hadde þe maystrie and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wan al þe ilond. Aboute þat tyme Seint Mammertus,*. [Manmertus, Cx.] bisshop of Vien, ordeyned solempne letanyes þat beeþ i-cleped þe Rogaciouns, aȝenst erþe*. [eorþe, γ.] schakynge*. [quakynge, Cx.] and tempest of weder and peril*. [parelle, Cx.] of resynge*. [of resynge] om. Cx.] of wylde bestes þat grevede þe peple þat tyme, and beeþ i-cleped þe lasse letayne for difference*. [duffrens, γ.] of þe more le|tayne þat*. [Seynt, added in Cx.] Gregorye ordeynede to be seide a Seynt Markes*. [Marc, γ.] day. Paulus, libro primo. Aboute þat tyme Agrimundus þe firste kyng of Longobardes, or*. [er, β. and Cx.; ar, γ.] he com into Pannonia, he fonde seven children i-leyde bysides a pond, þat a strompat*. [comyn woman, Cx.] hadde-i-bore*. [hadde i-bore] om. γ.] at oon burþen,*. [burþon, γ.] and caste hem þere for þey schulde be i-slawe. Þe kyng passede þerforþ,*. [þerforþ] forth by, Cx.] and wolde wite what it were, and tornede Page  301, vol.5 þe spere þat he bare in his hond to ward þe children, and oo childe*. [oo childe] oon of hem, om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] helde*. [huld, γ.] þe spere wiþ his honde, and þerby þe kyng tolde [þat]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe childe schulde be greet, and leet take hym of þe pond, and norsched*. [norsede, γ.; dyde do norysshe, Cx.] hym [up]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] besiliche.*. [bisilich, β.; bysylych, γ.] And after Agelmundus his deþ, for his nobilnesse*. [nobley, Cx.] he was i-chose kyng, and ruled þe Longo|bardes swiþe graciousliche*. [right wel, Cx.] longe tyme; and for he was i-take of þe pond, and norsched hym up besiliche,*. [and . . . besiliche] om. γ.] þey ȝeven*. [hy ȝaf, γ.] hym a name, and cleped hym Lamissio; for a pond is i-cleped lama in hire longage. Of hym it is i-seide þat whanne þe Amazones wernede þe Longobardes to passe oon of hire owne ryveres, þis Lamissio swymmynge in þe ryver fauȝt wiþ þe strengeste womman of þe Amazones, and slouȝ here riȝt þere, and*. [soo, added in Cx.] by co|venant he ordayned passage for his men. Þat ȝere Zeno þe em|perour send to*. [to] om. γ.] Teodorichus*. [Theodoricus, γ., Theodericus, Cx.] to fiȝte aȝenste oon Odoacer, þat hadde i-werred in Italy fourtene ȝere. This Theodoricus was þe kynges sone of Gothes, and was i-take to Zeno*. [delyverd, Cx.] in plegge whanne þe covenant of pees*. [bytwene ham, added in γ.] was i-made. Þanne whanne Theo|doricus was eyȝtene*. [eyȝtetene, γ.] ȝere olde he passede Bulgaria and Pannonia, Page  303, vol.5 and fedde hym and hise in þe leese*. [lese, β. and Cx.] of Aquila;*. [Aquilia, γ.; Aquylya, Cx.] þanne Odoacer mette hym wiþ al þe power of Italy, and was overcome of hym. Þerfore he tornede aȝen to Rome, and was i-putte of by þe Romayns, and wente to Raven, and þere he was byseged þre ȝere, and i-slawe riȝt þere. Þan Theodoricus come to Rome, and [was]*. [From β. and Cx.] gladliche underfonge,*. [resseyved, Cx.] and wedded Andelflede, þe douȝter of Clodoneus kyng of Fraunce,*. [Frauns, γ.] and maried his douȝ|ters and sustres to kynges þat wonede*. [dwellyd, Cx.] þere aboute, so þat wel nygh al Italy was i-ioyned*. [y-juyned, γ.] to hym by suche*. [siche, β.] affinite.

Capitulum quartum.

ANASTACIUS*. [Anastasius, β., and Cx.] was emperour seven and twenty ȝere. In his firste*. [furste, γ., bis.] ȝere Seint Patrik deyde, þe firste*. [furste, γ., bis.] bisshop of Irlond, þe ȝere of his owne age sixe score and tweyne, in Aurelius [Am|brosius]*. [From α. and β.; Ambrose, Cx.] his tyme, þat was þe*. [þoo, α.; thenne, Cx.] kyng of Bretayne. Giral|dus in Topographia. In his tyme were þe abbot Columba, þat Page  305, vol.5 heet Columkillus*. [Kolunkillus, Cx.] also, and Seint Bryde þat Patrik veillede,*. [veyled, β.; veylede, γ.; veyled and professyd, Cx.] and sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] overlevede him by*. [by] om. Cx.] sixty ȝere. Þese*. [þeose, γ.] þre were i-buried in Ulster*. [hulster, γ.] in þe same*. [same], om. Cx.] citee as*. [as] om. α., γ., and Cx.] Dunens,*. [Duneus, γ.; Dymens, Cx.] as it were in a den wiþ þre chambres: here bodyes were i-founde*. [founden, β.] þe firste ȝere of þe comynge of sire John,*. [sir Johan, Cx.] þe secounde kyng Henricus*. [Henry, α. and γ.; Haryes, Cx.] his sone, into Irlond. Uppon here tombes þese*. [þeose, γ.] vers were i-wrete:*. [wreton, Cx.] "In Duno þese thre beeþ i-buried*. [yburd, γ.] riȝt al in oon tombe, Bride wiþ Patrik and also Columba þe mylde."*. [Cx. gives the Latin before translating.] ℞. Me seiþ*. [Me seiþ] Men saye, Cx.] þat þis firste Patrik, among his oþir wonderful werkes and deedes, [dyde thre grete thynges,]*. [From Cx.] oon is*. [on ys, γ.] þat he droof*. [drof, β.] with his staf al þe venemous*. [venemos, γ.] bestes out of Irlond; þe secound is þat he prayed and hadde*. [it was graunted to hym, Cx.] it i|graunted of God all myȝti, þat non Irische*. [yrysch, γ.] man schal abide þe comynge of Antecrist.*. [Auntecryst, γ.] Þe þridde [wonder]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] is i-rad of his purgatorie, but*. [bote, γ.] þat is more acounted to þe lasse Patrik, Page  307, vol.5 þat was abbot and nouȝt bisshop, and was in his floures aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord eyȝte hondred and fifty. Þe martilogie*. [Martirlogi, γ.] speketh of hym þat he fonde firste a rebel peple, and þerfore he went out of Irlond, and deide in þe abbey of Glastynbury*. [Glastenbury, β.; Glastebury, γ.; Glastenbury, Cx.] at Seint Bartholomew*. [Bartilmew, Cx.] þe apostles day. After Felix, Gelasius was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fyve ȝere. He ordeyned þat ordres*. [thorders, Cx.] schulde be i-ȝeve*. [yoven, Cx.] in*. [in] om. Cx.] foure tymes in þe ȝere, and made þe comyn prefas þat is i-songe in chirches,*. [in chirches] in the masse tyme, Cx.] "Vere dignum et justum est," and so forþ anon to "dies nostros." Also in his tyme þe den was i-schewed*. [schewide, β.; yschowed, γ.] at Seint Michel is*. [Miȝhels, β.; Mychaels, Cx.] mount in monte Gorgano.*. [Gargano, β.] Þe ȝere of oure Lord foure hondred foure*. [Regnum Orientalium Anglorum.] score and twelve bygan þe kyngdom of þe Est Angles under Uffa. Of hym al þe Est Angles beeþ i-cleped*. [buþ yclepud, γ.] Uffynges, and now we clepeþ hem Fykanes and Fykeys also. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 7o.*. [16o, α. and Cx.] Also þat ȝere was þe grete slauȝter*. [slauȝt, β. and γ.] of Saxons in þe sege of Badounhil*. [Badonhulle, γ.; Badon hille, Cx.] by þe duke of Bretouns, Page  309, vol.5 Aurelius Ambrosius,*. [Ambrose, Cx.] þe ȝere after þe comynge of Angles foure and fourty. Henricus, libro 2o. Þat ȝere tweie dukes of Saxons, Cerdicus and his sone Kynricus, wiþ fyve schippes,*. [schipes, γ.] come on*. [on] a, γ. and Cx.] londe at Cerdyschore,*. [Cerdychesore, γ.] þat nowe hatte Grene|mouþ.*. [Gernemouth, β.; is called Yar|nemouth, Cx.] Seynt Leonard is i-bore, and kyng Clodoneus [was his godfader and]*. [From Cx.] took hym of*. [of] oute of Cx.] þe cold water. Whanne Gelasius was dede Anastasius was pope two ȝere. He or|deynede þat no clerk schulde for wreþþe leve no*. [no] his, Cx.] service unseide in holy chirche, but onliche þe masse. Also þis cursede*. [þes corsede, γ.] þe emperour Anastacius. After Anastasius*. [Anastius, γ.] Syma|chus was pope fiftene ȝere. Wiþ hym was ordeyned anoþer pope þat heet Laurencius: in þat stryf were meny men|slauȝtes*. [man slauȝtes, γ.; manslaugh|ters, Cx.] in þe citee, but þey*. [þey] om. γ.] come boþe to þe doome of Theodoricus at Raven; and þe kyng demede þat he þat was first i-ordeyned schulde be pope, oþer he þat hadde þe more partye of þe chesers*. [cheosers, γ.] assentynge*. [assentynge] om. Cx.] to his allectioun;*. [election, Cx.] and by þat Page  311, vol.5 dome Symachus was pope. He loved þe clergie and halpe pore*. [poure, γ.] men. Þerfore Paschasius, a cardynal decon,*. [dekene, β. and Cx.] after his deth, in þe peyne of purgatorie, was i-sette for to serve bathes, for he hadde i-favored Laurence his partye anon to his deþ, so telleþ Gregorie in Libro Dialogorum. Also þis pope ordeyned þat everiche Sonday and in festes of martires "Gloria in excelsis" schulde be i-seide at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] masse. ℞. Þerfore som men wil mene*. [wold suppose, Cx.] þat he made þat folweþ in þat ympne, [but oþer men meneþ*. [meneþ] wene, Cx.] þat*. [seynt, add. Cx.] Hillary made hit*. [hit] om. Cx.] al þat folweþ in þat ympne].*. [From α. and β.; not in γ.] Þat ȝere deide Remygius, doctor of Frensche|men*. [Freynsch men, α. and γ.] and bisshop of Remene.*. [Remene] Raynes, Cx.] An hermyte warnede Remy|gius his moder of his burþe, [and of þe manere of his burthe].*. [From α. and β.] Þis hermyte had i-lost his eyȝen and his sight, and was blynde for ofte wepynge*. [weopynge, γ.] þat he usede in his beedes. And he warned þe moder of þis tokene,*. [And . . . tokene] And prayd his moder that, Cx.] whanne þe childe schulde be wened, þe childe schulde be*. [be] om. α., β., γ., and Cx. rightly.] wasshe*. [wesche, β.] wiþ watir of*. [wiþ watir of] om. α., β., γ., and Cx. rightly.] þe hermytes eyȝen wiþ þe modir melk, and so he schulde eft*. [eft] agayne, Cx.]Page  313, vol.5 have his siȝt. Þanne þis*. [þis] om. γ.] Remigius from his childhode dwelled in a closett for to*. [for to] til, β.] he*. [fort a, γ.] was [two and twenty ȝere olde. After þat he was y-made bisshop of Remene,*. [Raynes, Cx.] and was]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] so mylde þat wilde sparwes*. [sparowes, γ.] wolde take mete of his hond. Henricus. Þat ȝere oon Porth wiþ his tweie sones com alond at Portesmouth*. [Portesmouthem, α.; Porthes|mouþ, β.; Porthesmoutham, γ.] in Souþsex and slouȝ a noble ȝonge man Natanleos,*. [Natanleos] om. Cx.] a man*. [Natanleos, a man] om. β.; Matauleos, γ.] of Bretouns, and meny oþer wiþ hym. Lotharius, kyng of Fraunce after his fader Clodo|neus, regnede fifty ȝere and oon. In his tyme Aurelius Ambrosius*. [Ambrose, Cx.] deide in Bretayne, and his broþer Uterpendra|gon regnede after hym. [℞.]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Uterpendragon, by helpe of Merlyn*. [Merlyn] om. γ.] þe prophete, brouȝte Coria gigantum, þat is Stoon|henges,*. [Stonehenges, Cx.] out of Irlond. Stonhenges*. [Stonhenge, β. et infra.] is now in the playn of Salisbury.*. [Salesburye, β.] Of þat bryngynge of Stonhenges*. [Stonhenge, Cx. et infra.] out of Irlond spekeþ þe Brittissh storie, if it schulde be lawe fulliche*. [lawefolych, γ.] i|trowed. Also Uterpendragon slow Gillomaurus, Vortigernus*. [Vortigerus, Cx.]Page  315, vol.5 his sone. Þis Gillomaurus*. [þis Gillomaurus] Added from β.; þes Gillomaurus, γ.] was kyng of Irlond. Also Uter slouȝ Hengistus his sone Osca, and his cosyn Osa, and Gorolus duke of Cornewayle, and wedded þe same dukes wif Ingerna,*. [Iugerna, Cx.] and gat on hir þe nobil*. [nobel, γ.] Arthur; but he*. [bote a, γ.] was at þe laste i-poysoned*. [ypoysond, γ.] wiþ venym and deide, and was i-buried by his broþer Aurelius in Corea gigantum, þat is Stoonhenges. After Symachus Hormisda was pope eiȝte yere. He reconsilede þe Grees, and ordeyned þe clergie*. [clergi, γ.] in rule*. [rewle, Cx.] and in ordre, and lefte in Seynt Peter his chirche a beme*. [beem, γ.] of silver of a þowsand pound and sixty. Also he sent lettres to Anastacius þe em|perour, þat favered Eutices*. [favoured Entices, Cx.] his errour, and heet the emperour þat he schulde hym self*. [sylf, γ.] amende. "We wolleþ*. [willeþ, α.; wolde wol, γ.; wol, Cx.] hote,"*. [commaunde, Cx.] quod þe emperour, "and nouȝt be i-hote."*. [commaunded, Cx.] Þerfore he was afterward byset*. [besette, Cx.] wiþ*. [his, add. β.; hys, add. γ.] enemyes and i-smyte wiþ liȝtnynge and deide. Whanne Osca Hengistus*. [Engystus, Cx.] sone was dede, his sone Occa*. [Octa, β. and Cx.] regned after hym two and twenty ȝere in þe kyngdom of Caunterbury, þat was þe kyngdom of Kent. Marianus, Page  317, vol.5libro 2o. Þat tyme Iordanus þe bisshop was in his floures, and made a cronyke. Iustinus.*. [Iustinus] om. α.]

Capitulum quintum.

BEDA seiþ þat Iustinus þe elder*. [elþere, α.] was emperour eyȝte ȝere, but oþer telleþ*. [telle, Cx.] þat he was emperour ten ȝere. At þe in|staunce*. [instauns, γ.] of Hormisda þe pope Iustinus reconcilede þe bis|shoppes þat Anastacius hadde [exciled]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] for þey*. [þe, α.; the, Cx.] fey*. [feyth, Cx.] of holy chirche, and German bisshop of Capua was þe popes messanger to Iustinus at þat tyme. Henricus, libro 2o. Þis is þe ȝere after þe comynge of Angles þre score and elevene.*. [ellevene, β.; enlevene, γ.] Þis ȝere bygan the kyngdom*. [kyngdom] yere, Cx., wrongly.] of West Saxons under Cerdicus and his sone Kynricus,*. [Kynricus, γ.] by help specialliche*. [specialych, γ.] of hire owne nevewes, Stuff*. [Stuffer, Cx.] and Whitgar,*. [Wiȝtgar, β.; Wyȝhtgar, γ.; Wyghtgar, Cx.] þat londede in þre schippes at Cerdichesore,*. [Cerdychsore, γ.] and fauȝt strongliche, and slouȝ many Bre|touns; to þe whiche*. [woche, γ.] nevewes was i-ȝeve*. [yove, Cx.] þe ylond of Wight. Page  319, vol.5Trevisa. Loke more of þe kyngdom*. [kynge, Cx.] of West Saxons under Cerdicus*. [under Cerdicus] om. α. and Cx.] in þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] book, capitulo 5o.*. [51o, α., β.; decimo-quinto, Cx.] Þan it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie: after Hormisda þe firste Iohn*. [Ioon, β., et infra; vurste Jon, γ.; Johan, Cx., et infra.] was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx. passim.] þre*. [þreo, γ.] ȝere. Theodoricus Augustus, emperour of Italy, hulde*. [helde, Cx.] Arrius his heresie, and sente þis pope Iohn, wiþ oþer men of þe dignite of consulus,*. [consuls, β. and γ.] to Iustinus, emperour of Con|stantynnoble, and het hym þat he schulde leve and suffre þe Arrians in pees,*. [pes, γ.] oþer*. [or, Cx.] he wolde slee þe Cristen men of Italy. And whanne he herde*. [hurde, γ.] telle þat his messangers were worschipliche underfonge,*. [worschyplyche undervonge, γ.; worshipfully receyved, Cx.] whanne þey*. [huy, γ.] were i-come aȝen to Ravenna, he took pope Iohn and Symachus patricius and Boys*. [Boece, β. and Cx., et infra.] þe senatour, and slouȝ hem in hard prisoun. But for*. [vor, γ.] Boys hadde defended and meyntened þe auctorite of þe senatoures of Rome by gode skiles and resouns, þerfore*. [þarvore, γ.] he exciled hym out of Rome by*. [by . . . resouns] om. α. and Cx.] goode skiles and resouns, and putte hym into Papie. Þere Boys*. [Boecius, Cx.] made foure*. [Above the foure is written in another hand in β, five; voure, γ.; fyve, Cx.] bookes de Consolacione Philosophie; and at þe laste he lete sle hym in Page  321, vol.5 þe contray of Melan. ℞.*. [℞] om. α., but a space left as if for rubric.] Þis Boys was a passing man in his werkes and dedes, and famous wiþoute repreef,*. [repreve, β.] and lernede first*. [vurste, γ.] þe longages of Latyn and Grew of*. [at, α. and Cx.] Rome; and þanne at Athene he lerned hem at þe fulle.*. [a lernede ham atte volle, γ.] Wiþoute þe bookes þat he made oþer declarede of þe sevene artes,*. [ars, β. and γ.] he made fifty*. [vyfty, γ.] songes endited comice, þat is as it were schort vers;*. [versus, β.; verses, Cx.] among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] songes þe beste bygynneþ in þis manere: "O amor, deus, deitas;"*. [Divinitas, γ.] þat is, "O þou love, God and Godhede." But his wif Elpes, þe kynges douȝter of Sicilia,*. [Scicilia, β. and Cx. passim.] made an ympne in preysinge of þe apostles*. [apostlis, β.] Peter*. [Petur, γ.] and Paule þat bygynneþ in þis manere: "Felix per omnes festum mundi cardines;" þat is to meninge,*. [to saye, Cx.] "Þou feste þat art holy and gracious in every contray of þe world*. [wordle, γ.] wide." Sche*. [Heo, β.] made a writynge to be grave on hire*. [hure, γ.] owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] tombe, and made it in metre in þis manere: "Elpes was myn name, so Sicil*. [Cecily, Cx.] brouȝt me forþ;*. [vorþe, γ.] Fer*. [Ver, γ.] oute of londe myn housebonde love me ladde. In holy place I*. [Ich, β.] now reste*. [plas now ich rest, γ.] in straungene*. [straunge, Cx.] londe. I queþe me to þe trone*. [troone, β.] of þat Iuge þat nevere haþ ende." But Page  323, vol.5 Theodoricus þe tyraunt scapede*. [schapede, γ.] nouȝt þe peyne, for*. [vor, γ., constantly.] he deide sodenliche at Raven*. [Ravenne, Cx.] fourescore dayes*. [vour skore dawes, γ.] and ten after þat he hadde i-fulfilled*. [a hadde volfulled, γ.] his tyrandise*. [tirauntrie, β.; tyrauntrye, Cx.] in þat holy man Boys: oon Solutarius sigh hym boyle and seþe in Ulkanus*. [Vulcanus, α., β., and γ.] his crokke,*. [Vulcanus crokce, Cx.] in þe ilond Liparis,*. [Luparis, Cx.] bysides Sicilia, þere he boilleþ as it were a caudron. Þat ȝere Seint Bride þe maide deide in Irlond. Aftir Iohn þe fourþe*. [vurþe, γ.] Felix was pope foure ȝere; he was Seint Gregorie his fader grauntsire. He ordeyned þat sike*. [seke, Cx.] men schulde be annoynt*. [enoynted, Cx.] with holy oylle or*. [er, β.] þey*. [ar huy, γ.] passede out of þis lif, and corsede*. [cursed, Cx.] þe patriark of Constantyn|noble. Also þat ȝere þe abbot Dionisius Exiguus bygan to make his compote*. [compot, β., γ., and Cx.] at Rome. He was þe firste, oþer þere were no mo þat took hede of þe defautes of þat compot; and afterward Marianus þe monk i-closed in Magoncia, as it is i|touched*. [ytouchide, β.] in þe byginninge of þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] in þe þridde prefas.

Capitulum sextum.

IUSTINIANUS, Iustinus his nevew on his suster i-gete,*. [goten, Cx.] regnede eiȝte and þritty ȝere. Þis gadrede þe lawes of þe Romayns, þat Page  325, vol.5 were i-wrete wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] in two þowsand bookes, and in þre hondred þowsand vers, in longe writinge and unprofitable; he gadred hem into a volym*. [volume, Cx., tris.] of twelf bookes, and cleped þat volym*. [volume, Cx., tris.] Iustinianus his code. Also he made Pendectas, þat is digest, and departed it in þre volyms. Also he dede meny batails by hymself and by Bisiliarchus*. [by lisiarchus, divisim, β.; By|lisyarchus, γ.; Bilisiarchus, Cx.] þe duke; noþeles at þe excitinge of Theodora Augusta he dede many cruel*. [cruwel, β. and γ.] dedes, and exciled þe pope. After Felix Bonefacius was pope two ȝere [and somwhat of dayes. He ordeynede þat clerkes and lewed*. [lewide, β.] men schulde be departed while þe masse is on*. [on] a, Cx.] syng|ynge. After Bonefacius þe secounde Iohn was pope two ȝere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and foure monþes. After þe secounde Iohn þe first Agapitus was pope elevene ȝere. He ordeynede þat pro|cessioun schulde be made in þe synode;*. [Sonday, Cx.] and went to Con|stantynnoble to Iustinianus, and deyde þere, but he was i-bore*. [born, Cx.] to Rome. Cerdicus þe firste kyng of West Saxon deide whanne Page  327, vol.5 he hadde i-regned seventene ȝere. After Agapitis*. [Agapitus, α. and Cx.] Silverius*. [Silverinus, γ.] was pope oon ȝere and fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes. He was exiled, and i-slawe while he was exciled, and þat made þe emperise*. [emperice, β.; emperys, γ., et infra.] Theodora Augusta, for he wolde nouȝt restore aȝen Athe|mius*. [Anthemius, Cx.] patriarch of Constantynnoble, þat was to forhonde*. [vorehonde, γ.] condempned of heresye. Þat ȝere was David*. [Seynt Davy, Cx.] i-bore, þat hatte Dewy also; he was bisshop of Menevia,*. [Mevenia, Cx.] þat now hatte Seint Davy, þat is*. [þat is] om. Cx.] in Wales. After Silverius, Vigilius*. [Virgilius, Cx.] was pope as it were nyne ȝere. He ordeyned þat þe masse schulde be i-seide toward þe est ende of þe chirche; and at þe laste, as his pre|decessour, was pursewed*. [pursywed, γ.; poursiewed, Cx.] of þe empers,*. [emperys, α.; empresse, Cx.] for Anthomius*. [Anthemius, α., γ., and Cx.] þe patriarch was nouȝt restorede; so was he al day*. [al a day, β., γ., and Cx.] to drawe and to haled, i-scorned, and i-buffetted at Constantynnoble; and at þe laste he deide exciled. In his tyme Bellisarius patricius delyvered Rome of the takynge of þe Gothes. Also in his tyme bifel*. [byful, γ.; byfyl, Cx.] þat is i-rad of Theopholus þe archedekon;*. [Theofolus þe archdeken, β.; Theofolus tharchedeken, Cx.] and þe*. [and þe firste . . . heretikes] om. β. and Cx.] firste*. [fifte, α.; vyfte, γ.] synod and counsaille was i-gadered at Constantynnoble aȝenst Theodora and oþere heretikes. They*. [þouȝ, β.] þis*. [þey þes, γ.] Vigilius Page  329, vol.5 entrede in an evel manere to þe poperiche,*. [papacye, Cx.] for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] he procured þe excilynge of his predecessor Silverius, for he wolde be pope hymself, but for he was verray*. [verrey, γ.; veryly, Cx. puts after repentaunt.] repentaunt he was exciled for þe fey, and deide exciled at þe laste. Henricus, libro 2o. Þis was þe tenþe*. [tueþe, γ.] ȝere of Cedrus*. [Cerdicus, α. and Cx.] kyng of West Saxon; and þis ȝere [Arthur]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] þe werriour gan for to rise,*. [aryse, α. and γ.; taryse, Cx.] as it were eiȝtene ȝere olde. He fauȝt*. [voȝt, γ.] twelf siþes aȝenst þe Saxons, and hadde þe victorie, firste uppon*. [vurste oppon, γ.] þe ryver Gleny, and eft foure siþes uppon þe ryver Douglas þat is in þe contray of Iewes.*. [Jues, α, β., γ.] ℞. Now þat ryver hatte Dugglys*. [Dougglis, β.; Dongglys, Cx.] in*. [an, α., β., γ.] Englische, and þat ryver renneþ*. [erneþ, β.; urneþ, γ.] under þe citee of Wygan, þat is ten myle from*. [vram, γ.] þe ryver Mersea in Lancastreschire.*. [Lancasshyre, Cx.]Henricus. Þe sixte bataille was uppon þe ryver Bassa. Þe sevenþe bisides Lincolne, [in þe wode þat heet Celidon, þat now hatte Lin|colne].*. [From α.; β. reads in the wode þat hatt Celidon, but in brittysch hit hatte Caercoyt Celidon, &c. The sentence is expanded in γ. as in β.] Þe nynþe bataille was at þe citee Caerleon; þe Page  331, vol.5 twelfþe was in Badon hille.*. [hulle, γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þis*. [ys, γ.] [is]*. [From β.] Arthur, of whom*. [wham, γ.] þe Britoun*. [Bretouns, α.; Britouns, β.; Brytons, γ.] þat goþ*. [gone, Cx.] out of þe weye telleþ*. [tellen, Cx.] many idel tales; he þat sooþ stories telleþ,*. [preyseþ, γ.] and nouȝt lyes,*. [lyers, α. and γ; he pat praisiþ soþe storyes and nouȝt fals, β.; he that prayseth sothe storyes and not false, Cx.] is worþy to be preysed; he þat meyn|tened þe contray*. [contrary, Cx.] þat was dounward, and confortede men*. [mennus, β.; mennes, Cx.] hertes to fiȝte*. [vyȝte, γ.] stalworthiliche*. [courageously, Cx.] in batayle, and at þe laste he slowȝ wiþ his owne hond nyne hondred of hys enemyes in þe sege of Badon Hille.*. [hulle, γ.; Badenhill, Cx.] [℞]*. [From β. and γ.] Me redeþ*. [Men rede, Cx.] in som cronikes þat Cerdicus fauȝte*. [voȝte, γ.] ofte with Arthur, and if he were*. [ȝyf a wer, γ.] ones overcome he roos up eft strengere to fiȝte;*. [vyȝte, γ. passim.] and at þe laste, after sixe and twenty ȝere of Cerdicus his comyng, Arthur was wery*. [werie, β.] and noyeful,*. [nuyfol, γ.] and ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] hym Hampschire*. [Hamptschire, β.] and Somersete, and cleped þat contray Westsex, and fey was i-swore to hym.*. [and he made fayth and swore to hym, Cx.] Also it is i-rad in Cronicis Anglorum þat Mordredus, Arthur his nevew, desirede for to regne,*. [vor regne, γ.] but Page  333, vol.5 he dradde onliche Cerdicus, and ȝaf hym oþer townes*. [oþere contrayes tounes, γ.] for to favoure*. [faver, β.] hym; Cerdicus assented þerto, and restored his pro|vince and contrayes wiþ newe Saxons, and was i-crowned at Winchestre in þe manere of mysbyleved men. But at Londoun Mordredus was i-crowned kyng of Bretouns, but*. [bote, α. and γ.] þe yle*. [yl, γ.] of Wight lefte to Withgarus þe nevewe of Cerdicus. But þe storie of Britons telleþ þat Arthur fauȝt afterward wiþ Mor|dredus, and slouȝ hym, and was i-slawe, and i-buried in þe vale of Avalon bysides Glastonbury.*. [Glastingbury, Cx.] Aftirward his body and þe body [of his wif]*. [From β.] Gwenvere*. [of hys wyf Guennevere, γ.; of his wyf Gwenner, Cx.] were i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] in þe secounde kyng Henries*. [Henre his, α.; Herry hys, γ; Harryes, Cx.] tyme, and i-translated into þe chirche,*. [cherch, γ.] aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord enlevene hondred and foure score; so seiþ Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo 18o, þat was on lyve and handelede Arthur his bones. Furþermore*. [Vurþermore, γ., and similarly always.] of þis Arthur,*. [Arthour, α.] for*. [for] om. Cx.; vor, γ., constantly.] among alle writers of cronikes Gaufridus alon*. [allone, Cx., who adds moche after so.] so preyseþ hym, meny men wondreþ how it myȝte be sooþ þat is i-told of Page  335, vol.5 hym. For ȝif Arthor hadde i-wonne*. [goten, Cx.] þritty kyngdoms, as Gaufridus telleþ, ȝif he hadde i-made þe kyng of Fraunce sugette,*. [suget, β.] ȝif he hadde i-slawe Lucius in Italy, procurator of the empere and of þe comynte, why lefte alle þe writers of stories of Romayns, Frenschemen, and Saxons, and speke noȝt of so greet [dedes and of so greet]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] a victor, seþþe þat þey*. [sethe þat huy, γ.] tolde so moche*. [myche, β.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] of so menye lasse men, and of wel lasse dedes. ȝit herto Gaufridus telleþ*. [telleþ þat . . . Gaufridus] om. Cx.] þat þis*. [his, α. and γ.]] Arthoure over|come Frollo kyng of Fraunce, and no kyng Frollo is i-founde*. [founden, β.; yvounde, γ.] amonge þe Frensohe men. Also Gaufridus seiþ þat Arthur slouȝ Lucius Hiberius, procurator of þe empere and of the comynte, in Leo þe emperours tyme,*. [and of the . . . tyme] om. Cx.] but by alle stories of Rome it is i-knowe*. [knowen, β.] þat non Lucius was procurator of þe empere noþer*. [eyther, Cx.] of þe comynte þat tyme, and also þat noon Arthur regned, noþer*. [noþer] ne, Cx.] was i-bore, in Leo þe emperours tyme, but in Iustinianus his tyme, þat was þe fifte*. [vyfte, γ.] after Leo. Also Gaufridus seiþ þat hym wondreþ þat Gildas and Beda in al Page  337, vol.5 here bookes spekeþ nouȝt*. [speke not, Cx.] of Arthur; but I*. [Ich, γ.] holde more [wondre]*. [From β. and γ.] why Gaufridus preyseþ more*. [more] om. α., β., and Cx.] so moche*. [myche, β.] oon þat al þe olde, famous, and sooþ writers of stories makeþ of*. [of] of it, Cx.] wel nyȝ non*. [neiȝ no, β.; wel ny of no, γ.] mencioun. But on*. [on cas] sothe, Cx.] cas*. [caas, β.] it is þe manere of everiche nacioun to overe preyse som oon of þe same nacioun, as þe Grees*. [Gree, γ.; Grekes, Cx.] preyseþ here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Alisaundre, and þe Romayns here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Octovianus, and Englisshe men here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Richard, and Frensche men here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Charles, and Britouns here*. [here] theyr, Cx. quinquies.] Arthur. Þat*. [þat] it, Cx.] happeþ ofte, as Iosephus seiþ, for fairenesse*. [vor veyrness, γ.] of þe storie, oþer for likynge of reders, oþer for to preyse here owne blood. [these cause them to write so].*. [From Cx.]Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . in the storye] om. β.; all the passage Trevisa . . . for Austyn (p. 339) is omitted in Cx.] Here William telleþ a magel*. [maged, γ.] tale wiþ oute evidence;*. [evydens, γ.] and Ranul|phus his resouns, þat he meveþ aȝenst Gaufridus and Arthur, schulde non clerke moove þat can*. [con, γ.] knowe an argument, for it followeþ*. [volweþ, γ.] it*. [it] om. γ.] nouȝt.*. [nouȝ, α.] Seint Iohn in his gospel telleþ meny þinges and doynges þat Mark, Luk, and*. [noþer, α. and γ.] Matheu spekeþ nouȝt of in here gospelles, ergo, Iohn is nouȝt to trowynge in his gospel. He were of false byleve þat trowede þat þat argument were worþ a bene. For Iohn in his gospel telleþ þat oure Lordes moder and here suster*. [soster, γ.] stood by oure Lordes croys, and meny oþer þinges þat non oþer gospeller*. [gospelour, γ.] makeþ of mynde,*. [muynde, γ., et infra.] and ȝit Iohn his gospel is as trewe as eny of hem*. [hem] om. α.] al þat Page  339, vol.5 þey*. [huy, γ.] makeþ. So þey Gaufridus speke of Arthur his dedes, þat oþer writers of stories spekeþ of derkliche,*. [derklych, γ.] oþer makeþ of non*. [no, α.] mynde, þat dispreveþ nouȝt Gaufrede his storie and his sawe, and specialliche of*. [specialych ȝyf, γ.] som writers of stories were Arthur his enemyes. It is wonder þat he seiþ þat no Frollo was kyng of Fraunce, noþer Lucius procurator of þe comynte, noþer Leo emperour in Arthur his tyme, seþþe*. [sethe, γ.] þat ofte an officer,*. [offser, γ.] kyng, oþer emperour haþ many dyvers names, and is diverse|liche i-nempned*. [ynemened, γ.] in meny dyvers londes; and in*. [in] om. γ.] þe þridde book, capitulo nono, he seiþ hymself þat it is no wonder þey William*. [Wyllyham, γ.] Malmesbury*. [Malnesbury, MS.] were desceyved, for he hadde nouȝt i-rad þe Brittische book; and ȝit þey Gaufridus had nevere i-spoke of Arthur, meny noble naciouns spekeþ of Arthur and of his nobil dedes. But it may wel be þat Arthur is ofte over|preysed, and so beeþ meny oþere. Soþ sawes beeþ nevere þe wors þey madde men telle magel*. [magil, α.; magged, γ.] tales, and som mad men wil mene þat Arthur schal come aȝe, and be eft kyng here of Britayne, but þat is a ful*. [ful] fol mad, α. and γ.] magel*. [magyl, α.; maged, γ.] tale, and so beeþ meny oþere þat beeþ i-tolde of hym and of oþere. Þanne it followeþ*. [volweþ, always, γ.] in þe storye:*. [See note 15, page 337.] for Austyn, de Civitate Dei, libro 10o, telleþ þat þe doynges*. [doyngis, β.] of men of Athene*. [Athenes, Cx.] beeþ grettere*. [grettur, γ.] in fame þan in dede, and þat was for þere were writers of clere witte, and hadde*. [hadden, Cx.] ioye and likynge to torne here witte and here tonge to greet, hiȝe,*. [heiȝ, β.; hyhe, Cx.] and huge*. [hyg and heoge, γ.] preysinge. Þanne Gaufre,*. [Gaufridus, γ.; Gaufredus, Cx.] in his Brittisshe book, seiþ þat Arthur, whan he schulde deye, grauntede þe diademe of þe kyngdom to his cosyn Constantyn, þe sone of Cador duke of Cornewayle, þat fauȝt oftetymes wiþ Metredus*. [Medredes, γ.; Mordredus, Cx.] his sones, and slowȝ hem at þe laste. And so after foure*. [voure, γ., et infra.] ȝere of his kyngdom*. [four yere after he had regned, Cx.] he deide, and after hym Aurelius Page  341, vol.5 Conanus hilde þe kyngdom þre*. [þreo, γ.] ȝere, and after [hym]*. [From γ. and Cx.] Vortiporius foure ȝere. After hym Malgo regnede somwhat of ȝeres; he was faire,*. [vayr, γ.] stalworthe,*. [stronge, Cx.] and large and fre of ȝiftes,*. [ȝyftus, γ.] but he was infecte wiþ þe vice*. [vyse, γ.] of sodomye. After hym Careticus regnede somwhat of tyme; he was onlikynge*. [unlykyng, γ.] to God and to þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Bretouns, and lovede stryf and destruccioun of riȝtful levynge*. [lyvynge, β.] of mankynde. Þe Saxons were war*. [waar, Cx.] of his unstedfastnesse, and sente*. [senten, β. and Cx.] to þe kyng Affricanus Gur|mundus, þat he hadde i-made suget,*. [that he made hym subgett, Cx.] and prayed hym for to come out of Irlond; and Gurmundus and þe Saxons i-ioyned*. [yiuined, γ.] and oned to giders chasede*. [chaside, β.] Careticus*. [Creticus, Cx.] from*. [vram, γ.] citee to citee, and byseged*. [besyeged, Cx.] hym at þe laste in Surcetre,*. [Sissitre, Cx.] and drof*. [droof, α. and Cx.] hym afterward and his Bretouns into Wales over Sevarn, and destroyed Loegria, þat is Engelond, wiþ yre*. [yren, β.; yron, Cx.] and wiþ fuyre;*. [yr and wiþ vuer, γ.] and from þat tyme forþwarde þe Britouns loste þe hole*. [hoole, β.] kyng|dom Page  343, vol.5 of Bretayne. Chilpericus, þe sevenþe kyng of Fraunce' regnede after his fader*. [vader, γ.] Lotharius foure and twenty ȝere; þat was þe ȝere after þe comynge of Angles foure score and eyȝtene. Þat ȝere bygan þe kyngdom of Norþhumberlond under oon Ida, þe sonne of Eoppa; he was þe twelfþe*. [twellyfth, Cx.] after Woden, of hym come al þe blood of kynges of Norþhumberlond; and Ida regnede twelve ȝere in Brenicia, and hadde meny sones. Trevisa. Brenicia is þe northside of Northumberlond,*. [Norþhumberlond, β.] and*. [Regnum Norþhum|brorum Bre|niciorum.] streccheþ to þe Scottische see;*. [Scotysche se, γ.] look more þerof in þe firste book, capitulo 51o, þere þou myȝte*. [may, Cx.] fynde*. [vynde, γ.] þe meres and þe merkes of Brenicia. Þanne it folwyth in þe storie: in Ius|tinianus þe emperour his tyme byfil*. [befel, Cx.] þat Gregor*. [Gregorius, Cx.] in libro Dialogorum*. [dialoger (sic), α.] telleþ of þe bisshoppes þat speke at þe beste Page  345, vol.5 whan here*. [her, β.] tonges were i-kutte*. [kitte, β.] of*. [of] om. Cx.] in Affrica for þe*. [þey, α.] fey of holy cherche; but oon of hem was prived of þat miracle, for leccherie þat he fil*. [vul, γ.] in*. [fylle ynne, Cx.] somtyme. About þat tyme, in a citee of Sicilia,*. [Cicilia, β.] was an archedekon þat heet Theophilus, and bare hym so nobleliche*. [nobellych, γ.] under þe bisshop, þat whanne þe bisshop was dede al men cride*. [crieden, β.; cryeden, Cx.] þat he was worthy to be bisshop. And he hilde*. [huld, γ.] hym apaied*. [payed, Cx.] wiþ his archede|kenerie,*. [archedeconery, α.] and hadde levere þat anoþer were bisshop þanne he. But afterward he þat was i-made bisshop put*. [pot, γ.] hym wrongfulliche out of his archedekenerie.*. [archedeconrye, α.] Þanne he fille*. [vul, γ.] into*. [into] in, Cx.] [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] greet mescheef þat he hired*. [huyred, β.] an Hebrewe wicche,*. [whitche, Cx.] and forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] Crist and his moder uppon þat con|dicioun þat he schulde come to þe worschippe þat he hadde i-lost. And also he dede þe devel worschippe*. [worschippe and] om. β., γ., and Cx.] and*. [and] om. α.] homage, and wroot hym a chartre wiþ his owne blood, and so he hadde his archedekenrie amorwe. But he byþouȝt hym at þe laste, and was soruful*. [sorowfull, Cx.] for þat dede, and prayed oure Lady of Page  347, vol.5 help and socour, and so by help of oure Lady and*. [and] he, Cx.] hadde his chartre aȝen and*. [and] om. γ.] forȝifnes*. [vorȝenes, γ.] of his synnes. Þanne he know|leched*. [knowlechide, β.] his trespas,*. [trespaas, Cx.] and al þe manere of þat doynge, openliche tofore þe bisshop and al þe peple.*. [pepul, γ. bis; people, Cx., bis.] Þanne al þe peple won|drede, and worschepede and þonkede Crist [and oure Lady];*. [From Cx.] and Theophel*. [Theofile, β. and Cx.] deide after þre dayes in þe same place þere*. [þere] where as, Cx.] oure Lady brouȝte hym his chartre aȝen and forȝifnesse of his synnes.*. [and . . . synnes] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] After Virgilius*. [Vigilius, β., γ., and Cx.] þe firste Pelagius was pope en|levene ȝere; þat ȝere Totila, kyng of Gothes, werreþ*. [werryd, Cx.] in al Italy. Þanne he passede by Campania, and by seint Benet his*. [Benetes, β.] abbay, and byseged Rome strongliche, and took it at þe laste [by nyȝte, and entrede at þe laste]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.; β. however, omits the second at þe laste.] at þe ȝate þat hatte porta Hostiensis. And for þe Romayns scholde somdel voide þe*. [þe] om. β. and Cx.] cruelnesse,*. [cruwelnesse, β.] he made trompoures blowe.*. [trompes to be blowen, Cx.] Also Totilia wolde assay*. [asayȝe, γ.] ȝif seint Benet hadde a spirit*. [spyryt, γ.] of prophecie, and cloþede oon of his knyȝtes as a kyng, and sente hym to seint Benet as þey þe kyng hymself were i-come*. [comen, Cx.] to þe holy man. Page  349, vol.5 Þanne seint Benet seide to hym, "Doo*. [Sone, doo, β. and Cx.] of þat þou berest, for it is nouȝt þyn." Aftirward Totilia hymself fil*. [vul, γ.] doun to grounde to fore*. [to vore, γ.] þe holy man, and [wolde not aryse till]*. [From Cx.; and wolde nouȝt arise er þe holy man, β.; and he wolde noȝt aryse ar þe holy man, γ.] he took hym up wiþ his owne hond, and seide, "Moche*. [Myche, β.] harme þou hast i-doo, now reste, þow schalt entre into Rome and passe þe see, and þou schalt regne nyne*. [nyne] bote nyȝen, γ.] [ȝer]*. [From γ.];" and after þat day he was [the]*. [From Cx.] lasse cruel.*. [cruwel, β.] And at þe laste Narses patricius was i-sende of Augustus, and overcome hym in [a]*. [From α., β., and γ., not Cx.] bataille. Tho was Cassiodorus in his floures, þat was somtyme kyng Theodorus his chaunceler,*. [chaunsceler, γ.] and after þat consul, and þanne senatour and monk at Rome at þe laste. Among his oþer greet travailles, he expowned clerliche þe sawter. Kin|ricus*. [Henricus, Cx.] kyng of West Saxon deyde, and his sone Ceaulinus was kyng after hym þre and þritty ȝere; he droof þe Britouns out of þe citees of Gloucestre, [of Surcetre,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and of Baþe, into þe hilles and mountaynes and wildernesse of Wales. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. But at þe laste he was i-hated of Page  351, vol.5 Angles and of Britouns, and his oost*. [host, γ.] was i-bete adoun, and he hymself i-chased and exciled, and deide exciled. Also in his*. [his] the, Cx.] firste ȝere, Elle, Iffus his sone, þe twelf*. [twelfþe, β.; twellifth, Cx.] after Woden, bygan to regne, and regned [nyȝ]*. [From α.; neygh, Cx.] þritty ȝere in þe province of Deyra; to þe name of hym þe grete Gregorie, whanne he sigh Englisch children to sellynge*. [sillinge, β.; whanne a syȝ Eng|lysch childron to sullynge, γ.] at Rome,*. [In his tyme seynt Gregory sawe Englysshe children to selle at Rome, and acorded . . ., Cx.] acordede, and seide, "Alleluia moste be songe þere*. [þare, γ.] [fro whens these children come."]*. [From Cx.]Trevisa. Loke pleynliche of þe province of Deyra in þe firste book, capitulo 51o.*. [Trevisa . . . 51o] om. β. and Cx.] ℞. But þe grace of byleve come nouȝt to kyng Elle, but to his sone kyng Edwynus. [In þe mene tyme Ida his eldeste sone, Adda, regnede sevene ȝere in Brenicia, and Claspa fyve ȝer].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In þe mene tyme,*. [In the mene tyme] om. β., γ., and Cx.] Theodowoldus*. [Theodwulfus, β. Theodwolfus, γ. and Cx.] oon ȝeer, and Freothulphus*. [Freodulphus, Cx.] sevene ȝere, ȝit while*. [while] om. Cx.] Elle was on lyve; and his sone Edwynus, a childe of þre ȝere olde, was i-chased of*. [and, α. and Cx.] Ethel|ricus. Ida his sone regnede fyve ȝere in boþe provinces of Deyra and of Brenicia. [Paulus, libro primo, in fine.]*. [From α. and Cx.] Aboute þat tyme, while kyng Audoenus regnede uppon*. [oppon, γ.] þe Page  353, vol.5 Longobardes þat wonede in Pannonia, was a stronge bataille bytwene þe Gespides*. [Geppides, γ., et infra.] and þe Longobardes. In þat bataille Albuynus, Audoenus his sone, slouȝ þe kynges sone of þe Gespides, and so þe Gespides were to schad*. [sched, α.; schend, γ.] and to sparpled;*. [sparbled, α.; sparpled and de|parted, Cx.] þerfore þe Longobardes prayed here kyng Audoe|nus to make a solempne greet feeste to his sone Albuinus.*. [Albuynus, γ.] Þe kyng answered and seide, þat it was nouȝt þe manere among hem þat þe*. [þe] om. γ.] kynges sone schulde sitte at þe feste even wiþ his fader*. [vader, γ., et infra.] þe kyng, but if he hadde toforehonde i-take armure of a kyng of a straunge nacioun. Albuinus herde þis, and took wiþ hym fourty*. [vourty, γ.] ȝongelynges i-chose, and went boldeliche to þe kyng of Gespides, whos sone he hadde i-slawe in bataille, and axede armure of hym; þere he was goodliche*. [godliche, γ.] underfonge,*. [resseyved, Cx.] and i-sette to þe mete by þe kyng in þe kynges sone stede*. [place, Cx.] þat he hadde i-slawe.*. [in . . . slawe] om. α. These words are repeated in the MS.] Þe kyng byhelde*. [byhuld, γ.] þe man and þe place, and siched*. [sychede fol sore, γ.; syghed, Cx.] sore,*. [sore] ful sore, β.] and seide, "Þe place is leef*. [lef, β. and γ.] to me, but þe person þat sitteþ þerynne is grevous for to see." Þanne þe kynges oþer sone þat was ȝit onlyve Page  355, vol.5 gan to tarry*. [terre, β. and Cx.] and to*. [to] om. γ.] angre þe Longobardes wiþ dispitous*. [desputous, γ.] wordes, and seide to hym þat so scornede hem,*. [to . . . hem] om. α. and Cx.] þat þey were liche*. [ylyche, γ.] to mares wiþ white legges up to þe þiȝes, for þat tyme þe Longobardes usede strapeles*. [straples, β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ brode laces doun to þe sparlyver.*. [sparlyvor, γ.; sparlyme, Cx.] Þanne oon of þe Longobardes seide to hym þat so scornede hem, "Go in to þe feelde*. [veld, γ.] þere thy broþer bones be to sched,*. [beþ ysched, β.; buþ ysched, γ.; where thy broder was slayne, Cx.] and þere þou myȝte assaye how strongliche þese mares konneþ*. [strongly thyse mares conne, Cx.] kyke."*. [kunneþ kike, β.] Þo þe Gespides arrayed hem to wepone,*. [wepen, β. and Cx.] and þe Longobardes sette honde on þe hultes*. [hiltes, Cx.] of here owne swerdes; but þe kyng leep over þe bord, and cesede*. [ceesside, β.; sessyd, Cx.] þe strif, and seide, "It is nouȝt an honest victorie to slee a gest*. [sle a gist, β.; gyst, γ.] in þe hostrye;"*. [a ghest in his hostelrye, Cx.] and he ȝaf his sones armure þat was i-slawe to hym þat hadde i-slawe hym, and sente hym wiþ pees to his fadir aȝen. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Ethelbertus*. [Ethelbrutus, β., et infra.] was Ermenricus*. [Ermericus, β. bis.; Ermericus, Cx., bis.] his sone, þe whiche Ermen|ricus*. [Ermericus, β. bis.; Ermericus, Cx., bis.] was Engistus his sones*. [sone, α. and γ.] nevew. Þis Ethelbertus regnede among*. [among] om. α.; over, β. and Cx.] Kentisshe men fyfe and fifty*. [vyve and vyfty, γ.] ȝere, [so seiþ Beda, but anoþer cronike seiþ þre and fifty ȝere].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In his Page  357, vol.5 ȝowþe*. [In his yongthe, Cx.] he was scorned and bismer*. [scorn and busmer, α. and γ.; scorn and bysmer, Cx.] to kynges þat wonede nyh*. [neiȝ, β., semper; dwellyd nygh, Cx.] hym, for he was overcome in double batayle, and savede unneþe his owne boundes. But whanne he was eldere*. [elþere, α.] he brouȝte alle þe kynges þat were nyh hym under his ȝok, out take þe kynges of Norþhumberlond. Þanne he weddede a Frensche womman þat heet Berta, and by ensample of oon Letardus, a bisshop þat come wiþ Berta, he was moche*. [myche, β., semper.] excited forto leve and forsake his wilde maneres. Atte laste he herde*. [hurde, γ.] Seint Austyn preche þe loore of holy fadres, and forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] his cursed*. [curside, β.] lawes, and made good lawes in þe longage of þe lond, in þe whiche*. [woche, α.] lawes he byheet*. [promysed, Cx.] mede to good men, and peynes to evel men and wikked,*. [wicked, β.] and deide þe ȝere after he hadde i-fonge*. [yvonge, γ.] þe fey*. [receyved the feyth, Cx.] of holy chirche oon and twenty. Martinus. After Pelagius þe þridde Iohn was pope þrittene ȝere. Þet tyme Precianus þe gramarion,*. [gramaryen, Cx.] of Cesarea, was in his floures at Constantinnoble; he made noble bookes nouȝt onliche*. [not only, Cx.] of gramer,*. [gramere, β.] but also he discrevede al þe worlde wyde*. [wyde] om. Cx.] in a book þat he*. [he] om. γ.] cleped Cosmographia; of Page  359, vol.5 hym it is i-seide, as Hugucio, capitulo edo es*. [edes, Cx.] telleþ, þat he bycome apostata, and forsook þe fey for love of his*. [his] om. γ.] dis|ciple Iulianus. Also þat tyme oon Arator, a subdecon*. [sudeken, β.; subdedene, Cx.] of Rome, and a wonder poet, made þe book Actus Apostolorum al in vers*. [versus, β.; versis, Cx.] of sixe feet.*. [veet, γ.] And Seint Brendan, an*. [an] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] abbot of Irlond, was in his floures þat tyme; of hym beeþ many wordes*. [wondres, α., β., and Cx.] i-rad,*. [wordes irad] wondres of Yrlond, γ., evidently by an omission of the scribe, who has left out all the rest of the sentence.] and specialliche of his purgatorie, þat is in þe west side of Irlond. And also þat tyme Seint Steven his bones were i-brouȝte to Rome, and i-leide by Seint Laurence in þe same place; þerof spekeþ*. [speken, Cx.] cronikes of Rome in*. [and, α. and Cx.] legendis of holy seintes, and telleþ*. [telle, Cx.] þat whanne Seint Stevene his bones were þider i-brouȝt, Seynt Laurence his body tor|nede*. [boones tourned, Cx.] hym*. [hymself, γ.] on his side, and hadde i-leye*. [leyn, Cx.] upriȝt*. [yley opryȝt, γ.] alwey to forhonde, but þo he torned hym so for to ȝeve place*. [plas, γ., ut semper.] and stede to his felawe*. [seynt, add. Cx.] Stevene. Iustinianus.*. [Justinus, α.]

Capitulum septimum.

AFFTER Iustinianus þe secounde Iustinus regnede enleven ȝere. Þat man despisede pore men, and spoylede þe senatoures, Page  361, vol.5 and ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] hym al*. [al] om. Cx.] to covetise,*. [coveitise, β.] so þat he made cofres of iren*. [coffres of yre, γ.] for to do*. [do] kepe, γ.] yn his tresorie;*. [yron for to put in his tresour, Cx.] and fil*. [vul, γ.] at þe laste into Pelagius his heresye, and loste*. [looste, β.] resoun and good mynde; but he ordeyned oon Tiberius, a mylde man, to governe þe empere. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 3o. In þis prince his firste*. [pryns his vurste, γ.] ȝere, oon Columba, a preost*. [prust, γ.] and abbot, com out of Irlond forto preche to þe norþ Pictes, þat were departed from the [souþ by hyȝe hylles*. [hulles, γ.] and downes; for þe]*. [From α., β., and γ.] souþ Pictes were converted to forehonde by Ninianus, þe bisshop of þe nacioun of Britouns, and he was [y-]*. [From α.] sent þider þerfore.*. [þare vore, γ.] But he was firste i|tauȝt riȝt wel at Rome; his see was at Candida Casa, þat is þe White*. [Whyȝt, α.] hous; þere [he]*. [From γ. and Cx.] lyeþ and resteþ, and þoo*. [thenne, Cx.] þat see parteyned to men of Brenicia. Marcianus, libro 2o. Bridus,*. [Bridius, α., β., and Cx.] a myȝty kyng, regnede among hem þoo. Beda, ubi supra. Þanne Columba com to þe norþ Pictes, and feng*. [vyng, γ.] of hem þe Page  363, vol.5 ilond þey,*. [þey] Hii, γ., and Cx.] þat was as it were of fyve menis,*. [mēīs, α.; meynees, β.; vyf meyny, γ.; meynes, Cx.] to bulde*. [buylde, γ.] þere an abbay, þat was hede of alle þe abbayes þat he bulde;*. [bylded, Cx.] so þat ilond useþ alwey to have hym þat is abbot and preost*. [prust, γ., et infra.] [to rule and to governe hem, so þat al þe province and þe bisshops also beþ*. [ben, Cx.] suget to þat abbot and preost],*. [From α., β., and γ.] in a manere ordre þat is noȝt i-used elles where,*. [war, γ.] and þat by ensaumple of hire firste doctour Columba, þat was no bisshop, but preost and monk. After his comynge two and þritty ȝere he deyde and was i-buried þere, and lefte after hym noble dis|ciples; but þey*. [huy, γ.] were in doute of þe Ester*. [Eester, Cx.] terme, and folwede*. [folewide, β.] þe cicles*. [volwede þe circulus, γ.] an hondred ȝere and fifty anon*. [anon to] unto, Cx.] to þe ȝere of grace seven hondred ȝere and fiftene. Þo com to hem on Egbertus, a preost of Englisch nacioun, þat hadde be longe exciled in Irlond. Hit was no wonder ffor þe decres*. [decretes, Cx.] of sinodes of þe holdynge of þe Estertyde com nouȝt ȝit to hem, for þey were i-sette ferre*. [ver, γ.; fer, Cx.] as it were out and overe þe roundenesse of þe world.*. [wordle, γ.]Paulus, libro 2o. Narses Page  365, vol.5 patricius was i-sent of Iustinus into Italy, and slouȝ Totila,*. [Thotilia, α; slowȝ Thotila, γ.] kyng of Gothes, and restored þe state of þe empere; but þe Romayns hadde grete envie*. [envyȝe, γ.] to hym, so þat þey sente to Iustinus, and seide þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] it was bettre to þe Romayns for to serve þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx.] þanne þe Gothes þere*. [here, Cx.] Narses patricius was emperour; þerfore þere emperour was i-nempned,*. [meved, α. and Cx.; meoved, β.; moved, γ.] and dede*. [put, Cx.] his prefecte Longinus in Narses patricius his stede. And þe emperis*. [emperys, γ., et infra; empresse, Cx., et infra.] Sophia Augusta sente to Narses a dispitous scorn, þat he schulde wende*. [retorne, Cx.] in to Constantynnoble, and þat he schulde wiþ his wenches and wiþ women*. [wymmen witt fynde, β.; wy|mens wytte, Cx.] fynde cost and woollen*. [and wyþ wemmen wyt vynde cost and wollene, γ.] þredes. Me seiþ þat he answerde herto, and seide þat he wolde warpe suche a webbe to þe emperise, þat sche*. [heo, β.] schulde nevere have it of*. [of] to, Cx.] [to]*. [From β.] here lyves ende. Þanne he went into Naples*. [Napels, γ.] in Campania, and sente þe Longobardes word þat þey· schulde leve*. [leve] om. γ.] þe pore feeldes*. [veldes, γ.; poure feldes, Cx.] of Pannonia, and Page  367, vol.5 wende*. [come, Cx.] into þe noble*. [noble] om. Cx.] riche lond*. [londes, Cx.] of Italy; and so þei*. [he, α.] dede.*. [dyde, Cx.] Þe Longobardes come into Italy þe morwe aftir Ester*. [Eester, Cx.] day, þe ȝere of oure Lord fyve hondred þre score and eiȝte; þo was þe kyngdom of Italy unȝoked and delyvered of þe ȝokke*. [ȝok, β.; yock, Cx.] of Constantynnoble, and þe Romayns were aftirward delyvered*. [delyvered] om. α., β., and Cx.] i-ruled*. [yreuled, γ.] by patricius.*. [patricies, α.; patrycies, Cx.] ℞. Þere*. [Ar, γ.] Albuinus, kyng of Longobardes, assailede Italy. Fury ostes*. [Fuyry ostes, α. and β.; Vury hostes, γ.; Fyry hoostes, Cx.] were i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] in hevene, þat cast out manis blood as it were liȝt|nynge, þerof*. [therefore, Cx.] Gregorie spekeþ in an omelye. Also in Lugurgia*. [Ligurgia, Cx.] were wondre tokenes i-seye in [hous, in]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; houses in, β.] dores, and in cloþes, and ȝif eny man wolde wasche hem awey þey were þe more i-sene, and after a ȝere in men chanels*. [menne chanels, γ.; mennes cha|nels, Cx.] at þe neþer end sprang out as it were archers,*. [achcherus, α. and γ.; akcornes, β.; akehornes, Cx.] and after þat com a brening ffevere,*. [brennynge fever, Cx.] and slouȝ men in þe space of þre days; þerfore men fliȝe,*. [vleye, γ.; fledde, Cx.] and lefte nouȝt at home but houndes; Page  369, vol.5 noon tileer*. [tilyer, α.; tylier, β.; tylyer, γ. and Cx., which adds of the londe were.] lefte in þe feeldes, noþer*. [ne, Cx.] in vinȝerdes; þe place*. [places, β.; plase, γ.] of pasture were i-torned to buriels and sepultures.*. [sepulcres, Cx.] Day and nyȝt me herde in þe ayer now trompes, now grocchynge*. [grucchyng, β.; grochynge, γ.; grutchyng, Cx.] as it were of an oost þat passede, but noþer stappes noþer*. [ne, α. and β.; nether, Cx.] fores*. [vores, γ.; forowes, Cx.] were þere*. [þere] none, Cx.] i-sene. Paulus, libro quinto. Þe Longobardes haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þat name of hir longe berdes. Þey used to schere*. [shave, Cx.] of þe*. [þe] theyr, Cx.] heere of hir heed from þe molde to þe nolle, but to fore þey hadde lokkes i-schod*. [sched, α.; ysched, β.; to vore huy hadde lokkes ysched, γ.; sched, om. Cx.] hongynge doun to þe mouth. Þey usede*. [uside, β.] large cloþes and longe, and specialliche lynnen cloþes, as Englisshe Saxons were i-woned*. [wonte, Cx.] to use, i-hiȝt*. [i-hiȝt] om. Cx.] with brood laces i-weve*. [woven, Cx.] wiþ dyvers coloures; þey usede hiȝe schone*. [hye shoon, Cx.] unto*. [to, α.; up to, β., γ., and Cx.] þe kne, i-slitte to fore, and i-laced wiþ þwonges,*. [þonges, γ.] hire*. [her, β.] hosen tilled to the hamme,*. [tyllede to the homme, γ.] i-teyed wiþ layners al aboute. Þe firste ȝere of hir comynge, here kyng Albuinus bysegede þe citee Papie þre ȝere, and took it at þe laste, and occupied all Italy outake*. [outake] reservyd, Cx.] Rome. Page  371, vol.5Paulus, libro 2o. Whanne þe kyng Albuinus rood in at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] est ȝate of þe citee of Papie, þe hors þat he sat on fil doun under hym in þe myddel of þe ȝate, and myȝte nouȝt be arered,*. [reysed, Cx.] þey he were priked*. [ypreked, γ.] wiþ spores and with speres,*. [and with speres] om. Cx.] forto*. [vorto, γ.; unto the tyme that, Cx.] the kyng hadde relesed*. [relesched, β.] and wiþcleped*. [revoked and relesed, Cx.] a wel hard avow þat he hadde i-made. He hadde i-made his avow þat alle þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] þat wolde nouȝt ȝelde hem schulde be slawe with swerdes. Þanne Albuinus regnede in Italy þre ȝere and sixe monþes, and deyde at þe laste by tresoun of his wif in þis manere. Þis Albuinus had i-woned*. [had i-woned] dwellyd, Cx.] in Pannonia som|tyme, and overcome þe kyng of*. [kyng of] om. Cx.] Gispides,*. [Geppydes, γ.; Gespydes, Cx.] and i-made hym a cuppe of his*. [his] the kynges, Cx.] skulle*. [scolle, γ.] forto drinke of; þat manere cuppe is cleped scala among hem, and patera in*. [in] a, γ.] Latyn.*. [pathera a Latyn, Cx.] Also he wedded oon*. [oon] om. Cx.] Rosemunda, þe kynges douȝter þat he hadde i-slawe; and at þe citee Nerona*. [Verona, γ. and Cx.] in Italy, at a greet feste, he made his wif Rosamunda drynke of þat cuppe, weþer sche*. [heo, β., et infra; heo, γ.] wolde or no, and prayde hire to drinke wiþ hire fader;*. [vader, γ.] and sche hadde greet indignacioun þerof, and awayted here tyme Page  373, vol.5 whan þe kyng was out, and leyde her*. [hure, γ.] priveliche*. [herself pryvely, Cx.] in þe bed of a damysel*. [damoysel, Cx.] [þat a duke of þe kinges lovede specialliche; þe duke com to þat bed, and wende*. [supposed, Cx.] þat sche hadde be þe damysel],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and lay by here. Þanne sche spake to þe duke and seide, "Wost þou not*. [not] ner, γ.] what þou hast i-doo? sikerliche,*. [sekerly, Cx.] now þou hast i-doo suche a dede, oþer*. [oþer] nowe that, Cx.] þou schalt slee*. [sleo, γ.] myn housbonde Albuynus þe kyng, oþer þu schalt be slawe wiþ his swerd;" and so it was i-doo.*. [and soo he slowe the king, Cx.] For Rosamunda in an undermele*. [under, α., β., γ., and Cx.] tyde bonde so faste þe kynges swerd þat was on slepe,*. [that tho slepte, Cx.] þat it myȝte not be undrawe*. [y-drawe, α. and γ.; drawen out, Cx.] out of þe scaberke,*. [scabarge, α., β., and γ.; sca|berde, Cx.] for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] þe kyng schulde nouȝt mowe helpe and defende*. [and defende] om. Cx.] hym|self, whan þe oþer were i-come*. [that other cam to, Cx.] forto slee hym. Þanne whan þe kyng was i-slawe, þe sleere fliȝ,*. [vly, γ.; fledde, Cx.] and wente to*. [to] with, Cx.] þe quene into Ravenna, and after þey hadde i-dwelled þere awhile, Rosamunda siȝ a wel*. [wel] right, Cx.] faire*. [veyr, γ.] ȝonge man, þat was prefecte*. [prefeit, β.] of þe citee, and loved hym out of wytte, and by cause þerof sche ȝaf hire housbonde venyme to drynke, and anon þe duke Page  375, vol.5 feled*. [velede, γ.; felte, Cx.] þe strengþe of þat venym, and drouȝ owt his swerd, and made his wif drinke þat oþer deel; and so þey deide boþe. But som men telliþ þat whanne Rosamunda was i-slawe, oon Perideus,*. [Parideus, Cx.] þat woste of þe firste*. [wuste of the vurste, γ.] tresoun, come out of Ravenna in to Constantynnoble, and slouȝ oon Leon in presens of the emperour, in comyn spectacle*. [spectakel, γ.] þere me stood to beholde playes and som*. [som] om. Cx.] newe þinges; but for he schulde not caste aȝenst þe citee, þe emperour made putte*. [potte, γ.; to putte, Cx.] out boþe his eiȝen; but sone after he took tweye knyves priveliche in his sleves, and feyned þat he hadde*. [he hadde] om. Cx.] a prive speche*. [secrete counceyll, Cx.] forto telle*. [vor telle, γ.] to þe emperour, and þe emperour sente hym tweie patricies þat were prive wiþ hym, and þe*. [þe] om. γ.] forseide*. [vorsede, γ.] Perideus*. [Perydeus, Cx.] slouȝ hem boþe at oon strook. In þat secounde ȝere of Iustinus, Ethel|brutus,*. [Ethelbertus, Cx.] kyng of Kent, ȝaf*. [yave, Cx.] a bataille to Ceaulinus, kyng of West Saxon, and his broþer Cutha; but þey chased hym and slouȝ tweyne of his dukes at Wilbandoun,*. [Wilbandun, γ.; Wylbaldoun, Cx.] and þat was þe firste bataille þat was bytwene þe Saxons. Þat ȝere Cuthwulf,*. [Cutwulf, Cx.] kyng Ceaulinus his broþer, fauȝt stalworthliche*. [strongly, Cx.] aȝenst*. [aȝens, γ.] þe Britouns Page  377, vol.5 at Bedeforde,*. [Bedefort, γ.] and bynam hem*. [toke fro them, Cx.] foure citees, Lyganburgh, Eglesburgh, Besyngtoun, and Evesham,*. [Eynesham, α.; Eyvesham, γ.] and deide þe same ȝere. Þat tyme deide Seint German, bisshop of Parys, a nobel man and ful of myracles:*. [vol of myrakcles, γ.] whanne he werþe*. [bygan to waxe seke, Cx.] seek he siȝ in þe wal aȝenst*. [aȝenes, β.] his bed i-wrete; "Foure dayes to fore May,"*. [voure dawes tovore May, γ.] and þerby he knewe þat he schulde deie uppon suche a day, and so he dede,*. [dide, β; dyde, Cx.] and was i-buried in þe medes*. [medowes, Cx.] beside Parys. Chilperitus, þe sevenþe kyng of Fraunce, deide also þat tyme. After hym his sone Lotharius regnede foure and fifty*. [voure and vyfty, γ.] ȝere. Þe poet Fortunatus of Italy, a clere man of witte, and scharpe of konnynge, softe and swete of speche, he wroot Seint Martyn his lyf in foure bookes, in metre and vers*. [versus, β.; versis, Cx.] of sixe feet,*. [veet, γ.] and was aftirward bisshop of Turon. In þis Iustinus his sevenþe ȝere was fulfilled*. [volvuld, γ.] þe greet cicle*. [cikel, α.; cirkel, γ.] of þe Ester terme,*. [Eester tyme, Cx.] þat conteyneþ fyve hondred ȝere and two and þritty from Cristes passioun, so seiþ Marianus, 560; but from þe bygynnynge of þe world*. [worl, γ.] fyve þowsand ȝere and fyve and sixty, as som men will*. [wole, β.] mene.*. [men suppose, Cx.]Tiberius.

Page  379, vol.5

Capitulum octavum. Tiberius.

TYBERIUS Constantinus was emperour sevene ȝere. Þis was myldeste of alle men, and ȝaf þe tresour of þe*. [þat, γ.] paleys to pore men, þerfore his wif blamede hym ofte, and me seiþ þat he an|swerde here in þis manere: "I*. [Y, β.] triste in oure Lord þat money schal nouȝt faile us at oure nede*. [neode, γ.] ȝif we doo*. [doþ, γ.; put, Cx.] oure tresour in hevene." Þanne he passede in a day bisides þe emperoures paleys at Constantynnoble, and sigh a cros i-grave in þe pave|ment*. [pament, β. and γ.; paviment, Cx.] of marbilston, and hym semede þat he was nouȝt worþy to be*. [be] om. α. and Cx.] trode*. [trede, α., β., γ., and Cx.] wiþ his feet*. [veet, γ.] [and specially]*. [From Cx.] uppon þat [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] schulde be printed*. [preented, α.; prented, γ.] in þe forhedes*. [vorhedes, γ.] of mankynde, and took up þat stoon, and sigh anoþer [y-grave*. [grave, Cx.] in þe same wyse, and þo he syȝ þe þrydde in þe same wyse]*. [From α. and Cx.] i-grave, and haf*. [haf] toke, Cx.] it up, and fond*. [op and vond, γ.] þereunder tresoure wiþ outen ende. Pope Iohn deide; on his tombe it was i-wrete*. [is wreton, Cx.] in metre in þis Page  381, vol.5 manere: "By man*. [nam, α., β., γ., and Cx.] worschepe þouȝt and word Iohn besily þouȝt wiþ wil to plese God þat all þing haþ wrouȝte." After hym the firste Benet was pope foure ȝere. He brouȝte many þowsandes mesures of whete in schippes out of Egipte, and delyverede þe citee of Rome of*. [fro, Cx.] þe mescheef*. [meschef, β.] of honger while kyng Albuinus bysegede þe citee; þerfore þey write on his tombe in metre in þis manere: "Fader Benett; þou Benet, þou*. [þat, β.] levest gretene*. [greten, Cx.] mynde,*. [muynde, γ.] tytel of virtues, fairenes,*. [veyrnes, γ.] and gretene sorwe." Marcianus, libro 2o. Þat ȝere Ceauli|nus kyng of West Saxons overcome þe Bretouns, and took of hem þre famous citees, Gloucestre, Surcetre, and Vautancetre.*. [Vatancestre, α.; Bathancestre, β.; Bathe, γ.] Also þat ȝere Seint Maurus deide, þe ȝere of his age þre score and twelve. He bare his maister Seint Benet his stole on his nekke as longe as his lif leste.*. [lasted, Cx.] After Benet Pelagius was pope ten ȝere.

Capitulum nonum. Mauricius.

MAURICIUS was emperour oon and twenty ȝere; a good Cristen man of byleve. He overcome þe Pers*. [Perses, Cx.] and the Page  383, vol.5 Armes,*. [Armenyes, α., γ., and Cx.] but at þe ende*. [last, Cx.] he destroyede*. [discordede, α. and Cx.; des|corded, γ.] from Seint Gregorie, so þat he spak so*. [so] om. β. and Cx.] moche*. [mych, β.] evel of hym, and fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to do hym to deþe; and þo was a man i-seie in Rome i-cloþed in monkes wede, wiþ a swerd i-drawe*. [adrawe, γ.] in his hond, þat cried in to al þe citee in þis manere: "Mauricius schal be [y-*. [From α.]]slawe." Þe emperour herde*. [hurde, γ.] þis, and amended hym of his evel dedes, and prayed God þat he wolde wiþ draw þat doom. Oure Lorde schewed hym self to Mauricius in his slepe, and seide, "Wilte*. [Wolt, β.] þou þat I spare þe here oþer*. [eyther, Cx.] after þis lif?" "Lord," quoþ he, "þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þou*. [þou] om. γ.] lovest wrecches þat beeþ here in mes|cheef,*. [meschyef, Cx.] ȝilde to*. [to] om. Cx.] me here as þy wille is." Þanne whanne Mauricius was in þe Estlondes, and fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to forbede his knyȝtes þifte*. [þefþe, β.; þeofþe, γ.] and robberie,*. [robrye, β.] and ȝaf hem nouȝt wages as he was i-wont,*. [wont to doo, Cx.] þerfore þe knyȝtes were i-meved,*. [meoved and made, β.; moevyd, Cx.] and maad oon Foca emperour aȝenst hym. And Foca slouȝ Mauricius and his þre sones while he fleiȝ*. [he vlyȝ, γ.] into an ilond. Page  385, vol.5 [Marianus, libro 2o.]*. [From α. and γ.] Þat ȝere Ceaulinus and his sone Cutha fauȝt aȝenst þe Britouns at Fethauleigh,*. [Fethanleigh, β. and γ.; Fechan· lege, Cx.] but Cuta*. [Cutha, α., β., γ., and Cx.] was þere i-slawe, and Ceaulinus hadde þe victorie. Beda, libro primo. Elle kyng of Deira deide, þe ȝere of his kyngdom*. [regne, Cx.] oon and þritty, and Ida his sone Ethelbrutus*. [Ethelbertus, Cx.] regnede fyve ȝere, boþe in Deyra and in Brenicia. Þat ȝere were i-bore in Fraunce þre children,*. [breþeren, α. and Cx.; þreo bryþren, γ.] Ado, Bado, and Dado; Dado heet Adoenus*. [Audoenus, Cx.] also; afterward he forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] chivalrye, and was i-made bisshop of Rotomagens.*. [Rothomag', β.; Roan, Cx.]Paulus, libro quarto. Aboute þat tyme Guntramius*. [Guntramus, γ.; Guntranus, Cx.] kyng of Fraunce wente an hontynge in to a wode, and his men were to sched*. [disperpled, Cx.] hider and þider*. [heder and þuder, γ.] in every side, and þe kyng werþe*. [wexe, Cx.] wonderliche slepy, and leide hym to slepe, and sleep*. [slep, γ.] on oon his lappe þat was most prive wiþ hym. Þanne out of þe kynges mouth a litel*. [luytel, γ., et infra.] beest gan crepe,*. [crept out, Cx.] and fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to passe*. [wold have passed, Cx.] a litel lake þat þere was faste by; þe secretarie, in whos lappe þe kyng sleep,*. [slept, Cx.] siȝ þat, and drouȝ ouȝte his swerde, and leide it over þe lake, and þat Page  387, vol.5 litel beest passede þeruppon in to þe oþer side, and wente into a den*. [a cave, Cx.] of an hil, and abood*. [hulle and abod, γ.] þere awhile, and come aȝen þe same wey uppon þe swerd aȝe in to þe kynges mouth. After awhile þe kyng awook, and tolde his trewe*. [trewe] om. Cx.] secretrarie þat he hadde i-mette*. [ymet, γ.] [a wonder swevene, and tolde þat he mette]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat he passede an yren brigge,*. [brugge, γ.] and fonde greet tresour in an hille.*. [hulle, γ., et infra.] Þanne his secretarie tolde hym what he hadde i-seie and i-doo; þo þey*. [huy, γ.] tweyne wente ifere,*. [yvere, γ.; to gyder, Cx.] and diggede gret tresour in a den*. [that cave, Cx.] of þat hil. Of som of þat tresor þe kyng made a get*. [a grete, β.] a helynge*. [a gret helynge, α. and γ.; cover|ynge, Cx.] as it were a schryne, and caste for to sende it to Ierusalem, but he was i-lette of þat purpos, and dede it over þat*. [þe, α. and γ.] body of Seint Marcell þe martir in þe citee Ca|billona.*. [Cabillena, γ.]Beda, libro primo. Þe holy fader Columbanus, wiþ Seint Gallus and oþer noble disciples, com out of Irlond in to Burgoyne, and bulde þere þe abbay Luxonium*. [Luxovium, β.] by leve of Theodoricus þe kyng; but he was i-dreve þennes by Brunulda*. [Brunnylda, β.; Brumulda, γ.; Brunmylda, Cx.] þe quene, and come in to Almayn, and bulde þere many abbayes Page  389, vol.5 þat ȝit beeþ famous þere, and fongeþ*. [resseyve, α.] but Irisshe*. [vongeþ bote yrysch, γ.] men to monkes.*. [monges, γ.] Þere Columbanus lefte Gallus and com into Italy, and bulde þe abbay Bonum. Þat ȝere fel*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] so gret reyn þat Tyber wesche þe walles of Rome, and caste up a gret multitude of serpentes and oon greet dragoun, and þe stenche*. [stynch, γ.] of hem slowȝ meny men in þe citee. Also þere com a greet pestilence of evel in þe chanelles*. [chanels, β., γ., and Cx.] of men at þe neþer ende; þat pestilence slouȝ Pelagius þe pope; þat pestilence was so wood þat it*. [wod þat a, γ.] slouȝ men in þe wey, at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] mete, at pleyenge,*. [plaiying, β.; pleyng, γ.] and [in]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] talkynge, and ofte slow men wiþ galpynge and snesinge. Þerof it come*. [cometh, Cx.] þat ȝit men it useþ, whanne a man sneseth,*. [that men use to say whan they snese, Cx.] so*. [to, α.] sei*. [to sugge, γ.] God helpe þe;" and whan a man galpeth*. [gapeth, to make a crosse to fore his mouthe, Cx.] þan me croyseþ hym. For þis pestilence Seint Gregorie, archedecon*. [a decon, γ.] of þe citee, ordeyned sevene manere letanyes to be seide in Seint Markes [day].*. [From γ.; Mark his day, α.; on Seynt Marcus daye, Cx.] For he sette in þe firste*. [vor he sete in the vurste, γ.] clergye, in þe Page  391, vol.5 secounde þe abottes and monkes, in þe þridde abbesses wiþ hir mynchouns,*. [monchons, β.; abbases with here menchens, γ.; menchons, Cx.] in þe fourþe children, in þe fifte lewed*. [lewide, β.] men, in þe sixte wydewes,*. [widues, β.] and in þe sevenþe wifes.*. [wyves, γ. and Cx.]Beda, libro primo, capitulo 3o.*. [23o, α.; vicesimo tertio, Cx.] Seint*. [Seint] om. γ. and Cx.] Gregorie was pope þrittene ȝere sixe monthes and ten dayes. He made meny noble bookes,*. [beokes, Cx.] þerof quadraginta due Omelie super Evangelista,*. [evangelia, α., β. γ., and Cx.] Domini|calia, Moralia super Iob, Omelie super principium et finem Eȝechiel,*. [Ezechielis, Cx.] Registrum, Pastoralis,*. [Pastorale Dialogorum, Cx.] Dialogi, and bulde an abbay in his owne hous. Also in alle þe chirches of Rome he or|deynede fastynge*. [vastynge, γ.] every day in þe Lente*. [Leynte, α., β., and γ.] for forȝifnesse of synnes. Also he made alle þe hedes and lymes of mawmettes i-kut*. [ykitt, γ.] of, and [in]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe canoun of þe masse he putte*. [potte, γ.] to diesque nostros in tua pace disponas," and so forth. Also he was þe firste of alle popes þat cleped hym self and wroot in bulles "servus servorum Dei," þat is, þe servaunt of þe ser|vantes of God. Also he ordeyned in þe synod and counsaile at Rome, þat þe mynistres of þe auȝter*. [auter, γ.] schulde take hede to Page  393, vol.5 preyenge,*. [prechynge, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and nouȝt to syngynge, and seide, þat while me axeþ a swete voys in holy service covenable tyme*. [lyf, γ.] is for|gendred.*. [vorgendred, γ.; covenable lyf is sette a part, Cx.] And þe synger wiþ his maneres prikeþ þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] þey he plese hem with [his]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] voys. And þey*. [though, Cx.] Seint Gregorie were moost holy, ȝit he hadde bakbiters and enemyes þat wolde have i-brend his bookes after his deþ, but his decon Perys*. [Peres, α., β., and γ.; Pers, Cx.] hadde i-sworn uppon*. [yswore oppon, γ.] þe book, and by þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] peril of his soule and witnesse of his owne deth, þat his bookes were endited by inspiration of þe Holy Goost. Þat ȝere Ceaulinus, kyng of West Saxon, and Crida*. [Cryda, Cx.] were i-slawe. After hym Colfridus,*. [Colfritus, β.; Colffricus γ.; Calfritus, Cx.] þe sone of his broþer Cuthwulfus,*. [Cuthulfus, β., γ., and Cx.] regnede stal|worthiliche*. [strongly, Cx.] fyve ȝere; after hym his broþer*. [his broþer] om. γ.] Colwilfus*. [Colwulfus, β., γ., and Cx.] regnede fouretene ȝere. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 5o. Ethelfridus*. [Etheffridus, γ.] was Ethelricus his sone, and Ethelricus was Ida*. [Yda, Cx.] his sone. Þis Ethelfridus bygan to regne over þe Northumbres, and regnede nobleliche foure and twenty ȝere. Þis was swiþe*. [right, Cx.] strong, and desired gret worschippe, and destroyede*. [distruyed, β.] þe Bri|touns Page  395, vol.5 more þan alle þe Angles princes, and made hem tribu|taries. He hadde by his wif Acca,*. [Acta, β. and Cx.] kyng Elle his douȝter, seven sones and oon douȝter, þat heet Ebba: tweyne of his sones hiȝte Oswaldus and Oswynus.*. [Oswyus, γ.]Beda, libro 3o, capi|tulo 3o. Columba þe abbot is deed and buried in his abbay in þe ilond Hii. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 9o. He hadde a name i-made of Acella and Columba, and was i-cleped Columkillus.*. [Colunkillus, Cx.]Beda, libro primo, capitulo 23o. Also þat ȝere þe grete Gre|gorie seint Austyn þe monk, wiþ oþere,*. [wiþ oþere] om. Cx.] to preche God his word to Englische men, and*. [and Austyn was aferd and, Cx.] dradde in þe weye, and Austyn tornede aȝen to Gregorie, [and Gregory]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] comforted hym, and sente hym wiþ lettres to þe bisshop Arelatensis, þat he schulde helpe Austyn in what þat hym nedede. Þe tenoure of þilke*. [þulke, γ.] lettres and of oþere lettres þat were i-sent to þe kyng of Kent, and*. [and also, Cx.] answers þat Gregorie ȝaf to Austyn his questiouns, beeþ i-write in Registro Gregorii and in Beda. Paulus, libro 5o. Also þat ȝere þe Longobardes by nyȝte assayed*. [assayled, Cx.] Seint Benet Page  397, vol.5 his abbay in*. [the hulle] added in γ.] Mount Cassinus; bote þe monkes flyȝ*. [vlye, γ.] to Rome, and took wiþ hem þe book of þe holy rule,*. [reule, γ.] and a weyȝte*. [a wyȝt, α. and γ.] of brede for þe iorney, and a mesure of wyn þat hatte Emina.*. [Emia, γ.; Evinia, Cx.] Of þis mescheef Benet warnede hem to forehonde, and prayed God and hadde it i-graunted unneþe þat men of þat place*. [plas, γ.] schulde be saaf.*. [saf, γ.; sauf, Cx.] In þe ryver Nilus, at þe ilond Delta, þe oost of Rome siȝ mermyns in liknes of men and of wommen, þat were so i-seie from þe morwe anon to þe evetide. Þat ȝere Austyn come alonde in þe est side of Kent in þe ilond Tanet; som men clepeþ þat ilond Dent. Þere he com alonde*. [in þe . . . alonde] twice over in MS.] wiþ fourty felawes and som meners*. [men interpretours, Cx.] to be wiþ hem in spekynge wiþ*. [to be . . . wiþ] om. γ., wrongly.] men*. [in . . . men] om. Cx.] of þe londe, for to telle eiþer*. [aiþer, β.] þat*. [what, β. and γ.] oþer wolde mene: þey hadde þese meners wiþ hem out of þe londe*. [For to . . . þe londe] om. Cx.] of Fraunce by counsaille of Gregorie. Seint Austyn sente þese meners*. [interpretours, Cx.] to kyng Ethelbertus þe ȝere of his kyngdom sixe and þritty, and seide þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þey were i-come out of Rome for hele*. [heele, β.] and savacioun of þe kyng and of his kyngdom.*. [royaume, Cx.] Þe kynge herde þis, and hadde i-herde to forehonde of þe fame of Cristen fey, for he hadde to wif a Cristene queene þat was a Frensche Page  399, vol.5 womman, and hadde i-fonge*. [resseyved, Cx.] hire of here*. [yvonge hure of hure, γ.] fadir and moder uppon þat condicioun and sche schulde use and kepe Cristen fey. Þan [after]*. [From Cx.] somwhat of dayes þe kyng com into þat ilond, but he spak wiþ hem out of*. [out of] withoute, Cx.] house under þe wolken.*. [walkon, α.; welken, Cx.] In þat doynge he usede þe [mysbyleve of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] mysbyleved men. And in his comynge þey arered*. [areysed, Cx.] up*. [op, γ.] þe baner of þe cros wiþ a crucifix i-peynt in a table, and song þe letayne, and preched þe word of God.*. [lyf, α., γ., and Cx.; lif, β.] Þanne þe kyng spak to hem and seide, "It is faire þat ȝe byhoteþ,*. [ye promyse, Cx.] bote for*. [for] for as moche as, Cx.] it is newe I*. [Y. β.] may nouȝt anon*. [anon] yet, Cx.] assente; and for ȝe beeþ*. [by cause ye ben come fro ferre, Cx.] i-come of*. [of] from, β.] fer*. [ver, γ.] by cause of me, me*. [we, γ. and Cx.] schal nouȝt onlich spare [ȝou],*. [From β.] and be nouȝt wroþ to ȝow, but me schal fynde*. [vynde, γ.] ȝow what me nedeþ to liflode.*. [fynde suche thynges as shal be nedeful to your lyflode, Cx.] And we schulle graunt ȝow leve also to torne of oure men to ȝoure fey as meny as ȝe mowe."*. [may, Cx.] Whanne þey herde þis þey wente wiþ processioun to þe citee and songe Alleluya, and seide, "Lord, we prayeþ þe in al þy mercy þat þy wreþþe be i-take awey*. [awey] om. Cx.] from þis citee," and wente into þe Page  401, vol.5 citee Dorobernia, þat is Caunterbury, and ladde here lyf as holy fadres dede in þe bygynnynge of holy chirche, in fastynge,*. [vastynge, γ.] in wakynge, in bedes biddynge, and in prechynge of Goddes word, and songe masses, and fullede*. [follede, β.; vollede, γ.; crystned, Cx.] in þe est side of þe citee of*. [in, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe olde chirche of Seint Martyn, for to*. [for to] unto the tyme, Cx.] þat þe kyng was converted and a greet deel of his peple. Trevisa. Here take hede of þe difference bytwene Dorobernia and Dorovernia oþer Dovoria, ffor Dorobernia is Canterburye, and ladde here lyf þere,*. [and . . . þere] om. α., β., and γ.] and Dorovernia is Dovere, and so is Dovoria also; and for the liknesse of þese tweie names, Dorobernia and Doro|vernia, som men beeþ bygiled, and weneþ þat þe erchebisshoppes see was first at Dovere, ffor it is i-wrete þat Seint Austyn his see was in Dorobernia, þat is Caunterbury: loke more here of in þe firste book, capitulo 47o. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie:*. [Trevisa. . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] þe kyng was converted, and ȝaf þis*. [his, α. and Cx.; hys, γ.] doctour a place for þe bisshoppes see at Crist*. [Crystes, Cx.] Cherche,*. [Chirche, β.] wiþ meny possessiouns, and bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] þe abbay of Seint Peter and Paule*. [Poul, β.] in þe est side of þe citee. Austyn and his successoures, and also þe kynges of Kent, were i-woned to be buried þere. Beda, libro 26o, capitulo 2o. In þe mene tyme Austyn by help*. [by help] om. γ. and Cx.] wente to þe erchebisshop Arelatensis, and was i-sacred archebisshop of hym. Seint Gregorie was i-certefied here of, and sente to Page  403, vol.5 Austyn mo helpers, Mellitus, Iustus, Paulinus, and bookes and relikes*. [reliques, β.; relyquyes, Cx.] of holy seintes, and answers to Seynt Austyn his questiouns. Soche*. [Siche, β.] were the answers. As*. [As] om. γ.] þe chirche of Rome ȝeveþ*. [useþ, β.; useth of al goodes, Cx.] of al wages þat falleþ to make foure parties,*. [that tho goodes sholde be deled on, Cx.] oon to þe bisshop and his meyne to fynde*. [veynde, γ.] harburgy;*. [herbergrye, β.; herbegerye and suche as they nede, Cx.] þe secounde to þe clergy; þe þridde to pore men; þe ferþe to þe amende|ment of þe chirche.*. [þe chirche] cherches, α. and Cx.] To hem þat lyveþ in comyn al þing is comyn, and what þere leveþ schal be spend*. [spended, Cx.] in dedes of mercye. To þe secounde þat is i-axed, "While þe fey is al oon, whi beeþ þere so many dyvers usages in cherches?" herto it is answerde in þis manere: "What þou knowest is most plesynge to God Almyȝti gadre þou to gidres, and make it be i-used in chirches in Engelond. Þinges beeþ nouȝt loved for þe place,*. [places, α.] but þe places beeþ i-loved for good þinges."*. [þingis, β.] Colwulfus, þe sone [of Cutha]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Ceaulinus his broþer, regnede in West Saxon fourtene ȝere. Þat tyme in subarbes*. [subarbis, Cx.] of Con|stantynnoble come forþ greet mervailles and wondres, for oon Page  405, vol.5 childe was i-bore wiþ foure feet,*. [voure veet, γ.] and anoþer wiþ tweie nolles and moldes. Þat ȝere Seint Yve þe bisshop was i-bore in Pers,*. [Perce, Cx.] and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] deide in Engelond. Beda, libro primo. Þat ȝere Austyn by heste*. [commandement, Cx.] of Gregorie made tweie archebisshoppes, oon at Londoun and anoþer at ȝork. In þe mene tyme Austyn,*. [Austyn] om. Cx.] by help of Ethelbrutus,*. [Ethelbertus, Cx.] gadred bishopps*. [biscoppes, γ.] and doctoures of Britouns to gidres in a place þat hatte Austinus ook,*. [Austynes oc, α.; Austyns oc, Cx.] þat is Austyn his strengþe, þat place is in þe marche of þe Wicties*. [Wiccies, β. and Cx.] and of þe West Saxons, and þere he chargede hem þat þey schulde preche Goddes word to þe Anglis*. [Anglys, γ.] wiþ hym. And also þey*. [þey] þat a, γ.] schulde amende som oþer errours*. [errous, α.] among hemself, and speccialiche*. [specyalyche, γ.] of þe usage of Ester terme;*. [Eester tyme, Cx.] and þey wiþseide openliche, or*. [ar, α. and γ.; til, Cx.] it were i-schewed by an open token whiche*. [whoche, γ.] partie scholde be i-holde. Þo was i-brouȝt a blynde man forþe*. [vorþ, γ., which puts it after i-brouȝt.] of þe nacioun of Angles, þat was i-heled and hadde his siȝt by þe prayer of Austyn, for Bretouns faillede in þat dede. Whanne þe Britouns sigh [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] þe blynde man hadde his sight þey knowleched þat Seint Austyn his wey was Page  407, vol.5 trewe. But þey seide þat þey myȝte not forsake þo*. [here, α.] olde usages wiþ oute assent of hem þat usede þe same. Þanne he gadrede a synod; þerto com sevene bisshoppis of Bretouns wiþ þe wisest men of þat famous abbay of Bangor. But firste þei hadde counsaille of an ermyte þat they schulde assente [to Austyn]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝif þey fonde*. [ȝef huy vonde, γ.] hym meke and mylde as Cristes disciple schulde be; and þat þey myȝte knowe ȝif Austyn wolde arise aȝenst hem whanne þey com into the synod. Aus|tyn satte in his bischoppis chaier*. [chayer, β.; in þe byschop his chayer, γ.] stille, and roos not, þerfore þey forsook*. [þarvor huy vorsok, γ.] hym wroþeliche.*. [in grete wrath, Cx.] Þanne Seint Austyn seide: "Assenteþ to me, nameliche,*. [Assente me specially, Cx.] in þre þinges, ȝif ȝe willeþ*. [wolleþ, γ.; yf ye wole, Cx.] nouȝt assente to me and*. [and] in, γ. and Cx.] þe oþere. Assentiþ to me, and holdeþ þe Ester day in dewe*. [þewe, γ.] tyme, and ȝeve bapteme*. [ȝeveþ fullouȝt, β.; ȝeveth volloȝt, γ.; yeve ye crystendome, Cx.] in þe manere of þe chirche of Rome, and precheþ Goddes word to þe Angles; and þe oþer deel I*. [Y, β.] suffre ȝow to amende amonge ȝoure self." But þey wolde nouȝt þerof. Þanne Seint Austyn, by inspiracioun, warnede hem, and seide þat þey Page  409, vol.5 þat wolde not fonge*. [vonge, γ., bis; resseyve, Cx. bis.] pees wiþ*. [of, Cx.] here breþeren schulde fonge*. [vonge, γ., bis; resseyve, Cx. bis.] of hem werre and wreche; and afterward at Goddes owne dome it*. [hit, β.] was fulfilled*. [folfuld, γ.] by Ethelfridus kyng of Northumberlond, whanne þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] and [þe]*. [From β.] monkes of Bangor were i-slawe at Chestre.

Capitulum decimum.*. [γ. does not mark the com|mencement of the new chapter.]

AFFTER*. [þat added in γ.; that added in Cx.] Mauricius was i-slawe, Focas*. [Foca, γ.] regnede eiȝte ȝere. In his firste ȝere*. [In his firste ȝere] om. Cx.] Ethelfridus, kyng of Northumberlond, fauȝt aȝenst Edan,*. [Edam, γ.] kyng of Scottes, at Dexastan,*. [Dexsastan, β., γ., and Cx.] and hadde a solempne victorie; bote Thedbal,*. [Thedbald, β. and γ.; Theo|baldus, Cx.] þe kynges broþer, was i|slawe and þe oost of al þat he hadde.*. [ladde, α. and Cx.]Beda, libro 2o. Also þat ȝere þe holy fadir, Seynt Austyn, in a mydwynter day, whan he hadde i-cristned*. [y-folled, β.; y-volled, γ.] ten þowsand Englische men in þe west Page  411, vol.5 ryver, þat hatte Swale, besides ȝork, he knewe þat he schulde deie, and ordeyned hym a successour, oon Laurence,*. [Laurons, γ.] while he was hymself on lyve, ffor þe staat*. [stat, γ.] of holy chirche in Enge|lond, þat was ȝit ruyde and boistous,*. [rud and boystes, γ.; rude and boystous, Cx.] schulde nouȝt flecche.*. [fleeche] The original word is erased in γ., and what appears to be perishe written in its stead; shulde nouȝt fleeche, om. Cx.] And þat he dede by ensaumple of Seint Peter,*. [Petur, γ.] þat made Clement his helper and his successour. Also he ordeyned Mellitus bisshop of Est Saxons; þe ryver Temse*. [Themse, γ.; Thamyse, Cx.] departeþ bytwene hem and Kent; here chief citee was Londoun, in þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] citee Ethelbertus,*. [Ethelbrutus, α. and β.] kyng [of Kent],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] bulde Seint Poulys cherche, for to be [þe]*. [From α. and β., not in γ. nor Cx.] cathedral*. [cathederal, γ.] chirche for*. [and, α. and Cx.] þe bisshoppes*. [bischops, β.] see. Anoþer cronike seiþ þat Sebertus, kyng of Est Angles, made Poules*. [Paul his, α.; Paulus, Cx.] cherche in Londoun, and he made Iustus bisshop in Kent, at þe citee Dorubres, þat now hatte Rochestre,*. [Rouchestre, β., et infra.] and hadde þe firste name of oon Rufus,*. [Rufe, Cx.] and is by west Dorobernia, þat is Canturbury, þre and twenty myle; in þe whiche citee of Rochestre kyng Ethelbertus*. [Ethelbrutus, α. and β.] bulde a chirche of Seint Andrew. Also þe grete Gregorie deyde Page  413, vol.5 þat ȝere. After hym Samnianus*. [Savinianus, β.; Gaminianus, Cx.] was pope as it were foure*. [two, α.] ȝere. Þis*. [He, Cx.] ordeynede þat þe houres of the day schulde be ronge*. [rongen to at, Cx.] at chirches; and he spak evel of Gregorie, for he hadde i-made to grete cost in poure men. Þerfore Seint Gregorie apered*. [appiered, Cx.] to hym þreis, and blamed hym; and at þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] tyme, for he wolde nouȝt amende hym,*. [hym] om. Cx.] he smot hym on þe heed, and þanne he awook and ȝalde*. [yelded, Cx.] up*. [ȝeld op, γ.] þe goost. Also þat ȝere, in Wales, deide .Seint David; þat heet Dewy also; he was bisshop of Menevia, þat now hatte Seint Davyes. Aboute þat ȝere deide Seint Iohn þe Aumener,*. [Iohan the Amener, Cx.] patriark of Alexandria. Ones to hym, in his prayers, aperede*. [appiered, Cx.] þe faireste*. [vurste, γ.] mayde þat myȝte be, i-crowned wiþ leves of*. [leves of] om. Cx.] olyve, and cleped herself Mercy, and byhiȝte*. [promised, Cx.] hym þat he schulde wel spede ȝif he wolde take hire to his spouse; and from þat day forþ|ward Iohn was þe more mercyable, so þat alle poore*. [poure, γ.] men he cleped his lordes: þerfore it is þat Seint Iohn*. [Iones, β.; Iohans, Cx.] Hospitelers clepeþ poure men lordes. Also þis Seint*. [Seint] om. α., β., and Cx.] Iohn hadde alle þe Page  415, vol.5 poure men names of his citee i-write in a book; also he usede twyes a wooke*. [a woke, γ.; a weke, Cx.] to sitte al day to fore þe chirche dore, for to acorde men þat were in stryf. In a tyme he hadde i-sete þere al a day, and sigh*. [sey, γ.] no man playne;*. [sawe no man playne, Cx.] þanne he gronede and seide, "Wo*. [Who, Cx.] is me wrecche, for þis day to doo no good dedes was I*. [Ich, β.] worþy." "ȝis,"*. [ȝus, γ.] quoþ his*. [his] the, β.] decon, "þis day*. [From β.; γ. has þys, but omits day.] þu schuldest be glad, and make grete ioye, for now men beeþ i-made right as aungels wiþ oute strif." Also in a tyme, while þe gospel was on*. [on] a, β. and Cx.] redynge, þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] wente out of þe chirche for to talke and telle tales; and he went out also and satte among hem, and seide, "Where þe scheep beeþ*. [buþ, γ.; shepe be, Cx.] þere þe herde*. [heerde, β.; hurde, γ.] schal be. Þanne gooþ ȝe*. [Goo ye, Cx.] into þe chirche, and I schal goo wiþ ȝow; oþer ȝif ȝe abideþ, I schal abide with ȝow also." And after þat he tauȝte men for to stonde at þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] chirche in þe masse tyme. Also Iohn in his bedes*. [prayers, Cx.] was ofte i-herde*. [yhurd, γ.] as it were iangelynge*. [spekynge, Cx.] wiþ God Almyȝti, and seienge*. [sigginge, β.] "So so, Lord Ihesu Crist,*. [Crist] om. α., β., and Cx.] þou ȝevest largeliche, Page  417, vol.5 and [I]*. [From β. and Cx.; ych, γ.] dele forþ; loke we*. [we] om. Cx.] who schal have þe maistre." After Sanimanus*. [Savinianus, β. and γ.; Sami|nianus, Cx.] þe þridde Bonefacius was pope eiȝte monþes*. [moneþis, β.] and eiȝte and twenty dayes; he ordeyned þat no cloþes schulde be i-leide uppon þe auȝter but white cloþes. After þe þridde Bonefas*. [Boneface, Cx., bis.] þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Bonefas was pope as it were seven ȝere. He purchasede of þe emperour Augustus Foca,*. [Focas, Cx.] þat Seint Peters cherche of*. [of] at, Cx.] Rome schulde be heed of alle þe cherches of þe world*. [worle, γ.] wyde,*. [wyde] om. Cx.] ffor þe chirche of Con|stantynnoble cleped her self þe firste. Also he purchasede þat Pantheon*. [Panteon, γ.] myȝte be i-halowed*. [halewide, β. bis.] in worschippe of alle halowen.*. [halwen, β.; halwon, γ.] Pantheon was þe chirche þat was somtyme i|halowed in worschippe of þe goddesse Sibille*. [Cibile, α., β., and γ.; Cybele, Cx.] and Neptunus; þere þe fende*. [þe fende] feendes, α.; fendes, β. and Cx.; vendes, γ.] slowȝ ofte Cristen men. Þerfore þe pope*. [þe pope] transposed after No|vembre, α., γ., and Cx.] everiche ȝere tweie dayes to fore Novembre singeþ þere, and þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] is i-houseled. Also he ordeyned*. [treted, Cx.] þat, lyvynge þe bisshop, no man schulde trete of þe newe elleccioun of his Page  419, vol.5 sucessour, but þre dayes after his*. [his] the bissops, Cx.] deth. Also he demede þat monkes myȝte use þe offys of prechynge, of cristenynge,*. [follynge, β.; vollynge, γ.] and of assoillynge. Abowte þat tyme tunica Domini inconsutulis,*. [inconsutilis, γ.] þat is*. [is] was, Cx.] our Lordes kirtel*. [cortel, γ.; or cote, add. Cx.] wiþoute semes,*. [semes] ony seme, Cx.] was i-fownde*. [yvounde, γ.] in þe vale of Iosephat, in a cofre of marbel, by Gregorie bisshop of Antiochia, and i-brouȝt to Ierusalem. ȝif þis is sooþ*. [soþe, β.] it seemeth þat it*. [þat it] hyt, γ.] may nouȝt stonde þat is i-rad to forehonde in Tyberius Cesar his tyme, [for þere hit is y-rad þat Pilatus stood to be y-demed to fore Tiberius Cesar,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and myȝt nouȝt be i-damped while he hadde oon þe*. [þat, β. and γ.] kirtel*. [curtel, β.; cortel, γ., et infra.] wiþ oute semes, tunica Cristi inconsutulis.*. [inconsutilis, γ.; χρisti incon|sutilis, Cx.] ȝif Pilatus hadde þis kirtel wiþ hym at Rome, it semeþ þat is*. [hit, α.; it, Cx.] was nouȝt afterward*. [afturward, γ.] i-take þennes and i-brouȝt aȝen*. [aȝen] om. Cx.] into þe vale of Iosephat. Also ȝif þat tyme þat curtel was i-founde*. [yvounde, γ., et infra.] in þat vale of Iosephath, so it seemeþ nouȝt þat Pilatus hadde þat curtel wiþ hym at Rome. Trevisa.*. [Trevisa] not in α., but a blank left.] Hit was no more maistrie*. [maystri, γ.] to brynge þat curtel out of*. [fro, Cx.] Rome into þe vale of Iosephat, þan it was to brynge þat kyrtel oute of*. [fro, Cx.] Ierusalem into Rome, and so it may wel stonde þat Pilatus hadde on*. [on] om. Cx.] þat kirtel*. [curtel, α.] at Rome, Page  421, vol.5 and þat þe kirtel*. [and the same kyrtell, Cx.] was afterward i-founde in þe vale of Iose|phath.*. [Beda libro secundo, added in β. and Cx.] Also þat ȝere Ethelfridus, kyng of Northumberlond, destroyede*. [distried, β.] Britouns at Legecestre, þe citee of legiouns, þat þe Britouns clepeþ Caerlegeons,*. [Coerlegyons, Cx.] þat is Chestre; he slow þere aboute a*. [an, α. and γ.] two þowsand and two hondred of monkes of þe abbay of Bangor þat were i-come*. [comen, β.] to praye for his knyȝtes, and he slouȝ hem faste*. [vaste, γ.] by þe citee, onliche fifty wiþ hire ledere Brucyval*. [Brucynail, β.; Brocinail, γ.; Brucivayl, Cx.] þat*. [þat] om. γ.] scaped out of þe oost and fliȝ:*. [fledd, Cx.] þe nombre of þe monkes þat wonede in þat abbay was two þowsand and an hondred,*. [hundrid, β.] þat wil*. [wole, β.] be*. [wil be] is, Cx.] sevene siþes þre hondred, and lyvede alle by travaille of hire owne hondes. Þe Perses arisen*. [aryse, α.; aroos, Cx.] aȝenst þe emperour,*. [empire, β.; empere, γ.; them|pyre, Cx.] and took Ierusalem, and hadde awey [þe baner of]*. [From α. and Cx.] þe croys, and bynam þe Romayns many provinces. Þanne Baraclian, rector of Affrica, slowȝ Foca þe emperour, and made his sone Heraclius emperour.

Page  423, vol.5

Capitulum undecimum. Heraclius.

HERACLIUS was emperour sevene and twenty ȝere. In his þridde ȝere, Cosdras kyng of Pers*. [Perce, Cx.] sette Ierusalem on fuyre,*. [afuyre, β.; a vuyre, γ.; afyre, Cx.] and oþere holy places, and took Zakarie þe patriark prisoner, wiþ moche*. [myche, β.] oþere peple,*. [pupel, γ.] and þe partie of þe crosse þat Eleyne*. [Helene, Cx.] hadde i-lefte þere he hadde wiþ hym into Pers,*. [Perse, Cx.] but in his twelfþe ȝere Heraclitus*. [Heraclius, Cx.] slouȝ*. [slouȝt, α.] Cosdras, and so þe prisoners were delivered, and þe cros was i-brouȝt into*. [aȝen to, α.] Ierusalem aȝen.*. [aȝen] om. α.] While kyng Heraclius wolde entre in to þe citee of Ierusalem*. [aȝen . . . Ierusalem] om. Cx.] wiþ pruyde and with boost, þe ȝeate*. [ȝate, β.; ȝat, γ.; yate closed, Cx.] was i-closed by doynge of God all myȝti, but þe kyng meked hym, and ȝeede*. [ȝude, γ.] barfoot, and þanne þe ȝate opened aȝen; and siþþe þat tyme holy chirche haþ i-ordeyned þe feste of cros, exaltatio sanctæ crucis. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Colwul|fus, kyng of West Saxon, deide, and after hym tweie sones of Page  425, vol.5 his broþer Colricus regnede to gidres; oon heet Kynegilsus,*. [on hyȝte Kynegilsus, γ., et infra; Kyngilsus, Cx., et infra.] and þe oþer Quychelinus, þat dede*. [diden, β.; dude, γ.; dyden, Cx.] meny grete dedes aȝenst þe Britouns, and specialliche at Bamptoun, bysides Oxenforde, and also aȝenst Penda, kyng of Mercia, þat wolde have i-take from hym*. [vram ham, γ.] of hire kyngdom þe citee of Surcestre.*. [Surcetre, Cx.] At þe laste Kyngilsus was i-cristened*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ., et infra.] of Seint Birinus, but*. [bote, α.] Quychelinus voidede and wolde nouȝt fonge þe sacrament of cristenynge, or*. [follought er, β.; volloȝt ar a was, γ.; crystendome til, Cx.] he was afterward*. [afterward] om. Cx.] i-warned by febilnesse of his body, and þo he was*. [was] om. Cx.] i-cristenede,*. [folled, β.] but he deyde in þe same ȝere, and so Kyngilsus regned in al, wiþ his broþer [and after his broþer],*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] two and þritty ȝere. Here take heed*. [Her is to be noted, Cx.] þat auctors varieþ, ffor William seiþ þat Quychelinus was Kyngilsus his broþer, but Marianus and Beda telleþ*. [sayen, Cx.] þat he was Kyngilsus his sone. After Bonifacius oon Deusdedit, þat heet Theodorus also, was pope foure ȝere.*. [ȝere] om. α.] Þat tyme, at þe excitynge*. [excityns, γ.] of kyng Ethelbertus, a citiȝeyn*. [cytysyn, γ.] of Londoun bulde a chirche of Page  427, vol.5 Seint Peter in þe west side of Londoun, in a place þat [þoo]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] heet Þorney, [þat is to menynge þe ylond of þornes,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and now it hatte Westmonastre. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 5o. Þat ȝere Ethelbertus, kyng of Kent, deide and wente to hevene, after þat he hadde i-regned in þis world*. [wordle, γ.] sixe and fifty ȝere, þe ȝere after þat he hadde i-fonge þe fey of riȝt byleve*. [of riȝt byleve] om. Cx.] oon and twenty ȝere. [After him his sone Edbaldus regnede fyve and twenty ȝere];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he was apostata, and lay by his stepdame, and þerfore he was ofte wood.*. [þarvore a was ofte wod, γ.; wode, Cx.] Þat tyme, whan Sabertus,*. [Sebertus, Cx.] kyng of Est*. [West, Cx.] Saxons, was dede, his þre sones and his heires*. [eyres, β.] tornede to ydolatrie, and prayede Mellitus þe bisshop of þe place to ȝeve hem white brede as he hadde somtyme i-ȝeve to here fader; but he wolde nouȝt, but ȝif þey wolde fonge cristenynge,*. [fullought, β.; vonge volloȝt, γ.; receyve crystendome, Cx.] þerfore þey putte hym out of his bisshopriche, and he went anon*. [anon] om. Cx.] to þe bisshoppis of Kent. Þanne Mellitus, and Iustus by oon assent went out of Engelonde into Fraunce, for hem was*. [were, Cx.] levere*. [vor ham was lever, γ.] serve God in pees*. [pes, γ.] þan be bisshoppes among straunge naciouns wiþ oute fruyt; but sone aftirward Page  429, vol.5 þe mysbyleved kynges were i-slawe of þe kyng of Giwesies.*. [Giwisees, β. and γ.; Gywesses, Cx.]Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 9o. Also after þe oþer bisshoppes Laurence þe archebisshop caste to*. [purposed for to, Cx.] forsake þe contray. And in a nyȝt after his prayers,*. [after his prayers] om. γ.] Peter appered*. [appiered, Cx.] to hym, and blamed hym, for he wolde forsake his peple, and nouȝt onliche blamede, but he beet*. [bute, γ.] hym [also]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ful sore. And amorwe þe bisshop schewed his woundes to kyng Edbaldus. Þan þe kyng forsook his ydolatrie and his mysbyleve and his unlaw|ful wif, and tornede aȝen to þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] riȝt fey, and sente for þe bisshoppes þat were i-flowe,*. [aflowe, β. and γ.; fledde, Cx.] and brouȝte hem aȝen to hir bisshoppriches. Bote þe Londoners wolde nouȝt fonge aȝen hire bisshop Mellitus, for hem was levere*. [they had lever to, Cx.] serve ydolatrie, for þis kyng was noȝt so strong as his fader for to chaste*. [chastye, β.; chastise, Cx.] hem. Þanne Laurence*. [Laurons, γ.] deide, and Mellitus was erchebisshop after hym; and þey he were potagre*. [podagre, Cx.] on his body, he was glad of herte, and helede sike men by his prayers, and savede his citee from brennynge. Paulus, libro 5o. Aboute þat tyme Cacanus, kyng of þe Aves,*. [Anes, γ. and Cx.] þat beeþ þe Hunes, come into Italy, and Page  431, vol.5 beet doun þe Longobardes, and slowȝ hir ledere Gisulphus,*. [duk Gysulfus, Cx.] and biseged þe citee Aquila.*. [Aquilia, α., β., γ. and Cx.] Romilda,*. [Ronulda, γ.] þe wif of þe duk þat was i-slawe, sigh hym walke aboute in þe sege, and sigh þat he was faire*. [feyr, γ.] and loveliche, and lovede hym hugeliche,*. [hogeliche, γ.] and sente hym word anon þat ȝif he wolde take her to wif sche wolde deliver hym þe citee and*. [of, α.] al þat was þerynne. Þe kyng grauntede, and þe citee was i-take and i-brend, and þe men*. [meyne, γ.] i-take prisoners and i-lad away; and þe kyng took Romilda as he hadde byhoote,*. [promysed, Cx.] but it was in*. [hys, added in γ.] scorn, and lay by her oon nyȝt, and in anoþer nyȝt he made twelve of þe*. [þe] hys, γ.] Hunes ligge by here in despite everich*. [eche, Cx.] aftir oþer. After|ward he piȝt a scharpe pole in þe myddel of a feeld,*. [veld, γ.] [and]*. [From Cx.] piȝt here*. [hir, β.] þoruȝ out*. [þoromout, γ., as one word.] [her body]*. [From Cx.] wiþ þe over ende of þe pole, and lete here [be þere],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and seide so cruel an hore*. [harlatt, Cx.] such an housebonde semeþ to have.*. [habbe, γ.] Þe douȝtres of Romilda were chaast, and drowȝ nouȝt to horedom*. [hoerdome, Cx.] after her moder; and for þe maydenes wolde nouȝt þat þe Hunes schulde ligge by hem and defoule hem, þey*. [þey] a, γ.; wolde nouȝt . . . þey, om. Cx.] took raw flesche Page  433, vol.5 of chekons*. [chikyns, β.; chykyns, γ.] oþer of*. [oþer of] or, Cx.] coltes, and dede*. [dude, γ.; leyde, Cx.] it bytwene here brestes, ffor þe flesche schulde stynke whanne þe Hunes come, þat þe Hunes*. [that the Hunes] and they, Cx.] schulde wene þat þe maydons stonke, and for þat cause þe Hunes lefte hem and com nouȝt nygh hem. But aftirward þe maydons were i-solde and i-wedded to gentilmen. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 9o. While Edwynus fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] þe perse|cucioun of Ethelfridus, and hyd*. [hudde, γ.] hym [with]*. [From γ., inserted above the line.] Redwaldus, kyng of Estangles, þanne Redwaldus*. [þanne Redwaldus] om. β. and Cx.] was assentynge to Edwynus his deeþ, and þat for manas oþer for ȝiftes of Ethel|fridus; oon of Edwynus his frendes was waar*. [war, Cx.] þerof, and warnede Edwynus of þat peril, and byhet*. [byhyȝt, γ.] hym þat he wolde brynge hym in a siker place ȝif he wolde wiþ hym wende; he wiþseide it as þey he wolde nouȝt be þe firste þat schulde breke þe trues*. [truwes, γ.; trewes, Cx.] and acord þat was i-made bytwene hem*. [him, Cx.] and þe kyng. Þanne he satte allone in a greet þouȝt,*. [þoȝt, γ.] and oon com to hym þat he knewe nouȝt, and axede hym why he satte allone*. [al oon, β., et supra.] and*. [and] om. Cx.] soruful*. [sorowful, Cx.] on*. [in, α.] a stoon in such*. [sourful in a stone in soche, γ.] a tyme, [and]*. [From γ.] putte more to*. [on a . . . more to] om. Cx.] and seide, "I woot*. [ych wot, γ.] who þou art, and why Page  435, vol.5 þou art sory, and what is þy drede. Þanne ȝif eny man slouȝ þyn enemyes, and brouȝte þe to thy kyngdom; also ȝif he schewed þe þe beste counsaille of savacioun, and bettre þan eny of þyn fornfadres*. [vorevaders, γ.] evere herde, woldest*. [wost, α. and γ.] þou nouȝt assente and doo by his rede."*. [and his counseyl, added in Cx.] "ȝis,*. [ȝys, α.; ȝus, γ.; yes, Cx.] trewly," quoþ he, "and þat I be-hote."*. [byhote, α.; promise the, Cx.] But þe oþere leide his hond on Edwynus heed, and seide, "Whanne his tokene comeþ to þe, have mynde of þis tyme and of oure speche, and doo as þou hast by-hote." Whanne þis was i-seide he vanysshed*. [vansede, γ.] awey. After þis his forseide*. [vorsede, γ.] frend come to hym, and warnede hym þat þe kynges wille was i-torned to hym. Þan he*. [þan he] þat, α., β., γ., and Cx.] gadrede his oost at þe laste, and mette with Ethelfridus in þe contrayes of Mercia, by est*. [Eest, Cx.] þe water Idele,*. [Idle, Cx.] and slouȝ hym riȝt þere; and he made Edwynus kyng of boþe kyngdoms, of Norþhumberlond, of Deira, and of Brenicia;*. [Brenicia, β.] and Edwinus regnede after þat sevene*. [seventene, α., and Cx.; xvii., β.] ȝere. Trevisa. ȝif þou wilt knowe what and where Mercia is, look in þe firste book, capitulo 51o. [Þanne hit folweþ in þe story:*. [Trevisa . . . story] om. β. and Cx.] whan þis was y-doo,]*. [From α. and γ.] Ethel|fridus his sones, Oswold of twelve ȝere old, and Oswynus*. [Oswius, α.; Oswyns, β. and Cx.] of Page  437, vol.5 foure*. [voure, γ.] ȝere olde, by sleiþe of her wardeynes, were i-lad into Scotland. After þe pope þat heet*. [hyȝte, γ.] Deusdedit, þe fifte*. [fifþe, β.] Bonefas was pope fyve ȝere. Seint Anastacius, monk and martir, was i-bore in Pers:*. [Perce, Cx., et infra.] in his childhode he lerned of his fadir wicche|crafte, and nygromancye;*. [his vader wychcraft and niger|mancy, γ.] þere he feng*. [þare he venge, γ.] þe fey of Crist, of Cristene men þat were prisoners, and forsook Pers anon,*. [anon] om. Cx.] and passed by Calcidonia and Ierapolys,*. [Iherapolis, β.; Herapolis, γ.] and come to Ierusalem, and þere he was i-cristened,*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ.] [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] foure myle out of þe citee, in an abbay þat now hatte Anastacius his abbay, he levede by rule*. [reule, γ.] sevene ȝere. He com in to Cesarea in Pales|tina ffor to bid*. [bydde, γ.] his bedis, and was i-take prisoner and i-lad into Pers, and þere he was longe i-bounde and i-bete, and sent to Cosdra, kyng of Pers, and i-doo*. [putte, Cx.] to deþe. In his kirtel*. [curtel, α.; cortol, γ.] oon þat hadde a fende*. [vend, γ., et infra.] on hym was i-cloþed, and so he was delyvered of þe fend.*. [One that was vexed with a fende was delivered by vertue of his kyrtel whan he was clothed with alle, Cx.] Heraclius Cesar overcom þe Peerses,*. [Perses, Cx.] and brouȝte Anastasius his body to Rome, and leede*. [leyde, β.] it in Page  439, vol.5 Seint Paule his mynstre*. [mynystre, Cx.] ad aquas. Laurence,*. [Laurans, α.] archebisshop of Caunterbury, deide; after hym Mellitus, bisshop of Londoun, was archebisshop fyve ȝere, and þanne after hym Ced, Seynt Chedda*. [Chaddes, β.; Chaddes broder, Cx.] his broþer was bisshop of Londoun, was archebisshop fyve ȝere.*. [was . . . ȝere] om. α. and Cx.] After Bonefacius Honorius was pope twelve ȝere; þat ȝere Heraclius overcome þe Pers,*. [Perces, Cx.] and slouȝ Cosdras, and brouȝte aȝen þe croys. Þis was a kunnynge*. [comyn, γ.] astronomer, and knewe by þe sterres þat circumcided men schulde destroye his kyngdom,*. [royamme, Cx., et infra.] and sente to þe kyng of Fraunce þat he schulde dryve alle þe Iewes out of his kyngdom, oþer make hem so*. [be, α.] i-cristened,*. [be fulled, β.; be yvolled, γ. or make hem to resseyve baptemm Cx.] and so it was i-doo. Afterward was bygonne*. [bycome, γ.] greet werre and bataille bytwene þe Romayns and þe Saracens, and Heraclius brouȝte þe holy croys out of Ierusalem into Con|stantynnoble. A greet deel of þat cros was i-sent to Lowys, kyng of Fraunce, in þe ȝere of oure Lorde a þowsand two hondred sevene and fourty.*. [vourty, γ.] Dagobertus, þe nynþe kyng of Fraunce, regnede after his fader Lotharius,*. [Lotarius, β.] þre and þritty Page  441, vol.5 ȝere. Whanne Mellitus þe archebisshop of Caunterbury was dede, þanne Iustus, bisshop of Rouchestre,*. [Rouchester, γ.] was archebisshop after hym, and made oon Romanus bisshop of Rouchestre in his stede;*. [stude, α.] for Iustus hadde i-sente Paulinus, þat hadde i-be þe þridde bisshop of Rochestre, to þe men of Northumberlond for to be bisshop of ȝork, and for to wed Ethelburga,*. [wedde Edilberga, β.; Edel|berga, Cx.] Edbaldus his suster, to kyng Edwynus, and to converte his peple.*. [pepul, γ.]Henricus, libro 2o.*. [et Willelmus de Rey., lib. primo, added in β. and Cx.]

Capitulum duodecimum.

ÞAT ȝere Penda paganus, þe tenþe after Woden, was þe sone of Wybba, and bygan to regne whanne he was fifty ȝere olde, and regnede in Mercia þritty ȝere. [℞]*. [From β. and Cx.] But som cronikes meneþ*. [telleþ, γ.] þat Crida, Kynewolde his sone, was þe tenþe after Woden, and þe firste þat regnede in Mercia, and regned x. ȝere. After hym his sone Wibba regnede twenty ȝere, and Page  443, vol.5 after Wibba [his kynnesman]*. [From β.; his kinnisman, in|serted in Cx.] Ceorlus regnede ten ȝere; and after hym Penda, Wibba his sone, regnede þritty ȝere. He slowȝ þe tweie kynges sones of Northumberlonde, Edwyn and Oswald, and þre kynges of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] Est Anglys, Sigebertus, Egri|tus, and Annas. Also þe quene his wyf bare hym fyve*. [vyf, γ.] sones, Weda,*. [Wedda, Cx.] Wilferus,*. [Wulferus, β., γ., and Cx.] Etheldredus, Merwaldus, and Marcellinus,*. [Mercellinus, β.] and tweie douȝtres, Seint Kyneburgh and Seint Keneswide.*. [Kineswyd, γ.; Kyneswyd, Cx.]Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 9o. Þat ȝere in an Ester day com to þe real*. [ryal, β. and Cx.; real tyde, γ.] citee byside þe water Dorwent oon Emnerus,*. [Enmerus, α.; Eumerus, Cx.] a swerdman, wiþ a swerd i-venymed, i-sent of*. [of] from Cx.] Quichelinus, kyng of West Saxon, for to slee kyng Edwynus. But oon Lilla, þe kynges trusty*. [tristy, β.] servaunt, for he hadde noon oþer scheld, he putte*. [potte, γ.] his owne body aȝenst þe strook, and was i-smyte þoruȝ þe body, and þe kyng was i-wounded wiþ þe same strook. And þe swerdman was i-smyte þoruȝ with swerdes in every side, and slowȝ anoþer knyȝt wiþ his cursed*. [corsede, γ.] swerd. Also þe same Ester nyȝt þe queene hadde Page  445, vol.5 a douȝter þat heet Enfleda; þe kyng ȝaf here to God, and made Paulinus halowe here,*. [habbe hure, γ.] in token and*. [and] of, Cx.] convenant þat he wolde fulfille*. [folfulle, γ.] his byheste, and be Cristen man, ȝif he hadde þe vic|torie of þe kyng of West Saxon. Þan in a Witsonday*. [on a Whitesonday, Cx.] þe mayde was i-cristened,*. [folled, β.; yvolle, γ.] and þe kyng þo first was unneþe hool*. [hol, γ.] of his wounde, and gadrede his oost, and overcom þe kyng of West Saxons. Bote þey*. [But þouȝ, β.; But though, Cx.] kyng Edwynus forsook his mame|trie, and wolde gladliche here Paulinus, ȝit he avised hym longe tyme wiþ his counsaile what were best to doo in þat manere of doynge. Also þat tyme þe kyng*. [kyng] om. γ.] feng*. [veng, γ.] lettres þat pope Bonefacius sente hym, and conforted hym to þe fey, and he fenge a scherte,*. [schirte, β.; and a vyng a schurt, γ.; sherte, Cx.] som þerof was i-wrouȝt wiþ gold. And anoþer lettre of þe same tenoure was i-sent to þe queene wiþ a mirour*. [merour, γ., mirrour, Cx.] of silver, and a combe of yvorie*. [evory, α. and γ.; yvory, β.] somdel overgilt. Paulinus sigh þat the kyng was harde to converte, and made his prayers to God, and lerned by inspiracioun þat a token was somtyme i-schewed*. [schewide, β.] to þe kyng while he was exciled wiþ Page  447, vol.5 Redwaldus. Þanne in a day Paulinus leyde his honde uppon þe kynges heed, and axede ȝif he knewe þat token; þe token was i-knowe,*. [knowen, Cx.] and Paulinus seide, "Lo þou hast overcome þyn enemyes and i-wonne þy kyngdom: þanne doo as þou hast byhote, and be trewe*. [truwe, γ.] to hym þat so haþ þe i-holpe." Þanne þe kyng took counsail of lordes, and was i-cristened*. [yfolled, β.; yvolled, γ.] at ȝork, and meny oþere, þe ȝere of his kyngdom elevene. Þanne Coysy,*. [Caysy, Cx.] first*. [furst, α.] of bishoppes, forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] his mametrie, and aȝenst þe usages of here false holynesse, and armed hem,*. [hem] him, Cx.] and leep*. [luep, γ.] on a noble hors, and destroyed*. [distried, β.] þe temples of mametrie.*. [mamettes, α.; mametes, γ.; maumettes, Cx.] Hit was nouȝt leveful*. [leffol, γ.; leeful, Cx.] to þe bisshop of mis|byleved men to be i-armed, noþer to ride but uppon*. [oppon, γ.] a mare. From þat tyme forþward anon to þe sleynge of kyng Edwynus, Paulinus cristened*. [folled, β.; vollede, γ.] continualliche sixe ȝere in boþe provinces, in Deira and in Brenicia, in þe ryvers Gleny and Swala, and prechede in þe province of Lindseie,*. [Lydeseye, Cx.] and bulde a Page  449, vol.5 chirche of stoon at Lyncolne,*. [Lyndecolyn, α.; Lyndcolyn, β.; Lyndecoln, Cx.] þat is Lyncoln. Afterward in þat chirche, whan Iustus þe archebisshop was deed, Paulinus sacred*. [sacride, β.] Honorius, archebisshop of Dorobernia, þat is Caunter|bury, in his stede, wiþ suche*. [sich, β.] auctorite of pope Honorius, þat ȝif þe archebisshop of Caunterbury oþer*. [or, Cx.] of ȝork is*. [be, Cx.] dede, he þat is on lyve haþ power to sacre anoþer archebisshop*. [bisshop, Cx.] in his stede þat is deed. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 16o. Þanne þere was so grete pees*. [pes, γ.] in Edwynus his kyngdom þat a woman myȝte goo from*. [vram, γ.] þe oon see to þat oþer and no man schulde here greve.*. [one toun to another without ony greef or anoyng, Cx.] Also for refresshynge and socour of way farynge*. [weyvaryng, γ.] men*. [and . . . men] of weygoers, β.] þere*. [for refresshyng of weygoers there as, Cx.] clere welles were in þe hye*. [hyȝe, α.; heiȝ, β.; by hye weyes, Cx.] weyes, þe same kyng heet*. [bade, β.] arere postes, and honge þere schelles oþer coppes*. [cuppes, β.] [of bras, and no man durste touche þilke*. [þulke, γ.] coppes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] but to þe same use. He was þe firste kyng þat wan þe ilond Eubonya,*. [Eubonia, γ.] þat is Man. Redwaldus his sone, Corpwaldus, kyng of Est Angles, by comfort*. [comford, α.] of Edwynus feng þe fey of holy cherche, Page  451, vol.5 he and his men, and was i-slawe nouȝt longe after of oon Rigbertus, a mysbileved man. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 17o. Þat ȝere þe pope Honorius sente þe pal to Honorius arche|bisshop of Caunterbury, wiþ lettres þat enformede hym of þe manere of þe ordeynynge of þe*. [þe] om. α.] archebisshop in Bretayne. Also he sente lettres to þe*. [þe] om. β.] Scottes of þe holdynge of Ester day, and chargede hem þat þey*. [huy, γ., bis.] schulde nouȝt trowe þat þey*. [huy, γ., bis.] þat were so fewe*. [veawe, γ.] in þe ende of þe world*. [worl, γ.] were*. [were] sholde be, Cx.] more con|nynge þan Cristen men þat beeþ now and were in olde tyme. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 20o. Þat ȝere Penda kyng of Mercia, and Cedwalla kyng of Britouns, slouȝ kyng Edwynus in þe feeld*. [veld, γ.] of Hatfeld.*. [fclde of Hatfelde, β.; feld of Hattefelde, Cx.] Þese tweie kynges, Penda and Cedwalla, were so cruel*. [cruwel, γ.] in þat province þat þey sparede noþer man noþer womman, noþer ȝong noþer olde, noþer religioun. And ȝit anon to þis tyme Britouns telleþ*. [acounte, Cx.] þe fey and religioun of Angles for nouȝt. In þe tyme of þat mescheef Paulinus, arche|bisshop of ȝork, took wiþ hym þe queene and here douȝter Eanfleda, and wente by water wey into Kent; and þe cherche of Rouchestre was þo voyde by þe deeþ of Romanus þe bisshop, Page  453, vol.5 for he was þo adreynt; and so Paulinus was i-made bisshop of Rochestre, and was bisshop þere nyntene ȝere, and deide, and lefte þere his palle.*. [pal, β. and Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. And so þe cherche of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] men of Northumbirlond was wiþ oute bisshopriche after Paulinus his deþ þritty ȝere, and was with oute þe use of pal sixe score ȝere and fyve. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Whanne Edwynus was dede, Osricus*. [Osiricus, Cx., bis.] was kyng of Deyra. Osricus was Elfricus his sone, and Elfricus was Edwynus eem.*. [heeme, γ.; eame, Cx.] But Ethelfridus, Eanfricus his sone, was [king]*. [From Cx.] of Brenicia, and anon boþe þese kynges tornede to mametrie.*. [mamatry, γ.] But Cedwalla slouȝ hem boþe in oon ȝere, oon after*. [aftur an, γ.] oþer, by God his riȝtful wreche; þerfore it plesede hem þat acounted þe tymes to wiþ drawe þe mynde of mysbyleved kynges, so þat ongracious*. [þat þat ungraciouse, β.; un|gracious, γ.] ȝere*. [thilk ungracious yere, Cx.] schulde be acounted to þe kyngdom*. [regne, Cx.] of Oswald, þat regnede afterward. And after the sleynge of his broþer Eanfridus, wiþ a litel oost he slowȝ þe forsaide*. [vorsede, γ.] Cedwalle, þat com aȝenst hym wiþ a wonder huge*. [houge, γ.] oost in a place þat hatte Devennyssbury,*. [Devisseburn, α., β., and γ.; Denisseburn, Cx.] and hatte Devysus*. [Denisus, Cx.]Page  455, vol.5 [his]*. [From γ.] lake also; þe place þere*. [þare, γ.] Oswaldus knelede*. [knelide, β.] and rerede a crosse,*. [cros, γ.] and prayed God for þe savacioun of his mėn to fore þe bataille, þat place*. [plas, γ., tris.] hatte Hevenfild, þat place is now in grete worshippe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þat place is in þe norþside of þat famous walle þat þe legioun of Rome bulde*. [bilded thwert, Cx.] þwart*. [þwert, β.] over þe ilond nouȝt fer from [þe]*. [From β.] chirche Hagustald. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Of þe spones of þis croys beeþ i-doo*. [be don, Cx.] meny vertues [and]*. [From Cx.] wondres. To fore þat tyme was no cherche þat hadde [an]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] auȝter in Brenicia or*. [ar, γ.] kyng Oswaldus hadde arered a*. [reysed that, Cx.] crosse*. [croys, γ.] at þat bataille; and sone after þere was i-bulde a chirche. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 2o. Kyng Oswald axede of þe Scottes, and hadde it i-graunted, þat bisshop Aydanus moste*. [moste] sholde, Cx.] come and teche his peple.*. [pupel, γ.] Þo þe kyng ȝaf hym a place of a bisshoppes see in þe ilond Lyndifare:*. [Lyndisfare, γ.; Lyndefar, Cx] þere me myȝte i-see wonder, for þe bisshop preched in Scottische, and þe kyng told forþ*. [vorþ, γ.] an*. [an] in, Cx.]Page  457, vol.5 Englissche to þe peple what it was to menynge.*. [to saye or meene, Cx.] Þanne alle day come Scotissche monkes, and prechede þe*. [for to preche to the, Cx.] Angles, out of Aidanus his abbay þat was in þe ilond Hii. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 4o. Aidanus was þe merour*. [mirrour, Cx.] of abstinence, and fasted*. [faste, α., β., and γ.] everiche day to none. He levede noon oþer wise but [as he]*. [From γ.] tauȝte; al þat was i-ȝeve hym he wolde gladliche ȝeve [hyt]*. [From γ.; yaf it gladly, Cx.] to pore men. He ȝede on his feet,*. [ȝude on hys veet, γ.] and rood on no*. [non, α.; noon, β.; none, Cx.] hors; he preched walkynge up and doun; he spared nouȝt to telle þe defautes of chirche*. [riche, α., β., and γ.; ryche, Cx.] men for reverence noþer*. [ne, Cx.] for drede. He ȝaf hem*. [hem] om. Cx.] no money, but onliche whete*. [mete, α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝif he hadde he wolde ȝeve. He raunsoned*. [raunsede, γ.] pri|soners*. [oute of prison, added in Cx.] and made hem his disciples ful ofte. Þe occasioun of his comynge into Engelond was suche:*. [sich, β.; this, Cx.] to forehonde he was i-send after*. [he . . . after] to forhond was y sent a sterne man, α., γ., and Cx.; was sent a sterne, β.] into Engelond at þe prayer*. [prayyng, β.] of kyng Oswald for to teche his peple, and dede*. [dide, β.] but litel profiȝt,*. [prouffyt, Cx.] and tornede home aȝe into his owne, as he þat hadde i-travailled an*. [an] in, Cx.] ydel. Þan the Scottes tretede among hem for to sende anoþer man Page  459, vol.5 into Engelond. Me seiþ þat to hym þat was [so]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-come*. [comen, β.] aȝen in to Scotlond Aidanus spak in þis manere: "Broþer, me semeþ þat þou were hardere þan þow schuldest be, for to men þat beeþ rude and unkonnynge þou ȝaf nouȝt at þe bygynnynge þe mylk of good lore, as þe apostel techeþ, þat whanne þei beeþ*. [a beþ, γ.] esiliche*. [ben esely, Cx.] i-brouȝte yn litel and litel, þan [ben they able]*. [From Cx.] to understonde more perfiȝt lore." Þan whanne þat was i-seide*. [y-herd, α.; y-hurd, γ.; herd, Cx.] Aidanus was i-sente as þe more discrete man and wys; by his word and ensaumple Oswald hadde hope to þe kyngdom of hevene, and not onliche þat, but also he hadde a gretter erþeliche*. [erlich, β.] kyngdom. For al naciouns of Britayne þat were i-deled in foure longages, Britons, Pictes, Scottes, and Angles, feng*. [toke, β.; vyng, γ.] hym to hire lord and kyng. Also it is i-seide of hym þat in an Ester day Aidanus sat by hym at [þe]*. [From α., β., and γ.] mete, and a grete multitude of pore*. [poure, γ.] men come to þe kynges ȝate, and axede*. [axide, β.; axyd, Cx.] for to have*. [vor to habbe, γ.] of þe kynges almes; and for þe kyng hadde nouȝt elles at honde to ȝeve hem, he took þe mes þat was i-sette to fore hym, and þe disshe of silver, and brak it al to peces, and sent it to [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] poure men. Þe bisshop Page  461, vol.5 siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and took þe kyng by þe riȝt hond, and seide, "I*. [Y, β.] praye God þat þis honde nevere wexe olde;" and so it happede. For aftirward, whan Oswald was i-slawe, þat arm was i-kut of from*. [vram, γ.] þe body, and durede hool*. [hol, γ.] and sounde at þe real*. [rial, β.; ryal, Cx.] citee, Belibanburgh.*. [Bebbanburgh, α., β., and Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 8o. It is i-seide of hym þat for he usede so ofte for to bidde his bedes,*. [or make his prayers, added in Cx.] and to þonke God Almyȝti alwey, where evere he sete*. [where he evere sete, α.; sate, Cx.] he wolde strecche his hondes, and holde hem to gidres, and lene*. [lenye, β. and γ.] on his knees.*. [kneon, γ.] And þerfore ȝit*. [þarvore ȝut, γ.] hit is [a]*. [From γ.] bysawe, "God have mercy of soules, quoþ*. [quaþ, α.; sayd, Cx.] Oswalde, and fil*. [ful, γ.; fyll, Cx.] to þe grounde." Also þat ȝere were ordeyned bisshopps Adoenus of Rothomagensis*. [Audoenus of Rotomagis, Cx.] and Eligius. Þe abbot Gallus, þe desciple*. [dyscypel, γ.] of Columbanus, was þo in his floures in Almayne.

Page  [3], vol.6

Capitulum tertiumdecimum.

SEINT Birinus [þe confessour]*. [From α., β., and γ.] was i-sent of Honorius þe pope for to*. [vorte, γ.] preche to Englisshe men; and while Birinus seilede in þe see of Britayne he byþouȝte hym of his restelles*. [rescellis, α. and γ.; restellis, β.; restellys, Cx., bis.] þat he hadde forȝete*. [vorȝute, γ.] in þe haven, and ȝede uppon þe see and fette*. [vette, γ.] [his]*. [From β. and Cx.] restelles.*. [rescellas, α. and γ.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 6o. Þis*. [þes, γ.] Birinus convertede Kyngilsus kyng of West Saxons, and cris|tened*. [folled, β.; vollede, γ.] hym at þe citee Dortik,*. [Dortic, β.] þat is Dorchestre; þere was [kyng]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Oswald present, and was Kyngilsus his godfader,*. [godvader, γ.] and wedded*. [wedde, γ.] his douȝter afterward. And boþe kynges ȝaf Birinus*. [Birinus] om. Cx.] þat citee for*. [vor, γ.] to ordeyne þere a bisshoppes see; and Page  5, vol.6 þere Birinus deide after þe fourtene*. [vourtene, γ.; fourtenth, Cx.] ȝere of his bisshopriche, and was i-buried þere. Bote atte þe laste, by Hedda bisshop of Wynchestre, Birinus was translated*. [translatet, γ., et infra.] to Wynchestre,*. [Wyncestre, γ.] into þe chirche of [Seynt]*. [From Cx.] Peter and*. [of, add. β.; Paule, Cx.] Poul. But þe chanouns of Dorchestre seiþ*. [seyn, β., bis; seggeþ, γ., bis; saye, Cx.] nay, and seiþ*. [seyn, β., bis; seggeþ, γ., bis; saye, Cx.] þat it was anoþer body þan seint Birinus his body þat was so translated; þerfore a beere*. [bere, β.; þarevore a bere, γ.; byere, Cx.] of a wonder werk is ȝit i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] at Dorchestre, above þe place of his firste*. [vurste, γ.] grave: þat citee Dortic oþer Dorkynga, þat now hatte Dorchestre, is sevene myle besouthe*. [bysouþ, α., β., and Cx.] þe citee*. [þe citee] om. Cx.] Oxen|ford, i-sette bytwene þe tweie*. [twy, γ.] riveres of Tame and of Temse. Also it is i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] in cronykes þat Kyngilsus assignede al þe lond seven myle aboute for*. [vor, γ., ut passim.] to make a bisshoppes see in Wyn|chestre, and for þe sustenaunce of [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] mynystres; and for þe kyng was i-lette by his deþ yvel þat he miȝte nouȝt it ful|fille,*. [folfulle, γ., et infra.] he swoor þat his sone Kenwalkus schulde it fulfille afterward. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Þis citee Dor|chestre longede to þe bisshoppis of Mercia from*. [vram, γ.] þat tyme Page  7, vol.6 anon to þe comynge of þe Normans. But in William Con|querours tyme þe bisshoppes see was i-chaunged*. [chaungide, β] to Lyncoln.*. [Lyncolyn, Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þat ȝere Felix of þe nacioun of Burgoyn, þat had be homeliche*. [be homeliche, from α. and γ.; be homelich, β.; had ben homely, Cx.; had hem liche, MS.] wiþ Sigebertus kyng of Est Angles, while he was exciled in Fraunce, com with hym into Engelonde, and was i-made bisshop first of Domnyk,*. [Domynyk, β.; vurste of Don|mik, γ.; Donwyck, Cx.] and was þere bisshop sixtene ȝere. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 17o. Þis Sigebertus hadde þe kyngdom after his broþer Corpwaldus, and ordeyned scoles of lettrure*. [letture, γ.] in his kyngdom as he hadde i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] in Fraunce, and assignede pedagoges*. [petagoges, β. and Cx.] and maistres for children in þe manere of Caunterbury men; at þe laste he be took*. [bitoke, β.; bytoke, Cx.] his kyngdom to his nevew Egritus, and was i-schore monk in an abbay þat he hym self bulde; but aftirward kyng Penda paganus werred*. [werride, β.] in þat kyngdom, and Sigebertus was i-drawe out of þe abbay as it were for to strengþe þe knyȝtes; and so he was i-slawe in his simplenesse, and bare but a ȝerd*. [rodde, Cx.] on his hond, and nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] al his oost was i-slawe; after hym regnede Anna, Enus his sone; hym slouȝ Penda. Bote while Sigebertus regnede, an holy man þat hiȝte*. [het, β.; hete, Cx.] Furseus com out Page  9, vol.6 of Irlond into þe province of Est Angles, and in þe wey [con|vertede meny men oþer made hem more studefast in þe fey].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þere in a tyme he was seek, and was i-warned in a visioun by an aungel þat he schulde besiliche*. [bisilich, β., bis.] do as he hadde bygonne, and besiliche*. [bisilich, β., bis.] wake and bidde his bedes.*. [make his praiers, Cx.] Þanne by help of the kyng he bulde an abbay by þe see, in a castel þat hatte Cunbrisburgh;*. [Cunbbrisburgh, γ.; hete Cim|brisburgh, Cx.] þere eft he worþe seek,*. [there he wexe seke agayne, Cx.] and i-was i-ravis|shed*. [yravesed, γ.] out of his body*. [spirituelly unto, Cx.] anon to þe holy siȝt of aungles, and in þe wey þere in a tyme he was seek,*. [and . . . seek] om. α., β., and Cx.] þere he herde*. [hurde, γ.] sowne þat vers of þe sauter "Holy men schul go forþ from vertue to vertue; God of goddes schal be seyn*. [ysey, γ.] in Syon;" also he was brouȝt to his body, and i-lad eft aȝen*. [Also his spyryte cam to his body agayn, and take away agayn, Cx.] the þridde day, and sigh*. [syȝ, β.] not onliche þe grete ioye of holy seyntes, but also þe grettest strif of evel spirites,*. [spiritis, γ.] by þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] þei fondeþ*. [purposed, Cx.] to lette holy men. Þanne he was i-left*. [lifte, β.] an hiȝe,*. [ylyft an hii, γ.] and siȝe under hym foure fuyres*. [voure vures, γ., et infra.] in þe ayer, and þe aungel þat ladde hym Page  11, vol.6 expowned hym*. [to hym, Cx.] þe fuyres in þis manere, and seide: "Þese fuyres schal destroye þe world:*. [worl, γ.] þe firste fuyre*. [vur, γ., et infra.] is þe fuyre of lesynge, for men doþ nouȝt as þey byheet*. [as huy byhyȝte, γ.] in her bapteme;*. [follouȝt, β.; baptemme, Cx.] the secounde is þe fuyre of covetise, whan richesses is more i-loved þan God Almyȝti; þe þridde is fuyre of discord and of strif, whan men greveþ*. [greven, Cx.] her neighe|boures*. [neyȝebores, α.] with oute cause; þe ferþe*. [fourth, Cx.] is þe fuyre of wikked|nesse, whanne þe gretter*. [or myghtyer, add. Cx.] dredeþ not for to undo and de|stroye*. [distruye, β.] þe lasse."*. [and febler, add. Cx.] Þese fuyres semede i-gadrede as it were al into oon. Þanne Furseus was sore adrad,*. [agast, Cx.] and cride, and þe aungel to hym seide: "What þou hast not i-sette afuyre*. [avure, γ.] in þe schal not brenne; þis fuyre*. [fuyre] om. Cx.] schal examyne and serche alle men dedes." Þan Furseus com to þe*. [α, α. and Cx.; þat, γ.] ȝate þat was open, and fendes þrewe*. [vendes þruwe, γ.] on hym a man þat þey tor|mented in fuyre, and þerwiþ Furseus his schuldre and his cheke were i-brent. Anon Furseus knewe þat man, and knewe þat he hadde i-fonge his cloþ whan he deide; þe aungel þat ladde Furseus þrewe*. [þruw, γ.] þat clooþ into þat*. [þe, α.] fuyre, and a fende*. [vend, γ.]Page  13, vol.6 seide: "Þrow not awey þat þou hast to forhonde approved,*. [to vorhond apprueved, γ.] for þou hast i-fonge the goodes of synful men, so þat*. [þat] om. α. and Cx.] þou schalt be partyner of here peynes."*. [paynce, Cx.] "Nay," quoþ þe aungel, and seide, "he feng it nouȝt for covetise, but for savacioun of his soule." And þan þe fuyre cesede,*. [ceesed, β.; sesede, γ.] and þe aungel seide to Forseus, "What þou hast sette on*. [α, Cx.] fyre þat haþ i-brend on*. [on] om. Cx.] þe." Þanne Furseus was i-brouȝt to his body aȝe. Þe same merk and tokene þat he hadde i-felt*. [yveld, γ.] in his soule he bare alwey after i-sene on his schulder and cheke. Afterward as ofte as Furseus tolde þis tale, þey he hadde þynne cloþynge*. [hadde cloþynge] were ryȝt þenne y-cloþed, α. and γ.; were riȝt þynne y-cloþed, β.; were right thynne clothed, Cx.] in þe myddel of [þe colde]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] wynter, he schulde alwey*. [alwey, Cx.] swete for drede. At þe laste Furseus lefte þat abbay to his broþer Fullanus, and he wente free*. [vre, γ.] wiþ anoþer broþer Ulcanus,*. [Vulcanus, α., γ., and Cx.] and lyved hermytes lyf al oon ȝere. Þanne þe*. [þat, α. and Cx.] province was swiþe*. [anone destroyed by rennyng and reyses, Cx.] destourbed by rennynge*. [ȝurnyng and, γ.] of reses*. [ernyng and reses, β.] of straungers, and he seillede into Fraunce, and Page  15, vol.6 deide þere after meny grete dedes of vertu, and was i-buried at Pernia. After Honorius Severus*. [Severius, α.; Severinus, β. γ., and Cx.] was pope oon ȝere; in his tyme þe Iewes were converted to Cristene fey.*. [feyth, Cx. passim.] Heraclius þe emperour, aftir his noble victours,*. [victories, β.; victoryes, Cx.] errede out of þe fey, and þat by counsaile of Cirus patriark of Alexandria, and of Sergius patriark of Constantynnoble; and Heraclius deide in þe dropesie,*. [droposye, Cx.] and was i-schend with þat*. [þe, α. and Cx.] heresy of þe Iacobytes; þat where*. [were, γ. and Cx.] þey*. [hy, γ.] þat mysunderstood seint Iame þe Apostel.

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

ABOUTE þat tyme lyvede Machometus*. [Macomete, β.; Machamet, Cx.] þe false prophete, duke and ledere of Saracenes*. [Sarsyns, β. et infra; Sarasyns, Cx.] and of Turkes. Þis*. [þis] His, α. and Cx.] storie is [y-*. [From α.]]brouȝte in þis manere, bote Stevene of Caunterbury and Girald of Cambria helpeþ moche*. [myche, β.] in þis manere. Somtyme while þe empere of Rome was in gret myȝt and strengþe, Cristendom was nyh wydder*. [and more] add. Cx.] þan þe empere of Rome, and is Page  17, vol.6 no wonder, ffor Cristendom was so encresed þat it conteyned Europa and meny provinces of Asia and wel nygh al Affrica wiþ ynne his merkes and boundes.*. [bondes, γ.] At þe laste, by discord and stryf of Cristen men bytwene hem self, it was i-do þat þe Agarenes wexe stronge. Þe Agarenes haueþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] þre names, and beeþ i-cleped Agarenes, Ismaelites,*. [Ismalytes, Cx.] and Saracenes.*. [Sararacenes in MS. Here by an error of the scribe wexe stronge is in|serted again from the previous line.] Of here empere propheciede Methodius þe martir, and seide þat Cristene religioun schuld litel*. [lyte, α. and γ.] have with oute þe endes of Europa. Also after þat errour of Saracenes hadde infecte al Affrica, hit defoulede also a grete deel of Spayne, and but Goddes grace and mercye hadde i-holde*. [holpe, α.; holpen, Cx.] it wolde have in|fecte and schend also Fraunce wiþ Spayne. Þanne after þe grete Gregories tyme þe empere of Rome, þat streccheþ*. [strechede, γ.] somtyme from*. [vram, γ.] þe occean of Bretayn anon to þe endes of Pers, was so destroyed wiþ tyrandise*. [tyrauntrie, β.; destruyed wiþ tyraundys, γ.; tyrauntrye, Cx.] and wiþ civil batailles, þat it was*. [a was, γ.] nouȝt of power to defende hym*. [hit, α.; hyt, γ.] self aȝenst enemyes. Þanne þe cruel*. [cruwel, β.; crewel, γ.] paynym oost of Pers gan to occupie meny provinces of þe lordschipe of Rome and of men of Cristene fey in the estlondes. Þanne as þe grete flye folweþ*. [vlye volweþ, γ.] þe tras Page  19, vol.6 of þe malschave,*. [malschawe, β.; trace of the mal|shawe, Cx.] so after oþer woo com þe*. [com þe] cometh, Cx.] pestilence of þe Ismaelites, þat was more grevous, and destroyed nygh þe Cristene men þat were i-left in þe estlondes by ledynge of þe province*. [p'uince (sic), MS., but clerical error for prince, which is in β. and Cx.] Machometis,*. [Machometes, α. and β.] and*. [in, α., β., and Cx.] Heraclius þe emperour his tyme. Þanne þe fifte*. [vyf þe, γ.] pope*. [pope] om. Cx.] Bonefas his tyme, while Hera|clius regnede, aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord sixe hondred and twenty, Machometis þe false prophete þe whiche*. [wychche, α.; and wicche, β; and wheche, γ.; prophete and witche, Cx.] bygiled þe Ismaelitis [and]*. [From Cx.] Agarenes in þis manere. A famous clerk was at the court of Rome and myȝt nouȝt spede at his wille, and passede [þe see, and plesede meny]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] men, and hadde hem*. [ham, γ.] at his assent. Among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he byhet Machometis þat he wolde make hym prince of his peple*. [pupel, γ., et infra.] ȝif he wolde doo as he seide. Þanne þis clerk fedde*. [vedde, γ.] up a colver*. [douve, Cx. semper.] and made hym fecche*. [vecche, γ.] his mete in Machometis ere, for þere he dede*. [dude, γ.; put, Cx.] þe corn þat the colver schulde ete, and þerof*. [þerof] of that same, Cx.] þe colver ofte schulde*. [wolde, α. and β.] fede*. [wolde vede, γ.] hym self. Þanne in a day þis clerk gadrede þe peple to geders,*. [pupel to gadders, γ.] and byheet þat he wolde make*. [makynge, α.] hym here Page  21, vol.6 prince whom þe Holy Goost wolde schewe in colveres liche,*. [in a colver hys lych, γ.; in lykenes of a douve, Cx.] and lete fle*. [vle, γ.] his colver anon, and þe colver, as he was i-woned, satte uppon Machometus his schuldres, and putte his bele*. [bile, β.; potte hys byle, γ.; bylle, Cx.] in Machometus his eres; þerfore Machometus was i-chose prince and ledere of þe peple. Þis þat is i-seide in þe comyn table,*. [comyn tale, α. and Cx.] but what now foloweþ is more alowed and apreved. A monk þat heet*. [hyȝt, γ.] Sergius was i-put out of þe companye of þe monkes þat he was among for he was i-falle*. [avalle, γ.] into Nistorius*. [Nestorius, Cx.] his errour. He com into Arabia, and putte hym self to Macho|metus, and enformed hym; þeiȝ it be i-rad þat þis Sergius were archedecon*. [archdekene, β.] of Antiochia oþer patriark of Ierusalem. Þanne Machometus faderles [and moderles]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] was in his emes kepynge in his childhode; he*. [and, α. and Cx.] worschipped mawmetrie som|what of tyme wiþ his contrey men of Arabia, and he ȝaf hym specialliche to worschippe Venus, and þerfore it is þat ȝit the Saracens holdeþ þe Fridy*. [Vryday, γ.; Fryday, Cx.] holy as þe Iewes dooþ*. [dooþ] don, Cx.] þe Satirday and we þe Soneday. After þat Machometus com to age, and was scharp of witte, and wente into meny londes Page  23, vol.6 by cause of marchaundise, and ofte was in companye of Iewes and of Cristen men, and lernede þe maneres and usages and customs*. [costome, γ.] of boþe*. [þe, added in β.] lawes of Cristen men and of Iewes, and kouþe boþe wicchecraft and nigromancie, and was a won|derfel*. [wonder felle, Cx.] man and fer castynge, and hadde nobil ffacounde and faire*. [veyr, γ.] speche. Þan he com to þe lady of þe province Coro|ȝonia, þe lady heet*. [hyȝte, γ.] Cadygan, and somdel wiþ spices*. [and with somme spyces, Cx.] þat he brouȝte, wiþ wicchecraft, and wiþ faire wordes, he made þe lady so mad and so nyce*. [nyse, α.] þat sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] worschipped hym as þe grettest prophete of God Almyȝty, oþer as it were Messyas þat þe Iewes abideþ,*. [abidiþ, β.; abiden, Cx.] and sche*. [heo, β.] desired hym to housbonde. It is þe usage of þat province to be [y-*. [From α.]]ruled*. [yreuled, γ.] also by wommen.*. [wymmen, α.] Þanne he wedded þe wymmen*. [widewe, β.; wydewe, γ. and Cx.] þat was quene, and so he was i-made lorde of þe province. Þanne he drowȝ to hym þe Arabes, and occupiede þe est empere anon to Alexandria aȝenst Heraclius þe emperour. Þanne he took þe manere spekinge of trewe prophetes, as þey God hadde i-spoke in hym, and spak in þis manere in his bookes þat he made: "Oure Lord spak to his prophete Machomete*. [Machometus, α.; om. Cx.] and seide;" Page  25, vol.6 for so þe bookes þat he feyned gylfulliche schulde be i-trowed*. [itrowed] bylevyd, Cx.] as þouȝ þey were i-made by auctorite of God Almyȝti. Whan*. [Whan] Thenne, Cx.] nouȝt onliche his owne men but also men of fer londes fil*. [vulle, γ.] to hym and bowed*. [bowide, β.] to hym in every side, he hadde greet likynge to have*. [habbe, γ.] gretter lordschipe; and as it were for to brynge men into good manere lyvynge, and as it were by heste*. [commaundement, Cx.] of God Almyȝte, he assailede*. [assaylide, β.; assoyled, Cx.] þe naciouns þat wonede*. [dwellyd, Cx.] nyȝ hym, and dede by crafte and by gile what he myȝte nouȝt doo by dedes of armes. Þerfore whan Egipt, Libia, Arabia, and Siria were suget,*. [subgett, Cx.] [for he wolde seme þe more holy, he drouȝ þe peple þat were suget]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to his false lawe, and made hem forsake*. [ham vorsake, γ.] þe usages and þe lawes here forfadres.*. [vorþvadres, γ.; fornfaders, Cx.] And he forbeed*. [vorbud, γ.] þe paynyms mametrie, and graunted circumcisioun to þe Iewes*. [huy, γ.] as þeyȝ he hadde i-used it,*. [as they had used, Cx.] and i-feyned of his some*. [some] owne self somme, Cx.] newe lawes, and alleide*. [alleyde, β.; alleged, Cx.] witnes of eiþer testament. Þe Saracenes clepeþ þat lawe his lawe ȝit anon to þis tyme, and be heet þe Saracenes circumcide hem as þe Iewes doþ,*. [doþ] don, Cx.] and forbeed hem þat wil folwe hym etynge of swynes*. [swynyssh, Cx. bis.] flesche. And Makometus wolde telle þe cause why he forbeed þe Page  27, vol.6 etynge*. [þe etynge] þeim, β.] of swynes [flesche],*. [From α., β., and Cx.; vlesch, γ.] and seide þat swyn come of camels*. [a kamyles, α.] drit*. [dryt, γ.; dirt, Cx.] after Noe his flood, and þerfore clene men schulde schonye it as mete þat is unclene; and [as]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] it were to acorde with Cristen men in þe manere of cristenynge,*. [follouȝt, β.; vollouȝt, γ.] he ordeyned ofte wasshynge of lemes*. [lymmes, Cx.] in water, as it were for clensynge of synnes. And for to brynge þe peple þat was [so]*. [From α. and Cx.] bygiled þe faster in snarl,*. [vaster in þe snar, γ.; to snarle, Cx.] what he knewe þat was most plesynge*. [playsaunt, Cx.] to manis likynge, he ordeyned for lawe, and so he ordeyned þat a man schulde have as many wifes and concubynes as he myȝte susteyne*. [susteyny, γ.] wiþ his catel. Also þat a man myȝte have wifes of his owne kynrede*. [kynrad, β.] anon to þe noumbre of foure, and þat a man myȝte four siþes forsake his wif and take hir aȝe, þat he suffrede, and also þat*. [þat] that, Cx.] he*. [he] a, γ.] myȝte [have as meny concubinus as a wolde of wymmen þat were yboȝt oþer prisoners, and also þat a myȝte]*. [From γ.; have als many concu|bynes as he wolde of wymmen þat were bouȝt oþer prisoners, and also that he myȝt, β.; have as many con|cubynes as he wolde of wymmen that were bought prisoners, Cx.] selle*. [sille, β.] hem but ȝif he hadde i-brouȝt eny of hem wiþ childe; and ordeyned hem to use sobernesse in mete and in drinke, and forbeed hem mete and*. [mete and] om. α.]Page  29, vol.6 drynkenge of wyn but it were in certeyne solempne dayes in þe ȝere. And*. [An, MS.] for he wolde somdel varie from*. [varye vram, γ.] þe Iewes þat worschippeþ God [westward, and from Cristen men þat wor|schippeþ God]*. [From α. and Cx.] estward, he tauȝte his peple to worschippe God souþward with ofte knelynges, for in þe souþ is plente of liȝt. He ordeyned hem to worschippe the goddes*. [godas, α. and γ.; goddesse, Cx.] Venus, and to holde þe day þerof solempne and holy, þat is Friday.*. [Vryday, γ.] He heet worschippe [on]*. [From α., β., and γ.; one, Cx.] Almyȝti God, Creatour and Makere of alle þinges, and seide þat Moyses and Iohn*. [Johan, Cx.] were prophetes, but þat Crist was grettere, and grettest of alle prophetes, and þat he was i-bore of þe mayde Marie by vertu of God wiþ oute mannys mone,*. [seede, Cx.] as he seiþ in his book þat hatte Alcoranum.*. [Alkaron, Cx.] Noþeles he melled*. [medled, β.] som false sawes with sooþ sawes, and seide þat Crist was [afterward]*. [From γ.] i-hove*. [i-hove] afterwarde born, Cx.] up into hevene, and nouȝt i-slawe; for he seiþ þat Iudas þe traytour souȝte Crist in a den, and chaungede into þe likenesse of Crist, and so was i-take and i-nayled to þe cros in stede*. [stude, α.] of Crist. Also he hete þat þe men of his lawe schulde every ȝere, ȝif þey myȝte, goo in to Goddis hous þat is in Matha for to bidde here bedes, [and]*. [From α., β., and Cx.]Page  31, vol.6 whanne þey were i-come þider*. [þuder, γ.] þey schulde be bygoo aboute and*. [bygoo aboute and] om. Cx.] i-cloþed in oon manere cloþynge, and þey schulde þrowe out stones þorow*. [þurȝ, β.] holes of þe walles, as it were for to stene the devel;*. [develen, γ.] and seide þat Abraham made þat hous for his children Ismaelites, for þey schulde þere bidde here*. [hare, γ.] bedes. Also by Machometus his lawe he þat were i-take with a womman in spousebreche*. [spousebriche, β.; spousebruche, γ.] schulde be stened to deþe, and ȝif he dede*. [a dude, γ.] ffornicacioun wiþ a sengle*. [sengel, γ.] woman he schulde have foure score lasshes.*. [lasches, γ.] A þeef þe firste tyme and þe secounde schulde be i-bete, and þe þridde tyme he schulde lese*. [luse, γ. bis.] his hondes, and þe ferþe*. [fourth, Cx.] tyme he schulde lese*. [luse, γ. bis.] his feet. And he seiþ þat who þat holdeþ al þis and oþere hestes of his lawe God Almyȝti byhoteþ*. [promysed, Cx.] hym paradys, þe orchard of likynge,*. [plesyre, Cx.] þere is noon*. [no, α., β., and Cx.] distemperure*. [dystemper, γ.; distemprure, Cx.] noþer peyne, þere is no manere greef,*. [gryef, Cx.] but al manere of welþe and of likynge; þere is likynge mete for to ete, and cloþes to werie,*. [werye, β.] and maydens to beclippe*. [tembrace, Cx.] faire*. [veyr angels, γ.] schal serve hem þere; þe aungels beeþ so huge*. [hoge, γ.] and so greet þat from þe*. [þe] þat, Cx.] oon yȝe*. [ye, γ.] to þat oþer is þe Page  33, vol.6 space of a day his iornay.*. [a day journeye, Cx.] And to hem þat holdeþ*. [holdeþ] holde ne kepe, Cx.] nouȝt his lawe, he byhoteþ*. [promyseth, Cx.] hem fuyre and peyne of helle wiþ outen ende. And also in his book þat hatte Alcoranum he preyseþ al þe fadres of þe Olde Testament, and specialliche Moyses, Iohn*. [Johan, Cx.] Baptiste, Crist, and Machometus. Also he preyseþ al þat troweþ in God and dooþ riȝtwisnesse; but it is nouȝt þere i-rad what is þe riȝt fey, noþer what men beeþ of riȝtbileve [noþer what men beþ of misbileve].*. [From β.; noþer what men beþ of mysbyleve, add. γ.; ne what men ben of mysbyleve, add. Cx.] Also þere is i-write*. [wreton, Cx.] þat fyve*. [vyf, γ.] bookes com doun from heven for informacioun of mankynde, þe Sauȝter, Moyses bookes, þe bookes of prophetes, þe gospel,*. [þe gospel] om. Cx.] of*. [and, α., β., and Cx.] Machometus his Alcoranum.*. [Alcaron, Cx.] In þat Al|coranum*. [Alcoron, Cx.] it is i-wrete þat Almyȝti God wolde rule*. [reule, γ.] and lede mankynde into þe wey of savacioun, and after Abra|ham he ȝaf þe children*. [a ȝaf þe childern, γ.] of Israel lawe, by whiche lawe þey schulde knowe God and worschippe hym; but for þey tolde nouȝt of þis lawe, God ȝaf the gospel to oþer men. And also þey mysused his lawe. And þe Arabies þat com of Abraham by Ismael were moo men and gretter peple þan þe Iewes þat come of Abraham by Isaac, and the Arabes þat were i-left*. [laft, α.] were i-left wiþ oute lawe. Þerfore out of þe concistorie*. [consistorye, Cx.] of Page  35, vol.6 Goddis riȝtwisnesse com a decre þat a prophete of here owne peple schulde be i-sent to Ismaellites wiþ a lawe, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] prophete and lawe þe Saracenes [shold folowe as the Jewes folowed Moyses, and Crysten men Cryst; and therfore the Sarasyns]*. [From Cx.; schulde folowe, as the Jewes Moyses, and Cristen men Crist. And therefore the Sara|synes, β.; scholde volwe as þe Iewes Moyses, and Cristene men Cryst, and þare vore þe Saracenes, γ.] holdeþ hem self bettre þan Iewes and Cristene men; for þey holdeþ holiche*. [hollich, β.; for hy holdeþ ho|lyche, γ.] here lawes, and Iewes and Cristen men ofte trespasiþ*. [trespacen, Cx.] aȝenst here owne lawe. For to brynge þis aboute Machometus norsched*. [norysshed, Cx.] and fedde a faire*. [vedde a veyr, γ.] camel in a prive place, so þat þe camel hadde no mete but of his owne honde; and Machometus wayted his tyme, and heng þat corsede book*. [bok, γ.] Alcoranum*. [Alcaron, Cx.] aboute þe camel his nekke; [in þat book were þe forsayd*. [vorseyde, γ.] lawes y-write; and Machometus let goo þe camel*. [Cx. inserts forsayd before camel.] into þe feeldes*. [veldes, γ., et infra.] wiþ þe book aboute his nekke]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to fore þe day lyȝt. Þanne þe camel, as it was no wonder, gan to lepe and [to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] sterte, and made grete ioye for he was*. [vor a was, γ.] at large, and fliȝ*. [vly, γ.] eche*. [fled every, Cx.] man, and wolde come nyh no manis hond. Speche of þis wonder sprang out in feeldes and townes, and þe peple gadrede þider*. [þuder, γ.] on*. [out of, α. and Cx.] everyside. Page  37, vol.6 But whan Machometus was i-come*. [comen, β.] þe beest sigh hym afer þat ȝaf hym alwey mete, and ran to hym anon riȝt, and bowed a doun*. [a doun] to hym, Cx.] and likked his hondes as he was i-tauȝt. Þanne þe peple cride and seide, in þis dede is i-schewed þe holynesse of Goddis prophete, and prayed hym þat he wolde undo þe book wiþ his holy hondes. And whan þe book was i-opened, "Loo," quod Mahometus, "here is ȝoure lawe, nouȝt i-write wiþ manis ynke, but wiþ angelis hondes, and i-sente from hevene for to by holde*. [be y holde, α.; be holden, Cx.] evere wiþ oute [eny]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ende. In þis book ȝe be i-tauȝt how ȝe schal worship God, and how grete mede ȝe schal hope to fonge*. [fang, β.; vonge, γ.; resseyve of hym, Cx.] of hym*. [of hym, from α.; hym of, MS.] for kepynge of þis lawe." Þe dey*. [day, γ.] þat þis was i-doo ynne is every ȝere i-made solempne and holy, and i-cleped þe feste of þe camel. And þei fasteþ*. [hy vasteþ, γ., et infra.] a moneþ to fore þat feste in þis manere: everiche day of þat moneþ from þe firste*. [vram þe vurste, γ.] liȝt of þe day, whanne me*. [men, Cx.] may knowe [bytwene]*. [From γ.; bitwene, Cx.] white and blak, anon to þe goynge doun of þe sonne, þey fasteþ and eteþ nouȝt, noþer deleþ*. [deliþ, β.; ne delen, Cx.] wiþ hir wifes, bote seke men and feble,*. [bote . . . feble] om. α., β., and Cx.] but beeþ alwey in Page  39, vol.6 here bedes;*. [prayers, Cx.] but after þe goynge doun of þe sonne anon to þe dawenynge aȝen þey eteþ and drinkeþ and liggeþ*. [ete, drynke, and lye, Cx.] by here wifes: bote seke men and feble*. [febel, γ.] beeþ*. [buþ, β.] nouȝt i-holde so for to faste. Þis Machometus displesede ofte his wif, for he hadde ofte*. [ofte] om. α.] þe fallynge evel,*. [vor he hadde þe vallyng evel, γ.] [and in þat evel]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he fel doun ofte to grounde. [Bote he plesed here and oþere þat had y-fonge*. [resseyved, Cx.] his lawe in þis mannere, and seide þat he fil*. [a vul, γ.] to þe grounde]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for þe wordes of Seint Mychel*. [Miȝhel, β.] the archangel þat spak wiþ hym ofte.*. [ofte] so ofte, Cx.] For a fleschelich*. [Vor a vleschliche, γ.] man, he seide, may nouȝt suffre an aungels wordes but ȝif he falle.*. [ȝef a valle, γ.] He hated wyn dronkenes, ribaudye,*. [riboudry, γ.; as rybawdrye, Cx.] and harlottie;*. [harlottrye, α. and Cx.] uppon caas for*. [oppon cas vor, γ.] hete of þe contray he wolde have it i-spared. But in a nyȝt he was dronke, and fel*. [vul, γ.; fylle, Cx.] doun in þe strete, and þere swyn hete*. [ete, α. and Cx.] hym, þat he hylde*. [heelde, β.; reputed, Cx.] unclene bestes; þerfore þey þat holdeþ his lawe spareþ wyn and swynes flesch.*. [swyn his vlesch, γ.] In þe firste poynt it semeþ þat þei folweþ*. [hy volweþ, γ., et infra.] þe Iewes; in þe secounde poynt it semeth þat þey Page  41, vol.6 foloweþ þe philosofy*. [philosofy, from α. and γ.; philo|sofye, β.; philosophye, C.; philo|sofer, MS.] of hir maister. Also after þe deþ of Machometus þat cursede secte encresede so faste*. [vast, γ.] þat it drouȝ myȝti men of Pers*. [that it caused so myghty men of Perce to drawe, Cx.] to þe corsed law of þe Arabes. Al*. [Also, α. and Cx.] þat sette*. [secte, Cx.] haþ infecte anon to þis tyme al Affrica and a greet deel of Spayne.*. [Cx. adds as Gernarde after Spayne.] And þe archebisshop Turpius*. [Torpynus, α.; Turpinus, γ. and Cx.] telleþ þat Mako|metus his ymage of latoun,*. [latone, β. and Cx.; laton, γ.] þat he made wiþ his owne hondes, stondeþ in þe see stronde, and haþ his face toward þe souþ. In þat ymage Machometus by wichecraft closed a legioun of fendes: a Cristen man þat comeþ þere liȝtliche i-persed,*. [yperisched, β.; ypersed, γ.; lyghtly perysshed, Cx.] but Page  43, vol.6 a Saracen gooþ awey hole and sound; a bridde*. [byrde, Cx.] þat comeþ þere deieþ anone. Þe ymage holdeþ a mace in his riȝt hond, and þat mace schal first falle*. [vurst valle, γ.; fallen, Cx.] whanne a kyng is*. [is] shal be, Cx.] i-bore in Gallia þat schal renewe al Spayne wiþ Cristene lawe. And whanne þe mace is i-falle,*. [avalle, γ.] þanne þe Saracens schal flee*. [vle, γ.] and leve here tresorie. Þe famous nory*. [norry, β.; nory, from γ.; norye, Cx.; norþ, MS.] of þis cursede secte, Saladinus, duke of Turkes, þe strong hamer of Cristen men, aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord eleven hondred foure score and ten, he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat Cristen men used meny messes*. [messe, γ.; of mete, add. Cx.] at oon mele, and seide þat*. [þat] om. α.] men*. [that Cristen men, Cx.] were nouȝt worþy to have þe holy lond. Also he was fel and sliȝ*. [felle and slyhe, Cx.] for to preise his owne secte, and to blame and despise oure lawe, and þat is i-knowe by þis ensample. In a tyme were tweie*. [two, Cx.] white monkes i-brouȝt to fore hym, þat þeeves*. [þueves, γ.] of Torkes hadde i-take, and he knewe by here straunge cloþinge þat þey were philosofres and Cristen men; and he axede by oon þat knewe boþe longages of hem*. [ham, γ.] boþe what men þey were, and of what con|dicioun Page  45, vol.6 and professioun; and þey seide þat þey*. [hy seyde þat hy, γ.] were monkes, and hadde i-made*. [i-made] don, Cx.] here professioun to Seint Benet his*. [Benetes, β.] rule.*. [reule, γ.] Þanne he axede besiliche of meny poyntes of þat rule, [and specialliche among oþer he axede by here rule]*. [From α. and β.] ȝif þey schulde ete flesche oþer drinke wyn. Þey*. [hy, γ., et semper.] answerde and seide þat þey hadde at al tyme somwhat of wyn for to drynke, but flesche schulde þey noon ete but it were for sekenesse oþer for grete nede.*. [neode, γ., et infra.] Þoo þy*. [the, Cx.] tyraunt heet þat þey schulde have*. [habbe, γ.] more large kepyng, and have tweye faire ȝong wommen to serve hem, and heet þat þey schulde ete flesche and drynke water; and so þey ete flesche and dronke water, and took ensaumple of*. [of] by, Cx.] Seint Iob, and made covenant wiþ hir eyȝen*. [yene, γ.] þat þey wolde nouȝt þenke of folye ne*. [folye ne] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] filþe*. [vylþe, γ.] [and]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of synne, and were besy alwey in here bedes.*. [theyr prayers, Cx.] Þanne Saladinus was war þerof, and took fro hem þat*. [þat] the, Cx.] flesche and þe water, and heet serve hem wiþ fische and wiþ wyn. And [ȝef]*. [From γ.] he badde i-doo so to þat entent þat Salamon meneþ,*. [moeveth, Cx.] and seiþ, "ȝeveþ wyn to hem þat beeþ in greet sorwe, þat þey*. [hy, γ., et semper.] mowe*. [may, Cx.]Page  47, vol.6 drynke and forȝete*. [vorȝete, γ.] here sorwe and her nede," þanne he hadde i-do goodliche and as he schulde; but*. [þanne . . . but] whan he had thus done, Cx.] he caste gilful|liche*. [gylfolliche, γ.; om. Cx.] to begile symplenes by falshede and by gilful crafte,*. [to . . . crafte] to begyle by symplenes these two monkes, Cx.] for he wolde ȝif he myȝte þerby þe secte*. [þe secte] sette, α.; sett, β.] chalenge*. [for . . . chalenge] for he wold yf they myghte therby sette cha|lenge, Cx.] and blame upon [þe]*. [From β. and γ.] religioun. Þanne þe monkes dronke wyn, and wex mery*. [mury, α.] and glad, and forȝat*. [vorgate, γ.] þat þey schulde have in mynde, and fil*. [vulle, γ.] to and lay by þe wommen. Þanne amorwe,*. [on the morowe, Cx.] whanne þe wyn was defied,*. [diffyede, β.; dyffyed, γ.] þey þouȝt on here trespas, and gonne*. [gan, Cx.] for to wepe ful*. [fol, γ.] sore. Þe tyraunt sigh hem wepe, and seide, "Why beeþ ȝe more sory þan ȝe were i-woned to be?" "For we haveþ i-synned grevously,"*. [habbeþ ysynwed grevousliche, γ.] quod þey, "and were*. [were, from α., β., γ., and Cx.; we, MS.] overcome wiþ wyn." Þan he seide, "While ȝe ete flesche and drank water ȝe helde*. [heelde, β.] forþ*. [hulde vorþ, γ.] ȝoure purpos rediliche inow,*. [redyly ynowgh, Cx.] but whanne ȝe were overcome with wyn wiþ oute flesche ȝe brake ȝoure rule*. [reule, γ., et infra.] and ȝoure purpos, þerfore it is i-knowe þat Benett, þe auctor of ȝoure rule, was unwys to forbede*. [vorbude, γ.] ȝow etynge of flesche, þat destourbeþ*. [distourbled, Cx.]Page  49, vol.6 not a manis wit, and grauntede [ȝow to drynke wyn, þat roteþ up þe strengþe of resoun, as ȝe haveþ assayed*. [habbeþ asayed, γ.] by newe assaye. Þanne he þat made oure lawe, Machometus, þat forbeed us wyn þat destourbeþ mannis wyt, and graunted]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] us þe use of flesche, was wiser þan ȝoure Benet. But what may be ȝoure remedie*. [remedyes, Cx.] and clensynge of þis synne, now ȝe haveþ [y-broke]*. [From α., β., γ.; broken, Cx.] ȝoure rule and ȝoure purpos?" "Penaunce," quoþ they,*. [quaþ hy,.] "and satisfaccioun, by ordynance of oure elder*. [elþer, α.] fader."*. [vader, γ.] "Þanne," quod he, "mowe ȝe nouȝt be clensed among us, gooþ*. [gooþ] goo ye, Cx.] to ȝoure owne and beeþ i-clensed in ȝoure [owne]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] manere wise;" and so he lete hem goo. Þis man was ful of olde pestilence of sleiþe*. [sleyght, Cx.] and wyles, and what þe wily schrewe myȝte nouȝt have savour*. [saveour, Cx.] ynne, he gan to despice, ffor he wolde blame þe holy man Seint Benett. Of þe which Seint*. [whoche Seynt, γ.] Benet þe grete Gregorie seiþ þat he wroot the rule of monkes ful*. [vol, γ.] of wit and of wisdom, and open and cleer in wordes; for it was a wys dede to wiþdrawe [fro]*. [From Cx.] hem þat gooþ to holy chevalrie*. [chyvaylry, Cx.] likynge of metes þat wiþdraweþ þe soule from holynesse of dedes and of þouȝtes; and by the apostles lore he graunted hem [a litel what of wyn forto strengþe Page  51, vol.6 somwhat þe febelnesse of þe flesche, and graunted hem]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] but litel, for it*. [bote lyte vor hyt, γ.] schulde nouȝt greve þe scharpnesse of þe soule.

Capitulum quintumdecimum. Heraclonas.

HERACLONAS, Heraclius his sone, regned two ȝere. Þe senatoures*. [senatour, Cx.] of Rome putte*. [potte, γ.] hym and his wif*. [Sic in MS.] Martina out of his kyngdom, and his moder nose and here tonge were i-kutte*. [ykut, γ.] of al boþe. After þe fourþe*. [vurþe, γ.] Iohn, Theodorus was pope sixe ȝere; þat tyme was Isedre bisshop Hispalensis*. [Ispalencis, γ.; Ysodre bisshop Yspalencis, Cx.] in his floures, he was somtyme þe greet Gregorie his disciple.*. [dyscypel, γ.] Isedre*. [Isidor, γ., et supra.] lefte after hym meny goode bookes þat he hadde i-made:*. [ymad, γ.] þe bookes Ethimologiarum, De Summo Bono, De Ordine Creature,*. [Creaturarum, γ.; Creaturarum Simonia, Cx.] Sino|nima, and meny oþer good*. [good] om. Cx.] bookes. Edbaldus*. [Edwaldus, Cx.] kyng of Kent deide, and lefte after hym his sone and his heire*. [eyr, γ.] Ercon|bertus,*. [Ercombertus, Cx. bis.]Page  53, vol.6 [þat he hadde y-gete*. [bygoten, Cx.] on Emma, a womman of Fraunce.*. [Frauns, γ.] Econbertus]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] regnede foure*. [voure, γ.] and twenty ȝere in Kent; he destroyede*. [destruyde, γ.] þe temples of mawmetrie,*. [mametrie, γ.] and ordeynede þat þe*. [þe] om. γ.] Lent fastynge*. [Leynte vastyng, γ.] schulde be i-holde in his kyngdom.*. [his kyngdom] Englond, Cx.] Of*. [On, α. and Cx.] his wif Sexburga þe douȝter of Anna, kyng of Est Angles, he gat a douȝter Enkengoda,*. [Eukengoda, Cx.] þat was i-made mynchoun*. [monchone, β.; mynchyn, γ.; menchone, Cx.] in þe abbey Bryggense in Gallia, þat*. [þat . . . . Fraunce] om. γ. and Cx.] is in Fraunce; þere here aunte Ethelburga servede God in þat abbey. Ethelburga*. [Ethilburga, γ., bis.] hadde i-be Edwynus his wif; also þere afterward eiþer of hem was abbas.*. [abbesse, Cx.] Þat tyme, þeyȝ þere were many abbayes in Engelond, ȝit Englische men used for to goo into abbayes of Fraunce by cause of conversacioun and of þe manere of levynge, and specialliche at Brugges,*. [Brydges, Cx.] at Caleys, and*. [and] om. Cx.] at Andilegium. Þat tyme Audomarus*. [Andomarus, Cx.] þe bisshop, and Bertinus*. [þe . . . . Bertinus] om. γ. and Cx.] þe bisshop, and Bertinus þe abbot, were in here floures in þe contray of Tarvernens*. [Toreuence, Cx.] in Gallia, þat is Fraunce. Paulus, libro 5o. Þe þridde Constantinus was Heraclius his Page  55, vol.6 sone, and Heraclioun*. [Heraclon, α.; Heraclius, Cx.] his broþer, and regnede eyȝte and twenty ȝere. He was begiled of Paulis,*. [Paulus, Cx.] grauntsire of Ser|gius,*. [of Paul as his grauntsire of Sergius, γ.] þerfore he exciled pope Martyn and spoylede Rome. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 4o. He unheled*. [onhelede, α.] chirches roves*. [chirche rooves, β.; cherche roves, γ.] and coppes þat were i-heled*. [He uncoverd chirche rooves and steples that were coveryd, Cx.] wiþ slattes*. [sclattes, β., γ., bis.] of bras, and took awey þe slattes, but he loste hem at Siracusa in Sicilia, and was i-slawe by Saracenes in a bath, and þey ladde awey þat pray*. [partye, β. and Cx.] into Alexandria. Beda, libro 3o, capi|tulo 6o. Þat ȝere Kyngulsus, kyng of West Saxons, was dede, and his sone Kenwalkus*. [Kynwalcus, Cx.] regnede after hym oon and þritty*. [thyrity, Cx.] ȝere; for his eldere*. [eþere, α.] broþer Quichelinus hadde raþer i-regned wiþ his fader, [and deide þe same ȝere þat he was y-cristened*. [folled, β., bis.] wiþ his fader,*. [yvolled with hys vader, γ] and lefte after hym]*. [From α., γ., not Cx.] his sone Cuthredus, þat was i-cristned also*. [yvolled also of, γ.] Birinus. [℞]*. [From Cx.] Here take hede þat Beda and William varieþ,*. [varyen, Cx.] for Beda seiþ þat Quychelinus was Kyngilsus his sone, and William seiþ þat he was Kyngilsus his broþer. Beda ut supra. Þis Ken|walcus in þe bygynnynge of his kyngdom wolde nouȝt fonge*. [vonge, γ.]Page  57, vol.6 þe fey of Cristendom, and þerfore riȝtfulliche he loste his kyngdom; for he dede awey his wif þat was kyng Penda his suster,*. [soster, γ.] [and wedded anoþer, and þerfore Penda,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] in þe fifte*. [vyfþe, γ.] ȝere of his kyngdom, chasede hym and droof*. [drof, γ.] hym awey. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. And he hydde*. [hudde, γ.] hymself þre ȝere with Anna, kyng of Estangles; þerfore after|ward Penda slouȝ hym.*. [Anna, α., β., γ., and Cx.] But in þe*. [mene] add. Cx.] tyme of his excilynge Kenwalcus was i-cristned*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ.; baptised, Cx.] of Felix, þe bisshop of his pro|vince,*. [of his province] om. Cx.] while he was wiþ Anna, and rekevered*. [recoveryd, Cx.] his kyngdom by help of Anna, and made bisshop of his province oon Agel|bertus, a Frenscheman,*. [Freynsman, γ.] þat com out of Irlond, and he was bisshop of Wynchestre in West Saxon fiftene*. [vyftene, γ.] ȝere; and þe kyng of strange tonge was greved*. [agreved, β.] and noyful, oþer for*. [vor, γ.] som oþer cause I noot, he was*. [I not a was, γ.] wrooþ, and brouȝte yn anoþer*. [bishop] add. Cx.] of his owne longage and tonge, and*. [þat, α., β., and Cx.] was i-cleped Wyne*. [Wyn, β. and Cx.] by his name; he was ordeyned in Fraunce, and þo kyng*. [þo kyng] they, Cx.] bytook hym tweye*. [tweye] the, Cx.] provinces*. [þe province,] i-deled in tweye Page  59, vol.6 parisches,*. [paryschus, γ.] and sette þe cheef bisshoppes see at Wynchestre; þerfore Agibertus*. [Agilbertus, Cx., et infra.] was wrooþ, and wente into Fraunce, and was afterward bisshop of Parys; and nouȝt longe after þis Wyn, after [þe]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] two ȝere of his prelacie, was i-putt [oute]*. [From Cx.; ypot by, γ.] by þe kyng, and boute*. [boȝte, γ.; boughte, Cx.] þe see of Londoun of þe kyng of Mercya Wolferus, and hilde*. [hulde, γ.] it while he was onlyve;*. [alyve, γ.] and so þe province of West Saxons was foure ȝere bisshoples. At þe laste kyng Kenwalcus was ofte hard bysette wiþ his enemyes, and sente for Agibertus, þat was i-putte*. [ypotte, γ.] out, but he wolde nouȝt oþere he myȝte not come, and sente his nevew Leu|therius in his stede,*. [stude, α.] þat was confermed of þe archebisshop Theodorus, and was bisshop þere sevene ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þis Kenwalcus overcom þe Britouns tweis, first*. [vurste, γ.] at White*. [Wight, β.; Wiht Gosnesbrugh, γ.; Wyght Gosneburgh, Cx.] Gosnesburgh and eft at þe hil of Pentya,*. [Pencia, γ.; Pente, Cx.] and for wreche of his fader*. [vader, γ.] persecucion he bynam Wilferus,*. [Wulferus, β.] Penda his sone, a greet deel of his kyngdom. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 8o.*. [secundo, Cx.] Þat ȝere Oswald kyng of Norþhum|berlond was i-slawe by a paynym kyng Penda,*. [kyng Penda paganus, γ.] in a place þat Page  61, vol.6 hatte Mezerfeld;*. [Meserfeld, Cx.] þere ofte God dooþ*. [sheweth, Cx.] myracles and wondres: Penda heet honge his armes and his heed in þe stokkes. Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. After oon ȝere his broþer Oswy, þat was kyng after hym, come þider,*. [þuder, γ.] and buried þe heed in þe chirchehawe*. [chirch hey, β.; cherche hey, γ.] of Lyndefare;*. [chircheyerd of Lyndesfar, Cx.] but me seiþ þe hede is now at Durham bytwene Seint Cuthbert his armes; but he dede*. [a dude, γ.] Oswold his armes in þe citee Bebbanburgh.*. [Bebbanbrugh, γ.] But Ostrida*. [Ostria, γ.] queene of Mercia, þat was Oswy his douȝter and Etheldredus his wif, brouȝte þe body and þe*. [þe] om. γ.] oþer deel of bones wiþ here to þe abbey of Bardeneye:*. [Bardeny, Cx.] þere sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] myȝte nouȝt be i-fonge or*. [yvonge ar, γ.] a piler of liȝt were i-seie*. [were i-seie] had, Cx.] schyne uppon þilke relikes*. [oppon þulke relykes, γ.] al an nyȝt. Meny ȝere after men of straunge nacioun þe Danes werred in þat lond, and Elfleda, lady of Mercia, brouȝte þilke*. [þulke, γ.] boones at*. [at] to, Cx.] Gloucetre in a chirche of chanouns. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. [But]*. [From α. and Cx.] Seynt Oswald his arm is in þe abbay at Peterisborgh*. [Petur his burgh, γ.; of Petre|burgh, Cx.] hool Page  63, vol.6 and som,*. [sound, α., β., and γ.; sounde, Cx.] wiþ flesche*. [vlesch, γ.] and wiþ senewes;*. [synwes, γ.] as me seiþ it was þe flesche*. [þeefliche, α.; þeevelich, β.; þuef|liche, γ.; theefly, Cx.] i-stole out of þe olde restynge place, and þider i-brouȝt, and þere is i-seie*. [i-seie] om. Cx.] in*. [in] om. α.] a shryne þat is precious and riche. But þe fey*. [fey] bileve, Cx.] hereof is somdel unstedefast,*. [doubtable, Cx.] for þere me hireþ*. [huyreþ, γ.] and aspieþ and seeþ nouȝt*. [men here and aspye and see not, Cx.] þerof; I seie*. [I sugge, γ.] nouȝt þus for doute þat I*. [Ich, β.] have of þe holynesse of þis seynt, but for I*. [y, β.] kepe nouȝt to hastiliche afferme wheþer it be in þat place oþer no. Paulus, libro 5o. Aboute þat tyme Cesarea,*. [Cesara, γ., and Cx. et infra.] þe kyng his wif of Pers, come wiþ fewe*. [vew, γ.] Cristen men to Con|stantynnoble [for to be y-cristened:*. [folled, β.; vor to be yvolled, γ.] here housbonde herde*. [hurde, γ., et infra.] þerof, and sente messagers to Constantynnoble]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] for to axe his wif of þe emperour. But Cesarea answerde and seide: "Telleþ*. [Telle ye, Cx.] my lord ȝoure kyng þat but ȝif he wil fonge*. [wol vonge, γ.] my fey and trowe in my God he schal nevere have me to his*. [his] om. α. and Cx.] wif." Þe kynge*. [kynge] om. γ.] herde þis,*. [therof, Cx.] and com wiþ sixty þowsand men in pes*. [pees, Cx.] to þe emperour, and was i-cristened,*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ.] he and Page  65, vol.6 alle hise, and hadde greet worschippe, he and al his,*. [he . . . . his] om. γ.] and took*. [took] om. α. and Cx.] meny grete ȝiftes, and took his wif and wente home aȝe. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 13o. Whan Oswald was i-slawe, after hym his broþer Oswy was kyng of Northumberlond, and regnede nobilleche*. [nobelyche, γ.] in Deyra. Oswynus, Osricus his sone, of Edwynus his blood, was a stedefast man, and holy*. [meke] add. Cx.] and mylde, and faire*. [veyr, γ.] of speche. But kyng Oswy made hym i-slawe in erle Hunbaldus his hous; Oswynus was i-flowe*. [aflowe, β.; avlowe, γ.; fledde, Cx.] to erle Hun|baldus for helpe and socour; and after hym Oswy hadde a felowe*. [a felowe, from α., β., and Cx.; a felouz, γ.; iflowe, MS., a mistake caused by the occurrence of this word just above.] in þe kyndom of Deyra Oswaldus Oswoldis*. [Odilwaldus Oswald his, α., γ., and Cx.; Odilwaldus Oswaldes, β.] sone. After Theodorus þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] Martyn was pope sixe ȝere; a swerdman of Olympus fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to slee hym at his*. [þe, α.; om. Cx.; atte, γ.] auȝter while he song*. [a sang, γ.] his masse; but whyle he gan to smyte anon he worþ*. [worde, Cx.] blynde. Þe emperour of Constantynnoble excilede þis pope, for he hadde*. [vor a hadde, γ.] i-dampned Paulus, patriark of Con|stantynnoble, and hadde falsliche þat name. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 13o. Þe pope*. [þe pope] þat ȝere, α., β., γ., and Cx.] deide Paulynus þat was [þo]*. [From α.; þanne, β.; thenne, Cx.]Page  67, vol.6 bisshop of Rouchestre, and hadde i-be somtyme erchebisshop of ȝork; and after hym Thamar was bisshop. Also Felix deide, þe first bisshop of Est Angles, and Thomas was bisshop after hym. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 21o.*. [12o, Cx.] Aboute þat tyme þe Est Saxons fenge*. [vynge, γ.] þe fey þat þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde to forehonde i-caste awey and forsake: Oswynus, kyng of Northumberlond, made hem now receyve*. [resseyve, β.] and fonge þe fey; for here kyng Sigebertus was i-cristned*. [yfolled, β.; yvolled, γ.] of Fynanus bisshop of Northum|berland, faste*. [vaste, γ.] by þe longe wal þat departede somtyme betwene Britouns and Scottes. Þanne he took*. [touk, γ.] wiþ hym oon Cedde,*. [Ced, γ.] a preost, þe broþer of Chedda,*. [Cedda, γ.; Chad, Cx.] out of þe province of Mercia, for to preche to his men of þe Est; and whan he hadde i-doo þat dede he tornede aȝen to þe forsaide*. [vorsede, γ.] Fynanus, and was i-made bisshop of hym, and wente ofte for to preche to þe Est Angles in a place þat hatte Stanchestre,*. [Schancester, γ.; Straunchestre, Cx.] þat is by þe brynke of þe water Ponte,*. [Pent, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and also in þe toun of Tillebury,*. [Tylleburgh, α. and Cx.; Tille|burgh, β.] þat is faste*. [vaste, γ.] by Tempse.*. [Temse, β. and Cx.] But*. [hit, α.; It, β. and Cx.] byfel*. [hyt byful, γ.] in a tyme in þat contray þat the for|saide*. [þat vorsede, γ.]Page  69, vol.6 bisshop Ced corsede an erle and alle þat communed*. [comynede, β.] wiþ hym,*. [cursed an erle and excomyned him, Cx.] for he held*. [heelde, β.] a womman in unlaweful*. [alaweful, α.; unlauful, Cx.] wedlok. And [kyng]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Sigebertus despisede þe bisshop his heste, and com at þat erle his prayer, and eet wiþ þat erl in his hous.*. [hows, Cx.] And whanne þe kyng wente from*. [vram, γ., passim.] þe mete þe bisshop Cedde*. [Ced, Cx.] mette þe kyng, and touched hym wiþ a ȝerde*. [rodde, Cx.] þat he bare in his honde, and seide to þe kyng in þis manere: "For*. [vor, γ., passim.] þou woldest not at myn heste wiþdrawe þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] and holde þe out of þat*. [From β.] lost and corsede*. [cursed, β.] manis hous, in þe same hous þou schalt deie." And so it byfel*. [bifil, β.] þat*. [þat] For, Cx.] þe same erl and his broþer slouȝ þe kyng in þat same hous; and afterward, whan he*. [me, β.; men, Cx.] axed hym wy*. [ham why hy, γ.; hem why, Cx.] þei hadde i-doo þat cursede dede, þey answerde nouȝt elles,*. [not ellys, Cx.] but seide þat þe kyng was to esy*. [esye, β.] to his enemyes, wolde liȝtliche forȝeve*. [vorȝeve, γ.] wronges and trespas.*. [trespaces, β.]Trevisa. It is sooþ þat corsed men hateþ god,*. [gode men, β. and γ.; good men, Cx.] and here good dedes, and so þe corsed erle slouȝ þe kyng, for he was gracious and good.*. [gode, β.] Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe story: also þat Page  71, vol.6 ȝere kyng Oswy leet slee*. [heet slee, α.; bade slee, Cx.] kyng Oswynus in*. [þe, add. β.] erl Hunbald*. [Hunbaldas, α.; In the erle Hunbaldus, Cx.] his hous. Oswynus hadde i-left his oost, and was i-flowe*. [avlowe, γ.; fledde, Cx.] for greet trust to erle Hunbaldus, as it were for to abide betre tyme for to fiȝte.*. [vor to vyȝte, γ.] It is i-seide of þis Oswynus þat he hadde somtyme i-ȝeve*. [yeven, Cx.] his beste hors to Aidanus þe bisshop, þat used more to goo oon foot*. [a vote, γ.] þan on hors for to ride.*. [than to ryde on horsbak, Cx.] But sone afterward a pore*. [poure, γ. and Cx.] man prayed*. [prayde, β.] þe bischop of his almesse,*. [almus, γ., et infra.] for*. [for . . . almesse] and þe bis|shop ȝaf hym þat hors, α., β., and γ.; and the bysshop gave him that hors for he hadde nought ellys at honde, Cx.] þis bisshop hadde but oon hors, and þat he ȝaf to þe poore man for almesse,*. [for . . . almesse] and þe bis|shop ȝaf hym þat hors, α., β., and γ.; and the bysshop gave him that hors for he hadde nought ellys at honde, Cx.] for he hadde nouȝt elles at honde. Whanne þat was i-tolde þe kyng, þe kynge was swiþe*. [swiþe] anone, Cx.] wrooth, and seide to Aidanus as he satte by hym at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] meete: "What hast y-doo,*. [hastow ydo, β.; hast thou don, sere, Cx.] sire bisshop, hadde we nouȝt þinges*. [þynȝus, γ.] of lasse prise þat myȝte suffice for almesse dede." "What spekest þou, lord sire*. [sere, Cx.] kyng?" quoþ*. [quaþ, α.] þe bisshop, "schal a mare sone be*. [be] om. α.] levere*. [lever be, Cx.] to us þan Mary*. [Marie, β.] sone?" Anon þe kyng fil*. [vul, γ.]Page  73, vol.6 doun to þe bischopps feet,*. [veet, γ.] and prayed mercye and forȝif|nesse,*. [vorȝevenes, γ.] and byhet truliche*. [byhyȝte treweliche, γ.] þat he wolde nevere after þat tyme speke evel of þat dede. Þanne þe kyng and the bisshop boþe were wel apaide and seete*. [plesed and sate, Cx.] in fere*. [yfere, β.; yvere, γ.] at þe mete, and þe bisshop gan [sodenliche]*. [From α.; sodeynlich, β.; su|deynlich, γ.; sodenly, Cx.] to wepe, and*. [and wepte] om. β.] wepte*. [weep, α.; wep, γ.] meny sore teres.*. [to wepe many teres, Cx.] Þanne me axede hym the cause of his wepynge, and he answerde and seide, "Þis kyng schal nouȝt longe wiþ us be here onlyve. Unneþe*. [Ich, γ.] I have i-seie kyng meke afore*. [to fore, α.; to vore, γ.] þis tyme, and þis evel peple*. [pupel, γ.] is nouȝt worþy to have suche a kyng longe tyme." Þanne it happede sone aftir þat þe kyng was i-slawe as it is i-seide, and þe bisshop Aydanus lyvede after but twelve dayes,*. [dawes, γ.] and seint Cuthbert sigh*. [syȝ, β. and γ.; sawe angeles, Cx.] angels bere his soule into hevene. ℞. Also deide þis ȝere Byrinus þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] bisshop of Dorchestre, after þe fourtenþe*. [vourtene, γ.] ȝere of his comynge and of his bisshopriche. Beda seiþ þat Hedda bisshop of Wynchestre translated Birinus his body out of Dorchestre [to Wynchestre];*. [From α., β., and Cx.] look more hereof in þe firste book de Pontificibus Westsaxonum. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 23o. After Martyn Eugenius was pope as it were þre ȝere. [Þis ȝer]*. [From α. and Cx.] þe kyng of Deira Odilwaldus,*. [Odylewaldus, Cx.] Oswald Page  75, vol.6 his sone, ȝaf to Ced, bisshop of þe Est, þat com ofte into þe norþe, a place in hy*. [heiȝ, β.; high, Cx.] hilles*. [hulles, γ.] þat hatte Loftyngay,*. [Lestyngay, a., γ., and Cx.; Les|tingai, β.] for to bulde*. [buylde, γ.] þere an abbay. But þis Ced or*. [or] er, β.; and Cx.] he wolde founde þe abbay faste*. [vaste, γ.] al a Lente*. [Leynte, β. and γ.] everiche day save*. [saf, β. and γ.; sauf, Cx.] þe Soneday al day for to*. [for to] til, Cx.] it were eve, and þanne he wolde ete a litel what of mylk*. [breed, α.; brede, β. and Cx.] and oon hen ey*. [eye, β.; egge, Cx.] and a litel what*. [what] om. Cx.] of mylk i-melled*. [ymedled, β. and Cx.] wiþ water, as Aidanus his disciples usede; of hem he hadde i-lerned and was i-touȝt.*. [As Adaynus his disciples usid him he had lerned and taught, Cx.] After hym his broþer Chunbillus*. [Chimbillus, γ.] governed þat place, and was i-buried þere in a pestilence tyme. And after hym Chedda*. [Cedda, Cx.] rulede*. [reulede, γ.] þat place.*. [plas, γ., passim.]

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

AFFTER Eugenius Vitalianus was pope fourtene*. [vourtene, γ.] ȝere: he sente to þe cherches of Engelonde and þe*. [and to þe, β.] archebisshop Theodorus, monk of Tarsens.*. [Tarseus, Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 9o. Page  77, vol.6 Þat ȝere þe Merces, þat beeþ men*. [be now of, Cx.] of myddel Engelond, fenge*. [vyng, γ.] Cristendom under her prince Weda, Penda his sone; for þis Weda, willynge his fader,*. [by consente of his fader, Cx.] hadde i-wedded Effleda, kyng Oswy his douȝter, uppon a condicioun þat he schulde be a Cristen man; and he dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.; dyde, Cx.] it wiþ þe bettre wille, ffor Alfridus,*. [Elfridus, Cx.] Oswy his sone, hadde i-spoused*. [wedded, Cx.] Oswy his suster*. [soster, γ.] Kyneburga; þerfore Weda hadde i-broȝt wiþ hym foure*. [voure, γ.] preostes out of Northumberlond*. [Norþhumburlond, β.] for to preche his peple*. [pupel, γ.] and his men. Þe prestes were Cedde, Adda, Becti, and Duina; and kyng Penda forbede*. [vorbud, γ.; forbad not, Cx.] nouȝt to converte to Cristene fey al þat evere he*. [he] om. α., β., and γ.; evere he, om. Cx.] wolde. Also þat ȝere deide Honorius, arche|bisshop of Caunterbury; and after oon ȝere aftirward oon Deusdedit was bisshop nyne ȝere; hym confermede Ithamar,*. [Thamar, γ.] bisshop of Rochestre.*. [Rouchestre, β.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þat ȝere Benet bisshop,*. [bischop, β.; Cx. inserts and.] þe abbot þat norschede*. [norischide, β.] Beda þe preoste, and was kyng Oswy his servaunt, forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] his*. [his] om. α., β., and Cx.] hous and home, his cosyns, and al his kyn for Cristes love, and took*. [touk, γ.]Page  79, vol.6 þe wey to Rome, [and com ef*. [ef] eft, Cx.] aȝe:*. [efte aȝen, β.] fyve*. [vyf, γ.] siþes he wente to Rome,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and brouȝte bookes and holy seintes relikes*. [holy relekes of holy seyntes, α. and β.; relyquyes, Cx.] hoom to his abbayes þat were in þe brynke of þe river Wyre. He was þe firste þat brouȝte glasier his crafte*. [glasieres craft, β.] into his contray. He bulde tweie abbayes of Petir and of*. [of] om. α.] Poule uppon þe brinke of þe ryver*. [rever, γ.] Wyre; were*. [were] om. α., β., and Cx.] oon in þe on side, and þat*. [þe, α.] oþer in þe oþir*. [oþer] om. α.] side in Girvum,*. [in Girvum] forn aȝenst, β.] and was abbot*. [that other syde, forn aȝenst, and was abbot, Cx.] of boþe; he took his noble norrey*. [nory, α. and β.] Beda, a childe of sevene ȝere olde, and tauȝte hym whiles he was onlyve. Willelmus de Re|gibus, libro primo. Beda wondreþ*. [wonderþ, γ.] of his pacience and of his witt. Of his wit, for he brouȝte so many bookes and craftes men into Engelond, and was pilgrim wel nygh al his lyf tyme. In hym love of þe contray and likynge of fairnesse*. [veyrnes, γ.] overcome þe strong travailles. He wondreþ*. [wondryd, Cx.] of his pacience, for he was i-made abbot by þe kyng of Kent, and in pos|sessioun of þe abbay of Seynt Austyn at Canturbury, and at comynge of Adrian he lefte it wiþ good wille, and leet Adrian be abbot þere. Also þe abbayes of Wyre made hem anoþer abbot while he was absent, and he suffred it wiþ good wille,*. [a was, γ.]Page  81, vol.6 and dede*. [dide, β.] þe newe abbot whan he come home worschippe*. [obedyence, Cx.] as oþere men dede; also he was at þe laste i-smyte wiþ a palsye, and made þe þridde abbot þerto. Also þat ȝere Penda, kyng of Mercia, slouȝ Anna, kyng of [Est]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Angles, in a bataille, for he hadde i-favored kyng Kenwalcus aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.] hym. Also þat ȝere Bothulphus bulde*. [bilde, β.; Botulphus bylded, Cx.] an abbay byside*. [by Est, α., β., and Cx.] Lyn|colne in a place þat hatte Icanno. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 24o. Þat ȝere deide Penda kyng of Mercia, and was i-slawe, he and þritty cheventeynes*. [cheveteynes, β.; capytayns, Cx.] þat come into þe contray of Norþ|humberlond for to slee kyng Oswy, [as]*. [From α. and Cx.] he hadde i-slawe his broþer Oswald somtyme, and spared nouȝt for alye and affinite þat was bytwene here sones and hir douȝtres. Noþeles kyng Oswy profred hym meny grete ȝiftes for to wende out of his lond, but he wolde nouȝt therof; þanne Oswy seide, "Yf þis pay|nym can nouȝt fonge*. [vonge, γ.; resseyve, Cx.] oure ȝiftes, þanne [we]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.; he, MS.] schal profre and offre to hym þat can." Þan kyng Oswy made a vow*. [made his avowe, Cx.] þat ȝif he hadde þe victorie in þat bataille he wolde offre his douȝter Elfleda to God of hevene, and also possessiouns*. [possession, Cx.] for Page  83, vol.6 to bulde twelve abbayes. Þanne þe bataille was i-doo in þe contray Leedes,*. [Leedys, γ.] not fer from*. [ver vram, γ.] ȝork, faste by þe ryver Wynwed, þat was þo*. [thenne, Cx.] hugelich*. [hogelich, γ.] aryse and over flowed*. [flowide, β.; vlowede, γ.] a greet*. [greed, MS.] deel of þe contray; in þat batayle Penda was i-slawe, and þritty dukes and leders of his; and ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] he hadde suche þre so hardy*. [menye, α.; soche þrytty men, γ.; thryes soo many, Cx.] men*. [had sich þre so many, β.] in his oost as þe oþer hadde in his;*. [in his] in his tricies, γ.; evi|dently not knowing what to do with the Latin word.] ffor þey þat askapede*. [escaped, Cx.] þe swerd were adreynt*. [drowned, Cx.] in þe ryver. Þo Alfridus hadde i-be with his fader, bote Egfridus was i-holde in hostage with Penda his wif. Þo Odilwald*. [Odilwald Oswaldes sone, β.; Odilwald Oswald hys, γ.; Odyle|wald Oswaldes sone, Cx.] his sone hadde i-be wiþ Penda, but he stood aside for to see what ende þe bataille schulde have. Whanne þis victorie was i-doo,*. [doon, β.] þe kyng Oswy bytook his douȝter of þre ȝere olde to þe lore*. [loore, Cx.] of Hilda, þe abbas afterward*. [afterward] om. α.] in þe abbay of*. [afterward . . . of] om. Cx.] Hertiseie, þat is Hertes Ilond. But aftirward sche*. [heo, β.] was abbas of Streni|schalt,*. [Stremshalt, β., γ., and Cx.] þat is, þe bosom*. [bosme, γ.] oþer þe lappe of corn, þat now hatte Whiteby, and is þritty myle from ȝork; þere Elflede was abbas*. [abbes, β.] aftirward. Þanne Oswy ȝaf possessiouns for to bulde abbayes, as he hadde byhote, sixe in province of [Deira, and Page  85, vol.6 sixe in þe province of]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Brenisia. Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β.] Loke more of Deyra and Brenisia in þe firste book, capitulo 51o. Þan it foloweþ in the storie:*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β.] and he ȝaf to Weda, þat hadde i-wedded his douȝter, þe kyngdom of Souþ Mercia, þat con|teyneþ, as me seiþ, fyve þowsand housholdes and meynees,*. [meynyes, α. and γ.] and is departed from Norþ Mercia by þe water of Trent. But Weda after þre ȝere of his kyngdom was sone i-spyld*. [lost, Cx.] by tresoun*. [trayson, γ.] of his owne wif. Whanne Weda was dede þe Merces wax*. [Mercyes wex, β.; wexe, Cx.] rebel aȝenst þe kyng Oswy,*. [aȝens tkyng Oswy, β.] and took*. [touk, γ.] Wlferus,*. [Wulferus, β.; Wolferus, Cx.] Penda his sone, þat þey had priveliche i-kept, and made hem*. [Sic MS.; hym, β.] here kyng. He was þe firste Cristen man of alle þe kynges of Mercia, and wedded Ermenilda, Ercomber his douȝter,*. [Ercombes doughter, Cx.] kyng of Canturbury, and gat on here Kenredus and Wereburga, and overcome nobilliche*. [nobly, Cx.] Kenwalcus, kyng of West Saxons; and wan þe yle*. [yl, γ.] of Wyght, and ȝaf it aftirward to þe kyng of Est Angles for to be a Cristen man, and was his godfader whan he was i-cristened.*. [yvolled, γ.] At þe laste, after seventene*. [the sevententh, Cx.] ȝere of his kyngdom, he was i-buried at Lichefeld. Clodoneus, after his fader Dogobertus, regnede in Fraunce seventene*. [sixten, Cx.] ȝere of Page  87, vol.6 his kingdom;*. [of his kingdom] om. Cx.] by entysynge of þe devel he made kutte*. [kitt, β.] of seint Denys his arme. Also þat ȝere deide seynt Wandregisi|lius*. [Wandrigesilus, β. and γ.; Wandregesilus, Cx.] þe abbot. Aboute þat tyme Girmaldus,*. [Grimaldus, β. and Cx.] kyng of Longo|bardes, aspied*. [aspied . . . Longobardes] bis in MS.] þat his knyȝt Bertaricus was i-flowe*. [aflowe, β.; vlowe, γ.] to Cacanus, kyng of Avares, and sente to kyng Cacanus worde, and seide þat he schulde leve Bertaricus oþer he schulde have no pees wiþ þe Longobardes. Bertaricus herde*. [hurde, γ.] hereof,*. [therof, Cx.] and wente into Italy aȝe, and by help of his frend Hunnul|phus he was reconsiled, and i-made at oon wiþ þe kyng. Som wikked men sight*. [siȝ, β.; syȝe, γ.; sawe, Cx.] þat Berthericus*. [Bertaricus, β. passim; Berta|ricus, Cx. et infra.] hadde good semblant of meny men, and made sugestioun to þe kyng, and seide but þat Berthericus were þe sonner i-slawe*. [but yf soo were that Bertaricus were slain, Cx.] þe kyng schulde lese*. [leose, γ.] his kyngdom. Þe kyng herde þat, and sente*. [sette, Cx.] knyȝtes and oþere men to bysette Berthericus his hous, for he schulde nouȝt ascape, and Hunulphus aspied þat, and dede a burþen*. [dide a birþen, β.] of bedcloþes on Berthericus his nekke, and bete*. [butte, γ.] hym with Page  89, vol.6 his feest,*. [vest, γ.] and schuft*. [schufte, β.; schyf, γ.] hym, and putte*. [pult, γ.] hym forþ þoruȝ þe myddel of þe citee anon to þe walles,*. [wallus, γ.] and lefte hym þere, and Berthericus fliȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.] into Fraunce. Whanne me axede of Hunnul|phus why he dede soo, he answerde and seide: "For þis þat is my wicked servaunt*. [Bycause my servaunt, Cx.] wolde have i-bedded me in þe dronken*. [drunkene, β.] Bertaricus his beddechamber, but for þat was unlikynge to me,*. [8-8 but . . . me] whiche plesyd me not, Cx.] I*. [Ich, β. and γ.] make hym bere þe cloþes aȝen home*. [home] om. Cx.] to myne owne hous;" and so þe knyȝtes were begiled, and fonde*. [vonde, γ.] not*. [nothynge, Cx.] in Bertaricus his chambre; and þey took Bertari|cus his servaunt, þat wist of þis scapynge, and was assentynge þerto, and drouȝ hym out by þe heer, and brouȝt hym out*. [out] om. β. and Cx.] to þe kyng. Þe servaunt was i-dampned to þe deth, but ȝit þe kyng preysed hym and Hunnulphus wonderliche wel,*. [wonderliche wel] gretely, Cx.] for þey were so stedefast*. [stidefast, β.] and so trusty,*. [tristy, β.] and ȝaf hym*. [hem, Cx.] choys wheþer hem were levere abyde wiþ hym in his court for evermo oþer wende to here leve*. [lef, β.; lyef, Cx.] frende Bertaricus. Þanne þey wente into Fraunce to here leve*. [lef, β.; lyef, Cx.] frend*. [to . . . frend] with, Cx.] Bertaricus wiþ Page  91, vol.6 alle þat þey hadde. Also þat [ȝere]*. [From Cx.] Egfridus, kyng Oswy his sone, spousede seint Etheldreda, þat was to forehonde*. [vorhond, γ.] i-wedded to erle Todber. [Þey heo were twyes yspoused and bysylych ywowed to]*. [From γ.; to, α., β., and Cx.] cosses and clippynge*. [to kyssyng, clyppynge, Cx.] and fleschely lokynge;*. [likynge, α. and β.; vleyschlych lykyng, γ.] ȝit sche*. [heo, β.] lefte*. [lefte] preserved her, Cx.] clene mayde, and was departed from Egfridus, and wente into þe abbay of Elyg,*. [Some one has erased the last letter of Elyg in β.; Ely, Cx.] and was i-made abbas þere, and dede many faire*. [veyr, γ.] myracles and grete. Aboute þat tyme Hunarus, prince of Saracenes*. [Sarasyns, Cx., et infra.] in Siria bulde a newe temple þat is now in Ierusalem, þere þe Saracenes worschippeþ God and biddeþ here bedes.*. [make theyr prayers, Cx.]Beda, libro 4o, capitulo primo. Ercombertus, kyng of Caunterbury, deide, and his sone Egebertus was kyng after hym nyne ȝere. Also þat ȝere deide þe archebisshop þat heet Deusdedit; þan þe kyng of Kent and þe kyng of Northumberlond, by oon assent, sente Wyghardus*. [Wychardus, Cx.] to pope Vitalianus for to be archebisshop of Caunterbury. But he and wel*. [wel nygh] almooste, Cx.] nygh*. [ny, γ.] al his companye deyde in [þe]*. [From β.] greet pestilence þat was þo*. [þo] soo, Cx.] strong in*. [in] into, β.] al Engelond; Page  93, vol.6 and þe pope ordeyned oon Theodoricus,*. [Theodorus, α. and Cx.] a monk, [governour of þe cherches of Engelond].*. [From α., β., and Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 21o. Also þat ȝere fel*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] greet pestilence in al Bretayne, and bygan in þe south contrayes. In þat pestilence byfel*. [byfil, β.; byvul, γ.; byfll, Cx.] þat þat is i-rad of Egbertus þe monk þat werþe*. [worþ, γ.; were, Cx.] seek þat tyme. Þis man felede*. [velede, γ.] þat he was sike, and wente privelich out of his bed at matyn tyme, and was verray contrite and sorwful in his herte, and prayed God besiliche*. [besyly, Cx.] þat he schulde nouȝt deie at þat tyme, or*. [or] er, β.; ar, γ.] [he had ful clensed him of his synnes that]*. [From Cx.; he ful clensed hym of his trespas þat, β.; he hadde vol clensed hym of his trespases þat, γ.] he hadde i-doo to forehonde, and he made his avow*. [avou, γ.] þat ȝif he myȝte scape þat pestilence he wolde deie in pilgrymage; and þat wiþ oute*. [wiþ oute] above, Cx.] þe ful*. [ful] vol, γ.] service he wolde every day seie*. [saye, Cx.] þe sawter, but ȝif sikenesse of body hym lette;*. [letted hym, Cx.] and þat everiche woke*. [every weeke, Cx.] he wolde faste*. [vaste, γ.] oon day, and þe nyght þerto. Whanne þis was i-doo he wente priveliche to his bed aȝen. Bote wiþ som manere rouschelynge*. [rouslynng, α.; roustlyge, β.; rosslynge, γ. rustlynge, Cx.] þat he made in lig|y nge adoun*. [lyyng doune, Cx.] his felowe awook, and spak to hym and seide: Page  95, vol.6 "Egbert, what hast þou i-doo?*. [doon, β.] y*. [Ich, β. and γ.] hopede þat we tweyne schulde wende in fere*. [yfere, β.; yvere, γ.; sholde have gone togyder, Cx.] to reste, but what þou hast i-prayed it is [y]*. [From α.]-graunted to þe." Þanne þat felawe deide, and þis*. [þis] thus, Cx.] Egebertus lengþede*. [lengþide, β.] his owne lif to þe ȝere of his age foure score and ten: but he dede more þan þe raþer avow,*. [dyde more than his fyrste avowe, Cx.] and faste þries in þe ȝere fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes contynuallyche to breed and to þynne mylk;*. [melk, α.] fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes continualliche*. [continualliche] om., α., β., γ., and Cx., and the Lent and Advent transposed.] in þe Lente, fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes in þe Advent, and fourty*. [vourty, γ.] dayes to fore Witsonday;*. [Wytsontyde, Cx.] but al þe creem*. [craym, β.] and fatnesse*. [fastnesse, α.; vatnes, γ.] of þat mylke þat he hadde to his breed schulde be overblowe and i-take awey. Beda, libro 6o, capitulo 25o.

Capitulum septimumdecimum.

ABOUTE þis tyme*. [þese tymes, α. and β.] deyde Aydanus and Fynanus, bisshops of Northumberlond; and Colmannus, a Scot, com after hem to be bisshop þre ȝere. In his tyme come Agelbertus*. [Agilbertus, β. and Cx.] bisshop Page  97, vol.6 of West Saxons into þe contrayes of Northumberlond, and ordeyned þere*. [þare, γ.] Wilfridus þat was tho abbot of Rypoun,*. [Rypon, Cx.] and made hym preost at þe prayour*. [prayer, α.; prayers, Cx.] of kyng Oswynus. Þat tyme was a grete questioun i-made and i-meoved*. [meved, β.; mevyd of the Eester|daye that was, Cx.] of þe holdynge of þe Ester terme,*. [In the margin is "Loo here dis|putasion ys whenne Ester day schal falle, and on what day yt schal be holde."] þat was nouȝt þat tyme lawe|fulliche*. [lawfollyche, γ.] i-holde of Scottes and of Britouns, but it was y-suffred*. [y-suffred, from α.; suffred, β.; suffryd, Cx.; i-offred, MS.] for*. [for] at, Cx.] reverence of Columba, of Aydanus, of Fy|nanus, and of oþere holy noble fadres.*. [vaders, γ.] Þere*. [Þere] Þerfor, Cx.] was a counsail i-made in the abbay of Hilda þe*. [þe abbesse . . . foure] om. Cx.] abbesse at Streni|schalt,*. [Streemshalt, β.; Stremshalt, γ.] þe ȝere of oure Lorde sixe hondred sixty and foure. Þere in þe*. [þe] þat, β.] oon side come Colmannus þe bisshop and Hilda þe abbas, and aleyde*. [axede, γ.; alleggyd, Cx.] for hem þat here predecessours were holy men and worthy,*. [Transposed in α. and β.] and hilde*. [helde, β.; hulde, γ.] þe Estertyde from þe fourtenþe*. [vourteþe, γ.] day of þe mone to þe xxti*. [twentiþe, α.] day of þe monþe, and specialliche seint Iohn þe Evaungeliste hilde*. [huld, γ.] so the Estertyde in Asia. In þe*. [þe] þat, β.] oþer side aȝenst hem com Egelbertus*. [Egylbertus, Cx.]Page  99, vol.6 bisshop of West Saxons, Iames þat was somtyme Paulinus þe archebisshop of ȝork his preost, and Wilfridus abbot of Ripoun, and Alfridus þe kynges sone. And Wilfridus desputede for hem, and þey*. [þey] om. Cx.] alleyde*. [aledged, Cx.] for hem þat þe manere and þe usage of al holy chirche of Grees,*. [Grekes, β. and Cx.; Gres, γ.] of Italy, of Rome, of Gallia, and of Fraunce, schulde be i-sette to fore*. [tovore, γ.] þe manere and custom*. [costom, γ.] and usage of a corner of þe worlde,*. [worl, γ.] and*. [and] that, Cx.] knewe nouȝt þe decrees of synodus,*. [synodes, Cx.] as it is no wonder, namliche while Iohn þe Evangelist in þe bygynnynge of holy chirche, þat was tho ȝong and tendre, heeld þe ordinaunce of Moyses lawe, in meny þinges*. [and added in Cx.] folwede*. [volwede, γ.] þoo the Iewes;*. [Juwes, γ.] and Iohan*. [Joon, β., et infra.] muȝte nouȝt ȝit schave al awey at þe*. [atte volle, γ.] fulle;*. [and . . . fulle] om. Cx.] as it is i-wrete of Poule þat he circumcided Thimotheus,*. [Thimothe, β.; Thymothe, Cx.] and þey*. [þey] om. Cx.] offred oystes*. [oostes, Cx.] in þe temple, and schare*. [schar, γ.] his heed with Aquila and Priscilla at Corinthi; and þat was profitable to noþing but for to putte*. [potte, γ.] of þe sclaundre of the Iewes. And also Seint Iohn, by þe usage of þat lawe, bygan to holde þe Ester*. [Eester, Cx.] tyde the fourtenþe day of þe firste monþe, and rouȝt*. [roȝte, γ.] nouȝt wheþer hit fel*. [fil, β. and Cx.; vull, γ.] in a Satirday oþer in a noþer day of þe woke. And Peter þe Apostel, þat was primat of holy chirche, and hadde power to Page  101, vol.6 bynde and unbynde, he abode*. [abod, γ.] þe fourtenþe day of þe mone [whanne þe moone were at þe folle,*. [volle, γ., et infra.] as Seint Iohn dede, and bygan to holde þe Ester tyde at eve þe next Sonday after]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe fulle of þe moone, and þe evenes of þe day and þe nyȝt, and hilde þat tyde to þe oon and twenty day of þe moone; and ȝif þe fourtenþe day of þe moone fil*. [vul, γ.] in a Sonday, he hilde nouȝt þere þe Ester day, for þat Sonday was of þe raþer ȝere, and nouȝt of þe newe ȝere þat schulde þo bygynne. Kyng Oswy herde*. [hurde, γ.] þis, and seide; "Siþþe*. [Seþþe, γ.] þat ȝe telleþ*. [telle, Cx.] þat so meny and so*. [so] om. Cx.] greet privyleges and powere were i-graunted*. [ygrauntet, γ.] to Peter, I dar nouȝt wiþ seie*. [wiþsigge, β.; wiþsygge, γ.] so grete and suche a fissher*. [vischer, α.; uscher, β.; an oys|chere, γ.] and porter,*. [soo grete an ussher & porter, Cx.] leste he close hevene ȝate aȝenst*. [aȝenus, β.] me*. [men, α.] whan þat*. [þat] om. β. and Cx.] I schulde come in to hevene." Whan þis was i-seide þe multitude assented; bote Eede*. [Ced, Cx.] bisshop of þe Est was þere present, and hilde*. [heelde, β.] hym corrected from þat tyme forþward.*. [vorþward, γ.; forward, Cx.] But Colmannus, þat was the*. [the] þo, β.; tho, Cx.] bisshop of Norþum|berlond, was*. [tho, add. Cx.] wrooþ, and wente þennes into þe contray of Scottes. [℞.]*. [From α.] Þan*. [Þan] om. Cx.] for to fynde*. [vynde, γ.] þe Ester terme wiþ oute Page  103, vol.6 any*. [any] om. Cx.] faile, by*. [In Cx. the passage "by Beda . . . schal be iholde" is omitted, and his text runs thus: "To fynde the Eester tyme without fayle ther ben rewles ynowe in the ordynal of the kalendre, and it is nedeful to sette it here. But the errour, &c."] Beda his lore,*. [Bedaes loore, β.] libro 5o, de Gestis Anglorum, me mote take hede of þre and abide þe þre: þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt in springing tyme, þat now hatte Lente,*. [leynte, α., β., and γ.] and þe Sonday; for*. [For as . . . . and nyȝt] bis in MS.] as be*. [be] Sic in MS.; in þe, β. and γ.] bygynnynge of þe world*. [worl, γ.] þe sonne passede out of þe myddel of þe Est [and markede þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt in sprinynge tyme with hys arysyng, and þanne whanne þe sonne ȝude adoun, þe voll mone com after out of the myddel of þe Est].*. [From γ.; and marked þe evennes of þe day and nyȝt in springinge tyme wiþ his arisinge. And þanne whanne þe sunne ȝede doun, þe ful mone com after out of the myddel of þe Est, β.] And so all þe ȝeres after me mote take hede*. [hyde, γ.] to þe same firste monþe of þe moone, for nouȝt to fore þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,*. [For as . . . . and nyȝt] bis in MS.] [but in þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,]*. [From α., β., and γ.] as it was i-doo in þe bygynnynge of þe world; oþer after þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, [as hit was y-doo in þe byggynnyng*. [as . . . byggynnyng] from α.; the addition is made and crased in β.] of the worlde; oþer after þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,]*. [From γ.] me mote take hede whanne the mone is at þe fulle.*. [volle, γ.] Þanne whan*. [whan] om. α, and β.] þe mone [þat]*. [From α. and β.] is at þe fulle*. [volle, γ.] to*. [to] tovore, γ.] þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, as it was i-doo in þe bygynnynge of þe world,*. [as it was . . . world] om. γ.] wheþer it be of fourtene days olde, Page  105, vol.6 of fiftene,*. [fiftene, β.; vyftene, γ.] oþer of sixtene, and so forþ, it longeþ to þe laste monþe of þe ȝere þat is a passed, and þerfore it is nouȝt con|venable to holde þerby þe Esterday. But what mone is at þe fulle in þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt,*. [oþer after þe evenes of the day and nyȝt, add. γ.] durynge þat mone in þe þridde woke of þe firste*. [first, β.; vurste, γ.] monþe of þe mone from þe four|tenþe*. [vourteþe, γ., et supra.] day to þe eve of þe oon and twentiþe day, þere þe firste Sonday falleþ,*. [valleþ, γ.] þere Esterne*. [Ester, γ.] schal be i-holde. But þe errour þat holy chirche*. [ȝut] add. γ.] suffreþ*. [suffriþ, β.] in oure*. [oure] the, Cx.] kalender þat we useþ*. [use, Cx.] is so incresed, þat þe styntinge of þe sonne, and þe evenes of þe day and nyght, and þe entringe of þe sonne and þe evenes*. [and þe evenes] om. Cx.] into þe signes, beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] a*. [α] om. Cx.] passed bakward*. [bacward, β.] by twelve dayes in oure kalender now, aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand þre hondred and twenty.*. [In the margin is written "Owre kalender nedyth correcioun of yere."] And þerfore, but oure kalender þat we useþ*. [use, Cx.] be amended by wiþdrawynge of þe dayes þat beeþ*. [ben put, Cx.] i-putte*. [ypot, γ.] to in þe lepe*. [lupe, α. and γ.] ȝere*. [lupȝere, β.] in*. [in] to, β. and Cx.] a certeyne tyme, oþer in som oþer manere wise, ȝif þe tyme of grace dureþ*. [dure, Cx.] to eiȝtene þowsand ȝere, Ester day schal falle*. [valle, γ., et infra.]Page  107, vol.6 aboute þe schorteste day of al þe ȝere by oure kalender; and ȝif þe sixte age of þe world*. [worl, γ.] dureþ*. [dure, Cx.] suche*. [sich, β.; om. Cx.] two so longe, þe feste of þe burþe*. [birþe, β., et infra.] of Seint Iohn the*. [the] om. Cx.] Baptiste schal falle in þe schorteste day of þe ȝere, and þe feste of þe burþe of oure Lord in þe lengeste day of þe ȝere: þe cause of þis errour is declared in Tholomeus his book, in Almagestes*. [Almagestis, Cx.] Tholomey. Trevisa. Here have in mynde*. [Here take heede, Cx.] þat twyes in a*. [α] þe, β.] ȝere falleþ*. [valleþ, γ.] þe styntynge of þe sonne, and so dooþ þe evenes of þe day and of þe nyȝt;*. [that is callyd in Latin equi|noxium, add. Cx.] þe stintynge of þe sonne is in wynter whan þe day is schortest, and eft*. [eft] eke, Cx.] in somer whan þe day is lengest. Þe evenes of þe day and of þe nyȝt is ones in þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] Lente,*. [Leynte, β.] and efte*. [efte] ageyne, Cx.] in hervest,*. [hervest tyme, β.; harvost-tyme, γ.] whan þe day and þe nyȝt beeþ i-liche*. [ylyge, γ.; ben lyche, Cx.] longe: and for we speke of þe sonne his entrynge into signes, þerfore have in mynde*. [þerfore . . . mynde] ye shal un|derstande, Cx.] þat everiche monþe ones þe sonne passeþ out of oo*. [o, γ.] signe and entreþ*. [intreþ, γ.; and entreþ, om. Cx.] into a noþer. And for we speke of þe monþe of mone, have mynd*. [muynde, γ.] þat þe monþe of þe mone is from chaunge to chaunge oþer from prime to prime. Also þe firste monþe of þe mone is here i-cleped þe tyme of þe mone þat is*. [þat is] whan it is, Cx.] ful whan þe day and þe nyȝt beeþ i-liche longe,*. [in Marche, add. Cx.] oþer next after; for in suche*. [sich, β.] a tyme þe world*. [worl, γ.] was first i-made in þe monþe of Marche.*. [in . . . Marche] om. Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Þanne Colmannus, bisshop of Norþ|humberlond, Page  109, vol.6 was convict*. [convict, from α.; convicte, β., γ., and Cx.; comuned, MS.] by Wilfridus of mysholdynge of þe Ester day, and was wrooþ, and wente aȝen*. [aȝen] om. Cx.] to þe Scottes as it is forsaide;*. [vorseyd, γ.] and þe same Wilfridus was i-chose arche|bisshop of ȝork, by procurynge of Alfridus, þat was þe kynges sone, and he was i-sent into Fraunce for to be sacred. For Deusdedit þe archebisshop of Caunterbury was dede, þat schulde hym sacre*. [sholde have sacred hym, Cx.] here in Engelonde. Þat tyme Kenwalkus kyng of West Saxons delede his province in tweie bisshopriches. Þerfore Egilbertus was wrooþ, and wente aȝen*. [aȝe, γ., passim.] into Fraunce, þere he was i-bore, and oþer þinges, as it is i-seide in þe same book, capitulo 15o. Paulus, libro 6o. Aboute þat tyme Con|stantyn þe emperour wolde delivere Italy of þe hondes of Longobardes, and come to Tarent in Italy, and axede þere of an holy man þat was solitaire,*. [solitarye wheþer, β.] where*. [whether, Cx.] he myȝte overcome þe Longobardus oþer no. He answerde þat it*. [it] hyȝt, γ.] myȝte nouȝt ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] be i-doo, for bycause of an abbay þat is founded in Italy in worschippe of Seint Iohan*. [Joon, β., passim.] Baptiste, Seint Iohan prayeþ alwey for þe Longobardes; bote tyme schal come whanne Page  111, vol.6 þe*. [þat, α., β., γ., and Cx.] oratorye schal be despised, and unworþy personnes schal wonye*. [dwelle, Cx.] þerynne, and þanne þe Longobardus schal first be ipersed.*. [perisched, β.; ypersched, γ.; perisshed, Cx.] Þe emperour rouȝt*. [roȝt, γ.] nouȝt here of, and wente forþ aȝenst þe Longobardus, but it*. [he, α., β., γ., and Cx.] sped nouȝt. But he spoylede Rome nouȝtwiþstondynge þat Vitalianus þe pope prayede hym for to leve. And þe*. [this, Cx.] emperour dede meny grete tyrandis*. [tirauntries, β.; lyraundys, γ.; tyrantryes, Cx.] in Sicilia, and hadde at þe laste his penaunce in a bath.*. [baþe, β.] Wilfridus, as it is i-seide, was i-chose archebisshop of ȝork, and was byȝonde see wiþ Agelbertus abidynge his confirma|cioun: þanne by*. [by] the, Cx. (an error).] counsaile of þe quartadecimannes, þat beeþ þey þat heeld*. [þat beþ hy þat hulde, γ.] þe Ester day in þe fourtenþe day of þe mone, *. [In the margin is "Cedda þat hyhte Chadde was archebysshop of York, but for he was not rythfully yordeyned Tehodorus archebisshop of Cawnterbyre put hym down."]kyng Oswynus*. [Oswy, Cx.] took Cedda abbot of Lastyngay,*. [Lestyngay, β., γ., and Cx.] and made him archebisshop of ȝork aȝenst þe ordynaunce of holy lawes, Willelmus, libro 3o, capitulo 27o, and sente hym into Kent for to be sacred bisshop. But for þe archebisshop Deusdedit was dede, Cedde tornede to Wyna bisshop of West Saxons, for to be i-ordeyned of hym, and took*. [touk, γ.] wiþ hym tweie bisshoppes Page  113, vol.6 of Britouns in his companye to be wiþ hym at his sacrynge. Þanne Wilfridus come out of Fraunce, and sigh*. [syȝ, β. and γ.; sawe, Cx.] Cedda i-made bisshop in his stede; þanne Wilfridus abood in Kent þre ȝere, anon to þe comynge of Theodorus, and made þere ordres, and halowede*. [halewide, β.; halwede, γ.] chirches, and made oon Pucta,*. [Putta, Cx.] a connynge*. [kunnyng, β.] man of song, bisshop of Rouchestre. Also þat ȝere Benet bisshop*. [bischop, β.; byschop, γ.] wente efte*. [efte, from γ.; agayn, Cx.; ofte, MS.] to Rome, and in his comynge homward*. [hamward, β. and γ.] he was i-schore*. [shorne, Cx.] in þe abbey Lirnesse,*. [Lirnense, α. and β.; Bruense, γ.; Lirnence, Cx.] and was þere two ȝere, and þennes he wente to Rome ȝit*. [ȝit] om. Cx.] þe þridde tyme, and com aȝen into Engelond, wiþ Theodorus þe bisshop, and Adrianus þe abbot, at þe heste*. [atte commaundement, Cx.] of Vitulianus þe pope. Cissa þe kyng, [kyng Ine]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] his fader,*. [vader, γ.] made an abbay at Abyndoun.*. [Abendoun, β.; Abendon, Cx.] Þat ȝere Seint Leodegarius suffred*. [suffride, β.] deth*. [in Fraunce, add. Cx.] under oon Ebroymus,*. [Ebroynus, β.; Ebroinus, γ.] þe grettest man of þe kynges hous. Constantynus þe emperour is i-slawe*. [was slayne, Cx.] of his owne men in a bath in Sicilia. After Vitalianus þe holy pope Adeodatus was pope foure ȝere;*. [In margin is "Scolastica was Seynt Benet ys suster."] in his tyme Seynt Benet his body was translated, wiþ the body of Page  115, vol.6 his suster*. [soster, γ.] Scolastica; Augustinus,*. [Augustus, β. and Cx.; Aigus|tus, γ.] a monk of Floria, trans|lated hem in to þe abbay of Floria, þat is besides Aurelia,*. [Over Aurelia is written in β. in an early hand Orliaunce; Or|leaunce, Cx.] [out]*. [From α. and β.; fro the mount, Cx.] of þe hil mont Cassyn, þat is in þe province Bene|ventana.*. [Bonevent, β. and Cx.]

Capitulum octodecimum. Constantinus.

THE fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] Constantyn, þe forsaide*. [vorseyde, γ.] Constantyn his sone, was emperour seventene ȝere. Grymwaldus*. [Grimiwaldus, Cx.] kyng of Longo|bardes, þe nynþe day after his blodles, scheet to*. [blodeles schotte at, β.; bled|yng on the arme shotte at a douve, Cx.] a colver, and his veyne to brak; and leches leyde þerto venymous þinges,*. [þingis, β.] and so he was dede. [Beda, libro quarto, capitulo secundo.]*. [From Cx.] Þat yere Theodorus þe archebisshop com into Kent fyve*. [vyf, γ.] dayes to fore Iuyn,*. [Jun, γ.] in þe secounde ȝere of his consecracioun, and he was bisshop þere oon and twenty ȝere Page  117, vol.6 and foure monþes.*. [monethis, Cx.] Þis man was a monk, i-bore in Tars in Sicilia,*. [Thars in Scicilia, Cx.] and was connynge*. [kunnyng, β.; kunnynge, γ.] boþe in holy lettrure*. [letterure, γ.; hooly letture, Cx.] and in seculer lettrure,*. [letterure, γ.; letture, Cx.] in Gru*. [Gruw, γ.] and*. [in] add. γ.] Latyn. Whanne he was þre score ȝere olde and sixe, Vitalianus þe pope sente hym bisshop into Engelond, and sente Adrian þe abbot wiþ hym forto helpe hym, for he schulde bringe no þing þat is aȝenst þe fey*. [feiþ, β.] into holy chirche in Engelond, as þe Grees dooþ.*. [Grekes dyde, Cx.] Anon as*. [as] om. Cx.] he was i-come*. [comen, β.] he wente aboute into al þe ylond, and tauȝte þe ordre*. [ordre of riȝt bileve and of, β.] of riȝt levynge,*. [levynge] byleve and of right lyvyng, Cx.] and þe laweful manere of þe*. [manere of þe] om. Cx.] holdynge of þe Ester day, and tauȝte his disciples þe crafte of singinge, of calculinge, of astronomy, boþe in Latyn and in Gru,*. [Gruw, γ.] by help of Adrian, and ordeyned bisshoppes in certeyne places. And*. [the, add. Cx.] bisshoppes þat were nouȝt lawfully *. [lawefollyche, γ., et infra.] y-ordeyned, he putte hem awey, oþer ordeyned hem eft in a laweful manere.*. [ordeyned hem to be bisshops in other places, Cx.] Among þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] Cedda, þat was nouȝt lawefulliche i-ordeyned bisshop of Page  119, vol.6 ȝork, knoweleched mekeliche*. [knowlechide mekely, β.; knew|leched mekleche, γ.] his owne defaute, and Theo|dorus put*. [pot, γ.] hym awey from þe see of ȝork, and restored þere Wilfridus; and ordeyned Cedda, þat was confermed at þe laste bisshop of Mercia at þe prayenge*. [at prayyng, β.; prayer, Cx.] of kyng Wulferus,*. [Wulerus, α.; Wuferus, γ.] and heet hym ride on an hors [his]*. [From α and γ.] bak.*. [on horsbak, Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 26o. Þat tyme doctours were ful*. [fol, γ.] besy to serve God and nouȝt þe world, þe herte and nouȝt þe wombe; þerfore þe abite*. [abyt, α. and β.; habite, Cx.] of religioun was þoo in greet worschippe, so þat a*. [From β.] monk oþer*. [þat among oþer, γ.] a clerk schulde be*. [From β.] gladliche underfonge; and men þat wente by þe wey prayde*. [prayd to have, Cx.] his blessynge; and þey wente for non oþer cause aboute*. [aboute] by, Cx.] weyes and stretes bote for to preche and teche, for cristenynge*. [follyng, β.; vollynge, γ.] and for savacioun of manis soule.*. [saule, γ.] And þey wolde fonge*. [vonge, γ., et infra.] non possessiouns for to bulde abbayes, but it were i-profred hem, and [þey were]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-dryve to fonge it by strengþe of lordes. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 5o. Also þat ȝere deyde Oswy kyng of Norþhumberlond; his sone Egfridus was kyng after hym fiftene ȝere. Item, capitulo 18o. Þis hadde i-wedded*. [i-wedded] om. Cx.] Etheldrida,*. [Ethelfreda, Cx.] þat hadde i-be Cutbertus*. [Tondbertus, α. and γ.; Ton|bertus, Cx.] his Page  121, vol.6 wif, prince of þe souþ Girewies.*. [Girwies, β.; Girwyes, Cx.] Whan Egfridus hadde i-had hir*. [hure, γ.] to wife twelve ȝere, and myȝte have no leve of here to ligge by*. [dele with, Cx.] here for prayers noþer for ȝiftes; þanne sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] hadde leve of þe kyng, and was i-made mynchoun*. [monchone, β.; menchone, Cx.; menchen, γ.] oon ȝere at Colud under Aebba, kyng Egfridus his aunte; and after þat sche*. [hue, γ.] was made abesse*. [abbes, β.; abbas, γ.] at Hely,*. [abbesse of Ely, Cx.] þere sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] ete but ones a day, and used nevere lynnen cloþes. After þe nyȝt*. [nyghtis, Cx.] collacioun sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] wook anon to*. [awoke unto, Cx.] þe day; sche*. [heo, β., et infra; hue, γ., et infra.] deide after þat sche hadde i-be abesse*. [abbesse, Cx.] sevene ȝere, and lay hool and sound sixtene ȝere. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 5o. Þat ȝere was i-made a cinod*. [syned, β.; synod, γ.; synode, Cx.] of bisshoppes under Theodorus, at Tet|ford.*. [Tedford, β.] In þat synod was ordeyned a statute of þe riȝt holdynge of þe Estertyde; the secounde þat no bisshop schulde assayle*. [assoyle in, Cx.] anoþer manis bisshopriche; þe þridde þe*. [þt, α., β., and γ.; that, Cx.] bisshoppes schulde nouȝt destourbe abbayes; þe fourþe þat clerkes and monkes schulde nouȝt chaunge*. [chaynge, γ.] benefice*. [benefyces, Cx.] wiþoute Page  123, vol.6 leve of here soveraynes; þe fifte*. [vyfþe, γ.] þat in a province þe synod schulde be gadred, namliche*. [namliche] om. Cx.] ones a ȝere. Egebertus*. [Egbertus, Cx.] kyng of Kent deide, and his broþer Lotharius regned after hym enlevene ȝere. Marcianus, libro 2o. Also Agelbertus þat ȝere,*. [Transposed in α. and γ.] bisshop of West Saxones, wente awey wroþeliche,*. [wrothly, Cx.] for Kenwalkus þe*. [þe] his, Cx.] kyng departed þe bisshopriche in tweyne, and Leutherius was i-made bisshop in his stede, and con|fermed of Theodorus [by]*. [From Cx.] þe kynges wille, and he was bisshop sevene ȝere. Þat ȝere was greet slauȝter*. [slauȝt, γ.] of foules*. [fowles, Cx.] þat fouȝte to gidres.*. [vouȝte togedders, γ.] Kenwakus*. [Kenwalcus, β.; Kenwalc, γ.; Kenwalchus, Cx.] kyng of West Saxons deide þe ȝere of his kyngdom þritty. ℞. His wif Sexburga regnede after hym oon*. [oon] o, γ.] ȝere, but Beda seiþ þat under kynges þey*. [þey] om. α., β., γ., and Cx., which latter adds or smal kynges.] delede*. [delide, β.] þe kyngdom bytwene hem ten ȝere. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 6o. Þat ȝere Seint Chedde*. [Chedda, Cx.] deide at Lichefilde,*. [Lichfeld, β.] þe þridde ȝere of his bisshopriche. Theodorus made Wynefrede,*. [Wynfryde, Cx.] Chedde his decon,*. [Wynfride Cheddes dekene, β.] bisshop in his stede, and putte*. [pot, γ.] hym doun nouȝt longe after, for he was unobedient, and made Sex|wulfus, abbot of Medehamstede,*. [Medamstede, β.; Medampstede, Cx. bis.] bisshop in his stede. [℞.]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Medehamstede hatte now Seint Peterisborw,*. [Peter his Burgh, α.; Petres burgh, β.; Peterburg, Cx.] and was somtym Page  125, vol.6 in þe kyndom of Girwies. Wulfridus*. [Wynfridus Cx.] was so*. [so] om. Cx.] i-putte*. [ypot, γ.] doun þe fourþe ȝere of his consecracioun, and wente to Barowe.*. [Barwe, γ.] After Adeodatus pope Bonus was pope a ȝere and sixe monthes. Beda ut supra. After þe deth of Wyna, Erkene|wold*. [Erkenwolde, Cx.] þe þridde bisshop of Londoun made tweie abbaies, oon to hym self in Southereye,*. [Souþrey, β.; Suthery, Cx.] in þe ilond Cereot,*. [Ceorot, γ.] þat now hatte Certeseie,*. [Chirchecye, Cx.] fiftene myle out of Londoun westward; and anoþer to his suster*. [soster, γ.] Ethelberga, by Est Londoun, in the province of Essex, þe abbay hatte*. [hete now, Cx.] Berkyng; þere sche*. [hue, γ., a very frequent ortho|graphy in this part of the MS.] was abbesse in greet holynesse; to here*. [hure, γ.] Seint Aldelme brouȝte a book*. [bok, γ.] of maydenhood.*. [maydonhode, β.; maidenhede, Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Me troweþ þat*. [It is supposed that, Cx.] by þe prayers of þis*. [þes, γ.] holy mayde it is þat þat*. [þat] this, Cx.] place*. [plas, γ.] was nevere ȝit destroyed.*. [ȝitt distruyed, β.; destruyed, γ. et infra.] But þe oþer abbay of Certeseie*. [Chercheseye, Cx.] was destroyed by the Danes, and kyng Edgar bulde it aȝen. Þat ȝere Oswynus*. [Oskwynus, γ.] bygan to regne over þe West Saxons, and regnede þre ȝere, and fauȝt*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst Wul|ferus Page  127, vol.6 kyng of Mercia [at Wydanheaf.*. [Wydaneaf, γ.] Also þat ȝere deide Wulferus kyng of Mercia],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and his broþer Etheldredus regnede after hym þritty*. [thyrten, Cx.] ȝere. For Wulferus his sone Kyn|redus myȝte nouȝt regne, for he was so ȝong.*. [so ȝung, γ.] Wulferus his wif Ermenilda, whanne here housbonde was dede, was i-made mynchoun*. [menchen, γ., et infra.] at Hely,*. [mynchon at Ely, Cx.] and her douȝter Werburga, under Etheldreda.*. [Etheldrida, γ.]Marcianus. Here eem*. [em, γ.; eme, Cx.] Etheldredus made þis Werburga mynchoun*. [monchon, β.; menchon, Cx.] in some abbayes of maydens at Try|kenham,*. [Trikyngham, α. and β.; Tir|kyngham, γ.] at Wedunam, at Hamburgam. Sche*. [heo, β.] deide in þe firste*. [verste, γ.] abbay, and was i-buried in þe þridde, as sche*. [heo, β.] hadde i-hote*. [promysed, Cx.] while sche*. [heo, β.] was on lyve: þere sche*. [heo, β.] lay hool and sownde aboute a*. [α] an, β.] þre hondred ȝere, anon to þe comynge of þe Danes. [℞.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] At þe laste, whanne þe Danes lay at Rependoun,*. [Rypyndon, Cx.] and hadde i-drive awey þe kyng of Mercia, þe citizeyns of Hamburga dradde, and took*. [touk, γ.] þe bere þat con|teyned þe body of þat mayde, þat was þo firste i-torned*. [vurste yturnd, γ.] into poudre, and fliȝ*. [fled, Cx.] þerwiþ into Legecestria, þat is Chestre, as*. [to, add. Cx.]Page  129, vol.6 þe most siker place aȝenst peril and meschif of aliens and of straunge naciouns.*. [enemyes, α. and Cx.] In þat cite Chestre were seculer cha|nouns from kyng Athelston*. [Adelston, α.; Adelstanes, β.; Adelstan, γ.; Ethelstones, Cx.] his tyme to þe comynge of Normandes, and ofte possessiouns were i-ȝove*. [ȝeve, β.; yeven, Cx.] þerto, and þanne monkes of religiouns*. [religiouse, β.; religious, γ.; re|lygyouse dwellyd there, Cx.] wonede þere in worschippe of þe mayde. Marcianus, libro 2o. Þanne kyng Wulferus hadde þre breþeren,*. [bryþern, γ.] as it is forsaide,*. [vorseyd, γ.] Weda, Etheldredus, and Mer|waldus, þat was kyng of Westmercia; his quene Ermenberga bar hym þre holy douȝtres,*. [In the margin is "Here ys an holy kynred of maydennys."] Milburga, Mildred,*. [Myldryd, γ.] and Mil|ginda,*. [Mylgvida, γ.; Myldreda and Mylguyda, Cx.] and oon sone Meresyn, a man of greet holynesse. Queene Ermenberga was Ermenredus douȝter, kyng of Kent.*. [This sentence is inserted in the body of the previous one in Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Also Wilferus*. [Wulferus, Cx.] hadde tweie holy sustres, Kynedda*. [Kynedida, γ.] and Kyneswida, mynchouns,*. [monchons, β.; menchens, γ.; menchons, Cx.] and were boþe i-buryed at Medehamstede,*. [Medehamstude, γ.] þat now hatte Burgh;*. [Petres burgh, β.; Peterburgh, Cx.] þere Seint Ethelwoldus bulde an abbay afterward. Kyneswyda convertede so þe kyng*. [Offa, add. Cx.] þat after þat sche*. [heo, β.] hadde forsake*. [vorsake, γ.] hym to housbonde, he wente to Rome wiþ Kynredus Page  131, vol.6 and Egwynus, bisshop of þe Wicties,*. [Wiccies, β. and γ.; Wiccyes, Cx.] and bycom a monk. Agatho was pope þre ȝere; in his secounde ȝere was i-made þe sixte synod at Constantynnoble,*. [Constantinople, Cx.] of two hondred bisshoppes and foure score.*. [voureschore, γ.] In þat synod it is i-seide þat in Crist beeþ tweie willes and tweie kyndes, [willes and kyndes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of þe*. [þe] om. α., β., and Cx.] Godhede and*. [of, add. γ. and Cx.] manhede.

Capitulum decimum nonum. Theodorus.

THEODORUS, kyng of Fraunce, regnede after his fader Clo|tarius eyȝtene ȝere. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 10o.*. [18o, Cx.] Þat ȝere Etheldredus, kyng of Mercia, destroyed*. [destruyde, β.; destruyede, γ.] Kent; and Pucta, bisshop of Rouchestre, wente from Rochestre to Sex|wulfus, Page  133, vol.6 and feng*. [vyng, γ.] of hym þe cherche of Hereforde.*. [Herforde, Cx.] Þere he took*. [touk, γ.] more hede to þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] melodye of holy chirche þan to amende his owne bisshopriche. Also þat ȝere Benet bisshop*. [byschop, γ.; Benett the bisshop, Cx.] took*. [touk, γ.] wiþ hym Colfridus [þe]*. [From α. and Cx.] monke, and wente to*. [þe, α. and Cx.] forþe*. [þe vurde, γ.; fourth, Cx.] tyme to Rome, and brouȝte wiþ hym Iohn þe archechaunter. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 18o. Also þat ȝere was i-doo*. [don, Cx.] a greet bataille bytwene Egfridus kyng of Norþhomberlond and Ethel|dredus kyng of Mercia, bysides þe ryver Trent;*. [of Trente, Cx.] and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] kyng Egfridus his broþer was i-slawe þat heet Elswynus, and was leef*. [luef, γ.] to boþe kyngdom:*. [kyngdoms, β. and Cx.] for his deth was moche*. [myche, β.] money i-ȝeve*. [gyven, Cx.] at þe instaunce*. [instauns, γ.] of Theodorus þe archebisshop, and so was i-made acorde. In þat fitynge*. [fiȝtinge, β.; vyȝttyng, γ.] oon of kyng*. [kyng] om. Cx.] Ethel|fridus his knyȝtes was grevously*. [grevoslyche, γ.] i-wounded, and Etheldredus his men toke hym while he wolde aryse.*. [as he wold have rysen, Cx.] And as ofte as he was in bondes wiþ his enemyes, oþer wiþ oon Fryson þat hadde Page  135, vol.6 bouȝt*. [bouȝt, from α. and β.; ybouȝte, γ.; boughte, Cx.; i-brouȝt, MS.] hym, his bondes breke as ofte, in þe same houre*. [in the same houre] om. Cx., supplying the words after man.] as his broþer, a preost,*. [prust, γ.] song a masse for hym as for a deed man, [and þat alway forto his raunsom]*. [From α., β., and γ.; And that dured alwey till his raunson were payd, and that he cam to his broder ageyne, Cx.] was y-payde þe*. [Na mira|culum.] money,*. [þe money] om. α. and γ.] and [he]*. [From α. and β.] come to his broþer aȝe. Also þat ȝere was i-seie*. [seye, β.] a sterre þat hatte stella comata þre monþes in þe hervest*. [harvost, γ.] tyme. Þat tyme kyng Egfridus, at þe excitynge of his wyf, putte Wilfridus out of þe bisshopriche of Norþhum|berlond. Trevisa. Stella comata*. [cometa, β., but not above.] is a sterre wiþ a liȝt blasynge crest*. [creest, Cx.] above, and evere bodeþ*. [it betokeneth, Cx.] pestilence, deþ, and werre, oþer some harde happes.*. [aventures, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Theodorus þe archebisshop halp to putte*. [potte out, γ.] Wil|fridus out of his bisshopriche; and for to folowe*. [vorto volwe, γ.] þe kynges wille, whanne Wilfridus was i-put out, he ordeyned Bosa bisshop at ȝork in his stede,*. [stude, γ.] and Eada*. [Eata, α., β., and Cx.] at Lyndefare cherche, and Tunbertus at Hagustald chirche, and Trunwynus at Candida Casa,*. [Cassa, Cx.] þat is þe White hous in þe lond of Pictes. Marianus, libro 2o. And putte Eadhedus in þe chirche of Ripoun.*. [Rypon, β. and Cx.] Eadhedus was i-come*. [comen, β.] out of Lyndeseye, for Ethel|dredus Page  137, vol.6 kyng of Mercia hadde i-recovered*. [rekevered, β.; recuvered, γ.] þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] province aȝenst*. [aȝenes, γ.] Egfridus. Willelmus. Þere it myȝte be i-seie and sorwfully*. [sorfolliche bymened, γ.] [be]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] mened þat þe wrecchednesse of mankynde,*. [mankuynde, γ.] þeigh it have greet holynesse, ȝit it putteþ not attefulle*. [at þe fulle, α.; ȝut hyt potteþ noȝt atte volle, γ.] maneres of rebelnes.*. [reblenes, Cx.] For as ferforþ as we conne*. [kunne, β.; kun, γ.; can, Cx.] caste, Theodorus putte out Wilfridus wrongfulliche. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 19o. Þanne Wilfridus was so i-put out, and wente to Rome for his cause; but seyllynge in þe see he was wynd dryven*. [wyndedryve, β. and Cx.] into Affrica;*. [Frisia, Cx.] þere he, firste*. [vurst, γ.] of alle men,*. [men] om. Cx.] con|vertede meny men, and Willebrordes*. [Willebrordus, β.; Willebrordus folfullede, γ.; Wyllibrordus, Cx.] fulfilled it afterward. At þe laste he come to Rome, and come tofore*. [tofore, from α., β., and Cx.; to offre, MS.] pope Agatho, and was i-herd and allowed. And þere [in]*. [From Cx.] a synod of an hondred bisshoppes and fyve and twenty he desputede aȝenst þe errour of hem þat wolde teche þat in Crist is but oon wille and oon kynde. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. And he folwede*. [volwede, γ.; fowede, MS.; fo|lowed, Cx.] his owne cause soberliche, þat he greved not Theodorus, þat was i-sent by þe court of Rome, and putte Page  139, vol.6 none grevous accusaciouns uppon*. [oppon, γ.] hym, but meyntened*. [maintened, Cx.] his owne riȝtwisnesse*. [ryȝtwesnes, γ.] and suffred [hyt]*. [From γ.] nouȝt to flecche.*. [to flecche, from α.; suffride hit nouȝt to flecche, β.; soffrede hyt nouȝt to fleyche, γ.; suffrid it not bowe, Cx.; suffred nouȝt þe flesche, MS.] He spak to þe pope and seide, "Why is it, sire,*. [sere, γ.] þat Theodorus, while I*. [ich, β.; ych, γ.] am onlyve, haþ i-ordeyned in my see þre bisshoppes by his owne auctorite, wiþ oute myn assente. For he was i-sent by þe court of Rome, I accuse hym nouȝt."*. [y accuse hym nouȝt, β.; y acuse hym noȝt, γ.; and I accuse hym not, Cx.; cause, MS.] Bote þey*. [þouȝ, β.] Wilfridus were alowed þere he hadde [nouȝt]*. [From α. and β.] indede,*. [he had not in dede, Cx.] and þat made þe kynges frowardnesse and Theodorus his assent. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 12o. Þerfore Wilfridus torned hym to þe Souþ Saxons, and bulde an abbay in Selyseye,*. [Silyseye, β.; bylded an abbay in Sylyseye, Cx.] and preched fiftene ȝere anon to þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] Egfridus his deþ, and convertede þe peple.*. [pupel, γ.] Also for þre ȝere to fore*. [fore] om. γ.] his comynge was þere no reyne; þe first*. [vurste, γ.] day of his cristnynge*. [follyng, β.; volloȝt, γ.] hit bygan to reigne,*. [ryne, γ.] þe erþe was*. [wex, β. and γ.; wexe, Cx.] grene, and herbes gan*. [gonne, α.; bygunne, β.; gunne, γ.] to springe; he gadrede eel*. [ele, γ. and Cx.] nettes, and tauȝte men of þe contray to fische.*. [vysch, γ.]Page  141, vol.6 Oswynus kyng of West Saxon deyde, and Kentwynus regnede after hym nyne ȝere. Þat ȝere deide Leutherius, bisshop of þat province, and Theodorus ordeyned Hedda bisshop, þat was bisshop at Wynchestre þritty ȝere. Seynt Audoenus, bisshop of Rothomager,*. [Rotomager is ded and chyld, γ.; Roan deyde this yere, and the childe Beda was borne, Cx.] is [ded and chyld]*. [From γ.; a child, MS.] Beda is i-bore.*. [Rotomager is ded and chyld, γ.; Roan deyde this yere, and the childe Beda was borne, Cx.] After Agatho þe secounde Leo was pope as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] þre ȝere, and þe pope|riche*. [papacye, Cx.] cesede*. [ceesed, β.; cessede, γ.] oon ȝere. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 20o. Seynt Etheldreda, abbas of Hely,*. [Ely, Cx.] deyde. Marianus, libro 2o. Aftir here hir suster*. [soster, γ.] Sexburga was abbesse, þat hadde i-be somtyme þe wyf of Ercombertus kyng of Caunterbury. Beda, ubi supra. Þat ȝere deide Hilda, abbesse of Whitby, þat hadde i-be seek*. [syk, γ.; be seke, Cx.] sixe ȝere, fourtene*. [vourtene, γ.] dayes to fore Decembre, þe ȝere of here age þre score and sixe. Sche*. [Heo, β.] was kyng Edwyn his nese;*. [neece, β.; nece, Cx.] an holy womman, wys and redy, and well i-lettred.*. [ylettert, γ.] Out of here abbay come fyve*. [vyf, γ.] bisshopes, Bosa, Eata, Offor, lohn, and Wilfridus. In here abbay was a broþer þat heet Cedmon, þat was i-tauȝt by inspiracioun of God to make songes Page  143, vol.6 and ditee in þe contre longage þat schulde moeve*. [meove, β.; muve, γ.] men to devocioun.*. [devocioun, from β.; devocyon, γ.; devocion, Cx.; langage, MS.] In þat manere doynge no man myȝte be his peere. And he hym self couthe noþing doo in oþer matir, but onliche in matir of devocioun. He com þerto in þis manere: he wente in a tyme from a feste ful*. [fol, γ.] sore aschamed, for he was i-prayed for to synge to þe harpe, and kouþe nouȝt synge. Þanne he was sory, and fel*. [fil, β.; vul aslepe, γ.; fylle a slepe, Cx.] on slepe, and oon com to hym in his slepe and chargede hym þat he schulde synge. "I*. [Y, β.] can nouȝt," quoþ he, "and þerfore I*. [ich, β.; ich vly, γ.] flee." "After þis," quoþ þat oþir, "synge boldeliche of hym þat haþ i-made alle þinges." Þis man awook, and after þat tyme he made wonder poysies*. [poesyes, β.] as it were of alle þe stories of holy writte. Henricus, libro 3o. Þat ȝere Theodorus made a counsail of bisshoppes and oþir doctours at Hatfelde, for he wolde wite*. [wete, β. and Cx.] and knowe of what byleve alle men were, as pope Agatho hadde i-hote*. [boden, Cx.] [hym]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.; bede hym, β.] by his archechauntur Iohn, þat was present in þat synod. Þat Page  145, vol.6 tyme þe provynce of Mercia, þat Sexwulfus ruled*. [reulede, γ.; rewled, Cx.] allone, was departed in fyve bisshopriches, oon at*. [hatte, γ. (tris).] Chestre, anoþer at Worcestre,*. [Wircetre, β.; Wyrceter, γ.; Worcetre, Cx.] þe þridde at*. [hatte, γ. (tris).] Lichefeld, þe fourþe at*. [hatte, γ. (tris).] Sedema*. [Sedenia, Cx.] in Lendeseye,*. [Lyndeseye, β.; Lyndisey, γ.] þe fifte at Dorchestre. But Pucta lefte at Hertford, þere Sexwulfus hadde i-putte hym somtyme. Paulus, libro 7o. Cunebertus, kyng of Longobardes, stood under his chamber wyndowe, and counsailled wiþ oon of his secretaries how he myȝte slee his knyȝt Aldo. Þanne þere was a greet flye, and þe kyng*. [þe kyng] he, Cx.] fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to slee þis flye, and kutte*. [kitt, β.; kytte, γ.] of þe fliȝe foot*. [vlye voot, γ.] wiþ a*. [α] þe, γ.] knyf. In þe mene tyme Aldo was nouȝt war of þe kynges cast,*. [Aldo not knowynge of the kynges entent, Cx.] and com toward þe kynges court, and mette wiþ an halt man, þat ȝede*. [ȝude, γ.] by*. [went with, Cx.] a staf, and spak to Aldo in þis manere, "War þe, Aldo, for ȝif*. [ȝif] ef, γ.] þou comest to the kynges court þou schalt be i-slawe wiþ þe kynges [hond]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Whanne Aldo herde*. [hurde, γ.] þat, he flyȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.; fledde, Cx.] to Seynt Romayn his chirche, and þe kyng axede hym why he dede*. [dide, β; a dude, γ.]Page  147, vol.6 soo; and he answerede and seide for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] an halt*. [holt, γ.] man hadde i-warned hym of his deþ. Anoon þe kyng understood þat he þat halted*. [holtede, γ.] so was a wicked*. [wykkede, γ.] spirit, þat he hadde kutte*. [kitt, β.; ykut, γ.] of his foot in liknesse of a flye, and hadde so i-wreyed*. [wryed, β.] his counseil and his privete, and on caas*. [on caas] om. Cx.] hadde excited hym [to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Aldo his deth, and so the kyng feng*. [vyng, γ.] Aldo to his pees.*. [grace, α.] [After Leo þe secounde Benet*. [Bened, γ.] was pope]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] as it were*. [as it were] om. Cx.] fyve ȝere. Osricus, under þe*. [þe] om. α., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Mercia, bulde*. [bilde, β., et infra.] an abbay at Gloucetre, and [made]*. [From γ.] his suster Keneburgh abbesse þere. Þat ȝere kyng Kentwynus chasede þe west Bretouns anon to þe see; and Benet bisshop*. [byschop, γ., et infra.] bulde an abbey of Seynt Poul at Girvum, on þe brynke of þe ryver Wyre; and hadde to forehonde i-bulde anoþer abbay of Seint Petir in þe*. [þe] that, Cx.] oþir brynke of þe same ryver by helpe of kyng Egfridus, and made Colfridus abbot þere. [Þat ȝere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Beda, a child of sevene ȝere olde, was i-take to Benet bisshop his lore,*. [loore, Cx.] and he Page  149, vol.6 wente þe fifte*. [fyveþe, β.] tyme to Rome, and bytook*. [bytouk, γ.] Beda to Colfridus. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 12o. Þat ȝere is gadered a synod under kyng Egfridus bysides þe ryver Alne,*. [Alve, Cx.] in a place þat hatte Twyford,*. [Twyfort, γ.] there was Theodorus: þere Tundbertus was putte*. [pot, γ.] doun of thee*. [Sic in MS.; his, Cx.] bisshopriche of Hagustald,*. [Hagastald, γ., et infra.] and Cuthberd*. [Cuthbertus, γ.] was i-made bisshop in his stede; bote for he lovede more þe chirche of Lyndefarn,*. [Lyndesfarn, Cx.] þider*. [þuder, γ.] he wente, and Eata was i-made bisshop at Hangustald in his stede. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 23o. Þis Cuthberd was firste*. [vurst, γ.] i-made monk in þe abbay of Maylros, and þanne preost,*. [pruest, γ.; preest, Cx.] and at þe laste he lyvede anker*. [an ankers lif, β.; an lif, ankers lyf, Cx.] his lyf in þe ilond Farn. Also þat ȝere kyng Egfridus destroyed wrecchedly*. [distruyed wrecchidlich, β.; de|struyede wrechedelich, γ.] þe men of Scotland, þat were alwey most freendes*. [vrendes, γ.] to Englische men; and þey prayed help of God, and feyned hem for to flee,*. [vor to vle, γ.] and gylede*. [begyled, Cx.] Egfridus nouȝt wiþstondynge þe prayers of his frendes,*. [vrendes, γ.] for he wolde nouȝt doo after hem,*. [ham, γ.] and tollede*. [þei tolled hym, β.; tollede, γ.; tolled and drough him, Cx.] hem, and drouȝ hem*. [hym, α. and γ.] into Page  151, vol.6 streyte*. [strait, β.; streyt plas, γ.] places bytwene hilles*. [hulles, γ.] and mounteynes, and slow hym þere, and a greet*. [gred, γ.] deel of his oost. From þat tyme forþward*. [vorward, γ.] þe strengþe*. [stryngþe, γ.] of þe Angles bygan to falle*. [valle, γ.] awey|ward, and Pictes and Scottes and meny of þe Bretouns feng*. [vynge, γ.; receyved, Cx.] her londes wiþ fredom*. [vredom, γ.] aȝen. Cedwalla, a stalworþe*. [stronge, Cx.] ȝongelyng*. [ȝunglyng, γ.] of kyngene*. [kynges, β.] kynde*. [kunde, γ.] of þe Gewesses, þat beeþ West Saxons, [he regnede over*. [he over regnede, γ.] þe West Saxons]*. [From α., β., and γ.] after Kentwynus his deþ. Willelmus de Regibus. He was*. [From β. and γ.] Kent|brihtis*. [Kenbrihtus his, α.; Kenbrigh|tus, β. and Cx.; Kenbryhtus, γ.] sone, Kentbritus was Ceadda his sone, Ceadda was Cuta*. [Cutha, γ.] his sone, Cutha*. [Cuth, γ.] was Ceaulinus his broþer, Ceaulynus was Kynricus his sone, Kynricus was Cerdicus his sone, anon he slouȝ Athelwold*. [Ethelwold, γ.] kyng of Souþsex, and made his province þral, and destroyed Kent, and took þe ile*. [touk þe yl, γ.] of Wight, and ȝaf þe fourþe*. [vurþe, γ.] deel þerof to Seynt Wilfridus for þe love of God. In þat partie of þe ile were acounted þre hondred meynyes and housholdes. Þat ȝere [in]*. [From β.] Northumberlond Egfridus was i-slawe, and his broþer Alfridus Notus,*. [Nothus, β., γ., and Cx.] bastard, regned after Page  153, vol.6 hym two hondred*. [Sic in MS.; eyȝtetene, γ.; eyghten yere, Cx.] ȝere. Þat ȝere Sarȝyns*. [Sarasyns, Cx.] com out of Egipt into Affrica, and took*. [touk, γ.] Cartage and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] it; and Constantyn deyde*. [deyde] om. Cx.] at Constantynnoble.

Capitulum vicesimum. Iustinianus.

THE secounde Iustinianus, after his fader*. [vader, γ.] Constantyn, was emperoure ten ȝere. After Benet, þe fifte*. [vyfte, γ.] Iohn was pope oon ȝere. After hym Zeno was pope two ȝere. Beda, libro 4o, capitulo 23o. Lotharius kyng of Canturbury deyde of a wounde þat he hadde i-fonge*. [ivonge, γ.] in þe fiȝting*. [vytyng, γ.] of þe Souþ Saxons aȝenst Cedwalla. After hym, he þat slouȝ hym,*. [he þat slouȝ hym] om. β. and Cx.] Edricus, Egbertus his sone, [regnede oon ȝer and an half. After hym þat kyngdom was longe tyme unstedefast under certeyne*. [unstidfast under uncerteyn, β.; uncerteyn, γ.] kynges forto Wyhtred, Egbertus his*. [lawful sone, β.] sone,]*. [From α., β., and γ.] was converted*. [conforted, β., γ.; til Wightred lawful sone was comforted, Cx.]Page  155, vol.6 and regnede in þat kyngdom. Mull, kyng Cedwalla his broþer, and twelve knyȝtes were bysette and i-brend in Kent. Þerfore Cedwalla was wrooþ and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] Kent eftsones, and Wilfridus feng*. [vyng, γ.] þe bisshopriche of Hangustald*. [Hagustald, β. and γ.] at þe pray|ere of kyng Alfridus. For*. [Vor, γ.] seynt Iohn of Beverly went to ȝork whanne Boso*. [Bosa, α., β., and Cx.] was dede. After Zeno, Sergius was pope þrittene ȝere; he ordeyned þat Agnus Dei schulde be þreis i-songe in þe masse, and by schewynge of God he fonge*. [vond, γ.; fonde, Cx.] a greet deel of þe cros*. [the holy crosse, Cx.] in Seynt Peter his sacrarie. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo 17o. Þe firste*. [vurste, γ.] Pipinus, þat heet Vetulus, Brevis also, þe sone of Hansegesilus,*. [Ansegisilus, β., γ., and Cx.] þe sone of seint Arnulphus, was i-made þe grettest of þe kynges hous,*. [among Frenschmen, add. β.] and feng þe principate of þe est party of Fraunce, and was [prince]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] sevene and twenty ȝere; he fauȝt first aȝenst Theo|doricus kyng of Fraunce, and chasede hym anon to Parys, and whanne*. [Sic in MS.] þe kyngdom, and savede þe kinges lyf and his name. Paulus, libro 7o. Þat tyme in Fraunce kynges torned from þe wit and strenþe*. [stryngþe, γ.] þat kynges were i-woned to have.*. [habbe, γ.]Page  157, vol.6 And þey*. [hy, γ.] þat semede grettest in þe kynges hous rulede*. [reuled, β.] þe kyngdom, for God haþ i-ordeyned þat þe kyngdom scholde torne to þe blood of hem.*. [ham, γ.] Þat ȝere deide seint Cuthbert in þe ilond Farn, þat he hadde i-loved alwey, but his body was i-bore into þe lond Lindefare;*. [ylond Lyndisfare, β.; Lyndys|fare, γ.; Lyndesfarn, Cx.] his bisshopriche reulede Wil|fridus oon ȝere, forto*. [til, β.] he was i-put*. [ypot, γ.] out by þe kyng. Þat ȝere ȝedwalla,*. [Cedwalla, β.] kyng of West Saxons, whanne he hadde nobleliche i-ruled his peple þre ȝere, he forsook the empere, and wente in pilgrimage to Rome; þere he was i-cristned*. [yfulled, β.; yvolled, γ.] of pope Sergius, and i-cleped Peter; ȝet while he was sette in white he was i-take*. [i-take] om. Cx.] with sikenesse and deyde, not fulliche*. [folliche, γ.] þrittene*. [þritty, α. and β.] ȝere olde, þrittene dayes tofore May,*. [Maii, β.] and was i-buried in Seint Peteris chirche, and was worþy to have suche famous writ|ynge on his tombe: "Lordschipe, riches, children, plente of Page  159, vol.6 riches and of welþe, cloþes and*. [and] of, Cx.] riche aray,*. [of rich aray, β.] prayeres,*. [pyers, β.] hous, castels,*. [castellis, Cx.] and walled townes þat his fadre*. [fadres, α.; fader, Cx.] and he hadde i-wonne by strengþe, Ceadwal þe myȝty man*. [men, MS.] of armes lefte and forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] for love of God Almyȝti." Giraldus, distinc|tione prima, capitulo 17o. Here take hede þat þis Cadwaledrus þe laste kyng of Bretouns is i-cleped Cedwalla in þe storie of Romayns and of Longobardes, and in Beda his storie also. But corupliche,*. [corruptlich, β.] for þey*. [corruptlyche vor hy, γ.] knewe nouȝt þe longage of Britouns, þerfore in som place in þe laste vers on his tombe it is i-write in þis manere: "Kyng Cadwaldrus lefte for þe love of God." For it is i-seide þat he was i-cristned*. [folled, β.; yvolled, γ.] of Sergius, þat is to understondynge*. [understande, Cx.] þat he was confermed by anoyntynge*. [anuntynge, γ.] of holy crisme, and þo his propre name was i-chaunged, as it happeþ in confirmacioun of children. And þey*. [þouȝ, β.] he*. [he] a, γ.] were of Page  161, vol.6 Bretouns he was i-cleped kyng of West Saxons, for he was kyng of hem also, for þey ioyneþ*. [vor huy inneþ, γ.] to þe [Walshe men].*. [From Cx.; Walsche men, β.; Walschemen, γ.] Walsche men telleþ þat þey schulde*. [schulleþ, β.; hy schulleth, γ.] eft*. [ageyne, Cx.] have kynges whan Cadwaldrus his boones beeþ i-brouȝt from Rome, but I*. [ych, γ.] holde þat but a fable, as I*. [Y, β.; y, γ.] doo þe storie of Gaufridus in þe ende. After Cedwalla regnede Yne, of þe lynage of kynges, þe sone of Kynredus, þe sone of Ceolwold, þe sone [of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Cutha, þe sone of Cuthwyn, þe sone of Ceaulinus, and so forþ; and Yne regned sevene and þritty ȝere, and þo*. [þanne, β.] he wente to Rome in pope Gregory his tyme, and so dede*. [dude, γ.] meny oþer þat tyme. Also þat ȝere deide Benet Bisshop,*. [Bischop, β.] þe twelfþe day of Ianyver. Colfridus was abbot after hym in his either abbay in þe brynke of þe ryver Wyre. Also Theodorus the archebisshop deide, þe ȝere of his age foure score and sevene, [and]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of his bisshop|riche two and twenty. After hym abbot Briȝtwold was arche|bisshop: anon to þat tyme þe archebisshoppis were of Rome, and seþþe*. [soþþe, γ.] þat tyme þe archebisshoppes were of Engelond. Seynt Wilfridus [was]*. [From β. and Cx.] eft accused of kyng Alfridus to fore Page  163, vol.6 meny bisshoppes, and i-put out of his bisshopriche. Þerfore he appelede to þe court of Rome, and defendede so his cause tofore þe*. [þe] om. β.] pope Iohn þat he hadde lettres of þe pope to þe kynges of Engelond to*. [of, α., β., and Cx.] his restitucioun. Þe redynge of þe synod þat was þoo rehersed was gret help to his cause. Þis Wilfridus hadde i-be at þat synod in pope Agatho his tyme. Þe lettres were i-rad þat were i-sent for hym to kyng Alredus,*. [Aluredus, but, Cx.] bote þe kyng wolde nouȝt ȝit fonge hym, þerfore he tornede to þe kyng of Mercia, and feng of hym þe bisshopriche of Lege|cestria, þat is Chestre, and helde*. [huld, γ.] it anon to Alfridus his deth. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 9o. Aboute þat tyme Egbertus þe monk, þat we speke*. [spake, Cx.] of to forehonde, þat scapede*. [schaped, γ.] the moreyn by prayers and avowes, hadde i-seilled about Bretayne, and caste for to converte þe men of Germania, but dedes and warn|ynge of hevene hym lette.*. [letted hym, Cx.] For þe schippe þat he hadde i-ordeyned for þat iornay was to-broke wiþ a sodeyn tempest of weder, and þere*. [þoo, α.; þo, β.; tho, Cx.] oon of his breþeren was i-warned by a visioun, and spak to Egebertus, and seide þat he moste, wheþer he wolde oþer no, wende to Seint Columba his abbay aȝen, Page  165, vol.6 for here plowȝes*. [plowes, β.] ȝede nouȝt aryȝt. Þerfore he sente Willebrordus wiþ twelve felawes into ye contrays of Germania, and he tornede moche*. [myche, β.] folk to þe fey by help of þe elder Pipinus,*. [Pupinus, Cx., et infra.] duke of Frensche men, þat hadde i-wonne þe hider*. [hudder, γ.] Frisia;*. [Fryselond, Cx.] and at þe laste by auctorite of pope Gregory he was i-made bisshop of Traies,*. [Utrecht, Cx.] and rulede*. [reulede, γ.] þat bisshopriche wel and nobelliche aboute an fourty ȝere. Offorus deide, bisshop of Wicties, þat hadde men*. [Sic in MS. and Cx.] of þe bisshopriche of Wircetre; and Egwinus was bisshop after hym, þat sone afterward bulde*. [bilde, β.] the abbay of Evesham, by assent of kyng*. [kyng] om. Cx.] Ethelredus. Whanne Theodoricus kyng of Fraunce was dede, þat*. [þat] whome, Cx.] Pipinus Vetulus hadde myldeliche i-suffred to reigne wiþ hym, he made his sone Clodonius kyng. Pipinus Vetulus heet Pipinus Brevis also. Þat ȝere þe men of Caunterbury made pees wiþ Yne, the kyng of West Saxons, and ȝeve þre þowsand pound for þe deþ of Mull Cedwallus his broþer. Iustinianus Cesar was prived of þe ioye of his kyngdom for gilt of*. [gylt and, Cx.] mysby|leve, and wente exciled*. [exiled, β., et infra.] into Pontus. Leo Patricius refte hym Page  167, vol.6 his nose and his tonge, and exciled hym, [and sente him]*. [From α., β., and γ. (not Cx.)] into Cersona.

Capitulum vicesimum primum. Leo.

THE secounde Leo was emperour þre ȝere. In his tyme Clodoneus, kyng of Fraunce, was deed,*. [was deea] deyde, Cx.; was ded β.] and Pipinus made his broþer, Childebertus, kyng. Þe men of Norþhumberlond slouȝ*. [slowghe, Cx.] Ostria,*. [Ostrida, α., β., and γ.; Os|tryda, Cx.] Etheldredus his wif, þat was kyng Oswy his douȝter. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Þat ȝere Cuthlacius*. [Guthlacus, α.; Cuthlacus, β., γ., and Cx.] þe confessour forsook armes and þe boost*. [bost, β.] and pompe of þis world,*. [þe worl, γ.] and wente to þe abbay of Rependoun, and þere, under þe abbas Alfrida, he took*. [touk, γ.] tonsure and habit of clerk, þe ȝere of his age foure and twenty. Þanne þe þridde ȝere after he Page  169, vol.6 wente into þe yle*. [yl, γ.] of Crouland,*. [Crowlond, α.; Croulond, β.] and þere he bygan to lyve an anker his lyf, and dede meny myracles,*. [myrakels, γ.] and hadde power over unclene spirites so greet, as þe comyn tale telleþ, þat he made hem bulde meny booldes*. [bouldes, γ.; buylde many places, Cx.] and closede suche*. [sich, β.] a spirit in a seþinge crokke.*. [sethyng erthen pot, Cx.] Þere his body*. [now, add. Cx.] lyþ is bulde an abbay, þat was nevere destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] among alle þe stryf and werre*. [and werre] om. Cx.] and chaungynge of tymes. Þere resteþ þe confessour Nootus,*. [Neotus, β., γ., and Cx. On the margin of MS. is "Neotus con|fessor."] þat was somtyme þe disciple*. [dyscypel, γ.] of Erkenwald, bisshop of Londoun. And þeyȝ no man now*. [now] om. β.] come to þat place of Crowlond but by schippe oþer by boote, ȝit þat place is nevere wel nygh wiþoute gestes.*. [gystes, γ.]Beda. Þat ȝere byfel*. [byvul, γ.] ones*. [ones] om. β.] in Bretayne þat wonder þat is worþy to be i-had in mynde to make men þynke of þe soule*. [that myracle that ought to be remembryd for thelthe of sowle, Cx.] his staat,*. [on þe soules state, β.] ffor oon þat hiȝt Briȝtwoldus was ded somdel*. [somwhat, Cx.] longe tyme, and aros aȝen to lyve, and tolde meny þinges to meny men, and deled*. [departed, Cx.] his catel anon a þre, and ȝaf Page  171, vol.6 his wif oon deel, and his children anoþer, and kept hymself þe þridde, and delede it to pore men, and ended his lyf in þe abbay of Maylros. Þe þridde Tiberius was emperour sevene ȝere; he aros aȝenst Leo and assaillede his kyngdom, and hilde*. [helde, β.] hym in warde as long as he regnede. In his tyme þe secounde*. [þe secounde] om. Cx.] Iustinianus, þat was exciled in Cersona, made openliche his boost*. [bost, β.] þat he schulde rekevere*. [recuvere, γ.] þe empere; [þerefore þe people*. [pupol, γ.] was y-meoved*. [meved, β.] for love of Tiberius, and fondede forto slee Iustinianus].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þerfore he fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] to þe prince of Turkes, and spoused his suster,*. [soster, γ.] and rekevered þe empere at þe laste by help of hym and of the Bulgares, and slouȝ Leo and Tyberius þat hadde assailled þe emperour,*. [emper, α.; empire, β.; assoylled thempire, Cx.] and as ofte as he wyped of a drope of corrupcioun of his nose, þat was somtyme i-kutte,*. [ykitt, β.; ykut, γ.] so ofte he made slee som of his enemyes. Þe fifte general synod was i-holde*. [holden, β.] in Aquila*. [Aquilia, β., γ., and Cx.] in Sergius his tyme. After Sergius his tyme*. [his tyme] om. α. and β.] þe þridde Leo was pope two ȝere. He is nouȝt i-rekened in þe ordre of bisshoppes, on caas Page  173, vol.6 for he was wrongfulliche*. [wronfolliche, γ.] i-putte yn by Patricius. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 15o. Aboute þat tyme Arnulphus, bisshop of Galles, com into Bretayne. He wente to Ierusalem for to visite holy places,*. [plas, γ.] and ȝede aboute into al þe lond of byheste, and com to Damascus,*. [Damask, β.; Damaske, Cx.] to Constantynnoble, to Alisaundre,*. [Alexandrye, α.; Alexandria, β.] and into meny ilondes of þe see, and seillede homward*. [hamward, β.] into his contre aȝe, and was i-cast by strengþe of tempest to þe west clyves*. [cleves, α.; clyfes, β.] of Bretayne. Þere he fonde*. [vond, γ.] God his servaunt Adamnanus,*. [Adaminanus, Cx.] abbot of þe ilond Hii, and tauȝte hym wondres of holy places, and he made a book þerof anon as he hadde i-herd þe wondres and sente it to kyng Alfridus to reede. ℞. It semeth þat Beda took*. [touk, γ.] of þat book afterward what he wroot*. [suche as he wrote, Cx.] of holy places. After Leo, þe sixte Iohn was pope þre ȝere; þat tyme Etheldredus, kyng of Mercia, forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] þis worldliche*. [worlliche, γ.; worldly, Cx.] kyngdom, and was i-schore*. [yscore, γ.] monk at Bardeneye.*. [Bardeny, Cx.] After hym regnede Leuredus*. [Lenredus, Cx.] fyve*. [vyf, γ.] ȝere, þe sone of his broþer Wulferus. Þe sevenþe Iohn was pope as it were þre ȝere; þat tyme deide Page  175, vol.6 Hedda bisshop of Wynchestre. After hym þat bisshopriche was departed atweyne, ffor Brithelmus*. [Brythelynus, Cx.] þe archebisshop dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.; put, Cx.] Daniel at Wynchestre, and*. [and] at, Cx., wrongly.] seynt Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β. (bis), γ. (semper); Aldelme, Cx., et infra.] at Schireborne.*. [Schirburn, β.; Schyrburn, γ.] Seint Aldelyn was to forehonde abbot of Malteby, þat is Malmesbury. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Also þat ȝere deide Sexwulfus bisshop of Mercia. After hym Hedda hilde*. [helde, β., et infra.] Lichefeld, and Wilfridus Legecestre, þat is Chestre; but after two ȝere Alfridus, kyng of Norþhumberlond, deide, and Wilfridus turnede aȝen to þe bisshopriche of Hagustald, and was bisshop afterward foure ȝere, and þo Hedda hilde boþe bisshopriches of Lichefeld and of Chestre.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum. Iustinianus.

THE secounde Iustinianus regned eft*. [efte, β.; agein, Cx.] wiþ his sone Tyberius sixe ȝere; þis is he þat was prived of þe empere*. [empire, β.] [by Leo, but Page  177, vol.6 for he rekeverede*. [recuverede, γ.] þe emper]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þis ȝere, þerfore þe storie makeþ eft of hym mynde. Þan Iustinianus was restored, and hilde þe riȝt fey,*. [feiþ, β.] and worschipped Constantyn the pope, and destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] Cresona,*. [Cersona, Cx.] þe place of his excilynge, and slouȝ al þat wonede þere, [out take children;*. [childern, γ.] and eft whanne he wolde sle þe chil|dren, men of þe province made hem a cheventeyn*. [cheveteyn, β.] on Philipicus þat was exciled and wonede þere];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and anon he wente to Con|stantynnoble, and slouȝ Iustinianus. Þat ȝere deie*. [deide, α.; deyde, β. and Cx.; dyede, γ.] Alfridus, kyng of*. [at, Cx.] Dryfeld.*. [at Driffeld, β.; Dryffeld, γ.] After hym his sone Osredus, a child of viii. ȝere, reynede enlevene*. [elleven, β.] ȝere; Sysinnus*. [Sisinnus, β.] was pope twenty dayes.*. [dawes, γ.] After hym þe firste Constantyn was pope sevene ȝere; [he]*. [From α., β., and γ.] denunced Philipicus an heretyk, for he hadde [y-doo]*. [From α. and γ.; put, Cx.] ymages of holy seyntes out of chirches. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 9o. Þat ȝere Kenredus, kyng of Mercia, lefte his kyngdom to Colredus, the soone of his eem*. [eame, Cx.] Ethelredus, and wente to Rome wiþ Offa, þe kyng his sone of Est Saxons, and wiþ Egwynus bisshop of Wicties.*. [Wike, β.]Trevisa. Þe see of Wyke*. [Kikcies, α.; Wiccies, β.]Page  179, vol.6 was i-torned to Wircestre,*. [Wircetre, β.; Worcetre, Cx.] and is þere ȝit. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie: Colredus, kyng of Mercia, translated first þe body of seynt Werburgh,*. [Wesburgh, Cx.] þe mayde, out of þe erþe at þe abbay of Hamburgh, þat hadde i-lay þere ynne*. [ynne] om. α., β., and γ.] nyne ȝere hool and sounde, and durede so hool and sounde anon to þe comynge of þe Danes at Repentoun.*. [Repindoun, β.; Rypendon, Cx.] Aldelm bisshop of Shireborne*. [Schirburn, β.] deide, hym buried Egwynus; þis Aldelm*. [Aldelyn, MS.] was kyng Ine his broþer sone Kenten, and was i-cleped Aldelm as it were an olde Elyn*. [Elme, β.; an ald elm, γ.; Elme or an olde Helme, Cx.] oþer on olde Helyn,*. [helm, α. and β.; elm, γ.] and was most konnynge in lettres of Grew and of Latyn. He hadde and used instrumentis of musik, pipes and strenges, and oþere manere of*. [of] om. α., β., and γ.] glee.*. [gleo, β.; maner gleo, Cx.] First he was a monk, and þanne he was i-made preost and abbot at Malmesbury. He took uppon [him]*. [From Cx.] þat*. [þat] this, Cx.] martirdom þat whanne he were i-tempted of his flesche, he wolde holde wiþ hym a faire*. [veyr, γ.] mayde in his bed while he seide*. [as he was saing, Cx.] þe sawter from þe bygynnynge to þe ende. Trevisa. Save reverence*. [reverens, γ.] of seynt Aldelyn,*. [Aldelm, β.] þis semeþ non holynesse noþer.*. [noþer] ner, Cx.] wisdom, but pure verray*. [verrey, γ.] folye, boþe for hym self and for peril and drede of temptacioun of þe womman, as it may be i-preved boþe by auctorite and by resoun. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweth, γ.] in þe storie: Page  181, vol.6 in*. [in] om. β.] þe sevenþe day of þe woke, whanne chapmen*. [chepmen, β. and γ.] com, he preched hem besily Goddes word. At þe laste his grete fame excited*. [exyted, Cx.] Sergius þe holy man, pope, to sende after hym by lettres and by pistles;*. [pistels, β.; pestels, γ.] þan he come to Rome, and hadde desired longe tyme to see þat citee, and hadde wiþ hym vestimentes*. [vestementes for to synge alwey messe, Cx.] þat he hadde*. [ladde, α. and γ.; had, β.] alwey with hym aboute, and song his masse to fore þe pope in Seynt Iohn his chirche þe Lateran.*. [Latran, Cx.] Þere in a day after his masse he trowede*. [he trowide, β.] have i-take his chesible*. [chesibel, γ.] bakward to his servauntes; boþe*. [but, β.] þe servauntes were awey, and þe chesible fil*. [vul, γ.] on þe sonne beme, and þe sonne beem*. [sunne beeme, β.] bare it longe tyme, þere oþere servauntes faillede;*. [failiden, β.] þat chesible is ȝit in þe abbay of Malmesbury. Also þat tyme þe holy pope was deffamed þat he hadde bygete a bastard childe. Whanne þe childe was nyne dayes olde it was i-brouȝt to cristenynge*. [follyng, β.; vollyng, γ.] to seynt Aldelyn,*. [Aldelm, β. (bis).] and seint Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β. (bis).] coniureþ þe childe of nyne dayes olde it was i-brouȝt to cristenynge*. [it . . . cristenynge] om. α. and β.] þat he schulde telle ȝif Sergius þe pope hadde i-gete*. [bygote, Cx.] hym; þe childe answerde hym and seide þat þe pope was gilteles*. [gultles, γ.] of þat dede. At þe Page  183, vol.6 laste Aldelme wiþ many priveleges wente hoom aȝe to his abbay, and wroot noble bookes, de virginitate, de termino Paschali, de veteris ac novi testamenti floribus, de caritate, de sensibilium rerum natura, de regulis pedum metricorum, de mathaplasmo,*. [methaplasmo, γ. and Cx.] de metrico dialogo. He was abbot of Malmesbury fourty ȝere, and was bisshop foure ȝere, and þat tyme his breþeren made hem a noþer abbot; but þey buried hym whanne he was dede, and Egwynus þe bisshop come to his burienge, as me troweþ, by warnynge of God Almyȝti. Afterward þe holy bisshop Dunston*. [Dunstan, β.] worschipped hugeliche*. [hougeliche, γ.] and hiȝte*. [gretely his place and highted, Cx.] his place and his schryne, and ȝaf þerto organs and belles, holy relikes and ornamentes; and for me schulde nouȝt take hem awey unskilfulliche he corsede þerfore, and wroot in þis manere, "Bisshop Dunstan ȝeveþ seint Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β., et infra.] organs. Who þat takeþ hem away, leese*. [leose, β.] [he]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe kyng|dom of hevene." Also in a waterstene it is i-write in þis manere, "Archebisshop Dunstan het ȝit*. [ȝute, β.; hyȝt ȝute, γ.; heete ȝute, Cx.] þis stene for it schulde in þe holy temple serve seint Aldelyn." Also in the belle of þe fraytour*. [freytour, γ.] hit is i-write*. [writen, β.] in þis manere, "In hiȝe Page  185, vol.6 halle of hevene com he nevere þat steliþ þis belle out of seynt Aldelyn his seete." Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . place] om. Cx.] Þis writynge myȝte be trans|lated somdel in metre in þis manere: "Organs of holy Dunstan bisshop holy Aldelyn;*. [Aldelme, β.] he schal lese*. [luse, γ.] hevene þat wil*. [wole, β.] hem take*. [taken, α. and β.] awey." In þe pycher*. [picher, β.] þus, "Þis picher het ȝit*. [ȝute, β.; hit ȝute, γ.] Dunstan riȝt þe archebisshop,*. [arch þe bisshop, α. and β.] ffor it schulde serve seynt Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β., et infra.] in þe*. [þe] om. α. and β.] temple." In þe belle þus, "Hiȝ*. [Heiȝ, β.] in þat halle schal he com nevere of hevene þat stele wole þat belle of seynt Alde|lyn from þis place."*. [þe place, β. See note 1 above.] Aboute þis ȝere deyde seynt Wil|fredus; in his tombe beeþ suche vers i-write:*. [versus writen, β.; ben wreton suche versus, Cx.] "Wilfridus holy by mynde, worþy be þy*. [be þy] by, β., γ., and Cx.] name. Greved wiþ perilles here wel many longe*. [longene, β. and γ.] tyme; þre tyme*. [siþe, α., β., and Cx.] fiftene*. [þre sithe vyftene, γ.] ȝere bisshop he was here on lyve, and passeþ wiþ ioye to þe blisse þat is in hevene." Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 19o. Þis child was of scharp wit, and wente in þe fourteþe*. [fourtenthe, Cx.] ȝere of his age to þe abbay of Lyndefare,*. [Lyndisfare, β.] and lernede þere meny þinges of þe lore of religioun, and knewe þanne þat som þinges*. [þingis, β., et infra.] were nouȝt riȝtfulliche i-holde of þe Scottes, and wente to Rome for to lerne*. [lerny, γ.] more perfite*. [perfite, β.] lore.*. [parfyght loore, Cx.] Þere he lernede [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] foure Page  187, vol.6 Gospell*. [gospelles, α.; gospels, β.] of Bonefas*. [Boneface, β.] þe archedecon, and þe compot of Es|terne,*. [Ester, β.; the Eester, Cx.] and oþer nedeful*. [nedfol, γ.] þinges to þe use of holy chirche. In his comynge aȝe he dwellede wiþ Alfynus, bisshop of Lug|dunens, þre ȝere, for*. [for] til, β. and Cx.] he was i-slawe by þe queene Batilde.*. [Batyld, β.] Þanne Wilfridus wente aȝen into Bretayne, and feng*. [vyng, γ.] lond of kyng Oswynus*. [Oswyus, α., β., and Cx.; Os|wyne, γ.] for to make an abbay at Rypoun;*. [Rypun, β.; Ripun, γ.] þere he was i-made preost*. [prust, γ.] of Agelbertus; after þat, whan þe stryf was i-ended of þe Ester terme, he was i-chose bisshop of ȝork, as it is i-seide to forehonde. Whan he was dede his preost Acca*. [Acta, β. and Cx.] was bisshop after hym at Hagustald cherche. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 20o.*. [cap. secundo, Cx.] Þat ȝere deide Adrianus, abbot of Seynt Peter, and helper of Theodorus þe archebisshop; his disciple and successour was Albynus, of hym it is i-wrete innere*. [ynnere, α. and β.; inner, γ.] more.*. [innermore, Cx.]Item, capitulo 21o.*. [cap. duodecimo, Cx.] Þat tyme Nactanus, kyng of Pictes, sente messangers to Colfridus, abbot of Beda his abbay, þat is in*. [in] om. β. and Cx.] þe abbay Girwie,*. [Girwic, β.; Gerwyk, Cx.] to be enformed of þe verray holdynge of þe Ester tyde, and of þe manere of tonsure of holy cherche. Page  189, vol.6 Among oþer þinges he wroot*. [a wrot, γ.] to hym þat for to holde ariȝt þe Ester tyme*. [terme, Cx.] þre rules beeþ nedeful to knowe; tweyne þerof beþ conteyned in Moyses lawe, and þe þridde*. [þrid, β.] in þe gospel by ordenaunce of þe apostles: so*. [so þat . . . Esterday] om. Cx., and puts in the place of this long passage the words: "And so he sente to hym the very true maner and reulis to holde the Eesterday like as we now holde."] þat in þe firste monþe, in þe þridde woke of þe same monþe, from þe fifteþe day of þe mone to þe oon and twentiþe day of [the mone],*. [From β. and γ.] þe Estertyde schal be i-holde; in þe same þridde woke me schal abyde þe Soneday. So for to acounte þat nouȝt þe fourteþe day, but þe eve þerof, þat is þe fourteþe day of þe mone, þat is þe by|gynnynge of þe þridde woke and þe nyȝt of þe fifteþe day of þe mone me mote nedes abyde. By [þat]*. [From α., β., and γ.] auctorite of þe book Numerorum, þanne þey wente out of Ramesse,*. [Rames, β.] þe fifteþe day of þe firste monþe fil*. [vul, γ.] on a Sonday,*. [fil on a Sonday] expuncted in α., which adds the words in brackets, also expuncted; they are neither of them in β.] [þanne we myȝte alwey holde þe Ester tyde,]*. [From α. and γ.] and þe oþer day þey made pasch*. [phase, α. and γ.; phase, β.] to oure Lord, þat is to meninge þey hilde þe Ester day, and so it schal dure to þe eve of þe oon and twentiþe day. And ȝif it myȝte be þat alwey the fifteþe day of þe firste monþe fil in a Sonday, þan we myȝte alwey holde þe Estertyde in oon and Page  191, vol.6 þe same tyme þat oure fadres hilde*. [helde, β.] it in Moyses his law, þey we have*. [habbe, γ.] oþer manere sacrament þan þey*. [hy, γ.] hadde. By þe evenes*. [evennesse, β.] of þe day and nyȝt in springynge tyme it may be i-founde*. [yvounde, γ.] which is þe firste oþer þe laste monþe of þe ȝere; by men of [þe]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Est londes, [and]*. [From α., β., and γ.] by þe Egipcians, þe evenesse of [þe]*. [From β.] day and nyȝt in springynge tyme is i-woned*. [wont, β.] for to come ele|vene dayes to fore Averel, þat we haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] i-sayed*. [assayed, α. and β.] and i-pre|ved by an orlege.*. [horlage, β.] Þanne what mone is fourtene dayes olde oþer fiftene to fore þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, þat mone parteyneþ to þe laste moneþ of þe ȝere þat is agoo; þerfore it is nouȝt able*. [habel, γ.] for to holde þe Ester day. Whanne þe*. [Whanne þe] What, β.] mone is at the fulle*. [volle, γ.] in þe evenes of þe day and nyȝt, oþer after, riȝt as it was in þe bygynnynge of þe worlde,*. [worl, γ.] in þat ful*. [volle, γ.] mone þe firste Sonday is Ester day.*. [See note 4, page 189.] Þe secounde Iustinianus sente his oost*. [hoost, Cx.] for to take Philippicus, þat he hadde i-left at Pontus in Cersona. Bote þe oost tornede [to Philippicus his side, and slouȝ Iustinianus. Þe secounde]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Philippicus, þat heet Dardanicus also, was emperour oon ȝere and sixe monþes. He fliȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.; fled, Cx.] into Sicilia for þe oost of Rome, and for he was an heretik he heet scrape of al þe peynture of cherches; þerfore Page  193, vol.6 þe Romayns þrewe away al manere money þat his ymage was i-grave ynne. Þe secounde Anastacius*. [Anastasius, β.] was emperour þre ȝere after þat he hadde i-slawe Philipicus. In his tyme Dagobertus was kyng of*. [of] in, β.] Fraunce after his fader Childebertus, and regnede enlevene ȝere by suffraunce*. [suffrans, γ.] of Pipinus Vetulus, þat ȝit*. [ȝet, α.; ȝitt, β.] rulede*. [ȝut reulede, γ.] þe kynges hous. After Constantinus þe secounde Gre|gory was pope sixtene [ȝere].*. [From β.] Þat ȝere seint Guthlacus, þe anker, deide in Crowlond; and Ine, kyng of West Saxons, and Colredus, kyng of Mercia, fauȝte*. [foughten, Cx.] at Wodenesburgh so sharp|liche, [and eiþer of hem hadde*. [bare, Cx.] hymself so ungraciousliche,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat me woste*. [wist, β.] nevere wheþer of hem hadde worse spede.*. [spedde, β. and Cx.; spyde, γ.] Þe þridde Theodocius was emperour oon ȝere, and was goodliche and benigne, and overcome his predecessour Anastacius, and made hym a preost.*. [prust, γ.] But after oon ȝere Theodocius was i-putte doun and i-made a clerk by his sucessour, þe þridde Leo þe stronge. In his tyme come many Saraȝyns*. [Sarsyns, β.] and by|segede*. [bisegide, β.]Page  195, vol.6 Constantynnoble þre ȝere; hit semeþ þat Iohn Dama|scenus was þat tyme in his floures, and was i-broȝt in to Pers.*. [Perce, Cx.] Þere were lettres i-wrete of his enemyes, and i-þrowe forþ and i-founde*. [vorþ and yvounde, γ.] and openliche i-rad. In þe whiche lettres was con|ceyved*. [conteyned, β.] his conspiracie aȝenst the prince, þat*. [þanne, β.] þe*. [þat þe] Thenne his, Cx.] riȝt hond was i-smyte of, for he schulde nevere afterward write. But he prayed faste*. [vaste, γ.] to oure lady þat he servede besiliche, and his hond was restored to hym aȝen. It is nouȝt to trowynge*. [to suppose, Cx.] þat þis Iohn is Iohn the Ermyte*. [Hermyte, β.] þat is i-sette in þe book of fadres, sone afterward*. [after, α., β., and Cx.] Hyllarioun, and warnede Theodocius þe emperour of oþer victories. He*. [hit, α.; It,.; Hyt, γ.] is anoþer Iohn þat was in þis þridde Theodocius his tyme in Gres, and afterward in Pers, and made many noble bookes in boþe of*. [of] om. α., β., and Cx.] philosofie. Þat Iohn þe Ermyte was longe tyme to fore þe grete Gregorie, [and this Iohan Damascenus was long tyme after the grete Gre|gorye,]*. [From Cx.; and þis Joon Da|mascenus was longe tyme after þe grete Gregory, β.; and þes John Damascenus was longe tyme after þe grete Gregory, γ.] þat is i-knowe [by that, that*. [that] and, MS.]]*. [From Cx.] þis Iohn Damascenus Page  197, vol.6 in his bookes of divinite alleyeþ*. [allegeþ, β.] þe grete Gregorye his noble and grete myracle of þe delyverance of Traianus, þat may not be understonde of Gregory Nazazenus,*. [Naȝauȝenus, Cx.] for he was aboute Constantynnoble and aboute Pontus, and unneþe com nevere*. [nevere] ever, β. and Cx.; evere, γ.] at Rome; bote*. [but, β.] mynde*. [munde, γ.] of þat myracle of þe deliveraunce of Traianus at þe sepulcre of þe apostles in þe citee of Rome, by þe grete Gregorie pope, is i-holde, as everich ȝere holy chirche makeþ*. [makiþ, β.] mynde.*. [munde, γ.] In tretynge of dedes þat helpeþ hem þat beeþ dede, Iohn Damascenus alleyeþ*. [allegeþ, β.; alledgeth, Cx.] þat myracle.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.*. [There is no division of chapters here in γ.] Leo.

THE þridde Leo, with his sone Constantyn, was emperour fyve and twenty ȝere. In his first ȝere deide Pipinus Vete|lus, after þat he hadde i-governed þe kynges hous eiȝte and twenty ȝere. After hym com Charles, þat was i-gete*. [geten, β.; bygoten, Cx.] on a concubyne, and heet Tutides and Marcellus also, and hadde Page  199, vol.6 suche names of slegges*. [sledges, Cx.] and hameres, wiþ þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] smythes smyteþ*. [beteþ, β.] and tempreþ*. [beten and temperen, Cx.] grete gaddes of iren; tudes oþer malleus in*. [in] a, β. and γ.] Latyn is a slegge, oþer an hamer, in*. [an, α. and γ.] Englissh. Þis Charles fauȝt nobleliche aȝenst þe Sarasyns*. [Sarsyns, β.] þat com out of Affrica, and made hem flee*. [ham vle, γ.] in oon*. [oon] o, γ.] batayle at Peytow, and in anoþer batayle at Narbon, and chasede hem into Spayne; in þe whiche batailles were i-slawe foure hondred þowsand and fyve and sixty þowsand of Sarasyns.*. [Sarsynes, β.] Also he fauȝt*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst þe Saxons and aȝenst the Bavarres, and*. [and] o mβ.] also aȝenst Hudo,*. [Heudo, α. and β.; Hendo, γ. and Cx.] a duke of Gyen,*. [Gian, β.; Guyen, Cx.] and aȝenst Raufredus*. [Ranfredus, β.] duke*. [duyk, γ.] of Anyo.*. [Avio, α.; Anio, β. and γ.; An|geo, Cx.] Also this Charles, for besynesse of werres and batailles þat fil*. [fillen, β.; vulle, γ.] uppon hym, bytook þe goodes*. [goodnesse, α.] of holy chirche to lewed men; þer|fore Eucherius, bisshop of Aurelians,*. [Orleyans, Cx.] while he lay in his beedes, sigh þis Charles in body and in soule i-tormented in helle. Þe aungel þat schewed*. [schewide, β.] þat sight to þe bisshop seide*. [sayde that it was bycause he toke the goodes, Cx.] þat þat is þe dome of men þat bynemeþ*. [bynymeþ, β.] þe goodes of holy chirche Page  201, vol.6 oþer of pore men. Þaune by [þe]*. [From β.] warnynge of þe bisshop þe abbot of Seint Denys and Pipinus his*. [his] om. β.] preost*. [prest, γ.] wente to Charles his grave, and tornede þe stoon, and sight*. [syȝ, β.] a grete dragoun fle*. [vle, γ.] out of þe grave, but þere was no body i-founde. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro 4o.*. [Paulus, lib. 7o is the reference in β. and Cx.] Þat ȝere at Rome, at*. [at] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe ryver Tyber was*. [wax, α. and γ.; wex, β.] so grete and so huge*. [hoge, γ.] þat þe watres þat fille*. [vulle, γ.] mette hem*. [hem] om. Cx.] and ioynede*. [innede, α. and γ.] to gidres*. [togedders, γ.] from port Seint Peter to pont Millvium,*. [Milvium, β. and γ.; Iuilinum, Cx.] and durede so sevene dayes, for to*. [for to] til, β.] þe citiȝeyns made a letany. Þat ȝere deide kyng Ethelredus, after þat he hadde i-be kyng of Mercia þritty ȝere, and monk of Bardeneye*. [Bardony, β. and Cx.] þrittene ȝere, and he was i-buried at Lichefeld. After hym his cosyn Ethelbaldus regnede, þat was Penda his nevew sone in his broþer side, and so he was þe sone of þe sone of Alwy*. [Alwi, γ.] Penda his broþer. And Ethelbaldus regnede fourty ȝere, as Guthlacus*. [Cuthlacus, β.] þe confessour hadde i-seide. Þis Ethelbaldus in þe eiȝtene*. [eiȝteteþe, α.; xviii., β.] ȝere of his kyngdom byseged*. [bisegide, β.] Somertoun, and wan it, and spoylede North|umberlond, Page  203, vol.6 and overcome þe Walsche men; but in þe sevene and þritty ȝere of his kyngdom he was overcome of Cuth|redus, kyng of West Saxons. Þe laste ȝere of his kyngdom his owne men slowȝ hym at Secandoun. Also þat ȝere Colfri|dus, abbot of Girwie,*. [Girwey, Cx.] deyde at Lyngoun*. [Lyngon, β.] in pilgrimage. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 6o.*. [The reference in β. and Cx. is Willelmus de Pont., lib. quarto.] Þat [ȝere]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] deide [seint]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Egwy|nus þe þridde bisshop of Wicties;*. [Wykcies, α.; Wiccies, β.; Wyc|cyes, γ.] þat bisshopriche is now i-cleped þe bisshopriche of Wircestre.*. [Wircetre, β.; Wyrceter, γ.] In a tyme Egwynus byþouȝte hym of þe synnes of his ȝouþe,*. [yongthe, Cx.] and gyvede hym self,*. [silf, β.] and þrew þe keyes of þe gyves into þe ryver Avene, and wente i-gyved openliche*. [oponliche, γ.] to Rome, and seide þat he schulde be skeer*. [be siker, β.; be syker, γ.; shol be syker, Cx.] of his synnes whenne his gyves were unloke*. [unshyt, Cx.] by virtue of God, oþer elles by þe same keyes. And he wente so i-gyved to Rome, and me seiþ þat þe belles of þe citee gonne*. [bigunne, β.] to rynge by hem self in his comynge. He com aȝe wiþ priveleges*. [privylege, β.] for his chirche; while he seillede*. [seyled, β.] in þe see of Britayne a greet fische leep*. [vysch lupe, γ.] into þe*. [þe] his, β.] schip, Page  205, vol.6 and in þe gutte of þe*. [þe] þat, β.] fische*. [gut of þat vysch, γ.] was i-founde a keye þat unleek*. [unleke, β.; unlokked, Cx.] his*. [his] þe, β.] gyves. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 6o. Seint Iohn, bisshop of ȝork, deide at Deyrewode, þat is Beverlay, þe ȝere of his bisshopriche fyve*. [þre, α.; iii., β.] and þretty, and was i-buried in þe porche of þe mynstre.*. [monoster, α.; menester, γ.] In his first ȝeres, and specialliche in Leynte, he dwellede in Seint Michel his*. [Mighels, β.] chapel at Hagustald chirche, nouȝt fer from þe ryver Tyne, in þe norþ hille of þe same place, þat hatte Hernischow*. [Hernishow, β.] an Englesshe, [bote in Englische]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þat is now i-used it hatte Ern his hulle;*. [hit hatt Ernes hille, β.] and he deide at þe laste at Beverlay, þat is foure and twenty myle out of ȝork estward. And þat place hatte Beverlay, and*. [and] as, γ.] heet Brook*. [brok, γ.] his lay,*. [and het Brokkesley, β.; Brok|kesly, Cx.] for many brokkes were somtyme i-woned to come þider*. [þuder, γ.] out of þe hilles þat beeþ þere nyh. Þere seynt Iohn bulde a cherche of Seynt Nicholas, and anoþer of Seynt Iohn Baptiste in þe hille, for refresshynge*. [refreyschynge, γ.] [and fedynge]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of breþeren. Þe fredom and þe privileges of þat place is encressed*. [oncresed, β.] to grete profit and worschippe, so þat þere is i-fonge no bataille and Page  207, vol.6 stryf bytwene tweyne, but who þat is accused schal purge hymself wiþ his owne hond. Iter,*. [Iter] om. γ. (not β.); Item, Cx.]Beda, ubi supra. After þis Iohn, his preost Wilfridus was bisshop aboute a þritty ȝere. ℞. Þis hatte þe ȝonge*. [ȝonger, α.; ȝunger, β.] Wilfridus, and overpasseþ Beda his tyme; ffor þere were þre famous Wilfridus.*. [Wilfrides, β.; Wilfrydes, Cx.] Þe firste was þe more Wilfridus, þat wente þries to Rome, of hym we haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] i-spoke to forehonde; þe oþer was the ȝonger*. [ȝunger, β.] Wilfridus, þat was bisshop [of ȝork after seynte Iohn of Beverle;*. [Bevereley, β.] þe þridde was bisshop]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] of Wicties after Egwinus. [Trevisa].*. [From α.] As it is i-seide toforehonde, þe bisshopriche of Wicties hatte now þe bisshopriche of Worcestre.*. [Trevisa . . . Worcestre] om. β. and Cx.; Wyrceter, γ.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 2o. Kyng Ine bulde an abbay at Glas|tyngbury,*. [Glastenbury, β. and Cx.] as Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β.] hadde i-counseilled somtyme. Þat tyme*. [Þat tyme] om. Cx.] þat abbay durede nobeliche anon to þe tyme of Danes; but afterward by help of Donston,*. [Dunstan, Cx.] under kyng Edmond and kyng Edgare, þat abbay was nobilleche*. [noblich, β.] amended and i-hiȝt anon to þe comynge of Normans; but after þat tyme, I*. [Y, β.] not*. [Y note, γ.] by what myshappes, it is alwey asset*. [sette, Cx.] with ful wicked*. [fol wickede, γ.] travailles. Page  209, vol.6 Also þe abbotes of þat place for grete richesse*. [richesses, β.] beeþ proude,*. [proute, γ.] and bycomeþ tyrauntȝ, and swelleþ*. [swellen, Cx.] in pryde outward, and beeþ nouȝt worþ,*. [wroth, Cx.] and beeþ cruel*. [cruwel, β.; crwel, γ.] inward and nouȝt profitable, and þat was specialliche i-knowe*. [knowen, β.] in abbot Thursinus*. [Thurstinus, Cx.] his tyme. [℞.]*. [From α.] Þider*. [Þuder, γ.] were translated þe bones of seint Hilda þe abbas, of Colfridus þe abbot of Girwie, and som bones of bisshop Aydan, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] bones kyng Edmond brouȝte wiþ hym whan he was in þe contray*. [journey, β.; jorney, γ.] aȝenst þe Scottes; þere resteþ þe secounde seint Patrik*. [second patriark of, Cx.] of Irlond, abbot and confes|sour. Þe martiloge*. [martilogye, β.] þat is i-rad of*. [radde on, β.] seint Bartholomew his*. [Bartilemus day, Cx., et infra.] day, seiþ þat he wolde converte þe Irische men, and myȝte nouȝt; þerfore he forsook Irlond and com to Glastyngbury,*. [Glastonbury, β.] and deide þere in a seint Bartholomew his day.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.*. [There is no division of chapters here in γ.]

LEO þe emperour lete be*. [lete be] lefte, Cx.] þe enemyes of þe empere, and werrede aȝenst figures and ymages of holy seyntes. Pope Page  211, vol.6 Gregory and Germanius*. [Germanus, β. and Cx.] of Constantynnoble wiþstood hym nameliche,*. [manliche, α. and γ.; manlich, β.; manly, Cx.] as þe olde usage and custome*. [costom, γ.] wolde þat is allowed and apreeved by holy cherche, and seide þat it is worþy and medeful to do hem þe affecioun of worschippe. For we wor|schippeþ in hem but God, [and]*. [From α.; and . . . ymages] And oft by the syght of such ymages men worshipe God and holy saintes, Cx.] in worschippe of God and of holy seyntes, þat man haveþ*. [habbeþ, γ.] in mynde efte by suche*. [sich, β.] ymages,*. [From α.; and . . . ymages] And oft by the syght of such ymages men worshipe God and holy saintes, Cx.] God allone schal be princepalliche worschipped, [and after hym creatures schal be i-worschipped]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] in worschippe of hym. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 24o. Þat ȝere deide Withredus*. [Wihtredus, β.; Wyhtredus, Cx.] kyng of Caunterbury, and Thobias bisshop of Rouchestre, þat couþe Latyn and Grew*. [Gruw, γ.] as wel as his owne longage. Paulus, libro 7o. Þat ȝere Sarasyns com to Constantynnoble and by|seged*. [bisegide, β.] it þre ȝere, and took*. [touk, γ.] þennes moche*. [myche, β.] good and*. [and] om. β. and Cx.] catel. Withbrandes*. [Wihtbrandus, β. and γ. Wyghtbrandus, Cx.] kyng of Longobardes herde þerof, and raunsoned*. [raunsede, γ.] þe relikes of seint Austyn [þe doctor],*. [From β.] þe whiche relikes*. [relyques, Cx.] were somtyme translated to Sardinia for reses*. [fere, Cx.] of straunge enemyes, and he made hem i-bore to þe citee of Geene,*. [Gene, β. and γ.] and þennes to Papie, þat heet Tinum*. [Titinum, α., β., γ., and Cx.] somtyme. Willelmus de Regibus, Page  213, vol.6libro primo. Kyng Ine betook his kyngdom of West Saxons to his cosyn Ethelardus, and went to Rome. Me seiþ þat he was þe firste of kynges þat grauntede to seynt Peter of everiche hous of his kyngdom a peny, þat longe tyme of Englisshe men was i-cleped Rome scot, but in*. [in] a, β. and γ.] Latyn it is i-cleped Peter his peny. Þe kyng his wyf Ethelburga ȝaf hym occasioun to take þat pilgrimage, and þat in þis manere: she*. [heo, β.] hadde ofte i-counsailled her*. [hure, γ.] housbonde to forsake þe riches of þe*. [þe] þis, β.] world,*. [worl, γ.] and specialliche in þe laste ȝeres of his lyf, but sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] spedde nouȝt. Þerfore at þe laste sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] fondede to overcome hym wiþ gile, and in a tyme whanne þey hadde i-leide to gidres*. [togadders, γ.] in þe real*. [rial, β.] citee, and were agoo,*. [and departed thens, Cx.] þanne after þre dayes þe governour of þe citee defouled þe paleys wiþ al þe filþe*. [vylþe, γ. (bis).] þat he myȝte, wiþ tunge*. [dunge, α., β., and Cx.; duynge, γ (bis).] and dritt*. [drit, β.; dryt, γ.; fylth, Cx.] of bestes, wiþ gaderynge of dunge and of filþe of mukhilles;*. [mokhulles, γ.] and þere þe kyng had i-leye and i-slepe, he leide a sowe wiþ here*. [hir, β.] pigges þat hadde late i-favored.*. [i-farwed, α. and β.; yvarwed, γ.; farwed, Cx.] Al þis he dede by assent and heste of þe queene. Þanne þe queene byȝede*. [byȝude, γ; prayed, Cx.] here housbonde wiþ benygne*. [wyvene, α. and γ.; wyven, β.; om. Cx.] flaterynge, and prayed hym for*. [for] om. β.] to come to þat place þere he hadde i-be; þe kyng graunted and come þider, and sigh Page  215, vol.6 þat place þat was somtyme poore*. [peer, α.; pere, β. and γ.; lyke to Sardanapalus plesure and lust, Cx.] to Sardanapallus his likynge þo*. [þanne, β.] so desrayed*. [desarayed, α.; disarayed, β. and Cx.; dysarayed, γ.] and defouled; whan sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] hadde þis occasioun sche spak to þe kyng and seide: "I pray ȝow, my lord, where beeþ now þe cortyns*. [corteyns, γ.; curteyns, Cx.] and al þe riche array of halles and chambres? Where is now þe pleysynge*. [plesing, β.; plesaunt, Cx.] service of hem þat were i-woned to flatere*. [flatrie, β.; flatre you, Cx.] wiþ ȝou? Where is þe likynge and plesynge of glotonye*. [gloteny, β.] and of leccherie, beeþ þey not al apassed?*. [passyd, Cx.] So, my lord, schal my*. [oure, α., β., and Cx.] flesche*. [oure vleysch, γ.] passe and fal*. [valle, γ.] awey, þat is now i-norsched in gold and in riche array." Herwith here housbonde was overcome, and after his noble batailles and victories and grete prayes þat he hadde i-take, he bytook*. [bytouk, γ.] þe kyngdom to his nevew, and wente to Rome. Þere he come nouȝt openliche in siȝte,*. [in syghte as a kyng, Cx.] but he schare his heed, and cloþed hym as a pore man, and wax*. [wex, β.] olde among beggers; bote þe queene Ethelburga wente to þe abbay of Berkynge; þere here suster*. [soster, γ.] hadde i-be abbas. And sche*. [heo, β.] was afterward i-made abbas of þe same maydens, and made a blessed ende, and passed to reste. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 29o. Osricus kyng of Norþhumberlond deide after þe nynþe ȝere [of his kyngdom. After hym Colwulfus regnede nyne ȝere];*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] to Page  217, vol.6 hym Beda wroot þe storie Historiarum Angliæ.*. [Historia Anglorum, α.; Histo|riam Anglorum, β. and γ.; Historia Anglicana, Cx.]Beda, ubi supra. Þat ȝere were i-seie twey griselich*. [grislich, β.] sterres wiþ blasynge crestes aboute þe sonne, þat durede*. [duyrede, γ.] tweye wokes. Þat oon of hem passede erliche tofore the sonne, and þe oþer com after þe sonne at eve; and þese sterres blasede and caste as it were brennynge brondes toward þe norþside, and bodede greet deth and manslauȝter; ffor þanne com a grevous mescheef of Sarsyns,*. [meschyef of Sarasyns, Cx.] and bete*. [but, γ.] doun Gallia, þat is Fraunce. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 25o. Þat ȝere deyde Briȝtwoldus arche|bisshop of Dorobernya, þat is Canturbury. After hym Tad|wynus was archebisshop, and was i-sacred of þe bisshoppes of Londoun, of Wynchestre, and of Rouchestre. Also*. [Also] om. β.] þat ȝere þe souþ provinces anon to þe marche of þe ryver Humber were suget*. [soget, β.] to Ethelbaldus king of Mercia; þe Pictes and þe Scottes hadde*. [hadden, β.] pees*. [pes, γ.] wiþ þe Angles; som Bretons were at here*. [her, β.] owne lawe, and som servede þe Angles. After þe secounde Gregorye [þe þridde Gregory]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was pope enlevene ȝere; he confermed þe worschippynge of holy ymages in a Page  219, vol.6 counsaile þat was i-made at Rome of aboute a þowsand*. [Some later hand has here in|serted the word lewed; a reforming comment.] bisshoppes, and cursed*. [corsed, β.] dredfulliche al þat doþ*. [alle them that done, Cx.] aȝenst þat statute of worschippynge of holy ymages. Also þat ȝere oon Petronax Brixianus wente to þe hille mont Casin,*. [Cassyn, β.] and re|stored þe place covenableliche*. [covenabellyche, γ.; covenably, Cx.] of goodes and catel and of monkes by heste and comfort of pope Gregorie. Tadwynus archebisshop of Caunterbury deide, and Nothelmus*. [Nothelinus, γ. and Cx.] bisshop of Londoun was archebisshop after hym. Also þat ȝere deyde Alwynus þat was*. [þat was] wor, α., β., and Cx.] bisshop of Lichfeld; and Wicta*. [Wytta, Cx.] was bisshop of Lichefeld whan he was dede. And Coita*. [Totta, α., β., and Cx.; Tocca, γ.] was bisshop of Legecestria, þat is Chestre, and Eada*. [Eata α., β., γ., and Cx.] durede ȝit at*. [at] a, Cx.] Dorchestre. Þat ȝere deide þat worthy man Beda þe preost.*. [prust, γ., et infra.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 5o. Þe sevenþe ȝere of his age he was i-take to norschynge*. [norischinge, β.] and to lore to Benet Bisshop, abbot of*. [abbot of] om. Cx.] Girwy, and after his deþ to Colfridus, abbot of þe same place. In his nynþe*. [nyntenþe, β.; nynteþe, γ.] ȝere he was i-made decon*. [dekene, β.; deken, Cx.] of Iohn bisshop of ȝork, and preost in his þrittenþe*. [þrittiþe, α.; xxxti, β.] ȝere. Þat ȝere Page  221, vol.6 he bygan to write, and so he spende al his lyftyme in þe same abbay, and made hym besy*. [busy, β.] to studie and expowne holy writt, and among þe besynesse þat he ne*. [ne] om. α., β., and Cx.] hadde [everiche day in þe service of religioun and in syngynge in chirche, he hadde]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] greet swetnesse and likynge to lerne, to teche, and to write. He wroot þrescore bookes and eyȝtene; þe bookes he rekeneþ in his storie Anglicana.*. [historia Anglicana, Cx.] Here lakkeþ and failleþ wit and speche to wondre*. [wondrye, γ.] at þe fulle þat a man þat was so wiþ oute use of scole made so many noble volumes in so sober wordes in so litel space of his lyftyme. Of al þis I conclude þat he com nevere at Rome; þey som men wil*. [wole, β.] mene þat he went to Rome to be þere present, and to schewe þat his bookes were accordynge to þe loore of holy chirche, and þat if þey were nouȝt accordynge for to amende hym at þe pope his heste. But þat he wente blynd aboute for to preche, þat he was i-ladde by fraude of his man for to preche to stones as it were to men, þat he herde*. [hurde, γ.] þe voys of stones*. [as it . . . stones] om. β.] þat answerede and seide Amen, þat he wente þreis to Rome, þat he fonde þre R and þre F i-write,*. [writen, β.; wryten, Cx.] and expowned what it was to mene, I fynde*. [Y vynde, γ.] it nouȝt i-write*. [writen, β.; wreton, Cx.] in bookes of auctorite. Som men telleþ Page  223, vol.6 þat suche [a wrytynge*. [writing, β.; writynge, γ.] was founden,*. [yvounde, γ.] R. R. R. F. F. F., and *. [sich, β.; soche, γ.]such]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] an exposicioun: regna ruent Romæ ferro flammaque fameque; þat is to menynge, kyngdoms of Rome schal falle*. [valle, γ.] by fuyre and iren,*. [yre, β. and γ.] also by honger. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. But by pope Sergius his pistel þat was i-sent to abbot Colfridus it is i-knowe þat Beda was i-sent after and i-prayed for to come to Rome for to assoyle*. [asoyl, γ.] questiouns þat were þere i-mevede.*. [meoved, β., et infra.] Here take hede how worþy þe court of Rome [hylde*. [huld, γ.] hym, þat þe court of Rome]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] hadde nede*. [neode, β. and γ.] to have hym to declare and to assoille þe questiouns þat þere were i-meved. And also how worþy we schal holde hym by manere of his leuynge and of his techynge. He myȝte not be vicious þat spende so his witte and þouȝt in expouninge of holy writte. But his clennesse was moche i-sene*. [seen myche, β.] at his laste ende, for sevene wookes*. [wekes, Cx.] contynualliche his stomak hadde indignacioun of mete and drynke, so þat unneþe he myȝte eny mete holde,*. [reteyne ony mete, Cx.] and was streiȝt*. [strait, β.; streyt, γ.; strayt, Cx.] and schort breþed. But for al þat he sparede not þe travayle of lettrure*. [letture, γ.] and of bookes, bote everiche day, among þe Page  225, vol.6 detty*. [dytty, γ.] travaylle of service and of psalmes, he tauȝte his disciples in lessouns and in questiouns, and he tornede Seynt Iohn his gospel into Englisshe, and seide, "Lerneþ, my*. [myn, α.] smale children, while I*. [Ich, β.; ych, γ.] am wiþ ȝou,*. [alive and with you, Cx.] I*. [Y, β. tris and γ. bis.] wot nouȝt how longe I*. [Y, β. tris and γ. bis.] schal wiþ ȝow abyde;" and evere among he seide þat sawe of Am|brose, "I have nouȝt so i-leved among ȝow þat me schameþ to lyve; noþer me dredeþ to deye, for me*. [me] we, β.] haveþ*. [we habbeþ, γ.] a good Lord." By nyȝte, whanne he hadde no man to teche, he travailled besiliche in bedes-byddynge, and þonked*. [þonkynge, α. and β.] God of alle. Þe Tewesday*. [Tuseday, β.; Tywesday, γ.] tofore þe Ascencioun his deeþ neighede,*. [neyhed, Cx.] and his feet gonne*. [bygunne, β.; bygonne, Cx.] to swelle; he was i-led*. [I ded, α.; aneled, β.; yeeled, γ.; om. Cx.] and anoynt*. [anoyt, γ.] and i-housled,*. [yhosled, γ.] and kessed*. [kisside, β.; kyssede, γ.] his breþeren, and prayed hem alle to have*. [habbe, γ.] of hym mynde,*. [munde, γ.] and he ȝaf to meny of his servauntes þinges þat he hadde i-kept in privete.*. [privyte, β.] In þe Ascencioun day þe cloþe of here*. [heer, Cx.] was i-sprad, and he leyde hym doun and prayed þe grace of þe Holy Goost, and seide: "Oo*. [O, γ.] Kyng of bliss, Lord of vertues, þat hast þe pris, and art Page  227, vol.6 þis day i-steie*. [steyed, β.; ystowe, γ.] up above alle hevenes, leve þou us not faderles, but sende þou into us þat byheste of þe Fader þe Goost for*. [of, α. and β.] soþnesse." Whanne þat was i-ended he ȝalde*. [ȝeelde, β.; yelded, Cx.] up þe laste breeþ wiþ a wel greet swetnesse of smyl,*. [smel, β.] and so*. [so] þanne, β.] he was i-buried þere; but þe comyn fame telleþ þat he is*. [now, add. β. and γ.] at Durham nowþe,*. [nowþe] om. α., β., and γ.; now, Cx.] wiþ Seynt Cuthbert; and wiþ hym was i-buryed wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β., bis.] al þe knowleche anon to þe conquest of dedes of Engelond, and nygh*. [neiȝ, β., bis.] al þe connynge of lettres; for after his*. [þat, β.] tyme after lewed*. [lewide, β., bis.] come more lewed,*. [lewide, β., bis.] as þe shameliche vers*. [versus, β. tris; verses, Cx.] þat were i-wrete on his tombe bereþ greet witnesse of unkonnynge; þat vers*. [tho verses, Cx.] were unworþy to be i|wrete on so worþy a manis tombe; þese beeþ*. [buþ, γ.] þe vers: "Beda þe preost*. [prust, γ.] resteþ here i-buried in þe flesch;*. [vleysch, γ.] Crist graunte his soule to be glad in hevene for evere; Graunt hym to drinke þe wel of wisdom þat he haþ nowþe*. [þat he mouþe, γ.; now, Cx.] Desired besiliche*. [desyreth bysylych, γ.] alwey riȝt wiþ love gret." Aboute þat tyme Ricoldus duke of Frisons was i-tornede by the prechynge of Seynt Wilfranus*. [Wulfranus, β.] þe bisshop, and wolde i-cristned be;*. [be i-cristened, α.; y-folled, β.; be yvolled, γ.] and putte his owne*. [oon, β.; one, Cx.]Page  229, vol.6 foot*. [hys o vote, γ.] into*. [into] in, β.] þe fontstoon,*. [vantstone, γ.] and wiþdrouȝ þat oþer, and axede of hem þat stood aboute wheþer þere were mo of his predeces|sours in paradys oþer in helle, and he was answerd þat þere were mo in helle; he herd*. [hurd, γ.] þat and drough his foot*. [voot, γ.] out of þe water, and seide: "It is esiere*. [esyur, γ.] þat I folwe*. [Y folowe, β.] þe more þan þe lasse."*. [leese, β.] And so he was bygiled of þe fende,*. [vend, γ.] and deide after*. [afterward, β.] þe þridde day. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Aboute þat tyme deyde Seint Fredeswyde*. [Frydeswyd, γ.; Frydeswyde, Cx.] þe mayde, i-bore at Oxen|forde, þe douȝter of duke Didianus.*. [Didanius, α.; Didamus, β. and γ.; duc Dydamus, Cx.] Kyng Algarus, a lecherous man, folowede*. [folewide, β.; volwede, γ.] here anon to þe citee of Oxenford, and whanne þe mayde was i-entred into þe citee þe ȝates closede*. [closiden, β.] and were i-schette*. [tynde, β.; ytund, γ.; closeden and shytt, Cx.] al by hymself, and the kyng werþ blynde þat pursewede*. [pursued, β.] here. But by prayeng of þe mayde he hadde his siȝht aȝe. Seþþe after þat tyme kynges of Engelonde dredeþ for to come wiþ ynne þat citee for drede of mishappes þat myȝte hym befalle. Colwulfus, kyng of Norþhomberlond, Page  231, vol.6 after eiȝte ȝere of his kyngdom, lefte his kyngdom to his cosyn Egbertus, þe sone of his fader broþer, and bycam a monk at Beda his abbay; and Egbertus [regnede]*. [From Cx.] nyntene ȝere. ℞. Bote William*. [Wiliam, γ.] de Regibus seiþ þat he was i-schore at Lyndefare*. [Lyndisfare, β.; Lyndyfare, γ.] cherche, and at þe laste i-buryed byside Seynt Cuthbert. Notelmus*. [Nothelinus, β., γ., and Cx.] archebisshop of Caunterbury deide, and Cuthberd, bisshop of Herford, was archebisshop after hym.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

THE fifþe Constantinus, after his fader Leo, was emperour þre and þritty ȝere; þis, as his fader used, took*. [touk, γ.] ymages out of chirche in everiche place and sette hem a fuyre.*. [vuyr, γ.] Etheldredus, kyng of West Saxons, deide þe fourtenþe ȝere of his kyngdom. His cosyn Cuthbert was kyng after hym, and wered*. [werred, β.; werryd, Cx.] ofte tyme aȝenst Ethelbaldus*. [Ethelwaldus, Cx.] kyng of Mercia, and regnede [sixtene ȝer. His cosyn Sigebertus regnede]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] after hym two ȝere. He was Page  233, vol.6 proude*. [prout, γ.] of þe happes of his predecessour, and by-ladde*. [bylad, β.; bylade, γ.] his sugettes harde and evel, and tornede þe lawes at his owne wille, and slouȝ þe noble erle Cumbranus evel and wrecched|liche,*. [wickedliche, α.; wickidlich, β.; wykkedlyche, γ.] for he hadde i-spoke to hym of his evel berynge and dedes; but at þe laste, for he wolde nouȝt be amended,*. [amendet, γ.] he was i-put out of þe kyngdom. Þanne he wente into a woode and hidde*. [hudde, γ.] hym self, and þe eorle his*. [erles, β.] swynherde þat was i-slawe fonde*. [vond, γ.] hym and slowȝ hym. Aboute þat tyme deyde Charles Martellus;*. [Marcellus, β.] after hym his tweie sones, þe secounde Pipinus and Charloman,*. [Charlemayne, Cx., et infra.] come to þe principate of þe kynges hous; but Charloman,*. [Charlomayn, β.] after þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ.] ȝere of his principate, [left of þe principate]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of þe kynges hous*. [of . . . hous] om. β.] by counseile of his broþer, and took þe wey to Rome, and was i-schore monk in pope Zaka|rias his tyme, and made an abbay in þe hille mont Serapte,*. [Sarapt, β.; Sarapte, Cx.] and lyvede þere somdel longe tyme; but at þe laste, for Frenche men come þider to ofte to hym as to hire*. [hure, γ.] lord, as þey dede somtyme, he wente þennes to mont Cassyn. Þe pope Page  235, vol.6 dede*. [dide, β., et infra; huy dude, γ.] as he was*. [Þe pope deede as he was] and þei, β.; And they, Cx.] i-prayed hym,*. [hym . . . i-prayed] om. γ.] þat he wolde sende lettres to þe kyng of Fraunce for to restore aȝen Seynt Benet his body to mont Cassyn. Þe pope dede as he was i-prayed,*. [hym . . . i-prayed] om. γ.] and þe kyng of Fraunce heet þe monkes of Floriacer*. [to, add. β.; Floriacio, Cx.] delyvere Seynt Benet his body. Þanne þe monkes gonne*. [bigunne, β.] to wepe*. [wuepe, γ.] and to faste,*. [vaste, γ.] and prayed God besilich*. [bysylyche, γ.] þat þe body moste*. [must, Cx.] wiþ hem abyde. God herde*. [hurde, γ.] here prayers, and smot þe messangers*. [messagers, Cx.] þat were i-sent, and made hem start*. [starke, Cx.] blynde; and so þey*. [huy, γ.] faillede of her purpos, and wente into Italy aȝe. Þo the secounde Pipinus, prefecte of þe paleys,*. [palys, β.] governed þe kynges hous of Fraunce under kyng Hildericus, þe sone of Theodoricus, for he was an unprofitable*. [unprofythabel, γ.] man and to esy, and feng*. [vyng, γ.; resseyved, Cx.] nouȝt of þe kyngdom bote þe name of kyng and his lyflode.*. [livelode, Cx.] Pipinus axede*. [axide, β.] of þe pope Zacharias, ȝif he schulde be kyng þat hilde hym apayde onliche wiþ þe name of kyng, and ȝaf hym to sleuþe,*. [slouthe, Cx.] and dede*. [dude, γ.] non oþer good. Þe poope wroot aȝen and seide þat he schulde have*. [habbe, γ.]Page  237, vol.6 þe name and be kyng þat ruleþ wel þe comynte. Þe Frensche men were glad of þis answere, and closede Hildericus in an abbay, and made Pipinus kyng, and after þe eyȝteþe*. [eiȝtenþe, β.] ȝere he was made emperour by decree of Zacharias þe pope. Þanne he compellede Astulphus, kyng of Italy, þat impugnede*. [inpugned, Cx.] þe riȝt of Rome, for to restore þat he hadde i-take, and made hym delyvere and ȝeve plegges. After Gregory Zacharias was pope twelve ȝere. Þis wente*. [in a time, add. β.; on a time, add. Cx.] toward Ravenna ryȝt in þe mydel of Iuyn,*. [June, β.] and was i-heled*. [coverd, Cx.] alday*. [al a day, β.] with a cloude þat God hadde i-sente for he schulde nouȝt be i-brent wiþ þe grete hete of the sonne, and al nyȝt þat cloude abood by sides his tente, and roos eft amorwe. Also fury*. [fuyry, β.; vury, γ.; fyry, Cx.] ostes wente to fore þat holy man in þe cloudes. Þe order of Esterne*. [Ester, α. and γ.; Estre, β.; the Eester, Cx.] was destourbed;*. [dysturbet, γ.; distourbled, Cx.] Ȝe*. [þe, β.] ȝounger*. [ȝunger, γ.] Wilfridus, bisshop of ȝork, deyde, and after hym Egbertus, kyng Egbertus his broþer, was bisshop sex and þritty [ȝeres].*. [From Cx.; ȝere, β.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro [primo],*. [From Cx. The number of the book is also omitted here in β.]et de Pontificibus, libro 4o. By his witt and sleyþe*. [sleiȝþe, β.] and his broþer Page  239, vol.6 þe kynges money he apparailed*. [reparailed, β.; reparaylde, γ.; reparayled, Cx.] þe*. [þat, α. and γ.] see and amended it in tweye places,*. [states, α., β., γ., and Cx.] for he was a man of greet herte and of grete witt, and took*. [touk, γ.] strongliche heede*. [hyde, γ.] þat, as it is greet pryde to coveyte and desire ouȝt þat is noȝt riȝtful, so it is greet lewed|nesse and wrecchednesse*. [wrechedines, Cx.] to forgendre*. [vorgendre, γ.] what is detty and riȝtful. Þerfore þe archebisshop his pal, þat þe firste Paulinus þat was i-putte out by strenþe*. [strengþe, β.] of enemyes hadde i-lefte at Rouchestre, and menye*. [many, Cx.] of his predecessours hadde forgen|dred*. [forgendride, β.; vorgendred, γ.] it þere, he gat it aȝen by grete instaunce and menye*. [money, Cx.] þat he made at þe court of Rome. Also he ordeyned at ȝork a noble librarye.*. [lyberarye, Cx., et infra.] Þe nobel doctour of Englisshe men Alcuinus, þat was i-sent to kyng Charles for pees*. [peas, Cx.] of Englisshe men, in his pistel þat he sente to holy chirche into Engelond, of þat library makeþ noble mynde;*. [munde, γ.] also he writeþ to kyng Charles in þis manere: "ȝeveþ*. [Yeve, Cx.] me bookes of loore, suche as I*. [soche as Ich, γ.] hadde in my contray in Engelond, by þe wit of my maister Egbertus, and I schal sende to ȝow some of oure children, þat schal take þerof what is nedefulle,*. [nedfol, γ.] and brynge into Page  241, vol.6 Fraunce þe floures of Bretayne; for allone*. [al on an orchard, γ.] oon*. [oon] an, β. and Cx.] orchard i-closed schal be at ȝork, and at Turon*. [Turoyn, β. and Cx.] þe springynge of Paradyse." Þat ȝere diede Seint Danyel, bisshop of Wynchestre; after hym com Hunfridus.*. [Humfridus, Cx.] After Zacharias,*. [Sacarias, α.] Stevene was pope fyve ȝere; þis anoynted*. [anoynte, γ.] Pipinus his tweie sones, and made hem emperours, Charloman and the grete Charles. Seþþe þat tyme þe empere of Rome passede*. [passide, β., et infra.] from þe Grees*. [Grekes, β.] to Frensche men, and þanne to Germans. Kenulphus of Serdicus*. [Cerdicus, β.] his kynde in þe fifte degre,*. [gree, α. and β.; gre, γ.] Penda his nevew i-gete*. [goten, Cx.] of Kenwalchus, was a grete man; his vertues passede his fame. By help of þe West Saxons, he putte here kyng Sigebertus out of þat kyngdom for þe gretnes of his evel dedes, and regnede in his stede þritty ȝere; but he graunted hym þe province of Hamptoun for he hadde i-slawe duk*. [slayn duke, β.; duc, γ.] Cumbranus. Þo he was i-putte al*. [al] om. Cx.] awey,*. [alwey, β.] and hidde*. [hudde, γ.] hym in a wode, and was i-slawe of þe kynges*. [dukes, β. and Cx.; duyk his, γ.] swynherd. Ethelbaldus, kyng of Mercia, was i-slawe at Sigeswolde*. [Sigiswolde, β.] of Beornredus*. [Beornredes, β.] þe tyraunt, and was Page  243, vol.6 i-buried at Rependoun.*. [Ripindoun, β; Rypindon, Cx.] But now*. [now] nouȝt, β.] longe afterward Offa, Ethebaldus his nevew, slouȝ Beornredus þe tyraunt, and regnede in his stede nyne and þritty ȝere in Mercia. Þis overcom in *. [α, add. β.]batayle þe Northumbres, þe West Saxons, and Kentisshe men, so þat he tornede*. [tourned, Cx.] þe archebisshop his see*. [se, γ.] out of Caunterbury to Lichefeld in þe province of Mercia. Also he translated Seynt Albon his bones to þe more abbay þat he hadde i-bulde. He ȝaf to þe pope, Peter his vicary, a rente by þe ȝere of everich hous of þe*. [his, α., β., and γ.] kyngdom. He made also a greet dyche þat is evere i-sene to departe bytwene*. [bitwe, β.] Wales and þe kyngdom of Mercia, þe whiche diche*. [whoche dych, γ.] ȝit hatte Offediche: loke*. [loke] thou shalt fynde, Cx.] more herof in þe firste book, capitulo de plateys*. [plateis, β. and γ.] regalibus. Willel|mus de Regibus, libro 1o. Þis Offa fondede to gete frendschipe*. [vrendschyp, γ.] of kynges, and maried his douȝter Ethelburga to Brithiricus,*. [Briȝtricus, β.; Bryhtricus, γ.; Bryghtrycus, Cx.] kyng of West Saxons. He sente Alcuinus Abinus,*. [Albinus, α. and β.; om. Cx.] doctor of Englisshe men, to Charles kyng of Fraunce, for to procure*. [procre, β.] pees.*. [procre pes, γ.] For þere was so greet discord and stryf bytwene þe Page  245, vol.6 kyngdoms þat passage of marchandyse*. [marchaundes, α., β., and γ.; marchauntes, Cx.] was forbode*. [vorbode, γ.] in eyþer side. Organs com first into Fraunce, i-send of Constantyn þe emperour [kyng]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] of Grees, to Pipinus, kyng of Fraunce. Egbertus, kyng of Northumberlond, was i-schore monk, and his sone Oswulfus regnede after hym, and was i-slawe in þe ende of his firste ȝere of [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] Norþhumbres. After hym Moll, þat heet Ethelwold also, regnede sevene ȝere. Marianus. After Stevene, Paul was pope ten ȝere, a mylde man in alle þinges. In his tyme Gengulphus was in his floures in Bur|goyn.*. [Burguyn, γ.] In his*. [α, α., β., γ., and Cx.] tyme he bouȝte a welle in Fraunce, and prayed of God, and hadde it graunted, þat þat*. [that thylke, Cx.] welle moste springe out in Burgoyne.*. [Burguyn, γ.] Þis lefte his wif, for sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] hadde i-broke spousebreche,*. [spousehod, α., and γ.; spouse|ode, β.; spouseed, Cx.] and was i-slawe of þe clerk þat lay*. [lay] had lay, Cx.] by his wyf. Whanne he was dede, God dede*. [dide, β.] meny miracles*. [myrakels, γ., tris.] for hym; but his wif spak yvel of þe myracles, and seide: "ȝif*. [ȝif] whan, Cx.] Gengulphus, myn housbonde, doþ*. [duþ, γ.] myracles myn ers*. [arse, Cx., et infra.] schal synge;" and so it was i-doo, ffor as ofte as sche*. [hue, γ.] spak after|ward, Page  247, vol.6 afterward*. [afterward] bis in MS.] her ers wolde synge wiþ a foule*. [voul, γ.; fowle, Cx.] noyse. Molle,*. [Mull, Cx.] kyng of Norþhumberlond, lefte þe kyngdom, and Al|rudus*. [Aluredus, α., β. et infra, γ., and Cx.] regnede after hym nyne ȝere. Þis Alrudus*. [Aluredus, α., β. et infra, γ., and Cx.] hadde tweie*. [twy, γ.] sones, Osredus, þat was þe þridde þat regnede in his stede*. [in his stede] transposed in β.] after hym; also*. [and, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Seynt Alcmundus, þat was i-slawe aftirward whan he halp þe men of Mercia aȝenst þe West Saxons. Paul, þe pope, deide, and Constantyn, a lewed man, was i-made pope by maistrie and by strengþe, and was pope oon ȝere, and dede*. [dide, β.] sclaundre*. [sklaunder, Cx.] to all holy chirche, [but by cherte*. [chierte, Cx.] of Cristen men he was y-put out of cherche,*. [chirche, β.]]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and his eyȝen*. [yene, γ.] [were]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-put out. Þat ȝere deyde Pipinus, kyng of Fraunce, in an evel þat was bytwene vel*. [fel, β.; fell, Cx.] and flesche,*. [vleysch, γ.] after þat he hadde i-regned eiȝte and twenty ȝere.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum. Carolus.

WHANNE Pipinus was dede the Frenche men delede*. [departed, Cx.] þe kyngdom bytwene his tweie sones, Charles and Charleman;*. [Charloman, β. (et infra), γ. (semper).]Page  249, vol.6 but Charleman deide after two ȝere, and þanne Charles hadde al þe kyngdom, and governed it nobeliche*. [nobly, Cx.] after þat tyme sixe and fourty ȝere. Þanne Charleman his wif [and his children]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fliȝ*. [vlyȝe, γ.] to Deserius,*. [Desiderius, α., β., γ., and Cx.] kyng of Longobardes, and prayed hym of help and socour wiþ oute eny nede, for no man compellede hem*. [hym, γ.] þerto. But Charles firste overcome duke Hanald,*. [Hunald, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and wan Gyen and made it suget. At þe prayer of pope Adrian he bysegede*. [bisegide, β.] Desiderius, kyng of Italy, in þe citee of Papie, for he was rebel aȝenst þe cherche of Rome, as his broþer Astulphus hadde i-be. Charles took*. [touk, γ.] hym in þe citee of Papie, and exciled hym, and made his owne sone Pipinus kyng of Italy in his stede. In þat batayle deide Amicus and Amelius, Crist his knyȝtes, and his herty frendes;*. [vrendes, γ.] of hem beeþ i-rad*. [ben red, Cx.] wonderful dedes. At þe laste he*. [he] Charles, β. and γ.; Charles chastysed, Cx.] chastede þe Saxons and þe Sclaves, and took meny of hem and sente hem into dyvers places of Fraunce; so þat þe Saxons forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] here mametrie, and were i-made oon peple*. [on pupel, γ.] Saxons and Frenche men. Þer|fore*. [Þerafter, β.]Page  251, vol.6 Charles wente to Spayne, and wan þe dales, laundes,*. [londes, Cx.] and contrayes aboute þe hilles montes Pireney.*. [Pireni, Cx.] But he was assailled*. [assoylled, Cx.] in þe way wiþ busshementes*. [buschmentes, β.; boschementes, γ.] of Gaskyns,*. [Gaskoynes, β.; Gascoyns, Cx.] so þat þey*. [huy, γ.] slouȝ þe utter deel*. [otterdel, γ.] of his oost; þere Olyver, cheef sewere of þe kynges bord, and Rouland, eorl of þe paleys,*. [palys, β.] were i-slawe, and meny [oþere]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of þe peeres of Fraunce. De libro Turpini. In a day whan trewes*. [truwes, β.; trwes, γ.] was i-graunted [in]*. [From α., β., and γ.; were graunted on, Cx.] eiþer side, Aigolan|dus, a strong prince of Spayne, com to Charles to be i-cristned,*. [to be folled, β.; yvolled, γ.] and sigh al þat were at þe bord realliche i-cloþed and likyng|liche*. [delyciously, Cx.] i-fedde,*. [yved, γ.] and sigh afer þrittene pore men sitte on þe grounde and have*. [habbe, γ.] foule*. [voul, γ.; broken, Cx.] mete and symple wiþ oute eny bord, and he axede what þey*. [huy, γ.] were. Me answerde hym and seide: "Þese þrittene beeþ Goddes messangers,*. [messagers, Cx., et infra.] and prayeþ for us, and bringeþ to us*. [us] om. β.] mynde*. [munde, γ.] of*. [of] om. γ.] þe nombre of Cristes disciples." "As I see," quod*. [quaþ, γ.] Aigolandus, "ȝoure lawe is nouȝt riȝtful þat suffreþ Goddes messangers be þus evel bylad;*. [evyl servyd, Cx.] he Page  253, vol.6 serveþ evel his lord þat so fongeþ*. [vongeþ, γ.; resseyved, Cx.] his servauntes;" and so he was lewedliche offended, and despised cristenynge,*. [fullouȝt, β.; vollouȝt, γ.; Crys|tendom, Cx.] and wente hoom aȝen; but Charles worschipped afterward*. [afturward, γ.] pore men þe more. Trevisa. Aigolandus was a lewed goost,*. [gost, Cx.] and lewedliche i-meved*. [ymeoved, β.] as þe devel hym tauȝte, and blende*. [blend, β.; blynded, Cx.] hym þat he kouþe nouȝt i-knowe þat men schulde be i-served as here astaat*. [staat, β.; state, Cx.] axeþ. Giraldus,*. [distinctio, add. β.]prima, capitulo 17o. Here after Charles wan Gallia Narbonensis, and made suget þe Capu|anes and þe Beneventanes, þe Danes and þe Sweves, þat were i-confeþered*. [confedered, β.] to hem; and he dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] al þat [at]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] on iornay. Kynges of Bretouns, of Angles, of Scottes, of Peers,*. [Pers, β. and γ.; Perce, Cx.] [and]*. [From α., β., and γ.] of Grees, worschipped*. [worschipiden, β.; worshipeden, Cx.] hym wiþ ȝiftes; and, as Turpyn þe arche|bisshop telleþ, Charles was faire, and a*. [α] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] wel farynge*. [welvaryng, γ.] man*. [man] om. β. and Cx.] of body but*. [but] and, γ.] sturne*. [sterne, β.] of face. His body was eyte*. [eyȝte, α. and γ.; eiȝte, β.] foot*. [vot, γ., bis.] of*. [on, α., β., γ., and Cx.] lengþe, his face*. [fase, γ.] a span and an half, and his berd was [of]*. [From α. and β.] a foot longe. He cleef*. [clef, β. and γ.] a two wiþ his swerd a knyȝt i-armed Page  255, vol.6 at oon strook. He wolde esiliche*. [eslyche, γ.] wiþ his hondes folde*. [volde, γ.] and bende*. [beende, β.] foure hors schoon*. [horse shone, Cx.] at ones. He wolde heve*. [hebbe, γ.] a stond|ynge knyȝt i-armed from the grounde wiþ his oon hond. He wolde ete an hare*. [haare, β.] al hool, oþer tweye hennes, oþer a goos, at oon mele; and he wolde drynke a litel wyne i-watred.*. [a lyte wyn ywatert, γ.] He was so scars of drynke þat seelde he wolde drynke þreis passyng*. [passyng in] at, Cx.] in*. [in] over, β.] his soper. Þis*. [Charles, add. Cx.] was gracious and mylde to pore men and to cherches. Over þe Ryne, at Magons, he made a brigge*. [brugge, γ.] of fyve*. [vyf, γ.] hondred paas.*. [paces, β.; pas, γ.] As Frensche men dooþ, he tauȝte his sones as sone as þey myȝte for ȝouþe to ride and honte,*. [honty, α., β., and γ.] and to doo*. [doo] om. β.] dedes of armes, and lerne science*. [sciences, β., et infra.] of scole. He ordeyned his douȝtres to worche wolwerk wiþ spyndel*. [spendyl, γ.] and with distaf, and ordeyned hem to use suche werkes for þey*. [þey] a, γ.] schulde nouȝt wexe slouȝ*. [slowe, β.] by idelnesse. He hylde hym nouȝt apayde wiþ his contray speche. He couþe bettre understonde þe longage of Grew*. [Gruwe, β.] þan speke it. In loore of gramer, Peter of Pise was Page  257, vol.6 his maister; and in oþer science of clergy, Alcuinus Albinus, an Englische man, was his maister. Charles fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to write lettres; þerfore he bare a peyre of tables*. [a payr tables, Cx.] for to write ynne, but it profited riȝt nouȝt,*. [litel, β.] for þat travaille was bygonne to late. He wolde be at chirche erliche and late, and at houres þat was*. [were, β.] i-seide by nyȝte. He ordeyned*. [ordeygned, Cx.] and assigned gret almes*. [almus, γ.] to pore*. [pour, γ.] men þat were in fer*. [ver, γ.] londes, in Egipt, and in Affrica. He hadde a lyster*. [redar, Cx.] at mete, and hadde greet likynge*. [delyte, Cx.] in Austyn his bookes; and nameliche*. [specially, Cx.] in his bookes de Civitate Dei. In somer-tyme after mete, in þe undermele*. [underntide, α.; undertyde, β., γ., and Cx.] tyde, he wolde take somwhat of apples, and drynke ones þerto, and doo of his cloþes and goo to bedde as it were by nyȝte, and slepe tweie*. [twy, γ.] houres. By nyȝte he wolde ofte*. [ofte . . . wolde] om. Cx.] slepe in þis manere; now*. [nouȝt, α. and β.] onliche awake, and eft slepe; but he wolde*. [ofte . . . wolde] om. Cx.] foure*. [voure, γ.] siþes oþer fyve*. [vyve, γ.] siþes awake and aryse, and ligge*. [lye, β.; lygge adoun, γ.] doun and slepe. Þreis he com to Rome, and liȝt doun of his hors a myle of þis half Rome,*. [þe citee, α. and β.] and ȝede on*. [a, α., β., γ., and Cx.] fote*. [ȝude a vote, γ.] into al þe citee, Page  259, vol.6 and cussed*. [kissed, β.; kussede, γ.] al þe pylers of chirches. He delyvered þe Holy Lond, and com aȝen to Constantynnoble; and forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] al þe precious and greet ȝiftes þat Constantyn þe emperour profred hym, outake*. [reserved, Cx.] relikes*. [outake reliques, β.] of holy seyntes. He fenge*. [vyng, γ.] a*. [grete, add. Cx.] party of oure Lordes crosse, and a party of þe crowne of þornes, þat þere in his sight gan to blowe*. [blosme, Cx.] and bare floures. And [on]*. [From α. and γ.; oon, β.] of Cristes nayles, oure lady smok, and Seynt Symeon his arme, and brouȝte þese*. [þues, γ.] relikes with hym to Seynt Mary Chirche at Acquisgrani*. [Aquisgrani, β.] þat he hadde i-founded, and lyth i-buried þere. He founded as meny abbayes as beþ*. [buþ, γ.] lettres in þe A B C. In everich of þilke*. [þelke, γ.] abbayes, by þe ordre of þe fundacioun þerof, he sette and pighte a lettre of gold of þe wight of an hondred pound of Turoneys.*. [Turoneyes, β.; Turoneies, γ.]Trevisa.*. [Trevisa's comment does not appear in β.] God woot*. [wot, γ.] what wight þat schulde be; but, by a statute of the universite of Oxenford, whan eny man is i-congyed*. [ycongeyed, γ.] þere to commence in eny faculte, he schal swere þat he schal not spende at*. [in, α.] his comencement passynge þre þowsand of grootes turonens.*. [turoneies, α. and γ.] Þe groot turoney is somwhat lasse worþy*. [las worþ, γ.] þan an Englische groote, ffor at Brisak uppon [þe]*. [From α. and γ.] Ryne*. [Ryver, γ.] I have i-fonge in chaunge enlevene grotes turoneys for a duket,*. [ducate, γ.] þat is worþy half an Englisshe noble. Page  261, vol.6 But þere is double manere of money of turoneis,*. [turoneies, γ.] more and lasse; þe more hatte grossus turonensis in*. [α, α.] Latyn, and þe lasse hatte parvis*. [Sic.] turonensis. But it may wel be þat þe pound of Turoneys is i-take by tale of money of Turon, oþer by certeyn weyȝtes þat was þere i-used. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweth, γ.] in þe storie: of þis man Charles it is wonder þat he wolde un|neþe marye eny of his douȝtres while he was on lyve,*. [alyve, β.] outake*. [outtake, β.] his eldest douȝter, þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] he mariede to þe kyng of Grees*. [Grece, β.] þat heet Constantyn. Charles seide þat he myȝte nouȝt be wiþ oute companye of his douȝters; þerfore þey*. [þouȝ, β.] he were gracious in oþer dedes, in þat poynt aȝenst fortune he was to blame: and þeyȝ þere were grete speche þerof among þe peple,*. [pupel, γ.] he made it as þey he knewe it nouȝt, and as non supeccioun were of þat foly dede. Þerfore som men weneþ*. [wyneþ, γ.] þat þat was þe synne of Charles þat he wolde nevere of*. [of] om. β.] schryve hym wiþ his mouþe; but unneþe at þe laste by writynge of*. [of] to, β. and Cx.] Seint Gyles. Also þis Charles or he*. [or he] ar a, ℞.] deyde deled his catel in þre parties: oon partie he assignede to pore men, anoþer to chirches, and ȝitte þe þridde partie he delede in foure parties, oon þerof he kepte for to holde his mynde*. [munde, γ.] day, þat oþer to everich dayes use; þe þridde to his sonnes and nevewes, and þe fourþe to his ser|vauntes Page  263, vol.6 þat were of his meyny.*. [houshold, Cx.] He*. [He] Þes prins, γ.] sat ones at mete, and his maister Alcuinus sat to fore*. [tovore, γ.] hym; þanne he axede of his master: "How grete difference*. [diffrence, β.] and space was bytwene a sot and a Scot."*. [The words Scot and sot change places in β. and γ.] "But þe brede of a metebord," quod his maister. [℞.] For to speke and*. [speke and] om. β.] bring stories to acord þat semeþ out of acorde, spekynge of þe empere and of þe kyngdom of Charles. Take hede þat þis Charles while he was ȝong was anoynt*. [anoynted, β.] kyng of the secounde pope Stevene, þe ȝere of oure Lord seven hondred and foure and fifty,*. [voure and vyfty, γ.] while his fader*. [vader (semper), γ.] Pipinus was onlyve,*. [alyve, β.] and regned wiþ his fader and under hym fiftene ȝere anon to his fadir deth. Þanne, after his fadres*. [fader, α.] deþ, þat deide þe ȝere oure Lord seven hondred þre score and eiȝte, he regned wiþ his broþer Charleman*. [Charloman, β.] two ȝere. After his broþer, þat deide þe ȝere of oure Lord seven hondred [and lxx.],*. [From Cx.; þre score and ten, α., β., and γ.; four score and four is written here in a mistake in MS.] Charles helde*. [heelde, β.; huld, γ.] þe kyngdom al hool fourtene ȝere, to*. [to] and deide, MS.] þe ȝere of oure Lord seven hondred foure score and foure. Þat ȝere he wente first to Rome to be i-crowned emperour of Adrian þe pope; and þerafter he was Page  265, vol.6 emperour fourtene*. [xvi., β.] ȝere, to þe ȝere of oure Lord eyȝte hon|dred,*. [and fourtene, wrongly added here in MS.] whanne þe fourþe pope Leo confermed Charles eft em|perour: þerafter he was emperour fourtene ȝere, and deide þe ȝere of his age þre score and twelve; þat was þe ȝere of oure Lord eiȝte hondred and fourtene. Þanne after þat somme men telleþ in þe stories, þat he*. [he] om. γ.] regnede in al sixe and fourty ȝere; þat schal be understonde from his fadir deþ to his owne deth. But who so wil se more of Charles his lyf, mote loke þe bookes of his maister Alcuinus, oþer Turpyn þe archebisshop his bookes. Þat day þat Charles deide at Viean in Fraunce, Tur|pyn was in his bedes, and sigh a companye of blak knyȝtes wende toward Aquisgrani*. [Aquisgrani] Akon, Cx.] for to take Charles soule; and he coniurede þe laste of hem þat he schulde com aȝen whanne þey hadde i-doo, and telle hym truliche*. [treulyche, γ.] what þey dede*. [dide, β.; huy dude, γ.] and how hem spedde. Þanne þe fend*. [vend, γ., bis.] wente and com aȝe, and Turpyn axede*. [axide, β.] of hym, and seide: "What have*. [habbe, γ.] ȝe i-doo?" "We haveþ,"*. [habbeþ, γ., et infra.] quod þe fende, "i-weie*. [weyed, β. and Cx.] Charles his soule; but þilke*. [þelke, γ.] Iame*. [James, Cx.] of Spayne, þat was byheded, leyde so meny Page  267, vol.6 stones and trees*. [tren, β.; þrew, γ.; teres, Cx.] in þe weie*. [weight, Cx.] and balaunce, þat þat*. [þat] om. β.] Charles his goode dedes hadde þe maistrie, and weie*. [weyede, β.; weyȝe, γ.; weyed, Cx.] more þan his evel dedes; and so we haveþ riȝt not i-brouȝt aȝen wiþ us. Charles," quod þe fend, "used to bulde*. [buylde, β.] meny chirches in worschippe of Seynt Iame." After þat Constantyn, þat hadde assaied*. [assayled, β.; assoyled, Cx.] þe poperiche, and i-take it wiþ his*. [his] om. γ.] strengþe, was i-putte out, pope Stevene was pope foure ȝere. Anon he gadrede a synod, and wiþcleped*. [revoked, Cx.] al þat was i-doo by his predecessour, outake bapteme*. [outtake fullouȝt, β.; vollouȝt, γ.] and crisme [and]*. [From β.] what is*. [and what that was, Cx.] ordeyned to savacioun of hem þat dyeþ.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

AFFTER Stevene*. [Stephyn, γ.] þe firste Adrian was pope foure and twenty ȝere. First þis gadrede þe secounde counsaile*. [counceyl, Cx.] at Constantyn|noble of þre hondred fadres and fifty; he made anoþer counsaille in þe citee of Rome with þre hondred fadres and fifty; kyng Charles was present þere. Þo hym was i-graunted riȝt in þe electioun of þe pope, and of þe ordeynynge of þe popes see.*. [se, γ.]Page  269, vol.6 Þe Norþhombres put out here kyng Aluredus, and took Ethel|bertus,*. [Ethelertus, γ.] þat heet Ethelredus*. [Etheldredus, β. and γ.] also, þe sone of Mollus, and made hym here kyng. He regned over hem fyve ȝere. Þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Leo, þe sone of þe fifte Constantyn regnede in Grees*. [Grece, β., et infra.] foure ȝere; he brende for first*. [þirste, β.; vor vurste, γ.; brente in thurste, Cx.] in greet covetise; he took of a cherche a crowne þat was realliche i-hiȝte with charbunkel*. [ryally sette with carbuncle, Cx.] stones, and sette it on his heed, and was i-take wiþ a sodeyn fevere and deide. Þat ȝere Offa kyng of Mercia spoylede Lambert arche|bisshop of Caunterbury of his dignite of primate, and brouȝte þat dignite at*. [at] to, Cx.] Lichefeld, and hilde*. [huld, γ.] it þere while he was onlyve*. [alyve, β.] by assent of pope Adrian. Þe sixte Constantyn, þe sone of þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Leo, regned in Grees wiþ his moder Iren*. [Yrene, α.; Yren, β.; Irene, γ.; Iren, Cx., semper.] ten ȝere. In his laste ȝere fil discord and stryf bytwene þe sone and moder, and þe moder took þe sone and putte*. [potte, γ.] hym in prison, and so sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] regnede allone fyve ȝere. At þe laste the sone hadde help and counsaile of þe Armonyes,*. [Armenyes, β., γ., and Cx.] and cam out of prison, and Page  271, vol.6 pursewed cruelliche his moder and here fautoures.*. [helpers, Cx.] Þanne aftirward þe sone for his [greet]*. [From α., β. (not γ.), and Cx.] cruelnes*. [cruwelnesse, β.] was i-take by heste and strengþe of þe moder, and his yȝen*. [yen, γ.] were i-putte out in so evel manere þat he deide sone aftirward; and [so]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Yrene*. [Yren, β., et infra.] regnede eft*. [eft] after, γ.] allone*. [allone] om. Cx.] fyve ȝere. But Nichoforus Patricius, þat had i-had greet worschippe of Yrene, roos aȝenst hir, and took þe crowne aȝenst þe peples*. [pupel, γ.] wille. And took of here þe tresoure of þe empere wiþ an oth i-made to be harmeles, and excilede*. [exiled, β., bis.] here, and so exciled sche deyde. Þe firste ȝere of þis Constantyn, in a dede man his grave at Constantynnoble was i|founde*. [founden, β.] a plate of gold, in þe whiche plate it was i-write*. [wreton, Cx.] in þis manere: "Crist schal be bore of a*. [α] om. α., β., and γ.] mayde Marye. In hym I*. [Ych, γ.] beleve. Under Constantyn and Yrene soone*. [Sone, Cx.] after*. [eft, α. and Cx.; efte, β.] me þu schalt i-see." Marianus, libro 2o. Þat ȝere Kenul|phus kyng of West Saxone, and Offa kyng of Mercia, fauȝt strongliche*. [vouȝte stronlyche, γ.] for þe citee of Bensyngtoun,*. [Besyngton, β. and Cx.; Ven|syngton, γ.] but Offa hadde þe victorie and þe citee. Þat ȝere þe Norþhumbres put out here kyng Ethelbertus, þat heet Etheldredus also, and made Page  273, vol.6 Alwold*. [Alfwold, α. β., and γ.; Aswolf, Cx.] kyng, þat regnede enlevene ȝere. Þat ȝere þe se|counde synod was i-made at Nicene of þre hondred bisshoppes and fifty in Adrian his tyme. In þat synod aȝenst þe opinioun of þe Grees*. [Grekes, β. and Cx.] it is i-seide þat þe Holy Goost comeþ of þe Fader and of þe Sone. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Kenul|phus kyng of West Saxons caste for to putte Kynehard out of his kyngdom, þe broþer of his predecessour*. [predecessours, α.; predecessors, β.] Sigebertus, and cam by nyȝte to a wommans hous at Mertoun þat was his lemman. Þere Clito cam wiþ foure score felawes, and bysette þe kyng al aboute. But whan þe kynge was awaked he defended manliche hym self, but he was i-slawe at þe laste. And*. [And . . . laste] om. Cx.] þe kynges knyȝtes resede and forsook*. [vorsouke, γ.] Clito his faire*. [veyr, γ.] byhestes;*. [feyr byhestes, β.] but for þey were [fewe, þei were]*. [From β.; bote vor huy were vewe huy were, γ.] dede alle at þe laste.*. [And . . . laste] om. Cx.] Erliche amorwe it was kouþe*. [knowen, Cx.] þar þe kyng was deed; and Osricus þe kynges ledere come wiþ his felowes to þe place, and slowȝ Clito and his felowes everich one, and took þe kyng his body, and buried it at Wynchestre. After Kenulphus Brithricus,*. [Brihtricus, β.; Brihtric, γ.] of Cerdicus his blood, was kyng of West Saxons Page  275, vol.6 fiftene ȝere. Anon by help of kyng Offa, whos douȝter he hadde i-wedded, he put out Egbertus þe sone of Alcmundus þe underkyng, þat was þe sone of Offa, þat cam of þe blood [of]*. [From Cx.] Kyngilphus*. [Kyngilsus, β.; Kyngislus, γ.; Gengulsus, Cx.] and of Ine. Anon as he was so i-putte out*. [out] doune, Cx.] he wente into Fraunce, and usede þe scole of chivalrie; and whanne Brithricus*. [Briȝtricus, β.; Brihtricus, γ.] was dede he come aȝe, and regned, and tauȝte þe scole of chivalrye as he hadde i-lerned in Fraunce. Lull arche|bisshop of Caunterbury deyde, and Ruchilfus*. [Rychulfus, α., β., and Cx.; Richulfus, γ.] was archebisshop after [hym]*. [From β.] eyȝte and twenty ȝere. He bygan to bulde Seynt Albons*. [Albon, α.] his grete chirche, from the foundement*. [fundement, β.] of a wonder werk of brend*. [brand, β.] tyle, and brouȝt [hit]*. [From α., β., and γ.] nobleliche to a good*. [a good] an, α. and β.] ende. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo.*. [quarto, α. and β.] Þis ȝere kyng Offa mariede his douȝter Ethelburga to Briȝtricus*. [Brihtricus, β.; Brythricus, γ.] kyng of West Saxons; of here*. [hure, γ.] it is i-seide þat sche fondede*. [laboured, Cx.] besi|liche by myȝt oþer by venym for to slee alle þe meynyals*. [houshold men, Cx.] of here housbonde. Þanne in a tyme sche*. [heo, β.] ȝaf venym for to slee ȝongelynges*. [for . . . ȝongelynges] to a ȝongelynge, α., β., and Cx.] þat was homeliche wiþ þe kyng, and slouȝ boþe Page  277, vol.6 þe kyng and þe ȝongelyng. Þanne sche*. [heo, β.] wente to þe kyng of Fraunce, and hadde wiþ here greet tresoure and riches. Þanne in a tyme þe kynges*. [þe kyng and his, α., β., γ., and Cx.] sone stood in a solere,*. [soler, β.] and þe kyng ȝaf here*. [hure, γ] choys wheþer sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] wolde have to housbonde of þe fader or*. [oþer, α. and β.] of þe sone; and sche chees*. [hue ches, γ.] þe sone. "Haddest [þu]*. [From β.] i-chose*. [Haddest thou chose, Cx.] me," quoþ þe kyng, "þou scholdest have*. [habbe, γ.] [had]*. [From β.] my sone. But for þu hast forsake me, þu schalt not have me noþer*. [ner, Cx.] my sone; þu moste leve þe pride of þe world*. [worle, γ.] and goo into an abbay." Þere a lewed man lay by here, and sche was i-putte out, and deide in povert. After þat time þereof it com to be used among [the]*. [From Cx.] Angles þat þe knyȝtes*. [kynges, α., β., and Cx.] wif schulde not be i-cleped queene noþer sitte by þe kyng in þe kynges sete. Henricus, libro 4o. Þat ȝere was i-seie a wonder signe of þe cros on Englisshe men cloþes, and blood fil*. [blod vul, γ.] doun from hevene to þe erþe.*. [eorþe, γ.] We ȝeveþ none unwise doom*. [We . . . doom] It is not knowen, Cx.] wethir*. [wheþer, β.] þis byfel in token of þe mocioun of Ierusalem þat fel*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] þre hondred ȝere afterward in William þe Reede his Page  279, vol.6 tyme, oþer elles to amende Englische men for þey schulde drede þe wreche þat was i-come*. [i-come] to come, β.] uppon hem by þe Danes; bote*. [bote . . . privete] but as God wil soo mote it be, Cx.] we leteþ God i-worþe wiþ his owne privete.*. [bote . . . privete] but as God wil soo mote it be, Cx.] Þat ȝere þe Danes come first into Engelond; þe kynges steward*. [stiward, β.; styward, Cx.] of West Saxons wente aȝenst hem unwisliche*. [unwiseliche, β.; unwyslych, γ.] wiþ fewe*. [veaw, γ.] men, and was of hem i-slawe. Seynt Oswold*. [Alswold, β.; Alfwold, γ.] kyng of Norþhumberlond is i-slawe of his owne men; his nevew Osredus, þe sone of Aluredus and broþer of Alcmundus, regnede after hym, and was sone after i-putte out and i-slawe. After hym Etheldredus, þat was somtyme i-put out of his kyngdom, regned eft, and was sone after*. [afterward slayn, β.] i-slawe. Þerfore Colwulfus bisshop of Lyndifare*. [Lyndisfare, β.; Lyndesfar, Cx.] forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] boþe, and lefte þe see and þe kyngdom. Here after Oswaldus*. [Osbaldus, α. and β.] regnede aftir fewe*. [veaw, γ.] dayes. After hym Ardulphus*. [Adulphus, Cx.] regnede oon ȝere. Þere after þre score*. [lxxvi. yere kynges regneden there, Cx. The word ȝere has got misplaced in MS., and should come after sixtene.] ȝere and sixtene kynges regnede þere, þe laste of hem were Osbrith*. [Osbriht, β. and γ.] and Elle. Þe Danes slouȝ hem at þe citee of ȝork, and al þe floure of here men þe ȝere of oure Lorde eyȝte hondred þre score and seventene. After þat Page  281, vol.6 tyme þe Danes regnede in Norþhumberlond two and fifty ȝere anon to Ethelstan his tyme. Pipinus þe sone of Charles con|spired aȝenst his fader, but his counsaile was i-wried,*. [i-wreyed, α.; wryȝed, β.; ywryed, γ.] and he was i-schore monk and i-closed in an abbay, and his felowes were som byheded and some anhonged*. [anhanged, β.] by þe þrote. Seynt Ethelbertus, kyng of Est Angles, was i-prived boþe of his kyngdom and of his [lyf]*. [From Cx.; lif, β.] by heste of kyng Offa, and by excitynge and counsail of his owne wif Kyneswyda.*. [Kyneswyda, β.; Kineswilda, γ.]

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

OFFA deide, kyng of Mercia, his son Eserkus*. [Egsercus, α., β., γ., and Cx.] regnede after hym oon ȝere, and after hym a mylde man, Kenulphus, Cuthbert his sone, was kyng; he gat on his wif queene Alfritha Quen|drida, Burgenilda, and Seynt Kenelyn.*. [Kenelm, β. and γ. (semper); Kenelme, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 1o in fine. Þis Kenulphus was Penda his nevew in þe fifte degree,*. [gree, α.; gre, γ.] and was a greet man; his virtues passed*. [passide, β.] his fame; at Page  283, vol.6 home he was devoute and mylde; in batayle he was stalworþ,*. [stronge, Cx.] and ofte hadde þe victorie. After Offa he took*. [touk, γ.] wreþe*. [wrath, Cx.] aȝenst Kentische men, and werrede strongliche in here lond, and took here kyng Egbert, þat heet Pern*. [Pren, α., β., and γ.] by his surname, and lad hym wiþ hym i-bounde into Mercia. But sone after he was i-mylded by mercy of manhede in þe buldynge in*. [in] of, Cx.] þe cherche of Wyn|checombe þat he bulde. At þe auȝter he ȝaf þe kyng fredom*. [vredom, γ.] þat was prisoner. Þere were present þrittene bisshoppes and ten dukes; for þat dede al þe cherche sownede for joye, and þe street grucched,*. [stret grochede, γ.; grutched, Cx.] cryde, and made noyse, stertynge*. [startyng, β.] aboute. Also þis restored aȝe þe dignite of primat to Athelardus bisshop of Canturbury, and deyde at þe laste after þe ȝere of his kyngdom foure and twenty, and was i-buried at Wynche|combe, and lefte Kenelme after hym to be his eyre.*. [heyr, γ. and Cx.] Þat tyme at Constantynnoble þe sonne wiþdrowȝ*. [withdrewe, Cx.] his light seventene dayes, and was nouȝt i-seie,*. [seen, β.] so þat meny men trowede þat þat was byfalle for þe blyndynge*. [blendyng, β.; blendynge, Cx.] and puttynge out of kyng Constantyn his eiȝen.*. [yen, γ.]Alfridus. Also þat ȝere, þat was þe tenþe ȝere of Brithricus,*. [Brihtricus, β.] were fury*. [vury, γ.; fyry, Cx.] dragoune i-seie*. [fuyry dragons seen, β.] in Page  285, vol.6 Engelond fleynge*. [vleyng, γ.] by the ayer;*. [eyr, β.] after þat signe com tweie pestilens,*. [pestilences, β.] strong honger, and þe werre of þe*. [þe] om. β.] Danes þat as|saillede*. [assoylede, γ.] first Norþhumberlond and þanne Lyndeseie. But at þat tyme þe Danes were overcome, and fliȝ*. [vlye, γ.] to here schippes. After Adrianus þe fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] Leo was pope twenty ȝere. In a tyme þis wente to Seynt Peter in a Seint Markes*. [Marcus, β. and Cx.] day, wiþ þe letayne, and was i-take in, [and]*. [From β.] his eyȝen*. [yen, α.] i-put*. [yene ypot, γ.] out, and his tonge i-kut*. [kitt, β.] of. But God by myracle restored [hym]*. [From β. and Cx.] his sight and his speche, so þat he spak wiþ oute lettynge.*. [tonge, α., β., and Cx.] Afterward he wente to Charles into Fraunce, and com wiþ hym aȝen to Rome; [þanne]*. [From β.; Thenne, Cx.] wreche was i-take of þe pope his enemyes, and þe pope purged*. [purgide, β.] hym of þat me bare hym on honde; and þo eft he crowned Charles, and confermed hym þat was raþer*. [tofore, Cx.] i-crowned. Nichoforus Patricius ex|cilede*. [exiled, β.] Yrene þe emperesse*. [emperice, β.; emperys, γ.] of Grees,*. [Grece, β.] and assailede and took þe empere with wyles and wiþ strengþe, and regned eiȝte ȝere. Page  287, vol.6 In his tyme þe Est empere faillede al oute. Þe body of Seynt Withburg þe mayde was i-founde*. [founden, β.] hool and sounde in þe town of Derham,*. [Durham, Cx.] þere it was i-buried, after fyve and fifty ȝere: Withburg was þe douȝter of kyng Anna and þe suster of Sex|burga. Þat ȝere Charles was i-crowned emperour of Leo þe pope; seþþe þat tyme þe empere passede*. [passide, β.] from þe Grees*. [Grekes, β. (et infra) and Cx.] to þe Frenschemen and to þe Germans, þat beeþ Almayns. Giral|dus, distinctio prima, capitulo 7o. For þis passynge of þe empere þe Grees, [þeyȝ]*. [From α., β., and γ.] þey faillede in hemself, and stryve more wiþ venym þan*. [þan] þat, MS.] wiþ vertue, more with craft þan wiþ strengþe of bataille, and of Mars þat is i-cleped god of batayle; ȝit þey haveþ*. [ȝut hy habbeþ, γ.] so grete envie to þe Latyns þat þey haveþ*. [hy habbeþ, γ.] wiþ drawe hem out of [þe]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] subieccioun and obedience of þe chirche of Rome. And þerfore whanne þe popes of Rome charged hem ofte to be obedient, and to come aȝe to þe unite of holy chirche, þey usede for to write aȝen in þis manere: "ȝe haveþ wiþ drawe*. [withdrawen, Cx.] ȝow from us, and we wiþdraweþ*. [withdrawe, Cx.] us from ȝow." Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o, et de Pontificibus, libro 3o. Briȝtricus*. [Brihtricus, β., et infra.] kyng of West Saxons deyde, i-poysoned*. [ypuysned, γ.]Page  289, vol.6 by þe venym of his wyf. After hym Egbertus þe sone of Alcmundus þe underkyng, þat was þe sone of Offa, of Ine his blood and kynde,*. [kuynde, γ.] regnede seven and þritty ȝere. Somtyme þis was i-chased of Brithricus, and fliȝ into Fraunce, and come aȝe, and tauȝte what he hadde i-lerned of chevalrie to his sugettis, to al þe peple þat were*. [þat were] þewe and, α.; boond and, β.] free.*. [pupel þewe and vre, γ.; peple bonde and fre, Cx.] He ordeynede knyȝtes delyvere men, strong and swyþer,*. [swipere, β.; swyper, Cx.] and made wepoun*. [wepen, γ.] i-bore*. [to be born, Cx.] in tyme of pees. In a tyme Bernulphus kyng of Mercia scornede his doynge, and he þat was idel*. [idel] om. γ.] and ful*. [fol, γ.] of reste meoveþ hym to batayle þat is i-used in dedes of armes, and heet hym sturnliche*. [sternliche, β.] þat þey*. [he, β. and Cx.] schulde doo hym homage. Þanne þe bataille was i-doo*. [there was bytwene hem a bataille, Cx.] in somertyme at Elyndoun in þe province of Hamptoun; þere was unleche*. [unliche, β.; unlych, γ.; unlike, Cx.] noumbre of*. [of] and, β. and Cx.] array of knyȝtes, for aȝenst an hondred of Egbert his knyȝtes, þat were pale*. [paal, Cx.] men and lene, come a þowsand þat were rody and fat,*. [vat, γ.] and were raþer*. [soner, Cx.] i-stuffed*. [stoffed, γ.] wiþ swoot þan with blood; bote whan þe bataille was i-doo Egbertus onede*. [onnede, β.] the kyngdoms of Mercia, of Kent, and of Page  291, vol.6 Norþhumberlond to his kyngdom, and took Chestre uppon*. [oppon, γ.] þe Britouns, for þe Britouns hilde*. [helde, β.] Chestre anon to þat tyme. Þanne he cleped þe lordes to gidres at Wynchestre, and was i-crowned kyng of al Britayne. Þere he ordeyned and heet*. [bade, β.] þat al þe Saxouns and Iutes schulde be i-cleped Angles from þat day forþward,*. [vorþward, γ.] and þat Bretayne schulde be i-cleped Anglia. Bretayne conteyneþ Engelond and Wales and Scotlond. [℞.]*. [From β.] Þat ȝere þat kyng Briȝtricus*. [Brihtricus, β.] deyde, and*. [and] as, β., γ., and Cx.] Marianus seiþ, Ethelmundus kyng of Mercia went out of his owne lond anon to the forde*. [vorde, γ.] of Chemerforde,*. [Chimereforde, β. and γ.; Chy|merforde, Cx.] and fauȝte aȝenst Weoftan*. [Weofftan, β.; Weofstan, γ.] duke of Wiltoun. In þat bataille þe dukes were i-slawe in eiþer side, and þe Wiltoun men hadde þe victorie; but Seynt Alcmundus þe martir, þe sone of kyng Alrudus*. [Aluredus, β. and Cx.] of Northum|berlond, come to*. [to] in, β. and γ.] Ethelmundus his side, and was i-slawe þere. His body was first i-buried at þe white abbay, and aftirward at Derby in þe norþ chirche þat is i-bulde*. [bylde, β.] in his name. Þere he dooþ*. [There God sheweth for hym, Cx.] meny tokenes and myracles,*. [myrakels, γ.] and þe Norþhumbres Page  293, vol.6 comeþ to hym ofte a*. [α] on, β.] pilgrimage. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. Þat ȝere Albinus an*. [an] om. Cx.] Englissheman, þat heet Alcuinus also, a connynge*. [kunnyng, β. and γ.] man of clergy, passede over [þe]*. [From β.] see into Fraunce, and byschoon*. [enlumyned, Cx.] þat lond wiþ liȝt of his lore; and ordeyned here*. [þere, β.] orisouns and office of masse for*. [mas vor, γ.] ferial dayes; and he brouȝte to Parys studie þat þe Grees*. [Grekes, β.] hadde somtyme i-chaunged*. [chaungide, β.] to Rome. After Beda and Aldelyn*. [Aldelm, β. and Cx.] þis was þe wisest man of al Englisshe men þat [I*. [Ich, γ.] have]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] i-redde*. [yrad, γ.] of. And he was i-take and lefte [specialich]*. [From β.; specially, Cx.] wiþ þe kyng Charles, wheþer it were for clennesse of þe lond oþer for manhed of þe kyng, and tauȝte hym logike and sophistrie, rethorike and astronomye. And þe kyng bytook hym Seynt Martyn his abbay at Turoun*. [Turone, Cx.] to governe by þe abbottes ryȝt. For þe monkes þere were a falle into a*. [α] om. α., β., and γ.] greet outragie;*. [outrage, α., β., and γ.] þerfore among*. [among hem he] a monk, β. and γ.] hem he*. [he] om. α.] sygh tweye aungels come into here dortour*. [dorter, β.] and slee*. [slew, Cx.] alle þe monkes of þat place, outake*. [outtake, β.] hym þat sigh þat siȝt. At þe laste Alcuinus*. [At the laste Alcuinus] bis in MS.] rested at Seynt Poule of Cor|marik, Page  295, vol.6 þere is every day almesse i-deled for his soule foure monken*. [monkes, β. and Cx.; monkene, γ.] mete. Aboute þis tyme Seint Giles*. [Gylys, Cx.] þe abbot, of þe nacioun of Grees,*. [Grekes, β., et infra.] was in his floures. He com into þe over Fraunce by warnynge of God, and lyved first anker his lyf faste*. [vast, γ.] by þe ryver of Rone.*. [Roone, β. and Cx.; Rome, MS.] Also þat tyme Paule þe decone*. [deken, Cx.] of Rome was in his floures, þat descrevede*. [descryvede, γ.; discrived, Cx.] þe Longobardes; he com out of þe abbay of Mont Cassyn*. [Cassyn, β. and γ.] into Fraunce for love of kyng Charles. Among þe Grees Michel, a mylde man, is y-made emperour. In his þridde ȝere þe sone faillede in þe sonne resynge,*. [rysynge, γ.] and sone þerafter þe emperour was i-schore*. [shorne, Cx.] monk. And a greet pestilence of reþeren*. [roþeren, α.; ruþeren, β. and Cx.; roþern, γ.] destroyed wel nygh al Europa, and namliche Britayne. Þe grete Charles was seek*. [syke, α.; seke, β.; syk, γ.] foure ȝere in þe feveres, and deide þe fourþe day of*. [to ffore Feverer, α., γ., and Cx.; tofore Februare, β.] fevere at Aquisgrani,*. [at Acon, Cx.] and was i-buried þere. Marianus, libro 2o. In his laste ȝere þe treen brigge*. [brugge, γ., et infra.; brydge, Cx., et infra.] of fyve hondred paas,*. [pas, γ.] þat he hadde made wiþ cost and travaille in ten ȝere over þe Ryne at Magoncia, was so i-brend in þre houres þat Page  297, vol.6 þere was nouȝt oon*. [oon] o, γ.] spone*. [o spoone, β.; a spoon, Cx.] þerof i-seie flete*. [vlete, γ.] uppon þe water. Meny men wole mene þat þat happe fille*. [vul, γ., et infra.] at þe prayer of Riculphus*. [Ryculfus, Cx.] þe bisshop*. [byschip, α.] for manslauȝter and robberye þat was ofte by nyȝte i-doo uppon þat brigge; but oþer men wil mene þat it fil by som happe*. [so by hap, γ.; aventure, Cx.] and non oþer wise.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum. Lodowicus.

LOWYS þe mylde, Charles his eldeste sone, was emperour after his fader sixe and twenty ȝere and enlevene*. [ellevene, β.] monþes. In his tyme bisshoppes and clerks*. [clerkys, Cx.] dede*. [dide, β.] awey barred gurdelles*. [girdles, β.; gurdel, γ.; gyrdels, Cx.] and gay blasynge cloþes. Giraldus, [distinctio]*. [From α. and β.]prima, capitulo 17o. Þis Lowys unto*. [on, α., β., and Cx.] his firste wyf Hirmengard*. [Hirmengarda, γ.] gat þre sones, Lotharius was oon of hem; he was crowned of pope Paschal in an Esterday, and his fader maad*. [made, β.] [hym]*. [From β. and Cx.]Page  299, vol.6 kyng of Italy and felowe of þe empere; and [he]*. [From β.] made Lowys þe secounde regne in Germania, and Pipinus þe þridde in Gyean*. [Gyan, β.; Guyan, Cx.] and in Gasquyne.*. [Gaskoyn, β. and Cx.] On his [secounde]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] wif Iuditha, þe douȝter of þe duk of Bavarria,*. [Bavarrya, γ.; Bavaria, Cx.] he gat Charles þe balled, and ȝaf hym Burgoyne*. [Burguyn, γ.] to governe and to rule. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. For þe fader loved most þis balled Charles, and kissed*. [kuste, α. and γ.] hym ofte in sight of his breþeren, Lo|tharius was wrooþ, and hadde indignacioun þerof; þerfore he pursewed*. [pursued, β.] ofte his fader, and put*. [potte, γ.] hym in prisoun.*. [β. here has the reference Gi|raldus ubi supra.] Also þis Lowys, for he was so mylde, was ofte disesed*. [diseased, Cx.] boþe of his owne men and of oþere, for to he dede*. [til he dide, β.; vor to a dude, γ.] more wiseliche, and rulede þe reme*. [rewme, β.; royame, Cx.] more sturneliche.*. [sternlich, β.; strongliche, γ.] Me seiþ þat þat happed hym for his wif Iuditha was to nygh of his kyn. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þerfore whan þis kyng hadde avaunced oon Fredericus to þe bisshopriche of Trajette and*. [in, α., β., and γ.] Frisia,*. [Utrecht in Fryselonde, Cx.] and sat by hym at þe mete þe firste day of his ordenaunce in*. [in] on, Cx.] his Page  301, vol.6 riȝt hond, he chargede*. [chargide, β.] þe bisshop, among oþer þinges, þat he schulde have mynde þat he was*. [munde þat a was, γ.] a ȝong bisshop, and fowede*. [folwe, α.; folowe, β. and Cx.; volwe, γ.] þe stabilnesse of his antecessours, and þat he schulde purpose þe soþe wiþ oute accepcioun*. [acceptation, β.; acceptacioun, γ.] of persouns, and punsche*. [punysche, β.; punysshe, Cx.] mysdoers. Þe bisshop answerde hym and seide: "Sire,*. [Sere, γ.] þou doost riȝt|fulliche by me þat confortest þe tendernesse of my profes|sioun wiþ holy counsaile and lore; but I praye þat it greve ȝow nouȝt, and*. [and] om. γ.] ȝoure*. [þy, α.; þi, β.; þey, γ.] majeste þeyȝ I*. [iche, α.; Y, β.] telle ȝow openliche what haþ longe tyme i-halowed*. [walwed, β.; ywalwed, γ.; wa|lowed, Cx.] in myn herte. Wheþer is it more honest to tame*. [atame, β.] þis flesche*. [fische, α. and β.; vysch, γ.; fysshe, Cx.] þat is here i-set first at þe heed oþer at þe tayle?" Þe kynge wiste*. [wuste, γ.] nouȝt how faste he hadde i-glewed*. [gluwed, β.; ygluwed, γ.; greved, Cx.] hym self; but answerde hastiliche and seide: "At þe heed of*. [of] om. β., γ., and Cx.] þe fische schal be first atamed." "So it is, lord emperour," quoþ þe bishop, "þat Cristene fey*. [feiþ, β.] mow firste*. [vurste, γ.] make þe cese*. [þee ceese, β.; seece, Cx.] of thyn errours, þat þy sugettes be nouȝt hardy to forsake what þey seeþ þey*. [þe, α., γ., and Cx.; þee, β.] suffre and fonge: þanne forsake þow þe unlawful wedlok*. [wedlak, β., et infra.; unlawefol wedloc, γ., et infra.] þat þu hast i-made Page  303, vol.6 with þilke*. [þelke, γ.] Iuditha." Þis word was hevy to þe kyng, but ȝit he*. [þey, α.] took it aworþ.*. [hy touk hyt a vorþ, γ.] Þis word was hevy, and*. [was hevy and] om α., β., γ., and Cx.] sprang wel wyde, and gladed men of holy chirche þat herde*. [hurde, γ.] þerof, so þat a counsaile was i-mad þerof for þat dede and [the]*. [From Cx.; þe, β.] wed|lok was undo, and þe kyng putte doun hym self, and þe womman was i-closed in an abbey. Bote at þe laste, by myld|nesse of þe court of Rome, it was i-ordeyned by better counsaile and dome þat penaunce schulde be i-sette, and þey schulde after þat tyme use laweful wedlok. Þe emperour forȝaf*. [vorȝaf, γ.] glad|liche al wronges, and lete þe sentence passe. Bote þe womman hired*. [huyred, β.; hyrede, γ.] tweye knyȝtes þat slouȝ þe forseide bisshop in his vestimentes, after þat he hadde i-songe his masse. Giraldus, distinctio prima, capitulo 17o. At þe laste þis Lowys ȝaf to his sone Charles þe ballede þat he hadde i-gete on Iuditha*. [Jutha, α. and γ.] Almayne and Rethica; þerfore þe oþere þre breþeren hadde indignacioun, and were wrooþ, and forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] Lowys by help of þe Galles, and made þe eldest sone Lotharius kyng. He prisoned his fader Lowys by assent of the fourþe*. [ferþe, β.] pope Gre|gory, and exciled*. [exiled, β.] his fader wif Iuditha, and putte here sone Page  305, vol.6 Charles þe ballede in þe castel of Privingue.*. [Privinge, α., β., and γ.; Prynge, Cx.] But soone after*. [afterward, β.] þe princes of Fraunce delivered*. [delivereden, β.; delyverden, Cx.] þe kyng, and acorded hym and his sone; but by counsaile of Pipinus false men accused falsliche*. [valslyche, γ.] þe queene Iuditha, and made here a mynchoun;*. [monchon, β.; meynchen, γ.; menchon, Cx.] but þe same ȝere þe kyng hadde þe queene aȝen by help of þe pope. For Bernard purged*. [purgide, β.] hym lawefulliche of þe spouse breche*. [spousbruch, γ.] þat hym was i-bore an honde, so þat noon of hem þat hadde*. [hadde] om. Cx.] ac|cused hym was hardy aȝent*. [ayenst, Cx.] hym forto stryve. After Leo þe fourþe*. [ferthe, β.] Stevene*. [Stephyn, γ.] was pope þre ȝere; after hym Paschal was pope sevene ȝere; he crowned Lotharius, and made a gadrynge of monkes of Grees*. [Grece, β.] at Rome in þe chirche of Seint*. [Seint] om. Cx.] Praxede.*. [Praxed, β. and γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo, et de Pontificibus, libro 4o. Kenulphus kyng of Mercia deide, and his sone Kenelyn,*. [Kenelm (and so afterwards), α., β., and γ.; Kenelme, Cx., et infra.] a childe of sevene ȝere olde, regnede after hym. After fewe monthes, by entisyng of his suster*. [soster, γ.] Quendreda, Kenelyn was i-slawe of oon Heskebertus in a þikke wode, and he was i-founde*. [founden, β.] by a piler of liȝt þat stood up from*. [op vram, γ.] his body into Page  307, vol.6 hevene. But by a scrowe þat was i-wrete in Englisshe wiþ goldene lettres, þat a colvere*. [culver, Cx.] brouȝte and leyde and lefte to fore þe pope*. [and . . . pope] om. Cx.] uppon*. [oppon, γ.] Seynt Peter his auȝter, þat was i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] of an Englisshe man þat was þere present, Kenelyn his deth,*. [ded, γ.] and þe place of his deth, was i-knowe*. [knowen, β.] at Rome. [℞.] In þat scrowe it was i-wrete in þis manere: "At Clent*. [Clente, Cx.] in Cow|bache*. [Coubache, β. and γ.] Kenelin*. [Kenelm, γ.] kynebern lith under þorn heved byweved." In Englisshe þat now is used þat is to menynge in þis manere: "In*. [At, α., β., and γ.] Clent at Convale*. [in Con vale, γ.] under a thorne Kenelin lyeth heedles i-slawe*. [slayn, β.] by fraude." Þanne whanne Kenelin his body was i-bore to his graveward from þe place þat he deyede inne, sche*. [heo, β., et infra.] þat was gilty of his deth herde men synge, and putte*. [pot, γ.] out here heede at a*. [α] om. Cx.] wyndow, and for to cese*. [seece, Cx.] þe gladnesse of þe syngers sche seide þat*. [þe, α., β., and γ.] psalm,*. [salme, β.] "Deus laudem," bakward; but I not what wichecraft, and what schrewednesse sche*. [scherewednes hue, γ.] wolde mene. Noþeles sche*. [hue, γ.] loste boþe here eyȝen*. [yene, γ.] with rennynge dropes of Page  309, vol.6 blood. [The bloode]*. [From Cx.; Þe blode, β.; Þe blod, γ.] is ȝit i-seie,*. [seer] in mynde*. [munde, γ.] of Goddes wreche, in þe Psauter*. [Sauter, β. and γ.] þat þo sche*. [sche þo, α.; heo helde þanne, β.; hue þo, γ.] hilde*. [huld, γ.] in here*. [hir, β.] honde.

Capitulum tricesimum.

AFFTER Kenelin,*. [Kenelm, γ. and Cx.] his eeme*. [em, α.; eem, β.; eme, γ.] in his fader side Colwulfus regnede in Mercia, bote after two ȝere Beornulphus þe tiraunt put*. [pot, γ.] hym out, and regnede in his stede two ȝere. He was in a tyme overcome at Elyngdoun,*. [Elyndoun, β.; Elyndon, γ. and Cx.] of Egbertus kyng of West Saxons, as it is i-seide to forehonde.*. [vorhond, γ.] He meoved*. [mevyd, Cx.] [to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] a jornay*. [jorney, β.; journey, Cx.] aȝenst þe Est Angles þat hadde i-holpe Egbertus, and was i-slawe of hem;*. [ham, γ.] his sucessour and his nygh*. [neiȝ, β.; neigh, Cx.] kynnes|man*. [nyȝ kynhysman, γ., et infra.] Ludecan wolde awreke*. [aveng, Cx.] his deth, and fauȝte*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst þe Est Angles, and was i-slawe of hem also, and þre dukes of his. After hym his nyh*. [neiȝ, β.; neyh, Cx.] kynnesman Wilganus*. [Viglanus, α.; Wiglanus, β. and γ.; Wyglanus, Cx.] regnede þrittene ȝere, bote Egbertus destourbede hym long tyme. After Page  311, vol.6 Paschal, þe fourþe*. [vurde, γ., et infra.] Eugenius was pope foure*. [voure, γ.] ȝere. [He sente seint Sebastyan his bones to Hyldewynus, abbot of Seynt Denys. After Eugenius, Valentinus was pope foure ȝere.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] In his tyme þe childe Swythyn was i-bore at Wynchestre, þat dede myracles þer after Hemstan his deþ. After Valentinus, þe fourþe Gregory*. [Gregroy, Cx.] was pope þrittene*. [thyrten, Cx.] ȝere. Giraldus, distinctio prima, capitulo 17o. In þis*. [þes, γ.] popes tyme Thodulphus*. [Theodulphus, β., γ., and Cx.] was in his floures, þat was first abbot of Floria,*. [Floriace, α. and β.; Floryace, Cx.] and þanne bisshop of Aurelians:*. [Orleans, Cx.] he was exciled and was in þe citee of Angeo*. [Angeoi, γ.] by assent of kyng Lowys, whanne his enemyes hadde falseliche acused hym; þanne it happede in a Palme Sonday þat þe kyng passed þerforþ, and he made and song vers*. [þe vers, β.; the verse, Cx.] þat bygonne*. [bigan, β.; bygynneth, Cx.] in þis manere: "Gloria, laus tibi sit," and so forþ. By þe ditee and not*. [noote, β.; note, Cx.] of þe vers þe kyng was i-meoved, and delivered hym, and brouȝt hym to his raþer grace. Þat tyme Rabanus was in his floures, monk and abbot of Mildens*. [Meldeus, β.; Meldens, γ. and Cx.] in Germania, a greet*. [gret, γ. (tris).] poet and a greet clerk of dyvynyte: he*. [he . . . divinite] om. Cx.] made a book,*. [bok, γ.]Page  313, vol.6 "De naturis rerum," and anoþer, "De laude crucis," i-hiȝte in metre wiþ dyvers manere of faire spekynge; his disciple was Strabus, a greet expositour in divinite.*. [See note 16, page 311.] Þat ȝere þe Danes spoylede þe ilond of Shiphey*. [Schipeigh, α.; Scipeye, β.; Scypeigh, γ.; Shepeye, Cx.] beside Kent, þerfore kyng Egbertus fauȝte*. [voȝt, γ.] aȝenst hym at Carru,*. [Carrun, α. and β.; Carrū,.; Carrum, Cx.] and was i-chased. At Tullens*. [Tuleus, β.; Tulens, γ.; To|louse, Cx.] a wenche*. [weynche, γ.; damoysel, Cx.] of twelve ȝere olde fenge*. [vyng, γ.] Goddes*. [our Lordes, Cx.] body an*. [on, β.] Ester day, and faste*. [vaste, γ.] afterward sixe monþes con|tinualliche to brede and watir,*. [to water, β.] and abstenence*. [absteyned, β.] þerafter þre ȝere*. [ȝere] om. β.] from all manere mete and drynke, and tornede aȝen at þe laste to comyn lyvynge. Also þat tyme som mysdoers of þe Romayns sente to þe Sowdan*. [Souden, γ.] of Babilonia*. [Babiloyn, β.; Babylon, Cx.] þat he schulde come and be lorde of Italy; þanne he come with greet multitude and strengþe, and spoiled Rome, and made a stable of Seynt Petres chirche, and destroyede*. [distried, β.; destruyede, γ.] Tuscia and Sicilia.*. [Secilia, Cx.] At the laste, at þe prayer and requirynge of pope Gregory, Gy of Marchia wiþ his Longobardes, and Lowys wiþ his Galles, chasede him*. [hem, β.; ham, γ.] out of þat*. [þat] þo, Cx.] londes and contrayes. And þey*. [hy, γ.]Page  315, vol.6 seillede toward Affrica, and were a-dreynt*. [drowned, Cx.] wel nygh*. [neiȝ, β.] everychone. Þat ȝere deyde Helmstan bisshop of Wynchestre, and seynt Swythyne was bisshop after hym. Þe Danes, wiþ greet navey, londede in a place þat [hatte]*. [From α. and β.; called, Cx.] Crual*. [Cural, α., β., γ., and Cx.] among þe West Britouns, and made confetheracie*. [confederacy, β., γ.; confedera|cyon, Cx.] wiþ þe Britouns, and wente in fere,*. [in fere] yfere, β.; yvere, γ.; to|gyder, Cx.] and assaillede kyng Egbertus his londes. [Bote hy were overcome at Hengistdoun.]*. [From γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Egbertus kyng of West Saxons deide, and his sone Athulphus, þat heet*. [het, β.] Ethelwulfus, regned after hym two and twenty ȝere. Þis was somtyme i-take to norschynge*. [norischyng, β.] and*. [to, α., β., γ., and Cx.] Helmstan bisshop of Wynchestre, and made hym subdecon.*. [sudekene, β.; sudecon, γ.; sub|deken, Cx.] Bote at the laste, by graunte of Leo þe pope he was i-made kyng, and hadde a wyf Osburga, þat was his owne botelere*. [butelers, β.; bottiller, γ.] his douȝter, and gat on here þre noble sones, þat regnede after þe fader everiche in his tyme. He took wiþ hym the ȝong|este of his sones, Alrudes,*. [Aluredus, β. and Cx.] and wente to Rome, and dwelled þere oon*. [o, γ.] ȝere, and repairelede*. [reparayled, β.; reparaylde, γ.] þere nobelliche þe scole Page  317, vol.6 of Saxons þat was, as me seiþ, first i-ordeyned by kyng Offa; bote it was i-brend þe laste ȝere tofore honde. Also he sigh*. [syȝ, β.] þre*. [þere, α., β., and Cx.; þar, γ.] outlawes and men þat deden*. [dede, α.; dide, β. and Cx.; dude, γ.] open penaunce*. [penauns, γ. (tris).] do here penaunce in iren*. [yre, γ.] i-bounde. Þanne he purchasede of þe pope þat Englisshe men schulde nevere after þat tyme, out of here owne contray, do penaunce in bondes. Me seiþ þat þerfore it was þat he graunted of everich hous of his kyngdom*. [of his royame, Cx.] everich ȝere a peny to Seynt Peter, and after þat tyme he sente everiche ȝere þre hondred mark*. [marc, Cx.] to Rome: an hondred to Seynt Peter his liȝt, an hondred to Seynt Poules*. [Paulus, Cx.] liȝt, and an hondred to þe pope. Also he delyvered and quitte*. [quyte, γ.] alle þe cherches of his kyngdom*. [royamme, Cx.] of alle manere kynges tribute, and of fredom*. [of fredom] offrede, α.; offred, β. and Cx.; and offerde, γ.] to God þe tenþe*. [teþe, γ.] deel of his catel. In his comynge aȝen from Rome, in þe twentiþe ȝere of his kyngdom, he spousede Iuditha þe douȝter of Charles þe ballede, and brouȝte*. [broȝt, γ.] here*. [hir, β., bis.] wiþ hym in to Engelond; and for he sette*. [vor a set, γ.] here in trone beside*. [biside, β.] hym aȝenst þe manere of þe kyngdom of West Saxons, his eldest sone roos*. [ros,] aȝenst hym, and meny oþer lordes, so þat a greet Page  319, vol.6 deel of þe kyngdom was i-take to his eldest sone; but ȝit*. [ȝut, γ.] unneþe þe strif was i-cesed.*. [ceesed, β.; ceced, Cx.] For among hem it was i-used þat þe queene schulde nouȝt have suche*. [sich, β.] worschippe, and þat for wrethe*. [wreþþe, γ.] of Ethelburga, kyng Offa his douȝter, þat hadde i-poysoned here housbonde Brightricus. ℞. Also þis*. [þis] om. Cx.; þes, γ.] for his sone Aluredus, þat he loved moche,*. [þat . . . moche] om. Cx.] hadde an evel incurable, he sent hym*. [whom he sent, Cx.] into Irlond to be i-heded*. [heeled, β.] of seynt Modwenna, þo*. [þat, β. and γ.] wonede þoo þere. And þerfore whanne þe cherche of Modwenna was destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] in Irlond sche*. [heo, β.; hue, γ.] com into Engelond, and þe kyng ȝaf here*. [hir, β.] lond for to bulde tweie abbayes of maydons. Oon [in]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Arderne at Polisworth,*. [Poliswortham, α.; Polliswur|tham, β. and γ. In the MS. there seems to have been written Polis|wortham, but the two final letters have been scratched out. Cx. has Pollyswortham.] þat ȝit dureþ; þere Ositha and Athea þe maydons dwellede*. [dwellide, β., bis.] wiþ seint Edithe, kyng Athulphus suster.*. [soster, γ.] But Modwenna dwellede*. [dwellide, β., bis.] somwhat of tyme in þe oþer abbay at Streneshale; þennes sche*. [heo, β., tris; hue, γ., tris.] wente þreis to Rome, and sche*. [heo, β., tris; hue, γ., tris.] deide at þe laste Page  321, vol.6 in þe ilond Andreisye,*. [Andreseye, β. and Cx.; An|dresey, γ.] besides Burtoun, after þat sche was closed sevene ȝere. Þat ȝere þe Danes slowȝ meny men in Lyndeseie*. [Lyndesaye, Cx.] in Est Engelond and in Kent. Þat ȝere deide Wyglaf kyng of Mercia, þe ȝere of his kyngdom þrittene, and was i-buried at Rependoun.*. [Repyndon, Cx.] He hadde i-gete*. [goten, Cx., bis.] Wygmundus, and Wygmundus hadde i-gete Wistan þe martir; but after Wiglaf Bertuphus*. [Bertulfus, β.; Bertulphus, γ.] was kyng over Mercia twelve ȝere: his sone Bertsericus*. [Bertsercus, γ.] slouȝ seint Wistan cruelliche.*. [cruelych, γ.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o.

Capitulum tricesimum primum. Lotharius.

WHANNE Lowys was dede his eldest sone Lotharius, þat was emperour fiftene ȝere while his fader was onlyve,*. [alyve, γ.] and after his fader eyȝtene ȝere, in þe partie of Italy þat is next to Alpes, þat hatte Lotharingia after his name, as it were Lotharius his kyngdom; he aroos*. [aros, γ.] aȝenst his tweie breþeren Lowys and Page  323, vol.6 Charles the ballede, for þe kyngdom of Gyean,*. [Gyan, β.; Guyan, Cx.] þat here broþer Pipinus hadde i-holde somtyme. Giraldus, distinctio prima. And þey*. [þei, β.; hy, γ.] fouȝte at Fantanet;*. [Fontanet, β., γ., and Cx.] þere Lotharius fliȝ*. [vlyȝ, γ.] and was i-chasede;*. [ychaced, β.] þere was so gret slauȝter*. [slauȝt, β. and γ.] in eiþer side þat þey myȝte no lenger*. [longur, γ.] wiþstonde here enemyes. Þe Sarȝyns in Affrica, [and]*. [From γ.] in Spayne herde*. [hurde, γ.] herof, and arrayed hem to assaile þe kyngdom of Romayns. Sone here|after Lowys þe myddel broþer deyde, and Charles þe ballede helde*. [huld, γ.] þe empere somwhat of tyme allone.*. [aloon, β.] Þat ȝere seint Bartholomew*. [Bertilmeus, Cx.] his body was i-translated to Boneventan.*. [Beneventan, β., γ., and Cx.] After Gregory þe secounde Sergius was pope nyne ȝere; þis heet first*. [vurste, γ.] Os porci, Swyn his mouþ. Þerfore after his tyme alle þe popes chaunged*. [chaungede, β., bis.; chayngede, γ.] her names, and þat for þre skiles: oon is, whan Crist ches*. [Crist whanne a ches, γ.] his apostles he chaunged here names. [Another is for as they chaunge her names]*. [From Cx. Anoþer is, for as þei chaungeþ her names, β.; Anoþer is for as a chayngeth here names, γ.] so þey*. [þey] a, γ.] schulde chaunge*. [chaunde, MS.] here livinge. Þe þridde is for he þat is i-chose to an Page  325, vol.6 excellent state*. [staat, β.; astate, Cx.] schulde nouȝt be defouled wiþ a foule*. [voul, γ.] name. Þat ȝere þe body of seynt Helene, Constantyn his moder, þat was i-buried at Rome, was i-broȝt*. [translatet, γ.] to þe dyocise*. [diocesy, β. and γ.] of Remene in Fraunce: þat ȝere þe Normans*. [Romayns, MS.] come first into Fraunce by þe water of Seyne. Þat ȝere Berthulphus*. [Berthulfus, β.] in a Whit|sontide*. [Wytsontyde, β.] slouȝ wickedliche seynt Wistan: his body is i|buried at Rependoun*. [Rypyndon, Cx.] in þe grave of his grauntsire Wyglaf; and in þe place þere he was i-slawe stood up þritty dayes a [cleer]*. [cleer] from Cx.; clere, β.; cler, γ.] pyler of liȝt. After Sergius þe fifte Leo was pope fyve ȝere; he amended þe chirches þat þe paynyms hadde destroyed*. [paynyms had destruyed, β.] in þe citee of Rome. Also, for þe men of Naples*. [Napels, β.] fauȝte in þe see*. [Napels þat voȝte in þe se, γ.] aȝenst þe Saraȝyns, he made þis orisoun, "Deus, cujus dextera beatum Petrum*. [Petrum] om. and γ.] apostolum in fluctibus,"*. [apostolum in fluctibus] om. Cx.] and so forþ; and after þat he hadde amended Seynt Peter his chirche, he seide þis orisoun,*. [oreson, γ.] "Deus, qui beato Petro collatis clavibus," and so forþ. Also þis made Aluredus his sone adoptivus, þat was þe sone of Ethelwulfus þe kyng of West Page  327, vol.6 Saxons. And he anoynt*. [anoynted, β.; anoycte, γ.] Aluredus by assent of his fader to be kyng afterward. Þat ȝere deide Berthulphus kyng of Mercia, and Burdredus was kyng after hym; he wedded anon Ethewitha,*. [Ethelwitha, β. and γ.; Ethel|wytha, Cx.] kyng Athulphus his douȝter. By help of þis Athulphus he made sugett þe Britouns of þe myddel lond þat woneþ bytwene Mercia and þe West see. Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β.] Loke more of Mercia in þe firste book, capitulo 51o. Þanne it foloweþ*. [volweþ, γ.] in þe storie.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β.] Also þis Burdredus, þe two and twentiþe ȝere of his kyngdom, was i-put*. [ypot, γ.] out by þe Danes, and wente þanne to Rome, and lyved þere nouȝt ful*. [vol, γ.] longe tyme at þe scole of Saxsons, and was i-buryed at Seint Marye chirche. Also þat ȝere, after þat þe Danes hadde i-spoylled Londoun and Kent, and chassed*. [ychased, γ.] kyng Berthulphus,*. [Bertulfus, .] þey*. [hy, γ.] were overcome and i-bete adoun in Souþerey*. [Souþrey, β.; Southrey, γ.; Suthrey, Cx.] at Oclea of kyng Ethelwulphus. Þat ȝere Lotharius þe emperour forsook*. [vorsouk, γ.] þe worlde,*. [worl, γ.] and was i-schore monk in þe abbay of Primye,*. [Prunye, β. and Cx.] and deide þere. For his soule was greet strif betwene*. [betwixe, β.] aungeles*. [angles, Cx.] and fendes,*. [feendes, β.; vendes, γ., et infra.] so þat þey þat stood by sigh þe body as it were to haled hider and þider;*. [huder and buder, γ.] but monkes prayede, and the fendes were i-dryve Page  329, vol.6 awey. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Þis Lotharius hadde by Ermengarda, Houwe his douȝter,*. [Houwes douȝter, β.] þre sones, and lefte hem after hym, [on het*. [hett, β.] Lowys, to hym he bytook*. [a bytouk, γ., et infra.] the kyngdom of Romayns and of Italy; þe oþer het Lotharius, to hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] he bytook þe kyngdom of Fraunce; þe þridde heet Charles, to hym he bytoke the*. [the] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] province:*. [Provynce, β.] bote Charles was sone deed, and Lowys and Lotharius deled þe kyngdom bytwene [hem tweyne],*. [From α.] Charles his kyngdom*. [delede þe kyngdom bitwene hem tweyn. Þat was Provynce, β.; delede by twene ham tweyne Charles hys kyngdom, .; Lowys and Lotharius delede the royamme of Proynce by|twene hem, Cx.] that was Province.*. [Provins, α.; Provyns, γ.]

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

THE secounde Lowys, as som men telleþ,*. [telle, Cx.] regnede fiftene*. [vyftene, γ.] ȝere, but Marcius*. [Marcus, Cx.] telleþ þat he*. [he] a, γ.] regnede two and twenty ȝere, and was i-crowned of Sergius þe pope; and he hadde tweie*. [twy, γ.] sones, Lowys kyng of Norikes, þat beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] Normans, and Charles þe ȝonger þat heet*. [hett, β.; ȝunger þat hyȝt, γ.] Grossus also. Þis Charles Page  331, vol.6 also*. [also] om. β.] was i-tormented of a fend*. [vend, γ.] þre dayes in presence of his fader, and knowleched*. [knewlechede, γ.] þat he was so i-tormented for he hadde conspired aȝenst his fader. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. In þis Lowys his tyme Iohn*. [Ioon, β.] Scot com into Fraunce, and translated Denys*. [Denes, γ.] his bookes out of Grew*. [Grue, β. and Cx.; Gru, γ.] into Latyn at þe prayere of kyng Charles, and made þe book*. [bok, γ., bis.] Perifisioun,*. [Perifision, β. and γ.; Perefi|sion, Cx.] þat is þe book of þe departynge of Kynde. But þerafter kyng Aluredus sente for hym for he schulde*. [vor a scholde, γ.] come into Engelond, and so he dede,*. [dide, β.; a dude, γ.] and tauȝte children at Malmesbury, þe whiche*. [woche, γ.] children stiked*. [stykked, Cx.] hym to dethe wiþ here poyntelles.*. [poyntels, Cx.] Þat ȝere seynt Edmond bygan to regne over þe Est Angles, but he was i-slawe in þe fourtenþe*. [fourteþe, α.; vourteþe,.] ȝere. Ethelwulfus kyng of West Saxons deide þe þrittenþe day of Ianyver, and was i-buried at Wynchestre. After hym his eldest sone Ethel|waldus regnede but oon*. [o, γ.] ȝere, and þat was*. [is, α., β., and Cx.; ys, γ.] no wonder, for whanne his fadir was deed he wedded his owne stepdame, aȝenst þe lawe and usage of holy chirche, and he was i-buried at Schirborne.*. [Schirburn, β.; Schyreburn, γ.; Shirburn, Cx.]Marcianus. After pope Leo, Iohn*. [Ioon, β., bis; Iohan, Cx., bis.] Englisshe Page  333, vol.6 was pope two ȝere and fyve*. [vyf, γ.] monþes: me seiþ þat Iohn Englisshe*. [Englisch, β. bis.] [sche]*. [From α. (not in β).] was a womman, and was in childehode*. [yongthe, Cx.] i-lad wiþ here leman in manis cloþinge to Athene,*. [Atthene, Cx.] and lernede*. [luernede, γ.] þre*. [þar, γ.; there, Cx.] dyvers science,*. [scyens, γ.] so þat þerafter sche*. [heo, β. and γ.] come to Rome, and hadde þere greet men to scolers, and radde*. [rad, β.; redde, Cx.] þre ȝere. Þanne he*. [he] a, γ.; heo, β.; she, Cx.] was i-chose pope*. [pope] om. Cx.] by favoure of all men, and here*. [hir, β.] lemman brouȝte here wiþ childe; bote for sche*. [heo, γ. tris.] knewe nouȝt here tyme whanne sche*. [hue, γ., bis.] schulde have childe, as sche wente from Seint Peter*. [Peter's, Cx.] to þe chirche of Seint Iohn*. [Ioon, β.] þe Lateran, sche gan to travaille of childe, and hadde childe bytwene Colloseum*. [Collosen, Cx. bis.] and Seint Clement. Trevisa. Colloseum was þe place of þe ymages of provinces and of londes; loke more þerof*. [loke more þerof] as it is said, Cx.] in þe firste book, capitulo 24o. Þanne it folweþ in þe story, as*. [as] And, β.] me seiþ,*. [as me seiþ] om. Cx.] þat sche was afterward i-buried þere. And for þe pope turneþ*. [torned, Cx.] þere out of þat wey, me*. [men, β.] troweþ þat*. [me troweþ þat] om. α.] it is for hate of þat wonder myshap. Þis pope is nouȝt i-rekened in þe Page  335, vol.6 book*. [bok, γ.] of poopes for he*. [α, γ.] was of wommen kynde,*. [kunde, γ.] þat schulde nouȝt be pope.*. [for she was a woman, and ought not to be pope, Cx., who adds: she was born at Magounce in Al|mayn upon the Ryn.] Aboute þat tyme þe kyng of Bulgares and his men tornede to [Cristes fey and bileve, and was so perfit, þat he bitoke þe kyngdom to his eldest sone, and toke hym silf þe abyt of monk; but whanne his sone turned to mametrie, he turned to]*. [From β. and Cx. Crist hys fey and byleve, and was so perfyt þat a bytouk his kyngdom to hys eldeste sone, and touk hym sylf þe abyt of monk, bote whanne hys sone tornde to mametrye, he tornde to, &c., γ.] chilvalrye aȝe, and pursewed*. [puysewyde, γ.] his son aȝen,*. [aȝe his sone, α.; aȝen, om. γ.] and took hym, and put out boþe his eyȝen,*. [yen, γ.] [and leide hym in prisoun and closede hym þere, and made his ȝonger sone kyng, and took þe holy abyte aȝen].*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] After Ethelwaldus*. [Ethelbaldus, α. and γ.] his broþer Ethelbertus was kyng of West Saxons fyve ȝere. In his tyme a greet oost of Danes destroyede*. [destried, β.] Wynchestre, and were i-slawe of þe kynges dukes*. [er, β.] or þey myȝte come*. [retorne, Cx.] to here schippes. After Iohn,*. [Ioon, β.; Iohan, Cx., passim.] þe þridde*. [vurde, γ.] Benet was pope foure ȝere. Seynt Swythyn bisshop of Wynchestre deide, and Dun|bertus was bisshop after hym: of hem tweyne beeþ wondres Page  337, vol.6 i-rad.*. [yredde, Cx.] After Benet, þe firste Nicol*. [Nichol, β.] was pope eiȝte ȝere, he was i-likned to the grete Gregorie, for in his tyme Cirillus*. [Cyrillus, Cx.] þe apostel of Sclaves brouȝt seint Clement his body out of Cersona to Rome, and leide it in Seint Clement his cherche, and deide þere after, and dede*. [dide, β.; dude, γ.] many myracles [þar].*. [From γ.] Þat ȝere Lowys kyng of Fraunce wolde leve*. [leeve, β.] his riȝtful*. [ryȝtfol, γ.] wif for his lemman Waldrada, þat he hadde to moche*. [myche, β.] i-loved in his ȝouþe in his fader hous. Þanne pope Nichol*. [Nychol, Cx., et supra.] at þe instaunce*. [instans, γ.] of þe queene breþeren, þat pleyned to hym of þat dede, sente his tresorer Arsenius into Fraunce, and he made a counsaille of bisshoppes,*. [byscopes, γ.] and compelled the kyng to take his wif aȝe, and made hym swere uppon a*. [þe, α. and Cx.] book*. [swerye oppon þe bok, γ.] þat he schulde nevere þat oþer womman take. Bote whanne þe legat of Rome was agoo þe kyng putte*. [potte, γ.] awey þe queene, and took aȝen*. [touk aȝe, γ.] Wal|drada; þerfore in pleyn*. [playne, Cx.] consistorie þe pope cursede*. [corsede, γ.] Wal|drada and alle þat comuned*. [comuned] covinede, γ.; com|ende, Cx.] wiþ here. ℞. Butte Marre*. [Mare, β.; Bote Mare, γ.; Marianus, Cx.]Page  339, vol.6 telleþ us*. [us] om. β. and Cx.] þis of Lotharius, and nouȝt of Lowes. Etheldredus, þe þridde broþer of burþe,*. [birþe, β.] was kyng of West Saxons after his tweye breþeren eiȝte ȝere. In his firste ȝere a greet navey of Danes londede*. [londide, β.] in Est Engelond,*. [Anglond, γ.] and lay þere. Þerafter at ȝork þey were compelled to defende hem self;*. [ham sylf, γ.] for whanne þe Norþhombres hadde i-doo awey here kyng Osbrucus, as þe devel hem radde,*. [rad, β.] and i-made a tyraunt kyng þat heet*. [hyȝte, γ.] Ella, at þe laste for drede of enemyes þey were somdel i-ceesed,*. [ysesed, γ.; ceeced, Cx.] and wente wiþ here*. [theyr, Cx.] eiþer kyng to fiȝte wiþ*. [ayenst, Cx.] þe Danes, and com|pelled*. [compellide, β.] hem to flee*. [vle to, γ.] [to]*. [From β. and Cx.] þe citee of ȝork, þat was not ful*. [well, add. Cx.] i-walled;*. [ful wel walled, β.; was þo noȝt fol wel ywalled, γ.] þanne þe Norþhombres disarayede hem self, and wente*. [werrede, α. and γ.; werride, β.] unwiseliche, and were i-bete a doun, som in oon*. [oon] o, β.] place*. [plas, γ.] and som in anoþer, and here kynges were y-slawe, so þat þey þat myȝte askape made pees*. [pes, γ.] wiþ þe Danes, and so faillede*. [faylide, β.] þe kynges of Norþhombres. Þat ȝere þe Danes lefte Norþhomberlond, and com into the*. [the] om. Cx.] kyngdom of Mercia, and Page  341, vol.6 dwellede al a ȝere at Snotyngham, þat now hatte Notyngham;*. [Nothyngham, Cx.] þat*. [þanne, α. and β.; there, Cx.] Burdredus kyng of Mercye*. [Mercia, α.] and þe kyng of West Saxons come aȝenst hem. Bote þe Danes were wiþ ynne þe strengþe*. [stryngþe, γ.] of þe toure, and wolde ȝeve no batayle,*. [batayl, γ.] and Eng|lisshe men myȝte nouȝt spede to breke þe wal; þanne pees was i-made, and þe kynges tornede*. [turneden, β.] hoom*. [tornde hom, γ.] aȝe, and þe Danes went aȝen to ȝork, and dwellede þere all a ȝere. After Nichol, þe secounde Adrianus*. [secunde Adrian,] was pope two ȝere: to hym þe secounde kyng Lowys*. [Lowys kyng, α. and β.] of Fraunce, þat was somtyme acorsed of þe pope Nichol, wrot lettres, and prayed hym þat he wolde fonge*. [a wolde vonge, γ.] hym wiþ grace. Þe pope wroot to hym aȝen in þis manere: "ȝif þou knowest thy self [gulteles,*. [giltless, β.] com to Rome; and "ȝif þou knowest þyself]*. [From α., β., and γ.] gilty,*. [gulty, γ.] make þe redy to doo worþy penaunce." Þanne þe kyng com, and þe pope axede of hym ȝif he hadde i-holde his oth and pope Nichol his hestes. Þe kyng and his fautoures seide "ȝis al at þe fulle."*. [ȝus al atte folle, γ.] "Þanne," quoþ the pope, "ȝe moste commune*. [come, β. and Cx.] wiþ us þat ȝe be i-oned*. [yooned, β.; y-oned, γ.; unyed Cx.] to Crist his Page  343, vol.6 lymes, from þe whiche*. [vram þe woche, γ.] ȝe were kutte*. [kitt, β.] and departed." And whanne the masse was i-doo he houselede*. [hoslede, γ.; housled, Cx.] hem, and seide: "ȝif ȝe beeþ gultles þis connynge*. [comynyng, β.; comyng, Cx.] moot*. [mot, β.; comunynge mote, γ.] be to ȝow remis|sioun and forȝevenesse, and elles [dampnacioun]."*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne it happede þat noon of hem alle lyvede oon*. [over, α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝere. But þe kyng was anon i-take wiþ a siknesse,*. [sekenes, Cx.] and deide in þe citee Placencia. Þerafter fel*. [vul, γ.] a greet pestilence*. [pestylens, γ.] on þe peple. Also þat ȝere þe Danes destroyed*. [distriede, β.] þe citee Alcluit, and wente out of Norþhomberlond to Est Anglond, and lay al a ȝere at Tet|forde.*. [Tedford, β.] Þat ȝere Hingar*. [Hinguar, β. and γ.; Hungar, Cx.] and Hubba, tweie Danes, slouȝ seint Edmond þe kyng at Egbesdoun.*. [Eglysdoun, α. and β.; Egglis|doun, γ.; Eglyston, Cx.]Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . capitulo 51o.] om. β. and Cx.] Est Ang|lond conteyneþ Norþfolk and Souþfolk; loke more þerof in þe firste book, capitulo 51o.*. [Trevisa . . . capitulo 51o.] om. β. and Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Seynt Edmond his heed*. [hed, β., bis.] lay i-hidde*. [hed lay yhud, γ.] among busshes,*. [bosches, γ.] and spak to hem þat souȝt hym in þe contray*. [countrey, Cx.] longage, and seide, "Heere, heere, heere."*. [here, β., tris; her, γ., tris.] Þere a wolfe was i-founde þat Page  345, vol.6 byclipped the kynges heed, and folowede*. [folewide, β.] myldeliche the men þat were i-come.*. [that cam theder, Cx.]Willelmus de Regibus, et de Pontifi|cibus, libro 2o. After þe sleynge of þe kynges*. [kyng his, α.] broþer Ed|woldus hatede þe likynge of þe world,*. [worl, γ., et infra.] for hard fortune took hym and his broþer, and levede*. [lyvede, Cx.] an ermytes lyf onliche by brede and water, at the abbay of Cerne*. [Cern, Cx.] in Dorsete, by þe cleer welle þat seynt Austyn, by his prayers, made springe somtyme for to baptise*. [cristen, Cx.] þe people*. [folle þe peple, β.; vor to volle þe pupel, γ.] þat tornede to Cristene byleve. Hit falliþ ful*. [valleþ vol, γ.] ofte þat a gentil herte, i-warned by harde [happes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] and meschief*. [meschef, β.] of þis world, torneþ þe more besiliche to God, þat can nouȝt begile noþer be bygiled. Þe abbay þat was þere i-bulded*. [buld, α.; bylde, β. and Cx.] was afterward riche inow,*. [ynowȝ, β.; ynough, Cx.] ȝif þey*. [ȝef hy, γ.] þat schulde governe it dele*. [delede, α.; deled, β. and Cx.] it to Goddes servauntes, and nouȝt to glotouns. Bote in oure tyme covetise and pride*. [prude, γ.] haþ so i-chaunged*. [chaungide, β.] al þing in Engelond, þat þinges þat were i-ȝeve [vrelyche]*. [From γ.] to abbayes in olde tyme beeþ now more i-wasted*. [wastet, γ.] in glotenye and outrage of honures*. [ouners, α. and γ.; owneres, β.; owners, Cx.] þanne in Page  347, vol.6 sustenaunce*. [sustenans, γ.] and help of nedy men and of gestes.*. [gystes, α. and γ.; ghestes, Cx.] But cer|teynliche*. [certaynly, Cx.] þe ȝevers schal not*. [nouȝt, β.] lese here mede,*. [myde, γ.] for here wille and here entent is i-weye*. [weyed, β. and Cx.] in Goddes balaunce.*. [balauns, γ.]

Capitulum tricesimum tertium. Lodowici.*. [Ludowicus, α.; Lowys, Cx.]

THE þridde Lowys regnede [in Fraunce]*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] after his fader þe secounde Lowys foure ȝere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro 2o. Þis ȝere þe oost of Danes lefte Est Anglond*. [Englond,] and come wiþ here dukes Hungar*. [Hinguar, α. and γ.; Hingar, β.] and Hubba toward Redynge in West Saxon; þere þe þridde day of here comynge þe tweye dukes of Danes wente out for to take prayes, and were i-slawe at En|gelfilde;*. [Engilfeld, β. and γ.; Engel|feld, Cx.] þere, after the fourþe day, tweye*. [the two, Cx.] breþeren, kynges of West Saxons, mette to gidres*. [gedders, γ.] and made a greet slauȝter*. [slauȝta., β., and γ.] of*. [of] o, γ.] þe Danes. At þe laste þe Danes breek*. [brake, β. and Cx.; breke, γ.] out of þe toure, and Page  349, vol.6 slouȝ Ethelwulphus duke of Barrokschire,*. [Barocscuyre, γ.] and compelled þe Englisshe men to wende a bakward.*. [bakward] bak, β. and Cx.] For þat schame En|glisshe men were i-moeved, and arrayed a bataylle þe fourþe day þerafter uppon Aschedoun.*. [oppon Aschedoun, γ.; Assh|doun, Cx.] Þere Aluredus was i-dryve for grete nede to come to þe batayle to fore his broþer þe kyng, þat herde*. [hurde, γ.] a masse þat tyme; þe whiche*. [whoche, γ.] kyng his prayers to God þat day were*. [was, Cx.] moche worthy.*. [myche worþ, β.] For þeyȝ þe Danes hadde i-take þe hiȝer*. [heyȝer, γ.; hyther, Cx.] place of þe hille,*. [hulle, γ., et infra.] Cristen men com from þe foot*. [vram þe voot, γ.] of þe hille upward*. [opward, γ.] aȝenst hem, and slouȝ Osrik kyng of Danes, and fyve of his dukes, and meny þowsandes of enemyes, and chasede*. [chaside, β.] þere*. [þere] þe, β.; the, Cx.] oþere al day anon to þe*. [þe] om. α. and β.] Redynge; bote þe fourteþe day þerafter at Basynge þe Danes ȝaf a batayle, and eft tweie monþes*. [þer] om. β.]*. [efte twy monþes, γ.] þerafter at Mer|toun, and hadde þe victorie. In þe mene tyme þe kynges of Mercia, of Norþhomberlond, and of Est Angles hadde no wille to suffre þe lordschippe of West Saxons, þerfore hem*. [ham, γ] was Page  351, vol.6 levere susteyne þe enemyes and favoure*. [faver, β.] hem in þe seege*. [syege, Cx.] þan*. [þan, from α. and β.; þat, MS.] helpe here owne contraymen þat travaillede*. [travalide, β.] for þe lond. Þerfore it was þat þe enemyes encresede*. [encrecyde, Cx.] and hadde maistrie,*. [maystry, γ.] and*. [and, from β. and γ.; of, MS.] men of þe londe were overcome and i-bore*. [bare, Cx.] adoun and maad*. [made, β.] deol*. [duel, γ.; doole, Cx.] and sorwe. Þe nexte ȝere þerafter, after meny batailles, Etheldredus kyng of West Saxons deyde eyȝte dayes tofore May,*. [Maii, β. and γ.] and was i-buried at Wynborne.*. [Wynburn, β. and Cx.] After Adrian, þe eiȝteþe*. [eyȝteteþe, γ.] Iohn*. [Ioon, β.] was pope twelve ȝere. In a tyme þis*. [þes, γ., et infra.] dwelled wiþ Lewys Balbus kyng of Fraunce al a ȝere, and was prisoned of [þe]*. [From α. and β.] Romayns, for he*. [vor a, γ.] wolde nouȝt favoure*. [faver, β.; favere, γ.] Charles, Also þis [pope]*. [From Cx.] ȝaf to Ansegisus bisshop of Senons þe grete Gregory his heed,*. [hed, β.] and pope Leo his arme, for to do hem in his cherche. In þis his tyme*. [In þe tyme of þis, β.] þe fifte synod of Constan|tynnoble was i-made of þre hondred bisshoppes þre score and þrittene. Also in his tyme Sarasyns priked*. [prikide, β.; prykede, γ.; pryked, Cx.] in Italy, and Page  353, vol.6 destroyed*. [destruyede, γ.] Seynt Benet his abbay in Mont Cassyn þo*. [þo] þanne, β.; thenne, Cx.] þe secounde tyme. Marcianus, libro 2o.

Explicit liber quintus.