Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum nonum. Mauricius.

MAURICIUS was emperour oon and twenty ȝere; a good Cristen man of byleve. He overcome þe Pers*. [Perses, Cx.] and the Page  383, vol.5 Armes,*. [Armenyes, α., γ., and Cx.] but at þe ende*. [last, Cx.] he destroyede*. [discordede, α. and Cx.; des|corded, γ.] from Seint Gregorie, so þat he spak so*. [so] om. β. and Cx.] moche*. [mych, β.] evel of hym, and fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to do hym to deþe; and þo was a man i-seie in Rome i-cloþed in monkes wede, wiþ a swerd i-drawe*. [adrawe, γ.] in his hond, þat cried in to al þe citee in þis manere: "Mauricius schal be [y-*. [From α.]]slawe." Þe emperour herde*. [hurde, γ.] þis, and amended hym of his evel dedes, and prayed God þat he wolde wiþ draw þat doom. Oure Lorde schewed hym self to Mauricius in his slepe, and seide, "Wilte*. [Wolt, β.] þou þat I spare þe here oþer*. [eyther, Cx.] after þis lif?" "Lord," quoþ he, "þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þou*. [þou] om. γ.] lovest wrecches þat beeþ here in mes|cheef,*. [meschyef, Cx.] ȝilde to*. [to] om. Cx.] me here as þy wille is." Þanne whanne Mauricius was in þe Estlondes, and fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to forbede his knyȝtes þifte*. [þefþe, β.; þeofþe, γ.] and robberie,*. [robrye, β.] and ȝaf hem nouȝt wages as he was i-wont,*. [wont to doo, Cx.] þerfore þe knyȝtes were i-meved,*. [meoved and made, β.; moevyd, Cx.] and maad oon Foca emperour aȝenst hym. And Foca slouȝ Mauricius and his þre sones while he fleiȝ*. [he vlyȝ, γ.] into an ilond. Page  385, vol.5 [Marianus, libro 2o.]*. [From α. and γ.] Þat ȝere Ceaulinus and his sone Cutha fauȝt aȝenst þe Britouns at Fethauleigh,*. [Fethanleigh, β. and γ.; Fechan· lege, Cx.] but Cuta*. [Cutha, α., β., γ., and Cx.] was þere i-slawe, and Ceaulinus hadde þe victorie. Beda, libro primo. Elle kyng of Deira deide, þe ȝere of his kyngdom*. [regne, Cx.] oon and þritty, and Ida his sone Ethelbrutus*. [Ethelbertus, Cx.] regnede fyve ȝere, boþe in Deyra and in Brenicia. Þat ȝere were i-bore in Fraunce þre children,*. [breþeren, α. and Cx.; þreo bryþren, γ.] Ado, Bado, and Dado; Dado heet Adoenus*. [Audoenus, Cx.] also; afterward he forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] chivalrye, and was i-made bisshop of Rotomagens.*. [Rothomag', β.; Roan, Cx.]Paulus, libro quarto. Aboute þat tyme Guntramius*. [Guntramus, γ.; Guntranus, Cx.] kyng of Fraunce wente an hontynge in to a wode, and his men were to sched*. [disperpled, Cx.] hider and þider*. [heder and þuder, γ.] in every side, and þe kyng werþe*. [wexe, Cx.] wonderliche slepy, and leide hym to slepe, and sleep*. [slep, γ.] on oon his lappe þat was most prive wiþ hym. Þanne out of þe kynges mouth a litel*. [luytel, γ., et infra.] beest gan crepe,*. [crept out, Cx.] and fondede*. [vondede, γ.] to passe*. [wold have passed, Cx.] a litel lake þat þere was faste by; þe secretarie, in whos lappe þe kyng sleep,*. [slept, Cx.] siȝ þat, and drouȝ ouȝte his swerde, and leide it over þe lake, and þat Page  387, vol.5 litel beest passede þeruppon in to þe oþer side, and wente into a den*. [a cave, Cx.] of an hil, and abood*. [hulle and abod, γ.] þere awhile, and come aȝen þe same wey uppon þe swerd aȝe in to þe kynges mouth. After awhile þe kyng awook, and tolde his trewe*. [trewe] om. Cx.] secretrarie þat he hadde i-mette*. [ymet, γ.] [a wonder swevene, and tolde þat he mette]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat he passede an yren brigge,*. [brugge, γ.] and fonde greet tresour in an hille.*. [hulle, γ., et infra.] Þanne his secretarie tolde hym what he hadde i-seie and i-doo; þo þey*. [huy, γ.] tweyne wente ifere,*. [yvere, γ.; to gyder, Cx.] and diggede gret tresour in a den*. [that cave, Cx.] of þat hil. Of som of þat tresor þe kyng made a get*. [a grete, β.] a helynge*. [a gret helynge, α. and γ.; cover|ynge, Cx.] as it were a schryne, and caste for to sende it to Ierusalem, but he was i-lette of þat purpos, and dede it over þat*. [þe, α. and γ.] body of Seint Marcell þe martir in þe citee Ca|billona.*. [Cabillena, γ.]Beda, libro primo. Þe holy fader Columbanus, wiþ Seint Gallus and oþer noble disciples, com out of Irlond in to Burgoyne, and bulde þere þe abbay Luxonium*. [Luxovium, β.] by leve of Theodoricus þe kyng; but he was i-dreve þennes by Brunulda*. [Brunnylda, β.; Brumulda, γ.; Brunmylda, Cx.] þe quene, and come in to Almayn, and bulde þere many abbayes Page  389, vol.5 þat ȝit beeþ famous þere, and fongeþ*. [resseyve, α.] but Irisshe*. [vongeþ bote yrysch, γ.] men to monkes.*. [monges, γ.] Þere Columbanus lefte Gallus and com into Italy, and bulde þe abbay Bonum. Þat ȝere fel*. [fil, β.; vul, γ.] so gret reyn þat Tyber wesche þe walles of Rome, and caste up a gret multitude of serpentes and oon greet dragoun, and þe stenche*. [stynch, γ.] of hem slowȝ meny men in þe citee. Also þere com a greet pestilence of evel in þe chanelles*. [chanels, β., γ., and Cx.] of men at þe neþer ende; þat pestilence slouȝ Pelagius þe pope; þat pestilence was so wood þat it*. [wod þat a, γ.] slouȝ men in þe wey, at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] mete, at pleyenge,*. [plaiying, β.; pleyng, γ.] and [in]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] talkynge, and ofte slow men wiþ galpynge and snesinge. Þerof it come*. [cometh, Cx.] þat ȝit men it useþ, whanne a man sneseth,*. [that men use to say whan they snese, Cx.] so*. [to, α.] sei*. [to sugge, γ.] God helpe þe;" and whan a man galpeth*. [gapeth, to make a crosse to fore his mouthe, Cx.] þan me croyseþ hym. For þis pestilence Seint Gregorie, archedecon*. [a decon, γ.] of þe citee, ordeyned sevene manere letanyes to be seide in Seint Markes [day].*. [From γ.; Mark his day, α.; on Seynt Marcus daye, Cx.] For he sette in þe firste*. [vor he sete in the vurste, γ.] clergye, in þe Page  391, vol.5 secounde þe abottes and monkes, in þe þridde abbesses wiþ hir mynchouns,*. [monchons, β.; abbases with here menchens, γ.; menchons, Cx.] in þe fourþe children, in þe fifte lewed*. [lewide, β.] men, in þe sixte wydewes,*. [widues, β.] and in þe sevenþe wifes.*. [wyves, γ. and Cx.]Beda, libro primo, capitulo 3o.*. [23o, α.; vicesimo tertio, Cx.] Seint*. [Seint] om. γ. and Cx.] Gregorie was pope þrittene ȝere sixe monthes and ten dayes. He made meny noble bookes,*. [beokes, Cx.] þerof quadraginta due Omelie super Evangelista,*. [evangelia, α., β. γ., and Cx.] Domini|calia, Moralia super Iob, Omelie super principium et finem Eȝechiel,*. [Ezechielis, Cx.] Registrum, Pastoralis,*. [Pastorale Dialogorum, Cx.] Dialogi, and bulde an abbay in his owne hous. Also in alle þe chirches of Rome he or|deynede fastynge*. [vastynge, γ.] every day in þe Lente*. [Leynte, α., β., and γ.] for forȝifnesse of synnes. Also he made alle þe hedes and lymes of mawmettes i-kut*. [ykitt, γ.] of, and [in]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe canoun of þe masse he putte*. [potte, γ.] to diesque nostros in tua pace disponas," and so forth. Also he was þe firste of alle popes þat cleped hym self and wroot in bulles "servus servorum Dei," þat is, þe servaunt of þe ser|vantes of God. Also he ordeyned in þe synod and counsaile at Rome, þat þe mynistres of þe auȝter*. [auter, γ.] schulde take hede to Page  393, vol.5 preyenge,*. [prechynge, α., β., γ., and Cx.] and nouȝt to syngynge, and seide, þat while me axeþ a swete voys in holy service covenable tyme*. [lyf, γ.] is for|gendred.*. [vorgendred, γ.; covenable lyf is sette a part, Cx.] And þe synger wiþ his maneres prikeþ þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] þey he plese hem with [his]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] voys. And þey*. [though, Cx.] Seint Gregorie were moost holy, ȝit he hadde bakbiters and enemyes þat wolde have i-brend his bookes after his deþ, but his decon Perys*. [Peres, α., β., and γ.; Pers, Cx.] hadde i-sworn uppon*. [yswore oppon, γ.] þe book, and by þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] peril of his soule and witnesse of his owne deth, þat his bookes were endited by inspiration of þe Holy Goost. Þat ȝere Ceaulinus, kyng of West Saxon, and Crida*. [Cryda, Cx.] were i-slawe. After hym Colfridus,*. [Colfritus, β.; Colffricus γ.; Calfritus, Cx.] þe sone of his broþer Cuthwulfus,*. [Cuthulfus, β., γ., and Cx.] regnede stal|worthiliche*. [strongly, Cx.] fyve ȝere; after hym his broþer*. [his broþer] om. γ.] Colwilfus*. [Colwulfus, β., γ., and Cx.] regnede fouretene ȝere. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 5o. Ethelfridus*. [Etheffridus, γ.] was Ethelricus his sone, and Ethelricus was Ida*. [Yda, Cx.] his sone. Þis Ethelfridus bygan to regne over þe Northumbres, and regnede nobleliche foure and twenty ȝere. Þis was swiþe*. [right, Cx.] strong, and desired gret worschippe, and destroyede*. [distruyed, β.] þe Bri|touns Page  395, vol.5 more þan alle þe Angles princes, and made hem tribu|taries. He hadde by his wif Acca,*. [Acta, β. and Cx.] kyng Elle his douȝter, seven sones and oon douȝter, þat heet Ebba: tweyne of his sones hiȝte Oswaldus and Oswynus.*. [Oswyus, γ.]Beda, libro 3o, capi|tulo 3o. Columba þe abbot is deed and buried in his abbay in þe ilond Hii. Beda, libro 5o, capitulo 9o. He hadde a name i-made of Acella and Columba, and was i-cleped Columkillus.*. [Colunkillus, Cx.]Beda, libro primo, capitulo 23o. Also þat ȝere þe grete Gre|gorie seint Austyn þe monk, wiþ oþere,*. [wiþ oþere] om. Cx.] to preche God his word to Englische men, and*. [and Austyn was aferd and, Cx.] dradde in þe weye, and Austyn tornede aȝen to Gregorie, [and Gregory]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] comforted hym, and sente hym wiþ lettres to þe bisshop Arelatensis, þat he schulde helpe Austyn in what þat hym nedede. Þe tenoure of þilke*. [þulke, γ.] lettres and of oþere lettres þat were i-sent to þe kyng of Kent, and*. [and also, Cx.] answers þat Gregorie ȝaf to Austyn his questiouns, beeþ i-write in Registro Gregorii and in Beda. Paulus, libro 5o. Also þat ȝere þe Longobardes by nyȝte assayed*. [assayled, Cx.] Seint Benet Page  397, vol.5 his abbay in*. [the hulle] added in γ.] Mount Cassinus; bote þe monkes flyȝ*. [vlye, γ.] to Rome, and took wiþ hem þe book of þe holy rule,*. [reule, γ.] and a weyȝte*. [a wyȝt, α. and γ.] of brede for þe iorney, and a mesure of wyn þat hatte Emina.*. [Emia, γ.; Evinia, Cx.] Of þis mescheef Benet warnede hem to forehonde, and prayed God and hadde it i-graunted unneþe þat men of þat place*. [plas, γ.] schulde be saaf.*. [saf, γ.; sauf, Cx.] In þe ryver Nilus, at þe ilond Delta, þe oost of Rome siȝ mermyns in liknes of men and of wommen, þat were so i-seie from þe morwe anon to þe evetide. Þat ȝere Austyn come alonde in þe est side of Kent in þe ilond Tanet; som men clepeþ þat ilond Dent. Þere he com alonde*. [in þe . . . alonde] twice over in MS.] wiþ fourty felawes and som meners*. [men interpretours, Cx.] to be wiþ hem in spekynge wiþ*. [to be . . . wiþ] om. γ., wrongly.] men*. [in . . . men] om. Cx.] of þe londe, for to telle eiþer*. [aiþer, β.] þat*. [what, β. and γ.] oþer wolde mene: þey hadde þese meners wiþ hem out of þe londe*. [For to . . . þe londe] om. Cx.] of Fraunce by counsaille of Gregorie. Seint Austyn sente þese meners*. [interpretours, Cx.] to kyng Ethelbertus þe ȝere of his kyngdom sixe and þritty, and seide þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þey were i-come out of Rome for hele*. [heele, β.] and savacioun of þe kyng and of his kyngdom.*. [royaume, Cx.] Þe kynge herde þis, and hadde i-herde to forehonde of þe fame of Cristen fey, for he hadde to wif a Cristene queene þat was a Frensche Page  399, vol.5 womman, and hadde i-fonge*. [resseyved, Cx.] hire of here*. [yvonge hure of hure, γ.] fadir and moder uppon þat condicioun and sche schulde use and kepe Cristen fey. Þan [after]*. [From Cx.] somwhat of dayes þe kyng com into þat ilond, but he spak wiþ hem out of*. [out of] withoute, Cx.] house under þe wolken.*. [walkon, α.; welken, Cx.] In þat doynge he usede þe [mysbyleve of]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] mysbyleved men. And in his comynge þey arered*. [areysed, Cx.] up*. [op, γ.] þe baner of þe cros wiþ a crucifix i-peynt in a table, and song þe letayne, and preched þe word of God.*. [lyf, α., γ., and Cx.; lif, β.] Þanne þe kyng spak to hem and seide, "It is faire þat ȝe byhoteþ,*. [ye promyse, Cx.] bote for*. [for] for as moche as, Cx.] it is newe I*. [Y. β.] may nouȝt anon*. [anon] yet, Cx.] assente; and for ȝe beeþ*. [by cause ye ben come fro ferre, Cx.] i-come of*. [of] from, β.] fer*. [ver, γ.] by cause of me, me*. [we, γ. and Cx.] schal nouȝt onlich spare [ȝou],*. [From β.] and be nouȝt wroþ to ȝow, but me schal fynde*. [vynde, γ.] ȝow what me nedeþ to liflode.*. [fynde suche thynges as shal be nedeful to your lyflode, Cx.] And we schulle graunt ȝow leve also to torne of oure men to ȝoure fey as meny as ȝe mowe."*. [may, Cx.] Whanne þey herde þis þey wente wiþ processioun to þe citee and songe Alleluya, and seide, "Lord, we prayeþ þe in al þy mercy þat þy wreþþe be i-take awey*. [awey] om. Cx.] from þis citee," and wente into þe Page  401, vol.5 citee Dorobernia, þat is Caunterbury, and ladde here lyf as holy fadres dede in þe bygynnynge of holy chirche, in fastynge,*. [vastynge, γ.] in wakynge, in bedes biddynge, and in prechynge of Goddes word, and songe masses, and fullede*. [follede, β.; vollede, γ.; crystned, Cx.] in þe est side of þe citee of*. [in, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þe olde chirche of Seint Martyn, for to*. [for to] unto the tyme, Cx.] þat þe kyng was converted and a greet deel of his peple. Trevisa. Here take hede of þe difference bytwene Dorobernia and Dorovernia oþer Dovoria, ffor Dorobernia is Canterburye, and ladde here lyf þere,*. [and . . . þere] om. α., β., and γ.] and Dorovernia is Dovere, and so is Dovoria also; and for the liknesse of þese tweie names, Dorobernia and Doro|vernia, som men beeþ bygiled, and weneþ þat þe erchebisshoppes see was first at Dovere, ffor it is i-wrete þat Seint Austyn his see was in Dorobernia, þat is Caunterbury: loke more here of in þe firste book, capitulo 47o. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie:*. [Trevisa. . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] þe kyng was converted, and ȝaf þis*. [his, α. and Cx.; hys, γ.] doctour a place for þe bisshoppes see at Crist*. [Crystes, Cx.] Cherche,*. [Chirche, β.] wiþ meny possessiouns, and bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] þe abbay of Seint Peter and Paule*. [Poul, β.] in þe est side of þe citee. Austyn and his successoures, and also þe kynges of Kent, were i-woned to be buried þere. Beda, libro 26o, capitulo 2o. In þe mene tyme Austyn by help*. [by help] om. γ. and Cx.] wente to þe erchebisshop Arelatensis, and was i-sacred archebisshop of hym. Seint Gregorie was i-certefied here of, and sente to Page  403, vol.5 Austyn mo helpers, Mellitus, Iustus, Paulinus, and bookes and relikes*. [reliques, β.; relyquyes, Cx.] of holy seintes, and answers to Seynt Austyn his questiouns. Soche*. [Siche, β.] were the answers. As*. [As] om. γ.] þe chirche of Rome ȝeveþ*. [useþ, β.; useth of al goodes, Cx.] of al wages þat falleþ to make foure parties,*. [that tho goodes sholde be deled on, Cx.] oon to þe bisshop and his meyne to fynde*. [veynde, γ.] harburgy;*. [herbergrye, β.; herbegerye and suche as they nede, Cx.] þe secounde to þe clergy; þe þridde to pore men; þe ferþe to þe amende|ment of þe chirche.*. [þe chirche] cherches, α. and Cx.] To hem þat lyveþ in comyn al þing is comyn, and what þere leveþ schal be spend*. [spended, Cx.] in dedes of mercye. To þe secounde þat is i-axed, "While þe fey is al oon, whi beeþ þere so many dyvers usages in cherches?" herto it is answerde in þis manere: "What þou knowest is most plesynge to God Almyȝti gadre þou to gidres, and make it be i-used in chirches in Engelond. Þinges beeþ nouȝt loved for þe place,*. [places, α.] but þe places beeþ i-loved for good þinges."*. [þingis, β.] Colwulfus, þe sone [of Cutha]*. [From α., β., and γ.] Ceaulinus his broþer, regnede in West Saxon fourtene ȝere. Þat tyme in subarbes*. [subarbis, Cx.] of Con|stantynnoble come forþ greet mervailles and wondres, for oon Page  405, vol.5 childe was i-bore wiþ foure feet,*. [voure veet, γ.] and anoþer wiþ tweie nolles and moldes. Þat ȝere Seint Yve þe bisshop was i-bore in Pers,*. [Perce, Cx.] and*. [and] om. α., β., and Cx.] deide in Engelond. Beda, libro primo. Þat ȝere Austyn by heste*. [commandement, Cx.] of Gregorie made tweie archebisshoppes, oon at Londoun and anoþer at ȝork. In þe mene tyme Austyn,*. [Austyn] om. Cx.] by help of Ethelbrutus,*. [Ethelbertus, Cx.] gadred bishopps*. [biscoppes, γ.] and doctoures of Britouns to gidres in a place þat hatte Austinus ook,*. [Austynes oc, α.; Austyns oc, Cx.] þat is Austyn his strengþe, þat place is in þe marche of þe Wicties*. [Wiccies, β. and Cx.] and of þe West Saxons, and þere he chargede hem þat þey schulde preche Goddes word to þe Anglis*. [Anglys, γ.] wiþ hym. And also þey*. [þey] þat a, γ.] schulde amende som oþer errours*. [errous, α.] among hemself, and speccialiche*. [specyalyche, γ.] of þe usage of Ester terme;*. [Eester tyme, Cx.] and þey wiþseide openliche, or*. [ar, α. and γ.; til, Cx.] it were i-schewed by an open token whiche*. [whoche, γ.] partie scholde be i-holde. Þo was i-brouȝt a blynde man forþe*. [vorþ, γ., which puts it after i-brouȝt.] of þe nacioun of Angles, þat was i-heled and hadde his siȝt by þe prayer of Austyn, for Bretouns faillede in þat dede. Whanne þe Britouns sigh [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] þe blynde man hadde his sight þey knowleched þat Seint Austyn his wey was Page  407, vol.5 trewe. But þey seide þat þey myȝte not forsake þo*. [here, α.] olde usages wiþ oute assent of hem þat usede þe same. Þanne he gadrede a synod; þerto com sevene bisshoppis of Bretouns wiþ þe wisest men of þat famous abbay of Bangor. But firste þei hadde counsaille of an ermyte þat they schulde assente [to Austyn]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝif þey fonde*. [ȝef huy vonde, γ.] hym meke and mylde as Cristes disciple schulde be; and þat þey myȝte knowe ȝif Austyn wolde arise aȝenst hem whanne þey com into the synod. Aus|tyn satte in his bischoppis chaier*. [chayer, β.; in þe byschop his chayer, γ.] stille, and roos not, þerfore þey forsook*. [þarvor huy vorsok, γ.] hym wroþeliche.*. [in grete wrath, Cx.] Þanne Seint Austyn seide: "Assenteþ to me, nameliche,*. [Assente me specially, Cx.] in þre þinges, ȝif ȝe willeþ*. [wolleþ, γ.; yf ye wole, Cx.] nouȝt assente to me and*. [and] in, γ. and Cx.] þe oþere. Assentiþ to me, and holdeþ þe Ester day in dewe*. [þewe, γ.] tyme, and ȝeve bapteme*. [ȝeveþ fullouȝt, β.; ȝeveth volloȝt, γ.; yeve ye crystendome, Cx.] in þe manere of þe chirche of Rome, and precheþ Goddes word to þe Angles; and þe oþer deel I*. [Y, β.] suffre ȝow to amende amonge ȝoure self." But þey wolde nouȝt þerof. Þanne Seint Austyn, by inspiracioun, warnede hem, and seide þat þey Page  409, vol.5 þat wolde not fonge*. [vonge, γ., bis; resseyve, Cx. bis.] pees wiþ*. [of, Cx.] here breþeren schulde fonge*. [vonge, γ., bis; resseyve, Cx. bis.] of hem werre and wreche; and afterward at Goddes owne dome it*. [hit, β.] was fulfilled*. [folfuld, γ.] by Ethelfridus kyng of Northumberlond, whanne þe peple*. [pupel, γ.] and [þe]*. [From β.] monkes of Bangor were i-slawe at Chestre.