Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum duodecimum.

ÞAT ȝere Penda paganus, þe tenþe after Woden, was þe sone of Wybba, and bygan to regne whanne he was fifty ȝere olde, and regnede in Mercia þritty ȝere. [℞]*. [From β. and Cx.] But som cronikes meneþ*. [telleþ, γ.] þat Crida, Kynewolde his sone, was þe tenþe after Woden, and þe firste þat regnede in Mercia, and regned x. ȝere. After hym his sone Wibba regnede twenty ȝere, and Page  443, vol.5 after Wibba [his kynnesman]*. [From β.; his kinnisman, in|serted in Cx.] Ceorlus regnede ten ȝere; and after hym Penda, Wibba his sone, regnede þritty ȝere. He slowȝ þe tweie kynges sones of Northumberlonde, Edwyn and Oswald, and þre kynges of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] Est Anglys, Sigebertus, Egri|tus, and Annas. Also þe quene his wyf bare hym fyve*. [vyf, γ.] sones, Weda,*. [Wedda, Cx.] Wilferus,*. [Wulferus, β., γ., and Cx.] Etheldredus, Merwaldus, and Marcellinus,*. [Mercellinus, β.] and tweie douȝtres, Seint Kyneburgh and Seint Keneswide.*. [Kineswyd, γ.; Kyneswyd, Cx.]Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 9o. Þat ȝere in an Ester day com to þe real*. [ryal, β. and Cx.; real tyde, γ.] citee byside þe water Dorwent oon Emnerus,*. [Enmerus, α.; Eumerus, Cx.] a swerdman, wiþ a swerd i-venymed, i-sent of*. [of] from Cx.] Quichelinus, kyng of West Saxon, for to slee kyng Edwynus. But oon Lilla, þe kynges trusty*. [tristy, β.] servaunt, for he hadde noon oþer scheld, he putte*. [potte, γ.] his owne body aȝenst þe strook, and was i-smyte þoruȝ þe body, and þe kyng was i-wounded wiþ þe same strook. And þe swerdman was i-smyte þoruȝ with swerdes in every side, and slowȝ anoþer knyȝt wiþ his cursed*. [corsede, γ.] swerd. Also þe same Ester nyȝt þe queene hadde Page  445, vol.5 a douȝter þat heet Enfleda; þe kyng ȝaf here to God, and made Paulinus halowe here,*. [habbe hure, γ.] in token and*. [and] of, Cx.] convenant þat he wolde fulfille*. [folfulle, γ.] his byheste, and be Cristen man, ȝif he hadde þe vic|torie of þe kyng of West Saxon. Þan in a Witsonday*. [on a Whitesonday, Cx.] þe mayde was i-cristened,*. [folled, β.; yvolle, γ.] and þe kyng þo first was unneþe hool*. [hol, γ.] of his wounde, and gadrede his oost, and overcom þe kyng of West Saxons. Bote þey*. [But þouȝ, β.; But though, Cx.] kyng Edwynus forsook his mame|trie, and wolde gladliche here Paulinus, ȝit he avised hym longe tyme wiþ his counsaile what were best to doo in þat manere of doynge. Also þat tyme þe kyng*. [kyng] om. γ.] feng*. [veng, γ.] lettres þat pope Bonefacius sente hym, and conforted hym to þe fey, and he fenge a scherte,*. [schirte, β.; and a vyng a schurt, γ.; sherte, Cx.] som þerof was i-wrouȝt wiþ gold. And anoþer lettre of þe same tenoure was i-sent to þe queene wiþ a mirour*. [merour, γ., mirrour, Cx.] of silver, and a combe of yvorie*. [evory, α. and γ.; yvory, β.] somdel overgilt. Paulinus sigh þat the kyng was harde to converte, and made his prayers to God, and lerned by inspiracioun þat a token was somtyme i-schewed*. [schewide, β.] to þe kyng while he was exciled wiþ Page  447, vol.5 Redwaldus. Þanne in a day Paulinus leyde his honde uppon þe kynges heed, and axede ȝif he knewe þat token; þe token was i-knowe,*. [knowen, Cx.] and Paulinus seide, "Lo þou hast overcome þyn enemyes and i-wonne þy kyngdom: þanne doo as þou hast byhote, and be trewe*. [truwe, γ.] to hym þat so haþ þe i-holpe." Þanne þe kyng took counsail of lordes, and was i-cristened*. [yfolled, β.; yvolled, γ.] at ȝork, and meny oþere, þe ȝere of his kyngdom elevene. Þanne Coysy,*. [Caysy, Cx.] first*. [furst, α.] of bishoppes, forsook*. [vorsok, γ.] his mametrie, and aȝenst þe usages of here false holynesse, and armed hem,*. [hem] him, Cx.] and leep*. [luep, γ.] on a noble hors, and destroyed*. [distried, β.] þe temples of mametrie.*. [mamettes, α.; mametes, γ.; maumettes, Cx.] Hit was nouȝt leveful*. [leffol, γ.; leeful, Cx.] to þe bisshop of mis|byleved men to be i-armed, noþer to ride but uppon*. [oppon, γ.] a mare. From þat tyme forþward anon to þe sleynge of kyng Edwynus, Paulinus cristened*. [folled, β.; vollede, γ.] continualliche sixe ȝere in boþe provinces, in Deira and in Brenicia, in þe ryvers Gleny and Swala, and prechede in þe province of Lindseie,*. [Lydeseye, Cx.] and bulde a Page  449, vol.5 chirche of stoon at Lyncolne,*. [Lyndecolyn, α.; Lyndcolyn, β.; Lyndecoln, Cx.] þat is Lyncoln. Afterward in þat chirche, whan Iustus þe archebisshop was deed, Paulinus sacred*. [sacride, β.] Honorius, archebisshop of Dorobernia, þat is Caunter|bury, in his stede, wiþ suche*. [sich, β.] auctorite of pope Honorius, þat ȝif þe archebisshop of Caunterbury oþer*. [or, Cx.] of ȝork is*. [be, Cx.] dede, he þat is on lyve haþ power to sacre anoþer archebisshop*. [bisshop, Cx.] in his stede þat is deed. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 16o. Þanne þere was so grete pees*. [pes, γ.] in Edwynus his kyngdom þat a woman myȝte goo from*. [vram, γ.] þe oon see to þat oþer and no man schulde here greve.*. [one toun to another without ony greef or anoyng, Cx.] Also for refresshynge and socour of way farynge*. [weyvaryng, γ.] men*. [and . . . men] of weygoers, β.] þere*. [for refresshyng of weygoers there as, Cx.] clere welles were in þe hye*. [hyȝe, α.; heiȝ, β.; by hye weyes, Cx.] weyes, þe same kyng heet*. [bade, β.] arere postes, and honge þere schelles oþer coppes*. [cuppes, β.] [of bras, and no man durste touche þilke*. [þulke, γ.] coppes]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] but to þe same use. He was þe firste kyng þat wan þe ilond Eubonya,*. [Eubonia, γ.] þat is Man. Redwaldus his sone, Corpwaldus, kyng of Est Angles, by comfort*. [comford, α.] of Edwynus feng þe fey of holy cherche, Page  451, vol.5 he and his men, and was i-slawe nouȝt longe after of oon Rigbertus, a mysbileved man. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 17o. Þat ȝere þe pope Honorius sente þe pal to Honorius arche|bisshop of Caunterbury, wiþ lettres þat enformede hym of þe manere of þe ordeynynge of þe*. [þe] om. α.] archebisshop in Bretayne. Also he sente lettres to þe*. [þe] om. β.] Scottes of þe holdynge of Ester day, and chargede hem þat þey*. [huy, γ., bis.] schulde nouȝt trowe þat þey*. [huy, γ., bis.] þat were so fewe*. [veawe, γ.] in þe ende of þe world*. [worl, γ.] were*. [were] sholde be, Cx.] more con|nynge þan Cristen men þat beeþ now and were in olde tyme. Beda, libro 2o, capitulo 20o. Þat ȝere Penda kyng of Mercia, and Cedwalla kyng of Britouns, slouȝ kyng Edwynus in þe feeld*. [veld, γ.] of Hatfeld.*. [fclde of Hatfelde, β.; feld of Hattefelde, Cx.] Þese tweie kynges, Penda and Cedwalla, were so cruel*. [cruwel, γ.] in þat province þat þey sparede noþer man noþer womman, noþer ȝong noþer olde, noþer religioun. And ȝit anon to þis tyme Britouns telleþ*. [acounte, Cx.] þe fey and religioun of Angles for nouȝt. In þe tyme of þat mescheef Paulinus, arche|bisshop of ȝork, took wiþ hym þe queene and here douȝter Eanfleda, and wente by water wey into Kent; and þe cherche of Rouchestre was þo voyde by þe deeþ of Romanus þe bisshop, Page  453, vol.5 for he was þo adreynt; and so Paulinus was i-made bisshop of Rochestre, and was bisshop þere nyntene ȝere, and deide, and lefte þere his palle.*. [pal, β. and Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. And so þe cherche of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] men of Northumbirlond was wiþ oute bisshopriche after Paulinus his deþ þritty ȝere, and was with oute þe use of pal sixe score ȝere and fyve. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Whanne Edwynus was dede, Osricus*. [Osiricus, Cx., bis.] was kyng of Deyra. Osricus was Elfricus his sone, and Elfricus was Edwynus eem.*. [heeme, γ.; eame, Cx.] But Ethelfridus, Eanfricus his sone, was [king]*. [From Cx.] of Brenicia, and anon boþe þese kynges tornede to mametrie.*. [mamatry, γ.] But Cedwalla slouȝ hem boþe in oon ȝere, oon after*. [aftur an, γ.] oþer, by God his riȝtful wreche; þerfore it plesede hem þat acounted þe tymes to wiþ drawe þe mynde of mysbyleved kynges, so þat ongracious*. [þat þat ungraciouse, β.; un|gracious, γ.] ȝere*. [thilk ungracious yere, Cx.] schulde be acounted to þe kyngdom*. [regne, Cx.] of Oswald, þat regnede afterward. And after the sleynge of his broþer Eanfridus, wiþ a litel oost he slowȝ þe forsaide*. [vorsede, γ.] Cedwalle, þat com aȝenst hym wiþ a wonder huge*. [houge, γ.] oost in a place þat hatte Devennyssbury,*. [Devisseburn, α., β., and γ.; Denisseburn, Cx.] and hatte Devysus*. [Denisus, Cx.]Page  455, vol.5 [his]*. [From γ.] lake also; þe place þere*. [þare, γ.] Oswaldus knelede*. [knelide, β.] and rerede a crosse,*. [cros, γ.] and prayed God for þe savacioun of his mėn to fore þe bataille, þat place*. [plas, γ., tris.] hatte Hevenfild, þat place is now in grete worshippe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Þat place is in þe norþside of þat famous walle þat þe legioun of Rome bulde*. [bilded thwert, Cx.] þwart*. [þwert, β.] over þe ilond nouȝt fer from [þe]*. [From β.] chirche Hagustald. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo primo. Of þe spones of þis croys beeþ i-doo*. [be don, Cx.] meny vertues [and]*. [From Cx.] wondres. To fore þat tyme was no cherche þat hadde [an]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] auȝter in Brenicia or*. [ar, γ.] kyng Oswaldus hadde arered a*. [reysed that, Cx.] crosse*. [croys, γ.] at þat bataille; and sone after þere was i-bulde a chirche. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 2o. Kyng Oswald axede of þe Scottes, and hadde it i-graunted, þat bisshop Aydanus moste*. [moste] sholde, Cx.] come and teche his peple.*. [pupel, γ.] Þo þe kyng ȝaf hym a place of a bisshoppes see in þe ilond Lyndifare:*. [Lyndisfare, γ.; Lyndefar, Cx] þere me myȝte i-see wonder, for þe bisshop preched in Scottische, and þe kyng told forþ*. [vorþ, γ.] an*. [an] in, Cx.]Page  457, vol.5 Englissche to þe peple what it was to menynge.*. [to saye or meene, Cx.] Þanne alle day come Scotissche monkes, and prechede þe*. [for to preche to the, Cx.] Angles, out of Aidanus his abbay þat was in þe ilond Hii. Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 4o. Aidanus was þe merour*. [mirrour, Cx.] of abstinence, and fasted*. [faste, α., β., and γ.] everiche day to none. He levede noon oþer wise but [as he]*. [From γ.] tauȝte; al þat was i-ȝeve hym he wolde gladliche ȝeve [hyt]*. [From γ.; yaf it gladly, Cx.] to pore men. He ȝede on his feet,*. [ȝude on hys veet, γ.] and rood on no*. [non, α.; noon, β.; none, Cx.] hors; he preched walkynge up and doun; he spared nouȝt to telle þe defautes of chirche*. [riche, α., β., and γ.; ryche, Cx.] men for reverence noþer*. [ne, Cx.] for drede. He ȝaf hem*. [hem] om. Cx.] no money, but onliche whete*. [mete, α., β., γ., and Cx.] ȝif he hadde he wolde ȝeve. He raunsoned*. [raunsede, γ.] pri|soners*. [oute of prison, added in Cx.] and made hem his disciples ful ofte. Þe occasioun of his comynge into Engelond was suche:*. [sich, β.; this, Cx.] to forehonde he was i-send after*. [he . . . after] to forhond was y sent a sterne man, α., γ., and Cx.; was sent a sterne, β.] into Engelond at þe prayer*. [prayyng, β.] of kyng Oswald for to teche his peple, and dede*. [dide, β.] but litel profiȝt,*. [prouffyt, Cx.] and tornede home aȝe into his owne, as he þat hadde i-travailled an*. [an] in, Cx.] ydel. Þan the Scottes tretede among hem for to sende anoþer man Page  459, vol.5 into Engelond. Me seiþ þat to hym þat was [so]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] i-come*. [comen, β.] aȝen in to Scotlond Aidanus spak in þis manere: "Broþer, me semeþ þat þou were hardere þan þow schuldest be, for to men þat beeþ rude and unkonnynge þou ȝaf nouȝt at þe bygynnynge þe mylk of good lore, as þe apostel techeþ, þat whanne þei beeþ*. [a beþ, γ.] esiliche*. [ben esely, Cx.] i-brouȝte yn litel and litel, þan [ben they able]*. [From Cx.] to understonde more perfiȝt lore." Þan whanne þat was i-seide*. [y-herd, α.; y-hurd, γ.; herd, Cx.] Aidanus was i-sente as þe more discrete man and wys; by his word and ensaumple Oswald hadde hope to þe kyngdom of hevene, and not onliche þat, but also he hadde a gretter erþeliche*. [erlich, β.] kyngdom. For al naciouns of Britayne þat were i-deled in foure longages, Britons, Pictes, Scottes, and Angles, feng*. [toke, β.; vyng, γ.] hym to hire lord and kyng. Also it is i-seide of hym þat in an Ester day Aidanus sat by hym at [þe]*. [From α., β., and γ.] mete, and a grete multitude of pore*. [poure, γ.] men come to þe kynges ȝate, and axede*. [axide, β.; axyd, Cx.] for to have*. [vor to habbe, γ.] of þe kynges almes; and for þe kyng hadde nouȝt elles at honde to ȝeve hem, he took þe mes þat was i-sette to fore hym, and þe disshe of silver, and brak it al to peces, and sent it to [þe]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] poure men. Þe bisshop Page  461, vol.5 siȝ*. [sawe, Cx.] þat, and took þe kyng by þe riȝt hond, and seide, "I*. [Y, β.] praye God þat þis honde nevere wexe olde;" and so it happede. For aftirward, whan Oswald was i-slawe, þat arm was i-kut of from*. [vram, γ.] þe body, and durede hool*. [hol, γ.] and sounde at þe real*. [rial, β.; ryal, Cx.] citee, Belibanburgh.*. [Bebbanburgh, α., β., and Cx.]Beda, libro 3o, capitulo 8o. It is i-seide of hym þat for he usede so ofte for to bidde his bedes,*. [or make his prayers, added in Cx.] and to þonke God Almyȝti alwey, where evere he sete*. [where he evere sete, α.; sate, Cx.] he wolde strecche his hondes, and holde hem to gidres, and lene*. [lenye, β. and γ.] on his knees.*. [kneon, γ.] And þerfore ȝit*. [þarvore ȝut, γ.] hit is [a]*. [From γ.] bysawe, "God have mercy of soules, quoþ*. [quaþ, α.; sayd, Cx.] Oswalde, and fil*. [ful, γ.; fyll, Cx.] to þe grounde." Also þat ȝere were ordeyned bisshopps Adoenus of Rothomagensis*. [Audoenus of Rotomagis, Cx.] and Eligius. Þe abbot Gallus, þe desciple*. [dyscypel, γ.] of Columbanus, was þo in his floures in Almayne.