Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  165, vol.5

Capitulum vicesimum octavum. Iulianus.

WHANNE Constancius was dede, Iulyanus þe*. [þe] om. β.] aposteta,*. [apostata, Cx.] þat was Cesar, was i-made emperour, [and was emperour]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] as it were two ȝere. In his tyme were i-martred Pigmenus*. [Pigmeus, α., β., and Cx.] þe preost þat was somtyme*. [had ben tofore, Cx.] Iulianus maister, Iohn*. [Iohan, Cx.] and Paule, and also Quiriacus þat heet Iudas, bisshop of Ierusalem, ffor he hadde i-founde þe cros. ℞.*. [℞] om. α.] Of þis Iulianus it is i-rad, undecimo libro historie tripartite, þat Constancius, þe grete Constantyn his broþer, hadde tweie breþeren,*. [sones, Cx.] oon Gallus and þis Iulianus. But whanne þe greet Constantyn was dede, his sone Constancius was emperour, and made his eem*. [eme, γ.] Gallus Cesar, but afterward, for suspeccioun of his grete witte, he made hym be i-slawe at Histria, and þerfore þis Iulianus, Gallus his broþer, dradde leste he schulde be slawe,*. [slayn, β.] and bycam a monk, and made hym ful*. [fol, γ.] papholy*. [pop holy, Cx.] under monkes wede.*. [habyte, Cx.] Þerfore a womman brouȝte hym to kepynge þre stenes ful of gold Page  167, vol.5 i-heled*. [covered, Cx.] above wiþ askes;*. [asshes, Cx.] but Iulianus took þe gold and dely|vered þe womman þe stenes ful*. [steenes fol, γ., et infra.] of askes; and whanne þe gold was i-take Iulianus myȝte*. [coude, Cx.] nouȝt be convykt, for þe witnesse*. [witnesses, β.; wytnes, γ.; wyt|nesses, Cx.] þat were present in þe bryngynge of þe stenes*. [atte receyvyng of them, Cx.] sigh*. [sye, γ.] noȝt but askes; and so Iulianus wiþ helde*. [heuld, γ.; toke, Cx.] þe golde, and went þerwiþ*. [þerwiþ] om. Cx.] to Rome, and gat hym þat he was consul,*. [and dyde so moche that he was consul, Cx.] and at þe laste he gat hym temple,*. [temple] þe empere, α. and β.; þemper, γ.; thempyre, Cx.] and was emperour. Þis Iulianus in his childe|hode lerned*. [leornede, γ.] nygromancie and wicchecraft, and in a tyme whanne his maister was oute he radde in his bookes of þat craft, and come to fore*. [tofore] bifore, β.; there cam byfore, Cx.] hym a greet multitude of fendes, and he dradde hem sore, and made þe signe of þe crosse; þanne anon alle þe fendes vanschede*. [vanyscheden, β.; feendes fan|schede, γ.] awey, and so he tolde his maister whan he com home, and his maister seide þat fendes hateþ most*. [hated moost, Cx.] the signe of þe cros. Iulianus come to Rome, and a fend schewed*. [schewide, β.] hym to hym by þe doynge of a wicche,*. [wychche, γ.] and by|heet*. [promised, Cx.] hym þe empere ȝif he wolde forsake cristen fey, and so it Page  169, vol.5 was i-do. Þanne Constancius made hym Cesar, and sente hym into Fraunce; þere he dede meny victories, and gat a crown of laureal þat hyng bitwene tweie pilers, and brak þe rope*. [roop, γ.] þat þe corowne heng by, and was realliche*. [rialiche, β.; realych, γ.] i-crowned by þat crowne;*. [crowen, Cx.] þeyȝ*. [þei, β.] þat sigh þat tolde þat þat tokene bodede þat he schulde be emperour. Whanne Constancius was dede Iulianus was i-made emperour, and*. [he, added in Cx.] fondede for*. [for] om. Cx.] to plese al men. Þerfore in þe by|gynnynge of his empere he grauntede þat everiche man schulde holde what fey þat he wolde. But he destroyed*. [distruyed, β.] þe signe of þe crosse wiþ al þat he myȝte, and trowed*. [supposed, Cx.] þerby for to gete hym most grace of fendes. Þo*. [þanne, β.] he oponed temples and dede sacrifice*. [dude sacrefys, γ.] to mamettes;*. [mawmettes, β.] oones, while he dede so, dew fil*. [ful, γ.] uppon his cloþes and uppon all oþer men cloþes þat þere were in þe liknesse of þe croys. In anoþer tyme, in þe bowels of a beste þat was i-slawe to sacrifice, was i-founde þe schap of þe croys by|clipped aboute wiþ a crowne; þe mynistres sigh*. [syȝe, γ.; sawe, Cx.] þat, and seide þat þe victorie of Cristes croys lasteþ*. [lesteþ, γ.] wiþ oute ende. But Iulianus fykeled*. [fikeled, β.; vyclede, γ.] wiþ hem, and seide þat þat was a tokene*. [tokne was, γ.]Page  171, vol.5 of constreynynge of Cristes*. [constraynyng of Cristen, β.] lore, and þat it schulde nevere passe þe wydnesse of a*. [α] the, Cx.] cercle. Also he dede sometyme*. [sometyme] repeated in MS. by error.] sacrafice at Constantynnoble. And Calcedonius þe bischop was blynd for age, and repreved*. [repreovede, γ.] Iulianus scharpliche. "Þy man of Galilee," quod Iulianus, "myȝte nouȝt save þe from blyndenesse." "Þerof I þank*. [þonke, α. and γ.] hym," quod þe bisshop, "þat he haþ bynome my*. [bynome me my, γ.] sight, þat I schulde nouȝt see þe i|prived*. [ypryved, γ.] of al myldenesse." Also at Anthiochia*. [Antiochia, Cx.] he gadred to giders þe holy vessel and towaylls of þe auter, and defouled hem wiþ the filþe*. [vylthe, γ.] of his ers;*. [ars, Cx., et infra.] and anon wormes*. [wromes, Cx.] sprang out þer|of, and frate so Iulianus his neþer ende þat he myȝte nevere be delivered þerof while he was on*. [on] a, β., and Cx.] lyve. Also his steward pissed uppon*. [apon, γ.] the vessel*. [vessels, Cx., et infra.] of þe chirche, and seide, "Loo in what vessel Mary sone*. [Maryes, β.] is i-served;" and anon his mouþ bycom his ers, and servede aftirward in stede of his neþer ende. Also Iulianus, for hate of cristen men, gan to bulde*. [buylde, Cx.] þe temple Page  173, vol.5 of Ierusalem uppon his owne cost, but al þat was i-bulde aday, erþe shakynge þrew doun a nyȝt; also fuyre com out of þe temple and destroyed moche folk; and in þe nyȝt aftir þe signe of þe croys was i-seie uppon alle men*. [mennes, Cx.] cloþes. Also Iulianus put out of his court eunuchos, gilded*. [gelded, β.; eunuches that is ghelded, Cx.] men, barboures, and cokes. Eunuchos, for his wif was dede, and he hadde i-wedded non oþer after here; he dede awey his*. [his] þe, β.] cokes for he usede symple metes; and barboures, for oon myȝte serve*. [servy, α.] meny men; he made meny bookes and blamede þerynne his predecessoures. In þat he dede awey cokes and barboures, he dede as a philoso|fre, and nouȝt as a prince. [In that he blamed*. [þat þat he blamed, β.; þat þat he blamede, γ.] princes, he dyde not*. [he dide nouȝt, β.; a dude noȝt, γ.] as a philosopher*. [philosofre, γ.] ner*. [noþer, β. and γ.] as a prince].*. [From β., γ., and Cx.] Þanne Iulianus wente doun in [to]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Pers, as it is i-rad in vitas patrum, and sent a fend in to þe west londes for he schulde brynge [hym]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] word þennes; but þe fend was ten dayes*. [dawes, γ.] i-lette of his iornay by oon Publi|cus,*. [Publius, β. and Cx.] a monk þat was alwey in his bedes, so þat þe fende brouȝt his Page  175, vol.5 lord*. [his lord] om. Cx.] noon answere aȝen. Whanne fendes hadde i-hote*. [by hoot, α.; bihote, β.; pro|mised, Cx.] hym þe victorie of the Pers, his sophister*. [sophistris, Cx.] axede in þis manere of a cristen man, "What trowest*. [supposest, Cx.] þou dooth ȝour God now, þat car|penter his sone." Þe cristen man answerde and seide, "He arrayeþ a buriels for þy maister Iulianus." Iulianus wente in to Pers, and come to Chesifont,*. [Chesysont, γ.] and byseged þere þe kyng of þe contray, and forsook som of þe kyngdom þat was profred hym, for he trowede þat þe grete Alisaundre his soule was i-putte in his body, by þe menynge*. [mevyng, Cx.] of Pictagoras and of Plato, þat seide þat þe soules of mankynde passeþ from body to body;*. [bodies, β. (bis); bodyes to bodyes, γ. and Cx.] but a darte come sodenliche and stiked in his side, and þerwiþ he ended his lif. ℞. Eutropius and Oracius,*. [Orosius, α., β., and γ.; Oro|cius, Cx.] libro sexto, telleþ þat Iulianus went to*. [to] into, β.] Pers, and was i-lad in wilde places by gile and fraude of oon þat was outlawed, and þere he was overcome wiþ travaille of þe gravel, wiþ rust,*. [þrust, α.; þirste, β.; þurst, γ.; thyrste, Cx.] and wiþ hete of þe sonne; and so an horsman of his enemyes smoot hym wiþ a spere, and he deide. Also it is i-rad*. [redde, Cx.] in Basilius his tyme*. [lyf, Cx.] þat whanne Iulianus wente into Perseward, Basilius was Page  177, vol.5 at Cesarea in Capadocia, and sent hym a present of barliche*. [barlych, γ.; barley, Cx.] loves; Iulianus byhelde þe loves, and sent hym hey*. [heyȝ, γ.] aȝe; me seiþ*. [hit is sayd, Cx.] þat Basilius seide þanne, "We sente to þe suche as we eteþ, bote þou sendest to us suche as þy*. [þy] om. Cx.] bestes eteþ." Þanne Iulianus seide, "Whanne I come aȝen victor out of Pers, I schal so destroye þis citee þat it schal bere more hey*. [heyȝ, γ.] þan corn." Þan Basilius prayde for þe savacioun of þe citee, and sigh*. [syȝ, γ.; saw, Cx.] by nyȝte in þe myddel of þe chirche a gret multitude of aungels, and in þe myddel of hem a woman sittynge on a tyme,*. [trone, α., β., γ., and Cx.] þat seide, "Clepeþ*. [Clepuþ, γ.; Clepe, Cx.] to me Mercurius þe knyȝt þat schal take wreche for me and my sone of þis*. [þes, γ.] Iulianus þat despiseþ God." Mercurius was a cristene knyȝt þat Iulianus hadde i-slawe for þe fey of holy chirche, and was late i-buried in þat chirche þere þis siȝte was i-seie;*. [whereas this sight was seen, Cx.] and anon Mercurius took his wepoun,*. [wepen, β. and Cx.; wepne þat ȝut heng, γ.] þat ȝit hongeþ*. [hyng, α.; heng, β.; henge, Cx.] in þat chirche, and wente forþ aȝenst Iulianus, and stiked hym in þe myddel of his body, and vansched*. [fanschede, γ.] awey Page  179, vol.5 anon; Iulianus drouȝ out þe blood of his seide,*. [syde, α.] and þrewe it abrood, and seide, "Þou Galilee man, þou hast overcome,*. [þou hast overcome, bis, β.; þu . . . overcome, bis, γ.] and ȝit*. [ȝit] om. Cx.] now I schal forsake þe, fulfille*. [ful fulle, α.; fulfille þi silf, β.] þe*. [þe] þysylf, γ.; thy self, Cx.] after þis." Basilius awook and fonde Mercurius his spere al bloody in þe same chirche, and his armour i-sette þere as*. [in the same place, Cx.] it was raþer.*. [tofore, Cx.] After Iulianus [Iovinianus]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] was emperour as it were eyȝte monþes, a strong and a noble cristen man. Iulianus hadde i-hote*. [commaunded, Cx.] þat cristen knyȝtes schulde doo sacrifice to mawmettes oþer forsake her knyȝthode; but anon þis*. [þes, γ.] forkutte*. [forkitte, β.] þe bond,*. [fordyde that bonde, Cx.] and whanne knyȝtes drowe*. [drough hym, Cx.] wiþ strengeþe for to be emperours,*. [emperour, α. and β.] he cryde and seide þat he cristen man wolde be emperour*. [emperoures, α.] of paynyms. Whanne þat was i-herd,*. [yhurd, γ.] alle knyȝtes were i-made cristen men. Al*. [Al] Also, β., γ., and Cx.] þis was i-dryve to by greet [nede,*. [neode, γ.] and ȝaf a greet]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] deel of Mesopotamia to Sapor kyng of Pers. Þanne he deyde*. [deade, Cx.] whe|þer it were for hevy smyl*. [evil smel, Cx.] of his chambre, þat was i-made of Page  181, vol.5 newe lyme, and hevy to reste þerynne, oþer for to many coles þat he hadde i-made sette afyre*. [afuyr, β. and γ.] for þe grete colde.