Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
Page  173, vol.4

Capitulum quadragesimum.

THOLOMEUS*. [Ptholomeus, Cx.] Denys regnede þritty ȝere in Egipt. In his tyme Plautus Latinus, þe grete Pompeus his*. [his] om. β.] enditour and faire speker,*. [rethoricien, Cx.] Libertus þe doctour, florischeþ*. [was in prosperyte, Cx.] at Rome. Silla*. [Sylla, Cx.] þe consul deyde at Rome after þat he hadde þe victorie of Metridas. Nichomedes, kyng of Bithinia, made peple of Rome his heires whan he deyde. Whan he was dede, Metri|das braak þe pees,*. [brake the peas, Cx.] and werrede in Bythinia and in litel Asia. Tweye consuls of Rome were i-sent aȝenst hym. He over|come þat oon of hem, and was overcome of þat oþer, þat come byhynde, and folowede after hym, and slowȝ of his an hon|dred þowsand fyȝtinge men. In Italy bygan a newe bataylle of foure and seventy [of]*. [From α. and β.] comoun writers*. [fyȝters, α. and γ,; fizters, β.; fyghters, Cx.] and cokkers, þat [robbede],*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] brende, and slow, and dede spousebreche*. [spousbruche, γ.] and oþer leccherie,*. [brake spousage and dide lechery, Cx.] and overcome þe consuls of Rome, and gadrede hem sixty þowsand men of armes. But after þre ȝere, Marcus þe consul overcome hem in Apuleya*. [Apulia, α.; Apulea, Cx.] [Naples].*. [Added in Cx., and above the line in β.] Alexan|dria,*. [Alexandra, Cx.]Page  175, vol.4 þat heet*. [otherwyse called, Cx.] Sabina also, Alisaundre his wif, regnede nyne ȝere among þe Iewes, and slowȝ and outlawede meny Iewes by counsaille of þe Pharisees:*. [counseyll of the Phareseys, Cx.] þe secte of hem bygan at þat tyme. Eutropius, libro 6o. Virgil Marro is i-bore nyh to Mantua.*. [Mantina, β.] Skumers,*. [Scymmers, β.; skumors and se þeoves, γ.; Scomers, Cx.] and see þeeves [grevede and robbede al þe see],*. [From α., β., and Cx.] so þat þe Romayns, þat were victoris of alle þe world aboute, hadde no siker seillynge*. [non syker, γ.; sure saylyng, Cx.] wiþ oute oþer socour. But Pompeus þe consul chastede*. [chastysed, Cx.] þese skumers*. [skumeres, α.; þeeves, β.; skumors, γ.; theves, Cx.] at þe laste. Þanne Pompeus toke a bataille aȝenst Metridas, and aȝenst Tygranes kyng of Armenye, ffor he hadde i-socoured and i-favored Mitridas þat was aȝenst þe Romayns, and i-fonge*. [received, Cx.] hym, and saved*. [seued, β.] hym in his fliȝt*. [in his fliȝt] om. Cx.] whan he fleyȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] from*. [from] om. Cx.] þe Romayns. Þerfore Pompeus overcome Mitridas in bataille by myȝte,*. [nyȝte, α. and β.; nyghte, Cx.] and destroyede his castelles*. [castels, Cx.] and his tentes, and slowȝ fourty [thousand]*. [From β. and Cx.] of his men, and made Tygranes to ȝilde hym self, and by nam*. [toke from him, Cx.] boþe Armenye and Asia, and made hym bere a*. [α] om. Cx.] tribute of sixe þowsand talentes of silver, ffor he hadde i-meoved werre wiþ oute cause aȝenst þe Romayns. Trevisa.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] As I have i-seide to fore honde, þe leste talent weyeþ fifty pounde, the myddel weyeþ þre score pounde and twelve, and þe moste weyeþ sixe score pounde. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie.*. [Trevisa . . . storie] om. β. and Cx.] [Therfor Pompeus ouercome Page  177, vol.4 Metridas. Than]*. [From Cx.; not in β. nor γ.] Mitridas fleyȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] wiþ his wif, and nouȝt longe afterward was wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] cruel to his owne men, and slowȝ his tweie sones. Þanne Farnaces þe*. [his, Cx.] þridde sone took en|sample of his breþeren, and was aferde*. [soore ferd, Cx.] wel*. [ful, γ.] sore, and made þe oost*. [hoost, Cx.] torne to hym þat was i-sent forto*. [for] om. Cx.] pursewe hym, and bysege*. [besieged, Cx.] his owne fader at Bosforum*. [Gofforn, Cx.]; the fader cryeþ*. [cryed, α. and Cx.] mercy, but þe sone wolde nouȝt here.*. [huyre, γ., et infra.] Þan [this]*. [Cx., not β.] Metridas prayde his goddes þat his sone Farnaces moste*. [myghte, Cx.] somtyme here*. [huyre, γ., et infra.] þe same vois*. [foys, γ.] of his owne sones. Þanne he ȝaf his wif and his douȝtres venym to drynke, and slowȝ hem in þat manere. For he myȝt nouȝt deie*. [not dye, Cx.] by venym, he prayede a knyȝt of Galles to slee hym, and he slowȝ hym anon, and [soo]*. [From β. and Cx.] Metridas deide þe ȝere of his age þre score and ten, and þe ȝere of his kyngdom þre score evene. After þat Pom|peus overcom þe Albans, and þe men of Hiberia, of Siria, and of Arabia. Mar., libro primo. Þe ȝere of Ptholomeus six|tene, Oracius þe poete satiricus and liricus was i-bore*. [were born, Cx.] at Page  179, vol.4 Venasia,*. [Venusia, γ.; Venacia, Cx.] a citee of Italy. Trevisa. Here take hede þat som*. [α, α. and γ.] poete is i-clepede liricus, and som poete is i-cleped satiricus, and haþ þat name of satis, þat is inow, for þe matire*. [matier, Cx.] þat he spekeþ of he toucheþ at þe fulle; and þre poetes beeþ specialliche i-cleped*. [be specially called, Cx.] satirici, Oracius, Persius,*. [Percius, Cx.] and Iuve|nalis. Petrus. Whanne [that]*. [Cx., not β.] Alexandra*. [Alexandre, Cx.] was dede, þat ordeynede her eldest sone Hircanus to be kyng and bisshop afterward, þe tweie sones [þat]*. [From α., γ., and Cx.] were on lyve, Hircanus and Aristobolus, stryved*. [stryve, α.; stryven, Cx.] for þe empere,*. [thempire, Cx.] and ȝaf þe Romayns occasioun to werre*. [werry, γ.] in Iudea, þat is þe Iewerie.*. [Jewry, Cx.] Þerfore Pompeus*. [Pompeius, Cx., et infra.] come and took Ierusalem unneþe þe þridde monþe,*. [moneth, Cx.] and slowȝ þrittene þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] Iewes, and toke þe oþere uppon here fay,*. [feye, β.; fey, γ.; theyr othes, Cx.] and þrewe doun þe walles of Ierusalem evene wiþ þe grounde, and ȝaf Hircanus þe preost|hood,*. [prysthode, Cx.] and ladde Aristobolus i-bounde, and his tweye sones wiþ hym into Rome, and lefte Staurus*. [Scaurus, γ.] lorde of Siria. Pompeus hadde i-be to forehonde*. [had be byfore, Cx.] strengest in batayles, but [for]*. [for, added from β.] he hadde i-stabled his hors*. [stabuled his horses, Cx.] in þe porches and in*. [in] om. Cx.] oþer places of þe temple he hadde never grace afterward wel to speke,*. [spede, α., γ., and Cx.] and so he fauȝt nevere afterward*. [ward] om. Cx.] but he were*. [was, Cx.] overcome. Eutro|pius, Page  181, vol.4 libro 2 o.*. [sexto, Cx.] Whanne al þis was i-doo, after [that]*. [Cx.] Pompeus hadde i-fouȝte realliche*. [realich, β.; realych, γ.; fough|ten ryally, Cx.] wiþ two and twenty kynges, he wente into Asia, and made an ende of þe olde batayle of þe Est londes. Metridas his sones wente to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe*. [his, α. and Cx.; his chaar, β.] chare, and Tygranes his sones also. Oracius Flaccus*. [Flactus, Cx.] is i-bore at Venusee.*. [Venusye, Cx.] Sergius Catilina,*. [Catelina, Cx.] a noble man of blood, but evel and schrewed*. [scherewed, γ.; shrewde, Cx.] of witte and of wil, conspired wiþ som greet men and*. [and] om. Cx.] stalworþe forto*. [right stronge to, Cx.] destroye þe con|tray. And þey Iulius Gaius pletede for hym, and defended his party, noþeles in Tullius Cithero*. [Cythero, Cx.] þe consul his tyme, Marcus Caton pletede aȝenst hym, and so [he]*. [Cx.] was i-putte oute of þe citee, and sone after i-slawe*. [afterward slayne, Cx.] in [a]*. [From α.] batayle. Also his felawes were i-take of oon Antonius, anoþer consul, and i-prisoned to her lyves ende. Salustius made a book of hem. Þe book hatte*. [is named, Cx.] þe book of Catilin his conspiracie.*. [Catelinus conspyracy, Cx.] Titus Livius,*. [Libius, β. and γ.] þe writere of stories, is i-bore, and Virgil lerneþ at Gremoria.*. [Cremona, Cx.] Gaius Iulius Cesar is i-made consul, and Gallia was iuged*. [jugged, β. and Cx.] to hym and Iliricus, þat is Grees,*. [Grece, Cx.] wiþ ten legiouns. Iulius fauȝt ten ȝere aȝenst þe Germanes and Page  183, vol.4 Galles in meny harde batailles in every side.*. [in every side] om. α., β., γ. and Cx.]Trevisa. Here Galles beeþ i-cleped men of Gallia. Gallia is i-closed wiþ þre noble watres, wiþ þe Ryne and þe Roone*. [Rine . . . Rone, Cx.] and þe see of occean. Þeyȝ Gallia and Fraunce be ofte i-counted*. [acompted, Cx.] alle oon londe and contray, noþeles as we spekeþ comounliche*. [speke comonly, Cx.] of Fraunce*. [From be ofte . . . Fraunce is, in error, written twice over in the MS.] and now here of Gallia; Gallia conteyneþ*. [conteyned, Cx.] al þe reame*. [reme, γ.] of Fraunce and meny oþer contrayes*. [countrees, Cx.] and londes anone*. [unto, Cx.] to þe Ryne norþward, to þe Roon*. [Rone, Cx.] estward, to þe see of Bri|tayne and of Engelonde westward. Þanne it foloweþ in þe storie: Iulius nyne ȝere made harde batailles aȝenst þe Ger|mayns and þe Galles, and destroyed foure hondred þowsand and fourty þowsand of Germanes*. [Germaynes, Cx.] þat passed þe Ryn*. [Ryne, Cx.] forto wynne Gallia. Þanne he made a brigge*. [brugge, γ.] and passede þe Ryne forto wynne*. [and wan, α. and β.; and wanne, Cx.] Swevia; þan he wan alle Gallia, and took plegges*. [pledges, Cx.] of [the]*. [From β. and Cx.] Britouns, and made hem tributarie. Among alle his grete dedes he fauȝt evel but þries, and no moo. Beda acounteþ þis ȝere sixty tofore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe Incarnacioun. Þis ȝere Iulius Cesar come forto wynne*. [cam J. C. to wynne, Cx.] Britayne in þis manere: while Iulius þe consul werrede aȝenst þe Germayns and þe Galles, þat beeþ*. [be, Cx.] to-deled onliche*. [only, Cx.] by þe ryver of*. [of] om. Cx.] Ryne, he come to [the]*. [Cx.] Morians, and ordeyned hym an hondred schippes and þritty, wiþ seilles*. [sayles, Cx.] and wiþ oores, and seillede*. [sayled, Cx.]Page  185, vol.4 into Britayne. Þere he was first a*. [α] om. Cx.] sette wiþ wel*. [right, Cx.] hard fyȝtinge; and afterward in harde*. [a grete, Cx.] tempest þat fil aȝenst hym he loste*. [aloste, α.] meny schippes and horsmen, and tornede into Gallia, and sente certeyn legiouns of knyȝtes into Irlond, and arrayede eft his schippes, and hadde fourty schippes i-broke in grete tempest, while he wente aȝenst þe Britouns, and was overcome at þe firste batayle, and Labienus þe consul was wounded and deyde riȝt þere. Unneþe at þe secounde batayle Iulius chasede*. [chaced, Cx.] þe Britouns, for þe Britouns hadde i-piȝt*. [pyghte, Cx.] scharpe stakes in þe ryver of Tempse,*. [Temse, β. and γ.; Thamys, Cx.] þere Iulius hadde i-londede; þe stakes were grete, i-schape as a manis þigh,*. [þeiȝ, β.; þyȝ, γ.] and i-ȝote*. [sette, Cx.] aboute wiþ leed as it is [ȝit]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; ȝut, γ.] i-sene. Whanne þe Romayns were ware*. [war, Cx.] of þis gyle, forto scape þat peril þey took þe citee [of]*. [Cx.] Trinouantum by sleyȝþe*. [sleyght, Cx.] of oon Andra|gius, and fenge*. [receyved, Cx.] fourty plegges, and wente þennes and occu|pied þe citee Cassibala, a strong citee and a riche, i-sette among watres. Þan Cesar wente into Gallia, and was a*. [α] om. Cx.] sette wiþ harde batailles on*. [in, α.] every side. Lud, kyng of Britouns, is deed; he cleped Trinouantum Caerlud by his Page  187, vol.4 owne name, and bulde þere þe west ȝate, and cleped*. [called, Cx.] hit after his owne name Ludgate. His broþer Cassibelanus regned after hym, for Lud lefte [after hym]*. [From Cx., not β.] tweie sones on lyve, Andragius and Tenuancius,*. [Andragius and Teamnicius, Cx.] and were to ȝonge to rule*. [governe the royamme, Cx.] þe rewme.*. [reume, α.] But whan þey come to age, Cassibelanus ȝaf to Androgius þe citee Trinouantum wiþ þe ducherie of Kent, and he ȝaf Tenuancius*. [Tenuacius, MS.; Temancius, Cx.] þe ducherie of Cornwayle. Þat tyme Iulius Cesar seyled into Bretayne, and was twyes i-putte of; but while þe kyng and Andragius were at grete stryf for Andragius his*. [his] om. Cx.] nevew in wrastelynge, Andragius sente for Iulius Cesar, and he com and wan þe londe, and made kyng Cassibelanus [tributarye]*. [From α. and Cx.]; and Cassibelanus lyvede sevene ȝere after þat Iulius was a goo.*. [ago, β.] Crassus, Pompeus*. [Pompeius, Cx., et infra.] his felowe and consul, after Gabinius his deeþ*. [Gabynus deth, Cx.] was sente to be rulere of Siria, forto chaste þe Parthes*. [chastsey the Parches, Cx.] þat were i-worþe rebel.*. [waxen rebelle, Cx.] Forto spede þat iornay*. [journeye, Cx.] Crassus took two þowsand talentes out of þe temple of Ierusalem, þe whiche Pompeus sparede. Þerfore Crassus fiȝtynge aȝenst þe Parthes*. [Perches, Cx.] [was overcome and i-take. Þe Parthes]*. [From α., β., and Cx.] melted*. [melt, β. and Cx.] golde, and helde*. [powred, Cx.] it*. [it] om. β.] in his þrote, and despised hym, and seide, "Þou Page  189, vol.4 Romayn, þou art*. [art] om. α.] aferst after*. [thou Romayne art a thyrste, β. and Cx.] gold, now drynke gold at þe fulle." Cleopatra.*. [Cleopatra] om. β. and Cx.]