Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum tricesimum nonum.

PTHOLOMEUS*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Sother þat was put out by his owne moder, rekeverede*. [recuerede, γ.; rekeverd, Cx.] þe kyngdom of Egipt whan his moder was i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx.] by Ptholemeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Alexander, and regned in Egipt eiȝte ȝere, ffor citeseyns*. [cyteȝeyns, Cx.] hadde i-putte out Ptholomeus*. [Tholomeus, Cx., et infra.] Alexander for the slauȝter of his moder. Salustius Crispus, writer of stories, is i-bore in Sabyn, of hym is ȝit moche þing i-wrete.*. [wryte, Cx.] Þat tyme were i-seie*. [seen, Cx. et infra.] meny grete wondres harde and dredful,*. [dredfol, γ.] ffor under þe arisynge of þe sonne was i-seie a dredful cluster*. [closter, α.; clouster, γ.; clustre, Cx.] of fuyre.*. [fyre, Cx.] And in a feste among þe Ar|tynes*. [Aretines, β.; Aritines, Cx.] blood ran out of þe looves,*. [loves, β., γ., and Cx.] as it were out of newe woundes; and þe erþe was i-bete sevene dayes to giders*. [togyder, Cx.] wiþ grete hayle*. [hawl, β.; hawel, γ.] stones i-medled*. [ymelled, γ.] with scherdes. Among þe Page  153, vol.4 Sampnites and Beneventanes þe eorþe*. [erth, Cx.] oponede and leye*. [ley, β. and γ.; leyhe, Cx.] of fuyre*. [fire, α.] was i-seie*. [seen, Cx., et infra.] breke oute and strecche up in to hevene. Also bestes þat were i-woned*. [wonte, Cx.] to lyve among men forsoke stable and lesewe,*. [liswe, γ.] and fliȝ*. [stabels and lesow and fledde, Cx.] to hilles and mountayns, low|ynge and bletynge. Also houndes forsook*. [forsoke, Cx.] companye of man|kynde. Orosius, libro 5o. In a pleyn*. [playne, Cx.] of Campanya were i-seie*. [seen, Cx., et infra.] as it were scheltroms and oostes*. [shiltrons and hoostes, Cx.] of fiȝtynge men meny dayes to giders,*. [togeder, Cx.] and noyse and hurtlynge*. [hurlyng, Cx.] to gidre*. [togedres, α.; togeder, Cx.] of armure*. [armour, Cx.] was i-herd, and þere were afterward i-sene foores*. [forows, Cx.] and steppes of men and of hors;*. [horses, Cx.] and nouȝt longe afterward,*. [afterward] om. Cx.] after the bataille þat heet*. [called, Cx.] bellum [Sociale, bygan þe batayle þat is ycleped bellum]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] Civile. Tweie breþeren germans*. [germains, Cx.] bygunne þat bataille, eiþer of hem heet*. [was named, Cx.] Graccus.*. [Agractus, γ.] Þe bataille was bygonne for þe lawe þat hatte agraria.*. [lawe called agaria, Cx.] In þat lawe it was of olde tyme þat þe senatoures schulde entremete of no dede man his feeldes*. [mennes feldes, Cx.] þat he hadde while he was on lyve,*. [lyvynge, Cx.] but þe feeldes wiþ oute eny*. [ony, Cx.] plee Page  155, vol.4 schulde falle to þe nexte of þe blood; but þe gentil*. [jantil, γ.] men dede*. [dyde, Cx.] oþerwise, and helde and occupied feeldes of meny men. Þerfore oon Graccus*. [Gractus, γ.] in*. [on, Cx.] a day of prayers, whanne alle þing schulde be axsed*. [axed, Cx.] þat schulde be restored, axede openliche*. [axed openly, Cx.] þat þe feeldes þat were so i-holde schulde be delyvered and restored aȝen to þe peple. Þerfore þe gentil*. [jentyl, α.; jantil, γ.] men were i-meoved*. [moeved, Cx.] and wrooþ, and slowȝ two hondred of þe peple wiþ feet and gobouns*. [gobettis, β.] of chayers,*. [gobuns, γ.; gobettes of chayres, Cx.] of formes,*. [fourmes, Cx.] and of stooles, and þrewe hem in to Tyber; and Graccus was i-slawe,*. [slayne, Cx.] and unburied longe tyme. Also Silla þe consul wente into Cam|pania aȝenst Metridas, and was in Campania*. [13-13 aȝenst . . . Campania] om. Cx.] forto destroye al þe relif*. [releef, α. and Cx.; relef, β.] of þe bataille þat heet*. [called, Cx.] [bellum]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] sociale. Þanne Marius, þat hadde be consul sixe siþes, desired now for to be consul þe sevenþe tyme, and profrede*. [profered, β. and Cx.] hym forto*. [for] om. Cx.] undertake þe bataille aȝenst Metridas. Whan Silla wiste*. [woste, α.; wuste, γ.; wyste, Cx.] þerof he tornede*. [tourned, Cx.] aȝen to þe citee wiþ foure legiouns,*. [legyons, Cx.] and entrede into the citee, and slouȝ Marius his messanger,*. [messager, Cx.] and Page  157, vol.4 axede brondes forto sette the citee on*. [α, α. and Cx.] fuyre,*. [fyre, Cx.] and byseged*. [besieged, Cx.] Marius wiþ ynne þe Capitoyl. Þe mene tyme Marius foundede an idel*. [ydel, β.; fondede an ydel, γ.] forto meove*. [meve, β.; atte last Marius ymagyned to fynde a mean to meove, Cx.] þe comounte*. [comonte, Cx.] of horsmen, to helpe hym at þat tyme. [And]*. [Cx., not β. or γ.] at þe laste he egged bonde men to dedes of armes for hope of pray and of fredom, but þey durste*. [þurste, α. and γ.] nouȝt wiþ stonde. Þanne Marius went up in to þe Capitoyle, and hadde meny of his men*. [men] om. α.] i-slawe, and scapede wel unneþe.*. [slayne and unneth escaped hym self, Cx.] Þanne Marius fliȝ, and tornede in*. [in] om. α.] to maryse*. [marreys, β.; mareys, γ.] and into*. [to, α.] watery*. [fled and tourned to marreys and to wattry, Cx.] places; þere herdes*. [herodes, Cx.] fond hym among mory flagges and sprayes, and sente hym to Silla; and Silla sent hym to þe Combres,*. [Cunbres, Cx., et infra.] þat were þe worste enemyes þat he hadde, and þey prisoned*. [emprisoned, Cx.] hym. Þere it semed þat godes*. [goddes, β. and Cx.] come to hym, and were wiþ hym þere, and liȝt schoon*. [lyghte shone, Cx.] in þe prisoun whan [that]*. [From Cx., not β.] þe tormentor was i-sent for*. [in, Cx.] to slee hym, þe tormentoures hond faillede and schoke*. [fayled and shoke, Cx.] for drede, and a voys was i-herde in þe ayer;*. [eyer, Cx.] and whanne þat voys was i-herde*. [and . . . i-herde] wherwith, Cx.] þe Combres were astonyed for drede, and fil*. [felle, Cx.] doun*. [doun] om. Cx.] to þe grounde, and leet*. [letten, Cx.] Marius Page  159, vol.4 goo his way. ℞. Lucanus spekeþ of þis hap, libro 2o. Marius [was]*. [Cx.] flemed,*. [fleme, γ.] and i-hidde*. [y-hyd, α.; hidde, Cx.] in þe busshes of þe fenny more. Titus. Þis Marcius*. [Marius, β.] was so delyvered by help of þe goddes*. [godas, α.; goddesse, Cx.] Marica, þat was i-worschipped*. [worshiped, Cx.] þere; he hadde i-putte hym self to hire*. [hir, Cx.] by his avow.*. [afouz, γ.] He took wiþ hym his felawe Cinna, and grevede þe Romayns in meny manere wise, and gat the office*. [thoffyce, Cx.] of consul, and occupiede it in*. [in] om. α., γ., and Cx.] þe sevenþe tyme; but he occupiede þat offyse but þrittene*. [thyrten, Cx.] dayes at þat tyme, from þe firste day of Ianyver,*. [Ianuar, Cx.] whan consuls fongeþ here solempne consul array,*. [receiven the aray fyrst of consul, Cx.] to þe þrittenþe day of the same monþe.*. [moneth, Cx.] Marius, after þat he come out of prisoun, passede into Affrica, and gadrede help in*. [on, Cx.] every side, and come aȝen to destroye þe comounte*. [comonte, Cx.] of Rome, and deled his cost*. [made his hoost, Cx.] in foure partyes. Oon partie, þat is*. [was, Cx.] þre legiouns, he took to*. [to] om. Cx.] hym self. Carbo hadde þe secounde party. Ser|torius [þe þridde, and Sinna*. [Cinna, Cx.] þe fourþe. Sertorius]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] fauȝt strongliche with Pompeus. Marius and Cinna entrede in to*. [into] om. Cx.] þe citee, and slouȝ meny of þe consuls and of þe senatoures. Augustinus de Civitate. Also Marius made Octavius þe con|sul Page  161, vol.4 his heed i-smyte*. [be smyten, Cx.] of, and leet sette þe heed in Prorostris, þat is þe comoun*. [comune, Cx.] place of Rome, þere þinges beeþ i-sette*. [be sette up, Cx.] in siȝt of*. [for, α. and Cx.] men to loke, byholde, and wondre þeron.*. [þeron] on, Cx.] Þere burgeys were i-woned*. [bourgeys were wonte, Cx.] to stonde and loke aboute and telle here mery*. [there myry, Cx.] tales. ℞. Lucanus seiþ [that]*. [Cx.] in þe feelde þat hatte*. [called, Cx.] Marcius, at þe grete feste, i-made*. [he made, β. and Cx.] sette þe hedes of gentil men*. [jantil, γ., et infra.] þat were i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] in stede of messes uppon þe mete bordes. Titus. Marius was so cruel þat meny men hadde levere slee hem self þan come in Marius his honde. Þerfore Catulus þe consul drank venym, and Merula, Iupiter his*. [Jupiters, Cx.] owne bisshop, kutte*. [kytte, Cx.] his owne*. [owne] om. Cx.] veynes, and bledde*. [bled, Cx.] anon to*. [anon to] om. Cx.] deþe.*. [deth, Cx.] Also Marius heet*. [bade, Cx.] þat no man schulde be spared þey*. [though, Cx.] he axede mercy in his owne presens,*. [presence, Cx.] but ȝif he hym self putte forþ the riȝt honde in tokene of mercy. Þerfore þe senatoures þat lefte and gentil men*. [gentelmen, Cx.] of Rome passede into Grees and prayede*. [Grece and prayd, Cx.] Silla the consul to helpe þe comounte*. [comynte, Cx.] of Rome þat was nyh i-lost. [Eutropius.]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.]Page  163, vol.4 Þat tyme Silla at Athene hadde overcome oon*. [one, Cx.] Archelaus, Metridas his*. [his] om. Cx.] duke, and i-slawe*. [slayn, Cx.] an hondred þowsand [of]*. [From α. and γ.] men; so þat Archelaus hidde hym self naked þre dayes in deep watery*. [wattry, Cx.] mores. Whanne þis was i-knowe,*. [knowen, β. and Cx.] Metridas prayeþ*. [prayd, Cx.] [for]*. [Cx., not β.] pees, and Silla assenteþ*. [assented and graunted, Cx.] and graunteþ, for to have þe lasse peril behynde*. [lesse perylle byhynde, Cx.] hym, and forto go þe save|loker*. [savelokr, γ.; more savely, Cx.] and þe sikerer*. [sycurere, α.; sicurer, β.; surer,] to cruel*. [þe civel, α.; the civile, Cx.] bataille aȝenst Marius. Þanne Silla come aȝen to Rome, and slouȝ and exciled*. [exyled, Cx.] so many þowsandes of men, þat Quyntus*. [Quintus, Cx.] Catulus seide to hym opounliche,*. [openly, Cx.] "Wiþ whom schulle*. [shal, Cx.] we lyve, ȝif we sleeþ*. [slee, Cx.] armed men in bataylle and unarmed men in pees?" Augus|tinus, libro 3o, capitulo 24o. For Silla þoo*. [than, β. and Cx.] ȝaf leve in þat stryf to his men forto*. [for] om. Cx.] slee whom þat þey wolde, þe way was [y-]*. [From α. and γ.] opened forto*. [for] om. Cx.] take wreche of al olde wreþþe.*. [wrath, Cx.] Þerfore Silla his riȝt in punschynge*. [in punschynge] om. Cx.] was worse to the comynte*. [comonte, Cx.] of Rome þan Marius his wickednesse þouȝ þeyȝ*. [they, Cx.] were unpunsched;*. [unpunysshed, Cx.] ffor by boþe were moo men i-slawe þanne by þat oon. Eutropius. Þis civile batayle durede Page  165, vol.4 ten ȝere, and destroyede moo þan an hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] men and fifty þowsand, wiþoute senatoures, consuls, pre|tories, and edelynes,*. [Edelicies, α., β., and γ.; Edyli|cies, Cx.] men of dignyte. ℞. Þerfore here take hede of sixe batailles þat were among the Romayns, and everiche þerof was i-clepede*. [and every batayll was called, Cx.] bellum civile. In þe firste bataille Marius fauȝt aȝenst the citee. In þe secounde ba|taille Silla fauȝt aȝenst Marius and aȝenst his fautoures.*. [fauctours, Cx.] In þe þridde bataille Sertorius fauȝt aȝenst Pompeus. In þe fourþe bataile Catilina*. [Catilini, γ.; Catelina, Cx.] fauȝt aȝenst þe comounte.*. [comente, Cx.] In þe fifte bataile Lepidus fauȝt aȝenst Catulus. Þe*. [Here Cx. inserts a.] sixe*. [sixth, Cx.] batayle was bytwene Iulius and Pompeus. Eutropius. After þis Silla tornede aȝen, and hadde worschipfulliche*. [worschipliche, α. and β.; wor|shipfully, Cx.] þe maistrie of Metridas. Trogus, libro 37o. Metridas, [Metridas]*. [From α., β., and Cx.; Metridas þat was Metridas heys sone, γ.] his sone, kyng of Pontus, was rebel*. [rebell, Cx.] to þe Romayns sixe and fourty ȝere, so þat ȝif it semede somtyme þat he was over|come, he wolde arise aȝen wiþ more myȝt and strengþe. Þis was delyvered by his kynnes*. [kyn his, α.; kyn hys, γ.] men out of þe awaytes*. [aweytes, β. and γ.] of his owne moder, þat hadde i-slawe*. [slayne, Cx.] here owne fyve sones; and Page  167, vol.4 þis ȝongelyng was i-take*. [taken, Cx.] to wardeyns to kepe, þat sette hym uppon a wylde hors, and compelled hym to pleye*. [play, Cx.] and to ryde, and while he rulede þe hors over myȝt to his elde, his wardeynes arayede*. [made, γ.] venym forto ȝeve him to drynke. Þe wise childe dradde þerof, and drank of þe*. [of þe] ofte, β.] medecynes of triacle,*. [ofte medycynes, γ.; ofte medy|cynes of treacle, Cx.] by þe whiche remedyes he put of þe peril of venym in his ȝouþe,*. [yougth, Cx.] so þat he myȝte nouȝt deie by venym whan he wolde have deide [by venym]*. [From β. and Cx.] in his elde. Þanne after venym he dradde yre, and feyned hym þat he wolde wende*. [goo, Cx.] an hont|ynge, so þat in sevene ȝere he come nevere in citee noþer*. [ne, Cx.] in smal toun; so þat al þat tyme he hadde nevere hous over heed, but walkede and lay by nyghte in hilles and in moun|taynes,*. [montaynes, Cx.] and þere ofte he travaylede*. [α., β., and Cx. omit the first ofte, and insert it here.] wylde bestes, and took hem wiþ swifte rennynge,*. [eornyng, γ.] and fauȝt wiþ hem som|tyme forto make his body stedefast*. [stidefast, β.; studefast, γ. stydfast, Cx.] by use in traylle*. [travayle, α.; travayl, Cx.] forto dure.*. [tendure, Cx.] Also whan he come to rulynge of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] kyngdom he chastede þe Schytes,*. [chastysed the Scites, Cx.] þat myȝte nouȝt be overcome tofore|honde*. [byfore, Cx.] by sleyþe*. [sleyght, Cx.] of witte. He occupiede Pontus and Mace|donia. Page  169, vol.4 Also he wente priveliche*. [pryvely, Cx.] out of his kyngdom, and took wiþ hym som of his frendes, and passed into Asia, and wente aboute in Asia, and aspyed*. [espyed, Cx.] þe places and contrayes*. [countrees, Cx.] of þat lond, and come aȝen þanne in to his owne kyngdom, and fonde a litel sone þat Laodice, þat was boþe his wif and his owne suster, hadde [y-]*. [From α.] brouȝt forþ by a copener*. [copyner, β. and Cx.; copener, γ.] while he was absent in oþer londes. Þerfore þe wif ordeyneþ*. [ordeygned, Cx.] venym for Metridas whanne he come home. But he was i-warned by a wenche þat served his wyf, and took wreche of þe doeres of þat false dede. Þanne whan wynter was i-come*. [comen, β. and Cx.] he wolde nouȝt be in festes, but in þe feeld, stryvynge on*. [wiþ, γ.] his hors in rennynge,*. [eornynge, γ.] oþer*. [or, β. and Cx.] in grete dedes of strengþe, and made his oost use*. [hoost to use, Cx.] suche travayle and dedes forto make hem konnynge*. [connynge, Cx.] by use, stalworþe, and stedefast*. [studefast, γ.; stydfaste, Cx.] efte sones whan þey schulde fiȝte. Þanne he werred in Galacia, and despisede þe manas*. [despysed the manase, Cx.] of þe Romayns. Metridas his secounde wyf schaar hir heed for love of here housbonde,*. [husband, Cx., et infra.] and usede hir forto ride, forto helpe what sche*. [heo, β.] myȝte ȝif hire housebonde fille*. [ful, γ.] in eny peril,*. [husband fell in ony peryll, Cx.] and forto be wiþ hym alway. Here*. [hir, β.] housebonde was overcome Page  171, vol.4 of Pompeus, and fliȝ,*. [fledde, Cx.] and sche*. [heo, β.] sewed hym alway among [wel]*. [From α.; ful, β. and Cx.] cruel naciouns. Giraldus. As ofte as þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] hyȝeste consuls, Silla*. [Sylla, Cx.] and Pompeus, overcome Metridas, so ofte he semed þe more myȝty and strong, ffor he occupiede Babi|lonia*. [Babyloyne, Cx.] [and Asia,]*. [From α., β., γ., and Cx.] and pesede*. [peesed, β.] þe Schytes,*. [pleased the Scites, Cx.] and wan Asia,*. [and wan Asia] om. α., β., γ., and Cx.] and made sugett*. [subgett, Cx.] Capadocia and Armenia; and made his owne kyngdom strecche streiȝt anon*. [stretche streyht unto, Cx.] to Ynde and come to Ephesius;*. [Ephesus, β.] and slowȝ al þe Romayns in oon day þat were in Asia. Tho*. [þoo α.; Than, Cx.] he sente Archelaus, [that was]*. [Cx., not γ.] þe duke to fore*. [due byfore, Cx.] hym into Grecia*. [Grece, Cx., et infra.] wiþ an hondred þowsand of*. [of] om. Cx.] fiȝt|ynge men, þat gat hym al Grecia. Att þe laste he was i-holde of his owne sone Farnaces, and drank venym by his good wille, ffor he wolde deye,*. [have dyed, Cx.] but it greved hym nouȝt. Þerfore a knyȝt of þe Galles þat he hadde i-greved was i-prayde for to slee hym, and slowȝ hym anoon. After his deeth Pompeus made Tigranes kyng of Siria, and brende wiþ fuyre*. [brente with fyre, Cx.] þe temple of Ierusalem.