Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
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Page  [3], vol.1

AFTER solempne and wise writeres of arte and of science, þat hadde swettnesse and lykynge al hir*. [her, α., Cx.] lyf tyme to studie and to trauaille aboute konnyng and knowleche of kyndeliche*. [kyndley, Cx. (not α.)] þinges and aboute sobernesse and redinesse of þewes, þey be worthy to be*. [ben, Cx. where the same use of n is frequent, both in the infinitive and indicative.] hiȝeliche and solempliche*. [and solempliche] Wanting in Cx.] i-preysed,*. [i-preysed] I preised, MS., and α.; and similarly elsewhere. The prefix wanting in Cx., both here and ge|nerally.] as þey it were putting and medlynge to gidre profiȝtes*. [profiȝt, α.] and swetnes, þat*. [þat] Wanting in Cx, and placed in our MS. and α. immediately after 'þey' (theugh), just preceding.] write and left vs write*. [i write, α.] mer|uailles and wondres, greet berynge and dedes of oure forme fadres,*. [forn-faders, Cx.] of stalworthe wyt,*. [wight, Cx.] wise and worthy, and of dyuerse manere men þat were in olde tyme. Page  5, vol.1

For in þe makynge and*. [of, Cx.] bookes of stories, þat is to vs i-sent and byqueþe by grete besynesse of þe writers of cro|nicles,*. [cronykes, Cx. α.] blaseþ and schyneþ clerliche þe riȝt rule of þewes, ensaumple of leuynge, clensynge*. [knowyng, Cx.] of goodnes, þe metynge of þe þre waies of þe þre vertues of deuynyte, and þe metynge of foure weies of þe foure chief*. [principal, Cx.] vertues of þewes of real cloþynge. Of þe whiche þinges our litel konnynge myȝte nouȝt take knowleche, noþer*. [ne, Cx.] folwe þe foure,*. [fourth, Cx.] but besines of writers to oure vnkunnynge hadde i-holde and i-streyned*. [shadde and stremed, Cx.] mynde of olde dedes. For why schort lyf, dul witte, and slowe vnderstondynge, and ydel occupacioun letteþ vs to knowe many þinges; forȝetingnes all wey kypinge þe craft of a stepdamme, he*. [he] wanting in Cx. (not α.).] is enmy of mynde. Also now, in our tyme, art, sciens and lawe al were i-falle, ensample of noble dedes were nouȝt i-knowe; nobilite and faire manere of spekynge were all i-lost; but þe mercy of God had i-ordyned vs of lettres in remedie of*. [of þe, α.] vnparfiȝt|nesse of mankynde.

I praye who schulde now knowe emperours, wonder of philosofres, oþer*. [or ellys, Cx.] folwe þe apostles, but hir*. [theyr, Cx., here and frequently; here, α.] noble dedes and hir wonder werkes were i-write in stories and so i-kept Page  7, vol.1 in mynde? Who schulde knowe Lucilium, but Seneca in his pistles hadde i-write his dedes? Writinge of poetes is more worthy*. [worth, Cx., α.] to preisynge of emperoures þan*. [þat, MS.; than, Cx.] al þe welþe of þis worlde, and riches*. [rychesses, Cx.] þat þey welde*. [welded, Cx.] while þey were alyue. For storie is wytnesse of tyme, mynde of lyf, messager of eldnesse;*. [oldnesse, α.] story weldeþ passyng doynges, storie putteþ forþ hire*. [her, Cx.] professoures. Dedes þat wolde be lost storie ruleþ;*. [reneweth, Cx.; renweth, α.] dedes þat wolde flee out of mynde, storye clepeþ*. [callith, Cx.] aȝen;*. [aȝe, α.] dedes þat wolde deie, storye kepeþ hem euermore.*. [for euermore, α.]

Wherfore, among oþere noble trauaillours of þe þre pathes*. [Cx. here inserts instead of 'and' the clause 'arne mooste worthy to ben praysed;' thus altering the con|struction of the sentence.] and faire florischers and hiȝteres*. [embelysshers, Cx.] of wordes and of metre, þat haueþ of here trauaille greet pryse i-gete, we mowe nouȝt ful preyse hem, þat in stories*. [historyes, Cx, here and fre|quently.] meteþ and discryueþ all þe worlde wyde. But wiþoute eny drede þey schulleþ fonge *. [schulleþ fonge] shall resseyue, Cx.] her mede of hym þat rewardeþ and quyteþ al þat wel worcheþ.*. [werke, Cx.]

By þe worþynesse and ensaumple of so worþy writeris i-spiȝt and i-egged,*. [so worþy . . . i-egged] noble wryters that herto fore haue wreton, Cx.] nouȝt bostynge of myn owne dedes noþer skornynge ne blamynge of*. [of] om. α.] oþer men dedes, I haue y-kast and y-ordeyned, as I may, to make and to write a tretes, i-gadered of dyuerse bookes, of þe staat of þe ylonde of Britayne, to knowleche of men þat comeþ after vs. Page  9, vol.1

Þan special frendes*. [lordes, Cx.] þat knewe myn entent [and]*. [Added from Cx. and α.] had likynge*. [desyre, Cx.] to knowe greet men dedes, prayed me besiliche, þat I schulde also write þe famous stories and acounte þe ȝeres from þe bygynnynge of þe world anon*. [worlde vnto, Cx.] to oure tyme.

Þoo toke I hede þat þis matir, as*. [as] was, MS. and α.; corrected from Cx.] laborintus, Dedalus*. [his hous, α.] hous, haþ many halkes and hurnes, wonderful weies, wyn|dynges and wrynkelynges, þat wil nouȝt be vnwarled,*. [be unwarled] lyghtly be opened and shewed, Cx.] me schamed and dradde to fynde*. [fynde] take on me, Cx.; founde, α.] so grete and so gostliche*. [ferdful, Cx.] a bone to graunte. For ydelnesse and sleuþe letteþ grete werkes þat men wolde worche; my witt is ful luyte*. [lytil, Cx.] to vnwralle*. [vnwynde, Cx.] þe wrappyinges of so wonder*. [wonderful, Cx.] werkes: þe matire is large, writers þerynne beþ*. [beeþ, α.] many, and greet for fulnesse þerof; now men beþ*. [So also α.] al sad and takeþ þe lasse hede and liȝtliche wolde flaterie*. [wolde flaterie] wolde fynde fawte, Cx.; flatþe, α.] vppon þis symple foode,*. [werke, Cx.] and, as enemyes, whette her tunges and bende hire browes. Of suche men spekeþ Gregory Nazianzenus, þat willeþ liȝt|liche blame defauȝtes of oþere men, and goodnesse nouȝt soþelich*. [so liȝthliche, α.] folwe. Al þis ich hadde in mynde, and also I Page  11, vol.1 knewe myn owne pouert, and schamede and dradde after so noble spekers, þat sownede as trompes, to putte forþ my bareyn speche, hosnes*. [hoose, Cx.] and snochynge, as who so*. [om. α.] roteþ*. [recheth, Cx.] vp moolberyes and serueþ likerous men, þat lyueþ in lik|ynge, wiþ soure grapes.

Ȝif*. [For yf, Cx., α.] after þe trauaille*. [laboure, Cx.] of Hercules, and after þe strif, ioustes, and turnementis*. [tourneyes, Cx.] of Olympy, a pigmey boskeþ hym to bataille and array hym to fiȝte, who myȝte þanne leue to laughe? Also who wolde schoute to skorne, ȝif I pipe wiþ an otene reed, and vnhiȝte so noble a matire wiþ gris|baitinge,*. [mowing, Cx.; om. α.] gruntynge and whistelynge, after so noble spekers þat sownede at þe beste; and of hem faire facounde and resonable*. [renable, Cx., α.] speche, folowed and streynede*. [folowed and streynede] flowed and stremed, Cx. (stremed also in α.)] all her lyf tyme? But ich*. [I., Cx] haue wel in mynde what Booz seide to Ruth þat was schamefast, and lase*. [leese, Cx.; laas, α.] vp þe eeres after his ripe men, "No man," he seide, "þe schall wraþþe;" and to his ripe men he seide, "Ȝif ȝe*. [she, Cx. (not α.), probably rightly.] wole wiþ ȝow rype, forbedeþ hir nouȝt; and here fore to lose*. [leese or gleyne, Cx.; lese, α.] no man schal lette." Þe poet, also, Mantuanus Maro Virgilius, as Isi|dorus seiþ, Eth. libro decimo, and Horatius, as seiþ Hugutio Pysanus, In derivationibus*. [diuinacionibus, Cx.] suis, capitulo peruiso: "Whan enemyes despised Horacius and bere hym an*. [on, α.] honde þat he Page  13, vol.1 hadde i-take som of Omeres [vers],*. [Homeres versis, Cx.; vers added from α.] and i-medled among his and cleped*. [called, Cx.] hym a gaderere of old wrytynges, he answerde and seide, 'It were wel*. [right, Cx.] greet strengþe to wreste a mace oute of Hercules honde.' "

Þerfore I pray þat no man me blame, þei ich*. [þeiȝ, α.] fare as sonnd and askes;*. [asshes, Cx.; askeþ, α. (and MS. originally).] þat*. [for, Cx. The true reading is probably 'for þat.'] þouȝ þei beeþ*. [be, α.] dym and foule hym self, other þinges þey clenseþ and makeþ schyne*. [schene, α.] ful briȝt; and meny oþer þinges þat þey haueþ not in hem self, ȝeueþ*. [ȝeueþ] yet yeuen, Cx.] to oþere. So saiþ þe prophete*. [poet, α.] Satiricus, "I fare as the whetston*. [as a weston, α.] þat makeþ yren sharpe and kene." Item, Gregorius in suo Pastorali seiþ, "I haue peynt a wel faire man, and am my self a foule peyntour." Þerfore I truste on þat charite þat Gregorie spekeþ of in his Omelye, þat wiþ*. [wytte, Cx. The sense requires ȝeueþ.] vertues and strengþe, þat vnkunnynge denyeþ; and auntre me in to þe rype,*. [þe rype] repyng, Cx.] þat is ful of trauaille and wa|kynge, oute caste,*. [in caas, βCx.; on caas, γ (rightly); oncas, α.] despised of envious men and proude, and ȝit I hope profitable*. [profitable] it shall be prouffy|table, Cx.] to good*. [goode, α.] studiers and meke. I schal entre in to þe feeldes of oure forme fadres,*. [forn-faders, Cx.] and folwe Page  15, vol.1 þe rype men, ȝif ich may any wyse leese and gadre me som eres þat rype men schedeþ and skapeþ of here hondes; oþer, nameliche, ȝif I myȝte*. [and gadre me. . . . I ȝif myȝte] wanting in Cx.] gadre somwhat of þe crommes þat falleþ of lordes bordes, þat somtyme were fulfilled and left hir*. [here, α. (and so often.)] relif to hir children. And also ȝif I myȝt gadre eny scrappes of þe releef of þe twelf cupes,*. [vij. kipes or lepes, Cx.] and somwhat putt to and eche*. [eche] encrece, Cx. (not α.)] writinge of auctours, as a dwerf sittynge on a geauntis nekke; wher þoruȝ ȝongelynges*. [þorw ȝong peple, α.] mowe be brouȝt to lore and gretter men to vse*. [vse] So Cx.; vice. MS.; vys, α.] and to besynesse i-spyed,*. [i-spyed] sette, Cx.] þat þey mowe be enformed and i-tauȝt by þis schort tretys, þat haueþ nouȝt i-seie þe grete volyms and large, þat beeþ of stories i-write, nouȝt sotilte of sentence, noþer faire florischynge of wordes, but swetnesse of deuocion of þe matire schal*. [that, Cx. (typ. error for that shal?)] regne in þis book. In þe whiche book and tretys wel nyh al problemys and questiouns of þe wiseste men beeþ*. [beþ, α. (but also beeþ elsewhere.)] i-planted; also many þinges þat beþ nouȝt i-write in oþer bookes, ich haue i-gadered of þe comyn, as þey it were of a storye, and i-write in þis tretis, for me*. [for me] by cause men, Cx. (not α.)] schulde hem knowe after oure time. For somdel by malice of enemys, somdele by slouþe*. [þe sleuþe, α.] of writeres, know|leche Page  17, vol.1 of greet dedes*. [So α.; dredes, MS.] is so nyh loste and forȝet, þat skars|liche bare names of places we haueþ now*. [not, Cx.] in mynde.

Þey feynynge and sawes of mysbileued and lawles*. [So Cx. and α.; lawes of, MS.] men, and wondres and merueillis of dyuerse contrees and londes be i-planted in þis book, suche serueþ and is good to be knowe of Cristen men. Virgile souȝt gold of wit and wisdom in þe fen of Ennii þe poete, and þe children of Israel, in hire goynge into þe londe of byheste, spoilled þe Egipcians. Þat is in oþer bookes i-write welwyde and parcel mele i-plaunted, here it is i-putte togidre in rule and in ordre; so merþe to sadnesse and heþen to Cristen, euerich among oþere, þat straunge stories beeþ so abregged, schorted and i-lengþed þat þe storie is hool,*. [and, Cx.; hool and soþnesse, α.] in sooþnesse nouȝt i-chaunged. Neuerþeles*. [notheles, α.] more certeyn som is i-holde þan oþir. For Augustinus, de Civitate Dei, seith: "We schul trowe and worschippe þe miracles of God and nouȝt hem despreue by despitusoun."*. [disputicion, Cx.; despitesoun, α.] Wondres beþ not al to be vntrowed: for Hieronymus seiþ,*. [Hieronymus seiþ] somme telle, Cx.] "Meny wondres þow schalt fynde þat þou woldest nouȝt bileue,*. [So Cx.; i leue, MS.] and ȝit þey beeþ ful sooþ: kynde may not doo aȝenst God, Lord of Page  19, vol.1 kynde." Also of many þinges that seemeþ ful sooþ, noþeless skilfulliche me douteþ.*. [me douteþ] it is to be doubted, Cx.] Isidorus, Eth., quinto decimo, seiþ: "ȝif resoun is vncertayne of þe buildynge of the citee of Rome, what wonder þey men be vncerteyn of the buldynge of oþer citees and townes? Wherfore we schulle not blame*. [make blameres, α.] makeres and writeres of stories, þat dyuersliche spekeþ and writeþ; for longe passynge of tyme and elde of dedes makeþ hem vnknowe and writers to erre." Þerfore Hieronymus seiþ, "It is semeliche to trowe*. [beleue, Cx.] her sawes þat wiþseiþ*. [So α.; wiþ seiþ, MS.; gaynsaye, Cx.] nouȝt oure byleue noþer sooþ|nesse that is knowe."

Wherfore in þe writynge of þis storie I take nouȝt vppon me to aferme for sooþ*. [trouthe, Cx.] all þat I write, but such as I haue seie*. [y-seie, α.] and i-rad in dyuerse bookes, I gadere*. [So α, and Cx.; gadered, MS.] and write wiþ oute envie, and comoun to oþere men. For þe apostel seith nouȝt, "All þat is write*. [y-write, α.] to oure lore is sooþ," but he seiþ "Al þat is i-write to oure lore*. [to oure lore] for oure doctryine and loore, Cx. (α has various words omitted.)] it is i-write." And þei I take it of oþer menis, I clepe þis storie myn; and for þat Page  21, vol.1 I write oþer whiles myn owne wordes and sentens of olde men, þe auctores þat*. [I sette, or something similar, seems to be omitted. β inserts I only after þat and omits it before take; γ is much burnt, but seems to have þat y wryte in þe bygynnyng. This reading at any rate completes the sense.] in the firste bygynnynge of þis book I take for schelde and defens, me for to saue and schilde*. [kepe, Cx.] aȝenst enemyes þat me wolde despise strongly*. [strangely, Cx.] and blame; first for my self and for myn owne name I write þis letter [R].

Capitulum secundum.

HERE I write and reherse þe auctours names of þe whiche þis cronycle is nameliche*. [special, Cx.] i-gadered and i-drawe: Josephus Judeorum historicus insignis, qui ab initio sæculi usque ad quartum decimum annum Domitiani libros Antiquitatum viginti, necnon et de subversione civitatis Hierosolymæ, gentisque suæ captivitate septem conscripsit. Hegesippus, de Excidio Urbis quem transtulit Ambrosius. Plinius in XXXVII. libris, de Naturali Historia. Trogus Pompeius, in XLIV. libris, de cunctis pene orbis historiis, quem abbreviavit dis|cipulus suus Justinus. Eusebius, in Historia Ecclesiastica, cujus XI. sunt libri. Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita, cujus Page  23, vol.1 tres sunt auctores, Eusebius, Hieronymus, et Theodorus epi|scopus. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, potissime XVII. et XVIII. Orosius Hispanus Terraconensis presbyter, in libro de Ormesta Mundi. Isidorus Hispalensis in libro Etymolo|giarum. Solinus de Mirabilibus Mundi. Henricus Huntyng|donensis*. [Hontingdon, α.] archidiaconus. Eutropius [in]*. [in] Added from α, and Cx.] Historia Romana. Walterus archidiaconus Oxoniensis. Paulus Diaconus in Historia Longobardorum. Alfridus Beverlacensis thesau|rarius. Cassiodorus de Gestis Imperatorum et Pontificum. Galfridus Monamutensis, in Historia Bretonum. Methodius etiam*. [etiam] om. Cx.] martyr et episcopus, cui incarcerato revelavit angelus de mundi statu principio et fine. Willelmus*. [Willmus, MS., and so a little below.] Ryvallensis. Giraldus Cambrensis, qui descripsit Topographiam Hiber|niæ, Itinerarium Walliæ, et vitam regis Henrici Secundi sub triplici distinctione. Suetonius, de Gestis Memorabilibus.*. [Romanorum, Valerius Maximus de gestis memorabilibus, α.] Macrobius, in Saturnalibus. Johannes Salisburiensis in suo Polycraticon, quem intitulavit, de Nugis Curialium et Phi|losophorum. Priscianus Grammaticus, in Cosmographia. Petrus Comestor in Historia Scholastica. Hugutio Pisanus episcopus in Magnis Derivationibus*. [diuinacionibus, Cx.] suis. Gregorius, de Mirabilibus Romæ. Vincentius Belluacensis, in Speculo Historiali. Beda, de Gestis Anglorum. Ivo Carnotensis episcopus. Beda, de Naturis Rerum. Historia Francorum. Beda, de Temporibus. Titus Livius, de Gestis Romanorum. Page  25, vol.1 Gildas, de Gestis Britonum. Martinus pœnitentiarius do|mini papæ, in Chronicis suis de Imperatore et Pontifice.*. [de Imperatoribus Pontificibus, Cx.] Marianus Scotus. Willelmus Malmesburiensis Monachus de Gestis Regum Angliæ et Pontificum. Florentius Wygor|nensis, Page  27, vol.1 quem in annorum supputatione, una cum Mariano, potissime sum secutus.

Prœfatio secunda ad Historiam.

AND for þis cronicle*. [for as moche as this cronkye, Cx.] conteyneþ berynges and dedes of meny tyme,*. [tymes, Cx. (not α.)] þerfore I clepe*. [So Cx. and α.; cleped, MS.] it Pollicronicon, þat is þe*. [So Cx. and α.; in, MS.] cronicle of meny tymes. In þe whiche work, by þe en|saumple of þe firste Worchere, þat wrouȝhte alle his werkes in sixe dayes and reste in þe seuenþe (for his doynge is oure lore*. [doctryne, Cx.]), þis werke I departe and dele in seuene bookes. Þe firste book descryueþ placis and contrees and londes and alle þe worlde wyde.*. [wyde world, Cx., and so just below, with other slight variations.] Þe oþere sixe bokes, by þe noumbre of vi. ages, þat conteyneþ berynge and dedes from þe bygyn|nynge of þe world vnto oure tyme. Neþeles in þe firste book of þis werk, as who*. [So Cx.; first who, MS.; first as who, α.] descriueþ general, comoun and special, mappa mundi is purtrayed and i-peynt, þat is þe cloþe þat þe schap of þe worlde wide is i-peynted ynne. Þanne in his cheef parties þe world is i-deled; and for þis storie is bytrauailled*. [is trauaylled, Cx.] by cause of Brytayne, eueriche pro|uince and londe is descryued for to me*. [for to me] vntil we, Cx.] come to Britayne þe laste of alle, as most special; and þere ynne is i-conteyned Page  29, vol.1 xv. chapitres nedful to þe knowleche of the ylond of Britayne, as þeiȝ it were an*. [and, MS.; txt, Cx.] in-bryngynge to gretter knowleche in oþer*. [þe oþere, α.] bookes þat foloweþ; þat who þat may nouȝt come to ful knowleche of þe ful storie, mowe by such forledynge haue [lykynge]*. [Added from Cx. and α.] to leeue schrewednes and synne. Þe secunde book auntreþ*. [auentureth, Cx.] forto telle berynge and dedes wiþ descrip|cioun of the lasse world; and for þe ages of þe world beeþ nouȝt all euene of beryng and of dedes, and cuery book is euene and conteyneþ i-liche; þerfore þe secounde book conteyneþ þe berynge and dedes of the foure ages from þe makynge of oure formest fader to þe brennynge of þe temple of Iewes. Þe þridde book from þe transmygra|cioun of þe peple to the comynge of Crist. Þe fourþe from Crist to þe comynge of Saxouns. Þe fifte from Saxons to þe Danes. Þe sixte from þe Danes to þe Normans.*. [fram (sic) Danes to Normans, α.] Þe seuenþe fro Normans to oure tyme, þat is, reignynge*. [vnder þe reignynge, α.; vnder the regne, Cx.] of kyng Edwarde þe þridde after þe Conquest. And so by þe prophecie of Isay, þis grete storie is departed in seuene streemes, so þat boþe i-hosed and i-schod Goddes peple may passe þerby.

Page  31, vol.1

Prœfacio Tertia ad Historiam.

To hem þat will haue ful knowleche of stories nedeþ*. [it nedeth, Cx.] eyþte þinges [to knowe: descrypcions of places, states of thynges],*. [[. . .] added from Cx., and α.] distinccion*. [distinccon, MS.] of tymes, aftir followynge of kyng|doms, dyuerste of liuynge, passynge of ages, maner of doynge, and in all þese verray acountynge of ȝeres.

Þe firste of þese in þe firste book, and þe oþere in þe oþer bookes beeþ oponliche i-write.

Touchynge þe secounde take hede of tweie states, oon from þe bygynnynge of þe world to Criste, and is i-cleped*. [i-cleped] called, Cx.] þe staat of mysgoynge; the secounde staat from Criste to þe worldes end, and is i-cleped*. [i-cleped] named, Cx.] þe state of grace and of mercy.

For þe þridde, take hede of þre tymes, oon to fore lawe i-write, þe secounde vndir þe lawe i-write, and þe þridde vnder grace and mercy.

For þe fourthe, take hede þat somtyme þere were foure principal kyngdoms*. [Cx. has "that is to wete of the Assyryens, Perces, Greeks, and Romayns."] Assyriorum, Persarum, Græcorum, Romanorum. Neuerþeles touchynge the*. [So the MS. See p. 63, note.] cours of the worlde and þe processe of Holy Writt, þe firste kyngdom was Page  33, vol.1 vnder oure fore fadres from Adam to Moyses; þe secunde vnder iuges*. [under iuges] wanting in Cx.] from Moyses to Saul; þe þridde vnder kynges from Saul to Zorobabel; þe fourthe vnder bis|shoppis from Zorobabel to Crist.

For þe fifte, take kepe of fyue manere of lyuing, þe firste was in þe firste age vndir þe lawe of kynde comyn to alle men; þe secounde in þe secunde age [was]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] þe leuynge of mysbyleued men, whan mametrie bygan in Nynus tyme, kyng of Nynyue; þe [þridde in þe]*. [Added from α, and Cx.] þridde age vnder lawe i-write, whan circumsisioun and lawe departed þe children of Israel from laweles*. [lawes, Cx.] and mysbileued men: þe fourþe lyuynge of Cristen men bygan vnder Crist, whan byleue and grace of sacramente halwed hir lyf.*. [self, Cx.] Þe fifte leu|ynge of Sarazynes bygan vndir Makomete as it is in þe fifte*. [So α, and Cx.; firste, MS.] book, and after þe tyme of Heraclius þe emperour, openliche i-schewed.

For þe sixte, take hede of sixe ages; oon is from Adam to Noe; þe secounde from Noe to Abraham; þe þridde from Abraham to Dauid; þe [fourþe]*. [Added from α, and Cx.] fro Dauid to þe transmygracioun, þat was whan Israel was i-brouȝt into þraldom of Babiloyne; þe fifte from þe transmy|gracioun to Criste, þe sixte from Criste to þe worldes Page  35, vol.1 ende. And here take hede, þat ages of þe world beeþ nouȝt to-deled*. [delid, Cx.] by euenes of ȝeres, but by meruayles þat byfel in her bygynnynge; as þe firste age bygan from þe bygynnynge of the wor[l]de;*. [world, α.] þe secounde from Noes flood; þe þridde from þe circumsicioun; þe fourþe from þe bygynnynge of kynges; the fifte from þe transmi|gracioun; þe sixte from the Incarnacioun of Crist.

For the seuenþe, take hede of seuene persones whos dedes me writeþ*. [me writeþ] ben wreton, Cx.] in stories, þat beeþ,*. [beeþ] is to wete, Cx.] kyng in his rewme, knyȝt in bataile, iuge in plee, bisshop in clergie, lawefulman in þe peple, housbond in hous, religious man in chirche. Of þe whiche springeþ out seuen manere of famous doynge, buldynge of citees, victorie of enemyes, makynge of lawes, correccioun*. [In this and in other places cor|reccioun or correctioun suits the MS. equally well.] of trespas, help of þe comyn profiȝt, gouernynge of meyny*. [meyne, Cx.] and of householde, getynge of blisful mede, in þe whiche blaseþ and schyneþ rewardynge of gode men and punyschynge of euel men.

For the eyȝte, take hede of eyȝte dyuerse manere of Page  37, vol.1 acountynge of ȝeres. Þre þe Iewes vseþ, þre þe Grees, oon Romaynes, and Cristen men oon. For þe Iewes in tretys and couenauntes haueþ a ȝere vsual, and bygineþ in Ianuarie.*. [Ianuere, α.] In deuocioun and sacrifice þei haueþ a ȝer*. [aȝer, MS., and similarly else|where the article and noun are sometimes written conjunctim.] laweful, and byginneþ in Marche. Also þey haueþ a ȝere of apperynge þat þey vseþ in calculynge and in cronicle, and bygynneþ in May, whan þey passed out of Egipte. Also þe Grees in þre manere wise acounteþ hir ȝeres; first, for ioye of þe victorie þey accounteþ hir ȝeres from þe takynge of Troye; afterward þei accounted here ȝeres by Olympades, þat beeþ þe tymes of here iustes and tornementis; but after þat þey reignede, þei accounted here ȝeres by here reignynge, in þis manere "anno regni Græcorum, quinto vel tertio, tali vel tali," sicut patet in libro Machabæorum. Whan þe Romaynes wax*. [waxed, Cx.] in hir floures þey acounted hir ȝeres by here reign|ynge in þis manere, from þe buldynge of citee,*. [þe citee, α.] "ab urbe condita." But Cristene men from þe*. [þe] om. α.] Incarnacioun of Crist acounteþ her ȝeres.

But whan me comeþ to þat place, me mote*. [me mote] men muste, Cx.] take hede Page  39, vol.1 þat þe calculynge of Denys, þat Engelond and Fraunce fol|weþ, haþ lasse by xxii. ȝere þan þe calculynge of Ierom, þat folweþ þe gospel. William Malmesbury, libro quarto de Pontificibus,*. [Pontificis, MS. and α.] seiþ þat Marianus, Scotus and monok,*. [and monok] and the monke, Cx.] i-prisoned in Maguncia, a towne of Almayne, aboute þe ȝere of grace a þowsand and þre score and sixtene, loked besiliche in bookes and acounted*. [acountede and fonde, α.] þat Dionysius Exiguus acordeþ nouȝt with þe Gospel in acountynge of ȝeres. For þis Scot, Marianus, acounted all þe ȝeres from þe bygynnynge of þe worlde, and putte hit*. [hit] wanting in Cx. and α.] to xxii. ȝere, þat lakkede of Dionysius acountes, and wroot a grete cronicle and huge;*. [an huge, Cx.] þe whiche book Robert Bis|shop of Herforde deflorede, and þerfore*. [that for, Cx.] hit is þat þe comyn cronicles þat folweþ*. [foloweden, Cx.] Denys failleþ al day. For*. [So Cx.; From, MS.] Ierom, in transferendo chronicam Eusebii*. [in translatyng the cronyke of Eu|sebii, Cx.] seiþ þat ten ȝeres*. [that yeres, Cx.] lakkeþ be tweyne Cristes passioun and Vespasianus tyme. And also xij.*. [xij. ȝeres, α.] lakkeþ aboute Decius Cesar his*. [Cezars, Cx.] tyme as it is i-schewed in þe sixte age. Þis errour byfalleþ, Page  41, vol.1 for dayes and monthes were vnrekened þat kynges reign|ede ouer ful ȝeres. Also dayes and monþes þat voydede bytw[e]ne tweie kynges were forgendred.*. [forgoten, Cx.] Wherfore in þis book I schal marke as I may how and in what*. [and what, Cx. α.] ȝeres such defautes fille; so þat I schal hiȝte þe margyns by þe hedes of the stories som wiþ double and som wiþ treble rewes ȝeres.*. [treble ȝeres, α.] From Abraham to þe citee i-bulde, I sette to gidres þe ȝere of þe age of þe worlde and of þe ledere; from þe cite i-bulde to Crist, I sette to gidre þe ȝere of*. [þe ȝere of the age of, α.] þe citee and of þe ledere; and from Crist for|warde, I write to gidre þe ȝere of grace and of þe prince þat regneþ.*. [regned, Cx.]

De orbis dimensione. Priscianus in cosmographia. Capitulum quintum.

IVLIUS CESAR, by counsaile of þe senatoures and elder men*. [aldermen, Cx.] of Rome, lokede*. [sought, Cx.] and serchede stories*. [historyes, Cx.] and bookes of his ȝeres of doynge and dedes, [and]*. [Added from Cx.] ordeyned wyse men Page  43, vol.1 and redy to mete and discreue all þe worlde aboute. Þan from Iulius his tyme to Saturnus tyme, two and þritty ȝere, messangeres, wise men and wel i-tauȝt*. [tauȝht, α. (not Cx.)] in þe practike of gemetrie,*. [So MS. and α; geometrye, Cx.] konnynge and profitable to mete*. [mesure, Cx.] and to gesse hiȝenesse and lowenesse, lengþe and brede and depnesse also, were rediliche i-sent into*. [redyly sente to, Cx.] euery londe aboute to iuges and*. [α omits and.] to cheueteynes,*. [capytayns, Cx.] to lederes*. [gouernours, Cx.] of londes, for þey schulde mete*. [mesure, Cx.] and discreue londe and water, woodes and landes, valeies and pleynes, downes and hulles,*. [montaynes and downes, Cx.] and þe see stronde and euery place where eny man myȝt goo oþer*. [or, Cx.] ride oþer*. [or, Cx.] schip seily; and write and certifie þe senatoures where and what wondres were i-founde. ℞. Þis witnessith Hieronymus, in transferendo historiam Eusebii, libro secundo, capitulo secundo. Þere, he seith, þat Pilatus, iuge of Iewerye,*. [þe Iewery, α.] cer|tefied Tiberius Cesar of meruayles and wondres þat Criste wrouȝte in þe Iewerie, and Tiberius certefied þe senatoures, but þe*. [α omits þe.] senatoures trowed*. [byleued, Cx.] nouȝt, for þey had nouȝt herd [afore]*. [Added from Cx.; not in α.] of so wonder werkes. Priscianus. And so, by warnynge and certefienge of cheueteynes*. [capytayns, Cx.] of londes, it was i-founde and i-knowe þat al þe worlde aboute haþ name kowthe*. [couth, α.] sees*. [hath sees of dyuerse names, Cx.] þritty, ylondes þre score and twelue, famos Page  45, vol.1 hullys*. [montaynes, Cx.] fourty, prouinces þre skore and eyȝtene, noble citees þre hundred þre skore and ten, grete ryueres seuene and fifty, dyuers naciouns sixe skore and fyue.*. [an c. and fyfe and twenty, Cx. (Similar variations of expressing numbers occur elsewhere often.)] Þe roundenesse of þe worlde aboute is þre hundred siþes and fiftene siþes an hondred þowsand paas. Þe lengþe of þe erþe þat men woneþ*. [dwelle, Cx.] ynne from þe est to þe west, þat is from Ynde to Hercules is*. [So also α; pylers of H., Cx.] pilers in þe see Gaditan is eyȝti siþes and fyue siþes an hundred þre score and eyȝtene mile. But þe wey from oon*. [that oon, Cx.] ende to þat oþer is wel*. [moche, Cx.] lasse by water þan by londe. Þe brede of þe erþe from þe souþe to þe north, þat is from þe clyue*. [clyf, Cx.] of occean in Ethiopia, þe londe of Blomen*. [blak men, Cx.] to þe mouþe of þe ryuer Thany wel nyh haluendel lasse þán þe lengþe, and conteyneþ foure and fifty hundred and two and sixty myle. Also it was i-founde þat þe dep|pest place of þe see of myddel erþe conteyneþ doun riȝt fif|tene furlonge depe. [℞.]*. [Added from α.] Tholomeus seiþ þat þe rounde|nesse of a cercle*. [acercle, MS., and similarly in many other places.] aboute conteyneþ þre*. [thryes, Cx.] so moche as þe brede [and the seuendele of the brede],*. [Added from α and Cx. (There is some variation in expressing the words following.)] so þat þe propor|cioun of þe roundenesse aboute of a cercle is*. [α, MS., but cancelled by a dot.] to þe brede as is þe proporcioun of two and twenty to seuene. So it is acounted þat þe roundenesse of þe erþe aboute conteyneþ twenty þowsand and fourty myle. Ȝif we deleþ*. [So also α; departe, Cx.] þe*. [þat, α.] somme on þre and þe seuenþe parte of þe þridde, þe þiknesse of þe erþe þorw oute is almest sexe þousand and fyue*. [and fyue] foure, α.] hondred Page  47, vol.1 myle,*. [fyve honderd four score and enleuen myle, Cx. (also he omits all that follows, till Thenne half, &c.)] for nyne myle lakkeþ at þe leste of þat somme. So þere schal be sexe þowsand foure*. [fyue, Cx.] hondred four*. [So Cx.; nyne, MS.] score and elleuene myle. Þan half þe þiknesse of þe erþe inward and doun riȝt is þre þowsand two hundred and fyue and fourty myle and somwhat ouer, as it were half a myle. So ȝif helle is in*. [in þe, α.] myddel of þe erþe doun riȝt, me myȝte knowe how meny myle is*. [it is, Cx.] to helle.

De orbis divisione. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro sexto|decimo, capitulo octavo. Capitulum sextum.

FOR þe delynge*. [departing, Cx.] of þe worlde take hede þat þe grete see of occean byclippeþ al þe erþe aboute, and þe erþe is i-deled*. [departed, Cx.] in þre*. [aþre yn þre, α.] grete parties. Asia is þat oon,*. [Asia that is oon part, Cx.] Europa þat oþer, and Affrica þe þridde. But þese*. [the, Cx.] þre parties beeþ*. [ben, Cx., and similarly else|where.] not alle euene and yliche moche;*. [euen lyke moche, Cx.] for Asia, oon of þe þre, conteyneþ half þe erþe, and streccheþ from þe south by þe est anon to þe*. [eeste vnto, Cx.] north, and is i-closed aboute with þe see of occean; but he*. [it, Cx.] endeþ westwarde at þe grete see. Beda, de Naturis.*. [nature, MS.] His endes beeþ þe mouth of þe ryuer Page  49, vol.1 Nilus in þe souþ, and of þe ryuer Thanays in þe norþe. [That other parte, Europa, stretcheth dounward fro the riuer Thanays by the northe]*. [The words within brackets are added from Cx. and α, which latter reads the oþer.] occean to þe costes of Spayne, and ioyneþ to þe grete see by este and by south, and endeþ in þe Ilond Gades. Isidorus, libro quarto de|cimo, capitulo quarto. Affrica, þe þridde parte, streccheþ from the west to þe southe, anon to*. [southe vnto, Cx.] þe coste of Egipte, and þese tweie parties, Affrica and Europa, beþ departed atweyne*. [a sounder, Cx.] by þe*. [an, Cx.] arme of þe see. Plinius, libro tertio, capitulo primo. Þe mouthes of þe*. [that, Cx. and α.] arme conteyneþ fiftene þowsand paas in lengþe, and fyue þowsand paas in brede; and of þilke mouþes þe*. [of þe, MS. α; txt, Cx.] see of myddel erþe bygynneþ, and by dyuers armes spredeþ and wexeþ inward the londes.

De partium orbis descriptione. Plinius, libro sexto; Priscianus in Cosmographia. Capitulum septimum.

ASIA is most in quantite, Europa is lasse, and pere*. [lyke, Cx.] in noumbre of peple; bot Africa is lest of alle þe þre Page  51, vol.1 parties boþe in place and in noumbre of peple; and þer|fore somme men, þat knowe*. [knewe, α.] men and londes, acountede but tweie parties of þe erþe onliche, Asia and Europa; and þey acountede þat Affrica longeþ to Europa, for Affrica is narwe in brede; and yuel doers, corrupte ayre, wylde bestes and venemous woneþ*. [dwellen, Cx.] þerynne. Þerfore þey þat acounteþ Affrica þe þridde part acounteþ not by space and mesure of lengþe and brede, bot by dyuerse disposiciouns better and worse, and departeþ Affrica from Europa and Asia, as a sore membre þat is nouȝt from membres þat beeþ hole and sounde and in good poynt at þe beste. Also Affrica in his kynde haþ lasse space, and for þe sturnesse of heuene he haþ þe more wildernes. [And though Affryca be lytil, it hath more wyldernes]*. [The words in brackets added from Cx. and α, which latter has he for it.] and waste londe, for grete brennynge and*. [of, Cx.] hete of þe sonne, þan Europa, for all þe chil and greet colde þat ofte*. [Omitted in Cx.] is þerynne. For why all þat lyueþ and groweþ may bettre endure wiþ colde þan wiþ hete; bote mesure rule*. [ruleth, Cx. (not α.)] boþe. Plinius, libro sexto. Þerfore it is þat Europa norischeþ and bryngeth forþ men huger and gretter of body, myȝtier of strengþe, hardier and bolder of herte, and fairer*. [So Cx.; faire, MS.]Page  53, vol.1 of schap, þan Affrica. For þe son beme al wey abideþ vppon þe men of Affrica, and draweþ oute þe humours, and makeþ hem schort of body,*. [bodyes, Cx.] blak of skyn, crips of heer, and by drawing oute of spirites makeþ hem coward of herte. Þe contrarie is of norþeren*. [norþrene, α.] men, in þe whiche*. [Omitted in Cx. (typ. error.)] colde wiþ oute stoppeþ smale holes and poorus, and holdeþ the hete wiþ ynne; and so makeþ hem fatter, gretter, and whitter and hatter*. [and hatter] omitted in Cx.] with inne, and so hardier and boldere of herte.

De mari magno medio, sive Mediterraneo. Plinius, libro tertio, capitulo primo. Capitulum octavum.

THANNE þe grete see of myddel erþe bygynneþ in þe west at Hercules pilers; þere þe see of occean of Athlant brekeþ out, and makeþ the see Gaditan. Þe lengþe of þat see is fiftene þowsand paas, and þe brede fyue þowsand paas, and haþ in þe riȝt side Affrica, and in þe lefte side Europa; and þerof springeþ þe ynnere sees. Þe endes þerof is þe water Thany an þe norþ side, and Nilus in Page  55, vol.1 þe souþ side. Isidorus, libro decimo quarto. Þe grete see flowynge oute of occean*. [the occean, Cx.] turneþ into þe souþ, and þan into þe north. Balearis, þe firste greet hauen and passage of þat see,*. [Cx. adds and.] schedeþ into Spayne. Þan þe oþer mouth Gallicus passeþ by þe prouince of Narbon; þan Ligustius by Ianua, a citee; þan Tyrrhenus to Ytaly arecheþ;*. [archeth, Cx.] þan þe hauen of Sicilia passeþ to Creta; þan þe passage of Creta streccheþ in to Pamphylia and Egipte. Þere han þe streen*. [Sic MS.; streem, α. and frothens the streme, Cx.] of þe grete hauene and mouþe Hellespontus brekeþ oute abrode in greet wawes and stremes, and torneþ norþwarde. But bisides Grees at Bo[s]forum, he*. [Bofornit, Cx.] wexeþ narwe and straiȝte as þe space of seuen forlonge;*. [furlonges, Cx.] and þere Xerxes*. [Exerces, MS. and α.; Xerses, Harl. MS. Here and elsewhere the classical orthography is restored, when the word does not appear to be in a manner anglicised, e.g., Affrica.] þe kyng made ouer a brigge*. [brydge, Cx.] of schippes for to passe in to Grees and werre þere ynne. Plinius, libro sexto, capitulo primo. Þere þe see is so narwe bytwene Europa and Asia, þat me*. [men, Cx.] may hire in eyþer side oute of oþer houndes berke, and foules synge, but*. [but yf, Cx.] weder and wynde lette. Giraldus, distinct. prima, capitulo decimo. Þat narwe see*. [place, Cx.] is i-cleped*. [named, Cx.] Seint Georges Arme, and streccheþ forþ by Constantinopolim, Page  57, vol.1 and bytwene Europa and Asia; and in þat see is þe Ilond Abydos. Isidorus, libro nono. Þanne þe see schedeþ norþ|ward, and makeþ þe see Propontides. Þenne he narweþ to þe narwenesse of sex hondred paas, [and]*. [Added from Cx., and α.] is þe se*. [þese, MS.; the see, Cx.] Trach. Þanne þe grete see*. [the see, Cx.] Ponticus þat passeþ by north by Thracia and Mœsia, streccheþ to þe wateres and marys of Mæotides, and fongeþ*. [receyueth, Cx.] þere þe ryuer Thanays. Þenne he streccheþ estward, and passeþ by þe lasse Asia, anon to*. [Asia vnto, Cx.] þe endes of Iberia and Armenye. And þat see is i-cleped*. [named, Cx.] Euxinum. Isidorus, libro nono. And þat see is swetter, schorter, and more mysty, for fresshe ryueres al aboute turneþ and falleþ*. [renne and fallen, Cx.] þerto. In þat grete mouthe and baye*. [So Cx.; þay, α.; þey, MS., which adds and baye after oþere in the line following.] beþ ilondes Calchos, Patmos,*. [Patmos] Pathmos, MS. and Harl. MS.] and oþere. Plinius, libro sexto. And þe see Ponticus floweþ not noþer*. [ne, Cx., who omits as oþere sees dooþ.] turneþ aȝen as oþere sees dooþ, but euere turneþ*. [renneth, Cx.] into þe see Propontidem and Hellespontum. ℞. Þe cause þere of is myȝte and strengþe of ryueres and bakwateres, þat renneþ þerto, dryueþ forþ þe see Euxinum alway in oon cours. And þe strengþe and þe flood of þe see Hellesponticus, þat is fer from occean, Page  59, vol.1 may nouȝt wiþstonde þe course and þe strengþe of þe strong stremes þat renneþ*. [eorneþ, α.] þat course. Isidorus, libro nono. As þe erþe þat is oon haþ dyuerse names by cause of dyuers [places, so the*. [þis, α.] grete see by cause of dyuerse]*. [Added from Cx. and α.] kyngdoms, ylondes, peple, citees, and townes þat he*. [it, Cx.] passeþ by, and happes þat falleþ þerynne is dyuersliche i-nempned*. [named, Cx.] and haþ dyuers names.

De oceano. Isidorus, libro decimo tertio. Capitulum nonum.

THE see of occean byclippeþ al þe erþe aboute as a garlond, and by tymes comeþ and gooþ cbbynge and flowynge, and sweloweþ*. [floweth, Cx. (typ. error.)] in sees, and casteþ hem vp; and wyndes bloweþ þerynne. Plinius, libro secundo, capitulo 99. Þe hiȝe flood of occean ariseþ vp*. [vpon, Cx., α.] þe costes of Bretaine foure score cubitis hiȝe. And þat risynge and depnesse is better i-knowe by þe cleues þan in the hiȝe see; for betynge of veynes is bettre i-knowe in þe vttre parties of bodies*. [the body, Cx.] þan ynward and*. [Om. Cx.] in þe myddel wiþynne. Euerich flood arist*. [aryseth, Cx.] more in occean Page  61, vol.1 þan in þe grete see; þat is, for þe hoole to gidre is myȝtier and strenger þan any partie by hem*. [him, α.] self, oþer for þe hole occean is grete and huge and fongeþ*. [receyueth, Cx.] more worchynge of þe mone þan eny partie by hym self þat is smallere and lasse. Þerefore lakus, ryueres, pondus, and oþere fresche wateres noþer*. [ne, Cx.] ebbeþ ne floweþ as occean doþ. Plinius, libro secundo, capitulo sexto.*. [septimo, α. See the Latin text.] Occean spredeþ and schedeþ in to dyuers mouthes and costes toward þe lond, and in many places wel nyh toucheþ þe ynner sees so nygh þat þe mouþe [þat is cleped Arabicus, and is þe mouþ]*. [Added from α.] and þe coste of þe Rede see [is fro the see of Egypte; but fifty thousand paas; also the mouth and see]*. [Added from Cx. and α.] þat is i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] Caspius is but þre hundred þre score and fiftene myle from þe grete see þat is i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] Euxinus. Beda, de Naturis. Amonge alle þe mouthes and sees þat comeþ toward þe londe and out of occean,*. [the ocean, Cx.] þre been most famous i-holde. Þe firste*. [Om. Cx.] mouthe and see haþ tweie names, and is i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] Gaditanus and Atlanticus also. Þe secounde is i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] Caspius, and entreþ toward þe norþ est,*. [out of north east, Cx.] and departeþ by twene þe norþside of Inde*. [So α.; Inda, MS.] and Seythia þat londe, and so*. [that, Cx.] streccheþ towarde þe grete mouþe and see þat is i-cleped Page  63, vol.1 Euxinus. Þe þridde mouþe and see is þe Rede see, and comeþ of þe north est, and departeþ þe south side of Inde from Ethiopia and Egipte from þilke tweye londes. Þan þe Rede see streccheþ forþ, and departeþ in tweie mouthes and sees. Þat oon is i-cleped*. [i-cleped] named, Cx. (twice.)] Persicus, and streccheþ norþ|ward, þat oþer is i-cleped*. [i-cleped] named, Cx. (twice.)] Arabicus, and streccheþ westward and toward þe grete see. Þe *. [þis, α.] Rede see is nouȝt rede of kynde, but aflascheþ*. [it flassheth, Cx.] and wascheþ oon*. [on the, Cx.] rede clyues and stones, and so is i-died rede as a rose. Þerfore of þe clyues and strondes of þe Reed see is i-gadered vermylon and rede precious stones. Solinus. By þe see þat is i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] Caspius beeþ hulles, þat beeþ i-cleped þe hilles of Caspi,*. [Caspii, α, and so MS. below.] and haueþ in lengþe seuen þowsand paas, and in brede vnneþe þe space of a cart wey. In þe sides of þe hulles of Caspii salt veynes mulleþ*. [melte, Cx.] and woseth oute humours, and moysture i-dried and i-clunge by hete of þe sonne ioyneþ and cleueþ to gideres, as is oþere*. [as yse or, Cx.] glas; and somme*. [so men, Cx.] may nouȝt clymbe on þe hilles, þe wey is so slider. Also euerich drauȝt is ful drawe in þe space of eyȝte and twenty þousand paas; þe londe is drie wiþoute socoure, and adders and serpentes falleþ Page  65, vol.1 þerto; so þat, but it be wynter, þere may no man come þerynne. ℞. Martianus seiþ þat þe*. [α. omits þe.] ȝates of Caspij beeþ i-steke*. [faste shette, Cx.] wiþ yren barres, and in springyng tyme faste i-barred for serpentes and addres; and þe Maister*. [So Cx., (who has of historyes); maistres, MS.] of þe stories sayth,*. [sayth] Added from Cx. and α.] þat at þe prayeres of kyng Alisaundre Caspij hulles were i-closed and ioyned to gidres. Paulus, in historia Longobardorum, libro primo. Þere beeþ many swolwynges and whirlynges of wateres by þe see brynkes; tweyne beeþ in þe see of myddel erþe bytwene Itali and þe londe*. [ilonde, Cx.] Sicilia. Þilke tweie swolwes beeþ i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] Scylla and Charybdis; of þe whiche spekeþ Virgil, and seiþ: Scylla is perilous in þe riȝt side, and Charybdis in þe lift side. Oþere swelowes and periles of wateres*. [water, Cx.] beeþ in occean; oon is in þe west clif of litel*. [Om. Cx.] Bretayne, and is i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] þe nauel of þe see; þe toþer*. [other, Cx.] is bytwene Bretayne and Gallicia, and it is i-seide þat þese swelowes twyes in þe nyȝt and day sweloweþ ynne stremes and flodes, and casteþ hem vp aȝe.*. [agayn, Cx. (not α.)] Also he*. [it, Cx.] draweþ in schippes, and casteþ hem vp aȝen,*. [casted hem agayn, Cx.] as swiftliche as an arwe to a manis sight.*. [So the MS. (not, as usually, siȝt.)]

Page  67, vol.1

De provinciis orbis; primo de Paradiso. Capitulum decimum.

FOR þe knowleche of erþelyche Paradys þre poyntes moste be i-knowe. Wherfore þre questiouns beeþ i-axed: þe firste questioun axeþ,*. [α. has the same variations of spelling; Cx. has axeth in all three places.] Ȝif eny suche place is on erþe? þe secounde axiþ,*. [α. has the same variations of spelling; Cx. has axeth in all three places.] Whiderwarde or where is Paradys in erþe? þe þridde askeþ,*. [α. has the same variations of spelling; Cx. has axeth in all three places.] What contraye or what place*. [contray and place, Cx.] is Paradys in erþe? For þe firste, foure manere witnesses we haueþ þat Paradys is in erþe; first stories þat likneþ Sodom, or*. [er, Cx.] hit were ouertorned, to Paradise; þe secounde witnes is of*. [So Cx.; witnessiþ of, MS.] hem þat assaiede and*. [and] om. Cx., who has wrote.] write and seide, þat þey had i-seie*. [seen, Cx.] þat place; þe þridde witnesse beeþ*. [So α.; wytnes ben, Cx.; wit|nessiþ that beeþ, MS.] þe foure ryueres, þat renneþ out of Paradyse; for þe heed of þilke ryueres beeþ nouȝt i-founde in see, noþer in fresche water, noþer in londe þat men woneþ*. [dwelle, Cx.] ynne, þeyȝ kynges of Egipt and many oþer trauailled wel ofte and souȝte þereafter. Þerfore Isid[ore], xiii. Eth., seiþ þat Hieronymus*. [Ieronimus, MS., and so often; Iherom, Cx.] toke hede þat ouþer vnderstondynge bihoueþ of þe ryueres of Paradys, þan auctours writeþ; Page  69, vol.1 also Basilius, in Hexaemeron, Ysid[ore], Eth. lib. quarto de|cimo, and Iosephus, libro primo, seiþ þat wateres fallynge of þe hiȝest*. [of heyȝeste, α.] hille of Paradys makeþ a grete ponde, and out of þat ponde (as it were of a welle) þe foure ryueres springeþ. Petrus, capitulo quarto decimo. Of þe whiche foure ryueres þe firste is Phison, and is to menynge ful wexynge of plente; þat ryuer Phison passeþ into Inde, and draweth wiþ hym golden grauel. Phison haþ anoþer name, and is i-cleped Ganges of a kynge*. [So α.; MS. askynge.] of Ynde þat was i-cleped Gangarius; but Ganges*. [So Cx.; Gangus, MS.] is to menynge*. [to say, Cx., who has, however, to menynge above.]felawschippe and companye, for he fongeþ ten greet ryueres þat renneþ þerto. Þe secounde is i-cleped Gyon and Nilus also, and gooþ aboute Ethiopia and Egipt. Þe þridde is Tigris, and, as Iosephus seiþ, Diglath also, þat is to menynge,*. [to say, Cx., who has, however, to menynge above.]scharp, for he*. [it, Cx. (and so often).] is swift as tigris, þat is a wel*. [ryght, Cx.] swift best; and Tigris passeþ toward Assyria þat londe. Þe fourþe is Euphrates, þat is to menynge fructuous and fruit berere, and goþ toward Caldea þat londe.*. [þe fourþe . . . þat land] om. Cx.]Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. Þe moste certeyn auctor, Salustius, seiþ, þat þere comeþ a welle oute of Cerauneys, þe hulles of Armenye, and springeþ out at*. [of, Cx.] þe foote of þe hulle þat is i-cleped Caucasus; and þat welle is Page  71, vol.1 þe hede of tweie ryueres [of Tigris and of Euphrates, þe whiche tweie ryuers]*. [Added from α. and Cx. Here, and commonly, the versions write Eufrates.] somtyme beeþ i-deled atwynne*. [departed a sonder, Cx.] and somtyme i-melled*. [medlid, Cx.] to gidres, and ofte tyme þey beeþ i-swelewed into þe erþe, and efte*. [after, Cx.] springeþ up aȝen, and longe after gooþ aboute Mesopotamia*. [Macepotanea, MS. and α.; Me|sopotonya, Cx.] þat londe, and doun|ward into þe Rede see. ℞. And þey me*. [men, Cx., and so in many other places, where MS. and α. agree in reading me, aȝe, &c.] rede in bookes þat Nilus comeþ out of Paradys, ȝit som men affermeþ and seiþ*. [affermen and saye, Cx., to whom this plural seems unknown.] þat Nilus springeþ in þe west side of þe londe of Ethiopia, nouȝt fer from þe hil þat is i-cleped Atlas,*. [Athlas, MSS. and Cx.] and goþ aboute Ethiopia and dounward by Egipt. Loke*. [Seche, Cx.] þe propurte of Nilus in þe chapitre Egiptus. Þe fourþe wit|nesse and preef, þat suche a place is in erþe þat is i-cleped Paradys, is olde fame and longe durynge; for me schal trowe*. [bileue, Cx.] olde fame, þat is nouȝt wiþseide; but fame of Paradys haþ i-dured*. [endured, Cx., and endureth for dureþ, below.] wiþoute wiþseienge*. [gayn sayeng, Cx., but withscyde above.] sexe þowsand ȝere and more; for from þe bygynnynge of þe world anon to oure dayes [it haþ endured. And]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] fame þat is false dureþ nouȝt so longe, for it falliþ out of mynde, oþer is des|preued by soþenesse i-knowe. Of þe secounde questioun, þat axeþ in whiche side of þe worlde and in what place Paradys schulde be; þey*. [though that, Cx.] schort witted men and litel of Page  73, vol.1 assay seie þat Paradys is longe seillynge out of erþe*. [þe erþe, α., Cx.] þat men woneþ ynne, and also departed from þe erþe and*. [Cx. adds is.] hiȝe as þe mone, — hit is not to trowynge;*. [to be bileued, Cx.] for kynde*. [nature, Cx.] and resoun boþe wiþseieþ.*. [Cx. adds it.] For ȝif Paradys were departed atwynne from þe erþe þat men woneþ ynne, noþer*. [ne, Cx., twice.] water noþer*. [ne, Cx., twice.] aier myȝte bere suche a burþen. Also þe fuyre*. [So α. and Cx.; ferþe, MS. (cle|rical error.)] occupieþ al þe myddel space bytwene the aier and þe mone, þan Paradys is nouȝt þare; for þan noþing myȝte lyue þerynne. Also ȝif Paradys were so hiȝe, somtyme it schulde byneme*. [bynyme, α.; take away, Cx.] þe liȝt, and make þe clips*. [make eclips, α., Cx.] of þe mone; but of suche*. [Cx. adds an.] eclipse herde we neuere. Also ȝif Paradys were so hiȝe, and departed in sonder*. [asonder, α., Cx.] from euery oþer*. [Om. Cx.] lond and erþe, how schulde þe foure ryueres þat springeþ out of Paradys passe by þe aier and þe wide see and come in to londes þat men woneþ ynne? And ȝif me seith þat Paradys is so hiȝe and in oon*. [oo and one, Cx.] place contynued*. [it contynueth, Cx.] to þe erþe þat men woneþ ynne, þan þe erþe is euen longe*. [is enlong, Cx. (typogr. error?).] and nouȝt rounde al aboute, as wise men descryueþ hit; bot þat may not stonde: for it is i-knowe by experience Page  75, vol.1 and assay, þat in euery eclips of þe mone þe erþe makeþ a rounde schilde. Þerfore þe erþe, wiþ alle his parties, mote*. [muste, Cx.] nedes be rounde. And so wise men concludeþ þat Paradys is in þe vttermest ende*. [endes, Cx.] of þe est, and þat it is a grete contray*. [contrey, Cx.; contrary, MS.] of þe erþe no lasse þan Ynde oþer*. [or, Cx.] Egipte;*. [Cx. adds and.] a place large and couenable for al mankynde to wone ynne, ȝif mankynde had nouȝt i-synned. Of þe þridde þat axeþ of Paradys, What manere place*. [place] Added from α. and Cx.] it schulde be, Isid[ore] seiþ, libro quarto decimo, capitulo tertio, þat þis name Paradys i-turned out of Grew in to Latyn is to menynge*. [is as moch to say as, Cx.]an orcheȝerde. But Paradys in Hebrewe*. [Hebrewe] Added from α. and Cx.] is i-cleped Eden, þat is to menynge*. [to say, Cx. (and so generally).]likynge; þe whiche tweyne i-putte*. [Cx. here, contrary to his cus|tom, retains y put.] to gidres makeþ an orcheȝerde of likynge. ℞. No wonder, for in þat place is al þyng þat accordeþ to lyf. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Þere is helþe, for þe aier is in tempre*. [is attemperat, Cx.] noþer to hote noþer*. [ne, Cx. (and so often).] to colde, so þat no þyng þat leueþ may deie þerynne: þat witnessiþ Ennok and Ely, þat ȝit beeþ þere on lyue.*. [a lyue, Cx.]Iohannes Damascenus.Page  77, vol.1 Þat place haþ faire weder and merþe, for it was þe celer and place of all fairenesse: no manere of*. [α. and Cx. omit of.] tree leseþ þere his leues; no floures þere welkeþ;*. [welwoþ, α.; fade, Cx., who has ne for no.] þere is merþe and swetnesse; of fruyt and trees þat groweþ þere, Genesis, secundo capitulo, it is i-write: Euerich tree þerynne is swete to ete and faire to siȝt. Þerynne is sikernesse and suerte, for þe place is hiȝe. ℞. Petrus, capitulo tertio decimo, seiþ þat þe water of þe greet flood com*. [cometh, Cx.] nouȝt in Paradys. Þei som men seie þat Paradys is hiȝe as þe mone, þat is not sooþ in wordes and in dede; but þat speche is i-saued by an excusacioun of spekynge, þat is i-cleped yperbolica: so þat þei þat so spekeþ wolde mene, þat Paradys in heyȝt passeþ all oþer londes. Treuisa. So we preiseþ a worldely*. [erþe, MS.; erthly, Cx.] man Iordan or Iohan, and seiþ þat he was þe beste man þat euere was; and ȝit he was neuere so good as Crist. So in wordes þat sotil men wole*. [wel, Cx.] deuyne, his menynge*. [the menyng is, Cx.] trewe and good. But allas, as Isidre*. [Ysidorus, Cx.] seiþ, libro nono, capitulo primo: Oure wey to Paradys is faste i-stopped by cause of þe synne of oure forme*. [forn, Cx.] fader; it*. [α. omits it.] is i-closed al aboute wiþ a firen*. [brennyng, Cx.] wal, so þat þe brennynge þerof arecheþ to heuene, as som men Page  79, vol.1 wolde wene. Paradys is i-closed wiþ þat wal to holde out mankynde; aungelles stondeþ on þat wal to kepe wel Paradys, þat none euel goostes mowe come þerynne.

De Asia et ejus provinciis. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Capitulum undecimum.

ISIDORUS seiþ þat Asia haþ þe name, and is i-cleped after a womman þat woned þerynne, þat was i-cleped Asia. In Asia beeþ many prouinces and londes, þe whiche I schal descriue and rekene al arewe,*. [al along, Cx.] and bygynne wiþ Ynde. Inde haþ in þe est side þe sonne risynge, in þe south þe see occean, in þe west þe ryuer of Inde, in þe north þe hulle þat is i-cleped Caucasus; and so Ynde is i-ended. In Ynde beeþ men of colour and hewe i-died. In Ynde is a brede þat is i-cleped phitacus, elephantis, peper, and a tree þat is i-cleped hebanus, euery, and precious stones,*. [stones] Added from α. and Cx.] beriles, criso|prassus, charbunculus,*. [charbonicles, α.; carbunclis, Cx., who has crisopassis (sic) just before.] adamantis, and goldene hulles, to þe whiche it is ful harde for to come for dragouns and grypes, and for dyuers manere of*. [α. and Cx. om. of.] men grisliche and wonderliche i-schape. Among alle þe londes of þis worlde Ynde is þe*. [α. and Cx. om. þe.]Page  81, vol.1 grettest and most richest,*. [ryche, Cx.] strengest and most ful of peple, yn wonder and meruayles most wonderful. In Inde a crop of a figge tree is so huge*. [grete, Cx.] and so wide i-sprad, þat meny com|panyes of men may sitte at þe*. [Cx. omits þe.] mete wel i-now þere vnder. Þat makeþ*. [causeth the, Cx.] goodnes of þe lond, temprure*. [So also α.; temperure, Cx.] of wedir and plente of watir. Plinius, libro sexto, capitulo decimo nono. In Ynde beeþ many kynges and peples; som of hem tilieþ*. [tylleth the, Cx.] londe, som vseþ chaffare and marchaundise, som knyȝthode and chyualrie, and som beeþ grete clerkes. In Ynde beeþ trees, þat haueþ coppis*. [toppis, Cx., which may be right.] as hiȝe as me schal schete wiþ an arwe. Also of a gobet bytwene tweie knottes of a rede in Ynde me makeþ a boot, þat ouer depe watres*. [a depe water, Cx. (after at ones).] bereþ þre men at ones. In Ynde beeþ men of fyue cubites*. [cubyte, Cx.] long, þat eueleþ nouȝt,*. [wexe not seke, Cx.] noþer*. [ner, Cx.] ȝildeþ vp þe breeþ. Also þere beeþ Satyri and oþer dyuers men grisliche and wonderliche i-schape. Þerynne beþ men of a cubite longe, and beeþ i-cleped Pigmei; þese Pigmei geten children and gendreþ*. [engenderen, Cx.] in þe fourþe ȝere, and horeþ*. [wexe hore, Cx.] in þe fifte ȝere;*. [α. and Cx. om. ȝere.] þei gadereþ a greet hoost and rideþ vppon wetheres and rammes to fiȝte wiþ cranes, and de|stroyeþ her nestes and her eyren;*. [egges, Cx.] for þe cranes þat beeþ hir enemyes schulde not encrese and wexe to many. Þere beeþ Page  83, vol.1 besy philosofres þat byholdeþ on þe sonne al þe day long. Also somme haþ hedes as it were houndes, and þe voys þat þey makeþ is liker to an*. [α. om. an and α; Cx. has to berkynge of houndes.] houndes berkynge þan to a*. [α. om. an and α; Cx. has to berkynge of houndes.] manis voys; þey beeþ i-cloþed in wylde bestes skynnes and i-armed wiþ hir owne teeþ and nayles, and lyueþ by huntynge and haukynge. Oþere þere beeþ þat haueþ no mouth, and lyueþ by odour and smelles, and beþ i-cloþed in mosse and hery tuftes þat groweþ out of treen.*. [trees, Cx., and so elsewhere.] Oþer horeth in ȝonþe, oþer*. [and, Cx.] wexeþ blak in elde. In som hulles of Ynde beeþ men þat haueþ*. [Cx. adds the.] soles of hir feet ouertorned and eyȝte fyngres in oon honde. Tull. de Tusc. 90.*. [The reference should be to Cic. Tusc. Quæst. lib. v. c. 27.] In oo con|tray of Ynde euerich man haþ many wyfes; but whan þe housbond is deed, þe wyfes schulle goo to gidres, and loke whiche of hem was best i-loued of þe housbonde; and sche schal be beried wiþ hym and putte*. [i-put, α.] on erþe*. [in the erthe, Cx.] quyk*. [Cx. adds and.] alyue; and in þat contray þat is acounted þe fairest hap and [fortune, and also]*. [Added from Cx., who places acounted after fortune.] worschippe þat eny wyf myȝte haue. Petrus, 196.*. [19o, 6, MS. and Cx.] In Ynde beeþ trees þat beeþ i-cleped þe trees of þe sonne and of þe mone; preostes þat ete of þe apples of þilke trees lyued*. [lyuen, Cx.] fyue hondred ȝere. Þey were i-cleped þe trees of þe sonne, for euerich of hem quaked Page  85, vol.1 and schoke as sone as þe sonne beem touched his cop,*. [toppe, Cx. (and possibly this may be the MS. reading.)] and answered men þat stood aboute. Þe same doynge was of þe trees of [þe]*. [þe] Added from α. and Cx.] mone. By þese trees þe grete kyng Alex|ander*. [Alysaundre, Cx.] was forbode, þat he schulde neuere come in Babylon. Isidorus libro quinto decimo. Offir is an ylond of Ynde; þerynne is greet plente of golde, and þe passage þerto out of þe grete see*. [þe grete see] Grece, Cx. (con|fusing c and t.)] is by þe Rede see.

De Parthia. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Capitulum duodecimum.

ISIDORUS scheweþ þat Parthia*. [The MS. looks like Parchia, and so Cx. prints it; but c and t are identical (or nearly so) in MSS.] þat kyngdom, for myȝt and strengþe of men of þat lond, þat her name spredde into þe londes Assyria*. [of Assiria, Cx.] and Media, and*. [and] Added from Cx.] was i-woned*. [woonte, Cx.] to con|teyne al þe lond of foure contrees, of Assyria, of Media, of Persida,*. [Cx. omits of before Media and Persida.] and of Carmania; þe which lond Parthia streccheþ in lengþe from þe see þat is i-cleped Caspius anon to þe*. [Caspius vnto the, Cx.] Rede see; and in brede from the ryuer of Ynde to þe ryuer þat is i-cleped Tigris. Þat is þe byginnynge of þe lond þat is i-cleped Mesopotamia. Trogus, libro decimo, capituloPage  87, vol.1quinquagesimo primo.*. [quinto, Cx.] Parthi,*. [Perchii, Cx.] þe men of Parthia, in þe langage of þe contrey Scythia, beeþ i-cleped outlawes;*. [of Scicia, Cx., who omits all following till were outlawes (by cle|rical or typogr. error). The MSS. of both versions usually write Scicia.] for in the byginnynge of men of Scythia Parthi, þat beeþ men of Parthia, were outlawes; and whan þe kyngdom was i-take from þe men of Media to þe men of Persida, þan were þe Parthi as it were pray to þe victores, and were as it were vnknowe amonge men of the est londes, and anon*. [and anon] om. Cx.] vnto þat*. [þat] the, Cx.] tyme þat men of Macedonia bycom*. [bycam, Cx.] kynges and lordes of londes. Þan afterward þey serued þe Macedonyes, when þe Macedoynes were victours in þe est londes. But at þe*. [Cx. omits þe.] laste þey were partyners wiþ the Romayns, and deled lordschipe wiþ hem. Þese Parthi vseþ*. [vseden, Cx.] þe maneres of men of Scythia, þat put*. [put] Added from α. and Cx.] ham ouȝte som tyme; þerfore her armes and wepene beeþ fethery*. [αCx.; veþery, γ] swellynge wittes, gileful aspies. Men þey acounteþ violent and wommen mylde, and euere þei beeþ vnesi to hir [owne]*. [owne] Added from α. and Cx.] neiheboures oþer to*. [So α.; þe, MS.; to straunge, Cx.] strong men. Þey beeþ comounliche stille and litel of speche, more redy for to doo þan for to speke. Þerfore þey holdeþ pryue good happes and boonchief, as wel as yuel*. [So α. and Cx.; of yuel, MS.] happes and meschief. Þey beeþ buxom*. [buxom] obedient, Cx.] to here lordes for drede and not for schame. Þei beþ al i-cast*. [disposed, Cx.] to leccherie wiþ hire owne wifes; eueriche Page  89, vol.1 of hem haþ many wifes; no trespas among hem is i-pun[i]sched so grevousliche as spouse breche*. [aduoultrye, Cx.] by here lawe. [Þerfore]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þey forbedeþ hire wifes*. [open, add. Cx.] siȝt festes and companye of oþer men; þei leueþ scarsliche and by litel mete, and eteþ no flesche but venysoun. Giraldus, dist. 17. Þilke men, after þey lefte þe kyng Seleucus,*. [Soleucus, MS.] woned vnder þe kyng Arsaces; and þerfore þey were i-cleped Arsacide. Þat kyng Arsaces tauȝt hem first lawes; he gadered knyȝtes and bulde castelles, citees, and strong walled townes; and at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] laste Arsaces þe kyng ioyned þe kyngdom of Hyrcania to his emperie, and so men of Hyrcania longed to his empere. Among þe whiche aftirward among oþer kynges come Mi|thridates. Mithridates*. [Mithridates] Added from α. and Cx. The MSS. of both versions write Metridates or Mitridates.] sone after þe slauȝter of Crassus, consul of Rome,*. [MS. adds he. The scribe has misunderstood the sense.] regned and helde þe kyngdom þre and fourty ȝere, in þe whiche tyme he dede many viage, and*. [viages and had, Cx.] many faire victories hadde, as hit is declared ynnere yn his place. Trogus, libro quadragesimo primo.*. [14, Cx. See note on text.] Parthi, þe men of Parthia, beeþ in þe myddel bytwene þe Scitis,*. [bytwene Scitas, Cx.] men of Scythia, and Medes, men of Media. That londe of Parthi haþ*. [that londe. And Parchii haue, Cx.] many bonde men amonge hem, for þey beeþ neuere i-made fre; here fre men alwey rideþ on hors,*. [riden alway on horsbak, Cx.] and hir Page  91, vol.1 bonde men gooþ on foot.*. [a foote, Cx.] And in bataile þey fiȝteþ on hors. Þey gooþ to priue offis and to comyn feestes, but þey techiþ besiliche here children to ride and to schete,*. [schote, Cx.] and euerich of hem by his richesse and power fyndeþ to hir power*. [king, α.; kynde, Cx.] horsmen*. [horsmen men, MS., by mere clerical error; (not α. or Cx.)] in bataile for to fiȝte. Þei konneþ nouȝt fiȝte in no*. [more, α.; in comyn, Cx.] comyn manere, noþer þei konneþ nouȝt bysege castelles noþer strong walled townes; þey fiȝteþ on hors rennynge*. [ernyng, α.] in ful cours and turnynge aȝe, and ofte in hardest and strengest fiȝt þey feyneþ for to flee and sodeyn|liche turneþ and riseþ*. [fyght, Cx.] aȝen, þat þey mowe þe slyloker*. [slylyer, Cx., who places theyr enemyes after slee.] here enemyes wynne and slee. In bataile þei vseþ taboures and no trompe, and þey mowe not dure*. [endure, Cx., and so usually.] longe for to fiȝte. No men schulde hem awelde and wiþstonde,*. [wiþ stonde (and so frequently), MS.] and*. [yf, Cx.] þey were as stronge and stalworþe to dure, as they beeþ angry*. [and hasty, added in α. and Cx.] to rese;*. [fyghte, Cx.] hire burienge is wonderful; for bestes [al] to haleþ and tereþ and eteþ þe*. [for beestes teren, eten, and al to halen theyr flessch, and they burye only but the bones, Cx., from whom the words in brackets, wanting also in α., are supplied.] flesch; and [þey] burieþ onliche þe bones.

Page  93, vol.1

De Assyriis. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Capitulum tertium decimum.

TAKE hede þat Assyria haþ þe name of Asur Sem his sone, for he was þe firste þat woned þerynne after Noes flood. Þis londe Assyria haþ in þe est side Inde, in þe south Media, in þe west þe ryuer Tigris, and in þe north þe hille þat is i-cleped Caucasus. Þere beþ þe ȝates of Caspy; þere þe hilles beeþ longe and narwe. Trogus, libro quadragesimo secundo. Egeus was kyng of Athenis; Medus was Egeus*. [his, add. in α. (not Cx.)] sone, and folowed þe dedes of Iason þat was his owne stepfader, and belde*. [buylt, Cx.] þe cheef citee of Media, and cleped þe citee Media also, in worschippe of his moder þat was i-cleped Media. Þat londe Media haþ in þe north side Parthia,*. [the see, Cx.] in þe est Inde,*. [So α. and Cx.; ende, MS.] in þe west Caldea, in þe south Persida. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Persida is i-nempned and haþ þe name of Perseus þat conquered þat londe, and made it a worþy lond þat was raþer*. [rather] to fore, Cx.] vnworþy. Persida haþ in þe est syde*. [syde] om. Cx.] Inde, and*. [and] om. Cx.] in þe west þe Rede see, in þe norþ Media, and*. [and] om. α.] in þe south Carmania. Page  95, vol.1 In þat Persida bygan first wicchecraft in Nemproot*. [Nemprot, α.; Nembroth, Cx.] þe geauntes tyme, þat after þe spredinge of many languages*. [langage, MS. and α.; languages, βγCx.] and tonges went into Persida, and tauȝt men of þat londe to worschippe þe fire and þe sonne, þat is i-cleped in her langage El. Þe cheef citee of þat londe was i-cleped Elam, after Elam Sem his*. [Sem his] Semmes, Cx.] sone; þat citee was afterwarde i-cleped Elamaide, and is now i-cleped Persipol.*. [Persipolis, α., Cx.] Of þat citee spekeþ Holy Writt in libro Machabæorum, and of þat citee þey hadde þe name, þat*. [they, Cx.] were sometyme i-cleped Elamyte in Actibus Apostolorum. Mesopotamia lyth bytwene Tigris in þe est side and Euphrates in þe west side, and bygynneþ out of þe north bytwene the tweye hulles Taurus and Caucasus, and haþ Babylon*. [The MSS. of both versions usually have Babilon and Babilonia.] in þe south side. Isid. libro quinto decimo. Þei Babylonia were afterward i-cleped a parte of Caldea; hit was first so solempne þat it con|teyned*. [conteyneth, Cx.] Assyria, Caldea, and Mesopotamia, þre londes. Þe cheef citee of Babylonia was Babylon, þe citee þat þe geant Nemprot*. [Nemport, α.; Nemproth, the geant, Cx.] bulde;*. [buylded, Cx.] and Semiramis þe quene aftirward made þat citee more. Petrus, capitulo 37. Þe citee is i-cleped Baby|lon, and þe londe Babylonia; þey þat oon be wel ofte i-take for Page  97, vol.1 þat oþer; bote þe tour is i-cleped and hatte*. [called and mamed, Cx.] Babel. Orosius,*. [Orocius, α.; Oracius, MS. and Cx.]libro secundo. Babylon was i-buld as a castel, and i-walled wiþ foure walles square al aboutes;*. [aboute, Cx.] eueriche wal was fifty cubites in brede, and foure tyme*. [tyme] added from Cx.] so moche in heiþe; þe lengþe of euery*. [So also α.; both forms occur in both MSS.] wal from oon corner to anoþer was sixtene myle. Þe walles were all aboute foure hondred and foure score forlong, þat is foure and fourty*. [fifty, α.] myle. Þe walles were i-made of brend tile and of glewe in stede of morter, so þat [noþer]*. [noþer, α.; nether, Cx.; om. MS.] water noþer fire myȝte ham to schifte noþer to dele.*. [myghte hem schyfte ne departe, Cx.] In þe*. [this, Cx.] citee were an hondred ȝates and a diche wiþ oute, þat was fer i-seie; þe ryuer Euphrates ran by þe myddel of þe citee þorwoute. Neuerþeles Cyrus, kyng of Persida, tooke þat citee aftirward and destroyed hit, as it is inner more*. [inner more] afterward, Cx.] i-write. Ierom seiþ þat of þe releef of þis citee were i-buld two grete citees in Persida, and þe place of Babylon is now wildernesse and ful of*. [ful of] om. α.] wylde bestes. Caldea, as Cassidea, haþ þe name of Casseth, Nachor his sone. Nachor was Abraham his broþer. Caldea is a grete kyngdom bysides Euphrates; in Sennaar,*. [Semaar, MS., α., and Cx.] a hile*. [So α.; hild, MS., apparently; felde, Cx.] of þat kyng|dom, þe toure Babel was i-buld. Josephus, libro primo. Þe*. [þat, α. and Cx.]Page  99, vol.1 toure Babel was i-buld two hondred þre score and twelf paas hiȝe, þe lengþe somdel þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] lasse to hem þat byhelde it nyh, for þe brede was so moche. ℞. Som men seiþ þat þis*. [the, Cx.] tour was þre myle hiȝe, but Iuo Carnotensis sciþ in his cronicle þat þis toure was fyue myle and almost two hundred paas hiȝe and foure myle brode. ℞. Arabia is i-sette by south Caldea, and haþ in þe est side Persida, and in þe west side þe Rede see. In Arabia is store, mir, and canel; and a brid,*. [byrde, Cx., who writes phenyx.] þat hatte*. [that is called, Cx.] fenix. Þe norþ est porcioun of Arabia hatte*. [is named, Cx.] Saba, [and is i-cleped*. [called, Cx.] Saba]*. [[. . .] added from α. and Cx.] after Sabacus*. [Saba Chus sone, Cx.] his sone. Þis Saba is i-clipped*. [byclipped, Cx.] in þre sides wiþ þe Rede see. Josephus, libro secundo.*. [primo, Cx.] In þis Arabia, in þe contray [of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Madyan, is þe hil*. [the mount of, Cx.] Syna. Þe mount of*. [of] om. Cx.] Oreb is a partie of þe mounte of Synay, and is hiȝe, and haþ grete plente of gras and of lese; but hit is harde to come þerto for hiȝe rokkes and skarres. Moyses was þe firste man þat ladde þyder bestes. Hit is i-cleped also þe mount of couenaunt and of drede: for God all myȝty þere vppon made þonderynge and liȝtnynge, and ȝaf þe lawe to þe folk of Israel, þat were at þe hulle Page  101, vol.1 foot; so þat no man durste neyhe,*. [approche to it, Cx.] but he were purified and i-made all*. [all] om. Cx.] clene. Trevisa. Fenix is a wonder brid, for of*. [of] added from α. and Cx.] al þat kynde is but oon alyue. ℞. In þe contray of Arabia toward Circius is þe hil þat is i-cleped Mons Libani. Þat hille departeþ þre londes atwynne,*. [a sonder, Cx.] Arabia, Iude, and Fenix.*. [So also α.; Fenys, Cx., which is better; and so MS. below.] Þat hul is ful hiȝe, so þat snowe*. [MS. repeats þat (clerical error).] lyeth all wey in som side of þat hille. [And it]*. [Added from Cx.] is certeyn merk and token to schipmen þat seileþ in þe grete see and ledeþ hem to dyuers mouþes and hauenes. Hit is an hille of helþe and of*. [of] om. Cx.] plente; for cipres, cedres treen, and herbes groweþ þeron, þat droppeþ gom and smelleþ swetely;*. [swete, α., Cx.] by þe whiche treen, gom, and swetnesse seke men beeþ i-heled and venyme destroyed. Syria haþ þe name of Cirus Abrahams neuew, and lieth bytwene þe ryuer Euphrates*. [Eufrates, MSS., as usual.] in þe est side and the grete see in the west side, and haþ in þe norþ side Armenia and Cappadocia, and in þe souþe side þe see þat is i-cleped Arabicus, and conteyneþ many prouinces þat beeþ Commagena, Palestina, Fenys, Canaan, Idumea, Iudea þat is þe Iuerie. Damascus was somtyme þe chief citee of þat prouince.*. [So Cx.; prouinces, MS. and α.] Eleezer*. [Eleaser, Cx.] Abraham's seruaunt Page  103, vol.1 bulde and made þat citee Damascus. Rasyn kyng of Dam|ascus*. [Damaske, Cx., but Damascus below.] helpe*. [halp, α. (not Cx.)] awey þe tenþe lynage*. [ten lynages, Cx.] of Israel aȝenst the kynges*. [So α. and Cx.; kyng, MS.] of Iuda. Damascus is to menynge*. [as moche to saye as, Cx. (who makes similar alterations every|where).]schedynge blood, for þere Caym slowh Abel and hyd hym in þe sonde.

De regione Iudœœ. Capitulum quartum decimum.

IVDEA is a kyngdom of Syria a party of Palestyna, and haþ þe name of Iudas Iacobus*. [Iacobs, α. Cx.] sone, and was somtyme i-cleped Cananea of Cam Noe his sone, [o]þere*. [oþer, α.; eyther, Cx.] of þe ten manere of*. [α. om. of.] peple þat þe Iewes putte oute of þat londe. Petrus. Iudea is i-take in many manere; oþer whiles*. [while, Cx., who omits all.] for all þe lond of byheste, and þan he*. [it, Cx., and similarly often.] haþ þe name of þe Iewes and not*. [Om. Cx. (typ. error?)] of Iudas; and so it is i-take in þis speche: "Þe grete Pompeius made Iudea tributaries;" and oþer while it is i-take for þe kyngdom*. [royamme, Cx.] of Iuda; and so it is i-write of Ioseph, þat "whan þey*. [þey] he, Cx.] herde þat Archelaus regnede in Page  105, vol.1 "Iudea he dredde*. [drad, Cx.] for to goo þider;" and somtyme it is i-take onliche for þe lot of*. [So α. and Cx.; for, MS.] þe lynage of Iudas, and so spekeþ Holy Writt and seiþ: "Iudea and Ierusalem drede ȝow*. [ye. Cx.] nouȝt." Gir.*. [Gregor., MS.]Dist. tertia. In þis Iudea þe lond of byheste þe lengþe þerof is from*. [from] fro, Cx., and so below.] Dan to Bersabe, and Ierom seiþ, in epistola ad Dardanum, þat it is scarseliche an hondred and sixty myle in lengþe, and þe brede is from Ioppen to Bethlem scarsliche sixe and fourty myle of þat lond. Bote, secundum librum Numerorum, Iudea is byclipped in þis manere aboute, and haþ in þe souþe side*. [side] om. Cx.] þe Dede se. And þan he streccheþ forþ by Syna and Cades-barne noon*. [anon, α.] to*. [Cades berne vnto, Cx.] þe streem of Egipte þat ȝerneþ*. [eorneþ, α.; renneth, Cx.] westward in to þe grete see, and in þe norþ side þe hulle þat hatte mons Taurus,*. [is named mount, Cx.] and in þe est þe hille*. [þe hille] om. α.] mons Libany [and the byginnynge of the see Tiberiadis, and of þe streem Iordan þat springeþ at þe foot of mont Libany],*. [Added from α.; and so Cx., nearly.] boþe Tiberiadis and Iordan. Þan Iordan renneþ in to þe Dede see and departeþ Iudea and Arabia.*. [Arabie, Cx.] Þe*. [þis, α. Cx.] londe Iudea was byhote*. [byhoote, Cx.] to oure forme*. [forn, Cx.] fadres, but nouȝt al i-had, as Poul seiþ, ad Hebræos, "Al Page  107, vol.1 "þey beeþ*. [ben, Cx.] deed and fenge*. [receyueden, Cx.] nouȝt þe byhestes." And so it moot*. [muste, Cx.] be, þat þere be tweye*. [two, Cx.] londes of byheste, erþeliche and goostlyche. In þe*. [that, Cx. twice, and so often.] oon is heuenly Ierusalem; and in þe*. [that, Cx. twice, and so often.] oþer, erþely Ierusalem; [by the whiche erthly Iheru|salem]*. [Added from Cx., who modernises a little.] þe heuenliche*. [þe] α. and Cx. add Ierusalem.] is bytokened. Þis lond Iudea is riche and fruitful, and haþ plente of wyne and of spicerie, of cedres, of*. [of] So α. and Cx.; and, MS.] cipres, of baume, of olyues, of pomgarnet, of palmes, of figes, of mylk, and*. [α. omits and, (not Cx.)] of hony; and haþ in þe myddel, as it were in þe nauel of þe erþe, þe cite Ierusalem. Isidorus, libro quinto, capitulo primo. Þe Iewes seiþ þat Sem, Noes sone, þat is i-cleped Melchesedek,*. [Melchisedech, Cx. (quid?), but Melchisedech below.] also made and bulde*. [buylded, Cx.] þe citee Ierusalem after Noes flood, and cleped*. [cleped, woned, cleped] Replaced in Cx. by called, dwellyd, named, and so often.] hit Salem, but aftirwarde a peple þat were i-cleped Iebusei woned*. [cleped, woned, cleped] Replaced in Cx. by called, dwellyd, named, and so often.] þerynne and cleped*. [cleped, woned, cleped] Replaced in Cx. by called, dwellyd, named, and so often.] þe citee Iebus. Of*. [So of, α. and Cx. (which is perhaps better).] þilke tweye names Iebus and Salem is i-made oo*. [one, Cx.] name Ieru|salem. Afterward Salamon cleped þe*. [þat, α.] citee Ierosolyma,*. [Iherosolyma, Cx., who also al|ways prints Iherusalem.] and poetis þat spekeþ*. [α. adds þerof.] schortliche clepeþ þe citee Solyma Page  109, vol.1 in her schort speche. And after þat Aelius*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] Adrian þe Em|peroure cleped þat citee Aelia,*. [Helius, and Helia, MSS. and Cx.] and walled hit, and made it more aboute; so þat oure Lordes sepulcre, þat was somtym wiþ oute þe citee, is now*. [nowe closed, Cx.; now i-closed, α.] wiþ ynne. ℞. Neuerþeles*. [Netheles, Cx.] it semeþ þat Hieronymus, in epistola ad Evangelium*. [Evangelistum, Cx. See note on text.] presby|terum, wil seie, þat Salem oþer Salim, þat Melchisedek made and woned ynne, was anoþer citee þan Ierusalem. Þere he seiþ þat Salem is a toun beside Scythopolim,*. [Sitopolym, MS.; Sicopolim, Cx. α.] þat ȝit hat*. [hat] is called, Cx. (as usual).] Salem; and þerynne is i-seie þe paleys of Melchesedek and þerof spekiþ Holy Writt, Genesis; and seiþ þat Iacob wente into Salem þe citee of Sichem, þat is in þe londe of Chanaan. Willelmus de Regibus, libro primo. No welle is wiþ ynne Ierusalem, but watres be i-gadred, and i-kept in cisternes; for þe citee is so i-sette þat he haþ in þe north side þe mount*. [α. and Cx. add of.] Syon, and is disposed þat þe water, þat falleþ dounward and souþward wiþ þe pendaunt*. [dependaunt, Cx.] toward Ierusalem, takeþ no defoul,*. [fylthe, Cx.] but is clene i-now, and renneþ into þe citee, and no fen makeþ, and*. [and maketh no fylthe, but, &c., Cx.] renneþ into cis|ternes, as*. [as þey, α.; as though, Cx.] it were lakes and welle stremes. And somme Page  111, vol.1 þerof renneþ into þe brook þat is i-cleped torrens Cedron, and makeþ þe brook torrentem Cedron wexe and bewel*. [be wel (divisim), MS. and Cx. and α.] þe more. In þe top*. [toppe or sommet of the, Cx.] of mont Syon was a real*. [ryal, Cx.] toure*. [α. adds y-made.] for feiren[e]s*. [fayrenes, Cx.] and defens. In þe side of mont Syon was þe temple as it were in þe myddel bytwene the toure and þe citee; þe citee was lower þan þe toure, and þerfore ofte Holy Writt clepeþ*. [For this once Cx. has left clepeth in his own text.] Ierusalem þe douȝter of Syon. For as a*. [α. omits α. (not Cx.)] douȝter is meynteyned and defended by þe moder and sogett*. [subgette, Cx., and so below.] to the moder; so þe citee was lower and sogett to þe temple and to þe tour. Also*. [Also] Given as the last word in the previous sentence in α. and Cx.] þe grete Constantinus arered þere somtyme þe chirche of þe Holy Sepulcre. Mys|byleued men mysdede neuere þat chirche; and þat is, as me troweþ,*. [as men suppose, Cx.] for euery ȝere an*. [an] on, Cx., who has euen.] Ester eue comeþ fire from*. [fro, Cx.] heuene, and tendeþ and liȝteþ þe lampes þerynne; but whan þat miracle bygan first, hit is vncertayne and vnknowe.*. [vnknowen, Cx.] Salamon þe kyng wallede þis citee somtyme wiþ þre walles al aboute; neuerþeles nouȝt onliche for strengþe, but for distinccioun*. [So α. and Cx.; destruccioun, MS.] of dyuers manere men þat woned þere; þe*. [þe] So Cx.; þat, MS.; α. has some omissions here.] preostes and clerkes þat serued in þe temple, also*. [and also, Cx.] þe kyng Page  113, vol.1 and his mayne woneþ*. [dwelleden, Cx. (the preterite seems right,) and similarly below.] wiþ ynne þe firste wal by þe mount*. [mount of, α. and Cx.] Syon. Wiþ ynne þe secounde wal woned prophetes and myȝty men and stalworþe; so spekeþ Holy Writt, þat Elda*. [Olda, Cx.] prophetissa woned in Ierusalem in þe secounde distinccioun.*. [So α. and Cx.; destruccioun, MS.] Wiþ ynne þe þridde woned þe comoun peple and craftes men*. [men of crafte, Cx.] in þe wal.*. [α. and Cx. omit in þe wal.] [℞.]*. [℞. added from α. and Cx.] Faste by Ierusalem, in þe norþ side of þe temple, is þe mount of Olyuete for plentee of olyues. Seynt Austyn super Iohannem clepeþ it þe hulle of crisma*. [crisme, Cx.] and of vnccioun, þe hille of liȝt and of fatnes, þe hille of medicyne and of fedynge; for þe fruit*. [fruyȝt, α.] of olyue is ful of liȝt, likynge, and vnctuous; and it was specialiche þe hille and þe mont of liȝt, for it was beschyne wiþ*. [wiþ] by, α.] liȝt of þe sonne al day and wiþ liȝt of the temple al nyȝt. In þat hille Salamon, whan he wax*. [wax] wexe, Cx.] mad and al by schrewed for loue of wommen, he bulde temples in*. [in] and, Cx.] hiȝe places for mametrie; so seiþ Holy Writ, secundo Regum, decimo capitulo.*. [So MS. and α.; but Cx. absurdly has Romanos 2o, 1o capitulo.] Out of þat mount Crist steihe*. [steiȝ, α.; ascended, Cx., who omits vp.] vp into heuene; and in þat mount he schal Page  115, vol.1 deme þe worlde at þe laste.*. [at laste, Cx.] At þe foot*. [atte foote, Cx.] of þe*. [that, Cx.] mount springeþ þe brook torrens Cedron, and eorneth*. [renneth, Cx.] in to þe valey of Iosephat. Bytwene þe brynke of torrens Cedron and þe mount was þe orcheȝerde þat Criste went ynne ful ofte*. [wel ofte, α.] for to bidde*. [bidda, α.] and praye; in þat orcheȝerde*. [orcherd, α.] Crist was i-take, by þe whiche was a þrope*. [a thorpe, Cx.] þat hiȝt*. [heet, α. and Cx.] Geth|semany. In þat mount was þe litel strete of preostes, þat heet*. [heyght, Cx.] Be[th]phage.*. [Bethfage, α. and Cx.] In þe side of þe hille was þe yn*. [toun, α. and Cx.] of Laȝarus,*. [Lazar, Cx.] of Martha, and of Marie Mawdeleyn; þat toun hiȝt*. [hiȝt] was named, Cx.] Bethania. Hugo. In þe norþ side of mount Syon is þe mount Caluerie;*. [mont of Caluary, α. and Cx.] (þar*. [So α.; þat, MS.; there, Cx.] Crist deide on þe rode;) and is i-cleped Golgotha in þe longage*. [langage, α. and Cx.] of Syria. Golgotha is to menynge a baar scolle. For whan þeues and mysdoeres were þere byheded,*. [byheueded, α.] þe hedes were i-left þere, and so at þe laste þe sculles wexen al bare. Oþre wondres of þe temple loke in libro Regum. Isidorus, libro quintodecimo, capitulo primo. Also in þe reem*. [royamme, Cx.] of Iuda is þe see of wildernesse þat is Page  117, vol.1 þe Dede see, and from Ierusalem two hondred forlonges; þat makiþ fyue and twenty myle, and departeþ Iudeam, Palestinam, and Arabiam.*. [So α. and Cx.; Abraham, MS.]Isidorus, Eth. libro tertiodecimo. Þat lake*. [So Cx.; lakes, MS. and α.] streccheþ from þe endes*. [ende, Cx.] of Iudea noȝt fer from Ierico anon to þe Zores*. [Ierico vnto ȝores, Cx.] of Arabia seuene hondred forlonges and foure score, þat*. [þat] the whiche, Cx.] makiþ foure score myle and fourtene. Þat lake is*. [So Cx.; lakes is, α. The MS. omits is, but has lakes.] in brede seuene score forlong and ten,*. [an honderd and fyfthy furlonges, Cx.] and streccheþ nyh*. [neyȝ, α.] to þe contrees*. [contrayes, α.] of Sodoma. Þat lake is i-cleped lacus Salinarum, for salt is i-made þere. Also þere is moche glew in þat contray; and þerfore it meueþ*. [moeueth not with, Cx.] nouȝt for wyndes, for þe glew wiþstondeþ alwey: for water þat haþ glew stondeþ stille, and þat lake susteyneþ no schip ne non oþere matere, but it be glewed. Petrus, capitulo quinquagesimo. Noþyng may vndo þe glewe of þat place, but onliche þe blood þat is i-cleped sanguis menstruus. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. It is*. [α. and Cx. place also after is.] i-cleped also þe Dede see, for þat see bryngeþ forth no þing þat is quyk and on*. [olyue, α.; a lyue, Cx.] lyue;*. [α. adds also þat se may fonge noþing þat is quyk and on lyue. Cx. agrees with MS., except in having it receyueth for he fongeþ.] so þat he fongeþ noþer water foules, noþer fisshes; so þat what quik þing*. [α. omits þing.] þat it be*. [þat it be] om. Cx., who has dippeth.] þat duppeþ þerynne, anon it Page  119, vol.1 lepeþ vp aȝen; and alle dede þinges it swelewith*. [he swolweþ, α.] so fer forþ, þat a lanterne wiþ lyȝt fleteþ and swymmeth aboue.*. [aboue] om. Cx.] And ȝif þe liȝt is*. [is] be, Cx.] i-queynt, it duppeþ doun and dryncheþ. Iosephus, libro primo. Þat was assaied and i-knowe in þat grete princes tyme Vespasianus*. [Vaspasianus, MS., α, and Cx.] be tweie men þat were i-bounde hir hondes by hynde hem and i-cast yn þere, but anon þey were i-cast vp aȝe. Isidorus, libro nono, capitulo tertio. Þat kyngdom hatte*. [hatte] is called, Cx.] Pentapolis*. [So α. and Cx.; Pentapolus, MS., and so below.] also, for fyue wicked citees þat þere were a-dreynt and i-brent to asshes. Þat was*. [was] were, Cx., who has no stop after asshes.] som tyme more riche and more plentevous þan Ierusalem; for saphire*. [ȝaphires, α.; saphirs, Cx.] and oþer wel precious stones and golde also were i-founde among þe cley of þat londe, as Iob witnessiþ, vicesimo quarto capitulo. But now þere semeþ somer schadue*. [schadowe, α.] and liknesse of fuyre boþe in ves|selles*. [herbis, Cx.] and in trees. For apples*. [appolis, α.] þat þere groweþ semeþ so faire and so ripe, þat who þat hem seeþ hym wilneþ*. [wylleth, Cx.] for to ete; but þilke apples þat to*. [to] αβγ; om. Ms.] falleþ to asshes*. [thylke appels fallen anon to asshes, Cx.] anon as þey ben*. [beeþ, α.] i-handeled, and smokeþ*. [So α.; smoked, MS.; smoken, Cx.] as þei afire were. ℞. But þere is anoþer Pentapolis in Affrica.

Page  121, vol.1

De Canaa terra. Capitulum quintumdecimum.

CANAAN is a reem*. [royamme, Cx.] of Syria*. [Siria, MS., which has also other slightly unclassical forms of proper names in this chapter.] and hatte Canaan, for Canaanes*. [So α.; Caanes, MS.] children were þe firste þat woned þerynne after Noes flood; and conteyned seuen*. [vj., Cx., who has alle before acursyd.] naciouns acorsed as it were by heritage of Cam,*. [þe Cham, α.] Noes sone. Treuisa. Cham was Noes sone, and hadde his fader*. [faders, Cx. (not α.)] cors; for he lowh*. [lowȝ, α.] his fader to scorne, for he say*. [sawe, Cx.] his priue harneys*. [membrys, Cx.] al bare and vnheled, while he lay on slepe. ℞. Palestina*. [oþer Phylistea, added in α.] is a prouince of Syria, and þat hiȝte somtyme Philistea; þe cheef*. [chif, α.] citee þerof hiȝte Philistim,*. [So α.; Philistym, MS.] and now hatte Ascalon.*. [So α. and Cx.; Ascelon, MS.] And after þat*. [þe, α. and Cx.] citee is þe prouince i-cleped Palestina oþer Philistea. And men of þat contrey hatte Palestini and Philistei also; for in þe speche of Hebrewes*. [Hebrew, Cx.] is no p, but instede of p þey useþ ph; þerfore Philistei and Pales|tini beeþ all oon, and beeþ also i-cleped allophyli, þat is to menynge aliens and straunge men, for þey were alwey aliens and straunge to the folk of Israel. Þat prouince haþ in þe south side Egipt, in þe west Tyrus, in þe north Iudea, Page  123, vol.1 in*. [and in, Cx.] þe est Idumea. Idumea haþ þe name of Edom; Edom*. [Edom] added from Cx.] and Esau is all oon, Iacobus broþer. Þat Idumea is a strong londe, hully and hoot, and streccheþ to þe Rede see. Isidorus, libro nono. In þis Idumea is Iobus*. [Jobyns, α.; Jacobs, Cx.] welle. Þat welle chaunge[þ]*. [chaungeth, Cx.] hewe and colors foure siþes*. [α. has some omissions here.] a ȝere by þe monthes; þe firste þre monþes pale as asshes; þe se|counde þre monþes reed as blood; þe þridde þre monþes grene as gras; and þe fourþe þre monþes cleer as water.*. [α. and Cx. have some slight omissions in the foregoing sentence.] Palestina was i-woned to conteyne þe lond Samaria. Þe cheef*. [chif, α.] citee of þat lond was somtyme i-cleped Samaria, but now he is i-cleped and hatte Scbaste. Samaria haþ þe name of þe hille þat hatte Somer, and Samaria lieþ bytwene Iudea and Galilea. Men þat woned in Samaria were i-dryue oute, and Assyrii were i-brouȝt ynne. Assyrii holdeþ Moyses lawe, and in*. [in] added from α.; Cx. has but in somme thynges they discorde.] oþer discordeþ from the Iewes, and hoteþ also Samaritæ, þat is to menynge kepers. For whan men of þe londe were i-take, þey were ordeyned wardeynes of hem.*. [ham, α.] Sychem, þat hatte Sichema*. [Sychima, α.] also, is a litel lond yn Samaria, and haþ þe name of Sichem, Emor his sone, Page  125, vol.1 þat first woned þerynne. Also þere is a citee þat hatte Sychem, and now is i-cleped Neopolis. Þat citee Iacob bouȝte som tyme wiþ money and grete trauaille, and ȝaf it to Ioseph his sone ouer*. [aboue, Cx.] his lotte, so seiþ Hieronymus,*. [Iherome, Cx.] Genesis, octodecimo capitulo. And þis was a cite of refute*. [refuge, Cx.] and of socour, so it is i-write Iosuæ vicesimo capitulo. For þat lond*. [So α. and Cx.; MS. adds þat (clerical error).] was de tribu and of þe lynage of Ephraym; and þere were Ioseph is*. [Iosephs, Cx.; Ioseph his, α.] bones i-buried, after þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þey were i-brouȝte ouȝt of Egipte; witnesse of Holy Writt, Iosuæ ultimo capitulo. In þat place Ioseph his*. [Iosephs, Cx.] breþeren fedde and kepte flokkes*. [droues and flockes, Cx.] of bestes: but afterward Abymelech,*. [So Cx.; Abimaleche, MS.] Ierobabel*. [Ierobabels, α. and Cx.] sone, destroyed þat place, and slow þe men þat woned þerynne, and sewe salt þerynne, for þe lond schulde na more*. [nomore, Cx. (not α.)] bere fruit and corne; witnesse Iosuæ nono capi|tulo. Also*. [and, Cx.] þere is Iacobus welle, þat*. [þat] where, Cx.] Criste reste by, whan he was wery of wey and of goynge. Galilea is a londe bytwene Iudea and Palestina, and is double, þe ouer Galilea and þe neþer Galilea, and ioyneþ to gidres, and also to Syria and to Phenicia;*. [Fenicia, MS. and Cx.] in eyþer Galilea is good lond Page  127, vol.1 and greet plente of corne and of fruit, grete lakes and huge, profitable and heleful,*. [helþful, α. and Cx.] and som lake is so huge*. [grete, Cx.] and so ful of fische þat me clepeþ it a*. [So α. and Cx.; þe, MS.] see. So þe lake of Tiberiadis is i-cleped þe see of Tiberiadis, and Genosar þat lake is i-cleped also. Also in þe west side of þe neþer Galilea toward þe grete see fast by þat citee Ptolemaida,*. [Ptholomaida, MS., α., and Cx.] þat hatte Acon*. [Acres, Cx.] also, is a welle þat torneþ into glas*. [aglas, α.] al metal þat is cast þerynne. Cedar is a londe yn þe ouerside of Palestina, and haþ þe name of þat Cedar þat wonede þerynne,*. [þat wonede þerynne] Added from α. and Cx.] þat Cedar*. [Cedar] Added from α. and Cx.] was Ismael his eldest sone. Þe ofspringe of Cedar and of Ismael were afterwarde i-cleped Ismaelitæ, and also Agareni more riȝtfulliche þan Saraceni,*. [Sareceny, MS.] for þey come of Agar þat was Ismael his moder and serued Sarra, but afterward for pryde þey toke wrongfulliche þe name of Sarra and cleped hem Saraceni. Methodius. Þese men haueþ noon hous but walkeþ in wildernesse and woneþ in tabernacles and in teeldis,*. [tentes, Cx.] and lyueþ by prayes*. [praye, Cx.] and by venysoun. Þese men schole*. [schulle, α.; shal, Cx.] somtyme gadere to gidres and goo out of wildernesse and occupie the londes aboute eiȝt wekes of ȝeres, þat is eiȝte siþes seuene ȝere, and þey Page  129, vol.1 schulleþ*. [shal, Cx., as usual.] ouertorne citees and townes, and slee preestes, and defoule clerkes and holy places, and teie her*. [here, α.] bestes to tombes of holy*. [α. omits holy.] seyntes; þat schal byfalle for wickednesse of euel lyuynge of Cristen men. ℞. Þis doynge semeþ fulfilde in þe laste tyme of Heraclius þe emperour, whan*. [So Cx.; what, MS.] þat false prophete Machometys*. [Machometes, α.] occupied Persida*. [So Cx. and α.; Persidia, MS.] and made Egipte and Affrica sogett,*. [subgette, Cx.] and wroot and brouȝt yn þe false lawe and secte of Saracins, as it is innermore*. [ynnere more, α.] pleyn i-write after Heraclius tyme. Phenicia*. [Fenicia, MS., but Phenyx and Phenisia just below; and so α., (nearly). Harl. MS. has F every|where.] is a lond in þe whiche is conteyned tweye londes, Tyrus and Sidon, and haþ in þe est side Arabia, in þe souþ þe Rede see, in þe norþ þe hil þe mount Libany,*. [Perhaps this is meant for the genitive; and if so should be edited Libani, as Cx. has it, who omits þe hil; α. agrees with MS.] and in þe west þe grete see. Isidorus, libro secundo, capitulo quinto. Phenix, Agenoris sone, by toke rede lettres to þe Phenices, þat beeþ men of Phenicia, and þerfore þat colour was i-cleped Phenicius; and after|ward þe lettre chaunged, and þan it was i-cleped Puniceus, þat is, reed. Hugo, capitulo Phœnix. For Pheniciens*. [Phenices, α. and Cx.] were þe*. [α. and Cx. omit þe (twice).] firste fynderes of lettres, ȝit we writeþ capital lettres wiþ reed colour, in token and mynde þat Phenices were þe*. [α. and Cx. omit þe (twice).] firste fynders of lettres.

Page  131, vol.1

De Ægypti provinciis. Capitulum sextum decimum.

EGIPTE haþ þe name of Egipt, Danay his broþer,*. [Danays broder, Cx.] and hiȝte*. [highte, Cx., inconsistently. See p. 115.] somtyme Aer[e]a,*. [Aerea, α.; Aeria, Cx.] and haþ in þe est side þe Rede see, in þe south þe ryuer Nilus and Blomen,*. [So α.; Blomem, MS.; Blac men, Cx.] in þe north þe grete see and þe ouere partie of Syria, and in þe west Libya. Egipt is silde bereyne,*. [is sylde bereyne, α.; is zelde be|raynd (so), Cx.; bareyne, MS.] and haþ water and moisture onliche of þe ryuer Nilus, and is riche of corne and fruit and marchaundise.*. [of fruyt and of, Cx.]Petrus, capitulo nonagesimo quarto. Egipte aȝenst kynde of oþer londes haþ plente of corn; he is bareyne*. [barayn, α.] of lesue,*. [lese, α; pasture, Cx., who omits two or three lines here.] and whan he haþ plente of lesue it*. [he, α. (more consistently.)] is bareyne of corn. For whan þe ryuer Nilus is vppe and ouer wexiþ and ouerfloweþ þe londe and abideþ longe in seed tyme, or*. [ar, α.] þe flood wiþdrawe, it letteþ sowynge and drencheþ*. [adrencheþ, α.] þe seed; and so corne is destroyed, and lesue and gras groweþ after in tyme. Þere beeþ cokkedrilly*. [cocodrilly, α.; cocodrylly, Cx.] and hippo|tauri*. [ipotauri, MS.; ipotaury, α.; ypotamy, Cx., which is nearer the truth, but may be his own correction.] also, þat beeþ water hors.*. [hors] horses, Cx. (not α.)] Egipt haþ in þe est side a grete wildernesse and dyuerse manere bestes wonderliche Page  133, vol.1 i-schape,*. [wrouȝt, α.; shape, Cx.] and in þe west Canopea, þe whiche ilond is þe ende of Egipte and bygynnynge of Libya. Þere is þe mouþ*. [So α.; and Cx.; money, MS.] of Nilus, for þere Nilus falleþ into þe grete see. ℞. Þey me*. [Though men, Cx. (as usual); not α.] rede in bookes, þat Nilus, þat hatte Gyon also, renneþ out of Paradys; ȝit it is i-seide þat Nilus springeþ vp in þe west*. [est, α. (not Cx.)] ende of Ethiopia nouȝt fer from þe hulle þat hatte Mons Atlas.*. [Athlas, MS., α., and Cx. (as usual.)] And þan Nilus gooþ forþ aboute Ethiopia and doun into Egipt, and ouerfloweþ þe pleyn contraies of Egipt, and bycause of slym þat renneþ þerwith, he*. [he] it, Cx. (and so often.)] makeþ þe londe fatte and good to bere good*. [Cx. omits good.] corne and fruit. So, seiþ Hieronymus vppon þe prophete Amos, by Goddis owne ordenaunce Nilus ouerfloweþ and watereþ al þe lond of Egipte, for hepes of grauel stoppeþ his cours, þat he may nouȝt anon*. [anon] lyghtly, Cx.] falle into þe grete see; but after þat he haþ so biflowe and i-watred þe lond, þe hepes of grauel to schedeþ and to falleþ;*. [departe and befalle, Cx., who prints, however, to shedeth below.] and þan þe water falleþ into þe chanel aȝe, and so*. [so] om. Cx.] renneþ into þe grete see. Neuerþeles*. [netheles, Cx.] Isidre seiþ, libro tertio decimo, þat Nilus is i-dreue aȝe*. [dryuen agayn, Cx.] and i-lette of his cours wiþ þe norþern wynde; and so þe water swelleþ, and*. [and] om. Cx.] floweþ and wexeþ greet; but Beda in libro de Page  135, vol.1 naturis seiþ þat þis*. [þis] þe, Cx.] northerne wynde bloweþ in May, and stoppeþ*. [stopped, Cx.] þe cours of þe water of Nilus wiþ hepes of grauel; and so þe water ariseþ and ouerfloweth þe londe; but whan þe wynde ceseþ, þe grauel to schedeþ and þe water falleþ in to þe chanel, and so turneth*. [turneþ] renneth, Cx.] dounward in to þe grete*. [So Cx.; rede, MS.] see.

De Scythia.*. [Both MSS., α. and Cx. here and below give Scicia or Sicia; other proper names are also a little cor|rupted.] Capitulum septimum decimum.

HERE take hede of tweie londes, ciþer hatte*. [that eche of hem is named, Cx.] Scythia; þe ouere is in Asia, þe neþere in*. [is in, Cx.] Europa; þe ouere Scythia is a grete londe in þe north, and haþ moche wildernes by cause of greet colde and chele, and streccheþ*. [streiȝte, α.] somtyme estward anon to*. [anon to] vnto, Cx., and so below.] Inde,*. [So α. and Cx.; þe ende, MS.] northwarde to*. [to] toward, Cx.] occean, southward to þe hille Caucasus, westward anon to Germania;*. [Iermania, MS., and α.; but elsewhere (as p. 171) spelt correctly.] but now he is i-made lasse, and endeþ in þe west side to*. [So α., Cx.; of, MS.] Hyrcania. In þe whiche londe beeþ þe hilles Iperborey, greet grypes, gold and smaragdes, and oþer precious stones. Trogus, libro secundo. Þilke men destingeþ nouȝt noþer to Page  137, vol.1 sette her feeldes by boundes, noþer by meres;*. [nether marke her feldes by boundes, ne by dyches, Cx.] þey haueþ non house yn for to wonye; her wyfes and here children þei ledeþ in cartes; and þey beeþ i-cloþed in wylde bestes skynnes. Wollen cloþes useþ þey nouȝt:*. [none, Cx.] þey lyuetþ by mekk*. [melk, α.; mylk, Cx.] and by hony; þey reccheþ nouȝt of gold, noþer of siluer;*. [selver, α.] þei greiþeþ*. [make, Cx.] no þing þat þey dredeþ to lese, þey acounteþ no trespas gretter þan robberie; here werrioures*. [men of warre, Cx.] and victoures desireþ not*. [nothing, Cx.] but worschippe: þey were neuere soget to no man.*. [subget yet to ony man, Cx.] Þey ouercome*. [ouercame, Cx. (not α.)] Vesore þe kyng of Egipte in werre and batayle, Darius þe kyng of Pers*. [Regem Persarum, α.; fered Darius the kynge, Cx., who has sloughe Cyrus below.] þey chasede and ferede, and made him flee. Cyrus þe kyng þey slowh. Also þei destroyed Zephirona and his riches; Zephirona was þe greet Alexander his ledere.*. [Alysaunders capytayn, Cx.] Þries þey conquered Asia, and Asia was afterwarde tributarie to hem a þowsand ȝere and fyue hondred. Þe men of þis peple be*. [be] Added from Cx. (absent from α.)] by hem selue and þe*. [om. þe.] women by hem self. Also þey made*. [made] Added from α. and Cx.] kyngdoms of dyuerse londes; þe*. [So Cx.; þat, MS., α.] men made of Parthia and Bactria, and þe wommen*. [wymmen, Cx. (bis).] made of Amazonia kyngdoms myȝty and stronge, and so it is among hem vncerteyn and vnknowe wheþer is more worþy and more noble in kynde,*. [nature and kynde, Cx.] men or wommen.*. [wymmen, Cx. (bis).] In þe firste iourney in Asia after þat þey hadde i-dreue and i-chased and i-pursewed Vasore þe kyng of Egipt in to þe*. [in the, Cx.]Page  139, vol.1 tornynge aȝe, þey abede*. [abode, Cx.] fiftene ȝere for to make pees in Asia. But wyfes made grete pleyntes and sorwes*. [sorwe, α.] þat hire housbondes were so longe from home,*. [So Cx.; hire, MS.] and so þe men were of sent*. [sente fore, Cx.] and torned home to*. [and dwellede, α. and Cx.] dwelle wiþ hir wifes. In þe secounde iornay þe men were by traisoun i-slawe, and þe wifes took greet wreche of þe enemyes. In þe þridde iornay*. [So α.; iorday, MS.] þe men were oute and absent foure ȝere to gidres, and [þe]*. [Added from Cx.; absent from α.] wifes wedded hir owne seruauntes and bonde men þat were i-left*. [left, α., Cx.] at home for kepynge of bestes. But whan here lordes and housbondes had þe victorie and torned home aȝen, þe wyfes and here*. [the, Cx.] newe housbondes gadred hem to gidres and arrayed hem in a greet bataile to fiȝte aȝen hire olde lordes and housbondes þat were comyng home;*. [homeward, Cx.; hoom, α.] and whan þey mette to gidres hap*. [fortune, Cx.] was vnstable and vnstedefast; ones*. [So α. and Cx.; unstedfastnesse wiþ, MS.] wiþ þat oon side, and eft wiþ þat oþer. Þanne*. [that, Cx. (typogr. error?)] þe lordes byþouȝte hem, and toke hem to rede*. [and toke hem to rede] and con|cluded, Cx.] oþerwise to fiȝte wiþ hir owne*. [owne] Added from α. and Cx.] bonde men þan wiþ*. [with theyr, Cx.] enemyes of straunge londes, and caste awey hire owne armure and wepene of knyȝtis, and bere whippes in hir hondes; and so fered þe cherles,*. [Cx. omits some words which follow down to false wifes.] and droof hem away, and made hem to fle. And afterward, al þat myȝte be i-take of þilke false cherles and of þe false wifes þat hadde Page  141, vol.1 i-broke spousaille hadde schenful*. [schendeful, α.; shameful, Cx.] deth; for som were i-slawe with iren, and som were an honged ful hiȝe. After þis phare*. [fare, α.; iourney, Cx.] was pees in Scythia for to Darij his tyme*. [vnto the tyme of Darius, Cx.] kyng of Persida. Þanne Darius was ouercome of þe Scytes*. [So Cx.; Cytes, MS.; Cytees, α.] men of Scythia, and in þe tornynge homward he ouer|come Macedones, þat beeþ men of Macedonia of þat londe, and werede vppon Athenienses men of Athenis.

Bactria is a lond*. [and werede . . . a lond] Added from α. and Cx.] þat Cham, Noe*. [Noes, α.] sone, woned first ynne, and streccheþ from þe see Caspius anon to þe ryuer of Inde, and haþ in þe west side þe mount Caucasus, and in þe south Parthia. Þis hille Caucasus is lengest of alle þe est hilles, and most famous, and streccheþ from þe endes of Inde anon to þe hille þat hatte Mount Taurus, so þat mont Taurus*. [so þat Mont Taurus] Added from α. and Cx.] and Caucasus is i-conteyned al oon hille; but som men seiþ þat þe westside of Caucasus, þat is to|ward Armenia, is and hatte mount Taurus. Þat mount Caucasus haþ in þe northside þe see þat hatte Caspius and Hyrcania þat londe, and in*. [α. adds in.] þe southside Parthia and Assyria and Babylon.*. [Babiloun, MS. and α.] Þat hil, for dyuerse contrees and londes þat streccheþ and recheþ þerto, haþ*. [That hille, by cause it stretcheth to dyuerse contreys and londes, hath, &c., Cx.] many and Page  143, vol.1 dyuers names. Þat hille is hiȝeste in*. [on, Cx.] þe est side, and for whiȝtnesse of snowe þat lieþ alwey þeron he is cleped*. [i-cleped, α.] Mons Caucasus, þat is to menynge a*. [the, Cx.] white hille. Albertus seiþ þat hil is so hiȝe, þat men þat woneþ þerby seeþ þe sonne bemes*. [beme, Cx.] in þe west side þre houres wiþ ynne þe*. [Cx. omits þe.] nyȝt, and so meny houres to fore þe day in þe est side of þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] hille.

Hyrcania þat londe haþ in þe est side þe see Caspius, in þe south Armenia, in þe north Albania, and in þe west Iberia þat lond; and lieþ beside*. [by the syde of, Cx.; beside of, α.] þe mount Caucasus, and haþ þe name of þat wode þat hatte Hyrcania. In þat londe beeþ dyuers wylde bestes and foules, tigris þat beeste,*. [beeste] So Cx.; foul, MS., α.] and pantera also. Þat londe is wyde and large, and haþ foure and fourty manere men. Som tilieþ*. [tyllen, Cx.] lond, and som lyueþ by huntynge, and som eteþ manis flesche. Þere beeþ briddes þat hatte*. [birdes that ben called, Cx., who, however, has heyghte just before.] hircane, hire fetheres schyne by nyȝte.

Hiberia þat lond lieþ*. [lith, α.] vnder mont Taurus, and lith west|ward fast by Pontus, and ioyneþ to Armenye. Albania þat lond haþ in þe est side þe see Caspius, and streccheþ dounward by þe mouthes of þe North Occean anon to þe wateres þat hatte Meotides. And þe men of þat lond beeþ Page  145, vol.1 i-bore wiþ white here and wiþ ȝelowe*. [ȝelew, α.] eyȝen i-peynt, and seeþ better be nyȝte þan be daye. Þe houndes of þat londe beeþ so greete, so grym, and stronge þat þey þroweþ doun boles*. [booles, α.; bulles, Cx.] and sleeþ lyouns. Oon of þilke houndes was sent to kyng Alexandre, and fauȝte wiþynne lystes wiþ a leon and an olyfaunt, and wiþ a wylde bore, and hadde þe maystrie.

Gotha is þe neþer partie of Scythia toward Circium.*. [So α. and Cx.; Cireon, MS.] To þat lond Gotha lieþ þe ilond Gothlandia; þat ylonde haþ plente of al manere marchaundise, and haþ in þe north side Dacia, and in þe southe syde*. [southe syde] So Cx.; norþ, MS. Dacia and þe north occean, α., which agrees with the Latin, and is pro|bably right.] occean, and hatte Gothea of Gos, Iapheþ his sone. Þe*. [So α.; þat, MS.] men of þat lond beeþ rediloker*. [reedloker, α.; redylyer, Cx.] i-cleped Gothy þan Gogi, and beþ wel stronge men and huge,*. [and ben right stronge men, grete, grym, and sturne, Cx.] grym and sterne, and of hem com þe Dacies in Europa, Getuli in Affrica, Amazones in Asia.

Armenia, þat hatte also Ararath, haþ þe name of Arme|nius, Iasons knyȝt, the whiche Armenius, whan he hadde i-lost Iason,*. [α. and Cx. adds his.] kyng of Thessalia,*. [Tessalia, MS., α. (not Cx.)] he gadered knyȝtes þat roiled*. [roillede, α.; royled, Cx.] aboute, and toke Armenia, and woned þerynne. Page  147, vol.1 Þat londe streccheþ by*. [to, Cx.] þe mount Taurus and Caucasus from þe see Caspius anon to Cappadocia,*. [Capadocia, MS. and Cx., and so below.] and haþ in lengþe eleuene hondred þowsand paas, and in brede seuene hon|dred myle. Þere is þat hille mount Ararath, þere Noe is schippe abood*. [abode, Cx.] after Noes flood, and þere is Armenyes tweie,*. [ther be two Armenyes, Cx.] þe more and þe lasse, þe ouer*. [ouerer, Cx.] and þe neþer, and so beeþ tweye Pannonyes also.

De Cappadocia.*. [The proper names in this chap|ter are more than usually corrupted and distorted, in both versions, as well as in the text. Their false spell|ings will not in general be noticed.] Capitulum octavum decimum.

CAPPADOCIA þat londe norischeþ and fedeþ many hors,*. [horses, Cx. (not α.)] and haþ in þe est side Armenia, in þe west side*. [Cx. omits side.] Asia þe lasse, in þe norþ Amazonia, and in þe south mount Taurus. Þerto be-lyeþ*. [bilieþ, α.; ther by lyeth, Cx.] Cilicia*. [Scicilia, MS. and Cx., which have Silicus and Sylycus below.] and Isauria anon to þe see Cilicius þat streccheþ toward the ilond of Cyprus. Þe lasse Asia ioyneþ to Cappadocia in the est side, and is biclipped and i-closed in þe oþer sides wiþ þe grete see. For he haþ in þe north side þat mouth and see þat hatte Euxinus,*. [Eusynus, MS.] in þe west þe mouth and þe*. [þe omitted in α. and Cx.] see Propontides, and in þe south þe see of Egipte. Þis lasse Page  149, vol.1 Asia conteyneþ meny prouynces and londes. For firste in þe norþ side he conteyneþ Bithynia in þe bygynnynge vppon þe see aȝenst Thracia, and hatte also þe more Phrygia. Þe chief citee of Bithynia hatte Nicomedia. Þanne is Galatia and haþ þe name of men þat were i-cleped Galli, þat come at þe prayere*. [preiere, α.] of þe kyng of Bithynia to helpe hym in his werres, and woned in þat lond Galatia: but þo þat lond hiȝte Gallogrecia and þe men of þat lond hiȝte*. [Gallogrecia . . . . hiȝte] added from α. and Cx.] Gallogreci as men i-melled of Gallis and of Grecis; but now þey beeþ i-cleped Galate,*. [Galathe, MS, α., and Cx., and so the Harl. MS., as well as all the Latin MSS.] and to hem Poule wroot*. [wryteth, Cx.] his pistel ad Galatas. Þe þridde is þe lasse Phrygia and haþ þe name of Phrygia, Europa his*. [Europaes, Cx.; and Agenors below.] douȝter, Agenore his douȝter. And þat Phrygia hatte Dardania also*. [also] added from α.] of Dardanus Iupiter*. [Iupiter his, α.; Iupyters, Cx.] sone. In þat londe is þe citee of Troye, þat hatte Ilium also. Troye hatte after Tros,*. [So α.; Troos, MS. and Cx.] Erichthonius sone, þat was Dardanus sone, þat was Iupiter*. [α. adds his.] sone. Þat lond*. [lond] added from α. and Cx.] haþ in þe est side Lydia, and in þe west þe mouth and þe see Hellespontus. Þe fourþe is Lydia, and is in þe est side of the lasse*. [eeste, Cx.] Phrygia. In þat Lydia regned somtyme þe riche kyng Cresus, but whan þat lond was to litel for tweie Page  151, vol.1 breþeren þat were kynges, þat hiȝte Lydus and Tyrrhenus, hit by lott happed*. [happened by lotte, Cx.] þat Tyrrhenus went oute wiþ many men, and gat hym a lond in þe ouer partie of Gallia, and cleped his lond Tyrrhenia.*. [Tirea, MS.; Turea, Harl. MS.] Hit semeþ þat þe see Tyrrhenus haþ þe name of þis king Tyrrhenus, as þe lond Lydia haþ þe name of his broþer Lydus. Þe chief cite of Lydia hat Smyrna, to þat*. [of Lydia . . . þat citee] Added from α. and Cx.] citee Iohan þe euangelist writeþ in þe Apocalips.*. [seynt Iohan euangelyst wryteth in thapocalipsis, Cx.] Þe chief ryuere of Lydia hatte Pactolus, and bringeþ forth goldene graule, as poetis telliþ. The fifte prouince of þe lasse Asia hatte Pamphylia and Isauria also. Þe cheef citee of þat lond hatte Scleucia. Þat citee Seleucus Antiochus bulde and arcrede. Þan is Cilicia and conteyneþ Lycia, and þat hatte Lycaonia. Þerynne were noble citees Lystra and Derbe, as it is i-write in Actibus Apostolorum. By þilke citees me seileþ*. [men saylle, Cx.] out of Syria to Italia, but þe cheef citee of alle þese was Tharsis dounward toward þe see. Amazonia þat lond is som in Asia, and som in Europa, and is nyh to Albania. Þe firste Amazones were þe wyfes of Gothes, þat took wreche of hire housbondes deþ þat were traytouresliche i-slawe.*. [traitourliche i-slawe, α.; traitourly slayne, Cx.] For þey toke prayes and slowe men and saued wommen, and Page  153, vol.1 leued longe wiþ oute housbondes, and afterward made hem tweie queenes; þat oon ladde þe oost and meynteyned the werre, and werred faste; þat oþer quene was at home, and ruled þe lond, and gouernede þe peple at home. And þese wommen helde vnder hond a grete deel of Asia aboute an hondred yere. And at þe laste*. [atte laste, Cx.] þese wommen wolde haue children, and toke housbondes of þe next contrayes aboute, and certeyn tymes lette [her]*. [Added from Cx., who has theyr; absent from α.] housbondes ligge by hem, and certeyne tymes absteyned hem. But þey slowȝ alle þe knaue*. [men, Cx., who omits other . . . fadres.] children, oþer certeyn tyme i-wened sent hem to þe fadres, and saued alle*. [alle] the, Cx.] mayde children, and tauȝt hem to schetynge, and to*. [for to shote and to do, Cx.] dedes of armes and of chyualrie. And for grete brestes schulde nouȝt lette hem to schete, of eueriche maide of seuen ȝere olde þey brende of þe riȝt brest; and þerfore þey were cleped Urimammæ, þat is to menynge brend bristes; and þey were i-hote Amazones, þat is to menynge wiþoute brest. Hercules was þe firste þat chastised þe schrewednesse*. [schrewednesse] ylle disposicion, Cx.] of þese wommen, and þan Achilles, and þan at þe laste þe grete Alexandre.*. [and atte laste the grete Alysaun|der, Cx. Alexander and Alexandre are both so written in the MS. and α. at length.] ℞. And þei, Isid. Eth. 14, seie þat þe grete Alexander destroyed Amazones, neuerþeles þe storie of Alexander seiþ, þat whan þe kyng Alexandre asked*. [asked] axede, α.; axed, Cx.] of hem tribute, Thalestris þe quene of Amazones Page  155, vol.1 Amazones, did wroot to kyng Alexandre in þis manere: "Of þy wytte is wonder,*. [wytte is wonder] α, β, γ, Cx.; wittes we wonder, Ms.] þat þou desirest to fiȝte wiþ wommen; for ȝif fortune faueriþ*. [fauoure, Cx.] vs, and þou be ouercome,*. [So α. and Cx. MS. adds of wom|men.] it is*. [is] shal be, Cx.] grete schame and vilonye, whan þou art ouercome of wommen. Also ȝif*. [and yf, Cx.] oure goddis beeþ wrooþ wiþ vs and þou ouercome vs, for to wynne þe maystrie of wommen þou getest but litel worschippe." Kyng Alexandre was i-plesed wiþ þis, and graunted hem fredom, and seide: "Wommen moste be ouercome with fairenesse and loue, and nouȝt wiþ sternesse and drede." Trogus, libro secundo. Þis queene Thalestris, after þat sche hadde be kyng Alex|andre his lemman fourty dayes, sche torned aȝeyn in to here owne lond, and afterward in schort tyme fil*. [MS. adds ful, by a clerical error; α., β, γ., and Cx. have it not.] yn wiþ here peple.

De Africa et ejus prouinciis. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Capitulum nonum decimum.

ALLE auctors of stories witnessiþ þat Affrica haþ þe name of Affer,*. [The MS. reading of the versions, though rather incorrect, is retained, because Africa is always written Affrica, or Affrike therein.] Madians sone, Abrahams sone, þat was geten on Page  157, vol.1 Cethura. Affrica streccheþ forþ from þe endes of Egipt by þe south by þe neyþer Ethiopia anon to the hille*. [Cx. adds of.] Atlas, and is i-closed yn wiþ þe grete see boþe in þe estside and yn þe northside also; and haþ in þe west side þe west occean. ℞. Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo octavo, and Isidorus, libro nono, seiþ þat þis Affer ladde his oost toward Libya, and ouercome his enemyes by þe help of þe more Hercules; and nempned*. [named, Cx.] þe men and the lond after his owne name, Affrica. Hercules wedded Ethea, Affer*. [Affers, α., Cx.] is douȝter, and gat on hir Dederym; of Dederym com Pharon. Þis Affrica conteyneþ many prouinces and londes; first he con|teyneþ*. [MS. originally had many (clerical repetition).] þe west dele of Ethiopia, þan Libya, Tripolis, Getulia, Numidia, and tweie Mauritania. Of alle þese now by ordre is oure speche. Ethiopia haþ þre parties, þe firste is hilly and montuous, and streccheþ from þe mount Atlas anon to*. [anon to] vnto, Cx. (as usual.)] Egipt; þe myddel partie is ful of grauel; þe þridde, þat is þe est partie,*. [MS. and α. add and.] is almost alle wildernesse. Þat partie is bytwene þe souþe occean and þat*. [þat] the, Cx. (not α.)] ryuer Nilus, and haþ þe Reed see in þe estside, and hatte Ethiopia of þe colour and hewe of þe men of þe lond, þat beþ blewe*. [blac, Cx.] men, and is for*. [for the, Cx.]Page  159, vol.1 gret brennynge and hete of the sonne, þat is hem*. [whiche is to hem. Cx.] ful nyh.*. [nyȝ, α.] In Ethiopia beeþ meny dyuerse peple grisliche and wonder|liche i-schape; som hatte Garamantes and som Troglodyte, and beeþ*. [whiche ben, Cx.] swifter þan hertes. And som curseþ þe sonne for his grete hete; some cteþ serpentes and addres; som hunteþ leouns and panters. Some diggeþ caues and dennes, and woneþ vnder erþe, and makiþ hir noyse wiþ grisbaytynge*. [gruntynge, Cx.] and chirkynge of teeþ more than wiþ voys of þe þrote. Som gooþ naked and no werk wircheþ,*. [doo no werke, Cx.] some wiþ oute hedes and haueþ mouþ and yȝen in þe.*. [in þe] So α. and Cx.; wiþoute, MS.] breest. Among som of hem beeþ foure foted bestes wiþoute eren, and olyphantes also. Som of hem haþ an hound for hire kyng and deuyne*. [devyneþ, α., Cx.] by meuynge and sterynge of hym, som*. [MS. omits som. Added from α.] leueþ onliche*. [So α.; nouȝht, MS.; somme lyue only, Cx.] by honysoukels i-dryed wiþ smoke oþer wiþ þe sonne. Þere beeþ also camelions and basiliscus, vnycornes, camels, pardes, and dragouns, þat haueþ in here brayn and hedes many precious stones. Camelion is a flekked best in colour liche to a lupard; and so is pardus, and pantera*. [panthera, Cx., who however has panters above.] also, and som dele of þe kynde; but pantera is frende to alle manere bestes but to*. [sauf to, Cx.] þe dragoun al lone; for hym he hateþ as deth. Basiliscus is kyng of serpentes þat wiþ smyl and siȝt sleeþ beestes and foules. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. In Affrica amonge þe puple Troglodyte*. [peple that ben called (þat hatte, α.) Trogodyte, Cx.] is a welle þat makeþ hem þat Page  161, vol.1 drynkeþ*. [drunggeþ, α.] þerof to haue good voys, sch[r]ille,*. [So Cx. (shryll); schil, α.] and clere. Also among þe oþere peple Garamantes is a welle al*. [Cx. adds the (bis).] day so colde þat no man may þerof*. [of, α.; drynke therof, Cx.] drynke, and al*. [Cx. adds the (bis).] nyȝt so*. [so] it is so, Cx.] hote þat no man may it*. [it] om. Cx.] touche. Libya Cyrenensis þat lond haþ in þe est side Egipt, in þe souþ side*. [west, α.; Cx. omits side.] Ethiopia, in þe west þe perilous place of þe see þat hatte þe more Syrtes,*. [Cirtes, MSS. of both versions.] and Troglodytas*. [So α. and Cx., but misspelt; Trogodite, MS. Trevisa's usage is inconstant, see below.] also, in the norþ þe grete see. Isidorus, libro quinto, seiþ þat [Libya haþ þe name of þat wynd þat hatte Libs, and is þe wynd þat bloweþ out of Affrica, oþer]*. [The words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] Libya haþ þe name of Libya, Epaphies douȝter, þat Epaphi was Iupiter his sone. Þat womman Libya reigned in þat lond Libya, and þe peple of þat lond hitte Phutei*. [Putei, α.] of Phut, Chamys sone. Tripolitana þat regioun haþ in þe est side aras Philenorum, þe auters and wenedes*. [wyndes, Cx.] of þat peple þat beeþ i-sette bytwene þe peple Troglodyte and þe more Syrtes. Syrtes maiores beeþ perilous places faste by þe*. [α. and Cx. add gravely.] see, þat is mare Arenosum. And Tripolitana haþ in þe south side Getulos and Garamantes, þat streccheþ anon to þe occean of Egipt, and haþ in þe west side Byzantium anon to þe lake þat hatte lacus Salinarum, and in þe norþ side he haþ þe see of myddel erþe and þe perilous place þat hatte Syrtes minores, þe lasse Syrtes. Getulia is þe myddel londe of Page  163, vol.1 Affrica, and haþ þe name of Gethes; þat folk com of Gothes,*. [folke of the Gothes, Cx.] and in an omelie Seint Gregorie seiþ þat þilke men haueþ no fisheres.

De Numidia.*. [Numedia, MS. (not Cx.) Va|rious other unimportant deflections from the classical forms will not be noticed.] Capitulum vicesimum.

NUMIDIA haþ in þe est side Syrtes minores, þe lasse Syrtes, a perilous place,*. [α. and Cx. add in the see.] in þe southe Ethiopia, in þe west Mauritania, and in þe norþ þe see Siculus. In þat lond is Rusicada*. [Ruscida, MSS. of both versions and Cx.] and Carthago*. [Cartago, MSS. of both versions and Cx., here and below. Cartage has been retained below, as an En|glish form.] þe grete citee, þat was in þis manere arered and i-buld, as auctors telliþ. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo, capitulo tertio decimo. Phenices, men of Phenicia, þat lond, wente from þe Rede see and bulde*. [buylded, Cx.; who has buyld below.] þese citees: first in Syria þei bulde Sidon*. [Sydoun, MS.] and Tyrus,*. [So α. and Cx.; of Tirus, MS.] in Affrica Utica, in Beotia Thebe, and in þe mouþ of þe west occean Gades; for in olde tyme þe Phenices were grete marchaundes, and passed into dyuers londes wiþ marchaundise þat þei brouȝte, and feng*. [feng] resseyued, Cx.] þerfore londe and place to bulde on citees and townes. Trogus, libroPage  165, vol.1octavo decimo. Dido, þat hiȝte Elissa also, went oute of Phenicia wiþ a grete companye of ȝonglynges i-chose, and seilede first into Cyprus.*. [Cipres, MS., α., Harl. MS.; Cipris, Cx.] And þere þis womman Dido toke wiþ hir foure score maydens for to brynge forþ chil|dren, and com into Affrica, and þere fore ese and reste of here men, þat were wery of seillynge, sche bouȝte as moche lond as sche myȝte byclippe wiþ an oxe hide,*. [oxe huyde, α.; oxes hyde, Cx.] and kutte*. [kytte, Cx.] þe hyde into*. [to, α.; vnto, Cx.] a þong þat was ful long and ful*. [Cx. omits the second ful.] smal, and biclipped þerwiþ a grete place, and cleped hit Byrsa, þat is a þwong. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo. Oþer Car thada,*. [Cartada, MSS. of both versions, and Cx.] þat was a newe toun. After þat þe name was chaunged and þe*. [So Cx. (the); to þe, MS.] place i-cleped Carthago.*. [thus, Cx.] And so Car|thago was i-buld þre score ȝere and twelue to fore þe citee of Rome. ℞. Papias seiþ þe same; and*. [and] added from α., and Cx.; the latter has historyes.] stories telleþ þat Rome was i-bulde þe fourþe ȝere of Achaz, kyng of Iuda. Þan ȝif we acounte rediliche and putte to giders foure ȝere of Achaz, xvi. ȝere of Iotham,*. [Iothas, MS., α.; Ionathas, Cx.] and two and fifty ȝere of Ozias, þat regned to fore Achaz, hit folweþ þat Carthago was i-founded aboute þe firste ȝere of Ozias þe kyng. Neuerþeles Isidorus, libro quinto Eth., and Magister, in*. [in] added from Cx.]Page  167, vol.1 Historia Scholastica, seiþ þat*. [as, Cx.] it semeþ þat Carthago was i-founded aboute þe foure and þritty ȝere of kyng Dauid. Marianus seiþ þat Carthago was i-bulde aboute þe fourþe ȝere of Amazias, kyng of Iuda. Þan it may nouȝt stonde þat Virgilius and Phrygius Dares in his storie of þe bataille of Troye seiþ, þat Eneas sih þat womman Dido, for Eneas was dede þre hondred ȝere and more or*. [ar, α.; er, Cx.] Cartage was i-founded þat Dido foundede; oþer þere was anoþer Dido, an*. [and, Cx.] elder þan sche; oþer Cartage was raþer*. [raþer] added from α.] i-founded.*. [i-buld, α. and Cx.] Þerfore Seynt Austyn, libro primo Confessionum, seiþ þat wise men denyeþ þat Eneas siȝ Carthago oþer Dido þat womman. Þerfore Orosius, libro quarto, seiþ þat Carthago*. [þat Carthago] added from Cx.] is al aboute two and twenty þowsand paas, and euery wal is fourty cubites*. [cubit, α.] hiȝe, and þritty foot brood; and þe citee is byclipped wiþ þe see wel nyh al aboute, ou[t]*. [out, α.; oute, Cx. Trevisa and the Harl. translator seem to have been puzzled with the Latin text.] take faucibus quæ tria milia aperiebantur.*. [that iij. m. were opend, Cx.]

Mauritania is þe name of twei londes, þe firste Cesariensis, þat haþ in þe est side Numidia, in þe souþ þe grauel of þe see*. [Cx. omits see.] occean, in þe west þe ryuer Malua, and in þe norþ þe gewes of þe grete see.

Tingitana is þe laste prouince of Affrica, and haþ in þe est side þe ryuer Malua, in þe north þe see Gaditanus, in þe west þe hulle Atlas, and the see Page  169, vol.1 occean. Mauritania haþ þe name of mauron, þat is blak, as it were þe contray of black men. In þis Affrica is þe hulle Atlas in þe west side and ende, nouȝt fer from occean. And Atlas is so hiȝe ouer þe*. [þe] other, Cx.] hulles, þat lewed men weneþ þat it recheþ to þe mone. Þere is ofte by nyȝte i-seie fire, fauni, and satyri, þat beeþ spiritus*. [spiritis, α.; sprytes, Cx.] of þe*. [þe] om. α. (not Cx.)] aier dyuersliche i-schewed. Also þere is ofte i-herde tymbers, pipes, and trompes. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro octavo decimo. Atlas was an astronomyour, Prometheus broþer; þerfore*. [for, α.] som men*. [Cx. omits men.] feyneþ þat Atlas bereþ heuene. And of þis man Atlas þe hul haþ his name and hatte Atlas also, and*. [it is, Cx.] is so hiȝe þat þe lewed peple weneþ þat he*. [it, Cx. (and so often.)] bereþ heuene. Take hede þat Puni, Peni, Punici, and Punices also beeþ i-cleped Phenices, Afri, and Cartha|ginienses, as þei were men of Phenicia, of Affrica, oþer of Cartage. For þat womman Dido,*. [Didoo, α.] þat founded Carthago, was a comlynge, and com of*. [fro, Cx.] Phenicia.

De Europa et ejus partibus. Capitulum vicesimum primum.

ISIDORUS, libro quarto, seiþ þat Europa haþ the name of Europa, Agenores douȝter, king of Libya; and Iupiter, Page  171, vol.1 kyng of Creta, rauisched Europa, Agenores douȝter. But þis Europa is þe þridde deel of þis worlde wyde,*. [wyde world, Cx.] and bygynneþ fro þe ryuer Tanais*. [Thanai, MS., α.; Thanay, Cx.] and þe water Meotides, and streccheþ dounward by þe norþ occean anon to þe endes of Spayne at þe*. [at þe] atte, Cx.] ylond Gades, and is byclipped by þe*. [Cx. omits þe (twice).] est and also by þe*. [Cx. omits þe (twice).] souþ wiþ þe grete see. In Europa beeþ many prouinces and ylondes, þe whiche now schal be descreued;*. [descryued, Cx.] but firste take hede þat in þe north side of þe world þe water*. [wateris, α.] Meotides and þe ryuer Tanais departeþ atwynne*. [a sonder, Cx.] þe more Asia and Europa. Þe ryuer Tanais haþ þe name of Thanus, þe firste kyng of Scythia. Þat ryuer Tanais bygynneþ from þe hulles Ripheis, and gooþ doun to*. [into, α.] þe see of myddel erþe. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Þe lower Scythia þat lond is ful colde,*. [ful of cold, Cx.] and by|gynneþ from þe ryuer Tanais, and streccheþ bytwene þe ryuer Danubius and þe*. [þe] om. α.] norþ occean anon to*. [anon to] vnto the, Cx.] Germania þat contray. Alania is a party of þe lower Scythia, and streccheþ somdel from þe wateres Meotides toward Daciam. Mesia*. [Misia, MSS. of both versions, and Cx., and so below.] þat lond is i-closed in þe north est wiþ þe mouþ of Danubius, and ioyneþ in þe souþ est to Thracia,*. [Tracia, MSS. of both versions, and Cx.] and Page  173, vol.1 in þe south to Macedonia, in þe west to Histria,*. [and in þe . . . Histria] added from α. and Cx.] and in þe south west to Dalmatia. Mesia is a prise*. [pris, α.; good, Cx.] lond of corne and of whete, þerfore þe olde cereris*. [This absurdity is found also in α. and Cx.] cleped hit a berne. Sclauia is a partie of Mesia; þere beeþ also two londes, eiþer hatte Sclauia. Þe more hatte properliche Sclauonia, and conteyneþ som of Dalmatia and Sarmatas, and haþ wylde men and see þeues. Þe lasse Sclauia streccheþ from Wandalia and Bohemia anon to Saxone; and þere ynne beþ more mylde*. [α. and Cx. add men and after mylde.] peple. Pannonia haþ þe name of Penninis Alpibus, þat beeþ*. [beoþ, α.] hulle,*. [hulles, α.] þat beeþ i-cleped Alpes, and þilke hilles departeþ Pannonia and Italia: þere is anoþer Panno|nia be ȝonde þe wateres Meotides in þe ȝonder Scythia. Out of þe more Pannonia Hunni*. [Humi, MS.; Hinny, Cx.] went an huntynge, and passed long by marys and wateres, and folwed þe trace of hertes, ut dicit Herodotus,*. [as Erodotus seyth, Cx.] and so at þe laste*. [atte laste, Cx., and so often.] þei founde þe lasse Pannonia, and torned home aȝen, and fette to*. [toke with, Cx.] hem grete strengþe and com eft*. [agayn, Cx.] in to þe lasse Pannonia, and put out þe men þat were þerynne, and cleped þe lond Hungaria.*. [Hungeria, MS.; Hongaria, Cx.] But a partie þerof hatte Bulgaria, and haþ in þe est side Mesia, in þe souþ est Histria,*. [So α. and Cx.; Historia, MS.] in þe west Alpes, (þe hilles þat so hoteþ,) in þe west Gallia Belgica, þat is Page  175, vol.1 Fraunce, and in þe norþ þat ryuer Danubius and Germania þat lond. Þis lond Bulgaria haþ veynes of golde*. [So α. and Cx.; colde, MS.] and hilles in þe whiche me diggeþ marbel and salt goode at þe best.

De Grœcia et eius prouinciis. Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

AUCTOURS telleþ þat Grees with þe prouinces*. [prouince, MS. (not Cx.)] þerof is lady of kyngdoms, norice of knyȝthode and of chiualrie, moder of philosofie, fynder and mayster of art and sciens,*. [of science, Cx.] and haþ þe name of oon Grecus þat reigned þere somtyme. Neuerþeles*. [Netheles, Cx. (and so often.)] þat lond is comounliche i-cleped Illyricus,*. [Iliricus, MS.] þe men þerof beþ i-cleped Greci, Graii, Achei, Achivi, Argivi, Attici, Iones, Ionii, and*. [and] So Cx.; et, MS.] Hellenes. But whan þe grete Constantyn made*. [Constantyn made] added from α. and Cx.] Constantinopolim þe cheef sete of þe empere*. [þe empere] α., β.; thempyre, Cx.; the empery γ. This is nearer the Latin than the Ms. reading þe emperour.] of Rome, þan were þe Grees*. [Grekes, Cx., and so below.] i-cleped Romanij,*. [So MS., α., and Cx.] as it were men of newe Rome, so seiþ Rabanus. And anon to þis day þe Grees clepeþ nouȝt hem self Grees, but Romayses,*. [the Grekes be but Romayses, Cx.] and were somtyme stalworþe and orped and best men of armes, and neuerþeles sugett*. [natheles subget, Cx.] to lawes. Isidorus,*. [Seemingly a clerical error for Giraldus. Cf. Præf. Dist. l. p. 6. (Ed. Brewer.) But the reference is uncertain.]Page  177, vol.1libro primo, capitulo septimo decimo. In þis lond was som|tyme þe studie and þe scole of Pallas and Minerua, of grettest art and sciens of knyȝthode and of chiualrie, and þe clergie and the chiualrie hilde*. [helde, Cx.] so to giders þat in þe comyn profiȝt was all way good spede. Also þe olde Graii auntrede*. [aventured, Cx.] and gat many þinges by clergie and dedes of armes, but þat vertue keled*. [So α. and Cx.; keleþ, MS.] and wiþ drowe ynne ham þat com*. [cam, α. and Cx.] afterward, and passede from þe Grees to þe Latyns, so þat þe raþer welles beeþ*. [So α.; is, MS.] now but lakes,*. [so that to fore where welles were, ben now but lakes, Cx.] oþer more vereyliche dreye chanels wiþ oute watir. For now þey holdeþ Sinonis*. [Synonis, MS.] feynynge, Vlixis*. [So α; Vlixus, MS.; Vlixes, Cx.] gile, Atreuis cruelnesse, and fiteþ wiþ sleiþe and wiþ cauteles and nouȝt wiþ armoure and wepoun. Þis lond Grecia is faste by þe grete see, and conteyneþ many prouinces, þat beeþ Thracia,*. [þat beeþ Thracia] Added from α. and Cx. The MSS. have Tracia, as usual; but Thessalia is correctly written in MS. (not Harl. MS.)] Lacedemonia, Macedonia, Achaia, Arcadia, Thessalia, Helladia, Beotia.*. [Boecia, MSS. of both versions, and Cx.] Thracia hatte Epirus also, for*. [for] added from Cx.] Epirote woned þerynne somtyme, and haþ in þe souþ side þe see Egeus,*. [Egedeus, MS.] in þe west Macedonia. In Macedonia woned somtyme dyuers men þat hiȝte Massagete, Sarmate, and Gothi. Isidorus, libro quinto.*. [15, α., Cx.] In þis lond is a welle þat quencheþ brennynge brondes, and tendeþ brondes þat beeþ a Page  179, vol.1 queynt.*. [acquenchyd, Cx.] Þe chief cite of þis lond is Constantinopolis in þe est side, openliche i-seie by twene þe tweie sees Ponticus and Propontides, and opounliche i-seie out of water and of lond, and was somtyme þe cheef citee of þe Est; riȝt as Rome was of þe West, and hiȝte som tyme Byzantium.*. [Bisancium, MSS.] Of þis citee Willielmus, libro quarto Regum, spekeþ in þis manere: Þe grete Constantinus bulde and made þis citee euene and pere to Rome*. [Rome] So α. and Cx.; Lon|doun, MS.] and demed þat þe Emperour schulde nouȝt be chief þere; þe Apostles were cheef, and nameliche i-crowned. And he brouȝt þider also meny relikes of holy seyntes, þat myȝte hem helpe aȝenst her enemyes. Ymages of false goddes and tripodes Delphicos þat were Apolynes ymages he brouȝte to byskorne*. [by skorne, MS., and similarly often.] and bysmere*. [busmere, α.] to hem þat byhelde hem and say.*. [he brought to be scorned and spyght to them that behelde hem and sawe, Cx.] So þis Emperour vouched sauf to bulde þe chief citee of þe empere in good corn contray, where þere is good tem|perure of heuene and of wedir, besides þe londe Mysia,*. [Misia, MSS. (of both versions).] þat haþ grete plente of corn and of fruyt. Þe*. [That, Cx.] citee is i-seiȝe and i-schewed to alle schipmen þat seilleþ þider ward out of what lond þat þey come of Asia and*. [and of, Cx.] Europa, and is wel nyȝ byclipped al aboute wiþ þe grete see, and is cornered wiþynne þe clippynge of þe walles faste by þe see side, and is*. [I is, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] byclipped wiþ a wal of twenty þowsand paas. Þere wiþ hupes of stones*. [ther with heepes and huppels of stones, Cx.] and of grauel, i-caste Page  181, vol.1 into þe see besides þe citee, þe lond i-serched*. [eched, Cx.] and i-made more. Also þe ryuer Danubius, þat hatte Hister also, is i-lete and i-ladde in to dyuerse places of þe cite by goteres vnder erþe in þis manere. Whan þe water schal torne*. [renne, Cx.] in to þe citee men takeþ out a barre, þat þe water is i-stopped wiþ, and letteþ þe water renne, and stoppeþ whan hem likeþ. And so Danubius fyndeþ water i-now to an hondred stretis. In þis citee Constantinus arered and bulde tweie famous chirches; but Iustinianus þe Emperour bulde afterward þe þridde chirche in worschippe of Diuina Sophia, þat is, oure Lord Crist, þat*. [þa, MS. (not α.)] Agia clepeþ Diuina Sophia, in*. [an, α.] Englisshe, Þe Wisdom of God. And men telleþ þat þe werk passeþ al þe buldynge of þe worlde, and is more noble þan men konne*. [kun, α.; can, Cx.] telle. Þeder Seint Eleyne*. [Helene, Cx.] brouȝte þe holy crosse þat oure Lorde Crist deied on; þere resteþ þe apostles Andrewe and Iames, þat is i-cleped Frater Domini;*. [Cx. adds: in Englisshe, oure lordes broder.] þere resteþ Mathias and prophetes also, Heliseus, Samuel, and Daniel; and also Luke þe euangeliste, and martires ful many; also confessours, Iohan wiþ þe gilden*. [golden, Cx. (not α.)] mouth, Basilius, and Gregorius Nazianzenus; and virgines, Agatha and Lucia.

Lacedemonia, þat hat Spartania*. [Spartania] So α. and Cx.; Speratonia, MS.] also, is a prouince of of Grecia faste byside Thracia. Men of þat prouince beeþ i-cleped Lacedemones of Lacedemon, Semelis*. [So Cx.; Samuelis, MS.; Samelis, α.] sone, and Page  183, vol.1 beeþ i-cleped Spartani also. Trogus, libro tertio. Þese men somtyme byseged þe citee Messena ten ȝere to gidres, and were wery and i-greued*. [agreued, Cx.] of pleyntes and grucchinge of her wyfes, and dradde also þat longe abidynge from home in werre and in bataille schulde make hem childrenlese*. [childeren, Cx. (typogr. error).] at hom, and ordeyned þerfore þat þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] maydenes of her londe schulde take ȝongelynges þat were i-left at home; so þat euery mayde schulde take many ȝongelynges,*. [þat were . . . ȝongelynges] om. Cx.] euerich after oþer; for þey hoped to haue þe strenger childeren, ȝif eueriche womman assayed many men. But for þe schameful doynge of the modres þe children þat were i-gete and i-brouȝt forþ in þat manere were i-cleped Spartani, and whan þey were þritty wynter*. [yere, Cx.] olde þey dredde sore of nede and of mes|cheef; for non of hem wiste who was his owne sire.*. [fader, Cx.] Þerfore þey toke hem a ledere and a chifteyn*. [capytayne, Cx.] Phalanthus, Aracus*. [Phalantis Aracius, MS.] his sone, and toke no leue of hire modres, but wente forþ and were i-cast hider and þider by dyuers happes,*. [fortunes, Cx.] and at þe laste cam in to Italia, and dryue*. [droof, Cx.] oute þe men þat woned þere, and made þe cheef sede*. [cyte, Cx. (not α.).] at Tarentum.

Macedonia haþ þe name of Macedo, Deucalions neuew, and hiȝt somtyme Emathia of Emathius the kyng, and haþ in þe est side þe see Egeus, in þe souþe Achaia,*. [Achaie, MS.] in þe west Dalmatia, and in þe norþ Mesia.*. [Misia, MSS. of both versions; and so below.] In þis prouince Page  185, vol.1 is þe hil mons Olympus, and to deleþ*. [departeth, Cx.] tweie londes, Thracia and Macedonia. Petrus, capitulo tricesimo septimo. Þe hul passeþ þe clowdes, in þe cop*. [vpprist, Cx.] of þat hil comeþ no clowdes, wynd, noþer reyn;*. [reine ne wynde, Cx.] vppon þat hulle lettres*. [So Cx.; lettre, MS.] þat were i-write in poudre were i-founde wiþ oute wem*. [hurtynge or wemme, Cx.] at þe ȝeres ende. Also foules*. [So fowles, Cx.] mowe not lyue*. [nouȝt libbe, α.] þere; for þe aier is to clere. And philosofres mowe not*. [nouȝt, α.] dwelle þere to lerne þe course of sterres*. [the sterres, Cx.] wiþ oute sponges i-watred and i-holde at hir nostrilles*. [her nose thirles, Cx.; nosetrils, α.] to make þikker þe ayer, þat þey draweþ to kele*. [cole, Cx.] wiþ here herte. Þere is also þe hille*. [Cx. omits þe hille.] mons Athos, þat reccheþ to þe clowdes; þe schadewe of þat hille arecheþ to the ilond Lemnum. Þat ilond is from þe*. [that, Cx.] hul þre score myle and sixtene.*. [lxx. myle, Cx.]

Dalmatia þat lond haþ in þe est side Macedonia, in þe west Histria, in þe norþ Mesia, and in þe souþ þe see Adriaticus.

Achaia haþ þe name of Acheus þe kyng, and is wel nyh an ylonde i-closed in þe see: for he*. [it, Cx.] haþ in þe est side þe see Tyrrhenus, and in þe norþ þe see Creticus, in þe souþ þe Page  187, vol.1 see Ionius, and onliche in þe norþ he*. [it, Cx.] ioyneth*. [So Cx.; ioyned, MS.] to Mace|donia and to Attica. Þe cheef citee of þat lond hatte Corinthus; þere kyng Alexandre*. [Alysaunder, Cx.] gadrede his oost for to wynne al þe world; þeder Poul*. [Paule, Cx.] wroot his pistil ad Corinthios.

Arcadia, þat hatte Sicyonia also, haþ þe name of Arcas,*. [Archas, Cx.; Archades, MSS. of both versions.] Iupiter is sone, and is an angul (þat is,*. [þat is] or, Cx.] a corner) of Achaia, and lieþ bytwene þe tweie sees Ionius and Egeus, and is i-schape as is*. [is] om. α. and Cx.] a plane leef. Þere ynne is Asbeston*. [Albeston, MS., α., Cx.] þat wil neuere quenche, be it ones i-tend; þere beeþ also white osels.*. [β.; oseles, γ.; ousels, Cx.; Ms. wesels.] þeyz*. [þei, α.; though, Cx.; Ms. Þe.] osels*. [β.; oseles, γ.; ousels, Cx.; Ms. wesels.] be blak among vs; þere þey beeþ white.

Thessalia ioyneþ in þe souþ side to Macedonia, and was somtyme Achilles contray, and þere bygonne Lapithe;*. [Laphite, MS., Cx.] þilke men chastisede*. [chastede, α.] and temede*. [tamed, Cx.] hors firste wiþ bridels, and sette*. [satte, Cx.] on hire bakkes; þerfore þe lewed peple wende*. [supposed, Cx.] þat it were*. [had be, Cx.] alle on*. [oon, α.; one, Cx.] body, man and hors þat þey sitte*. [sete, α.; satte, Cx.] on. And þerfore an hondred horsmen of Thessalia were i-cleped centaury. Þat name is i-gadered of tweyne, of centum, þat is, an hondred, and of aura, þat is, þe wynde. And so þat name was to hem i-schappe Centauri, as it were an hundred Page  189, vol.1 wynde waggers: for þey wagged þe wynde wel*. [wel] α., β., γ.; placed after wagged in Ms.; om. Cx.] faste in hir ridynge. Trogus, libro vicesimo quarto.*. [14, Cx.] In þis pro|uince is þe hille Parnassus; (poetis accounteþ þat hil noble and famous;) and hongeþ with tweie copped stones. In þe cop*. [toppe, Cx.] þerof is the temple of Delphicus Apollo;*. [Appolyn, MS.; Appollyn, Cx.] and in þe wyndynge*. [wendyng, Cx.] of þe myddel playn is a pitte, oute of þat pitte philosofres were enspired; and dyuers answeres were i-ȝeue out of þat pitte. Þerfore ȝif noyse of men oþer of trompes sowneþ in þe*. [þe] α, Cx.] valey, þe stones answereþ euerich oþer, and dyuers ecco sowneþ. Ecco is þe reboundynge of noyse. Isidorus, libro tertiodecimo. In þis prouince beeþ tweie ryueres; scheepe þat drynkeþ of þat oon schulle worþe*. [wexe, Cx. (thrice).] blak, and schepe þat drynkeþ of þat oþer schul worþe*. [wexe, Cx. (thrice).] whyte; and ȝif þey drynken of boþe, þey schulle worþe*. [wexe, Cx. (thrice).] spekked*. [splekked, α. and Cx.] of dyuers colour. Also in þis prouince beeþ þilke likynge places to walke ynne þat philosofres and poetes clepeþ tempe*. [tempore, Cx.]florida, þat is, likynge place wiþ floures. Of þis place writeþ Theodolus and Ouidius. Also in þis*. [So α. and Cx.; his, MS.] prouince of þat lond*. [of þat lond] om. Cx.] was þe þridde particuler flood, and ful*. [fille, Cx. (not α.)] in Deucalions tyme, prince of þat lond. Þat prince sauede men þat fleigh to hym in schippes and bootes; þerfore poetes feynede þat he and his wif Pyrrha cast stones and Page  191, vol.1 made men. Helladia þat londe haþ þe name of Hellen*. [Ellena, MS., α., Cx.] þe kyng, þat was Deucaliouns sone, and Pyrrha also. Of þis Hellen þe Grees hatte Hellenes. Þis lond hatte Attica also, of Atthis, þat was Cranaus*. [Gramys, MS., α.; Grauius, Cx.] his douȝter; and lieþ by twene Macedonia and Achaia and ioyneþ in þe north side to Arcadia. Þis londe is verrey Grecia, and haþ tweie parties; Beotia*. [Boecia, MSS. (as usual).] is þat oon, and Peloponnesus*. [Pelopenensis, MS.] þat oþer. Þe chief citee of þis lond hatte Athene:*. [Athenes, Cx., and so below.] þere was somtyme a grete studie of lettrure*. [lecture, Cx.] and of clergie, and men of all naciouns and londes come þider forto lerne. Athene þat citee was i-bulde in þis manere. Augustinus de Civitate, libro octavodecimo. Þat tyme þat Egipt was i-smyte wiþ God all myȝties wrethe vnder Moyses hond, som seiȝe*. [som Egipcians dredde lest, α.; somme Egypciens dradde leste, Cx.] Egipt schulde be lost, and flowe oute of Egipt in to*. [in to] to, Cx.] oþer londes. And so Cecrops*. [Sicrops, MS.; Cicrops and Sy|crops below. Similarly the rest, nearly.] fleigh*. [fledde, Cx.] out of Egipt into Grecia, and þere he bulde þe citee Atthen, þat was i-cleped after|ward Athene. In þis manere, as Varro*. [So Cx.; Pharro, MS., and α.] seiþ, an olyue was sodeynliche i-seie in þat citee Atthen, and a water brak oute sodeynliche in anoþer place. Þanne Cecrops axede Page  193, vol.1 counsaille of Appolyn*. [So MS. Trevisa seems to have considered this the nominative of Apollinis.] Delphicus, þat maumet, in þe hil mount Parnassus, and axede what þese þinges schulde be to menyng;*. [mene, α., Cx.] and he answerde and seide þat þe olyue bytokened þe Goddes Minerua*. [Mynerua, MS.; but Minerua below.] and þe water bytokened Neptunus; and seide þat it was in power and choys of þe citeceyns after wheþer of þe tweie goddes þe citee schulde hote.*. [hoote, α.] Þerfore þe citee,*. [citezeins, α., Cx.] boþe men and wommen [gadred hem to gyders, as it was the manere that tyme; that bothe men and wymmen]*. [Words in brackets added from Cx. [also present in β., γ.] They are absent from α.] schulde come to comoun counsaille; þanne in þat counsail*. [þanne . . . counsail] Added from α., Cx.] men ȝaf þe dome for Neptunus and wommen for Minerua; and for þere was o*. [one, Cx. (not α.)] womman more*. [moo, α., Cx.] þan were men, Minerua hadde þe maistrie, and þe citee was i-cleped by here name Athene;*. [Atthene, MS., and so below.] for Minerua in þe speche of Grewe hatte Athena. Þan was Neptunus wood wrooþ,*. [wroth wode, Cx.] and made þe flodes of þe see arise*. [tarise (i. e. to arise), Cx.] and ouerflowe and hele þe londes of þe men of þat citee Athena,*. [londes of them of Athenes, Cx.] as deueles mowe liȝtliche doo suche chekkes. Þan for to plese Neptunus and for to abathe his wreþþe and his anger wommen were i-punsched with double payne; þat oon was þat no womman schulde aftirward come Page  195, vol.1 to*. [in, α., Cx.] comyn counseil, þat oþer payne was þat no childe schulde aftirward bere his moder*. [moders, Cx. (not α.)] name. To þat prouince Helladia lyeþ*. [lyeþ] Added from Cx. (lyeth).] Hellespontus, þat greet mouth of*. [Four words added from α. and Cx.] þe grete see, and haþ þe name of Helle, Phrixus*. [Frixus, MSS. of both versions.] his suster, þat fleiȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] þe malice and pursuet*. [þe pursuyt, α.] of here stepdame, and was adraynt*. [drowned, Cx.] in þat mouth and see; and for þat hap þe*. [þat, α.] see and þe lond aboute hatte after Helle Hellespontus. Varro*. [So Cx.; Barro, MS., α.] seiþ þat faste bysides þat place beeþ men þat heleþ smytynge of serpentes wiþ touche or*. [and, α. and Cx.] wiþ spotel. Trogus, libro secundo. Athenienses, men of Athene, vsed first craft of wolle and*. [and] om. α.] of wyn and of oylle, and tauȝte erye*. [to eere, Cx.] and sowe and ete acharns;*. [acornes, Cx.] þei flo|risched first in lore of clergie and of lawe. Þe firste kyng of þat lond hiȝte Cecrops, after hym come Granus þat heet Cranaus also; þan his sone Atthis ȝaf his name to þe lond and cleped it after hymself Atheniensis. Þan after Atthis regned Amphigionides.*. [So MSS. of both versions, for Amphictyon.] In his tyme was þe grete flood in Thessalia. Þanne aftirwarde the kyngdom discendede to Erich|thonius.*. [Euritonius, MS.; Erictonius, α. and Cx.] After hym regnede Egeus, and after hym his sone Theseus; þat Theseus sone Demophon,*. [So Cx.; Demoson, MSS. of both versions.] he halp*. [helpe, Cx.] þe Grees Page  197, vol.1 aȝenst þe Troians. Beotia, oxe-lond, haþ þe name of bos, þat is an oxe. Whan Cadmus, Agenores sone, at his fader*. [faders, Cx. (who often has simi|lar variations).] heste souȝt his suster Europa, þat Iupiter hadde i-rauished, and myȝte nouȝt here fynde, he dradde his fader wrathe, and*. [he conthe, α.; he coude, Cx.] kouþe non oþer reed but fleiȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] as an outlawe; hit happed*. [hapned, Cx.] þat he folwed þe fore*. [foote, Cx.] of an oxe, and fonde þe place þat þe oxe lay inne, and cleped it Beotia, and bulde þere þe citee Thebe, in*. [in] Added from Cx.] þat citee bella civilia detonuerunt.*. [detenuerunt, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] And þere was Apollo*. [Appollo, MS.] i-bore and Hercules,*. [Ercules, MS.] in*. [in] Ms., β.; om. γ., rightly; or Trevisa may have misunderstood the text.] þilke more Thebanus also. In þat lond is a lake wonderful and wood, for who þat drynkeþ þerof he*. [he] om. Cx.] schal brenne in woodnesse of leccherie. Þere beeþ also tweie welles in þat lond; who þat drynkeþ of þat oon, he schal be forȝetful; and who þat drinketh of þat oþer, he schal haue good mynde. Petrus. Take hede þat men of Thebe, þat is in Egipt, hatte Thebey; men of Thebe, þat is in Grecia, hat Thebany; and þe men of Thebe, þat is in Iudea, hatte Thebite.*. [The sentence is slightly com|pressed in Cx.]

Page  199, vol.1

Capitulum vicesimum tertium. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo.

WE redeþ in stories þat Grees*. [Grekes, Cx. (as usual).] wonede somtyme in*. [in] om. MS.] Italia,*. [So α. and Cx.; Hesperia, MS.] an cleped þe lond þe Grete Grecia; þat lond hiȝte somtyme Hesperia, of Hespera, þe sterre þat ladde þe Grees whan þey seilled þider, and was her loode sterre, Hespera,*. [Helpera, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þat is Venus. Afterward þat lond hiȝte Saturnia of Saturnus þat wonede þere, for*. [for] So Cx.; but þe, MS., α.] Saturnus hid hymself*. [Cx. adds there.] in þat lond for drede of his owne sone Iupiter, and cleped þe lond Latium, þat is Saturnus huydels.*. [hydles, Cx.] After þat þat lond hiȝte Ausonia of Ausonius,*. [Eusonia, Eusonius, MS., α., Cx.] Vlixus sone; but at þe laste þat londe hiȝte Italia of Italus, rege Siculorum, kyng of Sicilia,*. [Scicilia, MS., Cx.] and is þe noblest prouince of al Europa, and is i-closed in þe norþ side wiþ þe mouþ and see þat hatte Adriaticus, in þe est wiþ þe grete see, in þe souþ wiþ Sicilia, and wiþ þe see Tyrrhenus, and in þe west wiþ þe sides of þe hilles þat hatte Alpes.*. [The previous sentence is much blundered in Cx.] Out of þilke hil[les]*. [hulles, α.; hylles, Cx.] springeþ þre þe noblest ryueres of al Europa, þat beeþ i-cleped þe Ryne,*. [ryuer, Cx.] Danubius, and Rone. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. Page  201, vol.1 In þis Italia is Cithero his welle, þat heleþ wel sore eiȝen. Þere is also þe lake Clitorius; who þat drynkeþ of þat lake, no wyne schal hym greue. Plinius, libro secundo, capitulo decimo.*. [octodecimo (sic), Cx.] Faste by þe hilles þat hatte Alpes Appennini is þat welle Novacius, þat welleþ and springeþ in þe hote somer and drye, and fordrieþ in colde wynter and wete. Treuisa. Alpes Appennini þat beeþ Penitus his hilles. Hanibal was a grete duke and hiȝte Penitus also, and wente by Alpes to Rome; þerfore of þe tweie names Alpes and Penitus is þat oon name schortliche i-made Appennini,*. [So α. and Cx.; Appentimii, MS. In many proper names below, α., or Cx., or both, give the true form. which is edited without noticing MS.] and so beeþ meny lettres i-left of þe tweyne. Paulus, libro secundo. In þis Italia beeþ many prouinces and londes, þat beeþ cleped Calabria, Apulia, Campania, Beneuentana, Tuscia, Emilia, Liguria, Lombardia. Apulia is a party of Italia, and lieþ estward vppon þe see, and is departed from þe ilond Sicilia wiþ an arme of þe see. Grees were þe firste þat bulde þerynne; þe chief citee þerof is Brundusium, and haþ þe name of þa[t]*. [þat, α.] worde of Grew brunta, þat is, an hertes hede, for þe citee is i-schape as an hertes hede. Fro þennes me*. [me] So α.; ne, MS.; men, Cx. (as usual).] seilleþ to þe Holy Lond. In þis lond Apulia beeþ hote welles and holsom. Þe more Campania is a lond in þe myddel bitwene þe demeynnes of Rome and Apulia; þe cheef cite þerof is Capua, and haþ þe name of Capacitas, þat is, ablenesse to fonge and to take. For þat citee fongeþ and takeþ i-now of all plente, and is acounted*. [counted, Cx.] þe þridde citee Page  203, vol.1 after þe most famous citees Rome and Carthago. In þat lond beeþ noble citees and famous Neopolis and Puteoli.*. [Puteolis, MSS. of both versions, and Cx.] Þere beeþ Virgiles bathas*. [baþes, α., Cx.] þat were somtyme in greet worschippe. But þere is anoþer lasse Campania in Gallia Senonensi,*. [Senocenci, MS. and α.; but cor|rectly below.] þat is Frauns, þe chief citee of þat Campania hatte Trecas and Trecensis also, þat is Troys*. [So Cx.; Tros, MS., α.] in Champayn. ℞.*. [Added from α. and Cx.] In þis Italia were somtyme dyuers lordes euerich after oþer þat were Grees, Ianus, Saturnus, Italus, Eneas and his ospringe.*. [offsprynge, Cx.] And after|ward Galli Senonenses, þat beeþ Frensche men, vnder duke Brennus. Þan aftirward, aboute þe ȝere of grace fyue hondred þre score and eiȝte, in to þe*. [in þe, α.] princes tyme Iustinus, Narsen*. [Narsen] This is not a clerical error, but one of many proofs of the slovenliness of Trevisa, who did not care to discover the nominative of the word. Below, where the text has the nominative, he has written it correctly.] Cartularius prayed Longobardy for to come in to Italia; and of þe Longobardy, for to come in to*. [for to come in to] yet to, Cx.] þis day, þe hider side of Italia from Alpes wel nygh to Rome hatte Lombardia.*. [The preceding sentence is much blundered in Cx.] How Longobardy come a place*. [a place] to that name, Cx.] Paulus*. [Poulus, MS. (not α.)] Romanus diaconus in primo libro historiæ Longobardorum*. [Longobardi, MS.; abbreviated in α.]Page  205, vol.1 seiþ in þis manere: Winuli, þat hatte Longobardi also, and haueþ the name of her longe berdes, went wiþ tweie dukes, Ibor and Aion, and here moder Gambara, þat was ful redy and wys, out of Scandinauia, an ylond of Germania in þe norþ side. Þis Scandinauia is i-cleped an ilond, not for he is in þe see, but for in þe pleyn of þe brinkes he is alwey i-wasche wiþ wawes. Out þereof went Winuli and werred in Scorunga*. [Scormyga, Cx.] and ouer com þe Wandales; þan deied þe Wandales, Iborn and Aion, and þei made hem a kyng Agelmundus, Aions sone, þe whiche reigned ouer hem þritty ȝere and þre. In his tyme an hore*. [hore] comyn woman, Cx.] hadde seuene children at oon birþen, as it is ynner more clere|liche i-schewed. Oon of hem, þat hiȝte Lauissius was þe secounde kyng of Longobardes, and regned after Agelmundus, whanne*. [Agelmundus, whanne] Added from α. and Cx.] Agelmundus þe kyng was to bolde on his trist,*. [owen truste, Cx.] and þe Bulgaris com vppon hym in a nyȝt and slowe hym stan deed.*. [standyng, Cx.] After hym Lethen regned and was [þe þridde]*. [Added from α.] kyng of Longobardes*. [the L., Cx.] and was*. [regnede, α., Cx.] regnynge fourty ȝere. After hym Hildehoc*. [Hildecoc, Cx.] regned,*. [α. and Cx. om. regnede.] after hym þe fifte*. [So α., Cx.; firste, MS.] Godehoc regnede in Odoacres tyme, þat was Italicus, and ladde his men to þe lond of Rugorum. After hym þe sixte Claffo. After hym þe seuenþe Cato. Þan*. [that, Cx.] Wacho slow Cato and outlawed his sone [for evere more; Wacho was Cato his broþer sonne].*. [Added from α. and Cx.]Page  207, vol.1 And so whan Wacho was ded, his sone Waltaricus was þe eiȝte kyng of Longobardy,*. [Longobardys, Cx.] and regned seuen ȝere. After hym þe nynþe Audoenus, þat ladde firste þe Longobardes in to Pannonia. After hym his sone Albuinus was þe tenþe kyng of Longobardy.*. [the Longobardes, Cx.] Narses*. [So Cx.; Narces, MS.] patricius prayed þis kyng Albuinus to come wiþ his men and haue*. [take, Cx.] Italia, þat was in Iustinis tyme þe Emperour,*. [in Justinus themperours time, Cx.] þe ȝere of our Lorde fyue hondred þre score and eiȝte, and þat was after þat Longo|bardis hadde i-woned in Pannonia two and fourty ȝere. Of þis Albuinus conquest and of his wonder*. [wonderful, Cx.] ende seche wiþynne*. [within forth, Cx.] in his place, aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord fyue hondred þre score and ten.

De vrbe Romana. Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

AVCTOURS telleþ and writeþ*. [writeþ and telleþ, α.; wryten and tellen, Cx.] þat þe citee of Rome is i|bulde in Tuscia, þat is a party of Italia. Of þe fundacioun þerof and gouernynge auctoures writeþ*. [Cx. here, contrary to his cus|tom, has wryte.] meny dyuers doynges; and specialliche Frater Martinus de conditione ejus; Magister*. [de . . . Magister] Added from α.] vero Gregorius of þe wondres of þe citee Page  209, vol.1 writeþ schortliche meny þinges þat beeþ worþy to be kept in mynde. Martinus. It is i-write þat many kynges regned aboute þe place of Rome. For Eustodius seiþ þat after þat tour Babel was i-bulde and men bygonne to speke dyuerse langage and tonges,*. [tonges and langages, Cx.] Noe wiþ certeyne men took a schip and seillede into Italia, and bulde a citee of his name and ended þere his lyf. Þan Ianus, Iaphet his sone, þat was Noes sone, bulde Ianiculum by ȝonde þe ryuer Tiberis; þere is now a cherche of Seynt Iohan, þat hatte Seint Iones chirche ad Ianiculum. Aboute þat tyme Nemprot, þat hiȝt Saturnus also, i-gilded*. [whiche was gelded, Cx.] of his owne sone Ioue,*. [Iupyter, Cx.] come to the forsaide Ianus kyngdom, and bulde a citee; þere þe Capytal is now. Also þat tyme Italus þe kyng wiþ Siculis*. [So α. and Cx.; Siculus, MS.] men of Sicilia come to Ianus and to Saturnus, and bulde a citee faste by þe ryuer Albula; þat ryuer hiȝte afterward and now hatte Tyber, and is a ryuer of Rome. Also Hercules, Italus his sone, bulde a citee Galeria by neþe þe Capitol. After þat Tiberi[n]us*. [Tiberis, Cx.; Tyberis, α.; Ty|berius, MS.] þe kyng com out of þe est, and Euander þe kyng out of Arcadia, and bulde citees. Virgilius accordeþ and seiþ: Þanne þe fader Euander at Rome was maker of toures. Þanne afterwarde come Romulus and closed wiþ ynne oon Page  211, vol.1 wal alle þilke citees*. [citetes, MS.; txt, Cx.] aboute, and made oon grete citee of alle i-closed in oon: and brouȝte gentil men and noble out of Italia wiþ here wifes for to wone þerynne. Titus, libro secundo. While þat citee was pore, was no place more holy noþer richere of good ensample; but afterward rich|esse gadered and eched to gidres couetise and leccherie.*. [gadred and encreased, and syn they haue ben coueytous and lecherous, Cx.]Marcus. Tweie breþren þat were twynnes,*. [born at one burthon, Cx.] Remus and Romulus, bulde Rome in þe hul Palatinus, and was i-bulde in þe enleuenþe*. [MS. adds ȝere (not α. or Cx.)] kalandes of Maij: þo bigan þe seuenþe Olimpiades,*. [Olimpus, Cx., who omits the remainder of the sentence.] þat is þe seuenþe tyme of iustes and torne|mentes þat Grees made at þe foot of mont Olympus, þo*. [that, Cx. (not α.)] was þe firste ȝere of Achaz kyng of Iuda and foure hondred ȝere and foure and fifty after þe takyng of Troye. But more vereiliche, as Solinus seiþ, foure hondred and*. [α. om. and.] foure and þritti ȝere after þe takynge of Troye. Þe*. [Cx. prefixes Marcus; α. has in margin Marcus or Martinus (Mωeȝ).] whiche citee of*. [of] om. α.] Rome was afterward wonderliche i-hiȝt wiþ walles, wiþ toures, wiþ ȝates, wiþ templis, wiþ paleys, and wiþ diuers and wonderful werkes; and hadde on þe walles þre hondred toures*. [MS. has some repetitions here.] and*. [and] om. α.] þre score and oon, and conteyneþ aboute two and twenty myle, wiþoute þat þat*. [The second þat added from α.; absent from MS. and Cx.] is byȝonde Tybre and þe citee Leonina. But, as me seiþ, þer wiþ he*. [men seyn it, Cx.] conteyneþ al aboute two and fourty myle, and Page  213, vol.1 had in all sixtene principal ȝates;*. [yates, Cx.] ten on þis half Tiber, þat were i-cleped port Capuena, port Apia, port Latina, port Asinaria, port Matronii, port Levicana,*. [So α. and Cx.; Eluicana, MS.] port Numentana, port Salaria, port Princiana, port Colina. Also byȝonde Tyberis beeþ þre ȝates, and þre in þe citee Leonina. Gre|gorius. Among þe wondres of þis citee þat ȝit beeþ i-sene, it is greet*. [a grete, Cx.] wonder of so many defensable toures and so many buldynge of palays, where*. [towres of so many buyldynges of palayces, whether, Cx.] it were i-doo*. [i-doo] om. Cx.] by wyche|craft oþer by manis dede. So þat now beeþ ferified*. [So MS. and α.] þe vers þat Hildebertus*. [So Cx.; Hidebertus, MS.] Episcopus Cenomannensis made, and Willielmus Malmesburiensis putteþ hem in his book of kynges:*. [as here foloweth, Cx.]

Rome, no þing is pere to þe,
Þeyȝ þou nygh all fallynge be;
A falle*. [a falle] (i.e. "fallen") so γ.; On alle, Cx.; anaitte, MS.; analle, α.; a nalle or a ualle, β.] þou schewest þy bounde,
How grete þou were,*. [So MS. and α. See Harl. MS.] when þow were*. [So MS. and α. See Harl. MS.] sounde.

Þere were meny paleys real*. [ryal, Cx.] and noble i-bulde in Rome*. [De palatiis Romæ.] in worschippe of emperours and of oþere noble men also. Among þe whiche þe gretteste and most palys of alle was in þe myddel of þe citee, in tokene of oon principalte of Page  215, vol.1 all þe world wide. Also þe paleys of pees; þerynne Romulus dede*. [dyde do, Cx.] his owne ymage of golde, and seide: "It schal neuere falle, or*. [tel, Cx.] a mayde bere a childe;" and þat ymage fel*. [fylle, Cx.] whan Crist was i-bore. Diocletianus*. [Dyoclicianus, MS.] paleys haþ pilers as hiȝ as a stones*. [astoon, α.] cast, and so grete aboute þat an hondred men al a ȝere worchynge schulde vnneþe hewe oon of þilke pylers. Also þere was a paleys of sixty emperours, and ȝit stondeþ a party*. [a part, Cx.; another party, MS.] þerof þat al Rome may nouȝt destroye it. Þere, as*. [as] Added from Cx. (not in α.)] Pantheon þe temple*. [De templis.] of all mawmetrie was, is now a chirche of al halwen,*. [halowen, Cx.; halewen, α.] and for*. [by cause, Cx.] oure Lady is after Crist cheef halwe*. [chyef and holyest, Cx.] of al mankynde, þat chirche haþ þe name of oure Lady, and hatte Sancta Maria Rotunda, þat is þe Rounde Chirche of oure Lady, and haþ in brede þe space of two hondred feet and sixty. Fast by þat temple is an arche of marbel, and is þe arche of Augustus Cesar his victories and grete dedes. In þat arche beeþ al Augustus Cesar his dedes*. [ben alle his grete actes, Cx.] descryued. Þere is also Scipions arche; he ouercom Hanibal. At Seint Steuene in Piscina was þe temple Olouitreum, þat was made al*. [al] om. Cx.] of cristal and of golde; þere was astronomie i-graued and i-peyntwiþ sterres and signes of heuen. Seint Sebastian*. [Sebestian, MS. (not Cx.)]Page  217, vol.1 destroyed þat temple. Also*. [MS. and α. (not Cx.) add in.] þe Capitol was arrayed*. [Cx. omits the four following words.] wiþ hiȝe walles i-heled wiþ glas and wiþ gold, as it were þe mirrour of al þe world aboute. Þere consuls*. [the consuls, Cx.] and senatours gouernede and rulede al*. [of al, α.] þe world, as moche as was in here power; and þere was Iupiters*. [Iubiters, MS., and so below.] temple, and in þe temple was Iupiters ymage of golde,*. [fyn golde, Cx.] sittynge in a tronc. ℞.*. [℞] Added from α. and Cx.] Here take hede þat onliche þre temples were somtyme in Rome þat hadde flamines, [þat were bisshops to serve false goddis and mawmetrie, and heet flamines,]*. [The words in brackets added from α.] as it were fila|mines, of filo, þat is a þrede, þat þey bonde aboute hire heed, whan þei myȝte nouȝt in þe holy day suffre on hire piliouns and here cappes for hete. In Iupiter his temple seruede flamen dialis, þat is, þe day bisshop; for Iupiter was i-cleped Diespiter, þat is, þe fader of þe day: also in Mars his temple was flamen Martialis, þat is, Mars is*. [Cx. here and above prints only Mars.] bisshop, and in Romulus temple was flamen Quirinalis, þat is, Quirinus*. [his, added in α., which has often similar variations.] bisshop; for Romulus was i-cleped Quirinus also.

In Rome was an hous i-made wel nyh al of gold and*. [De domi|bus.] i-hiȝt*. [besette, Cx.] wiþ precious stones; me seide þat hous was worþ wel nyȝ þe þridde deel*. [part, Cx.] of all þe world. In þat hous eueriche londe and prouince hadde an ymage i-sette by Page  219, vol.1 wicche craft;*. [nigromancie, Cx.] eueriche of þilke ymages bare his owne lordes name i-write on*. [and on, Cx. (typ. error?)] his brest and a cokebelle*. [cockerbelle, Cx.] of siluer i-honged aboute his nekke; so ȝat*. [So the MS.; but seemingly a mere clerical error; α. has þat.] ȝif eny londe arise aȝen Rome, anon þe ymage of þat londe torned his bak toward þe ymage of Rome, and þe belle aboute his nekke anon schulde rynge, and þe preostes þat kepte þat hous euerich by his cours warnede þe princes of þat doynge. Þere was also an horsman of bras an*. [and, α.; on, Cx.] hiȝe on þe cop of þat hous, and moued*. [meouede, α.; meued, Cx.] also wiþ a spere in his hond, and torned þe poynt of his spere to ward þat londe þat so wolde arise; and so þe Romayns myȝte liȝtliche come vppon here enemyes vnwarned.*. [on ware, Cx.] In þat hous also was a fuyre þat no man myȝte aquenche,*. [quenche, Cx.] and men askede*. [axed, Cx.] of þe craftesman þat it made how longe it schulde dure,*. [endure, Cx., and so below.] and he answerde and seide: Þat*. [Cx. omits Þat.] it schulde dure for euermore for to*. [for to] vnto, Cx.] þat a mayde bere a childe. And in*. [α. and Cx. omit in.] þe same nyȝt þat Crist was i-bore þat hous fil doun, and þe fuyre was aqueynt also þe same*. [quenchyd that same, Cx.] nyȝt and tyme. Also Beaneus Apollo þat Page  221, vol.1 man closede a confeccioun of brymston and of blak salt in a vessel of bras, and sette hit on þe fire*. [it a fyre, Cx.; hit on fire, α.] wiþ a candel þat he hadde made on his manere,*. [i-halewed in his manere, α., Cx.] and made þere a bath wiþ baþinge places þat all wey were hote. Þere was also on*. [in, α., Cx.] an hous an ymage of yren, and was [namyd]*. [Added from Cx.] Bellefrontes ymage, and*. [whiche, Cx.] weyed xv. þowsand pound wiþ his hors þat he satte on, and hyng*. [heng, α. and Cx., and so Cx. (not α.) below.] in þe ayer wiþ no post ne pyler byneþe vnder sette, noþere*. [ne, Cx.] i-holde wiþ chayne aboue; but adamant stones þat were in þe fot*. [vawte, Cx.] and in þe arches aboute drowe euen þe yren eueriche to his side, so þat þe yren ymage myȝt nouȝt dounward noþer vpward ne toward neyther side,*. [So Cx.; neuere aside, MS., α.] but hyng alwey euene amydde.

Þere is a place at Rome in Heraclea and hatte theatrum;*. [De arti|ficiis.] þat is a place to stonde oþer sitte ynne for to loke wel aboute. Þerynne is wonderliche i-graue cabans and dennes, dyuers oute goynges, benches, and seges all aboute, and is hool and sound, al oon marbel ston: [and þis work is i-sett uppon sixe crabbes i-hewe of hard marbilston];*. [The words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] in þat place may no man so priuely speke, noþer by*. [to, Cx. (twice).] hem|self noþer by*. [to, Cx. (twice).] anoþer man, but al þat he seiþ be herde al aboute. Faste by Augustus Cesar his place*. [palays, Cx. (not α.)] is a wal i-made of b[r]ent*. [welle i-made of brend, α.; walle made of brente, Cx.] tile and streccheþ dounward oute of þe hiȝe hulles by þe ȝate, port Asinaria. Þat wal is i-made vppon grete arches and heug; þat wal streccheþ a dayes iornay from Rome yn a greet condyt; vppon þat wal þe wateres and þe*. [α. and Cx. omit þe.] stremes of þe*. [So α. and Cx.; þat, MS.] welles of þe mounteyns renneþ ynto Rome; and þan is*. [it is, Cx.] departed in dyuers condites and pipes of bras, and so ran somtyme in to euery paleys of Rome: for þe water [of]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] Tyber is holsom and good for Page  223, vol.1 hors, and for men yuel*. [euel, α.] and vnholsom.*. [and vnholsome and euyl for men, Cx.] Þerfore þe olde Romaynes made fresche water come oute of foure parties of þe citee by weies craftliche i-made, and þerof men myȝte take al þat þey wolde, [whyle]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] þe comynge*. [comins, Cx.] of Rome were in her floures. By þat wall is þe bath Byaneus made, of þe whiche baþ was raþer a speche.*. [was spoken to fore, Cx.] In Albist[e]rio*. [Albisterio, α., Cx.] a place þat heet also Mutatorium Cesaris were i-made white stolis for emperours. Also þere was a candelstikke i-made of a stoon þat hatte Albeston; whan it was ones i-tend*. [yteyned, Cx., who adds and sette a fyre.] and i-sette per oute,*. [without, Cx.] þere couþe no man it aquenche*. [quenche it, Cx.; hit quenche, α.] wiþ no craft þat me kouþe deuise. [℞.]*. [℞.] Reference added from α. and Cx.] In þis manere hit miȝte be of*. [of] that, Cx.] þe geaunt Pallas aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord a þowsand and fourty; þat ȝere was i-founde in Rome a geantis body i-buried all*. [all] om Cx.] hool and sounde; þe chene*. [space, Cx.] of his wounde was foure foot longe and an half; pe lengþe of his body passed the heiȝte of þe walles; at his heed was founde a lanterne brennynge alway, þat no man couthe quenche wiþ blast noþer*. [ne, Cx., twice; (as frequently.)] wiþ water noþer*. [ne, Cx., twice; (as frequently.)] wiþ oþer craft, or*. [ar, α.] þere were Page  225, vol.1 i-made an hole*. [vnto the tyme that there was made a lytil hoole, Cx.] ·vnder þe lyȝt by neþe, þat þe ayer myȝte entre. Me seiþ þat Turnus slow þis geaunt Pallas, whan Eneas fauȝte for Lauin[i]a þat was Eneas his wyf. Þis*. [So Cx. (This); þese, MS., α.] geauntes epitaphium,*. [epytaphium, Cx.; ephitafium, MS., α.] þat is,*. [is this, Cx. (without sense).] þe writynge of mynde of hym þat lay þere, was suche:*. [suche] this, Cx.]

Pallas Euander his sone lieþ here:
Hym Turnus þe knyȝt wiþ his spere
Slowe in his manere.

De statuis et signis. Þere was at Rome a bole*. [bulle, Cx.] of bras in þe schap of Iupiter ouercast and schape to men þat loked þeron; þat boole semed lowynge and startlinge. Þere was also þe ymage of Venus al naked in þe same manere as Venus schewed hir self to þat man Paris*. [So Cx.; Pares, MS., α.] somtyme,*. [Cx. adds of Troye.] and was so craftliche made þat in þe mouþe and lippes, þat were as white as eny*. [ony, Cx.] snow, semede fresche blood and newe. Þere is also at Rome a wonder copped pilour, and is Romulus pyler. Þere Romulus was i-buried faste by Seynt Petres chirche. Þat piler pilgrims and palmers, þat faste con*. [can, Cx.] liȝe, clepeþ it*. [α (not Cx.) omits it.] seint Petris corn hepe,*. [corn hupple, Cx.] and seiþ þat whan Nero þe emperour hadde i-rauisched it, it*. [it] hit, Cx. (perhaps considering the aspirated form the stronger).] turned into an hil of stoon as grete as it was raþer, whiles it was corn.*. [as grete as it was byfore of corne, Cx.] Among þe*. [alle, α., Cx.] pilers Page  227, vol.1 Iulius Cesar his piler is most wonderful and haþ in heiþe two hondred feete*. [foot, α., Cx.] and fifty; in þe coppe þerof [in]*. [Added from α., β., γ., and Cx. Probably is is the true reading.] a rounde þing of bras, wher on*. [wher on] om. Cx.] beeþ Iulius Cesar his askes and his bones.*. [So MS. and α.; Iulius Cezars bones and asshes, Cx.] Of þat piler in an*. [in an] and, α, Cx.] arche beeþ vers i-write,*. [made, α., Cx.] þat beþ þus to menynge, and nameliche of þe ouermest stone:

Ȝif þe stone is oon, telle what craft brouȝt hym vppon;
ȝif meny st[on]es,*. [stones, α.; And yf they be many stones, Cx. (which is better metre).] telle where þey ioyne*. [joyneþ, α.] attones.*. [at ones, Cx.]

Þis arche and piler is i-founded and y-sette vppon foure lyouns. Pilgryms ful of lesynges clepeþ þis arche and piler Seynt Petres nedle, and lieþ and seiþ þat þat*. [thylk, Cx] man is clene of dedely*. [dedely] om. Cx.] synne þat may crepe vnder þat stoon. Þere beeþ also in Rome tweie grete horse of marbilston: for in Tiberius þe emperoures*. [þe emperoures] om. Cx.] tyme twei ȝonge philosofres, Praxi|tellus and Fibia, come to Rome, and ȝede all naked; and whan þe emperour axed hem*. [hym, Cx.] why and wher fore þey ȝede*. [wente, Cx., who, however, has yeden just before.] so naked, þei answerde and seide: "For we haueþ all þing for sake;*. [forsaken al thynge, Cx.] and for all þing is to vs naked and bare and openliche i-knowe; ȝe, sire emperoure, and all þat þow spekest in counsail and in priuete we knoweþ at þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] beste." Treuisa. Þe firste poynt of þis doynge and answere techeþ Page  229, vol.1 þat who*. [þat who þat, α.] forsakeþ all þyng forsakeþ all his cloþes; and so it foloweþ þat þey þat beeþ wel i-cloþed and gooþ aboute and beggeþ and gadereþ money and corn and catel of oþer men*. [þing before men in MS. (not α. or Cx.)] forsakeþ nouȝt al þing.*. [Reference to ℞. added in Cx.] Þe emperour assaied and founde sooþ all þat þey seide, and at here prayer*. [owen prayer, Cx.] made in mynde of hem tweie greet hors*. [horses, Cx.] of marbel. Þere is anoþere signe and tokene to fore*. [byfore, Cx.] þe popes paleys; an hors of bras and a man sittynge þeron and halt his*. [holdeth, Cx. (twice.)] riȝt hond as þouȝ he spake*. [speke, α.] to þe peple;*. [ple, MS.] and halt his*. [holdeth, Cx. (twice.)] bridel in his lift hand, and haþ a cukkow by twene his hors eres and a seek*. [sike, α.] dwerf vnder his horse*. [horse] om. Cx.] feet. Pilgrims clepeþ þat man Theodoricus, and þe comouns clepeþ hym Constantinus. But clerkes of þe court clepeþ hym Marcus and Quintus Curtius also. Þis signe stood somtyme to fore Iupiters auȝter*. [awlter, Cx.] in þe Capitol vppon foure*. [the four, Cx.] pilers of bras; but Seynt Gregorie þrewe doun hors and man and sette*. [Cx. omits the seventeen words following.] þe pilers in Seint Iones chirche þe Lateranensis. But þe Romayns toke hors and man and sette hem to fore þe popes paleys. Þey þat clepeþ hym Marcus telleþ þis skile and*. [skile and] om. Cx.]Page  231, vol.1 resoun. Þere was a dwerf*. [dwarf, Cx.] of þe kynrede of Mesenis; his craft was nigremansi.*. [nigromancy, α.; nygromancie, Cx.] Whan he hadde so conquered kynges þat woned hym nyh,*. [dwellyd nygh him, Cx.] and made hem soget to hym, þan he wente to Rome to werre wiþ Romayns,*. [the Romayns, α., Cx.] and wiþ his craft he byname þe Romays*. [Romayns, α., Cx.] power and myȝt for to smyte, and so*. [so] om. Cx.] byseged hem long tyme i-closed wiþynne þe citee. Þis dwerf ȝede*. [wente, Cx.] eche day to fore þe sonne risynge in to þe feld for to doo his craft. Whanne þe Romaynes had aspied*. [espied, Cx.] þat manere doynge of þat dwerf, þey speke to Marcus a noble knyȝt, and byhiȝt hym lordschippe of þe citee and a memoryall*. [memory all, MS.; memorial, Cx.; α agrees apparently with MS.] in mynde for euermore, ȝif it were his wille to helpe hem and saue*. [yf he wolde defende hem and saue, Cx.] þe citee. Þan Marcus made*. [So Cx.; at, MS.] an hole þorwe þe wal toward þe place; þere*. [Probably we should read where. Cx. has large omissions here.] þe dwerf was woned to worche and vse þe sotilte of his craft. And Marcus rod oute at þat place þorw þe wal, longe or it were day, for to abyde his tyme to cacche þe dwerf, anon as it were day. And whan it was tyme, þe kukkow song and warnede hym of þe day. Þan Marcus*. [Markus, MS.] resede too, and for*. [bycause, Cx.] he myȝte nouȝt hitte þe dwerf wiþ wepoun, he kauȝte hym wiþ his honde, and bare hym in to þe citee. And for drede lest he wolde*. [sholde, Cx.] helpe hymself wiþ Page  233, vol.1 his craft, and he moste*. [yf he myght, Cx.] speke, he threw hym vndir his*. [the, Cx.] hors feet, and þe hors all to trade hym. And herefore þat image was i-made in mynde*. [remembraunce, Cx.] of þis dede. Þey þat clepeþ þat signe an*. [and, α., Cx.] ymage Quintus Curtius, telleþ þis skille and resoun: Þere was somtyme in þe myddel of Rome a greet chene*. [clyfte or hoole, Cx.] in þe erþe; out of þat chene*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] come smoke*. [smook, Cx.] and brymston, and slow*. [slewe, Cx.] many man.*. [men, α.] Þanne Quintus Curtius took counseil of Phebus, and armed hym, and auntrede hym hym in to þe chene;*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] þanne anon fleigh a cukkow out of þat*. [þe, α.] chene.*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] Þan þe erþe closed to gidres, and so þe chene*. [hool, Cx., and so below.] was i-stopped. Anoþer signe is Colossus*. [Colloseus, MSS. and Cx.] ymage, þat is i-cleped also þe ymage of þe Sonne, oþer of Rome. Þere is grete wonder how it myȝte be i-ȝote*. [yoten, Cx.] oþer arered, þe ymage is so grete. Þe lengþ þerof is sixe score foot and sixe. Þis ymage was somtyme in þe ylond Rhodus,*. [Herodius, MSS. and Cx.] fiftene foot hiȝere þan þe hiȝest place of*. [in, Cx.] Rome. Þis ymage bare in his riȝt hond a spere*. [So the MSS. and Cx. for sphere.] al round i-schape as þe world, and in his lift hand a swerd þat tokeneþ*. [bytokeneth, Cx.] myȝt of bataille; in Page  235, vol.1 tokeynge*. [token, α., Cx.] þat þis*. [hit, α., Cx.] is lasse maistrie, to wynne and to con|quere, þan it is to kepe and to saue þat þat is conquered and i-wonne. Þis ymage was of bras; but it was so rialliche ouer gilt, þat it schoon*. [shone, Cx.] in derknes, and ȝaf grete bemes of*. [of] Added from α. and Cx.] liȝt; also it moued*. [meouede, α.; meued, Cx.] aboute wiþ þe sonne in suche a manere þat alway his face was toward þe sonne. Alle þe Romaynes þat come þereby worschipped þat ymage in wey*. [tokene, α., Cx.] of subieccioun and of þraldom. Seynt Gregorie destroyed þat ymage wiþ fuyre, for he myȝte nouȝt destroye it wiþ strengþe. Of þat ymage is onliche i-left þe hede and the riȝt hond holdynge þe spere, þat is þe roundenesse and þe liknesse of þe world; for of al þat ymage lefte*. [is, or rather was, must be inserted before lefte.] namore vnbrend. But*. [But] om. α., Cx.] þat hede and þat hond beeþ now to fore þe popes palays vppon þe*. [þe] om. α.] tweie pilers of marbil; and wonderliche by craft of ȝetynge*. [milting, Cx.] þat bras is i-ȝote, þat þe heer semeþ nesche*. [softe, Cx.] to a manis siȝt, and þe mouþ as þey it were spekynge. Policr.,*. [Polici'., α.]libro secundo. For to hiȝte þe noblete of þe*. [this, Cx.] citee þe Romaynes made a wommans ymage in bras; þat ymage helde in his*. [hir, Cx.; but perhaps his own correction.] hond a spere þe schap*. [So α. and Cx.; scharpest, MS. (not understanding spere).] of þe world wyde. And whan þe ymage was made, hem semede þat þe legges were to feble for to bere suche an ymage; it was so grete and so huge. Page  237, vol.1 Bot þe craftes men, þat it made, answered and seide: Þe legges schal dure alway, and bere þe ymage at þe beste, and neuere faille, for to*. [vnto, Cx.] a mayde bere a childe. But þe legges faillede, and þe ymage fel*. [fil, α.] down, whan Crist was i-bore. Faste by Vespasianus his paleys is a stone þat hatte Parius, [and is whyȝte marbil; and hatte Parius]*. [Words in brackets added from α.; absent from Cx., who has other omissions.] for suche a stoon is i-digged in þe ilond þat hatte Paros. In þat*. [þat] Added from α. and Cx.] stoon is i-corue a*. [So α. and Cx.; i cornere white, MS.] white sowe wiþ þritty pigges, þat fyndeþ*. [giue, Cx.] water to hem þat wol wasche.*. [Cx. adds there.] Þere is also a table of bras þat forbedeþ synne; þerynne beeþ i-write þe chief poyntes of þe lawe; þere beeþ i-write as þere were rules in metre. Þe menynge þerof is vnderstonde in þis writynge, þat folweþ next:

Euerich nyȝt, þere*. [where, Cx.] a cok
Wakeþ som man, or it dawe;
All his song in a flok
May like no man by þe lawe.
Whan somer*. [So α.; some, MS.] is hote
Þrostel*. [the throstle, Cx.] syngeþ wiþ mery note.
Whan þe day goþ away,
Þe brid*. [birde, Cx.] is stille, and leueþ his lay.
In towne, as it longes,
Þe osul twytereþ mery songes.
At nyȝt for drede
Truly no song doþ he grede.
Whan floures*. [floure, Cx.] springeþ on rote,
Þe nyȝtyngale in his note
Twytereþ wel fawnyng
Wiþ full swete song in þe dawenyng. Page  239, vol.1
Þral makiþ his fare,
Wiþ mouth þan chetereþ*. [chiterith, Cx.] þe stare.
Of morwe song kynde
Þey haueth at eue no mynde.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum. De quibusdam Romanorum institutis et obseruantiis.

Isidorus, Etym., libro octavo decimo, cap. de triumphis, et Hugutio, cap. Tris. Whan duke, kyng, consul, oþer empe|rour hadde i-doo greet viage*. [don ony grete voyage, Cx.] and victorie, and come into Rome, at his comynge he schulde wiþ *. [re before þre in MS. (not α.)]þre manere wor|schippe be vnderfonge.*. [receyued, Cx.] Al þe peple schulde come aȝenst hym wiþ all þe solempne*. [solempte, α.] merþe, comforte, and ioye þat þey kouþe make; alle þe prisoneres schulde folwe þe*. [his, Cx.] chaar wiþ hire hondes i-bounde byhynde her bakkes; þis victor hym self schulde were on Iupiter his cote and sitte in*. [on, α., Cx.] a chaar þat fyue white hors schulde drawe anon to*. [vnto, Cx.] þe Capitol. Þerof spekeþ Ouidius:

Wiþ foure hors all snowe white
Þou schalt, sire Emperour, wende.

Ȝit among all þis worschippe, for he schulde not forȝete hym self, þis onnuy*. [So MS. and α.; this one annoy, Cx.] he hadde: a cherle was wiþ hym in Page  241, vol.1 his chare, and smote hym all wey in þe nekke; and þat for tweye skilles; þat oon was, for he schulde nouȝt be proude of þat greet worschippe; þat oþer skile was, for euerich man schulde hope to come to þat worschippe, ȝif he made hym self worþy by his dedes. While þe cherle smoot þe victor, he schulde ofte seie to hym in þis manere: Nothisselitos,*. [So MS. and α.; Notho solitos, Cx.] þat is to menynge, Knowe þyself; as who seiþ, Be nouȝt to proude of þis worschippe. And also þat day euerich man hadde leue to seie to þe victor what euere he wolde, and no blame schulde take.*. [sholde he take therfore, Cx.] And so were meny dispitous worde*. [wordes, Cx.] i-seide to Iulius Cesar [and he took þerof no maner wreche. On seide to Iulius Cesar]*. [The words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] at suche*. [siche, Cx.] a tyme: "Salue, calue;" þat is, "Hail, ballard;" and anoþer seide: "Heile, kyng and quene." ℞. Loke wiþ ynne Iulius Cesar. In vita Iohannis Eleemosynarii. Whan þe emperoures of Rome were i-crowned, come*. [sholde come, Cx.] to hem craftes men þat made tombes, and axed*. [axe, Cx.] of hem of what manere stoon oþer metal þey schulde make her tombes; as who seiþ, "Þow schalt deye;*. [deye] Added from Cx.] gouerne myldeliche þy peple." Hugutio, capit. Clarus. When þe Romaynes wolde werry in eny lond, schulde oon goo to þe endes of þat lond and clere|liche Page  243, vol.1 declare and schewe þe matire and cause of the werre, and þat declaracioun was i-cleped clarigatio.*. [clarigacion, Cx.] Þanne a spere i-pyȝt in þe ende of þe londe warned þat þe Romayns wolde werre. Isidorus, libro nono decimo, cap. vicesimo secundo. While consuls ruled Rome, þe knyȝtes of Rome schulde were rede cloþes þe day to fore þat þey schulde fiȝte. Þat was i-do for þey schulde not knowe and be abashed, whan þey say þe reed blood renne on hir cloþes; and suche knyȝtes were i-cleped Rosati, as it were i-cloþed in roses. ℞. Take hede þat*. [what, Cx.] Papy seith, Virgil clepeþ the Romayns togati; þat beeþ men i-cloþed in gownes. Þre manere gownes þey vsede and were i-hote, Pretextata,*. [Pretaxata, MS. and Cx.] Palmata, Candidata. Þe firste manere gowne, Pretextata, gentil men*. [gentilmens, Cx.] children vsede for to þey were*. [for to were of xiiij., Cx.] fouretene ȝere olde; þe secounde manere, Palmata, vsede victoris for here noble dedes; þe þridde manere gowne, Candidata, vsed lordes and maistres*. [maystres rulers, Cx.] of þe lawe. Hugutio, cap. Fastus. Þe dayes þat þe Ro|mayns wel spedde heet fasti, þat is, leful, for it was*. [Four words preceding wanting in MS.] leful to hem þylk*. [So Cx.; þat, MS.] dayes to vse dyuers doynge and dedes. Dayes*. [þat dayes, α.; the dayes, Cx.] þat þe Romaynes mysspedde were i-hote nefasti, as it were nouȝt leeful, and [þey] byhelde*. [and they heelde, Cx.] þilke dayes and wrouȝt nouȝt þilke dayes,*. [þilke dayes] om. Cx.] but nouȝt for loue and*. [and] ne, Cx.] deuocioun, but Page  245, vol.1 for drede of euel happes. Hugutio, cap. quinto. Þe feste of þilke dayes is i-cleped Quinquatria, þat is, þe fyue bl[a]k*. [black, Cx.; blake, α.] dayes, for þe sorwe and þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] bitternesse þat þe Romayns mysspedde*. [mysspedde] had, Cx.] whan þe Frensche men and Hanni|bal*. [Hanybal or Hanibal, MSS. and Cx.] byseged hem all aboute. For þan no Romayn dorste ones goo out of towne.*. [the toun, Cx.]Hugutio, cap. Classis. Whan Romulus hadde ordeyned for the comoun profiȝt, he departed atwynne*. [a sondre, Cx.] þe grete and þe mene, and cleped eiþer partie Classis,*. [Cx. has large omissions here.] for certeyne noyse and signes þat þey were by departed, þat we[re] i-cleped classica. And so þe gentil*. [jantil, α.] men and noble were i-cleped first þe firste classis. In wor|schippe of hem*. [MS. repeats in worschippe after hem.] he ordeyned a monthe and cleped hym Maius, þat is, þe monþe of þe grete men. Þe mene*. [So α. and Cx.; merie, MS.] men were i-cleped þe secounde classis, and in worschipe of hem he ordeyned a monþe, and cleped hym Iunius, þat is, þe monþe of ȝonge*. [ȝongere, α. and Cx.] men. Afterward þe Romaynes were de|parted in foure parties. In þe firste partie were consuls and doctoures; in þe secounde classis were tribuni and men of lasse dignite; in þe þridde were fre men; and in þe fourþe Page  247, vol.1 were bonde men. Tribunus is he þat fongeþ*. [fangeth, α.; receyueth, Cx., as usual.] tribute, and payeþ knyȝtes, and a ledere*. [Cx. adds, or capitain.] of a þowsand knyȝtes hatte tribunus. Hugutio, cap. Calon. Þe Romayns vsed somtyme in eueriche monþe to make a faire, and þe faire bygan þe firste day of þe Nonis,*. [Nonas, Cx.] and durede to þe firste day of Idus. Idus is to menynge*. [is as moche to saye as, Cx.] delynge and departynge; for þan þe feire was departed. Also for þe begynnynge of the monthe was ofte tyme vnknowe of*. [to, α., Cx.; the latter omits of the monthe, just above.] marchaundes and to chapmen, þerfore the firste day of þe monþe þat*. [þet, Cx.] hatte Kalende, of calo, calas, þat is, to clepe and crie. A cryour schulde stonde vppon a toure, and as meny dayes as were from þat day to þe bygynnynge of the feire, he schulde crie, "Calo:" þerfore it is þat som*. [in somme, Cx. (typ. error.)] monþe in þe kalendere haþ but foure Nonas, and som haþ sixe. And þat was i-doo, for þeffes (þat were*. [So α. and Cx.; we, MS.] i-hud*. [hidde, Cx.] in woodes for to aspye chapmen) schulde not knowe*. [i-knowe, MS. (not Cx.)] whan þe faire schulde bygnne. Hugutio, cap. Mereor. Som tyme knyȝtes after þey were sixty wynter*. [yere, Cx.] olde were noȝt compelled forto do deedes of armes; but me*. [men, Cx.] ȝaf hem feldes oþer townes oþer somwhat Page  249, vol.1 elles of*. [of] So α. and Cx.; for, MS.] þe comyn tresorie, wherby þei schulde leue. And þan suche a knyȝt was i-cleped Emeritus (oþer Emeryte) militie, as it were a knyȝt i-sett out of þe myddel*. [medful, α.; nedeful, Cx.] dedes of chyualrie. ℞. Þerfore Achanarii*. [Anatarij, Cx.] þat is by|ȝonde Tyber heet Emeritoria; for*. [for suche, Cx.] knyȝtes spended*. [spende, α.] þare what þey hadde raþer*. [to fore gotten, Cx.] i-gadered and i-wonne. Hugutio, cap. Sita.*. [lita, Cx.] Hit was vsage in Rome þat þe citezeyns schulde doo nouȝt*. [not, Cx.] elles to fore none but despute of þe comyn profit:*. [profiȝt, α.] perfore comyn wommen of Rome were i-cleped Nonarie, for þey schulde nouȝt to fore none goon oute of*. [of] to, Cx.] here comoun place, leste þey schulde lette ȝonge men from the comyn profiȝte. Hugutio, cap. Nepa. Somtyme in Rome fader and moder schulde nouȝt norische and teche hire owne children; for me supposed*. [for it was supposed, Cx.] þat he*. [they, Cx.] wolde be to tendre of hem*. [of hem] om. Cx.] and nouȝt chast*. [chastyse, Cx. (omitting hem.)] hem and bete hem to sore.*. [to sore] om. Cx.] [Neyther maystres that were al straunge and out of the kynne shold teche childeren of Rome, lest they wold Page  251, vol.1 recche to lytel of the childeren, and bete hem to sore].*. [The sentence in brackets added from Cx., whose orthography is retained. [Also contained in β.] It is omitted in α. and γ.] Þerfore maistres schulde teche þe children of Rome þat were nouȝt to nyȝ, oþer*. [noþer, α.; ne, Cx.] to fer of hire own kin. Hugutio, cap. Proles. Þere were som tyme men*. [men] om. Cx.] in Rome þat serued of nouȝt elles but for to gete*. [So α. and Cx.; geten, MS.] children and dwelle*. [dwellyd, Cx.] all wey in þe citee, and were noȝt compelled to doo dedes of armes. And suche men were i-cleped proletarii, þat is geteris*. [geters, α., Cx.] of children. ℞.*. [℞] Added from Cx.] Neuerþeles in Hannibals tyme þey were i-constreyned for to goo out of*. [for, α.] skarsnesse of knyȝtes. Valerie, libro secundo. An hundred ȝere and sixti after þat þe citee was i-buld was no deuors i-made bytwene a man and his wyf. Neuerþeles Carbilius, a bastard, was þe firste þat lifte*. [lefte, α., Cx.] his wif, onliche for þe womman was bareyne. Þei he semed i-meued of resoun, ȝit he was nouȝt al blameles: for he putte couetise of children to fore þe fey*. [feyth, Cx.] of wedlock. Isidorus, libro sexto. Þey þe Grees write first yn wex wiþ poynteles of yren, the Ro|mayns ordeyned þat no man schulde write wiþ poynteles of yren but wiþ poyntels of boon. Pol., libro secundo. Who þat wil*. [wole, α.] loke bookes of stories among all men þat Page  253, vol.1 were siþþe Rome was first sette,*. [made, Cx.] he schal fynde þat þe Romayns were most couetous and proude, he schal fynde also þat þe maistrie*. [maistry, α.] þat þey hadde in þe world aboute þey gete*. [gate, Cx.] it by punyschynge of peple*. [puple, α.] by false wiles and by gile so fer forþ þat vnneþe eny of hir princes leuede his lyf kyndeliche to þe*. [his, α., Cx.] ende. Þerfore eueryche Romayn ouercomeþ*. [that ouercometh, Cx.] oþer is ouercome wiþ flaterynge and wiþ*. [wiþ] om. α. (not Cx.)] faire wordes; and ȝif wordes failleþ, ȝiftes*. [yeftes, Cx.] schal hym awelde; ȝif ȝiftes failleþ, worschip makeþ hym pri|soner. Pol., libro septimo, capitulo undecimo. While þe citees of Italia loueþ pees and worschippeþ*. [worschepeþ, α.; worshipped, Cx., more correctly, who has also loued, and leued.] riȝtwis|nesse and leueth false oþes, þan þey haueþ*. [had, Cx.] likynge and welþe in here owne lond. But whan þey ȝeueþ*. [yeue, Cx.] hem to falshede and to stryf, anon þe pride of*. [of the, Cx.] Romayns, oþer þe woodnesse of Duches*. [Duche, Cx.] men, oþer som oþer wrecche of God all myȝti*. [almyȝti, α.] falleþ vppon hem for to þey*. [vnto the tyme they, Cx.] amende her lyf*. [her lyf] om. Cx.] by penaunce of*. [of] and, Cx.] contricioun. For trespas of þat peple putteþ awey al principalte, oþer makeþ here prynce more mylde.

Page  255, vol.1

De Germania et eius prouinciis. Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

Isid. Eth. quarto decimo. Ysidre*. [Isidorus, Cx.] seiþ þat verray Ger|mania haþ in þe est side þe mouth of þe ryuer Danubius, in þe south þe Ryne*. [ryuer, MS.; Ryn, Cx.] þat ryuer, and in þe north and in þe west þe see of Occean. Þere beeþ tweie londes, eiþer hatte Germania; þe ouer Germania*. [þe ouer Germania] om. MS.] streccheþ by sides Alpes to þat mouþ and coost of þe grete see þat hatte Adriaticus; þere þe see*. [se, α.] is as it were lakes yn þe contrayes of Aquila.*. [Aquylia, Cx.] Þe oþer Germania is lower, toward þe west about the Reyne,*. [Ryne, α., Cx.] and is comounliche i-cleped Almania oþer Teutonia. In eiþer Germania beeþ many prouinces and londes, þat beeþ Boemia, Westfalia, Bauarria, Thuryngia, Sueuia, Saxonia → , Franconia, Lothoringia, Frisia, Selandia. Paulus, libro primo. Þe north contrey is fer from þe hete of þe*. [hete of þe] om. Cx.] sonne, and holsom for men to wone*. [α. adds, and dwelle.] yn, and able to brynge forþ children. Þerfore it is þat þere is more multiplicacioun and encrese of men and children in þe norþ contray þan in þe south, þat is ful nyh þe Page  257, vol.1 sonne, and vnholsom and siklewe for men to wonye ynne. And so þey eueriche londe and contray haue his owne propre name, noþeles*. [netheles, Cx.] al þe contray and lond from the ryuer Tanais anon to þe west hatte Germania; for he gendreþ and bryngeth forth mo*. [moo, α.] men and children þan þey*. [it, Cx.] may wel susteyne. Þerfore hit is þat so ofte goþ dyuers men out of þat side of þe world ynto oþer londes, oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx., who has or be|low.] by lot, oþer aȝenst hir wille, oþer by here good wille for to wynne and*. [wynne and] om. Cx.] gete oþere londes. So dede Gothy, Wandaly, Saxones, Wynuly, and Longobardi. Boemya is þe firste prouince of þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] ester*. [este, Cx.] Germania, and haþ in þe est side Mesia*. [Misia, MSS. (as usual.)] and Alania, in þe souþ þe ryuer Danubius and Pannonia, in þe west Bauaria and Thuringia,*. [Thurynga, MS., here and be|low (not so always α. or Cx.)] and in þe north and northwest Saxonia → , and is i-closed al most all*. [all] om. Cx.] aboute wiþ hilles and wodes, and haþ grete*. [agreete, α.] plente of lese and of gras þat*. [So Cx. (that); and, MS., α.] smelleþ ful swete, and of dyuerse wylde bestes, among þe whiche is oo*. [o beste, α.; bestes, MS.; one beeste, Cx.] beste, and hatte boz in þe langage of Boemia, but he deffendeþ nouȝt hym|self with his hornes, but he haþ a large ryuel, as it were a bagge, vnder þe chynne; þeryn he gadereth water and Page  259, vol.1 heteþ it in his rennynge scladeng*. [scald, α.; skalding, Cx., which is probably alone right.] hoot, and þroweþ it vppon hunteres and houndes þat purseweþ hym, and scaldeþ of þe heere of hem*. [So Cx.; hym, MS.] and brenneþ hem ful sore. Thuryngia*. [Thurynga, MS., here and below (not so always α. or Cx.).] haþ in þe est side Boemia, in þe west Franconia, in þe norþ Westfalia, and in þe souþ þe ryuer Danubius. Fran|conia is, as it were, þe myddel prouynce of Germania, and haþ in þe est side Thuryngia,*. [Thurynga, MS., here and below (not so always α. or Cx.).] in þe west Sueuia, in þe norþ a party*. [So Cx.; of a party, MS. and α.] of Westfalia, and in þe souþ Bauaria and þe ryuer Danubius. Bauaria haþ in þe est þe ryuer Da|nubius*. [Eight words preceding wanting n MS.] and Retica.*. [So α. and Cx.; Ratica, MS.; Rethica below.] Westfalia haþ in þe est side Saxonia → , in þe west Frisia, in þe norþ occean, in þe souþ a party of Fraunce*. [Some words repeated in MS.] and of Sueuia. Sueuia haþ in þe est Bauaria, in þe west þe ryuere þat hatte þe Ryne, in þe north a party of Franconia, and in þe south Retica and Alpes. Saxonia → haþ in þe est Alania, yn þe west Westfalia, in þe north occean, and in þe souþ Thuringia.*. [Cx. omits the last clause of the foregoing, and much of the following sentence.]Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Men of Saxonia → woneþ toward þe norþ endes of occean, and beeþ boþe liȝter*. [ben more lighter, Cx.] and strenger þan oþer Page  261, vol.1 skymours*. [scommers or theuys, Cx.] of þe see, and purseweþ her enemyes ful hard boþe by water and by lond, and hatte Saxones of saxum,*. [saxon, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þat is, a stoon, for þey beeþ hard as stones and vnesy to fare wiþ. In þe hulles of Saxonia is wel nyȝ all manere metal i-digged, outakyn*. [outake, α.; founden, reserued tyn, Cx.] tyn. In Germania beeþ salt welles, of þe whiche wellis is salt i-made as white*. [whiȝt, α.] as any*. [ony, Cx. (and so often.)] snowe. Fast by þe*. [that, Cx.] hille þat coper is i-digged ynne is a greet hille of stones; of þat hille [the stones]*. [Added from Cx., who varies the sentence a little.] smelleþ swete as violet. Also faste by þe mynystre*. [monasterye, Cx.] of Seint Michel is marbil i-founde þe fairest þat may be. Beda, libro [quinto], capitulo vicesimo quinto. Þe olde Saxones haue no kyng, but meny knyȝtes of here owne ruleþ hem;*. [hem] om. Cx.] but in tyme of bataille þei casteþ lott whiche of here knyȝtes schal be ledere and cheveteyn, and folweþ him þat is so i-chose by lott*. [whiche of . . . lott] Added from α. and Cx.] as cheef lorde and maister durynge þe bataille; but whan þe bataile*. [Four words omitted in MS.] is i-doo, þan schal he be as he was raþer,*. [byfore; that is to wete, he, &c., Cx.] he and oþere knyȝtes al i-liche*. [alle lyche, Cx., who omits knyȝtes.] greet of power and of myȝt. Plinius, libro quinto. Frisia is a lond vppon þe clyue*. [coste, Cx.] of þe west occean, and bygynneþ Page  263, vol.1 in þe souþ side from þe Ryne, and endeþ at þe see of Den|mark.*. [Denmarch, α.] Men of Frisia beeþ i-schore*. [ben high shauen, Cx.] aboute, and euir*. [euere, α.] þe more gentil man and noble þe hiȝer he is i-schore. Þe men beþ faire of body and cruel and bolde of herte, and vsed*. [vse, Cx., which is better.] speres in stede*. [So α. and Cx.; dede, MS.] of arwes, and loueþ fredom most of eny þing. Þerfore þey suffreþ no man be a knyȝt þat wil be her lorde. Neuerþeles þey beeþ gouerned and ruled by domesmen and iuges, and euerich ȝere þey*. [he, α.] chcseþ of hem self her owne iuges. Þey loueþ wel chastite, and kepeþ besiliche here children, and suffreth hem nouȝt to wyfe*. [marie, Cx.] wiþ ynne*. [wiþ ynne] til they be, Cx.] foure and twenty ȝere.*. [yere old, Cx.] Þerfore þey haueþ stalworþe*. [stronge and stelworth childeren, Cx.] children and stronge; þey haueþ none wodes,*. [no woodes, α.] þerfore þey makeþ hem fuyre of torues.*. [turues, Cx.] Selandia is a litel lond vppon þe see, [whiche renneth thurgh the londe and causeþ xvij. ilondes, and about eueryche a shippe saylle,]*. [The words in brackets added from Cx. After see MS. and α have by-clipped aboute as an ilond wiþ armes of þe see, which occurs below.] and haþ in þe est side Ho|landia, in þe north Frisia, in þe west occean, in*. [and in, α.] þe souþ Flandria, and is by clipped aboute as an ilond wiþ armes of Page  265, vol.1 þe see and floodes.*. [Cx. thus: and is enuironed with water and highe bankes to holde out the rysynge of the see and floodes.] Þere is good corn londe and scarsete of trees, for þe rootes mowe not take depnesse and*. [ne, Cx.] fatnesse for saltnesse of þe erþe. Þe men beeþ grete of body and mylde of herte. Paulus, libro primo. In þe norþwest*. [west, Cx.] side of Germania is a peple þat hiȝte Scribonius, þat hath snow al þe somer tyme, and eteþ rawe flesch, and beeþ i|cloþed in goot bukkes*. [bukke, α., Cx. (buk.)] skynnes. In hire contray, whan þe nyȝt is schort, me may all nyȝt see*. [see alle the nyght, Cx.] þe sonne bemes; and eft*. [after, Cx.] in the wynter, when þe day is schort, þey may see þe liȝt of þe sonne, þey*. [þey] om. α.] me seeþ noȝt þe sonne.*. [Cx. thus: though men see the light of the sonne, yet the sonne is not seen.]Item Paulus, libro primo, cap. quarto.*. [Cx., omitting the reference, thus: Item fast, &c.] Fast byside þat peple Scribonius, vndir þe clif of occean, is a den vndir an hiȝe stoon; þer|ynne slepeþ seuen men and haueþ longe i-slepe, and beeþ hool and sound in body and cloþinge, and al wiþ oute wem.*. [wemme, α., Cx.] So þat vntauȝt men and straunge haueþ hem*. [For which cause the comyn peple have hem, Cx.] in gret wor|schippe.*. [worship and reuerence, Cx.] Þey beeþ i-holde Romaynes, as þei semeþ by hire cloþinge.*. [They ar supposed Romains by her clothing, Cx.] Þere was a man som tyme þat for couetise wolde stripe on of hem, and haue his cloþing. But anone his Page  267, vol.1 armes driede and wax al drye.*. [forwith his arme waxed al dreye, Cx.] Hit may be þat God kepeþ*. [list to kepe, Cx.] hem so hool and sounde, for mysbyleued men in tyme to comynge schulde þorwȝ hem be conuerted and i|torned to good byleue.

De Gallia sive Francia. Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

℞. Hit is i-write in stories þat Gallia, þat*. [þat] Added from α.; which, Cx.] is Francia, haþ þat name Gallia of whitenes of þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx.] peple. Gala is Grew,*. [a worde in Grewe, and is lac, Cx.]lac in Latyn, mylk*. [and mylke, Cx.] in Englissh. Þerfore Sibylla clepeþ hem Gallos, þat is, white, and seiþ "Þan*. [that, Cx.] þe mylky nekkes beeþ i-wasche wiþ gold." Hugutio, cap. Gala. By þe dyuer|site of heuene is dyuersite of coloures of face, of quantite and gretnes of body, of maneres and of witt; þerfore in Rome beeþ heuy men, yn Grees lyȝt, in Affrica gileful, in Gallia witty men and wys. ℞. Here take hede, as Augus|tinus toucheþ, De Civitate Dei, libro [secundo, cap.]*. [The words in brackets added from Cx. This is the true reference, and the text agrees; the Harl. MS. is wrong.] quinto, þat Gally in oon manere speche were þe preostes, þat were Page  269, vol.1 in þe temple of þat goddes þat hiȝte Cybele,*. [Cibeles or Sibeles, MSS. and Cx.] and hadde the name*. [haue that name, Cx.] nouȝt of þat lond Gallia but of þat*. [the, Cx.] ryuer Gallus þat is in Phrygia.*. [Frigia, MSS. and Cx.] Alle þat drank of þat ryuer schulde worþe wood, and were alle i-gilded in mynde*. [their mynde, Cx.] of þat child Attis,*. [Athis, MSS. and Cx.] þat þilke goddes Cybele loued wiþ all her myȝt. Þe*. [That, Cx.] childe worþe*. [waxe, Cx.] wood, and gilded hymself, for fraude and gile þat he hadde i-doo to þat goddes Cybele, [so sayth]*. [Added from Cx.] Ovidius de Fastis. But of*. [þe] Added in α.] Galli þat beeþ Franci, and Frensche men, Eutropius, libro secundo, seiþ, Galli beeþ wel hasty, and here body passeþ þe comune sta|ture of oþer men. But it is i-founde by assay þat as*. [α. and Cx. add þe.] Galli beþ wel hasty þan strong in þe firste rees,*. [rese or brout, Cx.] soo afterward þey beeþ*. [they ben after fyghtyng, in Cx.] in fiȝtynge more feble þan wommen. For as þey beeþ liche Alpes in gretnes of body, so þey beeþ liche*. [be somwhat like, Cx. (and α.)] to the snowe þat lieþ vppon Alpes*. [the Alpes, Cx., and so below.] þat brekeþ out on sweet, and melteþ wiþ hete of fyȝtynge as snow dooþ wiþ hete of þe sonne. Girald., Dist. [i.], cap. septimo decimo. Þanne Gallia wiþ his parties al hole haþ in þe north side Germania, in þe est þe Ryne, in þe souþest*. [So α. and Cx.; south est, MS.] Alpes, in þe west þe see of*. [of] om. Cx.] occean þat hatte boþe Britannicus and Gallicus, þat is, Englisshe and Frensche,*. [So Cx.; Frensche in Englisshe, MS., α.] for it departeþ boþe Engelond and Fraunce, in þe souþ þe see of myddel erþe þat wascheþ aboute by þe Page  271, vol.1 prouynce of Narbon. In Iulius Cesar his tyme Gallia was departed on þre; but for dyuers happes þat byfel afterward in þat lond þe contray and lond þat streccheþ from þe Ryne to Seyne, from þe oon ryuer to þat oþer, hatte now Gallia Belgica, þat is verray Fraunce; and þat contray þat*. [þat] Added from Cx.] streccheþ from þens to þe ryuer of Leyre, hatte Gallia Lugdumensis. Þe ouer partie þerof hatte Burgundia, and þe neþere hatte Neustria; and þe contray þat streccheþ fram þe ryuer of Leyre to þe water þat hatte*. [þat hatte] of, α., Cx.] Garonna hatte Gallia Aquitanica, þat is Gyan, and streccheþ out of þe est from þe ryuer of Rone anon to þe West occean. Þe ouer party þerof hatte Celica,*. [Selica, α.] þat is, heuenliche and hiȝe, for hiȝe mountaignes þat beeþ þerynne. From þe ryuer of Garonna to þe see of myddel erþe and to þe mountaignes þat beeþ montes Pyrenei, greet hilles of Spayne, is i-cleped Gallia Narbonensis, and now som þerof hatte Gothia, and som Vasconia, þat is Gasquyne. And so Gallia al hool is i-closed aboute wiþ þre noble wateres, wiþ þe Reyne*. [Ryne, α.] in þe norþ side, wiþ þe Rone in þe est, and wiþ þe Bruttische*. [So also Cx. (Bruttysh.)] occean in þe west side. In Gallia beþ many good quarers and noble for to digge stoon;*. [digge yn stones, α., Cx.] and bysides Parys is greet plente of a manere stoon þat hatte gypsus, and is i-cleped white plaistre also; whan þat stoon is i-tempred wiþ water Page  273, vol.1 and torned to playstre.*. [into plaster, α., Cx.] Þanne me makeþ þerof ymages, walles and chambres, pamentes and dyuerse manere of*. [of] om. Cx.] workes, þat dureþ longe i-now. Þere is þe faire floure þe citee of Parys, norice*. [which is noryce, Cx.] of þewes, botiller of lettres, schy|nynge in Europa as Athene*. [Athenes, Cx.] somtyme in Grecia. Girald. Dist. prima. Þe Frensche men, þat hatte Franci also, and many oþer men þe strengest of Europa come of*. [α. and Cx. add þe.] Troians; ffor aftir þat Troye was i-take, Antenor wiþ his men fliȝ*. [fled, Cx.] awey by þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] watres þat hatte paludes Meotides, and by þe ryuer Tanais, and wonede in Pannonia, and bulde þere a citee, and cleped it Sicambria. Of þat citee he and alle hise were aftirward i-cleped Sicambri. After Antenore his deeþ þey ordeyned hem tweie lederes, Trogotus and Franco, and of þilke Franco þei were after i-cleped Franci. Turpinus, de gestis Karoli, seiþ þat whanne*. [So α.; what, MS. (first hand); altered to whan.] kyng Charles had i-made Spayne soget, and was i-come home to Parys aȝen, he made alle þe bonde men of Gallia fre*. [So α. and Cx.; fre before of Gallia in MS.] in worschippe of Seint Iame*. [Iames, Cx.] and of Seynt Denys; but þey schulde euery ȝere offre foure pans*. [panes, α.; pens, Cx.] to þe chirche work of Seynt Denys. And so þey were i-cleped Franci Page  275, vol.1 Beati*. [Sancti, Cx.] Dionysii, þat is Seint Denys his fre men. And so it come*. [cam, Cx.] aboute þat Gallia was i-cleped Francia, by cause of þat fredom. Oþer men telleþ þat Valentinianus*. [So Cx.—MS. and α. have his tyme also, after Val.; but this seems a mere clerical error. See below.] þe emperour cleped hem Francos as it were Ferancos, þat is steorne and wither, in þe langage of Attica, þat is Grecia. For Sicambri, þat beeþ Frensche men, were tri|butarii to Rome longe tyme to fore Valentinianus is tyme also. But whan Alani, men of Alania, were enemyes to Rome, Sicambri hadde hire tribute forȝeue for ten ȝere for to werre aȝenst Alani, men*. [ayenst the men, Cx.] of Alania; and whan þe ten ȝere were i-doo and Alani ouercome, þe Romaynes asked her tribute; and Sicambri werned it and wolde none paye. Þerfore Valentinianus þe emperour werred vppon hem wiþ a grete oost, and hadde þe victorie; þan for þat myshap Sicambry were wood wrooþ,*. [sore wroth, Cx.] and werred*. [warred, Cx.] in þe londes of Rome [and also on the londes that were subgett to Rome]*. [Words in brackets added from Cx.] also. Þerfore Sicambri were afterward i-cleped Franci, as it were feranci, þat is wither and sterne,*. [wiþer and steerne, α.] and of þat duke Franco þey were i-cleped Franci, as it were Franco his men. Also of hir fredom þat kyng Charles ȝaf hem þey beeþ i-cleped Franci, þat is fre men so*. [so] om. Cx.] for to mene. Treuisa. But how er þey come to þat name, Franci beeþ Frensche men, and hatte boþe Sicambri and Galli. And so Page  277, vol.1 it is alle oon peple, Sicambri, Galli, and*. [α. om. and.] Franci, and Frensche men. ℞.*. [℞.] Added from α. and Cx.] Franci made hem a kyng þat hiȝte*. [heet, α.] Fera|mundus, Marcomiris*. [Marcomirus his, α.; Marconurus, Cx.] sone, and made alle þe lond sogett, ffrom*. [ffram, α.] Sicambria anon to þe Ryne. Willielmus de Regibus, libro primo. Whan Feramundus was dede, þey made his sone kyng, þat hadde þre names, and heet Clodion, Clodius, and Crinitus; and of hym kynges of Fraunce were aftir|ward i-cleped Criniti.*. [Criniti] So α. and Cx.; Cirini Sirini, MS.] After Clodius þey made his sone kynge, þat hadde þre names,*. [Cx., β., γ. omit this clause, which seems repeated by a clerical error.] and hiȝte Meroueus; and after hym kynges of Fraunce were i-cleped Merouyngi anoon to Pypinus his tyme. In þe same manere kynges sones of Engelond hadde names i-schape by hir fader names and so*. [had names after the names of theyr fader, as, Cx.] Edgarus his sone hiȝte Edgaryngus,*. [So α. and Cx.; Edgaryndus, MS.] and Edmun|dus his sone heet Edmundyngus. Comounliche he þat comeþ of*. [of þe, α.] kynges blood is i-cleped Adelyngus. Girald., Dist. prima. After Meroueus regned his sone Childericus; hym folwede*. [cristned, Cx.] Remigius. Þis Childericus at þe prayere*. [atte prayere, Cx.] of þe Romayns put þat peple Gothi Arriani out of Gyan.*. [Guyan, Cx.] Whan he was dede his sone Childebertus helde þé kyng|dom wiþ his þre breþeren Theodoricus, Clodomirus,*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and Clo|tarius. Page  279, vol.1 Þis was in þe popes tyme þe Grete Gregory.*. [time of the grete pope Gregory, Cx.] Afte þis Childebertus*. [So α.; Chilbertus, MS.] regned his broþer Clotarius: he wedded Seynt Radagund. And after hym regned his sone, Childericus, wiþ his þre breþeren Carbertus, Gundianus, and Sigesbertus. After Childericus reigned his sone Clotarius: he bygat Dagobertus and his suster Batildys.*. [So Cx.; Batildus, MS., α.] Vnder þis Dagobertus Pypinus was þe grettest man of þe kynges hous; and þat was in Heraclius þe emperoures tyme.*. [in the tyme of Eraclius thempe|rour, Cx.] After Dagobertus regned his sone Clodoueus. In his tyme seynt Benet his body was translated and i-bore out of þe prouince Beneuentana in to Fraunce. After Clodoueus regned his sone Clotarius; after*. [and after, Cx.] hym his broþer Theodoricus. In his tyme Ebroynus,*. [Ebronius, α., Cx.] þat was þe grettest of þe kynges hous, pursuede Seint Leode|garius and dede hym moche woo and tene, and martired hym at þe laste.*. [atte laste, Cx.] After Theodoricus regned Clodouius; and after hym his ȝonge*. [ȝunger, α., Cx.] broþer Childebertus; [after him his ȝonger*. [yong, Cx.] sone Dagobertus;]*. [Words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] and after hym þe kynges lynage faillede. For after hym reigned his broþer Daniel, þat was a clerk. But Franci chaunged Daniel his name, and Page  281, vol.1 cleped hym*. [hym] om. α.] Childericus. After hym reigned oon of his kyn þat heet Theodoricus; and after hym his brother Hil|dericus. He was i-putte doun for grete nysete and i-made a clerk, and leued as a monk in an abbay; and þanne faillede þe lynage in men of Feramundus blood. But ȝit it laste*. [lasted, Cx.] and durede in a womman þat was Batildis, Dagober|tus his suster. In þis manere Batildis*. [Batildus, MS. (not Cx.)] was i-wedded to Ansebertus, and hadde by hym a sone þat heet Arnold. Þan þis Arnoldes sone heet Arnulphe.*. [Arnulphus, Cx. (thrice.)] Þat Arnulphe*. [Arnulphus, Cx. (thrice.)] wed|ded duke Pypinis douȝter. Pypinus was grettest of king*. [the grettest of the kyng, Cx.] Dagobertus his hous. Kyng Dagobertus was Batildis broþer. Þis Arnulph*. [Arnulphus, Cx. (thrice.)] was afterward i-made bisshop, Metensis epi|scopus.*. [episcopus] om. Cx.] Þan his sone Ansegesilus gat Pipinus, þat hadde tweie oþer names, Vetulus and Bremys.*. [Breuis, α. and Cx.]Willielmus*. [Willelmus, Cx., here and else|where.]de Re|gibus, libro primo. Þis Pypinus gat Charles þat heet Tutidis,*. [So α. and Cx.; Tutidus, MS. (not so below.)] [and Martellus also, and had þat name Tutidis]*. [Words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] of tu[n]dere, þat is bete and bounse.*. [beten and bounsed, Cx.] For he beet*. [he beet] abent, α.] out of Fraunce alle þe tyrauntes and Sarazynes*. [Sarzines, α.] þat werrede þerynne, and de|stourbed*. [destroubled, Cx.] þe lond and þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] peple. Þis Charles folwed þe Page  283, vol.1 sentens of his forme fadres,*. [forfaders, Cx.] and helde þe kynges of Fraunce in his retenue. And he hym self was i-cleped an erle, and hilde hym a payed*. [paid and content, Cx.] in*. [wiþ, α., Cx.] þat name. Giraldus. Þis Charles gatte þe secounde Pypinus*. [Pupinus, Cx. (but not uni|formly).] and Charles þe Grete þat was aftirwarde a monk. Þis secounde Pipinus was of þe kynges kynde: for he com of Batildis, þat we speke of raþere.*. [bifore, Cx.] And þerfore he was i-made kyng of Fraunce by assent of alle þe chyualrie and by auctorite of pope Steuene þat was next pope*. [pope neyt (for next), Cx.] after Zacharie. Þis Pipinus gat Charles þe Grete; þis Charles was i-made kyng after his fader*. [faders, Cx. (and so often.)] deeþ, þe ȝere of oure Lorde seuene hundred þre score and nyne. For his noble dedes þe Romayns chees*. [chose, Cx.] hym afterwardes for to be Seynt Petres aduokett,*. [aduocate, Cx.] aftirward patricius, and þan þe em|perour and Augustus. And from þat tyme þe empere of Constantinopolis*. [Constantinople, Cx.] tornede from the Romaynes to þe Frensche men; for þey wolde not*. [nouȝt, α. (not, Cx. uniformly.)] helpe þe chirche of Rome aȝen þe Longebardes þat werred aȝenst þe Romayns. Þis Charles gat Lewes,*. [Lowys, Cx. (and so below.)] þat was aftirward emperoure. Þis Lewis gat þe Balled Charles, þat was emperour also. Þe Balled Charles gat Lewes; Lewes gat Charles þe Sym|ple. Page  285, vol.1 Charles þe Simple gat Lewes;*. [Cx. omits both clauses relating to Charles the Simple.] Lewes gat Lotha|rius; Lotharius gat Lewes, þe laste kyng of þis lynage. Whan þis Lewes was dede, Franci took Huwe*. [Hugh, Cx.] duke of Burgoyne, and made hym here kyng. Þis Hewe gat Robert; Robert gat Henry;*. [Harry, Cx.] Henry gat Phelip; Philip gat Lewes. Lewes regnede in Henry Clerkes*. [clerk his, α.] tyme, þe Conquerours sone. Þe Grete Charles his*. [his] So α.; of, MS.] ospringe regnede in Fraunce anon to Hughe is tyme, þat hiȝt Capet by his surname. Of hym come oþer kynges of Fraunce, as it is wiþynne in his place openliche declared; kynges of his ofsprynge regned in Italia and in Almania anone to þe ȝere of oure Lord nyne hondred and twelue, whan Conradus,*. [So α. and Cx.; Contradus, MS.] kyng of Duches*. [Duche, Cx.] men, toke þe empere to hymself. ℞. Longe aftirward, as comyn*. [the comyn, Cx.] fame telleþ, a woman þat was quene of Fraunce by eritage wedded a bocher for his fairenesse; þerfore in þe repreef*. [reproof, Cx.] of þat dede Frensche men ordeyned among hemself þat no womman schulde aftirwarde be eyre of þe reigne*. [royame, Cx.] of Fraunce. Giraldus. Þe Romayns were som|tyme Page  287, vol.1 victours of alle þe worlde; but stalworþe men and wight,*. [wiȝt, α.] þat wonede in Fraunce, ouercome hem in many batailles; but at þe*. [Cx., as usual, omits þe.] laste in Gaius Iulius Cesar his tyme Gallia, þat is Fraunce, was i-made soget, and so occupied by Romaynes aboute a foure hondred ȝere anon to þe laste tyme of Valentinianus þe emperour, whan dyuers men of straunge londes werred in Gallia. For first Wandali and Huni, þanne Sweui and Burgundi, þat beeþ of Sweuia, a lond of Almania,*. [So α., Cx.; Alemanii, MS.] þat is*. [is] Added from Cx.] Almayne. Þanne Gothi and Si|cambri, þan Norþways*. [So α., Cx.; Norwaye, MS.] and Danes made hem*. [hem self, Cx., who omits cheef.] cheef citees in Gallia. In Gallia, þat is Fraunce, beeþ many prouinces and londes þat beeþ Braban, Flaundres, Pycardie, Nor|mandye, þe lasse Britayne, Peyto, Gyan, Angeoye, Gas|quyn,*. [Gascoign, Cx.] Burgoyne,*. [Burgun, α.] Salina, Prouincia, Campania þe lasse, þat is*. [is] Added from α.] Champayn. And Aluarn also is in Fraunce. Flan|dria, Page  289, vol.1 þat is Flaundres, a prouince of Gallia Belgica,*. [So α.; Bellica, MS.] and is vppon þe brynke*. [coste, Cx.] of þe see of occean, and haþ in þe north side Frisia, in þe est Germania, in þe souþe Pycardie, in þe west occean, in*. [α. and Cx. add and.] þe norþ a party of Engelond. And þeyȝ Flaundres be a litel lond, it is ful plentevous of meny profitable þinges, and*. [and] om. Cx.] of richesse of pasture, of bestes, of marchaundise, of ryueres, of hauenes of þe see, and of good townes. Þe men of Flaundres beeþ faire, stronge, and riche; and bringeþ forth meny children, and beeþ pesible*. [pesibel, α.] to hir neighebores, trewe*. [and trewe, α., Cx.] to straungeres, noble craftes*. [crafty men, Cx.] men, and greet makeres of cloþ þat þey sendeþ*. [whiche is sante, Cx.] aboute wel nyȝ al*. [in al, α. and Cx.] Europa. Þe lond is pleyne and skarse of wode; þerfore in stede of wode þey brenneþ torfes, þat smelleþ wors þan wode, and makeþ fouler askes.*. [asshes, Cx. (as usual.)] Braban is by south est Flaundres, and is plentevous of marchaundise and of*. [of] om. Cx.] makynge of clooth. For of wolle,*. [the wulle, Cx.] þat þey haueþ out of Engelond þey*. [þey] added from Cx. (they.)] makeþ clooþ of dyuers coloures and sendeþ in to oþere*. [So α. and Cx.; dyuers, MS.] prouinces and londes, as Flaundres dooþ. For þey Engelonde haue wolle at þe beste, he*. [it, Cx.; þei, α.] haþ nouȝt so grete plente of good water for dyuers coloures and hewes as Flaundres haþ and Braban. Neuerþeles at Londoun is oon welle þat helpeþ*. [So α. and Cx.; clepeþ, MS.] wel to make good scarlet, and so is at Lyncolne in*. [in] one, Cx.] certeyne place in þe brook þat Page  291, vol.1 passeþ by þe toun. Pycardie is a prouince of Gallia, and haþ þat name of þe toun þat hatte Ponticus, and hat now Phiten; so seiþ Herodotus. Pycardie haþ many noble castelles and townes, þat beeþ Ambyans,*. [as Amyens, Cx.] Belgis, oþer Beluacus, Attrebat,*. [Attrebat] om. Cx., who adds and many other after Tournay.] Tornat; and lieþ bytwene Flaundres in þe north side and Normandye in þe souþ side, and haþ in þe west side the see and þe south side*. [Eleven words wanting in MS.] of Engelond. Þere beeþ tweie Picardies, þe ouer*. [that one, Cx.] is nere Fraunce; and þe neþer*. [and eyther, Cx.] ioyneþ*. [inneþ, α.] to þe endes of Flaundres and of Braban. Þe men þere of beeþ boistous men of dedes, and gretter*. [grettre, α.] speche haþ*. [haue gretter speche, Cx.; specheþ, MS.] þan oþer men of Fraunce. Normandie, þat hatte*. [heet, Cx. (who usually substi|tutes is named.)] Neustria also, haþ*. [and hath, Cx. (typ. error.)] þe name of Norwayes þat seilled*. [sail, Cx.] out of Norway and of Denmark, and gatt a contrey vppon þe clyues of occean yn Gallia and cleped it Normandie. Þe cheef citee þerof is Rowan vppon þe mouth of þe ryuere of Seyne;*. [ryuer Seyne, α.] þere Seyne torneþ into þe see of occean. Normandye haþ in þe souþ [the lasse Brytayn, in the weste the Frensshe occean, and in the north west the south syde of Englonde].*. [The words in brackets added from Cx.; partly also from α.] Þe lasse Bretaigne haþ þe name of Britoons*. [So α.; Britons, Cx.; Brutus, MS.]Page  293, vol.1 þat twyes occupied*. [So α. and Cx.; occupieþ, MS.] þat lond. Fyrst by Brennus*. [Birremus, MS.; Brenius, Cx.] þat was kyng Bellynus his broþer,*. [Bellinus broder, Cx.] and efte sones by Britons þat were pursued and greued by þe Saxons in Fortigerns*. [Vortegerns, α.; Vortigers, Cx.] tyme kyng of Britons, as it is i-write and conteyned in þe storie of Britouns. Þis prouince haþ in þe est side Ande|gauia, þat is Angeoye,*. [Andegoy, Cx.] in þe north Normandye, in þe souþ Guyan, in þe west occean Aquitanicus, þat is þe see þat is by Gyan is side.*. [by the side of Guyan, Cx.]Giraldus in Topographia.*. [toppicis, (sic) Cx. Reference omitted in MS.] In þis Britayne is a welle; ȝif þe water of þat welle is i-take in bugle*. [in a bugles, Cx.] horn and i-helte*. [poured, Cx.] vppon a stoon þat is*. [þat is] om. Cx.] next to þe welle, by*. [So MS., but probably by a cle|rical error for be, which α. and Cx. read.] þe wedir*. [be þe welle, α.] neuer so faire anon it schal rayne. Also in þe Frensche men lond*. [And in Fraunce, Cx.] is a welle faste by þe castel Pascence, þe water of þat welle is swiþe good*. [the water therof is right good, Cx.] for men and nouȝt for wommen. No man can hete water*. [that water, Cx.] of þat welle noþer wiþ fuyre ne wiþ craft þat any man can deuyse.*. [So α. and Cx.; can do deuyse, MS.] Pictauia, þat is Peytowe, is a prouince of Gallia Narbonensis. Englischmen, Scottes, and Pyctes*. [So Cx.; Puteis, MS.; Putees, α.] seilled and wonede þere and cleped þe contray Pictauia, and þe chief citee Pictauus, þat is Peiters, so seiþ Herodotus.*. [Erodotus, MSS. and Cx., as usual.]Page  295, vol.1 Þis prouince streccheþ longe wey vppon þe occean, and haþ in þe est side Turonia, þerby passeþ þe ryuer of Leyre, in þe souþ side Spayne, in þe norþ þe lasse Bretaigne and þe see of Gyan, in þe west þe see of occean. Þe*. [So α. and Cx.; þat, MS.] men of þat lond draweþ after þe maneres of*. [ben of the conditions of, Cx.] Frensche men, bycause þat þey beeþ i-meddled*. [i-melled, α.; by cause they medle, Cx.] wiþ hem, and also by cause of þe contray þat þey woneþ ynne;*. [and of the countrey that is so neyghe to them, Cx.] so þat þey beeþ now stronge of body, faire of face, bold of herte, and fel of witte. For Ysidre, Eth., libro nono, seiþ þat dyuersite of contrayes vnder heuene is dyuersite of face in man in strengþe, in colour, and in witt.*. [The last sentence is omitted in Cx.]

De Aquitania. Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

Aquitania, þat is Gyan, and haþ þe name Aquitania of aquis, þat ben wateres; for þe water of þe ryuere of Leire gooþ aboute a greet deel of þat lond. Many particuler prouinces*. [many a perticuler prouince, Cx.] is comprehendid vndir þe name of þat lond. Plinius seiþ þat he haþ in þe north and in þe est Gallia Lugdunensis, in þe souþ and est he streccheþ to þe pro|uince of Narbon. Andegauia, þat is Angeoy, a prouince of Gallia, and is as it were in þe myddel bytwene Gyan Page  297, vol.1 and litel Bretaigne. Vasconia, þat is Gasguyne,*. [Gascoyn, Cx.] and was somtyme conteyned vndir Gyan, and haþ in þe est side þe hilles Pyrenei, in þe west the west occean, in þe souþ est þe pleyn of þe prouince of Tholous, and in þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer side hit neigheþ to Peytow. In þat lond beeþ meny woodes, hilles, and vynes;*. [wynes, α.] and þe ryuer Garonna departeþ bytwene þat lond and þe þrouince of Tholous, and entreþ into þe see of occean faste by Burdeux; þat is þe chief citee*. [whiche is chyef cyte, Cx.] of þat lond. Þe men of þat lond beeþ i-cleped Vascones, as it were Wacones. Þe Grete Pompeius*. [Pompeus, MS., α., and Cx.] put hem doun of mount Pyreneus, and gadered hem alle in to oon*. [o, α.] towne, whanne Spayne was ouercome, so seiþ Herodotus, þe writer of stories.*. [historyes, Cx., as usual.] Þe men of þat lond hatte now Vasclensis,*. [Basclensis, α.; Basclenses, Cx.] and beeþ swift and hardy, and vseþ balles and alblastres*. [arblestres, Cx.] and gladliche woleþ robbe*. [do robbe, Cx.] and reue*. [reeue, α.]; and so þey beeþ stronge þeues. Þey beeþ cloþed in slitte*. [slight, Cx.] cloþis and foule. Burgundia is a party of Gallia Seno|nensis*. [Senosensis, MS., α., and Cx.] and streccheþ anon to Alpes Pyrenei, and haþ þat name Burgundia of borw*. [borugh, Cx.] townes þat Austrogothi bulde*. [bylded, Cx.] þer inne, whan þey keste*. [purposed, Cx.] for to destroye Italia. Þis lond Page  299, vol.1 is ful colde toward Alpes Pyrenei; men þat woneþ toward þat side of Burgoyne*. [Burgan, α.] haueþ bocches vnder þe chyn i-swolle and i-bolled,*. [yswollen and bagged, Cx.] as þey he*. [as though they, Cx.] were double chynned, þat is bycause of greet colde of wateres of snow, þat melteþ among hem al day.

De Hispania.*. [The Latin proper names in the three following chapters are more or less corrupt; they have been mostly corrected without noticing the readings of the MSS.] Capitulum vicesimum nonum. Trogus, libro ultimo, et Isidorus, libro quinto decimo.

Trogus seiþ þat Trigonia*. [So α. and Cx.; Trigania, MS.] is Spayne al hool, and þe hilles Pireney ioyneþ Spayne in*. [in] so α. and Cx.; and, MS.] þe norþ side to Gallia Narbonensis, and is i-closed in þe oþer sides al aboute wiþ þe see of occean and wiþ þe se Tyrrhenus. And so Spayne is wel nyȝ al an ylond, for he*. [it, Cx.] is byclipped wiþ þe see wel nyȝ al aboute. But*. [Boote, α.] þere beeþ tweye*. [two, Cx.] Spaynes; þe hyder bygynneþ from þe pleynes and valeys of Pireneies, and streccheþ by Cantabria, and endeþ at Carthago Spartaria. Þe ȝonder Spayne conteyneþ þe west partye anoon to þe see Gaditanus; þere Hercules his pileres stondeþ*. [where as Hercules sette his pylers, Cx.] by sides Page  301, vol.1 þe hille*. [hille] om. Cx.] mont Atlas. Þis Spayne is a playn lond and haþ grete copy and*. [copy and] om. Cx.] plente of castell,*. [castelles, α., Cx.] of hors, of metal, and of hony, and heet somtyme Hesperia of Hespera,*. [Espera, MS.] þe eue sterre, þat ladde þe Grees þider and was her lode*. [lood, α.] sterre. Afterward he heet Hiberia of þe ryuer Hiberus; but at þe laste he hatte Hispania of þe ryuer Hispalus. In*. [Hispalus. In] om. MS. After Hispalus Cx. adds, or of Hispanus, that Hercules ordeyned gouernour and kyng there.] Hispania beeþ sixe prouinces þat beeþ Tarraconensis, Lusitania, Gallicia, Betica, Tingitana, Asturia, Arragonia. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo, capitulo secundo. Þis Car|thago of Spayne is i-cleped Spartaria, for to haue difference bytwene þis Carthago [and þe grete Carthago]*. [Words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] of Affrica, þat Scipio consul of Rome destroyed. Afri, men of Affrica, made þis Carthago Spartaria in duke Hanybal his tyme: but some aftirward þe Romayns took þis Carthago Spartaria,*. [Cx. omits the fourteen words preceding.] and at þe laste Gothi destroyed it al out,*. [al out] om. Cx.] for Gothi were lordes of Spayne long tyme, and specialliche in Honorius þe emperours*. [emperour his, α.] tyme. But afterward þe Sarecenes brak*. [breek, α.] out of Affrica and put Gothi out of Spayne after Hera|clius þe emperoures*. [emperour his, α.] tyme.*. [The preceding sentence omitted in Cx.] But þe Saracenys were aftir|ward Page  303, vol.1 ouercome of Charles þe Grete, and lost þe west landes of Spayne, Gallicia,*. [So Cx.; Gallacia, MS. Gallæ|cia is the ancient classical name; but Higden probably intended to use the later form Gallicia.] and Lusitania; and hilde onlice þe este londes and contrayes of Spayne.

De Insulis Maris Magni. Capitulum tricesimum.

GADES is couenableliche first i-sette among þe ylondes of þe greet see, and stondeþ in þe west ende of Spayne in a mouþe of the west occean. Þere þe grete occean brekeþ in to þe ynner londes, and departeþ atwynne*. [a sonder, Cx.] Affrica and Europa. Tiries come, seilled*. [seyling, Cx., which is better; seyle, β., γ.] out of þe Rede see, and oc|cupied þat lond*. [ilond, α.] and cleped it Gades in hir langage, and Gades is to mene*. [saye, Cx.]byclipped, for it*. [he, α.] is byclipped [al]*. [al] Added from α. and Cx.] aboute wiþ þe see, and is from þe lond an hondred paas and ten. Þere*. [There as, Cx.] Hercules sette his pileres, þat beeþ wel*. [right, Cx.] wonderful, as it were in þe vttermeste*. [otmeste, α.] ende of all þe erþe;*. [of the world, Cx.] and þe same pileres beeþ i-cleped after þe name of þe ilond Gades also. Hugutio, capitulo Gades.*. [Cx. gives the first sentence thus:—And to gyue knowleche that there is no place ne lond ferther westward that stronge man Hercules sette the pylers there by Gades; thenne est|ward from these pylers, &c.] And þerof it come Page  305, vol.1 þat*. [þat] Added from α.] þe pilers, þat þe orped men and stalworþe setteþ in place þere þey mowe no furþere passe, beeþ i-cleped Gades; þan aftir|ward*. [estward, read by Cx., is probably right.] from þese pileres and from þe ilond Gades by*. [ben, Cx. (in the same sense.)] þe ilondes Baleares, þat hatte Maiorica and Minorica. Þan is þe*. [is there the, Cx.] ilond Sardinia, and haþ in þe souþ side Affrica, and in þe norþ Sicilia, and haþ noþer addres noþer venym, but þey haue*. [þei haþ, α.; ther growth, Cx.] an herbe þat hatte apium, þat*. [whiche, Cx.] makeþ men laughe hem selue to deþ. Þis lond*. [ylond, α. and Cx.] haþ hoot welles and heleful*. [holsom, Cx.] þat makeþ*. [which water maketh, Cx.] þeues blynde, and þey forswere hemself and touche hir eiȝen wiþ þe water of þilke welles.*. [theuys and men that forswere hem self blynde, yf theyr eyen touche the water of thylke welles, Cx.] Þe ilond Corsica is cornered wiþ many forlondes schetynge*. [stretchyng, Cx.] in to the see; þerynne is noble lese and pasture for bestes; þereynne is a stone þat hatte aconites.*. [aconiþtes, MS.] Corsica haþ in þe est side þe see Tyrrhenus, in þe souþ þe ylond Sardinia þritty mile þennes, in þe west þe ylondes Baleares, and in þe norþ þe see Ligusticus and Liguria a prouince of Italia, and is eiȝte score myle in lenȝþe and sixe and twenty in brede, and haþ þat name Corsica of a womman þat heet*. [heyght, Cx., and highte below, contrary to his custom.] Corsa. Þis Page  307, vol.1 Corsa hadde a bole þat ofte lefte companye of oþer bestes, and swam in to þat ilond and com home in wel*. [moche, Cx.] better poynt þan he ȝede*. [wente, Cx.] oute. Corsa say*. [sey, α.; sawe, Cx.] þat, and wayted hir tyme, and took a boot, and folwed*. [folowed after, Cx.] þe bole in to þat ilond, and sey*. [seie, α.; sawe, Cx.] þat þere was good*. [good] om. Cx.] lond for to bere corne and gras, and brouȝt þider first men þat were i-cleped Li|gures. Aradia, þat haþ*. [So MS.; is called, Cx.] Aradium also, is an ilonde þat is al oon citee nouȝt fer from þe citee Tyrus, and haþ many schip men þat beeþ ful stronge in fiȝtinge. Cyclades beeþ many ilondes to gedres, þre and ffifty, and beeþ*. [ar, Cx.] so i-cleped of þat Grew word ciclon þat*. [of cyclon in Grewe whiche, Cx.] is a cercle in*. [and, α.] Englisshe. For þey beeþ i-sette all rounde as it were a cercle aboute þe ilond þat hatte Delon. Noþeles som men seiþ þat þei beeþ so i-cleped by cause of hiȝe rokkes þat beeþ al aboute hem. Þe firste of hem is Rode*. [Rodes, Cx.] toward þe est; and þese*. [So α. and Cx.; þe see, MS.] ilondes endeþ toward þe north in þe clyue*. [clyf, Cx.; and hath, below.] of þe lasse Asia, and haueþ out of þe souþ in to þe north fifty myle, and out of þe*. [þe] om. MS. Added from α. and Cx.] est in to þe west two hundred myle. The myddel ilond of hem hatte*. [is named, Cx., as usual.] Delon, þat is to menynge i-schewed; for he was by schewed*. [beschyned, α.; it was somtyme byschyne with the sonne, Cx.] to fore oþer londes after Noes Page  309, vol.1 schippe. Þe same*. [same] Added from α. and Cx.] Delon hatte Ortygia; for ortigie, (þat beeþ*. [ben called, Cx.] coturnicies, curlewes,) beeþ þerynne*. [whiche ben there, Cx.] greet plente. Also þere*. [in that place, Cx.] Latona bore Appolyn Delphicus. Samos, þat hatte Samia also,*. [otherwyse called Samia, Cx.] is an ilond. Þere ynne*. [in whiche, Cx.] Pythagoras*. [Pittagoras, MSS.; Pyctagoras, Cx., omitting þe philosophre.] þe philosofre and Iuno and Sibylla were i-bore. In þat lond is whyte cley and rede cley;*. [cley] om. α. and Cx.] of þe*. [þe] om. Cx.] whiche cley men*. [me, α.] makeþ erþene vessel good wiþ þe beste.*. [vessel at beste, Cx.] Cyprus þat ilond*. [lond, Cx.] hatte Paphon and Cithim*. [Cichym, Cx.] also, and is byclipped in þe souþ side wiþ þe see of Phenicia, in þe west wiþ þe see Pamphylicus, and in þe north west with Sicilia,*. [So MSS. and Cx. for Cilicia.] and is eiȝte score myle in lengþe and six score and fyue in brede. Þere*. [In that yle, Cx.] bras and craft of bras was firste i-founde. Þe wyn*. [wynes, Cx.; who, however, has is below.] of þat lond is strengest of alle wynes. Creta þat ylond*. [þat ylond] om. Cx.] haþ þat name of oon Cretus, þat wonede þerynne. Þat ilond hatte Centapolis also, þat is a lond þat haþ an hundred citees. For þere were þerynne an hondred citees somtyme, and þere*. [þere] Added from Cx.] was somtyme Iupiteres*. [Iubiteres, MS. (not α.)] and Saturnus Page  311, vol.1 lond, and it*. [it] Added from Cx.] longeþ to Grecia riȝtfulliche*. [Cx. reads thus: For therin were somtyme an C cytees somtyme (sic), and there was Saturnus and Iupiter born, and were first kynges there, and of right it longeth to Grecia of old tyme, and hath, &c.] of olde tyme, and haþ in þe south side þe see Libycus, and in þe norþ side it is bygoo wiþ þe see of Gres,*. [and in the north the see of Grecia, Cx.] and streccheþ out of þe est in to*. [oute in to the eest, and in to, Cx.] þe west, and was þe firste lond þat was parfite and noble in craft of ores and of armes and of arwes,*. [crafte of rowyng with oores, armes, and shotyng with arowes, Cx.] and ȝaf lawe i-write in lettres and tauȝte horse men to ryde in rotes;*. [routes, α.] and [þer was] musyk and craft of syngynge*. [lawe wreton, and taughte men ride on horsbak; and ther was the craft of musike and syngynge, Cx.] of Ideis dactalis i-founde. Men*. [They, Cx.] of Creta made it more, and communede it in to*. [yaf it in knowleche to, Cx., who adds: That lond is now called Can|dia, after aboute.] oþer londes aboute. In þat londe*. [ylond, Cx.; and so elsewhere in the chapter, and conversely.] beeþ many scheep and geet and fewe roos and hertes; þerynne is*. [be, Cx.] no foxes noþer wolfes noþer addres noþer non suche*. [ne such, Cx.] venemous bestes. And þat lond hateþ so venym, þat ȝif me bryngeth þider*. [þider] om. Cx.] eny venemous bestes oþer wormes out*. [out] om. Cx.] of oþer londes he deieþ*. [they deyen, Cx.] anon; but þeyȝ þere be no grete bestes of venym, ȝit þere beeþ venemous attercoppes*. [and though ther be no grete vene|mous beestes in that lond, yet ben ther attercops, Cx.] þat beeþ i-cleped spalangia*. [So MSS. and Cx.] in þat ilond. Þis*. [Orosius seith that this, Cx.] ilond is eiȝte score myle and seuene in lengþe and an hundred myle in brede. In þis ilond is oon of the foure laborintus, as it schal be ynner more declared.*. [be sayd afterward, Cx.]Treuisa. For to brynge here hertes out of þouȝt þat hereþ speke of laborintus, here I telle what laborinthus is to menynge. Page  313, vol.1 Laborintus is an hous wonderliche i-buld wiþ halkes and hernes,*. [hirnes, α.] wiþ tornynges and wendynges and wonderful weyes so dyuersliche and so wrynkyngliche i-wroȝt, þat who þat is wiþ ynne þat hous and wil out wende, [þey he wende] wel faste oo wey and oþer, hiderward and þiderward, estward and*. [and] om. α.] westwarde, norþward and*. [and] om. α.] souþward, whider euere þey drawe, [and] of [alle] þe weies chese þe faireste; þey he trauaile neuere so sore, al is for nouȝt. For out gooþ he neuere, but he haue a craft þat nedeþ þerfore.*. [In the preceding extract from Trevisa the words in brackets are added from α. Caxton's text has been very much altered thus: "For to late men haue knowleche what laborintus is, it is an hous won|derly buylded and wrought with halkes and huyrenes, tornynges, and windynges so diuersly by won|derful wayes and wrynclis, that who, that gooth in to that hows and wold come out agayn, though he retorne hytherward and thy|derward eeste, west, north, or southward, whyther euer he drawe and for alle the wayes he can chese, though he trauaylle neuer so sore, he shal be so mased that out can he not goo, but yf he haue the craft that serueth therfore."] ℞. Sicilia þat ilond was somtyme i-cleped Trinacria, as it were þre square, bycause of þre hiȝe hilles þat beeþ þerynne. Þe hilles hatte Pelorum, Pachynum, Lilybeum, and afterward was i-cleped Sicilia of Siculus þat was Italus his broþer, and þat londe heet somtyme Sicania of Sicanus þe king; and haþ in the norþ side Apulia, a party of Italy, and is departed bytwene wiþ an arm*. [departed fro that part with grete waters of an arme of the see or clouen by erthshakyng, Cx., who has slight variations in the words following.] of þe see and ioynede somtyme to Italy, and*. [and] Added from α.] afterward was i-cloue and i-parted þere fram wiþ grete wateres oþer wiþ erþe schakynge, so seiþ Salustius; and þe see þat is now bytwene Sicilia and Italy is þre myle brood, and hatte Rhegium, þat is to menynge, i-broke of. Page  315, vol.1 In þat see beeþ tweie greet periles and*. [and] om α., Cx.] wonderful and wel wyde i-knowe; þat oon is Scylla, þat oþir is Charybdis. Men of þat lond clepeþ Scyllam a greet stoon, þat is þere i-seie aboue þe water, i-schape as a man, byclipped aboute wiþ hondes,*. [houndes heedes, Cx.] and feyneþ and seieþ þat it semeþ þat þe wawes berkeþ,*. [So α. and Cx.; brekeþ, MS.] þat beteþ þere vppon. Charybdis is a perilous whirlynge see þat casteþ vp water and wawes, and swoloweþ hem yn þries a day.*. [in agayn thryes in a day, Cx.]Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. In þis ilond me*. [men, Cx., as usual.] erede firste wiþ plowȝ for to sawe*. [sowe, α., Cx.] in corn and oþer sedes, and þere was commedy a song of gestes firste i-founde. Beda de Naturis. Þe lond of Sicilia is holow and ful of dennes, and haþ moche*. [caues and moche sulphur or brymstone, Cx.] brymstone and glewe, so þat the eier and feire*. [fire, α.] haþ wey i-now þerto, and fuyre i-closed in þe dennes and chenes*. [in the caues and in the chinnes, Cx.] wiþ ynne þe erþe stryueþ wiþ þe*. [þe] om. α.] ayer and wiþ*. [wiþ] om. Cx.] oþer þinges þat beeþ contrarye to þe fuyre and makeþ ofte and in meny places breke out a*. [greet, α.] smoke and brennynge leie.*. [to fyre, and that causeth ofte smoke and brennyng leyte to breke out in many places, Cx.] And somtyme the strengþe of þe wynd þat is wiþ inne makeþ breke vp*. [to breke oute, Cx.] hepes of grauel and of stones; for suche doynge it is þat þe brennynge of þat hil*. [hille that is called the mount, Cx.] mont Etna*. [Ethna, MSS. and Cx.] dureþ so longe. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Þat hille mount Etna toward þe souþ est haþ many chenes and holow*. [holw, MS.] dennes*. [chynnes and holowe dennes or caues, Cx.] wiþ inne þe erþe ful of Page  317, vol.1 brymston, þat fongeþ*. [resseyneth, Cx., as usual; and engendryth below.] moche wynde and gendreþ fuyre and smoke. ℞. In þat place beeþ i-seie dyuers figures and schappes and i-herd reweful*. [rufol, α.] voys and gronynge. Þerfore some men weneþ þat soules beeþ þere in peyne, as it semeþ þat Seint Gregorie makeþ mynde in his dia|logo.*. [dyaloge, Cx.]Giraldus in Topographia. Þere is a welle in Sicilia, ȝif a man comeþ þerto i-cloþed in reed, anoon þe water of þat welle springeþ vp as hiȝe as þat manis hede; and for oþer colour and*. [and] or, Cx.] hewe þe water meueþ nouȝt. Þere beeþ also cicade bryddes þat syngeþ at þe*. [wel in the best wyse, Cx.] beste, and haueþ a pipe open vnder þe þrote, and syngeþ better whan þe hede is offe þan while*. [whan, Cx.] it is onne, and better whan þey beeþ dede þan while þey beþ on lyue.*. [a lyue, Cx.] Þerfore herdes of þat lond byhedeþ hem forto haue þe swetter song. Also*. [And, Cx.] in þat lond is a citee þat hatte Palarna,*. [So MSS. and Cx.] and*. [that, Cx.] ȝeldeþ euery ȝere more of certeyn rente to þe kyng of þat lond*. [to þe kyng of þat lond] om. Cx.] þan þe kyng of Engelond haþ of certeyne*. [siker, Cx.] rente of Engelond.*. [of al Engelond, α.]Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. In Sicilia beeþ tweie welles, þat oon of hem makeþ a bareyn womman bere*. [to bere, Cx.] children, Page  319, vol.1 and þe oþer makeþ a childyng womman barayn. In Sicilia is salt Agrigentinus,*. [So α. and Cx.; arigentinus, MS.] wonderful and contrarie to oþer salt. For þey*. [it, Cx.] melteþ in fuyre, and lepeþ and sprankeleþ*. [sprancleth, α.; sperclyth, Cx.] in water. Byside Sicilia is an ilond þat hatte Eola, and haþ þe name of Eolus. Poetes feynede and cleped*. [feynen and saye, Cx.] [þat]*. [þat] Added from α. and Cx.] Eolus god*. [is god, Cx.] of wyndes; for while he was rulere of*. [of the, Cx.] nyne ilondes, euerich of hem heet Eola; by risynge of moisture of myst and of smoke he wolde telle whan it schulde reyne; and þerfore men, þat kouþe but litel good, wende þat*. [therfore symple men supposed that, Cx.] he hadde þe wynde in his power and myȝt. Þe same nyne ilondes hatte volcane,*. [So Cx.; vlcane, MS., α.] that is fuyre,*. [fyry, Cx.] for fire brenneþ þere all wey. Þere beeþ oþer ilondes in þe see Euxinus.*. [Eusinus, MSS. and Cx., as usual.] Þat see Euxinus is a grete partie of þe grete see of myddel erþe; among þe whiche ilondes þe ilond Colchos is famous. Þere Iason*. [as Iason, Cx.] fette þe golden flees, as it is*. [shal be, Cx.] declared wiþ ynne*. [after, Cx.] aboute þe batayle of Troye. And Patmos*. [Pathmos, MSS. and Cx.] is an ilond in þe same see; þere Seynt*. [as seynt, Cx.] Iohan þe Euangeliste was, whan he was outlawed*. [exyled, Cx.] oute of oþer londes.

Page  321, vol.1

De insulis Oceani. Capitulum tricesimum primum.

Isidorus, libro quinto. Insule Fortunate, (þat beeþ þe gracious ilondes, and beeþ of good temprure of wynde and of weder i-sette in þe west occean and of som men i-holde paradys by cause of goodnesse of þe lond and of tempe|rure of weder,*. [of temperate weder, Cx.]) þere by*. [So MS. and α.; ben, Cx., which is equivalent.] gracious tymes; þe hulles beeþ i-heled, and corne*. [couerd with corne, Cx.] and herbes groweþ as it were gras. Þerfore by cause of plente of corne and of fruyt þey beeþ i-cleped Fortunat, þat is, gracious: for þere beeþ trees of seuen score foot of heithe.*. [hiȝe, α., Cx.] Þere is þe ilond Capr[ar]ia, þat is þe ilond of Geet; for þere beeþ meny geet and wetheris also. Þere is þe ilond Canaria, þat is þe ilond of Houndes, [for þerynne beeþ ful meny strong houndes].*. [The words in brackets added from α. (not Cx.)] Dacia, þat is Denmark, is an ilond þat ioyneþ to þe north side of Germania. Men of*. [of that, Cx.] Denmark were somtyme ful sturne and goode men of armes; þerfore þey occupied somtyme greet contrayes in Brytayne*. [So Cx.; Brutayne, MS.] and in Fraunce, and hatte Daci as it were Dagi, for þey come of [þe]*. [þe] Added from α. and Cx.] Gothes. Þere beeþ many men in Dacia, and beeþ faire Page  323, vol.1 of stature and semeliche of face and of here. And þouȝ*. [þeiȝ, α.] þey be sterne aȝenst here enemyes, þey beeþ to gode*. [to god boþe gode, MS.] men and trewe boþe esy and mylde:*. [they ben esy and mylde to good men and trewe, Cx.] but þat*. [þat þey, MS., α.] may not be forȝete, þat*. [but it may not be forgoten, that, Cx.] þey brouȝte grete drynkynge into Enge|lond. Wyntlandya, þat ilond, is by west Denmark, and is a barayne lond and*. [and] Added from Cx.] of men mysbyleued;*. [oute of byleue, Cx.] þei*. [þei] Added from Cx.] wor|schippeþ mawmetrie, and selleþ wynd to schipmen, þat seilleþ to hire hauenes,*. [that come to theyr portes, Cx.] as it were i-closed vnder knottis of þrede; and as þe knottes beeþ vnknette,*. [vnknytte, Cx.] þe wynde wexeþ at her owne wille.*. [theyr wille, Cx.] Islond, þat ilond, haþ in þe est side Norþwey,*. [Norwaye, Cx.] in þe north þe froren*. [frozen, α. not Cx.)] see, [that is,]*. [Added from Cx.] mare congelatum. Þe men of þat ilond beeþ schort of speche, trewe*. [and trewe, α., Cx.] of hir wordes, and i-cloþed in wylde bestes skynnes, and beeþ fissheres, and haueþ al*. [al] om. Cx.] oon man kyng and preost.*. [preest, Cx.] Þere beeþ girefaucouns and gentil haukes, and þere beeþ þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx., which is perhaps better.] whyte beres, þat brekeþ þe yse for to drawe out fische. Þere beeþ no schepe in þat lond, and Page  325, vol.1 þat is for greet colde,*. [The six preceding words follow otes in Cx.] noþer corn but otes. Þat ilond is from Irlond and from Bretayne þre dayes seillynge. Soli|nus de mirabilibus. Tile*. [Tile or Tyle, MSS. and Cx., and so below.] is þe vttermost*. [otmeste, α.] ylond of occean, by twene þe norþ and þe west cost by ȝonde Bretayne, and wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] fewe men knoweþ þat ilond. Plinius, libro secundo.*. [Reference omitted in MS. (not Cx.)] Tile haþ þat name of þe sonne, for from springynge tyme whan þe day and þe nyȝt beeþ euen anon*. [at oon, MS.; vnto, Cx.] to heruest tyme, whan þe day and þe nyȝt be euene eft sones, it is all wey beschyne wiþ þe sonne; and eft from þat tyme anon to þe*. [þe] om. α.] springynge tyme aȝen, whan þe day and þe nyȝt beþ euene, it*. [about September, it, &c., Cx.] haþ no liȝt of þe sonne, but all wey derk nyȝt and no day. And þerfore þe lond is nouȝt couenable for men to wonye ynne in somer for hete and in wynter for colde and derk;*. [derknesse, α.; Cx.] and bycause þerof þere may no corn growe. Also þere the see is hard i-frore. By twene þat ylond and Bretayne beeþ þe ilondes þat hatte Scandia, Lingos, and Vergion. Noþeles Tyle is sixe dayes seillynge oute of Bretayne. Ranulphus, Giraldus in Topo|graphia.*. [So MS., α., and Cx.; but Ra|nulphus should be cancelled, or et added.] For Seint Austyn, vicesimo primo de Civitate Dei, spekeþ of Tyle, and seiþ þat it is an ylond of Inde, and seiþ þat þe treen*. [trees, Cx.] of Tyle leseþ neuere hire leues: but Page  327, vol.1 be war þat þou be nouȝt begiled by liknes of names: for þat ylond of Ynde hatte Tilis in þe nomenatyf caas; and þe*. [So Cx.; and in þe, MS.] ilond of occean hatte Tyle in þe nominatyf caas, and beeþ liche in oþer, as ȝif þou canst declyne þilke tweye names, and speke Latyn; so seiþ Isidre, Ethym., libro quinto decimo. Norway streccheþ somdel est toward Denmark and Gothia, and haþ in þe souþ side Scotlond and in þe northside Islond. Þe ilond is brood, byclipped aboute wiþ þe see, and is ful scharpe and colde, and haþ many hilles and woodes and*. [and] om. Cx.] wylde bestes, white beres, bausons, and brokkes, and scarsite of corne. Men*. [In þe norþ side men, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] of þat lond leueþ more by fisshynge and huntinge þan by brede and corn. In þe norþ side of þat lond meny nyȝtes in þe somer tyme aboute þe styntynge of þe sonne, þe sonne goþ nouȝt doun but schyneþ al nyȝt; and eft as many dayes in þe wynter aboute þe styntynge of þe sonne, the sonne ariseþ nouȝt for to ȝeue hem lyȝt; þer|fore al þat tyme þey moot do by candel*. [they muste werke by candel light, Cx.] what work þat hem nedeþ. In þat londe is a welle þat torneþ tree and leþer in to stoon, and it be þerynne from þe bygynnynge of a ȝere*. [aȝere, MS. conjunctim. Similar instances occur elsewhere, and are not always noticed.] to þe ȝeres ende.*. [and it abyde therinne a yeer hoole, Cx.] Þe men of þat lond beeþ Page  329, vol.1 schipmen and þeues of þe see. Treuisa. For to knowe what þe styntynge of þe sonne is to menynge, take hede þat þe sonne stynteþ twyes a ȝere; ones a somer, whan he goþ no heiȝer; and eftsones a*. [α] at, Cx.] wynter, whanne he gooþ*. [no heiȝer . . . gooþ] Added from α. and Cx.] no lower; and so in eiþer*. [So Cx.; neiþer, MS. absurdly.] tyme is þe styntynge of þe sonne.

De Hibernia. Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

HIBERNIA, þat is Irlond, and was of olde tyme incorporat in to þe lordschippe of Bretayne, so seiþ Giraldus in sua Topographia. Þere*. [where, Cx.] he descryueþ it*. [it] Added from Cx.] at þe fulle, ȝit it is worþy and semelich to preise þat lond wiþ large*. [larger, α.; Cx.] preysinge. For to come to cleer and ful knowleche of þat lond, þese tyteles þat folweþ oponeþ þe way: þerfore first me schall*. [I shal, Cx.] telle of [þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] place and stede of þat lond, how greet and what manere lond it is; where of þat lond haþ plente; and where of he haþ defaute; of men þat woned þere first; of maneres of men of þat londe; [of the wondres of þat lond;]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of worþynesse of halewes [and] of seyntes.*. [of halowes and saintes of that lond, Cx.; and so α., omitting of that lond.]

De situ Hiberniæ locali. Irlond is þe laste of alle þe west ilondes, and hat*. [height, Cx.] Hibernia of oon Hiberus of Spayne, þat was Hermonius his broþer. For þese tweie breþeren Page  331, vol.1 gat and whan*. [wan, α., Cx.] þis lond by conquest. Oþer it hatte Hibernia of þat ryuer Hiberus, þat is in þe west ende of Spayne. And þat londe hatte Scotland also, for Scottes woned þere somtyme, or þey come into þe*. [that, Cx.] oþer Scotland, þat longede to Bretayne. Þerfore it is i-write in þe martiloge: "Suche a day in Scotland Seint Bryde was i-bore;" and þat was in Irlond. Þis lond haþ in þe souþ est side Spayne þre dayes seillynge þennes aside half, and haþ in þe est side þe more*. [So α. and Cx.; more half, MS.] Bretayne, þennes a dayes seillynge; in þe west side he haþ þe endeles occean, and in þe norþ side Iselond þre dayes seillynge þennes. Solinus. But þe see þat is bytweene Bretayne and Irlond is al þe ȝere ful of greet wawes and vnesy, so þat me may seelde siker|liche seille bytwene. Þat see is six score myle brood.

De ejus quanto et quali. Irland is an iland grettest after Bretayne, and streccheþ norþward from Brendans hilles anon to þe ylond Columbyna, and conteyneþ eiȝte dayes iorneis, euerich iorney of fourty myle. And from Deuelyn to Patrykes hilles and to þe see in þat side in brede is*. [is] Added from Cx.; ben would be more correct. Several minute variations below are unnoticed.] foore iorneyes. And Irlond is narwer in þe myd|del þan in þe endes, al oþerwise þan Bretayne is i-schape. Page  333, vol.1 As Irlond is schorter norþward þan*. [þat, MS. (not Cx.)] Bretayne, so is he lenger souþward. Þe lond is not playne; but ful of mountaynes and of hilles, of wodes, of mareys, and of mores: þe lond is nesche,*. [soft, Cx.] reyny, and wyndy, and lowe by þe see syde, and wiþ ynne hilly and sondy. Solinus.*. [Added from Cx.] Þere is grete plente of noble pasture and of lese; þerfore bestes moot*. [must, Cx.] ofte be dreue out of hir lese, leste þey fede hem self to ful and schende hemself, and þey moste ete at hir owne wille.*. [dryue oute of theyr pasture, leeste they ete ouermoche, for they shold shende hem self, yf they myght ete at theyr wylle, Cx.]Giraldus. Men of þat lond haueþ here hele alwey,*. [haue comunely theyr helth, Cx.] and straunge men*. [straungers, Cx.] haueþ ofte a perilous fluxe*. [flixe, α.] by cause of moysture of mete; þere cowes flesche*. [flessh of kyen, Cx. (with other slight variations.)] is hol|som and swynes flesch vnholsom. Men of þat lond haueþ no feuere, but onliche þe feuere agu, and þat wel silde whanne.*. [that right selde, Cx.] Þerfore þe holsomnesse [and helþe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of þat lond and þe clennesse wiþoute*. [wiþoute] oute of, Cx.] venyme is worþ al þe boost and richesse of treen, of herbes, of spicerie, of [riche]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] cloþes, and precious stones of þe est londes. Hit semeþ þat þe helþe Page  335, vol.1 of*. [Thus in Cx: The cause of the helthe and holsomnes of that londe is the attemperat hete and colde that is therinne.] þat lond is bycause þat þere is noȝt gret passynge and exces in hele*. [chele, α.] noþer in hete.

In quibus rebus sufficit. In þis lond beeþ mo kyn*. [keen, α.] þan oxen, more pasture þan corne, more gras þan seed. Þere is grete plente of samon, of lampreys, of eles, and of oþer see fisch; of egles, of*. [and, α. (not Cx.)] cranes, of*. [So α., Cx.; and pekokes, MS.] pekokes, of corlewes, of sperhaukes, of goshaukes, and of gentil faucouns, and of wolfes, and of wel schrewed mys. Þere beþ attercoppes, blood soukers, and enettes*. [eeftes, Cx.] [þat dooþ noon harm].*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Þere beeþ veyres*. [feyres, Cx.] litel of body and ful hardy and strong. Þere beeþ bernakes*. [bernacles, Cx.] foules liche to wylde gees; kynde bryngeþ hem forþ wonderliche out of*. [whiche growen wonderly vpon, Cx.] trees, as it were kynde worchynge aȝenst kynde.*. [nature wrought agayn kynde, Cx.] Men of religioun eteþ bernakes in*. [on, Cx.] fasting dayes, for þey comeþ nouȝt of flesche noþer beeþ i-gete flescheliche bytwene fader and moder: but þey beeþ ful lewedliche i-meued, for resoun is contrarie to þat doynge.*. [Cx. thus: by cause they ben not engendryd of flesshe, wherin, as me thynketh, they erre; for reson is ayenst that.] For ȝif a man hadde i-ete*. [eten, Cx.] of Adams þigh,*. [legge, Cx.] he had i-ete flesch; and ȝit Adam com nouȝt*. [was not engendred, Cx., with other slight variations, and some omissions.] of flesch, Page  337, vol.1 noþer was i-gete flescheliche bytwene fader and moder. But þat flesch com wonderliche of þe erþe, so þis flesche*. [So α.; fesche, MS.] comeþ wonderliche of þe tree. In þis lond is plente of hony and*. [and] om. α.] of mylk and of wyn, and nouȝt of vyneȝerdes. [Solinus and Isidorus wryten that Irlond hath no bees; netheles it were better wryten that Irlond hath bees and no vyneyerdes.]*. [This sentence added from Cx.] Also Beda seiþ þat þere is grete hunt|ynge of*. [to, α.] roobukkes, and it is i-knowe þat roobukkes beeþ noon þere.*. [that ther ben none, Cx.] It is no wonder of Beda; for Beda knew*. [he sawe neuer, Cx.] neuere þat ilond wiþ his eyȝe; bot som tale tellere tolde*. [somme men had told, Cx.] hym suche tales. Also þere groweþ þat stoon Saxagonus,*. [sexagonus, Cx.] and is i-cleped Iris also, as it were þe reynebowe; ȝif þat stoon is i-holde aȝenst þe sonne, it*. [anon it, Cx.] schal schape a reyn|bowe. Þere is i-founde a stoon þat hatte gagates,*. [So Cx.; gogathes, MS. and α.] and white margery perlis.

In quibus rebus deficit. Whete cornes beeþ*. [bee, α.] þere ful smal, vnneþe i-clansed*. [i-clensed, α.] wiþ manis hond; out take men,*. [reserued men, Cx.] alle bestes beeþ smallere þere þan in oþer londes. Þere lackeþ wel nyh al manere of*. [of] om. Cx. (a frequent varia|tion); alle manere fische of fresshe water, α.] fresche water fische, þat is Page  339, vol.1 nouȝt gendred in þe see; þere lakkeþ vnkynde faukouns, girefaukouns, partriche,*. [partrichis, Cx.] fesauntes, nyȝtingales, and pies. Þere lakkeþ also roo and bukke and ilspi[les],*. [ilspiles, α.; ylespiles, Cx.] wontes, and oþere venemous bestes; þerfore som men feyneþ and fauor|abliche seiþ*. [and that fauourably, Cx.] þat Seynt Patryk clensed þat lond of wormes and of venemous bestes. Þerfore som men feyneþ þat it is*. [But it is, Cx.] more probable and more skilful, þat þis lond was from þe bygynnynge alwey wiþ oute suche wormes. For vene|mous bestes and wormes deyeþ þere anon, and me*. [if men, Cx. (as usual).] brynge hem þider out of oþer londes; and also venym and poysoun, i-brouȝt þiderward out of oþer londes, leseþ his*. [theyr, Cx., who has not very consistently replaced he by it just afterwards.] malys anon as he passeþ þe myddel of þe see. Also powder of*. [and, α., Cx.] erþe of þat lond i-sowe*. [caste and sowen, Cx.] in oþer londes vseþ*. [veseþ, α.; driuen, Cx.] awey wormes so fer forþ, þat a torf of þat lond i-doo aboute*. [be putte aboute (with other slight variations), Cx.] a worme sleeþ hym oþer makeþ hym þrulle þoruȝ*. [þoruȝ] om. α.; thrille the erthe, Cx.] þe erþe for to scape a way. In þat lond cokkes croweþ wel*. [but, Cx.] litel to fore day; so þat þe firste cokkes crowe in þat lond and þe þridde in oþer londes beeþ i-liche*. [like, Cx.] fer to fore day.

Page  341, vol.1

De incolis prioribus. Capitulum tricesimum tertium.

GIRALDUS seiþ þat Casera, Noes nece,*. [niece, α.] dradde þe flood, and fliȝ*. [fledde, Cx.] wiþ þre men and fifty wommen into þat ilond, and wonede þer ynne first þe laste ȝere to fore Noes flood. But afterward Bartholanus, Seres*. [So Cx.; Seth his, MS.] sone, þat com of*. [So Cx.; to, MS.] Iapheth, Noes sone, come þider wiþ his þre sones by hap oþer by craft þre hundred ȝere after Noes flood, and woned þere, and encresede to þe noumbre of nyne þowsand men; and afterward, for stenche of kareyns of geantes þat þey hadde i-kyld, þey deiden alle saue oon, Ruanus, þat durede*. [lyued, Cx.] a þowsand ȝere and fyue hundred anon to Seynt Patrikes tyme, and enformed þe holy man of þe forsaide men*. [So Cx.; man, MS. (clerical error.)] and of alle hir doynge and dedes. Þan þe þridde tyme come þider Nemeþ*. [Nymeth, α. and Cx.] out of Scythia*. [Schitia, or Scitia, MS.] with his foure sones, and woned þere and encresed to þe noumbre of*. [and encresede to þe noumbre of] om. α. and Cx., probably rightly.] two hondred ȝere and sixtene; and at þe laste al his ofspringe by dyuers myshappes of werres and of moreyn was clenliche*. [they were clene, Cx.] de|stroyed, and þe lond lefte voyde two hundred ȝere aftir|ward.*. [after, Cx.]Page  343, vol.1 Þe fourþe*. [ferþe, α.] tyme fyue dukes,*. [dukes that were bretheren, Cx.] Gandius, Genandyus,*. [Genandus, α.; Genundus, Cx.] Sagandius, Rutheragus, Salinus,*. [Selanius, Cx.] of þe forseide Nymeþ his successours come out of Grees, and occupied þat lond and deled it in fyue parties. And*. [So α. and Cx.; in, MS.] eueriche party conteynede two and þritty candredes; (a candrede is a contray þat conteyneþ an hondred townes;) and þey sette a stoon in þe mydel of þe lond as it were in þe nauel and bygynnynge of fyue*. [fyue] Added from α. and Cx.] kyngdoms. At þe laste Salynus*. [Slanius, α., Cx. (rightly.)] was i-made kyng of al þe lond. Þe fifte tyme, whan þis nacioun was þritty ȝere to gidres, þey woxe swyþe*. [swyþe] om. Cx.] feble, foure noble men, þat were Millesius*. [Myllesius, Cx.] þe kynges sones, come out of Spayne wiþ many oþer in a naueye of þre score schippes and tweie: þe*. [of the, Cx. (without sense.)] worþiest of þese foure breþeren, þat heet Heberus and Hermon, deled þe lond bytwene hem tweyne; but afterward couenaunt was to broke by twene þese tweyne breþeren, and*. [hem both and, Cx.] Heberus*. [Hebreus, MS.; Hiberus, Cx.] was i-slayne.*. [slawe, α.] Þan Hermon was kyng of al þat lond, and from his tyme to þe firsto Patrik his tyme were kynges of þat nacioun sex score and enleuene. And so from þe comynge of*. [of the Hybermensis (sic) vnto the fyrst Patrik, Cx.] Hiberniensis anon to þe deth of Page  345, vol.1 þe first Patrik his tyme were a þowsand ȝere and eiȝte hondred. Þey hadde þat name Hiberniensis and Hibernici of þe forsaide Hiberus; oþer, as som men wolde wene, of*. [or ellys of, Cx.] Hiberus a ryuer of Spayne; þei were i-cleped also Gaitels and Scottes of oon Gaithleus,*. [Gaithelus, α.; Gaytelus, Cx. Similar variations below.] þat was Phenius his neuew. After þat men speked*. [speke, α.] many langages at Nemprot his tour,*. [After . . . tour] om. Cx.] þis Gaythelus kouþe speke many langages and tonges; and wedded o Scota*. [oo Scota, α.; one Scota, Cx.] Pharoo*. [Pharoes, Cx.] his douȝter. Of þese dukes come þe Hibernienses. Me seith þat þese*. [þeose, α.; these, Cx. The true reading must be þis.] Gathleus made þe Irische langage and cleped hit Gathelaf,*. [Gaithelaf, α.; Gaytelef, Cx.] as it were a langage i-gadered of alle langages and tonges. At the laste Belinus, kyng of Bretaigne,*. [Brytayne, α.; Bretayn, Cx.] hadde a sone þat heet Gurguntius. As þis Gurguntius come out of Denmark at þe ilondes*. [atte Irlondes, Cx. (typ. error.)] Orcades, he fonde men þat were i-cleped Bas|clenses and were i-come þider out of Spayne. Þese men prayed and bysouȝte for to haue a place for to wone inne; and þe kyng sent hem to Irlond þat was þoo voyde and wast, and ordeyned and sent wiþ hem*. [So Cx.; hym, MS.] dukes and lederes*. [capitayns, Cx., and so below.] of his owne. [And]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] so hit semeþ þat Irlond schulde longe*. [longe] Added from Cx.] to Britayne by lawe*. [right, Cx.] of olde tyme. From*. [So Cx.; For, MS. and α.]Page  347, vol.1 þe firste Seynt Patryk anon to Fedlimidius*. [Fedlinudius, Cx., and so below.] þe kynges tyme, foure hondred ȝere, þre and þritty kynges euerich after oþir regned*. [Placed after yere in Cx.] in Irlond. In*. [in to, MS. (not α, or Cx.)] þis Fedlimidius his tyme Turgesius, duke and ledere of Norweyes, brouȝt þider Nor|wayes,*. [men of Norweye, Cx.] and occupied þat lond, and made in wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] many places many*. [many] om. Cx.] depe diches and castelles sengle, double, and [treble, and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] many wardes strongliche i-walled; and many þerof stondeþ ȝit al hool. But Irische men reccheþ nouȝt of castelles; for þey taken*. [takiþ α.; take, Cx. These va|riations are frequent.] wodes for castelles, and mareys and mores for castel diches. But at þe laste Tur|gesius deide by gile ful wyles and*. [of, α.] wrenches.*. [and wrenches] of wenches, β., γ.; of wymmen, Cx. The text of MS. makes excellent sense, but the true reading is, doubtless, of wenches (L puellarum).] And for Englische men seiþ þat*. [So α., Cx.; at, MS.] Gurmundus wan Irlond, and made þilke diches, and of Turgesius makeþ no mynde;*. [mencion, Cx. (who transposes some words.)] and Irische*. [Erisshe, α.] men spekeþ of Turgesius, and knoweþ not of Gurmundus:—þerfore it is [to] wetynge*. [to witynge, α.; to wete, Cx.] þat Gurmundus hadde i-wonne Bretayne, and woned þerynne, and sente Turgesius wiþ grete strengþe of Bretouns*. [of Bretouns] out of Bretayne, α., the words are omitted in Cx.] in to Irlond Page  349, vol.1 forto wynne þat lond. And so for*. [And by cause, Cx.] Turgesius was gyour and ledere*. [capytayn and leder, Cx.] of þat viage and of þat iornay,*. [and iourney, Cx.] and so i-seie in Irlond and wel*. [wel] om. α., Cx.] i-knowe*. [i-knowe in þat lond, MS.; om. α. and Cx. The latter has other omis|sions.] among Irische men,—þerfore Irische men spekeþ moche of hym as of a noble man þat was i-seie in Irlond and wel i-knowe in þat lond. At þe laste whan Gurmundus was i-slawe in Fraunce, Turgesius loued þe kynges douȝter of Meth of Irlond; and hir fader behiȝt Turgesius, þat he wolde sende hir hym to þe Lowe Lacheryn wiþ fiftene maydenes; and Turgesius behiȝt for to mete him*. [So α. and Cx.; him, MS.] þere wiþ fiftene þe*. [of þe, Cx. (who has other slight variations.)] noblest men þat he hadde. He hyld*. [and helde, Cx.] couenant and þouȝt of*. [of] om. Cx.] no gile, but þere come fiftene ȝong berdles men i-cloþed as wommen,*. [like wymmen, Cx.] wiþ schorte swerdes vndir her cloþes, and fil on Turgesius, and slowe hym riȝt þere. And so Turgesius was traytour|liche*. [traytouresliche, α.; traitorously, Cx. (who has other slight varia|tions.)] i-slawe, after þat he hadde reigned þritty ȝere in þat lond. Nouȝt longe afterward þre*. [So α. and Cx.; þis, MS.] breþeren, Amela|nus, Siracus, and Iuoris, come in to Irlond wiþ hir men out of Norway, as it were*. [had been, Cx.] for loue of pees and*. [and] Added from Cx.] of marchaundise, and woned by þe see sides by assent of Irische men þat were alwey idel as Poules*. [Paules, Cx.] knyȝtes. And Page  351, vol.1 þese Norwayes bilde þ[r]e*. [thre, Cx.; þe, MS. and α.] citees, Deuelyng, Waterford, and Limyriche; and encresed faste afterward, and wax*. [encresed and after wexe, Cx.] rebel aȝenst men of þe lond, and brouȝt first sparthes in to Irlond. So fro*. [from, α.] Turgesius tyme anon to Roþeryk his tyme, kyng of*. [of] added from Cx., who has Cannacia.] Connoccia, þat was þe laste þat was kyng of al þe lond, were seuentene kynges, [in Irlond. And so þe kynges]*. [Added from α. and Cx. The latter has a few very slight varia|tions in the sentence following.] þat reigned in Irlond, from þe firste Her|mon his tyme anon to þe laste Rotheryk his tyme, were in al an hondred kynges foure score and oon, þat were nouȝt i-crowned noþer anoynt, noþer by lawe of heritage, bot by myȝt and maistrie and strenȝþe*. [by strengȝe, α.] of armes. Þe secounde Henry*. [Harry, Cx., and so below.] kyng of Engelond made þis Rotherik sugette þe ȝere of kynge Henries tyme of age fourty, and of his kyngdom seuentene, þe ȝere of oure Lord elleuen hundred þre score and twelue.

De incolarum moribus. Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

SOLINUS seiþ þat men of þis lond beeþ straunge*. [So α. and Cx.; strong, MS.] of nacioun, housles, and grete fiȝteres, and acounteþ riȝt and Page  353, vol.1 wrong al for oon,*. [one thyng, Cx.] and beeþ sengle of cloþinge, scarse of mete, cruel of herte, and angry of speche, and drinkeþ firste blood of dede men þat beeþ i-slawe, and þan wassheþ here face*. [theyr vysages, Cx.] þerwiþ; and holdeþ hem apayde*. [paid, Cx.] wiþ flesshe and fruit instede of mete, and wiþ mylk instede of drynke, and vseþ moche playes*. [pleyng, Cx.] and hydelnesse and huntynge, and trauailleþ ful litel.*. [lyte, α.] In hir child hode þey beeþ harde i|norisched and hard i-fed, and þey beeþ vnsemeliche of maneres and of cloþyng, and haueþ breche and hosen al oon*. [hon, α.] of wolle, and straiȝt*. [strait, α.; strayt, Cx.] hodes þat streccheþ a cubite ouer þe schuldres by hynde, and blak faldynges*. [and foldynges, Cx.] instede of mantels and of clokes. Also sadeles, bootes, [and]*. [Added from α.] spores þey vseþ none, whan þey rideþ; but þey dryueþ hir hors wiþ a chambre ȝerde*. [chambred yerd, Cx., who trans|poses some previous words.] in þe ouer ende instede of barnacles*. [barnacles] byttes with trenches, Cx., who has brydles for britels.] and of britels of reest; and vseþ bridels*. [briderls, α.] þat letteþ nouȝt here hors of here*. [to ete theyr, Cx.] mete. Þey fiȝteþ*. [fiteþ, α.] vnarmed, naked in body; neuerþeles wiþ tweie dartes and speres and wiþ brode sparthes.*. [So α. and Cx.; sparthus, MS.] Þey fiȝteþ wiþ oon hond;*. [Cx. omits to at hond.] and whan oþer wepene failleþ, þey haueþ good publestones redy at hond. Þese men forsakeþ tilienge of lond and kepeþ pas|ture for beestes: þey vseþ longe berdes and longe lokkes Page  355, vol.1 hongynge doun by hynde hir nolles.*. [hedes, Cx.] Þey vse*. [vseþ, α.] no craft of flex and*. [of, α., Cx.] wolle, of metal, noþer of marchaundise; but ȝeueþ hem alle*. [alle] om. Cx.] to idelnesse and to sleuþe,*. [slouthe, Cx.] and counteþ*. [rekene, Cx.] reste for likyng and fredom for richesse. And þey Scot|lond þe douȝter of Irlond vse harpe, tymbre, and tabour, [and Wales useþ harpe and pipe and tabour],*. [Added from α. (not in Cx.)] neuerþeles Irische men beeþ connyng in tweie manere instrumentis*. [So α.; instrumentz, MS. (twice.)] of musyk, in harpe and tymbre þat is i-armed wiþ wire and wiþ strenges of bras. In þe whiche*. [in whiche, Cx., with other slight variations.] instrumentis,*. [So α.; instrumentz, MS. (twice.)] þey [þei]*. [though they, Cx.] pleye hastiliche and swiftliche, þey makeþ wel*. [right, Cx.] mery armonye*. [So Cx.; armenye, MS.] and melody wiþ wel þicke*. [with thyck, Cx.] tunes, werbeles, and nootes; and bygynneþ from bemol, and pleieþ priueliche vnder deepe*. [secretely vnder dymme, Cx.] soun of þe grete strenges and torneþ aȝen in to þe same, so þat þe grettest partie of þe craft hideþ þe craft; [as hit wolde seme as þei þe craft]*. [Added from α. and Cx. The latter slightly varies a few words in the previous sentence.] so i-hidde schulde be aschamed, and it were i-take. Þese men beeþ of yuel maneres and of leuynge; þey paieþ none teþinges,*. [tythes, Cx.; no teþinges, α.] þei weddeþ lawefulliche none wyfes, þey spareþ not her alies, bot þe broþer weddeþ his broþer*. [the broders, Cx.] wyf. Þey beeþ Page  357, vol.1 besy forto betraye hire neiȝbores and oþere. Þey beren sparthes in here hond instede of staues, and fiȝteþ þer|wiþ*. [þerwiþ] om. Cx.] aȝenst hem þat tristeþ*. [truste moost, Cx.] to hem beste; þe*. [þese, α., Cx;] men beeþ variable and vnstedefast, trecherous and gileful. Who þat deleþ wiþ hem nedeþ more to be war more of gile þan of craft, of pees þan of brennynge brondes, of hony þan of galle, of malice þan of knyȝthode. Þey haueþ suche maneres þat þei beeþ not stronge in werre and bataille, noþer trewe in pees. Þey bycomeþ [gossibs to hem]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] þat þey wolleþ falseliche betraye in*. [in þe, α.] gosibrede and holy kynrede; eueriche drinkeþ oþeres blood, whan it is i-sched. He*. [So MS. and α.; they, Cx. (in the same sense.)] loueþ somdel her norice and here pleieng*. [pley feres, α., Cx.] feres whiche þat*. [So also α., and Cx.] soukeþ þe same melk þat þey soukeþ, while they beeþ*. [were, Cx.] children. And þey purseweþ here breþeren, her cosyns, and here oþer kyn; and despiseþ hir kyn, while þey beeþ on lyue,*. [alyue, α.; they lyue, Cx.] and awrekeþ*. [auenge, Cx.] her deeþ, and*. [whan, Cx. (so often).] þey beeþ i-slawe. Among hem longe vsage and euel custume haþ so longe i-dured,*. [Slightly varied in Cx.] þat it haþ i-made*. [qoten, Cx. adding ouer them.] þe maistrie, and torneþ among hemself*. [among hemself] om. Cx.] traisoun in to kynde so fer forthe, þat as*. [as and so, below, om. Cx.] þei be traytoures by kynde,*. [nature, Cx.] so aliens and men of straunge londes þat woneþ longe among hem draweþ aftir þe manere*. [maneres, α.] of hir companye, and skapeþ wel vnneþe*. [folowen their maners that vnnethe, Cx.] but þey be Page  359, vol.1 i-smotted*. [smytted, α.] wiþ þe schrewednesse and bycomeþ traytours*. [ther is none but he is besmitted with their treson also, Cx.] also. Among hem many men pisseþ sittynge and wommen stondynge. Þere beeþ meny men in þis*. [that, Cx.] lond wonder*. [om. Cx.] foule and yuel i-schape yn lymes and in body.*. [Slightly varied in Cx.] For in hir lymes lakkeþ*. [they lacke. Cx.] þe benefice of kynde, so þat nowher beeþ no*. [non, α.] better i-schape, þan þey þat beeþ þere wel i|schape; and nowher non worse i-schape þan þey þat beeþ þere euel i-schape. And skilfulliche kynde, i-hurt and de|fouled by wykkednesse of lyuynge, bryngeþ forþ suche foule gromes and euel i-schape of hem þat wiþ vnlaweful wed|dynge*. [delyng, Cx.] wiþ foule maneres and euel lyuynge so wickedliche defouleþ*. [So Cx.; and defouleþ, MS. and α. (without sense.)] kynde.*. [kynde and nature, Cx.] In þis lond and in Wales olde wyfes and wymmen were i-woned, and beeþ ȝit (as me pleyneþ)*. [So also α.; as men seyne, Cx.] ofte forto schape hem self in liknes of hares for to melke here neiȝhebores keen,*. [kyne, Cx.] and so*. [so] om. C.] stele hire melk, and ofte grehoundes*. [gerhoundes, Cx.] renneþ after hem and purseweþ hem, and weneþ þat þey be hares. Also som by craft of nygramauncie makeþ fat swyne [þat beeþ reed of colour,]*. [Altered from Cx., who has for to be reed, &c. Absent from α.] and noon oþer, and selleþ hem in chepinge*. [markettis, Cx.] and in feires; but anon as þese*. [the, Cx.]Page  361, vol.1 swyne passeþ ony water þey torneþ aȝen in to hir owne kynde, where*. [wheþer, α., Cx.] it be straw, hey, gras, oþer torues.*. [turues, Cx.] But þese swyn mowe not be i-kept by no manere*. [manere] om. Cx.] craft forto dure in liknesse of swyn*. [Four previous words om. in Cx.] ouer þre dayes. Among þese wondres and oþere take hede þat in þe vttermeste*. [otmeste, α.] endes of þe world falleþ ofte newe meruailles and wondres,*. [Slightly varied in Cx.] as þei kynde pleyde wiþ larger*. [So Cx., who has loue (typ. error?); large, MS. and α.] leue priueliche and fer in þe endes þan openliche and nyȝ in*. [in] om. Cx.] þe myddel. Þerfore in þis ilond beeþ meny grisliche meruayles and wondres.

De locorum prodigiis. Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

Giraldus, capitulo nono.*. [Reference added from α.] Meny men telleþ þat in þe norþ side of Irlond is þe ilond of lyf; in þat ilond is*. [is] om. α.] no man þat*. [þat] om α.] may deie;*. [noman may deie, Cx.] but whan þey beeþ i-holde wiþ hard*. [old and be vexed with grete, Cx.] siknesse þey beeþ i-bore out to þe next ilond,*. [londe, Cx.] and deie þere. Þere is anoþer ilond in Irlond; þere no womman may bere a childe, but ȝit sche*. [he, α. (probably meaning they. See pp. 357, 383.)] may conceyue. Also þere Page  363, vol.1 is an ilond, þere*. [in whiche, Cx.] no dede body may roty.*. [rootye, α.; roten, Cx.] In Vltonia is an ilond in*. [So α., Cx.; and, MS.] a lake departed wonderliche atweyne; in þe*. [that, Cx.] oon partie is ofte grete destourbaunce and discomfort of fendes, and in þe oþer partie greet likynge and coumfort of aungelles.*. [Slightly transposed and varied in Cx.] Þere is also Patrick his purgatorie, þat was i-schewed at his prayere*. [prayers, Cx.] to conferme his prechynge and his lore, whan he preched to mysbileued men of sorwe and peyne þat euel men schal þole*. [þoole, α.; suffer, Cx.] for hire wicked wordes,*. [So also α.; werkes, Cx., which is better.] and of ioye and of blisse þat good men schal fonge for here holy dedes.*. [Very slight variations in the above sentence in Cx.] He telleþ [þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] who þat suffreþ þe peynes of þat purgatorie, ȝif it be enioyned hym for pe|naunce, he schal neuere suffre þe peynes of helle, but he dye fynalliche wiþ oute repentaunce of synne, as þe en|sample is i-sette more ful at this chapitres ende. Treuisa. Þei þis sawe myȝt be sooth, it is but a iape. For*. [But, Cx.] no man þat dooþ dedely synne schal be i-saued, but he be verrey repentaunt,*. [he be verrey repentaunt] Added from α. and Cx.] [what sommeuer penaunce he doo; and euery man that is verray repentaunt] at his lifes ende of al his mysdedes, he schal be sikerliche i-saued and haue þe blisse of heuene, þey he neuere hire speke*. [So α.; neuere speke, MS.; here, Cx.] of Patrik his purgatorie.*. [In the preceding extract, Cx. omits the first sentence, and, besides slight variations, adds the words in brackets, which are absent from MS. and α.] ℞. Þere is an ilond in Conacte*. [Connacte, α.; Cannacte, Cx.] Salo,*. [So Cx.; Salao, MS.; Saloo, α.] þat Page  365, vol.1 is, in þe see of Conactia, i-halowed of Seynt Brendoun,*. [Brendan, α.] and haþ no myse; þere dede bodyes beeþ nouȝt i-buried, but beeþ i-kepte þere oute [of therthe]*. [Added from Cx.; not in α.] and rotieþ nouȝt. In Mamonia is a welle; who þat wascheþ*. [So α. and Cx.; wasteþ, MS.] hym wiþ þe water of þat welle, for som oþer for alle*. [for som . . . alle] om. Cx.] he schal worþe hoor.*. [Cx. adds on his hede.] Þere is anoþer welle in Vltonia,*. [So Cx.; Mamonia, MS., α.] who þat*. [who someuer, Cx.] is i|wasche þerynne, he schal neuere wexe hoor afterward. Þere is anoþer*. [a, α., Cx.] welle in Mamonia;*. [Mownstere or Momonia, Cx.] ȝif any man toucheþ þat welle, anoon schalle falle a*. [α] om. Cx.] greet reyn in to*. [to] om. Cx.] alle the prouince; and þat reyn schal neuere cese, or*. [til, Cx.] a preost þat is clene*. [a clene, Cx.] mayde singe a masse in a chapel þat is faste by, and blisse*. [blesse, Cx.] þe water, and with mylk of a cowe þat is of oon here byspringe þe welle, and so reconsile þe welle in a*. [in this, Cx.] straunge manere. At Glyndalkan*. [Glydalcan, α.] aboute þe oratorie of Seint Keynewyn wilewys*. [withges, Cx.] bereþ apples as it were appel treen, and beeþ more holsom þan sauory; þat holy*. [So Cx.; þat þe holy, MS., α.] seynt brouȝt forþ þilke apples by prayeres for to hele his childe.*. [Cx. adds that was seek.]Page  367, vol.1 Þere is a lake in Vltonia*. [Vlster, Cx.] and fisshe inow*. [moche fyssh, Cx.] þerynne, and is þritty myle on*. [in, α.] lengþe and fiftene in brede; þe ryuer Ban*. [So Cx.; Ban þat, MS. and α.] renneþ in to þe norþ occean out of þat lake; and me seith þat [þat]*. [Added from α.; that this, Cx.; the þat of MS. is probably trans|posed; see preceding note.] lake bygan in þis manere: þere were men in þat contre þat were of yuel leuynge, coeuntes cum brutis, and þere was a welle in þat lond in grete reuerence in*. [of, α., Cx.] olde tyme and alle wey i-heled;*. [couered, and vncouered below, Cx.] and ȝif it were vn|heled, þe welle wexe*. [wexe] wold ryse, Cx.] and adrenche*. [drowne, Cx.] al þe lond. And so it happed þat a womman wente to þat welle for to fecche water, and hiȝed*. [hied, α., Cx.] wel*. [wel] om. Cx.] faste to hir childe þat wepte*. [weep, α.] in his*. [the, Cx.] cradell, and lefte þe welle vnheled; þan þe welle sprong so faste, þat it dreynt*. [drowned, Cx.] þe woman and hir child, and made al þe contray a grete*. [grete] om. Cx.] lake and a fische pond. For to preue þat þis is sooþ, it is a grete argument þat whanne þe wedir is clere fischeres of þat water seen*. [see, Cx.] in þe grounde vnder þe water rounde toures, [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] hiȝe, i-schape as cherches of þe*. [that, Cx. (not α.)] lond. In þe norþ side of Irlond in the Page  369, vol.1 contray of Ossiriens*. [So α., Cx.; Assiriens, MS.] eueriche seuene ȝere, at þe prayere of oon þat was an*. [of an, Cx.] holy abbot, tweyne þat beeþ i-wedded a man and a womman schal*. [must, Cx.] nedes be outlawed*. [exyled and forshappen in to lyke|nes of wolues, and abyde oute seuen yere, Cx.] out of þat contray and out of here owne schap. For þilke seuene ȝere þey schul be riȝt as wolues i-schape; and, ȝif þey lyueþ so longe, þey schulle turne aȝen in to hir owne lond and in to hir schap at þe seuen ȝeres ende. Þanne schullen oþer tweyne in her stede be in þe same manere outlawed and i-schape for oþer seuen ȝere.*. [The sentence is thus recast by Cx.: And at thende of seuen yere, yf they lyue, they come home agayn and take agayn theyr owne shappe; and then shal other tweyne goo forth in theyr stede, and so [be?] forshapen for other seuen yere.] Þere is a lake in þis lond, ȝif a pole is i-piȝt*. [pight, α., Cx., who adds and stycked.] þerynne, þat partie of þe pole*. [shaft or pool, Cx.] þat is in þe erthe schal turne in to iren; al þat is*. [and that part that abydeth, Cx., who has other slight variations.] in þe water schal torne in to stoon; and al þat is aboue þe water schal be tree and in his owne kynde. Also þere is a lake þat torneþ hasel into asche and asche into hasel, if it is i-doo*. [it be don, Cx.] þerynne. Also in Irlond beeþ þre samoun lepes; þere*. [there as, Cx.] samoun*. [samouns, α.] lepeþ aȝenst a roche a longe speres lengþe. Also in Lagenia is a ponde; þere is Seynt Colman*. [Coloman, α.]Page  371, vol.1 his briddes; [þe briddes]*. [Added from α. and Cx. (the latter has the birdes.)] beeþ i-cleped cercelles, and comeþ homeliche to manis honde; but ȝif me dooþ hem harme,*. [yf men do hem wrong or harme, Cx.] þey gooþ awey and comeþ nouȝt aȝen, but*. [and, Cx.] the water þere schal wexe bitter and stynke; and he þat dede þe wrong schal nouȝt asterte wiþ oute wreche and mes|chief, but þei doo ful*. [ful] om. Cx.] amendes. ℞.*. [Reference omitted in α.] Touchynge*. [As touching, Cx.] Patrik his purgatorie take hede þat*. [ye shal vnderstande that, Cx.] þe secounde Seynt Patryk, þat was abbot and nouȝt bisshop, whyle he preched in Irlond studied wel faste besily*. [besy, α.; labored and studied for to torne, Cx.] for to torne þilke wicked men, þat leuede as bestes, out of here yuel lyf for drede of þe peynes of helle, and for to conferme hem in good lyf by hope of þe grete blisse of heuene; and þey seide þat þey wolde nouȝt torne, but some of hem myȝte knowe somwhat of þe grete peynes and þe blisse, þat he spak of, whyle þey were here on lyue.*. [Cx. has some omissions (and slight variations) in the previous sentence.] Þanne Seynt Patrik preied to God alle myȝty þerfore; and oure Lord Iesus Crist apperede to Patrik, and took hym a staf,*. [The remainder of the sentence omitted in Cx., who has staf and ladde.] and þe text of Page  373, vol.1 þe gospel þat beeþ in þe contray in þe erchebisshops ward.*. [So α.; name, MS.] Þanne oure Lorde ladde Patrik in to a wilde place, and schewed hym þere a round pitte þat was derke wiþ ynne, and seide: ȝif a man were verray repentaunt and stable of byleue, and went in to þis pitte, and waked*. [walked, α. and Cx.] þere inne a day and a nyȝt, he schulde see þe sorwes and þe peynes of euel men and þe ioye and þe blisse of goode men; þan Crist vanysched out of Patrik his siȝt.*. [Cx. has a few trivial variations in the previous sentence, and also in the following.] And Patrik rered þere a chirche, and dede þere*. [and put therin, Cx.] chanouns reguler, and closed þe pitte aboute wiþ a wal; and*. [The syntax requires whiche, or the addition of a nominative.] is now in the chirche ȝerde*. [hiȝe, α.; hey, β., γ.] riȝt at þe est ende of þe chirche, and is fast i-loke*. [shytte, Cx.] wiþ a strong ȝate.*. [dore, Cx.] For no man schulde niseliche wende yn*. [goo in nycely, Cx.] wiþ oute leue of þe bisshop and*. [or, Cx.] of þe priour of þe place. Meny men went yn þere and come*. [cam, Cx., and so below.] out aȝen in Patrik his tyme, and tolde of peynes and ioye þat þey hadde i-seie, and meruayles þat þey sey beeþ ȝit þere i-wrete.*. [sawe ben there yet wreton, Cx.] And by cause þerof meny men torned and were conuerted to riȝt byleue. Also meny men wente yn, and come neuer aȝen. In kyng Steuene his tyme, kyng of Page  375, vol.1 Engelond, a knyȝt þat heet Owen went into Patryk his purgatorie, and come aȝen, and dwelled al his lyf tyme afterward in þe nedes of þe abbay of Ludensis þat is of þe ordre of Cisterciens,*. [So α.; Cistirensis, MS.; Ciste, Cx.] and tolde meny men of wondres þat he hadde i-seie in Patrykes purgatorie.*. [Cx. has a few very slight varia|tions.] And the chirche hatte Reglis. No man is enioyned forto wende*. [goo, Cx.] in to þat purgatorie, bote i-counseilled wel faste þat þey*. [he, Cx., which is better.] schulde not come þere; but ȝif he wil nedes entre, he schal first be i-sent to þe bisshop of þe place, and he schalle counsaile hym for to leue; and ȝif þe man is stable, and wil nede take þe wey, þe bisshop schal sende hym wiþ lettres to þe priour of þe place; and þe priour schal counseille hym to leue. And he wil*. [he wil] om. α.] take þat wey, he schal be i-brouȝt into þe chirche, and þere he schal be in prayers and in fastynge fiftene dayes.*. [The two previous sentences are almost entirely recast in Cx.] [And after fiftene dayes]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] he schal be housled and i-lad to þe dore of pur|gatorie wiþ processioun and letanye; and þere*. [yet, Cx., who has also slight va|riations elsewhere in the remainder of the chapter.] he schal Page  377, vol.1 be counseilled to leue þat weye. Þan yf he is stedfast and stable, þe dore schal be i-opened, and he schal be i-blessed, *. [The clause following omitted in Cx.]and he schal blesse hymself also, and goo yn a Goddes half,*. [on Goddes name, Cx.] and holde forþ his wey. Þan þe dore schal be faste i-loke*. [shette, Cx.] forto anoþer day.*. [til the next day, Cx.] Whan þe day is come, þe priour comeþ to þe dore erliche and by tyme, and openeþ the dore; and ȝif þe man is i-come, he ledeþ hym in to þe chirche wiþ processioun; and þere he schal be fiftene dayes in prayers and in fastinge.

De Prœconiis Sanctorum. Capitulum tricesimum sextum.

Here Girald makeþ mencioun,*. [mynde, Cx.] þat as men of þis nacioun beeþ more angry þan oþer men and more hasty for to take wreche, while þey beeþ on lyue;*. [alyue, α. A frequent variation.] so seyntes and halowes of þis lond beeþ more wrecheful þan seyntes of oþer londes. Clerkes of þis lond beeþ chast, and biddeþ meny bedes,*. [sayen many prayers, Cx.] and dooþ greet abstinence a day, and drynkeþ al nyȝt; so þat Page  379, vol.1 it is acounted for a myracle þat leccherie reigneþ nouȝt þere, as wyn reigneþ. And as moche schrewes among hem beeþ of alle schrewes worste,*. [And they that ben euyl of them ben worst of all other, so, &c., Cx.] so good men among hem, (þeiȝ þere beeþ*. [be, α., Cx. (the latter has other slight variations.)] but fewe,) beeþ goode at þe best. Prelates of þat contray beeþ wel*. [ful, Cx.] slowe in correccioun of trespas, and besy in contemplacioun, and nowt*. [nouȝt, α.] of*. [in, α.] prechynge of Goddes word. Þerfore it is þat alle þe seyntes of þat lond beeþ confessoures, and non martir among hem; and no wonder, for wel nyh*. [wel nyh] om. Cx.] alle þe prelates of þat contrey beeþ i-chose out of abbayes in to þe clergie, and dooþ as monkes schulde. What clerkes and prelates schulde doo is to hem vnknowe; þerfore whan it was*. [was] So α. and Cx.; is, MS.] i-putte aȝenst þe bisshop of Casille, how it myȝte be þat so meny seyntes beeþ in Ir|lond and neuere a martir among ham,*. [MS. and α. (not Cx.) badly add and no wonder.] siþþe*. [seþ, α.] þat þe men beeþ so schrewed and so angry, and þe prelates so recheles and so slowh*. [slowe, α.] in correcciouns of trespas, þe bisshop an|swerde frowardliche*. [So α. and Cx. (frowardly); liche, MS.] i-now, and seide: "Oure men beeþ schrewed and angry inow to*. [So Cx.; and to, MS. and α.] hem self, but in Goddes ser|uauntes Page  381, vol.1 þey leye*. [leieþ, α.] neuere no*. [no] om. α. and Cx.] hond, but þey dooþ hem greet reuerence and worschippe; but Englische men comeþ in to þis lond, þat konneþ make martires and were i-woned to vse þat craft."*. [A few trifling variations in Cx.] Þe bisshop seide so, bycause þat kyng Henry*. [Harry, Cx.] þe secounde was þoo*. [þoyȝ i-come, α.; tho newe comen, Cx.] i-come in to Irlond freschliche after þe martirdom of Seint Thomas of Caunturbury. Giraldus. In þis lond, in Wales, and in Scotlond, bee billes*. [beeþ bellis, α.] and staues wiþ croked hedes, and oþere such þinges for relikes, in grete reuerence and worschippe; so þat men of þis lond dredeþ more forto swere*. [swerie, α.] vppon eny of þilke belles and gold battes*. [staues, Cx.] þan vppon þe gospel. Þe chief of alle suche relikes is i-holde*. [in hold, MS.; y holde, Cx.] Iesus his staf [þat is at Develynge; wiþ þe whiche staf]*. [Words in brackets added from α. and Cx.] þey seiþ þat þe first Patrik droof þe wormes out of Irlond. Augustinus de Ciuitate Dei, libro sexto decimo, capitulo septimo. Ȝif me axeþ, how it may be þat dyuerse manere bestes and of dyuerse kynde, þat beeþ kyndeliche i-gete by twene male and female, come and beeþ in ilondes after Noes flood, me troweþ*. [So MS. and α.; men supposen, Cx.] þat suche bestes swam in to ilondes aboute, and firste to þe nexte, Page  383, vol.1 and so forþ in to oþere; oþere*. [or els, Cx.] men seillinge into oþere londes*. [in to ylondes, Cx.] brouȝte wiþ hem suche bestes for loue of huntinge; oþer aungelles at God Almyȝties heste*. [comaundement, Cx., and so be|low.] brouȝte suche bestes in to ilondes aboute; oþer þe erþe brouȝt hem forþ ferst, and fulfilled þoo Goddes heste, þat heet*. [commaunded, Cx.] þe erþe brynge*. [to brynge, Cx.] forþ gras and quyk bestes.

De Scotia. Capitulum tricesimum septimum.

Hit is comoun*. [a comyn, Cx.] sawe þat [þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] contray þat now hatte Scotlond is an out strecching, and is þe*. [and is þe] of the, Cx. (his own alteration.)] norþ partie of þe more Bretayne, and is departed in þe south side from Bretayne wiþ armes of þe see, and in þe oþer sides al aboute byclipped wiþ þe see. Þis lond heet somtyme Albania, and had*. [hath, Cx.] þat name of Albanactus, þat was kyng Brutis*. [Brutus, Cx.] sone, (for Albanactus woned first þerynne,) or of*. [So Cx.; þerof, MS. and α.] þe prouince Albania, þat is a contray of Scythia and nyȝ to Amazonia; þerfore Scottes beeþ i-cleped as it were Scites, for he*. [So MS. and α.; they, Cx. (in the same sense.)]Page  385, vol.1 com out of Scythia. Afterward þat lond heet*. [het, α. (twice.)] Pictauia; for þe Pictes reignede þerynne a þousand ȝere, þre score, and ten; oþer, as som men telleþ, a þowsand ȝere, þre hun|dred, and sixty; and at þe laste heet*. [het, α. (twice.)] Hibernia, as Irlond heet.*. [hatte, α.]Giraldus in Topographia.*. [So α. and Cx.; Beda, MS.] For meny skiles oon skile is for affinite and alye, þat was by twene hem and Irische men; for þey toke wyfes of Irlond, and þat is opounliche i-sene in her byleue, in cloþinges, in langage, in*. [and, α.] speche, in wepene, and in maneres. A noþer skile is for Irische men woned þere somtyme. Beda, libro primo. Out of Irlond, þat is þe propre contray of Scottes, come Irische men with here duk þat heet Reuda,*. [Renda, Cx. The MSS. both of the text and versions equally re|semble this reading; but Reuda is doubtless correct. See Bede, lib. l. c. l. and Smith's note.] and wiþ loue oþer wiþ strengþe made hem cheef cees and citees besides þe Pictes in þe norþside. Giraldus. Now þe lond is schortliche i-cleped Scotlond of Scottes, þat come out of Irlond and reignede þere inne þre hondred ȝere and fiftene anoon to Reed*. [the rede, Cx.] William his tyme, þat was Malcolms*. [Malcolins, MS.] broþer. ℞. Meny euidencis we haueþ þat þis Scotlond is ofte i-cleped and hatte Hibernia, riȝt as Irlond hatte. Þerfore*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Beda, libro secundo, capitulo decimo, seiþ þat Laurence, Page  387, vol.1 archebisshop of Donbarre,*. [Dunbar, Cx. Trevisa should have written Canterbury.] was archebisshop of Scottes, þat woned in an ilond þat hatte Hibernia and is next to Bretayne. Also Beda, libro tertio, capitulo vicesimo sep|timo, seiþ: Pestilens of moreyn bare doun Hibernia; also, libro tertio, capitulo secundo, seiþ þat þe Scottes, þat wonede in þe souþ side of Hibernia. Also, libro quarto, capitulo tertio, he seiþ þat Chadde was a ȝongelyng, and lerned the rule of monkes in Hibernia. Also, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo secundo, Egifridus,*. [Egfridus, Cx.] kyng of Northumberlond, de|stroyed Hibernia; also, libro quinto, capitulo quintodecimo: Þe moste deel of Scottes in Hibernia. And in þe same chapitre he clepeþ Hibernia propurliche i-nempned þat west ilond þat is an hundred myle from euery Britayne, and departed wiþ þe see bitwene; and clepeþ Hibernia þat con|tre, þat now hatte Scotlond. Þere he telleþ, þat Adamnan, abbot of þis ilond, seillede to Hibernia for to teche Irische men þe laweful Esterday, and at þe laste com hoom*. [hoom] om. Cx., with a few other trivial variations.] aȝen in to Scotlond. Isidorus, Ethym., libro quartodecimo. Men of þis Scotlond hatte Scottes in hir owne langage, and Pictes also; for somtyme here body was i-peynt in þis manere. Þey wolde somtyme wiþ scharpe egged tool picche*. [prycke, Cx.] and kerue here owne bodies, and make þeron dyuers figures and schappes, and peynte hym*. [or, Cx.] wiþ ynke oþer wiþ oþir peynture and*. [hem, α.] colour. And for*. [for] by cause, Cx.] þey were so i-peynt, þey were i|cleped Picti, þat is i-peynt. Herodotus.*. [Giraldus, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] Scottes beeþ lyȝt of herte, strange and wylde*. [So Cx.; mylde, MS., α.] i-now, but by mellynge*. [medlynge, Cx.] of Page  389, vol.1 Englisch men þey beeþ moche amended; þey beeþ cruel vppon hir enemyes, and hateþ bondage most of eny þing, and holdeþ a foule slewþe,*. [sleuþe, α.; slouthe, Cx.] ȝif a man deieþ in his bed; and grete worschepe, ȝif he deie*. [deieþ, α.] in þe feeld. Þey beeþ litel of mete, and mowe faste longe, and eteþ wel seelde while*. [whan, Cx.] þe sonne is vppe, and eteþ flesche, fysshe,*. [fysshe] Added from Cx.] mylk, and fruyt more þan brede. And þey [he] be*. [þeiȝ he be, α.; though they, Cx. þey be, MS.] faire of schap, þey beeþ defouled and i-made vnsemelich i-now wiþ here owne cloþinge. Þey*. [þe, α.] preiseþ faste þe vsage of þeyre*. [here, α.] owne forme fadres*. [for faders, Cx. (as usual.)] and despiseþ oþer mens*. [So α.; men, MS.; mennes, Cx.] doynge. Here lond is fruytful i-now in pasture, gardynes, and feeldes. Gi|raldus, dist. prima,*. [De p., MS.; de p., Cx.; Harl. MS.]capitulo octavodecimo. Þe princes of Scottes, as þe kynges of Spayne, beeþ nouȝt i-woned to be annoynt noþer*. [enioynted (sic) nother, Cx.] i-crowned. In þis Scotlond is so|lempne and grete mynde of Seynt Andrew þe apostel; for Seint Andrewe hadde þe norþ contrayes of þe worlde, Scites and Pictes, to his lot, for to preche and conuerte þe peple to Cristes byleue; and was at þe laste i-martired in Achaie*. [Achaia, α., Cx.] in Grecia in a citee þat hatte Patras, and his bones were i-kept two hondred ȝere, þre skore, and twelue Page  391, vol.1 anon to þe Grete Constantinus tyme*. [vnto Constantinus themperours tyme, Cx.] and þan þey were translated in to Constantinople,*. [Constantyne noble, MS., α.; Con|stantinoble, Cx.] and i-kepte [there]*. [Added from Cx.] an hon|dred ȝere and ten anon to Theodosius þe emperours tyme. Þanne Vngust, kyng of Pictes, in Scotlond, destroyed a greet partie of Britayne, and was*. [wast, α.] bysette wiþ a grete oost of Bretouns in a felde þat hatte Merk, and herde Seynt Andrew speke to hym in þis manere: "Vngus, Vngus, here þou me Cristes apostle, I behote*. [promise, Cx.] þe help and socour; whan þou hast ouercome þyn enemyes by myn help, þow schalt ȝeue þe þridde dele of þyn heritage in*. [So α. and Cx.; I, MS.] almes to God Almyȝhty and in worschippe of Seint Andrew." And þe signe of þe crosse*. [croys, α.] wente to fore his oost, and þe þridde day he hadde þe victorie, and so torned home aȝen and deled his heritage as he was i-hote.*. [boden, Cx., who has also some slight variations.] And, for he was vncerteyn what citee he schulde dele for Seynt Andrewe; he fasted þre dayes boþe he and al*. [al] om. α.] his Page  393, vol.1 meyny,*. [meyny] om. α.; he and his men, Cx.] and prayed*. [Seynt added in α.] Andrewe þat he wolde schewe what place he wolde chese. And, loo,*. [loo] om. Cx.] oon of þe wardeynes þat kepte þe body of Seint Andrewe in Constantinople*. [Constantyn noble, MS. and α.; Constantynoble, Cx., and similarly below.] was i-warned in his sweuene,*. [swefene, α.] þat he schulde wende out of þat lond in to a stede whider an aungel hym wolde lede, and by suche ledynge*. [that he shold go in to a place whyder an angle (sic) wolde lede him, and so he cam, &c., Cx. A fair spe|cimen of his free handling of the text, which makes a minute colla|tion almost impossible.] he com in to Scotlond wiþ seuene felawes to þe cop*. [So MS., apparently; but c and t can hardly be distinguished. toppe, Cx. Both forms are good.] of þe hille þat hat Ragmund.*. [So α. and Cx.; Ragmud, MS.] Þe same oure liȝt of heuene byschon and byclipped þe kyng of Pictes, þat was comyng wiþ his oost to a place þat hatte Carcenan. Þere were anon i-heled meny seke men; þere mette wiþ the kyng Regulus þe monk of Constantinople wiþ þe relikes of Seynt Andrewe. [There is founded a chirche in worship of Seynt Andrew,]*. [Added from Cx. Absent also from α.] þat is hede of alle chirches in þe lond of Pictes, þat is Scotlond. To þis chirche comeþ pilgrymes oute of alle londes; þere was Regulus first abbot, and gadered monkes. And so al þe Page  395, vol.1 teþe*. [tienthe, Cx.] londe, þat þe kyng hadde assigned him,*. [So α.; hem, MS.] he departed in dyuers places among abbayes.

De Wallia. Capitulum tricesimum octavum.

How*. [Now, α.; now this, Cx.] þe book takeþ in*. [on, α.] honde
Wales to fore Engelonde;
So I take my tales
And wende forþ*. [forþ] om. Cx.] in to Wales,
To that noble brood
Of Priamus his*. [his] om. Cx.] blood,
Knoweleche for to wynne
Of greet Iubiter his*. [Jupiters, Cx.] kynne,
For to haue in mynde
Dardanus*. [So α. and Cx.; Bardanus, MS.] his kynde.
In þis*. [thyse, Cx.] foure titles I fonde
To telle þe state*. [mervayll, α.] of þat londe.
Cause of þe name I schal telle,
And þan preise þe lond I*. [I] om. α.; and welle, Cx.] welle.
Than I schal write wiþ my pen
Alle þe maneres of þe men.
Than I schal fonde
To telle mervailes of þe londe. Page  397, vol.1
Wales hatte now*. [now hatte, α.; now is called, Cx.] Wallia,
And somtyme hiȝte*. [heet, α.; it heet, Cx.] Cambria,
For Camber, Brutes sone,*. [Of the name, how it is named Wales.]
Was kyng,*. [prynce, α., Cx.] and þere dede wone;
Þan Wallia was to mene,
For Gwalaes the quene,
Kyng Ebrank his childe,
Was wedded þider mylde.
And of þat lord Gwaloun
Wiþdraweþ lettres of þe soun.
And putte to L, I, and A,
And þow schalt fynde Wallia.
And þey þat this*. [though this, Cx.] londe
Be wel*. [moche, Cx.] lasse þan Engelonde,
As good glebe is oon as other,
In þe douȝter and*. [and] as, Cx.] in*. [in] om. α. (not Cx.)] þe moder.
They þat londe be luyte,*. [Of the commo|dytees of the lond of Wales.]
Hit is ful of corne and fruyte;*. [of fruyte, α.]
And haþ grete plente i-wys*. [ywys, Cx. (conjunctim.)]
Boþe of flesche, and of*. [Of flesshe and eke of, Cx.] fische;
Of bestes, tame and wylde,
Of hors, schepe, and oxen mylde;
Good lond for alle sedes
For corn, herbes, and gras þat*. [Here and elsewhere in these verses, Caxton has printed the word thus: þt; but perhaps in every other instance he replaces þ by th.] spredes. Page  399, vol.1
There beeþ wodes and medes,
Herbes and floures þere spredes;
There beeþ ryuers and welles,
Valeies and also helles;
Valeys bryngeþ forþ food,
And hilles metal riȝt good,*. [metals good, Cx.]
Col*. [So α.; Cool, Cx.; Gold, MS.] groweþ vnder lond,
And gras aboue at þe hond;*. [atte honde, Cx. (a frequent va|riation.)]
There lyme is copious,
And sclattes also for hous.
Hony, mylk, and whyte*. [Hony and mylke whyte, Cx. (wrongly; see text.)]
There is deyntees,*. [deynte, Cx.] and not lyte.
Of braget,*. [braket, Cx.] meth,*. [mede, α.] and ale
Is grete plente in þat vale.*. [So α. and Cx.; and þat in vale, MS.]
And al þat nedeþ to þe lyue
Þat lond bryngeþ forþ ful ryue.
But of greet riches forto*. [forto] to be, Cx.] drawe
Meny in a schort*. [And close many in short, Cx., probably rightly.] sawe,
Hit is in a corner smal;
And*. [And] om. Cx.] as þei God first of al
Made þat lond so feele*. [So α; fele, Cx.; freele, MS.]
To be celer*. [selere, Cx.] of al heele.
Walys is deled by
A water þat hatte Twy.*. [So also Cx.; Tiwy, α.]Page  401, vol.1
Norþ Wales from þe south
Twy*. [Tiwy, α.] deleþ in place ful couþ.*. [fu kouth, α.]
The south hatte Demesia,
And þe oþer Venedocia;
The firste scheteþ and arwes*. [arowes, Cx.] beres,
And þe oþer*. [That other, Cx.] deleþ alle wiþ speres.
I*. [In, α., Cx.] Wales how it be
Were somtyme contrees þre;
At Karmarthyn was þat oon,
And þat oþer was in Moon;*. [Mone, Cx. (who prints one above.)]
The þridde was in Powisy
In Pengwern, þat now is Schroysbury.*. [Shrousbury, Cx.]
There were bisshopes seuene,
And now beeþ foure euene,
Vnder Saxons al at honde;
Somtyme vnder princes of þat lond.
The manere leuynge of þat lond*. [Of maner and rites of the Walss|men.]
Is wel dyuers from Engelond,
In mete and drynk and cloþinge.
And many oþer doyng.
They beeþ cloþed wonder wel
In a scherte and in*. [in] om. α. (not Cx.)] a mantel;
A crisp breche wel fayn
Boþe in wynd and in rayn. Page  403, vol.1
In þis cloþynge þey beeþ bolde,
Þeyȝ þe weder be riȝt colde;
Wiþ oute schetes alway
Euermore in þis array
They gooþ, fiȝteþ, pleieþ, hoppeþ, and*. [hoppeþ and] om. Cx.] lepeþ,
Stondeþ, sitteþ, liggeþ,*. [lye, Cx.] and slepeþ,
Wiþ oute sorcot, gowne, coote,*. [koot, α.] kirtelle;
Wiþ gipoun,*. [iopen, Cx.] tabard, cloke, and*. [or, Cx.] belle;
Wiþ oute lace and chapelet, þat hire lappes,
Wiþ oute hodes, hatte, or cappes.
Thus arraied gooþ þe geggis,*. [So α.; segges, β., Cx. (quid?); gigges, MS.]
And alle*. [alwey, α.] wiþ bare legges;
He*. [They, Cx. (twice.)] kepeþ non oþer goyng,*. [So Cx.; þing, MS.]
Þey he*. [They, Cx. (twice.)] mete wiþ þe kyng.
Wiþ arwes and schort speres
Þey fiȝteþ wiþ hym*. [hem, α.; them, Cx.] þat hem deres.
They fiȝteþ better, ȝif hit nedeþ,*. [they neden, Cx.]
Whan þey gooþ þan whan þei rideþ.*. [The metre requires redeþ.]
Instede of castel and toure
They taken mareys and wodes*. [wode and marys, α.] for socour,
Whan þey seeþ þat hit is to do,*. [So α. and Cx.; I doo, MS.]
In fiȝtinge þey wil be a goo.
Gildas seiþ þey be variable
In pees, and no þing stable.
Ȝif me axeþ why hit be,
Hit is no*. [no] om. Cx.] wonder forto se, Page  405, vol.1
They men i-putt out of londe
To putte out oþere wolde fonde.
But al for nouȝt at þis stounde,
For*. [For al, Cx.] meny wodes beeþ at grounde;
And vppon þe see among
Beeþ castellis*. [So α.; castell, MS.; castels, Cx., who omits ful.] i-buld ful strong.
The men may dure longe vnete,
And loueþ wel comune mete;
They conne ete and be*. [ben, Cx.] mury*. [So also Cx.; merye, α.]
Wiþ oute grete kewery.*. [cury, Cx.]
They eteth brede, colde and hote,
Of barliche and of oote;
Brood cakes, round and þynne,
As wel semeþ so grete kynne.
Seelde þey eteþ brede of whete,
And seelde þey dooþ oues ete.
They haueþ growel*. [grewel, α.; gruel, Cx.] to potage,
And a leke is skyn*. [a leke his kyn, α.; And lekes kynde, Cx.] to compernage;*. [companage, Cx.]
Also butter, melk, and chese*. [chyse, α.]
I-schape euelong and cornered wise.*. [corner wese, Cx.]
Swiche*. [suche, α., Cx.] messes þey eteþ snel;
And þat makeþ hem drynk wel.
Mede*. [Methe, Cx.] and ale, þat haþ myȝt,
Ther ynne*. [Theron, Cx] þey spendeþ day and nyȝt.
Euere þe redder is þe wyn,
Þey holdeþ it þe more fyn; Page  407, vol.1
Whan þey drynkeþ at þe*. [at þe] atte, Cx., and so commonly.] ale,
They telleþ meny a lewed tale.
For whan drynk is in handelyng
Þey beeþ ful al*. [al ful, α.] of iangelynge.
At þe mete, and after eke,
Hir solace is salt and leke.
The housbonde in his wise
Telleþ þat a grete prise,
To ȝeue a caudron*. [gawdron, α.] wiþ grewel
To hym þat sitteþ at*. [hem that sitten on, Cx.] his mel,
He deleþ his mete at þe mel,
And ȝeueþ eueriche manis del,*. [The lines are transposed in MS. (not α.)]
And alle the ouer pluse
He kepeþ to his owne vse.*. [house, α.]
Therfore þey haueþ woo
And myshappes also,
They eteþ hote samoun alway,
They*. [All though, Cx.] phisik seie nay.
Here hous*. [howses, Cx.] beþ lowe wiþ alle,
I-made*. [And made, Cx.] of ȝerdes smalle;
Nouȝt, as in citees, nygh,
But fer atwynne, and not to hiȝe.*. [So α.; nygh, MS.]
Whan al is i-ete*. [eten, Cx.] at home,
Þanne to her neighebores wil þey rome;
And ete what þey may fynde and see,
And þanne torne home aȝe. Page  409, vol.1
The lyf is idel, þat þei ledes,
In brennynge and*. [and] om. Cx., perhaps rightly.] slepynge and such dedes.
Walsche men vseþ wiþ hir myȝt
To wasche here gestes feet at nyȝt;*. [anyȝt, α., Cx.]
Ȝif he wasche here feet, al and some,
Þanne þey knoweþ þey beeþ welcome.
They leueþ so esiliche in arowte,*. [a rowte, Cx. (which is also good.)]
Þat seelde þey bereþ purse aboute.
At here breche out and at home
They hengeþ*. [hongeþ, α.] boþe money and come.*. [combe, Cx.]
Hit is wonder þey beeþ so hende,
And hateþ a crak of þe neþer ende,
And with oute [ony]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α)] core
Makeþ her wardrope at þe dore.
They haueþ in greet mangerie
Harpe, tabor, and pype for mynstralcie.
They bereþ forþ cors*. [corps, Cx., who has also sorow.] wiþ sorwe grete;
Þey bloweþ*. [And bloweþ, α.; And blowe, Cx.] lowde hornes of geete.
They preiseþ faste Troian blood,
For þere of come al hir brood;
Nigh*. [Nyȝ, α.] kyn þey wil*. [wole, α.] bee
Þey he*. [they, Cx. (not α.)] passe an hondred gree.*. [degree, Cx.]
Aboue oþer men þey wil hem*. [So α.; hym, MS.] diȝte;
And worschippeþ preostes wiþ her myȝte; Page  411, vol.1
As aungeles of heuene riȝt
Þey worschippeþ seruantes of God almyȝte.
Oft gyled*. [So α. and Cx.; Of giles, MS.] was this brood,
And ȝerned batail al for wood,
For Merlyns prophecie,
And ofte for sortelegie.*. [So α. and Cx.; sortelogie, MS.]
Bestial*. [So γ.; Ms. best in.] maneres of Bretouns,*. [Cx. puts a full stop after Bri|tons. It is almost certain that for best in we should read bestly.]
For companye of Saxouns,
Beeþ i-torned to beter riȝt;
Þat is knowe as clere as liȝt.
Thei tilieþ*. [tillen, Cx.] gardyns, feeld, and downes,
And draweþ hem to gode townes;
They rideþ i-armed, as wolde*. [wol, α.; wole, Cx. The text seems corrupt.] God,
And gooþ i-hosed and i-schod;
And sitteþ faire at hir mele,
And slepeþ in beddes faire and wele.*. [fele, Cx.]
So þey semeþ now in mynde
More Englische men þan Walsche kynd;
Ȝif me axeþ whi þey dooþ now soo,*. [now doo so, Cx.]
More þan þey were woned*. [they woonte, Cx.] to doo,
They leueþ in more pees,
By cause of hir riches.
For hir catel schulde slake,
And*. [If, Cx.] þey vseþ ofte wrake.
Drede of losse of here good
Makeþ hem now stille of mood; Page  413, vol.1
Alle in oon hit is brouȝt;
Haue no þing and drede nouȝt.
The poete seiþ a sawe of preef,
Þe foot man lereþ synge*. [foteman singeth, Cx.] to fore þe þeef,
And is wel bolder on his*. [is bolder on the, Cx.] way
Þan þe horsman*. [horsmen, Cx.] riche and gay.
There is a pole at Breigheynok,*. [Brechnok, Cx.]*. [Of the marueylles and won|ders of Wales.]
There ynne of fische is many a flok;
Ofte he chaungeþ his hewe on cop,
And bereþ aboue a gardyn crop;
Ofte tyme, how it be,
Schap of hous þere þou schalt*. [shal (sic) thou, Cx.] see,
Whan þe pole is frore, hit is wonder
Of þe noyse þat is þere vnder;
Ȝif þe prince of þe lond hote,
Briddes syngeþ wiþ mery*. [singe wel mery, Cx.] note,
As mery*. [merily, Cx.] as þey kan,
And syngeþ for noon oþer man.
Bysides Carleoun,*. [Carlion, Cx.]
Tweyne*. [Twa, Cx.] myle from þe toun,
Is a roche wel briȝt of leme
Riȝt aȝenst þe sonne beme;
Gold clif þat roche hiȝte,
For he*. [it, Cx. (and so often.)] schyneþ as gold ful briȝte;
Suche a floure in stoon is nouȝt
Wiþ oute fruyt, and*. [if, Cx. (and so often.)] hit were souȝt; Page  415, vol.1
Ȝif me kouþe*. [men coude, Cx.] by craft vndo
Þe veynes of þe erþe, and come þerto.
Many benefices*. [benefyce, Cx.] of kynde*. [knynde, MS.]
Beeþ now i-hidde fro manis mynde,
And beeþ vnknowe ȝit,
For defaute*. [deuaute, α.] of manis wit.
Grete tresour is hid in grounde,
And after þis it schal be founde
By greet studie and besynesse
Of hem þat comeþ after vs.
Þat olde men hadde by grete nede,
We haueþ be*. [by, Cx.] besy dede.
Treuisa.*. [This and the following reference added from α. and Cx. (the former has only a space for ℞.)] In bookes ȝe may rede,
Þat kynde failleþ not at nede;
Whanne no man hadde craft in mynde,
Þan of craft halp God and kynde;
Whan no techere was in londe,
Men hadde craft by Goddes sonde;*. [honde, Cx.]
Þey þat hadde craft so þenne
Tawȝte forþ craft to oþere menne;
Som craft, þat ȝit come nouȝt in place,
Somme men schal haue by Goddis grace.
℞. An*. [And, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] ilond is wiþ noyse and strif
In West Wales at Cardif,*. [and Kardyf, α.; Kerdyf, Cx.]
Faste by Seuerne*. [Seuarn, Cx.] stronde;
Barry hiȝte þat ilonde.
In þe hider*. [hiȝ hider, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] side in a chene*. [chyne, α.]
Þow schalt here a wonder dene,
And dyuerse noyse also,
Ȝif þou putte þyn ere to. Page  417, vol.1
Noyse of leues and of wynde,*. [This line is absent from MS.]
Noyse of metal þou schalt fynde;
Frotinge of iren and whestones þou schalt hire,
Hetynge ouenes*. [of ouenes, α.] þan wiþ fire;
Al þis may wel be
By wawes of þe see,
Þat brekeþ in þare
Wiþ suche noyse and fare.
At Penbrook in a stede
Fendes dooþ ofte quede,
And þroweþ foule þing ynne,
And despiseþ also synne.
Noþer craft ne bedes may
Do*. [So α. and Cx.; De, MS.] þennes þat sorwe away;
Whan hit greueþ soo
To þe men hit bodeþ woo.
At Crucinar*. [So α. and Cx.; Crucina, MS.] in West Wales
Is a wonder buriales;
Euerich man, þat comeþ hit to see,
Semeþ it euene as moche as he;
Hool wepoun þere a nyȝt
Schal be i-broke er day lyȝt.
At Nemyn*. [So MS. and α.] in Norþ Wales
A litel ilond þere is,
Þat hatte Bardeseie;*. [Bardysey, Cx.]
Monkes woneþ þere alweie. Page  419, vol.1
Men lyueþ so longe in þat hurste,
Þat þe eldest deiȝeþ furst.
Me seiþ þat Merlyn i-buried þere is,
Þat hiȝte also Siluestris.
There were Merlyns tweyne
And prophecied alle*. [alle] om. α. and Cx.] beyne.
Oon hiȝte Ambrose and Merlyn,
And wes i-gete of*. [y-goten by, Cx.] gobolyn.
In Demecia at Caermerthyn,
Vnder kyng Fortigeryn,*. [Vortigerin, Cx.]
He tolde oute his prophecie;
Euene in Snawdonye.
At þe heed of þe water of Conewy,*. [Coneway, Cx.]
In þe side of mount Eryry,
Dynays Embreys a*. [α] in, Cx. (not α.)] Walsche,
Ambrose his hille on*. [on] in, Cx. (not α.)] Englisch,
Kyng Fortigern*. [Vortigere, Cx.] sat on
Þe water side, and was wel ful of woon.
Þan Ambrose Merlyn prophecied so
To fore hym þere riȝt þoo.*. [tho, Cx.]
[Trevisa]*. [This and the following reference omitted in MSS. and Cx.] What wight*. [witte, Cx., who omits now below.] wolde wene
Þat a fend myȝt now gete a*. [Om. α.] childe?
Som men wolde mene,
Þat he may no werk soche wilde.*. [no such werk welde, Cx.]
That fend þat gooþ a nyȝt,
Wommen wel*. [ful, α., Cx.] ofte to begile,*. [gile, Cx.]
Incubus hatte be ryȝt;
And gileþ men oþer while,
Succubus is þat wight:
God graunte vs non suche vile.
Who þat in hir myȝt*. [So also β., γ.; Who that cometh in hir gyle, Cx. The text is very obscure, and per|haps corrupt.]
Comeþ wonder hap schal*. [Wonder happe shal he, Cx. [So also β., γ.]] smyle. Page  421, vol.1
Wiþ wonder dede
Boþe men and wommen sede
Fendes wyl kepe
Wiþ craft, and brynge in on hepe.*. [bringe an heepe, Cx.]
So fendes wilde
May make wommen bere childe;
Ȝit neuere in mynde
Was childe of fendes kynde.
For wiþ oute eye
There myȝte childe non suche*. [no suche child, Cx.] deye.
Clergie makeþ mynde
Deeþ sleeþ nouȝt*. [no, Cx.] fendes kynde;
But deth slowe Merlyn,
Merlyn was ergo no gobelyn.
[℞.] Anoþer Merlyn of Albalonde,*. [Albin lond, Cx.]
Þat now hatte Scottelonde,
Hadde*. [And he had, Cx.] names two,
Siluestris and Calidonius also,
Of þat wode Calidonie,
For þere*. [So Cx. (there); þat, MS., α.] he tolde his prophecie;
And heet Siluestris as wel,
For whan he was in [a]*. [Added from α.] batel,
And sigh*. [sawe, Cx.] aboue a grisliche kynde,
And fil anon out of his mynde;
And made no more bood,*. [abood, Cx.]
But ran*. [ran anon, Cx.] to þe wood.
Treuisa.*. [This and the following refer|ence added from Cx.] Siluestris is wood,
Other wilde of mood;
Other elles,
Þat at þe wode he dwelles.*. [welles, α.]
℞. Siluestris Merlyn
Tolde prophecie wel and fyn,
And prophecied ful sure*. [soure, α.]
Vnder kyng Arthure, Page  423, vol.1
Openliche, nouȝt*. [and not, Cx.] so cloos
As Merlyn Ambros.
There beeþ hilles in Snowdowye,
Þat beeþ wonderliche hiȝe,
Wiþ heiȝte as grete way*. [a waye. Cx.]
As a man may goo a day;
And hiȝte*. [hatte, α.; heete, Cx.] Eryry in Walische,*. [on Walsshe, Cx.]
Snowy hilles on Englische.
In þese hilles þere is
Leese i-now for al*. [al beestes of, Cx.] Walis;
Þis hil in þe cop berys
Tweye grete fische werys,
Conteyned in þe oon*. [that one, Cx.] pond;
Meueþ wiþ the wynd an ilond,
As þeigh he dede swymme,
And neiȝeth*. [neiȝheþ, α.] to þe brymme;
So þat herdes haueþ greet wonder
And weneþ þat þe world meueþ vnder.
In þe oþer is perche and trouȝtis,*. [trowȝtis, α.; and fysshe, Cx.]
Euery fysshe one eyed is;*. [So Cx., omitting fysshe; And oþer fische on euery side is, MS., α.]
So fareþ as wel
In Albania þe Milewel.*. [Meluel, α.; Mylwel, Cx.]
In Ruthlond by Tygentil*. [Tegentil, α.; Tetingel, Cx.]
There is a litel*. [lite, α.] welle, Page  425, vol.1
Þat floweþ nouȝt alway,
As þe see twies a day;
But somtyme it is drye,
And somtyme al ful vp to*. [to] by, α., Cx.] þe yȝe.
There is in North Wallia
In Mon, þat hatte Angleseia,
A stoon, acordynge ful*. [wel, α.] nyhe
As hit were a manis þyghe;
How fer euere þat stoon
Be i-bore of eny moon,
A*. [On, Cx.] nyght he gooþ hoom his way.
Þat he fonde by assay
How,*. [Hughe, Cx.] þe erle of Schroisbury,*. [Srouysbury, α.; Shrewsbury, Cx.]
In tyme of þe firste Henry;*. [Harry, Cx.]
For he wolde þe soþ fynde,
Þat stoon to anoþer he gan bynde*. [So α. and Cx.; another kynde, MS.]
Wiþ grete cheynes of ire,
And þrewe al in fyre*. [So α.; al in þe fyre, MS.; al y feren, Cx.]
I-bounde at oon hepe
In to a water depe.
Ȝet a morwe þat stoon
Was i-seie erliche in Moon.
A cherl helde hymself ful sligh,*. [slyȝ, α., which has both þigh and þiȝ below.]
And bonde þat stoon to his þigh;
His þigh was roted*. [roten, Cx.] or day,
And þe stoon went away. Page  427, vol.1
Ȝif me dooþ*. [men don, Cx. (as usual.)] leccherie
Nigh þat stoon faste bie,*. [that stone by, Cx.]
Swoot comeþ of þe stoon,
But child comeþ þere noon.
There is a roche wel*. [right, Cx.] wonderly,
Þe roche of herynge be contrary,
Theyȝ þere crie eny man i-born,
And blowe also wiþ an*. [So Cx.; wiþoute, MS., a.] horn,
Noyse þat is þere i-made, þeiȝ þou abide,
Þow schalt here non in þis side.
Þere is anoþer ilond
Faste by Mon at þe hond,
Heremytes þere beeþ ryue;
Ȝif·ony of hem dooþ stryue,
Alle þe mys þat may be gete
Comeþ and eteþ al hir mete;
Þanne ceseþ neuere þat woo,
Ar þe strif*. [So a. and Cx.; firste, MS.] cese also.
As men in þis londe
Beeþ angry, as in Irlond,
So seyntes of þis contray
Beeþ also wrechefull alway.
Also in þis lond,
In Irlond, and in Scotlond Page  429, vol.1
Ben*. [So Cx.; Boþe, MS., a.] belles and staues
[That]*. [Added from Cx.] in worschippe men haues,
And beeþ worschipped [so]*. [Added from a. and Cx.] þanne
[Of]*. [Added from Cx.] clerkes and lewed menne,
Þat dredeþ also
To swere by*. [on, Cx.] ony of þo
Staf oþer belle,
As hit were þe gospelle.
At Basyngwere*. [Basyngwerke, Cx.] is a welle,
Þat sacer hiȝt, as men dooþ telle.
Hit springeþ so sore, as men may see,
What is cast yn, it þroweþ aȝee.
Þere of springeþ a grete stronde;
Hit were i-now for al þat londe.
Seke at þat place
Haueþ boþe hele and grace.
In þe welmes ofter þan ones
Is y-founde reed splekked*. [plekked, a.; sperclid, Cx.] stones;
In tokene of [þe]*. [Added from a. and Cx.] blood reed,
Þat þe mayde Wynefrede
Schadde at þat putte,*. [put, a.; pytte, Cx., and kytte, below.]
Whan hire þrote was i-kutte.
He þat dede þat dede
Haþ sorwe on his sede;
His children at alle stoundes
Berkeþ as whelpes of houndes. Page  431, vol.1
For þy*. [So MS. and a.; For to they, Cx.] pray þat mayde grace
Riȝt at þat welle place,
Oþir in Schroysbury*. [Shrowsbury, Cx.] strete;
Þere þat mayde resteþ swete.
Page  [3], vol.2

De Britannia. Capitulum tricesimum nonum.

AFTER þe ilondes*. [ilond, Cx., who has various other slight alterations in this chapter.] of occean now Bretayne schal be de|screued. By cause of Bretayne alle þe trauaile of þis storie was bygonne. Þe firste poynt þat me schal telle is of þe names of þe ilond; þanne of þe stede and place of þe lengþe and brede; þe þridde of þe worþynesse of þe lond; þe ferþe of þe*. [þe] om α.] mervayles and wondres þat beeþ þere ynne; þe fifte of þe chief parties of þe lond. Þe sixte of ilondes þat beeþ bisides þat lond; þe seuenþe of þe kynges hiȝe weies; þe eiȝtþe of famous ryueres and stremes; þe nynþe of olde citees and townes; þe tenþe of prouinces and schires; þe elleuenþe of lawes and of þe names of lawes; þe twelfþe*. [twelfe, α.] of kyngdoms, of boundes, and of markes by twene kyngdoms; þe þrittenþe Page  5, vol.2 of bisshopriches*. [bisshops riches, α.] and of bisshoppes sees; þe fourtenþe how many manere men haueþ woned and i-dwelled*. [haue dwelled, Cx.] in þat lond.*. [ylond, Cx.] Þe fiftenþe*. [fifteneþ, α.] of longage,*. [langage, Cx.; longe age, MS. and α.] of maneres, and vsage of men of þat lond. De varia insulæ nuncupatione. Firste þis ilond hiȝte*. [hit, α.; heyte, Cx.] Albion, as it were þe white lond, of white rokkes aboute þe clyues of þe see þat were i-seie wide.*. [fro ferre, Cx.] Aftirward Bruyt conquered þis lond and cleped hit Bretayne after his owne name; þanne Saxons oþer Englische conquered þat*. [this, Cx.] lond, and cleped hit Anglia, þat is Engelond; oþer it hatte Anglia, and haþ þat name of a quene þat owed þis lond þat heet Angela, and was a noble dukes douȝter of Saxouns. Oþere as Isidre saiþ, Eth. 15, Anglia haþ þat name, as hit were an angul and a corner of þe world; oþer, as Beda seiþ, libro primo: Seint*. [Seyn, α.] Gregorie seih*. [seiȝ, α.] Englische children to selle*. [to sellynge, α.; (not Cx.)] at Rome, and he accorded to þe name of þe lond, and Page  7, vol.2 seide:*. [Cx. inserts They ben.] Soþeliche aungelis, for hir face*. [name face, MS.] schyneþ as aungelis; for þe nobilte of þe lond schone*. [schoon, α.] in þe children*. [So also α. and Cx.] face. Alfr. Þe Bryȝtische Anglia is*. [So Cx. and β.; Anglians, MS.] i-cleped þe oþer world; and for greet plente of al good þe Grete Charles cleped hit his owne chambre. Solinus. Þe egge*. [edge, Cx.] of þe Frensche clif*. [clyve, α.] were*. [sholde be, Cx.] þe ende of þe world, nere þat þe ilond of Bretayne is nyh worthy to haue þe name*. [So Cx.; names, MS.] of anoþer world.*. [yf the ylonde of Brytayn ne were not, whiche is worthy to haue the name, Cx.]Alfr. Þis ilond is i-cleped insula, for hit is in salo, þat is þe see, and is often i-bete wiþ dyuers cours of wateres and*. [wiþ, α., Cx.] stremes and wiþ*. [wiþ] om. α. (not Cx.)] wawes of þe see.

De situ eius et dimensione. Capitulum quadragesimum.

Plinius, libro secundo, capitulo septuagesimo septimo. This Britayne is acounted an holy*. [a noble, Cx., β., and γ., which seems right.] lond bothe in oure stories and also in stories of Grees, and is i-sette aforn aȝe*. [sette agaynst, Cx.] Germania, Gallia, Fraunce,*. [We should probably read or Fraunce.] and Spayne bytwene þe north and þe west and þe see bytwene. Þis lond is fifty myle from Page  9, vol.2 þe clif of þe men þat hatte Morini Gesserico, so þe clif*. [So γ. Ms. chif.] hatte.*. [Cx. omits the last four words. A space for two lines left blank in α. The text seems corrupt.]Beda, libro primo. And for þis lond*. [ilond, α., Cx.] lieþ vnder þe norþ nolle*. [hede, Cx.] of þe world, þey*. [hit, Cx.] haþ liȝt and briȝt myȝtes in þe somertyme, so þat ofte tyme at mydnyȝt men haueþ questiouns and doute where*. [whether, Cx.] it be euentyde or*. [euetide oþer, α.] dawenynge, þat is for þat*. [the, Cx.] tyme of þe ȝere þe sonne goþ*. [gooþ, α.] nouȝt fer vnder erþe by nyght, but passeþ by þe north side and comeþ sone in to þe est aȝe, and þerfore þere beeþ in*. [in þe, α.] somer dayes ful longe of xviij.*. [eyȝtene, α.] houres long, and þe nyȝtes of sixe.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] And efte*. [after, Cx.] in þe wynter beeþ longe nyȝtes of xviij.*. [eyȝtene, α.] houres and schort dayes of vi.*. [sixe, α. (omitting houres); and so Cx.] houres. Þey in*. [Also in, Cx.] Armenia, Macedonia, Italia, and in oþer londes of þe same lyne þe lengest day and þe lengest nyght also is of fiftene houres; and þere*. [þere] om. Cx.] þe schorteste day oþer nyȝt is of nyne houres. Plinius. In Meroe, þat ilond is chief*. [chif, α.] of Bloomen,*. [black men, Cx.] þere þe lengest day is of twelue houres; in Alexandria in Egipt of þrittene houres; Page  11, vol.2 in Italia of fiftene houres; in Bretayne of eyȝtene houres; in þe lond þat hatte*. [ylonde named, Cx.] Tile alle þe sixe somer monþes is day, and alle þe sixe wynter monþes is nyght. Isidorus, libro quartodecimo. Britayne is i-sette wiþ ynne occean, as it were wiþ oute þe world, and is i-sette aȝenst Fraunce and Spayne. Giraldus. Bretayne is euen longe*. [evelonge, α.; endlonge, Cx.] and larger in þe myddes*. [myddel, Cx.] þan in þe endes. Orosius. Bretayne streccheþ in lengþe out of þe souþ [into þe north, and in þe souþ]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] est side he*. [and he, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] haþ Fraunce, in þe souþ Spayne, in þe norþ Norwey, and in þe west Hibernia, þat is Irlond. Whan schipmen passiþ þe next clif of þat lond, þei seeþ a citee þat hatte Rutpimouþ.*. [Rutpiniouþ, α.]Beda, libro primo. Þat cite is now i-cleped schortliche of Englische men Reptacestre. Solinus. Bre|tayne is eyȝte hondred myle in lengþe, and he be i-mete*. [moten, Cx.] fro þe clyf of Tottenys to þe angle of Calidoun. Alfr. Þat is from þe Penwythis strete*. [Penwithisstert, α.; Penwithis|tert, β.; Penwithstrete, Cx.] fifte[ne]*. [fiftene, α,; xv. myle, Cx.] leges byȝonde Mochel*. [Mychels, Cx.] Stowe in Cornwayle anon to Catenesse þat is by|ȝonde Scotlonde. And Bretayne is more þan two hondred Page  13, vol.2 myle brood from Meneuia þat is in þe vttermeste*. [vtmeste, α., Cx.] place of*. [in, Cx.] Wales anon to Gernemoutham*. [Gernemutham, α.; Yarmouthe, Cx.] in Norþfolk. Beda. Onliche outake þe lengest out schetynge of dyuerse forlondes, wiþ þe whiche Britayne is al aboute eyȝte and [fourty]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] siþe seuenty þowsand paas.

De prœrogativis huius insulœ attollendis. Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

Giraldus in Topographia.*. [topicis, MS., and similarly elsewhere.] As Fraunce passeþ Bretayne, so Bretayne passeþ Irlond in faire weder and nobilte, but nouȝt in helþe. Beda. For þis ilond is beest and bringeþ*. [is best to brynge forth, Cx.] forþ trees and fruyt and reþeren*. [ruthern, Cx.] and oþer bestes, and wyn groweþ þere in som place. Þe lond haþ plente of foules and of bestes of dyuers manere kynde; þe lond is þlentevous and þe see also. Þe lond is noble, copious, and riche of nobil welles and of nobil ryueres wiþ plente of fische; þere*. [So α. and Cx.; þat, MS.] is grete plente of small fische, of samon, and of elys.*. [eles, α.]Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. So þat cherles*. [the peple, Cx.] in som place fediþ sowes*. [their swyne, Cx.] with fische. Beda, libro primo. Þere beeþ ofte i-take dolphyns, and see calues, and baleynes, Page  15, vol.2 grete fisches as hit were of whales kynde, and dyuers manere schelfische. Among þe*. [whiche, Cx.] schelfisch beeþ muskles*. [moskles, α.] þat haueþ wiþ ynne hem margery perles of alle manere colour and hewe, of rody and rede, of purpur and of blew, and special|liche and moste of whyte. Þere is also plente of schellefische þat me dyeþ wiþ reed fyn;*. [that men dyen ther with fyn reed, Cx.] þe redenesse þerof is wonder fyn*. [fayr, Cx.; fayn, α.] and stable, and steyneþ neuere wiþ colde ne with hete, wiþ wete ne wiþ drie; but euere þe eldere*. [older, Cx.] þe hewe is þe*. [þe] om. α. (not Cx.)] fairer. Þere beeþ also salt welles and hote welles; þer of renneþ stremes of hote bathes i-deled*. [to deled, α.; departed, Cx.] in dyuers places, acordynge for man and womman, and for alle manere age, olde and ȝonge. Basilius seiþ þat [þe water þat]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] renneþ and passeþ by veynes of certayn metal takiþ in his cours grete hete. Þis ilond is plentevous of veynes of metals, of bras, of iren, of leed, of tyn, of siluer also. Plinius, libro sexto|decimo, capitulo sexto. In þis ilond vnder þe torf of þe lond is good marl i-founde; þe þrift of þe fatnesse drieþ himself þeryn: so þat euere þe þickere þe felde is i-marled, þe better corn it wil bere. Þere is also anoþer manere white marle, þat þe lond is þe better foure score ȝere þat þere wiþ is Page  17, vol.2 i-marled. Solinus.*. [Reference added from α. and Cx.] In þis ilond groweþ a stoon þat hatte gagates; ȝif me axeþ*. [yf ye wil knowe, Cx.] of*. [of] om. α.] his fairenesse, he is blak as gemmes beeþ; [ȝif me axeth his kynde, hit brenneþ in water and quencheþ in oyle].*. [Added and restored from β. and Cx.] Ȝif he is i-froted and i-het,*. [chauffed, Cx.] he holdeþ what hym neiȝheþ; ȝif me axeþ his goodnesse, hit heleþ þe dropesy and hit be i-dronke. Beda. I-tend in þe fire hit feseþ awey serpentes; if*. [ȝif, α.] hit is hotter,*. [hatt, α.] hit holdeþ what hym neigheþ, as succinis, a stoon þat so hatte.*. [Cx. (who prints succuns) has considerable omissions in the pre|vious sentence.]Isid., libro quinto|decimo. Þere beeþ schepe þat bereþ good wolle, þere beeþ meny hertes and wylde bestes and fewe wolues; perfore þe schepe beeþ þe more sikerliche wiþ oute [kepynge]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] i-lefte in þe folde.*. [So α. and Cx.; felde, MS.] In þis ilond also beeþ many citees and townes, faire and noble and riche; many grete ryueres and stremes wiþ grete plente of fische; many faire wodes*. [So α. and Cx.; wordes, MS.] and grete wiþ wel*. [wel] right, Cx.] many bestes tame and wylde. Þe erþe of that lond is copious of metal ore and of salt welles; of quarers*. [quareres, α.; quareis, Cx.] of marbel of dyuers manere stones, of reed, of whyte; of nesche,*. [soft, Cx.] of hard; of chalk*. [chark, α.] and of whyte lyme.*. [lym, α.] Þere is also white cley and reed forto make of crokkes*. [make poties, crokkes, Cx.] and stenes and oþer vessel and brent*. [brand, α.] tyle to hele*. [couere, Cx.; and so often.] wiþ hous and cherches as hit Page  19, vol.2 were in þe other Samia, þat hatte Samos also. Flaundres*. [So α. and Cx.; Flaundreþ, MS.] loueþ þe wolle*. [loueth wel the wulle, Cx.] of þis lond, and*. [So α.; in, MS.] Normandie*. [Holand, Cx.] þe skynnes and þe velles;*. [felles, Cx.] Gasquyn*. [Guyan, Cx.] þe iren and þe leed; Irlond þe ore and þe salt; [al]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Europa loueþ and desireþ þe white metal of þis lond. Alfridus.*. [So α. and Cx.; Gir., MS.] Bretayne haþ i-now of alle matire*. [So α. and Cx.; manere, MS.] þat þere nedeþ begge*. [bye, Cx.; bigge, β.] and selle, oþer þat*. [þer, α.] is nedeful to manis vse;*. [vys, α.] þere lakkeþ neiþer*. [neuere, α, β.] salt ne iren. Þerfore a versifioure in his metre preyseþ the lond in þis manere: Engelond is good lond, fruytful of þe wolle, but*. [but it is, Cx.; and similarly else|where.] a corner; Engelond ful of pley, fremen well worþy to pleye; fre men, fre tonges, hert fre; free beeþ al þe leden;*. [ledyn, α.; lyden, β.; alle theyr thynges, Cx.] here hond is more fre, more better*. [and better, Cx.] þan here tonge. Also Henricus:*. [Henre, α.; Henr, β.; Her., MS. Cx. omits the word.] Engelond hiȝt of lond,*. [is beauteuous (sic) of lond, Cx. Perhaps of lond in the text should be simply cancelled.] floure of londes al aboute; þat londe is ful payde wiþ fruyte and corn*. [good, α. β. and Cx.] of his owne.*. [From this point Trevisa seems to have intended verse.]

Straunge*. [So Cx. and β.; stronge, MS. and α.] men þat needeþ,
Þat lond wel ofte releueþ.
Whan hunger greueþ,
Þat lond alle suche men*. [men siche, β. The text is ca|priciously altered in Cx. more or less throughout.] fedeþ. Page  21, vol.2
Þat lond is good i-now,
Wonder moche*. [meche, α.] fruyt bereþ and corn.*. [So also γ. The text must have suffered here. Cx. has: That lond bereth fruyt and corne good ynowgh]
Þat lond is wel at ese,
As long as men lyueþ in pese.*. [So α. and Cx.; at ese, MS.]
Est and west al lond
Knoweþ hens riȝt wel of Engelond.*. [Eeste and weste in eche lond ben knowen well the hauenes of Englond, Cx, who has some other variations. For hens in text (hānes, β.; haunes, γ) perhaps we should write hauens.]
Here schippes fondes,
And ofte helpeþ meny londes;
Þere mete þey[re]*. [þey] and, Cx., perhaps rightly; þar mete, þar money, β.; þeyre is probably intended in MS.] money*. [þei monay, α.]
Men haueþ more*. [So α. and Cx.: money, MS.] comyn alle wey.
For here þat craftes
Men wole gladliche ȝeue ȝiftes.*. [And for to lerne men gladly yeue yeftes, Cx.]
In londe, in*. [and, α. β., Cx.] stronde
Wel wyde men*. [me, β.] spekeþ of Engelonde;
Lond, hony, melk, chese,
Þis ilond schal bere the prys.*. [price, α.]
Of alle londes riches*. [riche, α. β.] þis lond hath nede to noon;
Alle londes moot*. [muste, Cx., with other slight variations.] seche helpe nedes of þis allone.
Of likynge þere won
Wonder*. [wondrie, α; wondrye, β.] myȝt Salamon.
Riches þat þere is an
Ȝern*. [ȝern] desire, Cx.] wolde Octauian.*. [Octouian, β.]
Page  23, vol.2

De mirabilibus in ea stupendis. Capitulum quadragesimum secundum.

Solinus. In Brytayne beeþ hoote welles wel arrayed and i-hiȝt*. [adressyd, Cx.] to þe vse of mankynde. Maistresse of þilke welles is þe grete spirit of Minerua. In hire hous fuyre dureþ*. [endureth, Cx.] alway, þat neuere chaungeþ into askes; but [þere]*. [þere] Added from Cx. and β.; α. has þe þe; where would seem the truer reading.] þe fuyre slakeþ, it chaungeth into*. [and in to, α.] stony clottes. Alfr. In Bretayn, beeþ many wondres; neuerþeles foure beeþ most wonderful. Þe firste is at Pectoun; þere bloweþ so strong a wynde out of chenes*. [chynes, α. Cx.] of þe erþe, þat it casteþ vp aȝen cloþes þat me casteþ yn. Þe secounde is at Stonhenge by sides Salis|bury; þere beeþ grete stones and wonder huge, and beeþ arered an hiȝ as hit were ȝates; [so þat þere semeþ ȝates]*. [Added from α. β. and Cx.] i-sett vppon oþer ȝates; noþeles hit is nouȝt clereliche i-knowe noþer perceyued*. [apperceyued, Cx.] how and wherfore þey beeþ so arered and so wonderlicþe i-honged. Þe þridde is at Cherd|hole;*. [Cherdhoke, Cx.] þere is grete holownesse vnder erþe; of*. [ofte, Cx.] meny men haueþ i-walked þerynne and i-seie ryueres and stremes, but nowher konneþ þey fynd non ende. Þe ferþe is þat reyn is y-seie arered*. [reysed, Cx.] vppon þe hilles and anon*. [noon, α.] i-spronge Page  25, vol.2 aboute in þe feeldes. Also þere is a grete ponde þat con|teyneþ þre score ylondes couenable for men to dwelle ynne: þat pond is i-clipped*. [byclipped, Cx.] aboute wiþ sixe roches; vppon euerich roche is an egles nest.*. [egle his nest, α.; varied in Cx.] And þre score ryueres renneþ into þat pond; and noon of hem alle renneþ into þe see, but oon. Þere is a pond i-closed aboute wiþ a wal of tyle and of stoon. In þat pond men wascheþ and baþeth wel ofte; and eueriche man feleth þe water hoot or colde, riȝt as he wolde*. [wole, α.; will, Cx.] hymself. Þere beeþ salt welles fer fram þee*. [So MS.; þe, α.] see, and beeth salte alle þe woke longe, forto Saturday*. [Saturdat, α.] at none; and fresche from Saturday at none for to Monday. Þe water of þese welles,*. [þis, α. (not Cx.)] whan hit is i-sode, torneþ in to smal salte, faire and white. Also þere is a pond, þe water þerof haþ moche [wonder]*. [Added from α. and Cx.; the later omits moche.] worchynge; for þeyh al an oost stood by þe pond and torned þe*. [theyr, Cx.] face thiderward, þe water wolde drawe hem violentliche toward þe pond and wete al her cloþes. So schulde hors be drawe in þe same wise. But*. [And, Cx.] ȝif þe face is a weyward*. [be torned away, Cx.] from þe water, [þe water]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] noyeth nouȝt. Þere is a welle þat no streem renneþ þerfrom,*. [fro, Cx.] noþer þerto, and ȝit foure manere Page  27, vol.2 fische beþ i-take þere ynne. Þat welle is but twenty foot long and twenty foot brood, and nouȝt depe bot to þe kne, i-closed wiþ hiȝe bankes in eueriche side. In þe contray aboute Wynchestre is a den;*. [a den or a caue, Cx.] out of þat den alwey bloweþ strong wynd, so þat no man may endure*. [Cx. here does not substitute dure.] forto stonde to fore þat den. Þere is also a pond þat torneþ tre to iren, and hit be þerynne al a ȝere; and so treen be i-schape into whetstones.*. [westones, α.] Also þere is in þe cop*. [toppe, Cx.; c and t are almost identical in MSS., and both readings are good.] of an hille a burielles; euerich man þat comeþ and meteþ þat buriel, he schal fynde it euene riȝt*. [riȝt] om. Cx., who often omits wel in similar passages.] of his owne mette;*. [meete, α.; lengthe and mesure, Cx.] and ȝif a pil|gryme kneleþ*. [kneoleþ, α.] þerto, anon he schal be al fresche, and of werynesse schal he fele none noye.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.]Giraldus in Topo|graphia. Faste by þe mynistre*. [mynster, Cx.] of Wynburney, þat is nouȝt fer from Baþe, is a wode þat bereþ moche fruyt; yf þe trees of þat wode falle into a water oþer grounde þat þere is nyh, and lye þere alle aȝere, þe trees torneþ into stones. Giraldus in Itinerario.*. [Reference added from α. and Cx.] Vnder þe citee of Chestre renneþ þat ryuer Dee, þat now to deleþ*. [to deleþ], departeth, Cx.] Engelond and Page  29, vol.2 Wales; þat ryuer eueriche monþe chaungeþ his foordes, as men of þe contrey telleþ, and leueþ ofte þe chanel; but where*. [wheþer, α., Cx.] the water drawe more toward Engelond oþer toward Wales, to what side [þat hit be, þat ȝere men of þat side]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] schal haue the worse ende and be ouercome,*. [oversett, α., Cx.] and men of þe oþer side schal haue þe better ende and be at here aboue. Whan þe water so chaungeþ his cours, it bodeþ suche happes. Þis ryuer Dee renneth and comeþ out of a lake þat hiȝt Pymbilmere. In þe ryuer is grete plente of samoun, neuerþeles in þe lake is neuere samoun*. [So α. and Cx.; is a samoun, MS.] i-founde. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Take hede how greet liȝt and briȝtnesse of Goddiss myldenesse haþ by schyne*. [be shewed vpon, Cx.] Englische men, seþþe*. [So α.; sith, Cx.; soþeliche, MS.] þey torned first to riȝtful*. [right, Cx.] byleue. So þat of*. [So α. and Cx.; if, MS.] no men in oon*. [oo, α.] prouince beþ i-founde so meny hool bodyes of men after hir deþ in liknesse of euere lastynge lif*. [lif] om. α.; euerlastyngnes, Cx.] þat schal be after þe day of dome, as it wel semeth in þese*. [þis, α.] holy seyntes Etheldred, Edmond the kyng, Elphege, and Cuthbert.*. [Cutberd, α., Cx.; the latter adds, and Seynt Edward and many other.] I trowe þat it is i-doo by special grace of God alle myȝti, for þe nacioun þat is i-sette, as it were, wiþ oute þe worlde, schulde take hede to durynge of bodies wiþ oute corrupcioun and rotynge, and be þe*. [So α. and Cx.; beeþ, MS.]Page  31, vol.2 more bolde and stedefast for to triste*. [truste, α., Cx.] on þe final arisynge of deed bodies forto laste euermore after þe day of dome.

De partibus Britanniœ principalibus. Capitulum quadra|gesimum tertium.

After þe firste Brutes*. [Brutys, α. (not Cx.)] tyme þe ilond of Bretayne bygan for to haue þ[r]e*. [þe] So MS., α. β., and Cx.; but the correction is certain.] principal parties, þat beeþ Loegria, and*. [and] om. α. and Cx. (Interline|ated in MS.)] Cambria, þat is Wales, and Albania, þat is now*. [now is, α.] Scotlond. Loegria had þat name of Locrinus [þat was Brut his sone eldest, and hatte Loegria, as hit were Locrinus]*. [Added from α. and Cx., who has a few deviations.] his lond; but now Loegria hatte Engelond. Þe meeres and þe marke*. [merkes, Cx., which is better.] were þerof somtyme þe Frensche see boþe by est and by souþ. Beda, libro primo, capitulo duodecimo.*. [vicesimo, Cx., wrongly.] And by north tweie armes of þe see þat brekeþ fer in to þe lond, eyþer aȝenst oþer. But he*. [they, Cx.] recheþ nouȝt to gidres; þe est arme of þilke tweyne bygynneþ aboute a tweie litel myle fram þe ministre of Ebbercuryng*. [Ebburcuring, Cx.] in þe west side of þe citee of Penultoun; in þat arm*. [So α. and Cx.; armes, MS.] is*. [Added from α. and Cx.] a toun, þat hatte Guydy. Þe west arme of þilke tweyne haþ in þe Page  33, vol.2 riȝt*. [right, α.] side a strong citee þat hatte Alclud,*. [Alcluid, α.; Alcliud, Cx., who has Clintstone, and Clynt below.] þat in hire longage hatte Cluitstoun, and stondeþ vppon a ryuere þat hatte Cluit also. [℞.]*. [Reference added from Cx.] Som men wolde mene þat Loegria endeþ at Homber, and streccheþ no ȝonder*. [ferther, Cx.] northward. Þe secounde party of Bretayne hatte Albania, þat is Scotlond, and haþ þat name of Albanactus Brutis*. [Brut his, α.; Bruytes, Cx.] sone, and streccheþ from þe tweye forsaide armes of þe see norþward anon to þe see of Norwey. Noþeles þe souþ partie of Albania þere*. [where as, Cx., who varies the construction.] Pictes woned somtyme, and lith from þe water of Twyde anon to þe Scottische see; al þat longed somtyme to þe kyngdom of Norþhumberlond Bremencorum,*. [Brennicorum, α.; Brenycorn, Cx.] þe north side of Norþhumberlond, from þe firste tyme of [Englisch kynges to þat tyme]*. [Added from α. and Cx.; α. has children for kynges.] whanne Kynadius, kyng of Scotlond, þat was Alpinus his sone, dede away þe Pictes, and so ioyned þe*. [þat, α., Cx.] contray to þe kyngdom of Scotlond. Þe þridde party of Bretayne is Wallia,*. [Wales, Wallia, α., Cx.] þat hat Cambria also, and hadde þat name Cambria of Camber, Brut his sone; for he was prince of Wales. In þe est side*. [side of, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] Seuerne departed somtyme bytwene Engelond and Wales. [But now in þe north side þe ryuer Dee at Chestre, and in þe south þe ryuer þat Page  35, vol.2 hatte Vaga, at þe castel of Strygeleum departeþ Engelond and Wales.]*. [Added from α. β. and Cx., who has Strygelyn.] Also kyng Offa, forto haue a distinccioun for euermore bytwene þe kyngdoms of Engelond and of Wales, made a long deche*. [diche, α.] þat streccheþ forþ oute of þe souþ side by Bristowe vndir þe hilles of Wales norþward, and passeþ þe reuers Seuarne and Dee almost at*. [to, Cx.] þe hedes, and anon to þe mouþ of þe ryuer Dee byȝonde Chestre faste by þe castle, and*. [it, Cx.] renneþ forþ bytwene Colhille and þe ministre of Basyngwere*. [Basingwerke, β., Cx.] in to þe see. Þis diche is ȝit in many places i-seyn. In Seint Edward his tyme Walsche men schulde not passe þat diche wiþ wepoun vppon a grete payne, and þat was at erle Harolde his procurynge, as hit is i-saide wiþ ynne.*. [as it shal be sayd here after, Cx.] Bot now in eiþer side boþe of*. [of] a, α., Cx.] ȝond half and on*. [a, Cx.] þis half þe diche, and specialliche in þe schires of Chestre, of Schrouysbury, and of Herford in meny places beeþ Englische men [and Walsche men]*. [Added from α. β. and Cx. (Walsshmen.)] i-medled to gidres.

Page  37, vol.2

De insulis Britanniœ adjacentibus. Capitulum quadragesi|mum quartum.

BRETAYNE haþ þre ilondes þat beeþ nygh and longeþ þerte' alle wiþ oute þe ylondes Orcades, as hit were answeringe to þe þre cheef parties of Bretayne. For þe yle of Wight*. [Wiȝt, α.] longeþ and lieþ to Loegria, þat is Engelonde; þe ilond Mon, þat hatte Engleseie*. [Anglesia, α., Cx.] also, longeþ to*. [MS. has mon before Wales (not α. or Cx.)] Wales; and þe ilond*. [So α. and Cx.; Engelond, MS.] Eubonia, þat haþ tweie [oþere]*. [oþere] Added from α. and Cx.] names, and hatte Menania*. [Menauia, Cx.; see above.] and Man also, longeþ*. [which longeth, Cx.] to Scotlond. And alle þese þre ilondes, Mon, Wight,*. [Wiȝt, α.] and Man, beþ almest i-lich moche and of þe same quantitie; of þe which þre al arewe now foloweþ our speche. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio. Claudius sent Vespasianus, and Vespasianus wan Wighte,*. [Wiȝt, α.] and Wighte*. [Wiȝt, α.] streccheþ oute of þe est in to þe west þritty myle long, and out of þe souþ in to þe norþ twelue myle, and is in þe est side sex*. [sixe, α.] myle from þe souþ cleef*. [clyve, α.] of Bretayne, and þre myle in þe west side. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo quinto.Page  39, vol.2 Þe met*. [mesure, Cx.] of þis ilond, as Englische men gesseþ, is a þow|sand housholdes and two hondred. Giraldus in Itinerario. Mon, þat hatte Angleseia also, is departed from þe*. [þe] om. α. and Cx., probably rightly.] Norþ Wales by a schort arme of þe see, as it were tweie myle broode. In Mon beeþ þre hondred townes þre score and þre, and beeþ acounted for þre candredes, þat beeþ þre hundredes. Þe ilond is, as it were, þritty myle longe and twelue myle brood.*. [brood] om. Cx. (typogr. error?)] Candredus*. [Cantredus, ., Cx. (but Candredes above.)] is so moche land as conteyneþ an hondred townes; þat name Cantredus is i-made oon of tweie longages, of Brittische and of Irische. In preisynge of this ilond Walsche men beeþ i-woned to seie a prouerbe and an olde sawe, Mon mam Kembry, þat is to menynge in Englische Mon moder of Wales. For whan oþere londes lakkeþ mete, þat lond is so good þat hit semeþ þat it wolde fynde corn i-now for alle þe men of Wales. And so it semeþ þat þe hilles of Snowdonia*. [Snawdonia, α.] wolde fynde pasture i-now for al Wales to þe bestes þerof.*. [for alle the bestes of Wales, α. The whole sentence is omitted in Cx.] Þerfore Virgile is vers may be accordynge þereto:

As moche as gnawes
Bestes [longe]*. [Added from α. β. and Cx.] inneþ*. [long in þe, γ.] dawes,
So moche eft bringeþ
Dew cold*. [old dewe, Cx.; γ. inserts wel schort after cold.] in a nyȝt. Page  41, vol.2

In þat arme of þe see, þat departeth bytwene þis ilond Mon and Norþ Wales,*. [that departeth this londe and North Wales, Cx.] is a swelowe*. [swolwȝ, α.; swolow, Cx.] þat draweþ to schippes*. [draweth shippes to it, Cx.] þat seilleþ,*. [Cx. inserts by.] and sweloweþ hem yn, as dooþ Scylla and Charybdis,*. [Cilla and Caribdis, MS., α., and Cx.] þat beeþ tweie perilous places in þe see of myddel erþe; þerfore me may nouȝt seile by þis swolwe*. [swolouȝ, α.] but slily at þe ful see. ℞. Of þe meruailles and wondres of þis ilond Mon,*. [So α. and Cx.; Man, MS.] loke in þe chapitres*. [chapitre, α. Sentence varied in Cx.] of Wales. Giraldus in Itinerario. Þe þridde ilond þat hatte boþe Eubonia and Menania, þat is Man, stondeþ in þe myddes*. [myddel, α., Cx.] bytwene þe Irische Hulster and þe Scottische Galewey,*. [Galway, α.; Gallewaye, Cx.] as it were in þe nauel of þe see. Beda, libro secundo, capitulo nono. Þis ilond Man conteyneþ as hit were tweie ilondes; þe firste is souþward, þe more contray and better corn lond, and conteyneþ nyne hondred housholdes and þre score. Þe secounde conteyneþ þe space of þre hondred and moo, as Englische men telleþ.*. [gessiþ, α.; gesse, Cx.]Giraldus in Topographia. Som tyme was stryf wheþer þis ilond Man*. [Mam, MS. (clerical error.)] schulde ligge*. [longe, Cx.] to Britayne oþer to Irlond, [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] for*. [for as moche as, Cx.] venemous wormes*. [So α. and Cx.; wordes, MS.] þat were i-brouȝt þider leued þere hit was i-demed*. [iugged, Cx.] þat the ilond Man schulde longe to Bretayne. [℞.]*. [Reference added from Cx.] And in þat ilond is Page  43, vol.2 sortilege and wicchecraft i-vsed. For wommen þere selliþ schipmen wynde, as it were i-closed vnder þre knottes of þrede, so þat þe more wynd he wol*. [wil, α.; wold, Cx.] haue, he wil vnknette þe mo knottes.*. [the mo knottes he must vndo, Cx.] Þere ofte by day men of þe lond seeþ men þat beeþ dede to forhonde, byheded oþer hole, and what*. [wat, α.] deeþ þei deide. Aliens setteþ here foot vppon feet of men of þe lond [for to see such sightes as the men of that lond don].*. [Added from Cx., who omits lond by typogr. error; β. has lond, but makes various blunders.]Beda, libro secundo. Scottes woned first in þis ilond. Thanatos,*. [So α. and Cx.; Thanathos, MS.] þat is Tenet, and is an ilond bysides Kent, and haþ þat name Tanatos of deþ of serpentes, for þere beeþ none, and þe erþe þereof sleeþ serpentes i-bore*. [i-bodere, α.] in to oþer londes. Þere is nobil corn lond and fruytful;*. [fruyȝtful, α.] me troweþ þat*. [hit is supposed that, Cx.; and similarly often.] þat ilond was i-halowed and i-blessed of Seynt Austyn, þe firste doctour of Englische men; for þere he aryued first.

De plateis regalibus. Capitulum quadragesimum quintum.

Gaufridus. Molinicius, kyng of Britouns,*. [Molimicius, α.; and so below; Moliuncius, Cx., and Molyuncius below.] was þe þridde and twenty of hem, and þe firste þat ȝaf hem lawe. He ordeyned þat*. [þat þat, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] plowȝmen solowes, goddes temples,*. [MS. adds: and hiȝe temples (not α. or Cx.)] and Page  45, vol.2 hiȝe weies, þat ledeþ to citees and townes, schulde haue þe fredom of socour; so þat eueriche man þat fley*. [wente, Cx.] to eny of þe þre for socour for*. [or for, Cx.] trespas þat he hadde i-doo schulde be safe*. [saaf, α.] for pursuyt of alle*. [al, α.] his enemyes. But afterward, for þe weyes were not so sette wiþ certeyn markes, þe weies were vncerteyn and strif was bygonne.*. [had, Cx. (who has some omis|sions.)] Þerfore Belinus þe kyng, þat was þe forsaide Moluneius his sone, for to putte awey al doute and stryf, made foure hiȝe kyng*. [kynges, Cx. (not α.)] weies i-priueleged [wiþ al privilege]*. [Added from α. and Cx. (who has priuelegys.)] and fredom, and þe weies streccheþ þoruȝ out*. [thurgh, Cx.] þe ilond. Þe firste and þe grettest of þe foure weies hatte Fosse, and streccheþ out of þe south in to þe norþe, and bygynneþ from þe corner of Cornewayle at Totteneys*. [Totenes, α.] and endeþ in þe ende of Scot|lond at Catenesse. ℞. Neuerþeles more verreyliche, as oþer men telleþ, Fosse bygynneþ in Cornewayle,*. [at Totteneys . . . in Corne|wayle] om. Cx.] and passeþ forþ by Deuenschire and*. [and] om. α. and Cx.] by Somersete, and forþ bysides Tettebury vppon Codeswolde*. [Coteswold, α.] bysides Couentre anon to Leycetre, and so forþ by wylde pleynes toward Newerk, and endeþ at Lyncolne. The secounde chief kynges hiȝe wey hatte Watlynge strete, and streccheþ þwart*. [þwat, α.; thwert, Cx.] ouer Page  47, vol.2 Fosse out of þe souþ est in to þe norþ west, and bygyn|neþ at Douere, and passeþ by þe middel of Kent ouer Themse bysides Londoun by West Westmynstre, and so forþ by Seint Albon in þe west side by Donstaple,*. [Donsteble, α.] by Stret|forde,*. [Stredfore, α.] by Toucetre, by Wedoun, by Souþ Lilleburne, by Atherestoun,*. [Atherystoun, α.] anon to Gilbertys hill, þat now hatte Wrekene, and forþ by Seuarne, and passeþ by sides Wrok|cestre, and þanne forþ to Strattoun, and forth by þe myddel of Wales anon to Cartigan,*. [Cardigan, α.; Cardykan, Cx.] and endeþ at þe Irische*. [Erisch, α.] see. Þe þridde way hatte Erimingestrete,*. [Erymingestrete, α.; Erimynge|strete, Cx.] and streccheþ out of þe west northwest in to þe est souþest, and byginneþ in Meneuia þat is in Seint Deuys*. [Dauyes, α.; Dauid, Cx.] lond in West Wales, and streccheþ forþ anon to Souþ Hamptoun. Þe ferþe hatte Rykeneldes strete, and streccheþ out of þe south west in to þe norþ est, and bygynneþ in Meneuia in West Wales, and streccheþ forþ*. [So α.; for, MS.; Cx. has some omissions, and a few slight varia|tions of orthography.] by Worcestre, by Wycombe, by Birmingham,*. [Birmingtham, α.] by Lichefeld, by Derby, by Chesterfilde, by Ȝork, and so forþ anon to Tynemouþe.

Page  49, vol.2

De famosis fluminibus. Capitulum quadragesimum sextum.

Alfridus. Thre famous ryueres renneþ þoruȝ Britayne; by þe whiche þre ryueres marchaundis of byȝonde see comeþ in schippes into Bretayne wel nyh oute of alle manere naciouns and londes. Þe*. [These, Cx.] þre ryueres beeþ Themse, Seuarne, and Humber. Þe see ebbeþ and floweþ at þe mouþes of þese*. [the, Cx.] þre ryueres, and departeþ [þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þre prouinces of þe ilondes, as hit were þre kyngdoms, for to wynne;*. [a sondre, Cx., who probably read atwynne (as in β. and γ.); the text seems cor|rupt.] þe þre parties beeþ Loegria, Cambria, and Norþhumbria, þat beeþ Wales, Engelond,*. [myddel Englond, Wales, Cx.] and Northumberlond. ℞.*. [α. omits ℞.] [Þis]*. [Added from α.; these, Cx.] name Temse*. [Themse, α.] semeþ i-made oo name of tweye names of ryueres,*. [two riuers, Cx.] þat beeþ Tame and Ise. For þe ryuer Tame renneþ bysides Dorchestre, and falleþ in Ise; þerfore al þe ryuer from þe first heede anon to þe est see hatte Temse. Temse bygynneþ bysides Tettebury, þat is þre myle by norþ Malmesbury; þere Temse springeþ of a welle and renneþ estward, and passeþe þe Fosse, and departeþ Glowcetreschire and Wilt|schire, and draweþ wiþ hym meny oþer welles stremes,*. [and stremes, Cx.] and wexeþ grete at Grecestre, and passeþ forþ þanne toward Bamptoun,*. [Hampton, Cx.] and so forþ by Oxenforde, by Walyngforde, by Page  51, vol.2 Redynge, and by Londoun. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo.*. [Reference added from Cx., who has c. (i.e. capitulo) for libro.] At þe hauen of Sandwhiche it falleþ into þe est see, and holdeþ his name fourty myle byȝond Londoun, and departed somtyme*. [in som place, Cx.] bytwene Kent and Essex, Westsex and Mer|cia; þat is as hit were a greet deel of [myddel]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Engelonde. Seuarn is a ryuer of Bretayne, and hatte Habren [in Britoun, and haþ þat name Habren of Habren],*. [Added from α. and Cx., who has Britons.] þat was Estrildes douȝter. Guedolen þe quene drenched þis Habren þerynne; þerfore þese*. [the, Cx.] Bretouns cleped þe ryuer Habren after þe womman þat was adraynt [þerynne],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] but by corupte Latyn tonge hit hatte Sabryna, Seuarne on Englische. Seuarne byginneþ in þe myddel of Wales, and passeþ first toward þe est anon to Schroesbury, and þan torneþ souþward anon to Brigge-norþ, Wircetre, and Gloucetre, and falleþ in to þe west see besides Brystowe, and departed somtyme*. [departeth in somme place, Cx.] bytwene Engelond and Wales. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Seuarne is swift of streme, fische craft is þere ynne, woodnesse of swolwynge and of whirlynge water casteþ vp and gadereþ to hepe grete hepes of grauel. Seuarne is ofte vppe*. [ofte aryseth, Cx.] and Page  53, vol.2 passeþ þe brynkes.*. [brymmes, α.; ouerfloweth the bankes, Cx.] ℞. Humber haþ þe name of Humber, kyng of Hunes, for he was adreynt*. [drowned, Cx., and so often.] þerynne, and renneþ first a crook out of þe south side of York, and þanne departeþ þe prouince of Lyndeseye*. [Lyndeceie, α.] þat longede somtyme to þe Merces from þe oþer contray Norþumberlond. Trent and Owse*. [Ouse, α.] renneþ*. [and renneþ, MS. (not Cx.)] in to Humber, and makeþ the ryuer ful greet. Tre|uisa. Þe Merces were men as hit were of myddel Engelond, as it is i-seide wiþ ynne.*. [as it shal be sayd here after, Cx.]

De antiquis vrbibus. Capitulum quadragesimum septimum.

Beda, libro primo, capitulo primo. The kyngdom of Bre|tayne [was]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] somtyme i-hight*. [made fair, Cx.] wiþ eiȝte and twenty noble citees, wiþ oute welle*. [right, Cx.] many castelles þat were wiþ walles, wiþ toures, wiþ ȝates, wiþ barres, stalworþliche i-buld.*. [strongly buylded, Cx.]Alfr.*. [Reference added from Cx.] Þese were þe names of þe citees:—Caerlud,*. [þat is Caerlud, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þat is, Londoun; Caerbrank, þat is, Ȝork; Caerkent, þat is, Caunterbury; Caergorangon, þat is, Wircestre; Caerlirion þat is, Leycestre; Page  55, vol.2 Caerclou,*. [Caerclon, Cx.] þat is, Gloucestre; Caercolden, þat is, Colchestre; Caerrey, þat is, Chichestre (Saxons cleped hit somtyme Cis|sancestre); Caercery, þat is, Circetre; Caerguent, þat is, Wynchestre; Caergrant, þat is, Cantebrigge; Caerlile,*. [Caerleyl, Cx.; Carerlile, MS.] þat is, Lugubalia and Carlile; Caerperis, þat is, Porcetre; Caerdrom, þat is, Dorchestre; Caerludcoit, þat is, Lyncolne*. [Lyncolne and Lyncoln, MS.] and Lyncolyn;*. [Lyndecolyn, Cx., which is better.] Caermerþyn, þat is, Merlyns citee; Caersegent, þat is, Silecetre,*. [Sisecetre, Cx.] and is vppon Tempse nouȝt fer from Redynge; Caerthleon, þat hiȝte Caerlegioun also, and hiȝt first Legecetre,*. [Ligecetre, Cx.] and now hatte Chestre; Caerbadoun,*. [Caerbathon, Cx.] þat is, Baþe, and hiȝt somtyme Achamannus his citee; Caerpaladour, þat is, Septoun, þat now hatte Schaftisbury.*. [Chaftisbury, α.] ℞. Oþere citees names beeþ i-founde in cronicles;*. [cronykes, α., Cx.] for vnderstondynge of stories of al now arewe somwhat me schal telle.*. [of whom it shal folowe, C.]Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Londoun is a real and a riche citee vppon Temse*. [Temyse, α.] of burgeys,*. [burgeyses, Cx.] of richesse,*. [rychesses, Cx.] of marchaundis, and of chaffare, and of marchaundise; þerfore it is þat somtyme whanne derþe of vitailles is in al Enge|lond*. [After Englond in Cx. thus:— comynly at London it is best cheep by cause of the byars and sellars that ben at London.]Page  57, vol.2 aboute, þere is þe lasse i-solde; vppon caas for avaun|tage of silleres, oþer for disauauntage of beggers. Gaufri|dus. Bruyt,*. [Bruyt is, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þe firste kyng of Bretouns, bulde and arerede*. [edefyed, Cx.] þis citee Londoun, þe firste citee of Bretayne, in mynde of þe citee of Troye, þat was lost;*. [destroyed, Cx.] and cleped hit Troynewiþ*. [Troyeneweth, Cx.] and Trinouantum, þat is, Newe Troye. Afterward kyng Lud cleped hit Caerlud after his owne name; þerfore Bretouns hadde greet indignacioun, as Gildas telleþ. Afterward Englische men cleped þe citee Londoun, and ȝit after þat Normans cleped hit Loundres, and hatte in Latyn Londonia. Rudhudibras, kyng Leyl his sone, was þe eiȝtþe [kyng]*. [Added from Cx.] of Bretouns; he bulde Caunterbury þe chief citee of Kent, and cleped hit Caerkent. Afterward Englische men cleped hit Dorobernia, þat is oþer*. [ooþer, α.] þan þilke Douer þat is vppon þe clif of þe Frensche see, þat*. [and, α.] is fro þis Douer xij.*. [twelue, α. (in letters).] Englische myle.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Afterward þis Dorobernia was and is i-cleped Cauntirbury. Þe same kyng Rudhudibras bulde Wynchestre and cleped hit [Caerguet, and afterward Englisch men cleped hit]*. [Added from α and Cx., who has Caerguent.] Went and Wynchestre after þe name of Page  59, vol.2 oo Wyne*. [one Wyne, Cx.] an Englische man,*. [MS. adds: propheciede þere somtyme. See below.] þat was bisshop þere. Al West Saxon was soget to hym: þe same kyng bulde Paladour, þat is, Septoun, þat now hatte Chestesbury.*. [Shaftesbury, Cx.] Britouns telleþ þat an egle*. [So α. and Cx.; Englische man, MS.] prophecied þere somtyme. Bladud, Leil his sone, a nygromanser, was þe nynþe kyng of Bretouns; he bulde Baþe, and cleped hit Caerbadoun. En|glische men cleped hit afterward Achamannys*. [Athamannes, Cx. (wrongly, but misled by the identity of c and t in MSS.)] citee, but at þe laste he is i-cleped Bathonia, þat is, Baþe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. In þis citee welleþ vp and springeþ hote baþes, and me weneþ þat Iulius Cesar made þere suche bathes. ℞. But Gaufre Monemutensis, in his Brittische*. [Britons, Cx.; and so below.] book, seiþ þat Bladud made þilke bathes. Vppon caas*. [by cause that, Cx.] William, þat*. [þat] om. Cx., who does not understand the sense of the sen|tence.] hadde nouȝt i-seie þat Brittisshe book, wroot so by tellynge of oþere men, oþer*. [or, α.] by his owne gessynge, as he wroot oþer þinges somdel vnwiseliche.*. [not best aduysedly, Cx.] Þerfore hit semeþ more soþeliche þat Bladud made*. [made hit, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] nouȝt þe hote bathes, noþer Iulius Cesar dede suche a dede, þey Bladud bulde and made þe citee; but hit accordeþ better to kyndeliche resoun, þat þe water renneþ vnder*. [in the, Cx.] erþe by Page  61, vol.2 veynes of brymstone,*. [Cx. adds, and sulphure.] and so is i-hatte*. [made hoote, Cx.] kyndeliche in þat cours, and springeþ vp in dyuers places of þe citee. And so þere beeþ hoote bathes, þat wascheþ of teteres,*. [tetres, α., Cx.] oþer sores and scabbes. Treuisa. Þey me myȝt by craft make hote bathes for to dure long i-now, þis accordeþ wel to resoun and to philosofie þat treteþ of hote welles and baþes, þat beeþ in dyuerse londes, þeiȝ þe water of þis bathe be more troubly and heuyere of smelle and of sauour þan oþere hote bathes þat I haue i-seie at Akene*. [Okene, α.; Akon, Cx.] in Almayne, and at Egges in Sauoy. [Þe baþes in Egges]*. [Added from α.; whiche been, Cx.] beeþ as feire and as clere as eny cold welle streem. I haue assaied, and i-bathed þerynne.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] ℞. Claudius Cesar maried his douȝter to Aruiragus, kyng of Britouns. Þis Claudius Cesar bulde Gloucetre in þe weddynge of his douȝter; Britouns cleped þis citee first after Claudius his name, but afterward it was i-cleped Glowcetre, after oon Glora, þat was duke of þat contray, and stondeþ vppon Seuarn in þe marche of Engelond and of Wales. Schroys|bury is a citee vppon Seuarn in þe marche of Engelond and of Wales, i-sette vppon þe coppe*. [toppe, Cx.] of an hille, and hatte Schroisbury of schrobbes and fruyt þat grewe somtyme on þat hille. Britouns cleped hit somtyme Pengwern, þat is, þe heed of a faire tree. Schroysbury was somtyme þe hede of Powyse,*. [Powisy, α.] þat streccheþ forþ thwart ouer þe myddel of Wales anon to þe*. [þe] om. α.] Irische see. Notyngham stondeþ vppon Trent, Page  63, vol.2 and somtyme heet Snotyngham, þat is, þe woning of dennes, for þe Danes dwelled þere somtyme, and were i-logged,*. [i-longed, α.; clause omitted in Cx.] as me telleþ, and i-digged*. [i-digged] digged, α.] dennes and caues vnder hard rokkes and stones.*. [Cx. adds, and dwellyd there.] ℞. Lyncolne is chief of þe prouince*. [So α. and Cx.; prophecie, MS.] of Lyndeseie, and heet somtyme Caerludcoit, and afterward Lyndecolyn. Hit is vncerteyn who bulde first þis citee, but ȝif it were kyng Lud. And so hit semeþ by menynge of þe name; for caer is Brittisshe, and is to menynge a citee; coit is a wode. And so hit semeþ þat Caerludcoit is to menynge Lud his wode toun.*. [So α. and Cx.; Lud is wolde his toun, MS.] Kyng Leyre was Bladud his sone, and bulde Leycestre, as it were in myddel Engelond, vppon þe ryuer [Sor]*. [Added from Cx., who however has Sos (typ. error?).] and vppon Fos þe kynges hiȝe weie.*. [hiȝ way, α.]

Capitulum quadragesimum octavum.

Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. York is a grete citee in eiþer side of þe water of Ouse, þat semed as faire as Rome, forto þat*. [vnto the tyme that, Cx.] the kyng of Engelond William Conquerour hadde wiþ brennynge of*. [and, α., Cx.] fuyre defouled it and þe contrey Page  65, vol.2 aboute; so þat a pilgrym wolde now wepe, and he seigh*. [sawe, Cx., and so usually.] it, ȝif he knewe hit ar he wente out.*. [ar he wente out] to fore, Cx.]Gaufridus. Ebrankus, þe fifte kyng of Britouns, bulde York,*. [Ȝork, α.] and cleped hit after his owne name Caerbrank.*. [Caerebrank, α.] He bulde also tweie oþere noble citees, [one]*. [Added from Cx.] in Scotlond þat hatte Edynborgh;*. [Edenburgh, α.; and so below.] and anoþer toward Scotlond, in þe endes of Engelond, þat hatte Alclud.*. [Alcluid, α.; Alcliud, Cx.] ℞. Edyngboruȝ is a citee in þe lond of Pictes by|twene þe ryuere of Twyde and þe Scottische see, and heet somtyme þe Castelle of Maydens, and was i-cleped aftir|ward Edyngborgh,*. [Edynborugh, α.] of Edan, kyng of Pictes, þat regned þere ynne Egfrides tyme, kyng of Norþhumberlond. Alcluid was somtyme a noble citee, and is now wel nyh vnknowe to alle Englische men. [For under þe Britouns and Pictes and Englisshe men]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] it was a noble citee anon to þe comynge of þe Danes; but afterward aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord eiȝte hondred þre score and ten it was destroyed, whan þe Danes destroyed þe cuntrees*. [contrayes, α.] of Norþhumberlond. But in what Page  67, vol.2 place of Britayne þat citee Alcluid was i-bulde, auctors telleþ dyuersliche. Beda, libro primo, capitulo duodecimo, seiþ þat it was i-buld by west þat arme of þe see þat de|parted*. [departeth, Cx.] bytwene Pictes and Britouns somtyme. Þere Seuerus his famous [walle]*. [Added from Cx., who has welle.] endeþ westward; and so it semeþ by hym, þat [hit]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] is nouȝt fer from Caerlel, for þat cite is i-sette at þe ende of þe*. [that, Cx.] wal. Oþere writers of stories writeþ þat þe citee Alcluid is þat citee þat now hatte A[l]deburghe,*. [Aldburgh, Cx.] þat is to menynge, an olde toun, and stondeþ vppon þe ryuer Ouse, nouȝt fer from Borgh-brigge, þat is fiftene myle westwarde out of York. And hit semeþ þat he preueþ þat by Gaufridus, in*. [So α. and Cx.; and, MS.] his book of dedes of Britouns. He writeþ þat Elidurus, kyng of Britouns, was i-logged at þe citee Alcluid, bycause of solas of*. [solace and, Cx.] huntynge, and fonde his broþer Archgalon*. [Agalon, Cx.] maskynge in a wode nyh þere beside, þat hatte Calatery, but þat wode Calaterye, þat hatte Caltres an*. [in, Cx.] Englische,*. [Engelshe, α.] recheþ almest to York, and streccheþ toward Page  69, vol.2 þe north by Aldeburgh,*. [After Aldeburgh, MS. and α. (not Cx.) add, by a clerical error of repetition, þat is to menynge.] in lengþe þe space of twenty myle. Þe moste dele of þat wode is nowe i-þrowe adoun, and þe lond i-teled.*. [y-tylled, Cx.] Oþere wol mene þat Alcluid was þat citee þat now hatte Burgham,*. [Burcham, Cx.] in þe norþ contray of Westmerland, faste by Comberlond, and stondeþ vppon þe ryuer Edene. Þe citee is þere ȝitt wonderliche i-sene. Here a wys re|dere demeþ, as hym semeþ, where Alcluid was i-buld.*. [Cx. thus re-writes the sentence: Dame ye now where it is bylded.]Treuisa.*. [Reference added from Cx.] Þis semeþ nouȝt wel hard to assoille, ȝif me takeþ hede þat many townes bereþ oon name, as Carthago*. [Cartago, MSS. and Cx.; and so below.] in Affrica and Carthago*. [Cartago, MSS. and Cx.; and so below.] in Spayne; Newport in Wales and Newport in þe parsche*. [parisshe, Cx.] of Berkeley; Wottoun vndir Hegge*. [Egge, Cx.] and Wottoun-basset; Wilke-warre and Wilke-spayne and Wilke*. [Wikwarre, Wykpayn, and Wik, α. and Cx.] in þe parische of Berkeley. And tweie schire townes eiþer hatte Hamptoun; Souþhamptoun and Norþhamptoun. So it semeþ by þe stories, þat oon Alcluid was in Yorkschire, anoþer in Westmerlond, and oon faste by in þe riȝt side of þe west arme of þe see, þat departeþ Engelond and Scotlond; but þat Alcluid was a wel*. [right, Cx.; and so often.] stronge citee, as Beda seiþ; and þat citee stondeþ faste by a ryuer þat hatte Cluid;*. [Cliud, Cx.] and þere is non suche ryuer in Ȝorkschire, noþer in Westmorelond, as men of þe contray telleþ me. Som men telleþ þat þe ryuere Cluid hatte now Sulwache; [Sulwach]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] is but fyue myle fro Caerlile. ℞. Caerleel is a citee in þe contre of Norþ Enge|lond toward þe norþ west, and haþ anoþer name and hatte Lugubal. Leyle, þe seuenþe kyng of Britouns, bulde Caerleel. [In þis citee is somwhat of þat famous wal þat passeþ Page  71, vol.2 Northumberlond. Willelmus de Pontificibus.]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] In þis citee is a þre chambred hous i-made of font*. [vawte, Cx.] stoones, þat myȝt neuere*. [neuere myzte, α., Cx.] be destroyed wiþ tempest of wedir noþer wiþ brennynge of fuyre. Also in þe contray faste by in Westmerlond, in þe frount of a þre chambred place, is i-write in þis manere, Marii victoriæ. What þis writinge is to mene, som dele I doute; but it*. [but yf it, Cx.] were so þat som of þe Combres leie*. [leyȝe, α.] þere somtyme, whan þe consul Marius hadde i-putte hem out of Itali. ℞.*. [Reference added from α.] But it semeþ more probable,*. [better, Cx.] þat þat is i-write in mynde of Marius, kyng of Britouns, þat was Aruiragus his sone. Þis Marius ouercome in þat place Rodryk, kyng of Pictes,*. [So α. and Cx.; Britouns, MS.] so seiþ Gaufridus in his Brittische booke. William Malmesbury seih neuere þat book. At Hagus|taldes chirche is a place foure score myle out of York norþ|westward; þe place is, as it were, destroyed; so seiþ Willel|mus, libro tertio de Pontificibus; þat place longede somtyme to þe bisshopriche of York. Þere were somtyme buldes*. [howses, Cx.] wiþ vice*. [vys, α.] arches and fontes*. [voutes, Cx., who has large omissions here.] in þe manere of Rome. Suche buldynge was nowhere [i-seie]*. [Added from α.] on þis half Alpes, but þere vnneþe. Now þat place hatte Hestoldesham and Heglisham Page  73, vol.2 also. Beda, libro tertio, capitulo primo, seiþ þat þat place [is]*. [The verb is absent from MSS. and Cx.] faste by þe long wal of þe work of Rome in þe norþ half. ℞.*. [Reference added from Cx.] Þere is difference bytwene þe prouince of Lyndefar and [and þe chirche of Lyndefarne; for þe prouynce of Lyndiffar and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Lyndeseie is al oon, and lyeþ by est Lyncolne; and Lyn|coln is þe heed þerof. Of þe whiche seiþ Beda, libro quarto, capitulo undecimo, þat Sexvulphus was first bisshop þere. Bote Beda seiþ, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo tertio, þat Lynde|farn*. [Lyndiffern, α.] chirche is an ilond, þat hatte Halyelond, in þe ryuer Twede,*. [Twyde, α.; Thwede, Cx. (who has next).] nyh Berwyk. And so hit is i-gadered of Beda his sawes, [þat Twyde renneþ into the famous arm of]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe see þat*. [that now, Cx.] departeþ Englische men and Scottes in þe est half. And in þe*. [þat, α., Cx.] arme beeþ þre ilondes, þat beeþ Mailros, þat now hatte Mewros;*. [Meuros, α., Cx.] þanne aboue toward þe west is Lyndefarnen chirche þat hatte Halielond;*. [Haly ylond, Cx.] þanne vpward aboue þat is þe ilond Farne, and hatte also Farnyelond; þanne vpward tweie myle aboue þat is a real citee vppon þe brynke of Twyde, þat somtyme hiȝt Bebanborgh, þat is, Bebbe is*. [Bobbes, Cx.] cite, and now hatte Page  75, vol.2 Bamborgh,*. [Bamborw, α.] and hath a wel strong castel.*. [The previous sentence has se|veral slight variations in Cx.]Giraldus in Itinere. Tweye citees þere beeþ, eiþer hatte Caerlegioun and Caerleoun also; oon is Demecia in Souþ Wales, þat hatte Caerusk also; þere þe ryuer Vsque*. [Usk, α.] falleþ in to Seuarn see,*. [see] om. Cx.] faste by Glammorgon. Bellinus, kyng of Britouns, somtyme bulde þat citee; and somtyme was þe chief cite of Demecia*. [Domecia, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] in Souþ Wales.*. [MS. (not α. or Cx.) adds: þat hatte Caerusk.] Afterward in Claudius Cesar his tyme hit was i-cleped þe Citee of Legiouns. Whan at þe prayer of Genuis þe queene, Vespasianus*. [Vaspasianus, MSS. Cx. (who has Genyus.)] and Aruiragus were accorded, and legiouns of Rome were i-sende in to Irlond, þo was Caerleon a noble citee and of grete auctorite, and by þe Romayns realliche i-walled aboute wiþ walles of brent*. [brand, α.] tile. Grete nobilite*. [nobley, Cx.] þat was þere in olde tyme is þere ȝit in meny places i-sene, as þe grete palys,*. [palayses, Cx.] geant*. [gyant, α.] his tour, noble bathes, releef of þe temples, places of theatres, þat were places hiȝe and real to stonde and sytte ynne and byholde aboute. Þe places were realliche i-closed wiþ real walles þat ȝit somdel stondeþ wel nyh cloos. And wiþ ynne þe walles and wiþoute is greet buldynge vnder erþe, water condites and weies vnder erþe and stues also þou schalt see wonderliche i-made wiþ streite side weies of breþynge, þat wonderliche casteþ vp hete. In þis cite were somtyme þre noble chirches; Page  77, vol.2 oon was of Seynt Iulius þe martir, i-hiȝt wiþ a grete*. [and ther in a grete, Cx.] com|panye of virgyns; þat oþer was of Seint Aaron, þat was of þe ordre of blak chanouns; þat chirche was wiþ hym*. [hem, Cx.] nobelie i-hiȝt;*. [adourned, Cx.] þe pridde chirche was þe chief moderchirche of al Wales, and þe chief sete;*. [see, Cx.] but aftirward þe chief see was i-torned out of þat citee in to Meneuia, þat is, Seint Dauyes lond in West Wales. In þis Caerleon [was]*. [Added from Cx.] Amphi|balus i-bore, þat tauȝt Seint Albon. Þere þe messangers of Rome come to þe grete Arthurus curt,*. [court, α., Cx.] ȝif it is leeful for to trowe. Treuisa. Ȝif Gerald*. [Giraldus, Cx.] was in doute where*. [wheþer, α.] it were leful for to trowe þis*. [þis] hit, α., Cx.] oþer noo, it was nouȝt ful greet reedy|nesse to write hit in his bookes; as som men wolde wene. For it is a wonder sweuene i-mette for to write a long storie, to haue euermore in mynde, and euere haue doute ȝif it be amys byleue. Ȝif alle his bookes were suche, what lore were þerynne, and nameliche while hit makeþ non euidens for neiþer*. [neiþer] noþer, α.] side, noþer telleþ what hym*. [So α. and Cx.; by, MS.] meueþ so*. [so] soþ, MS. (not Cx.)] for to seie?*. [The extract from Trevisa is a good deal varied in Cx., where it makes but little sense.] ℞.*. [Reference added from Cx.] Þere is anoþer Citee of Legiouns; þere þis cronicle was by*. [be, α.]-trauailled, as it is cleerliche i-knowe by þe firste lettres of þe chapitres of þis first book.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.]Treuisa. Þis*. [That, Cx.] is to vnderstondynge in þe Latyn writynge and nouȝt in þis Englische writynge; for it was nouȝt þe same þat made it in Latyn, and torned it into Englisshe in þe same place þat it was i-made first in Latyn. Þe heed lettres of þe chapitres of þis firste book i-write arewe as the chapitres stondeþ he speleþ þis Latyn resoun: Presentem cronicam compilauit frater Ranulphus Cestrensis monachus. Þis Latyn resoun is to menynge an Englische: Broþer Ranulf,*. [Ranulph, α.; Ranulphus, Cx.] monk of Chestre, compiled and made þis present cronicle.*. [cronyke, α., Cx. The extract from Trevisa is much varied in Cx.] ℞. Þe Page  79, vol.2 citee of legiouns, þat is, Chestre, stondeþ in þe marche of Engelond toward Wales, bytwene tweie armes of þe see þat hatte Dee and Merse. Þis citee in tyme of Britouns was heed and chief citee of al Venedocia, þat is, Norþ*. [in north, Cx.] Wales. Þe foundour of þis citee is vnknowe, for who þat seeþ þe foundementis of þe grete stones wolde raþer wene þat it were Romayns work, oþer work of geauntes, þan work*. [were, Cx. (typ. error.)] i-made by settynge of Bretouns. Þis citee somtyme in Brittische speche heet Caerleon,*. [Caerchleon, α.] Legecestria in*. [a, Cx.] Latyn, and hatte now Cestria in Latyn, and Chestren in Englisshe, and þe Citee of Legiouns [also. For þere lay a wynter þe legiouns]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of knyȝtes þat Iulius Cesar sente for to wynne Irlond; and afterward Clawdius Cesar sente legiouns out of þat citee ffor to wynne þe ilondes þat hatte Orcades. What euere William Malmesbury by tellynge of oþere men mette of þis citee, þis citee haþ plente of lyflode, of corn, of flesche, and of fische, and specialliche of pris salmoun.*. [prise samoun, α.; pris of samon, Cx.] Þat*. [This, Cx.] citee fongeþ grete marchaundise, and sendeþ out also. Also nygh þis citee beeþ salt welles, metal, and oor. Norþhumbres destroyed þis citee somtyme; but afterward Elfleda, lady of Mercia, bulde it aȝe and made it wel*. [moche, Cx.] more. In þis citee beeþ weies vnder Page  81, vol.2 erþe, wiþ vawtes of stoonwerk*. [with vowtes and stonewerke, Cx., who has chambred below.] wonderliche i-wrouȝt, þre chambres workes, greet stoones i-graued wiþ olde men*. [So also α.; mennes, Cx.] names þere ynne. Þere is also Iulius Cesar his money wonderliche in stones*. [in stones] These words ought to be cancelled, but Trevisa perhaps misunderstood the Latin. Cx. changes money into name.] i-graued,*. [MS. and α. (not Cx.) add by clerical error from above: wiþ olde men names.] and oþere noble mennes also wiþ þe writynge aboute. Þis is þe citee þat*. [So α. and Cx.; of, MS.] Ethelfride, kyng of Norþhumber,*. [Northumberland, Cx.] destroyed; and slogh þere faste by nygh two þowsand monkes of þe mynistre of Bangor. Þis is þe citee þat kyng Edgar com to som tyme wiþ seuene kynges þat were suget to hym. A metrere brekeþ out in þis manere in preis|ynge of þis citee:—

Chestre, Casteltoun as he*. [a, α.; it, Cx.] were,
Name takeþ of a castel:*. [We should probably add: that is there; metri gratia.]
Hit is vnknowe
What man bulde*. [bude, α.] þis citee nowe;
Tho Legecestrias þes*. [Legecestria chers, Cx. (quid?)]
Heet*. [Hett, α.] now toun of legiones.
Now Walsche and Englische
Holdeþ þis toun of greet*. [a greet, α.] prys.
Stones on þe walle
Semeþ work Hercules alle;
Þere long wiþ myght
To dure þat hep is i-hiȝt. Page  83, vol.2
Saxon smal*. [smale, Cx.] stones
Set vppon greet beeþ attones.*. [at ones, α.]
There vnder grounde
Lotynge*. [luttyng, γ.] double vaut*. [vawt, α.; vout, Cx.] is i-founde.
Þat helpeth wiþ sondes
Meny men of westene*. [westren, Cx.] londes.
Fisch, flesche, and corn low
Þis cite toun haþ i-now.
Schippes and chaffare
See water bringeþ i-now þare.
Godescalle þere is,
Þat was emperour or*. [ar, α.; er, Cx.] þis,
And þe ferþe Henry kyng,
Þere is here*. [þere is here] orþ (erþ β.) ys þar, γ.] riȝtene*. [erthe is there righten, Cx.] dwellynge.
Of kyng Haralde
Poudre þere ȝit is halde,*. [i-halde, α., Cx.]
Bacchus*. [Bacus, MS.; Bachus, α., Cx.] and Mercurius, Mars and Venus, also Lauerna,*. [Possibly we should read La|uerne; but even so, the metre limps.]
Proteus*. [Protheus, MSS. and Cx.] and Pluto regneþ þere [in]*. [Added from Cx.] þe towne.

Treuisa. God woot what þis is to mene, but poetes*. [So α.; portes, MS.] in here*. [So α.; his, MS.] manere of speche feyneth as þey euerich kynde crafte and leu|ynge hadde a dyuersite*. [diuerse, Cx.; probably rightly.] god, euerich from oþer; and so they feyneþ*. [feyned, Cx.] a god of bataille and of fiȝtynge, and clepeþ hym Mars; also þey feyneþ a god of couetise of richesse and mar|chaundise, and clepeþ*. [called Cx.] hym Mercurius; and so Bacchus þei clepeþ god of wyn; Venus, god of fairnesse and of loue; Lauerna, god of þefte and of robberie; Proteus,*. [Protheus, MSS. and Cx.] god of falshede and of gyle; and Pluto, god of helle. And so hit semeþ þat þis vers wolde mene þat þese feyned*. [forsayd, Cx.] goddes regneþ and beeþ i-serued in Chestre; Mars wiþ fiȝting and cokkynge; Mercurius wiþ couetise of richesse and of mar|chandyse; Bacchus wiþ grete drinkynge; Venus wiþ loue nouȝt ful wys;*. [nouȝht ful wys] lewdly, Cx.] Lauerna wiþ þefte and robberye; Proteus*. [Protheus, MSS. and Cx.]Page  85, vol.2 wiþ falshede and gyle. Þan is Pluto not vnserued, god of TREVISA, helle. ℞.

Þere Babilon lore,
More myȝt haþ, truþe*. [So β. and γ.; trouthe, Cx. The text seems corrupt; possibly crouþe (i.e. crow|eth) may be the true reading.] þe more.

De schiris Angliœ, siue prouinciis. Capitulum quadra|gesimum nonum.

TAKE hede þat*. [So α.; þan, MS.] Engelond conteyneþ two and þritti schires and prouinces, þat now beeþ i-cleped erldoms, outake Cornewayle and ilondes*. [the ilondes, Cx.]Alfridus. These beeþ þe names of þe erldoms and schires: Kent, Souþsex, Souþeray, Hampschire, Barkschire, þat haþ þat name of a baar ook þat is in þe forest of Wyndesore; for at þat bare ook men of þat schire were i-wont come to gidres and make here tretys, and þere take hir counsail, and rede.*. [reed, α.; aduys, Cx. (who has other slight variations.)] Also Wiltschire, þat hiȝte*. [heet, Cx.] somtyme þe prouince of Semeran, Somersete, Dorsete, Deuenschire, þat hatte Deuonia in Latyn. Þese nyne south schires, as*. [So α; nyne schires be souþ, as, MS.] Temse departeþ hem from þe oþer dele of Engelond, were*. [which were, Cx., who omits as above.] somtyme i-gouerned and i-ruled by þat lawe þat hatte Westsaxoun*. [Westsaxene, α.] lawe.*. [by the West Saxon lawe, Cx.] Estsex, Myddelsex, Page  87, vol.2 Southfolk, Norþfolk, Hertfordschire, Huntyngdounschire, Norþhamptounschire, Cantebryggeschire,*. [Cambryggeshyre, Cx.] [Bedefordschire]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Bokynghamschire, Leycestreschire, Derbyschire, Notyng|hamschire, Lyncolneschire, Ȝorkschire, Duramschire, Nor|humberlond, Carlelschire wiþ Comberlond, Appelbyschire wiþ Westmerlond, Lancastreschire, þat conteyneþ fyue litel schires; þese fiftene norþ and est schires were somtyme i-gouerned and i-ruled by þat lawe, þat hatte Denelawe. But Oxenfordeschire, Warwykschire, Glowcetreschire, Worcestre|schire, Herfordschire,*. [Herefordschire, α; Herdford|shire, Cx.] Schropschire, Staffordschire, Chestre|schire, þese eiȝte myddel and west schires were somtyme i-gouerned and i-ruled by þat lawe þat hatte Mercia in Latyn, and Mercheyne lawe in Englisshe. It is to wetynge*. [wete, Cx., and so often.] þat Ȝorkschire now streccheþ onlich from þe bowe of the ryuer of Humber anon to þe ryuer of*. [of] om. α.; clause varied in Cx.] Teyse; and ȝit in Ȝorkschire beeþ two and twenty hondredes. Hundred and candred is al oon; candred is oo word i-made of Walsche and of Irische, and is to menynge, a contray þat conteyneþ an hondred townes, and is also in Englische l-cleped wepentake; for somtyme in þe comynge of a newe lorde tenauntes were i-wont to ȝilde Page  89, vol.2 vp hire wepene instede of homage. Duramschire streccheþ from þe ryuer Teyse*. [Theyse, α.] anon to þe ryuere Tyne. And for to speke propurliche of Norþhumberlond, Norþhumberlond streccheþ from þe ryuere of Tyne anon to þe ryuere of Twede, þat is þe*. [in the, Cx.] bygynnynge of Scotlond. Þan ȝif the contrey of Norþhomberlond, þat was somtyme from Humber anon to Twede, be now acounted for oon schire and oon erldom, as it was somtyme, þan beeþ in Engelond but two and þritty schires, but ȝif þe contray of Norþhumberlond be*. [is, α. (not Cx.)] departed in þe sixe forsaide*. [forsaide] om. Cx., probably rightly] schires, þat beeþ Euerwykschire, Du|ramschire, Norþhumberlond, Carlelschire, Appelbyschire, Lancastreschire, þanne beeþ in Engelond sixe and þritty schires wiþoute Cornewayle and also wiþoute þe ilondes. Kyng William þe Conquerour made alle þis prouince and schires be descryved*. [So α. and Cx. (who has these prouynces); destroyed, MS.] and i-mete. Þan were i-founde sixe and þritty schires*. [Text of the following clauses as in α; more than thirty words are repeated without sense in MS. in various places.] and an half,*. [and half a schire, α. and Cx.] and townes*. [and schire townes, MS.] two and fifty þowsand and foure score; parische chirches fyue and fourty þowsand and tweyne; knyȝtes fees sixty þowsand and fiftene. Þerof*. [Wherof, Cx.] men of religioun haþ eiȝte and twenty þowsand and fiftene knyȝtes fees.*. [Some words repeated in MS.] But now wodes [beþ]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] i-hewe adoun and newe telynge*. [tylienge, α.] lond i-made moche more þan was þoo, and meny townes i-bulde, and so þere beeþ now in Engelond meny moo hides*. [vyllages, Cx., who varies the sentence considerably.] and townes þan were in þat Page  91, vol.2 tyme. Treuisa.*. [The remainder of the chapter appears thus in Cx., who omits Trevisa's name:—"And whereas a fore is wreton that Cornuayll is not sette amonge the shires of Englond, it may stonde amonge them wel ynowgh. For it is neyther in Wales ne in Scotland, but is in Englond, and ioyneth to Deuens|shire. And so may ther ben acompted in Englond xxxvij. shires and a half with the other shires."] Hit is wondre why Alfred summeth the schires of Engelond somdel as a man þat mette; for Alfrede telleþ þe som of schires in þis manere: Þere beeþ in Enge|lond sixe and þritty schires wiþoute Conewayle and wiþoute þe ylondes. Why seiþ he nouȝt in þis manere: Þere beeþ in Engelond sixe schires wiþ Cornwayle, and þritty oþer schires wiþoute þe ilondes? Eyþer manere summynge is as vnredy as oþer. For to make a redy somme it schulde be i-write in þis manere: In Engelond beeþ seuen and þritty schires, and so is Cornewayle acounted wiþ þe oþere schires; and þat is skilful. For Cornewayle is a schere of Engelond; for, as he seiþ, Cornwaile is in þis Bretayne hym self, as it is aleide*. [aleyd, α.] in þe fourþe chapitre of þis firste book. Þan hit is in oon of þe chief parties of þis Bretayne, þat beeþ Engelond, Wales, and Scotlond. But Cornewayle is nouȝt in Wales, for þere is a grete see bytwene; noþer in Scotlonde, for þere beeþ many hondred myle bytwene. Þan Cornwayle is in Enge|lond, and is departed in hundredes, and is i-ruled by þe lawe of Engelond, and holdeþ schire and schire dayes, as oþere schires dooþ. Ȝif Alfrede seiþ nay in þat, he wot nouȝt what he maffleþ.

De legibus legumque vocabulis. Capitulum quinquagesimum.

DUNWALLO, þat hete Moluntius*. [Moliuncius, Cx., and so below.] also, made þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] firste lawes in Bretayne, the whiche lawes were i-cleped Moluntius his lawes, Page  93, vol.2 and were solempne*. [were solompnly (sic) obserued vnto, Cx.] anon to William Conquerour his tyme. Moluntius ordeynede among his lawes, þat citees, temples, and weies þat ledeþ þerto, and plowh men solowes schulde haue priuelege and fredom forto saue alle men þat wolde flee þerto for socour and refute.*. [refuge, Cx.] Þan aftirward Marcia, queene of Bretouns, þat was Guytelynus þe kynges wyf, of hire þe prouince hadde þe name Mercia, as som men troweþ. Sche*. [He, α.] made a lawe ful of riȝt and*. [and] om. α. and Cx.] of wit and resoun, and was i-cleped Merchene lawe. Gildas, þat wroot stories of Bretouns, turnede þese tweie lawes out of Bretoun speche in to Latyn, and afterward kyng Alredes*. [Aluredus, α. and Cx.] turned alle in fere*. [in fere] om. Cx., and also below.] out of Latyn in to Saxon speche, and*. [and]. Here and above the sense requires þat.] was i-cleped alle in fere Merchene lawe. Also the same kyng Alredus wroot in Englische, and putte to anoþer lawe, þat heet West Sexene lawe. Þanne afterward Danes were lordes in þis lond, and so com*. [cam, Cx.] forþ the þridde lawe þat heet Dane lawe. Of þese þre lawes Seynt Edward þe þridde*. [the confessour, Cx.] made oon comyn lawe, þat ȝit hatte*. [So α.; hadde, MS.] Seint Edwardes lawe. I*. [I] Iche, α.] holde hit be worthy*. [it wel don, Cx.]*. [Aluredus, α. and Cx.]Page  95, vol.2 to write here and expowne meny termes of þese lawes. Mundbreche,*. [Myndebruche, Cx.] hertynge of honour and of worschepe;*. [of worschippe and of honour, α.] a*. [in, Cx., everywhere.] Frensche, blesmure*. [bleschur, Cx., and so below.] de honoure. Burghbreche;*. [Burchbruch, Cx.] a Frensche, blesmure de court, ou de cloys. Grythbruche, [brekynge]*. [brekynge] Added from α. and Cx.] of pees. Miskenynge, chaunginge of speche in court. Schewynge, settynge forþ of marchaundise; a Frensche, despleure*. [displeix, Cx.] de marchaundise. Hamsokene oþer Hamfare, a rese i-made in hous. Forstallynge, wrong oþer let i-doo in þe kynges hiȝe weie. Fryth sokene; in Frensche, suerte*. [surte, α.] in diffens. Infantif*. [Infangthef, α.; which is the more usual form. Cx. has some omissions here, and further on.] pelfynde inward; a Frensche, dedeyns le soen atachement de laroun.*. [laroun eschape, MS. (not α.)] Sake; [a Frensche, court justice forfet ou achesoun. Soka],*. [Added from α.] sute of court, and þerof comeþ Sokene,*. [Sokne, α.] but Sokene oþerwhile is forto aske lawe in þe gretter court. Wergiltif,*. [Wergelthef, α.] solte de laroun*. [laron, α.] eschape. Theam, Frensche, reuoche garant; and somtyme Theam is i-cleped þe sewte of bonde men. Fightynge wyte, amersement for fightynge, ferir melle. Wardwhite, forfise de garde. Blodwyte, mersement for schedynge of blood. Cultwyte,*. [Gultwite, Cx.] amendes for Page  97, vol.2 trespas. Scot, a gaderynge in work of baylifes. Flittwyte, amendes i-doo for chydynge. Leyrewite,*. [So α.; Leyrwe, MS.] amendes for lig|gynge by a bond womman. Hydage, taylage of hydes of lond. Danegeld,*. [So α.; Danagild, MS.; Dane|gheld, Cx.] taylage i-ȝeue to þe Danes, þat was þre pans of eueriche*. [euericha, MS.] bouata terræ, þat is, of eueriche oxeland. A wepentake and an hondred is al oon, for þe contray of an hondred townes were i-woned to ȝilde vppe wepene*. [towneswepene, MS.] in þe comynge of þe lord. Lastage,*. [Lestage, α., Cx.] custom i-chalanged in chepynges and in feyres. Stalage, custom for stondynge in stretes in feyre tyme.

De regnis regnorumque limitibus. Capitulum quinqua|gesimum primum.

The kyngdom of Bretayne stood wiþoute departynge hool and alle oon kyngdom to þe Britouns fram þe firste Bruyt anon to Iulius Cesar his tyme; [and fro Iulius Cesar his tyme]*. [Added from Cx.] to Seuerus his tyme þis lond was vnder tribute to þe Romayns. Neuerþeles kynges þey hadde of þe same ilond. From Seuerus anon to þe laste*. [So α. and Cx.; same, MS.] prince Gratian, successoures of Bretouns faillede, and Romaynes reignede in Bretayne. [Afterward þe Romanys lefte of þe regnynge in Britayne],*. [Added from α. and Cx.]Page  99, vol.2 for it was fer from [Rome],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] oþer for greet besynesse þat þey hadde in oþer side. Þanne Scottes and Pictes by mysledynge of Maximus þe tyraunt pursued Bretayne, and werred þerynne wiþ greet strengþe of men of armes longe tyme, for to þe Saxones come at þe prayenge of [þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Britouns aȝenst þe Pictes, and putte out Gurmund the Irische kyng wiþ his Pictes, and þe Britouns also wiþ here kyng, þat hect Careticus,*. [Carecticus, Cx.] and drof hem out of Engelond in to Wales. And so þe Saxons were victors, and eueriche prouince, as he was strengere, made hem kynges; and so þey deled Engelond in seuene kyngdoms.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Neuerþeles afterward þese seuene kyngdoms eueriche after oþer come alle in to oon kyngdom al hool vnder þe prince Adelstone. Neuerþeles þe Danes pursewed þis lond from Athelwolf his tyme, þat was Alrudes*. [Aluredes, α.] fader, to the þridde Seint Ed|wardes*. [Edward his, α.] tyme, aboute an hundred ȝere þre score and ten; but he reigned þerynne continualliche þritty ȝere. After þe Danes þe þridde Seynt Edward regned þere ynne þre and twenty ȝere and a litelwhat*. [what] om. Cx.] more. And after hym Harald helde þe kyngdom nyne monþes. And after hem Normans haueþ i-regned þerynne anon to þis tyme; but how longe they scholde holde he woot [þat]*. [Added from α.; construction varied in Cx., who has a few trivial alterations in some of the following sentences.] no þing vnknoweþ. ℞. Of þe forsaide kyngdoms seuene, of here merkes, meres, and Page  101, vol.2 bondes, whan þey bygonne and how longe þey durede here I schal somwhat schortliche telle. Alfridus. Þe firste kyng|dom was þe kyngdom of Kent, þat streccheþ from þe est occean anoon to þe ryuer of Temse. Þere reigned þe firste Hengistus, and bygan to reigne by Denys acountes þe ȝere of oure Lord foure hondred and fife and fifty. Þat kyngdom durede þre hondred ȝere þre score and eiȝte vnder fiftene kynges, for to þat Baldred was i-putte out. And*. [And] So α. and Cx.; of, MS.] Eggebert, kyng of Westsaxons, ioyned þat kyngdom to his owne. Þe secounde kyngdom was of Souþsaxon, þat hadde in þe est side Kent, in þe souþ þe see and þe yle of Wiȝt, in þe west Hampschire, and in þe norþ Souþeray. Þere Ella regnede first wiþ his þre sones, and bygan to reigne þe ȝere after þe comynge of Angles euen þritty; but þat kyngdom wiþynne a schort tyme passede into oþere kyngdoms. Þe þridde kyngdom was of Estsaxon, and hadde in þe est side þe see, and in þe west þe contray of Londoun, in þe souþ Temse, in þe north Soþfolk. Þe kynges of this contray Estsaxon from þe firste Sabertes tyme anon to þe tyme of Danes, ten kynges, were somdel sugette to oþere kynges; noþeles oft|este and lengeste þey were vnder þe kynges of Mercia forto þat tyme whan Egebert kyng, kyng of Wessaxoun, ioyned Page  103, vol.2 þat kyngdom to his owne. Þe fourþe kyngdom was of Est Angles, and conteynede Norþfolk and Souþfolk, and haþ*. [had, α.] in þe est side*. [So α.; in west side, MS. (w being erased.)] and in þe norþ þe see, in þe norþ|west Cantebriggeschire,*. [Cambrygeshire, Cx.] in þe west Seynt Edmond his diche, and Hertfordschire, and in þe souþ Essex. Þis kyngdom durede vnder twelue kynges,*. [So Cx.; kyngdoms, MS.] forto that tyme whan kyng Edmond was i-slawe, and þe Danes wrongfulliche took boþe the kyngdoms of Est Angles and of Est Saxon. After|ward þe Danes were i-putte and i-dryue away, oþer i-made sogett. And þe elder kyng Edward ioynede boþe þese kyng|doms to his owne. Þe fifte kyngdom was of Westsaxon, and durede lengeste of alle þese kyngdoms, and hadde in þe est*. [So Cx.; west, MS. (first hand).] side Souþsaxon, in þe norþ Temse, in þe souþ and west þe see of occean. In þat kyngdom reigned Cerdik wiþ his sone Kenrik, and bygan to regne þe ȝere of oure Lord fife hondred and nyntene, and after þe comynge of Angles þre score ȝere and enleuene,*. [eleaene, α.] so seiþ Denys. Þe oþere kyngdoms passede into þis kyngdom. Þe sixte kyngdom was of Mercia, and was grettest of al. Þe merkes and þe meres þerof were in þe west side þe ryuer Dee faste by Chestre, and Seuarne faste by Schroisbury*. [Schrouesbury, α.] and anon to Brestowe; in Page  105, vol.2 þe est þe est see, in þe souþ Temse anon to Londoun; in þe norþ þe ryuer of*. [of] om. α. and Cx.] Humber. And so westward and dounward anon to þe ryuer Mersee anon to þe*. [þe] om. α.] corner*. [So Cx.; ryuer, MS.] of Wyreale;*. [Wirhal, Cx.] þere Humber falleþ in to þe west see. Penda, Wibbes sone, regned first in þis kyngdom þe ȝere of oure Lorde sexe hondred and sixe and twenty, so seiþ Denys, and from þe comynge of Angles an hondred ȝere þre score and fiftene. Þis kyngdom durede vnder eiȝtene kynges aboute a two hondred ȝere, þre score and fiftene,*. [about two clxiij., Cx.] anon to þe laste Colwulf; [to þe whiche Colwulf]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe Danes bytook þat kyngdom to kepe, whan Burdred þe kyng was i-putte out. But*. [So α. and Cx.; by, MS.] þe elder Edward þe kyng putte out Danes and ioynede þe kyngdom*. [MS. (not α. or Cx.) adds to kepe.] of Mercia to his owne kyngdom; noþeles at þe bygynnynge þis*. [þis] MS. (not α. or Cx.)] kyngdom of Mercia was i-deled aþre, in West Mercia, in Myddel Mercia, and Est Mercia. Þe seuenþe kyngdom was Norþhamhymbrorum, þat is, þe kyngdom of Norþhumberlond. Þe meres and þe*. [þe] om. α.] merkes þerof*. [So α. and Cx.; of þe, MS.] were by west and by est þe see of occean, by souþ þe ryuer of Humber, and so downward toward þe west by þe endes of þe schires of Notyngham and of Derby Page  107, vol.2 anon to þe ryuere of Merce,*. [Mersee, α., Cx.] and by norþe þe Scottische see, þat hatte Forþe in Scotisshe, Wered*. [Weryd, α.; Werid, Cx.] in Brittisshe, þe Scottische see in Engelische. Þis kyngdom of Norþhumber|lond was first i-deled in tweie prouinces; þat oon was þe souþ side, and hete Deira; and þat oþer was þe norþ side, and hete Brenicia, as it were tweyne kyngdoms. And þe ryuer Tyne departed þese tweyne kyngdoms þat tyme. For þe kyngdom of Deyra tillede*. [and tillede, MS. Sentence varied in Cx.] and streiȝte from þe ryuer of Humber anon to þe ryuere of Tyne. Þe kyngdom of Brenicia tillede from Tyne*. [So α. and Cx.; Tyme, MS.] to þe Scottisshe see. And whan Pictes wonede þerynne, as Beda seiþ, libro tertio, capitulo secundo, þat Ninian, þat holy man, conuertede men of þe souþ side. Ida þe kyng reigned [þere first and began to reigne]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þe [ȝ]ere*. [ȝere, α.] of oure Lord fyue hondred and seuen and fourty, so seiþ Dyones.*. [Dionys, α.] In Deyra reignede kyng*. [þe kyng, α., Cx.] Elle, þe ȝere of oure Lord fyue hondred and nyne and fourty. Þese tweie kyngdoms were oþer while, as hit is i-seide, y-deled bytwene tweye kynges, and somtym al hool vnder oo kyng, and durede as it were vnder twenty Englische kynges þre hondred ȝe[re]*. [ȝere, α.] and oon and twenty. At þe laste Osbrutus and Elle were i-slawe in þe nynþe ȝere of here Page  109, vol.2 kyngdom; þe Danes slowh hem; and Norþhumberlonde was voyde wiþoute kyng eiȝte ȝere. Þanne afterward þe Danes reigned in Norþhumberlond sixe and þritty ȝere anoon to þe oonynge*. [to onynge, α.] of þe kyngdome of Athelstone; he made sugett þe*. [So α. and Cx.; to þe, MS.] kynges Danys and Scottische and Walsche, and regned first al on in Engelond, and helde þe kyngdom of Engelond hool and al oon kyngdom. Þat was þe ȝere of oure Lorde eyȝte hondred and seuene and twenty. Þat ryuer of Mercie*. [Merse, α.] was somtyme þe marke and mere bytwene þe kyngdom of Mercia and þe kyngdom of Norþhumber|lond. Þat may be i-schewed in tweie maneres; first by þe propurte of þis word Mersee, þat is as moche to mene, as a se*. [ase, α.; a see, Cx.; asse, MS.] þat is a bound and a mere; for he departeþ oon kyng|dom from anoþer. Also it is i-write in cronikes of Henry and of Alfrede, þat kyng Edward þe Eldere fastened a castel at Mamcestre*. [Mauncestre, Cx.] in Norþhumberlond; but þat citee Mamcestre is from þe ryuer of Mersee scarsliche þre myle.

Page  111, vol.2

De episcopatibus et sedibus. Capitulum quinquagesimum secundum.

Alfridus. Lucius was þe first Cristene kyng of Britons.*. [the first kynge cristend of the Brytons, Cx.; who has a few other trivial alterations below.] In his tyme were þre archebisshoppes sees in Bretayne; oon was at Londoun; anoþer at York; and þe þridde at Caerrusk,*. [Caerusk, α.] þe Cite of Legiouns in Glomorgan.*. [Glamorgan, α., Cx.] Þat citee hatte now Caerleon. To þese þre archebisshoppes sees were suget eyȝte and twenti bisshoppis, and were i-cleped flamynes. To þe archebisshoppes see of Londoun was sugett Cornwaile and al myddel Engelond anon to Humber; to Ȝork al Norþhumberlond from þe bowe of Humber wiþ all Scotlond; to Caerleon all Wales. Þere were in Wales seuene bisshoppes, and now beeþ but foure. Þo Seuarne departe*. [departed, Cx.] Engelond and Wales. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo.*. [Added from α.] But in Saxones tyme, þey Seint Gregorie hadde i-graunted Londoun þe priuilege of þe archebisshoppes see, neuerþeles Seynt Austyn þat was i-sent in to Engelond by Seint Gregorie torned þe archebisshoppes see out of Londoun vnto*. [into, α.] Caunterbury, after Seint Gregories day Page  113, vol.2 at þe prayer of kyng Athelberd and þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] citezeins and burgeys*. [burgesyes, Cx.] of Caunterbury. Þere þe erchebisshoppes see haþ endured*. [i-dured, α.; dured, Cx.] forto*. [vnto, Cx.] now. Saue þat in þe mene tyme Offa, kyng of Mercia, was wrooþ wiþ men of Caunterbury, and byname hem þat worschippe, and worschipped Aldulf, bisshop of Lichefeld, wiþ þe archebisshoppes pal by assent of Adrian þe pope vppon caas by ȝiftes i-sent. Neuerþeles vnder Kenulph þe kyng it was restored to Caunterbury aȝen. Þe worschippe of þe see of Ȝork haþ i-dured þere alwey and dureth ȝit; þey Scotlond be wiþdrawe from his subiection*. [So Cx; suggestioun, MS.] by passynge of tyme. Giraldus in Itin., libro primo. Þe archebisshoppis see was i-torned out of Caer|leoun in to Meneuia, þat is in þe west side of Demecia, vppon þe Irische see, in Seint Dauyes*. [Dauids, Cx. (twice).] tyme vnder kyng Arthur.*. [MS. (not Cx.) adds by a cleri|cal error (see below), Meneuia now hatte, and no more.] From*. [So α. and Cx.; form, MS.] Seint Dauyes*. [Dauids, Cx. (twice).] tyme to Sampson þe archebisshoppes tyme were in Meneuia archebisshoppis þre and twenty. Afterward fel a pestilence in to al Wales of þe ȝelowe yuel*. [evel, α.] þat is i-cleped þe iaundys, and þan Sampson þe archebisshop took wiþ hym þe palle, and wente Page  115, vol.2 in to Bretayne Armorica,*. [Armonica, MS.; Armonyca, Cx.] þe oþer Bretayne, and was bisshop of Dolensis. From þat tyme to þe firste kynge Henries tyme kyng of Engelond were at Meneuia, þat hatte Seint Dauyes, oon and twenty bisshoppes alle wiþ oute palle, wheþer it were for vnkunnynge oþer for pouert. Neuerþeles*. [Notheles, α.; Netheles, Cx.] alwey forto þat tyme þe bisshoppes of Wales were i-sacred of þe bisshop of Meneuia of Seint Dauyes; and þe bisshop of Meneuia was i-sacred of þe bisshoppes of Wales*. [Wales were, MS. (not Cx.)] as of his owne suffragans,*. [suffrigans, Cx.; suffrages, MS.] and made non pro|fessioun noþer subiection*. [So Cx.; suggestioun, MS., and so below (not Cx.)] to non oþer chirche. Oþer bis|shoppes þat come afterward were i-sacred at Caunterbury by compellynge of þe kynges heste. In tokenynge*. [tokyn, α., Cx.] of þat sacrynge and subiection Bonefas, archebisshop of Caunter|bury, þat was legat of þe croys, song in euery cathedral cherche of Wales, solempneliche a masse. He was þe firste archebisshop of Caunterbury þat so dede in Wales, and þat was i-do in þe secounde kyng Henries tyme. ℞. But now beeþ but tweie primates in al Engelond, of Caunterbury, and of Ȝork. To þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] primat of Caunterbury beeþ sugette þrittene bisshoppes in Engelond, and foure in Wales. Þe primat of Ȝork haþ but tweie suffragans in Page  117, vol.2 Engelond, þat beeþ þe bisshoppis of Caerlile and of Duram. Of alle þe[se]*. [þese, α.; thyse, Cx.] sees and of chaungynge of here places now arewe schal somwhat*. [sumwhat schal, α.] be schewed: here take hede, þat in þe bygynnynge of holy chirche in Engelond bisshoppes ordeyned hire sees in lowe places and symple, þat were couenable for contemplacioun, for bedes,*. [prayers, Cx., who varies the sentence.] and deuocioun, but in William Conquerours tyme by dome of lawe canoun it was i-ordeyned þat bisshoppes schulde come out of smal townes in to grete citees. Þerfore it was þat þe see of Dor|chestre was i-chaunged to Lyncolne, Lichefeld to Chestre, Thedford to Norþwhiche, Schirborne to Salisbury, Welles to Bathe, Cornwayle to Excetre, and Selesey to Chychestre. De episcopis australibus. Þe bisshopp [of Rouchestre]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] haþ non persche*. [parysche, α. and Cx., who omits chirche.] chirche, but he is þe archebisshoppes chapeleyn of Canterbury. Seþþe þat*. [þat] om. Cx.] þe*. [þe] om. α.] see was first i-ordeyned by Seint Austyn, archebisshop of Canterbury, ȝit hiderto hit chaungeþ neuere his place.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Chichestre haþ vnder hym onliche Souþsex and the Ile of Wight, and Page  119, vol.2 hadde his see first in Seleseie in Theodor þe archebisshoppes tyme. And þe see*. [cee, α.] durede þere þre hondred ȝere and þre and þritty vnder tweynty bisshoppes from þe firste Wilfrede to þe laste Stigande; [but at þe laste Stygand]*. [Added from α. (not in Cx.); but þat has been changed to at.] at þe heste of kyng William Conquerour chaunged þe se from Seleseye to Chichestre.

De episcopis occidentalibus. Capitulum quinquagesimum tertium.

Willelmus. Haue mynde þat alle þe prouince of West|saxon hadde alwey oon bisshop from þe bygynnynge anoon to Theodores comynge.*. [time, Cx.] By graunt of Kingislus,*. [kyng Islo, MS., Cx.] kyng of West Saxon, þe firste Birinus ordeyned a cee at Dorchestre, þat is a symple toun by souþ Oxenforde by sides Walyng|forde, bytwene þe fallynge to gidres of Temse and of Tame. Whan Birinus was deed, Kenwalkus þe kyng ordeyned a see at Wynchestre, as his fader hadde i-þoȝt.*. [purposed, Cx.] Þere Gilbert,*. [Agilbert, Cx.] a Frensche man, was first bisshop of al þe prouince of West. saxon. From þat tyme þe*. [þat þe, MS.; not α. or Cx.] citee and þe see of Dorchestre Page  121, vol.2 perteyned and longede to þe prouince of Mercia; for þat citee stondeþ wiþ ynne Temse; and Temse departeþ bytwene Mercia and Westsaxoun. After þat Agelberd*. [Agilbert, Cx.] was i-putte out of Wynchestre, þat þo heet Wyntoun. Wyn*. [Wyne, α.] of En|glische nacioun was bisshop þere;*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] som*. [whan som, MS. (first hand.)] men weneþ þat þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] citee haþ þe name of þis Wyn, and hatte Wynechestre, as it were Wyne is citee. At þe laste he was putte*. [i-put, α.] out and after hym come Leutherius, þe forseide Agilbertus neuewe. After Leutherius Hedda a while was bisshop þere. Whan he was dede, Theodorus þe archebisshop ordeyned tweye bisshoppes to þe prouince of Westsaxon; Danyel at Wynchestre, to hym were sugettes*. [sugett, α.] tweie contrees Souþerey and Souþhampschire; Aldelyn*. [Adelin, Cx.] at Schireborne, to hym were sugettes sixe contrayes, Barrokschire,*. [Barkshire, Cx.] Wiltschire, Somersete, Dorchestreschire, Deuenschire, and Cornewayle. Trevisa.*. [Reference added from Cx.] Afterward me*. [it, α.] semeþ by þis lawe*. [sawe, α.; it seemeth by this that, &c., Cx.] þat Westsaxon con|teyned Souþeray, Souþhampschire, Barrokschire, Wiltschire, Somersede, Dorsete, Deuenschire, and Cornwayle.*. [Names slightly varied in Cx.]Wil|lelmus. Afterward in elder Edwardes tyme to þe[se]*. [þese, α., Cx.] tweye Page  123, vol.2 sees þre*. [oþer þre oþere, MS.; thre other, Cx.] oþere sees were i-ordeyned by heste*. [commaundment, Cx.] of Formosus þe pope. Þe*. [þre, Cx.] cees were i-ordeyned at Welles for Somersete, at Crittoun*. [Crettoun, α.; Kryton, Cx.] for Deuenschire, and at Seint German for Cornewayle. Noȝt ful longe afterward þe sixte see was i-sette at Ramysbury for Wiltschire. At þe laste by heste*. [So α.; beheste, MS.] of kyng William Conquerour alle þese sees saue Wynchestre were*. [was, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] i-torned and i-chaunged out of smal townes in to grete citees. For Schirborne and Ramysbury were i-torned to Salisbury. Now to þat see is sugett Barokschire, Wilt|schire, and Dorsett. Þe see of Welles was i-torned to Baþe. Þerto is now sugett al Somersete. Þe sees of Critton*. [Cryttoun, α.; Kyrton, Cx.] and of Cornewayle were i-chaunged to Excetre. Þerto is suget Deuenschire and Cornwayle.

De orientalibus episcopis. Capitulum quinquagesimum quartum.

Willelmus.*. [Reference added from Cx.] Hit is i-knowe þat þe Estsaxons alwey from þe bygynnynge for to now were sogettis*. [subget, Cx.] to þe bisshop of Londoun. But þe prouince of Est Angles, þat conteyneþ Page  125, vol.2 Norþfolk and Souþfolk, hadde oon bisshop at Denwiche.*. [Donwyk, α., Cx.] Þe bisshop heet Felix, and was of Burgoyne; and was bisshop seuentene ȝere. After hym Thomas was bisshop fyue ȝere. After hym Bonafas*. [Boneface, Cx.] seuentene*. [So α.; xvij., MS.] ȝere. Þanne Besy after|ward was i-ordeyned by Theodorus, and rulede þe prouince, while he myȝte endure by hym selue allone. After hym anon to Egebertus tyme, kyng of Westsaxons, an hondred and þre and fourty [ȝere],*. [Added from the Latin text; absent also in Cx.] tweie bisshoppes rulede þat pro|uince, oon at Donwyk and anoþer at Elyngham.*. [The last clause as in Cx.; MS. and α. have repetitions by clerical error from above.] Noþeles after Ludecans tyme, kyng of Mercia, lefte and was onliche*. [Probably we should read: was left onliche. Cx. agrees with text.] oon see at Elyngham anon to þe fifte ȝere of William Conquerour, whan Herfastus þe þridde and twenty bisshop of Esterne*. [þe Estrene, α., Cx.] chaungede þe*. [his, α.] see from [Elingham to]*. [Added from α. (not in Cx.)] Theteford, [and his successor Herebetus Losinga chaungede þe see from Thetford]*. [þe] added from α. and Cx.] into Norþwhiche, by leue of kyng William þe Rede. [Þe]*. [þe] added from α. and Cx.] see of Ely, þat is nygh þerto, þe firste kyng Henry ordeyned þe nynþe ȝere of his reignynge, and made suget þerto Cantebriggeschire, þat was raþer*. [to fore, Cx.] a party of þe bisshopriche of Lyncolne. And for quytynge þerof he ȝaf to þe bisshop of Lyncolne a real citee þat hatte*. [a good toun callyd. Cx.] Spaldynge.

Page  127, vol.2

De episcopis Merciorum. Capitulum quinquagesimum quintum.

Willelmus. Here take hede þat as þe kyngdom of Mercia was alwey grettest for þe tyme, so it was i-deled in mo bisshopriches, and*. [and of, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] specialliche by grete herte of kyng Offa, þat*. [whiche, Cx.] was fourty ȝere kyng of Mercia. He chaunged þe archebisshoppes see from Caunterbury to Lychfelde*. [Liȝchefeld, α.] by assent of Adrian þe pope. Þan þe prouince of Mercia and of Lindiffare*. [Lydefar, Cx.] in þe firste bygynnynge of here Cristendom in kyng Wulfrans tyme hadde oon bisshop atte Lichefelde. Þe firste bisshoppe þat was þere heet Dwyna; þe secounde heet Celath; and were boþe Scottes. After hem þe þridde Trumphere; þe ferþe heet Iarminannus;*. [So MS. corruptly; Germuannus, Cx.] þe fifte Chedde. But in Ethelfredes*. [Edelfredes, Cx.] tyme, þat was Wolfer his broþer, whanne Chedde was dede, Theodorus þe archebisshop ordeyned [Wynfrede, Cheddes dekene. Neuerþeles he put hym doun*. [apud Hymdoun, α.; apud Hyn|don, Cx.] after þat, for he was vnbuxum in som poynt, and*. [So α; he, Cx.] ordeynede þere Sexwulf abbot of Medhamstede, þat hatte Burgh. But after Sexwulf his ferþe ȝere Theodorus þe archebisshop ordeyned]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] fyue bisshoppes in þe prouince of Page  129, vol.2 Mercia. And so he ordeyned Bosel at Wircetre, Cudwyn at Lichefelde, þe forseide Sexwulf at Chestre, Ethelwyn*. [Edelwyn, Cx.] at Lyndeseie at þe citee Sidenia. And he took Eata, monk of þe abbay of Hilde at Whitby, and made hym bisshop of Dorchestre þat longed to Mercia*. [þat longed to Mercia] om. α. and Cx.] bysides Oxenforde. Þo þis Dorchestre heet Dorkynge, and so þe see of Dorchestre þat [longed to West Saxon in Seynt Byrynes time],*. [Added from Cx.] longed to Mercia from Þeodorus*. [Thedorus, α.] þe archebisshoppes tyme. Also when Ethelberd,*. [Ethelred, α., Cx.] kyng of Mercia, hadde destroyed Kent, þe*. [this, β., Cx.] bisshop Sexwulf took Pictas, bisshop of Rouchestre, þat come out of Kent, and made hym first bisshop of Herforde.*. [Rouchestre Herforde, MS. The former word is very slightly ex|puncted in α., which would lead us to suspect, as do many other things, that the standard MS. may have been copied from α., or that both are copies of the same MS. The text of β. and Cx. is correct.] At þe laste, whan Sexwulf was dede, Hedda was bisshop of Lichefelde after hym; and Wilfrede flemede oute of North|umberlonde was bisshop at*. [of, β., Cx.] Chestre. Noþeles after two ȝere Alfred kyng of Norþhumberlond deide, and Wilfrede tornede aȝen*. [aȝe, α.] to his owne see of Haugustalden. And so Hedda hylde*. [hulde, α.] boþe bisshopriches of Lichefelde and of Ches|tre. After him*. [hem, MS. (not α., β. or Cx.)] come Albyne, þat heet Wor also. And Page  131, vol.2 after hym come the*. [þre, α.] bisshoppis Torta at Chestre, Witta at Lichefelde, and Eata was ȝit at Dorchestre. After his deth bisshoppes of Lyndeseye helde his*. [the, Cx.] see þre hondred ȝere and foure and fifty, for to Remigius chaungede þe see to Lyncolne by leue of þe firste kyng William: but in kyng Edgar his tyme bisshop*. [bishop of, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] Leofwynus ioynede boþe bisshopriches [to gideres]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of Chestre and of*. [of] om. α.] Lyndeseie,*. [Lyndefare, α.] while his lif durede.

De episcopis Norþhumbranis, Capitulum quinquagesimum sextum.

Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto, capitulo secundo. At York was oon see for alle þe prouince of Norþhumberlond. Paulinus hulde first þat see, and was i-ordeyned of þe bisshop*. [So MSS. and Cx.] of Caunterbury, and hylde þat see of Ȝork seuene ȝere. Afterward whan kyng Edwyn was i-slawe, and þinges were destourbed, Paulynus wente þennes by water wey in to Kent, whennes he com first, and toke wiþ hym þe*. [So α. and Cx.; þat, MS.] palle. Wil|lelmus, libro tertio. And so þe bisshopriche of Ȝork*. [So α. and Cx.; York the bis|shopriche, MS.] cesede Page  133, vol.2 þritty ȝere, and þe vse of þe palle secede*. [cesede, α.] þere an hondred and fyue and fifty*. [cxxv. yere, Cx.] ȝere, for to þat Egbert the bisshop, þat was þe kynges broþer of þe lond, recouered it by auctorite of þe pope. ℞. So among,*. [So among] om. Cx.] whan Seint Oswolde regnede, Aidanus,*. [So Cx.; Adrianus, MS.; Aida|nus, α.] a Scot, was bisshop in Brenicia, þat is þe norþ|side of Norþhumberlond; after hym Fynanus;*. [Finianus, Cx.] after hym Salmannus. Willelmus, ubi supra. At þe laste he wente to Scotlonde wiþ grete indingnacioun, for Wilfrede vndertook hym for he hylde vnlawfulliche Esterday; þritty ȝere after þat Paulinus was agoo*. [goon, Cx.; ago, β. The text is a little corrupt, probably ȝork should be added after from, or from cancelled (as in γ.).] from Wilfrede was i-made bisshop of York. Beda, libro quarto. But [while]*. [Added from α.] he dwellede longe in Fraunce aboute his sacrynge, at exitynge of quartadecima|norum, þat were þey þat helde Esterday þe xiiije*. [So Cx.; fourþe, MS. and α.] day of þe mone, Chedde was i-take out of his abbay of Lestynge, and wrongfulliche i-put to*. [in to, Cx.] þe see of York by assent of kyng Oswy. But þre ȝere afterward Theodorus the archebisshop dede hym away, and assignede hym to þe prouince of Mercia, and restored Wilfrede to þe see of York. But afterwarde Wilfrede, bycause of wrethe þat was arered*. [arered] om., Cx.] bytwene hym and kyng Egfred, was i-putte oute of his see by help of Theo|dorus*. [So α. and Cx.; Odorus, MS.] þe archebisshop þat was corupt wiþ som manere mede; Page  135, vol.2 þat was i-doo after þat Wilfrede hadde i-be bisshop of York ten ȝere; þan at þe instaunce of þe kyng Theodorus made Bosam bisshop of York and Cuthbert*. [Cumbert, Cx.] at Hagustalde chirche, and Eata at Lyndefar chirche þat hatte Haly Eland*. [Holy Ylond, Cx.] in þe ryuer of Twede. Aydanus foundede first þat see, and Theo|dorus made Eadhedus*. [So α. and Cx.; Etheldredus, MS.] bisshop of Rypoun þat was i-come aȝen out of Lyndeseie; [whanne]*. [Added from γ.] Wilfrede hadde be abbot of Ripoun. Theodorus sende Trunwynus to þe lond of Pictes in þe endes of Engelond faste by Scotlond in a place þat hatte Candida Casa and Whyterne*. [So α., Cx.; Whitne, MS.] also. Þere Seint Ninian, a Bretoun, was first foundour and doctour; but alle þese sees outake York faillede litell and litel; for þe see of Candida Casa, and þat is Galeway, þat longede þoo to Engelond, durede meny ȝeres vnder ten bisshoppes for to þat he was oute of power [by destroyenge of þe Pictes. Þe sees of Ha|gustald and of Lyndefare was bytymes al oon under nyne bisshopis]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] aboute a foure score ȝere and ten, and durede anon to þe comynge of þe Danes. In þat tym vnder Hungar and Hubba, Ardulf þe bisshop ȝede longe aboute wiþ Seynt Cuthberd his body anon to kyng Alured his tyme, kyng of West Saxon, whan*. [and, Cx.] þe see of Lyndefare was i-sette at Kun|negester,*. [Kunegestre, α. and Cx.]Page  137, vol.2 þat hatte Kunnyngesburgh also; þat place hatte now Vbbeford vppon Twede. At þe laste þe seuenþe ȝere of kyng Egbert, kyng Edgarus sone, þat [see]*. [Added from Cx.] was i-chaunged to Durem, and Seint Cuthbertus body was i-doo þere*. [brought thyder, Cx.] by þe doynge of Edmond the bisshop; and from þat tyme forward þe see þat hatte Haugustald and Lyndefare fayled alle oute.*. [alle oute] vtterly, Cx.] Þe firste kyng Henry þe nynþe ȝere of his regnynge*. [regne, Cx.] made þe newe see at Carlille.*. [So α.; Caerleyl, Cx.; Cornwayle, MS.]

Capitulum quinquagesimum septimum.

THE archebisshop of Canterbury haþ vnder hym þrit|tene bischoppes in Engelond, and foure in Wales. Þat beeþ Rouchestre, he haþ vnder hym Kent allone;*. [aloon, α. Sentence varied in Cx.] Lon|doun, he haþ vnder hym Essex and Middelsex and half Hertfordschire; Chichestre, he haþ vnder hym Souþsex and þe Ile of Wiȝt; Wynchestre, he haþ under hym Hamp|schire and Sowþereie; Salysbury haþ vnder hym Barrok|schire,*. [Barkshire, Cx.; who has other slight variations of orthography and expression.] Wilteschire, and Dorsete; Excetre haþ vnder hym Page  139, vol.2 Deuenschire and Cornwayle; Baþe haþ vndre hym Somersete|[schire]*. [Added from Cx. (not in α.)] allone; Wircestre hathe vnder hym Glowcetre|[schire],*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Wircestreschire, and half Warwykschire; Herforde haþ vnder hym Herfordschire and som of Schropschire. Chestre is bisshop of Couentre [and]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of Lichfield, and haþ vnder hym Chestreschire, Staffordschire, Derbyschire, half Warwikschire, som of Schropschire, and som of Lancastre|schire from þe ryuer of Merce*. [Mersee, Cx.] anon to þe ryuer of Rypel.*. [Rypyl, α.] Lyncolne haþ vnder hym þe prouince þat beeþ bytwene Temse and Humber, þat beeþ þe schires of Lyncolne,*. [of Engelonde, Lyncolne, MS.] of Leycetre, of Northamptoun, of Huntyngdoun, of Bedeford, of Bukyng|ham,*. [Buggyngham, α.; Bokyngham, Cx.] of Oxenforde, and half Hertfordschire. Hely haþ vnder hym Cantebriggeschire outake Merslond.*. [Merlond, α. and Cx.; and so below.] Norþ|whiche haþ vnder hym Merslond, Norþfolk, and Souþfolk.*. [Norfolk and Suffolk, Cx.] Also þe archebisshop of Caunterbury haþ foure suffragans in Wales, þat beeþ Landaf, Seint Dauyes, Bangor, and Seint Assaph. Þe archebisshop of Ȝork haþ now but tweie bis|shoppes vnder hym, þat beeþ Durem and Carlille. ℞.*. [Reference added from Cx.; who omits the latter part of the sentence.] And Page  141, vol.2 so beeþ but tweie primates in Engelond, Canturbury, þat is i-cleped primate of al Engelond, and Ȝork primate of Enge|lond. What oon of hem schal doo to þat oþer, and in what poynt he schal be obedient and vnder hym, it is fully con|teyned wiþ ynne aboute þe ȝere of our Lord a þowsand þre skore and twelue. Þere to fore þe firste kyng William and þe bisshoppes of Engelond, by maundement of þe pope þe cause was i-handled and i-treted bytwene þe forsaide primates and ordeyned, and i-demed þat þe primat of Ȝork schal be [sugett to þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] primat of Canterbury in þinges þat longeþ to þe worschippe of God and to þe bileue of holy chirche, so þat in what place euere it*. [euer hit, α. and Cx.; it euere, MS.] be in Engelond þat þe primate of Caunterbury*. [Engelond, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] wil hote and constreyne and gadre*. [constrayne to gadre, Cx.] a coun|sail of clergie, þe primat of York is i-holde wiþ his suffragans forto be þere, and forto be obedient to þe ordenaunce þat þere is lawefulliche i-ordeyned. Whan þe primat of Caunterbury is deed, þe primat of Ȝork schal come to Cauntyr|bury, and wiþ oþere bisshoppes he schal sacre hym þat is i-chose, and so wiþ oþere bisshoppes he schal sacre his owne primat. Ȝif þe primat of Ȝork is deed his successour schal come to þe primat*. [bisshop, Cx.] of Caunterbury, and he schal take his ordynaunce of hym, and do his ooþ wiþ professioun of lawe|ful Page  143, vol.2 obediens. Wiþ ynne, aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord elleune hundred foure score and fiftene, vnder þe tyme of kyng Richard, beeþ resouns i-sette þat makeþ for þe party and for þe riȝt of eyþer primate.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Also what oone primat dede to þat oþer in tyme of Thurstinus, of Thomas, and of oþere bisshoppes of Ȝork from þe Conquest anon to þe laste kyng Henry his*. [Henries, α.] tyme. Also þere it is i-tauȝt how eiþer of hem asterte*. [starte, Cx.] from oþer. Þis place is but a forspekynge, and nouȝt a ful tretis þerof. Þerfore hit were noyefulle*. [noyeful, α., Cx.] to charge þis place wiþ alle þilke resouns þat þere beeþ i-made.

A quot, quando, et quibus inhabitata sit gentibus. Capitulum quinquagesimum octavum.

BRETOUNS wonede first in þis ilond þe ȝere of Hely þe preost eiȝtetene; of Siluius Posthumnus, kyng of Latyns, eleuene; after þe takynge of Troye, þre and fourty ȝere; to fore þe byldynge of Rome, foure hundred and two and þritty.*. [Sentence varied in Cx]Beda, libro primo. Þei come hider and took hir cours from Armorik, þat now is þe oþer Bretayne; þey helde long tyme Page  145, vol.2 þe souþ contrayes of þe ilond. Hit byfelle afterwarde in Vespasi[a]nus tyme, duke of Rome, þatt þe Pictes out of Scythia*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] schipped into occean, and were i-dryue aboute wiþ þe wynde, and entrede in to þe norþ costes of Irlond, and founde þere Scottes, and prayed for to haue a place to wonye inne, and myȝte none gete. For Irlond, as Scottes seide, myȝt nouȝt susteyne boþe peple. Scottes sente þe Pictes to the norþ side of Bretayne, and behiȝte*. [So Cx.; and hiȝt, α.; and he hiȝte, MS.] hem*. [So Cx.; hymself, MS.] help aȝenst þe Bretouns þat were enemyes, yf þey wolde arise, and took hem to wyfes of here douȝtres vppon suche a condicioun; ȝif doute fel who schulde haue ryȝt for to be kyng, he*. [they, Cx.] schulde raþer chese hem a kyng of þe moder side þan of þe fader side, of þe wommen kyn raþer [þan]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of þe men kyn. Gaufridus. In Vaspacian þe emperour his tyme, whan Marius Aruiragus his sone was kyng of Bretouns, on*. [one, Cx.] Rodrik kyng of Pictes come out of Scythia*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] and gan to destroye Scotlonde. Þan Marius þe kyng slowe þis Rodorik kyng of Pictes, and ȝaf þe norþ party of*. [So Cx; to, MS.] Scotlond, þat hatte Cathenesia, to þe men þat were i-come wiþ Roderik and were ouercome wiþ*. [by, Cx.] hem, for to wone ynne. But þese men hadde non wifes, ne none myȝte haue of þe naciouns of Bretouns; þerfore þey Page  147, vol.2 seillede into Irlond, and toke hem to wyfes Irischemen douȝters, at*. [by, Cx.] þat couenaunt, þat the moder blood schulde be putt to fore in successioun of heritage. Giraldus, capitulo septimodecimo. Noþeles Seruius*. [Sirinus, MS. and Cx.] super Virgilium seiþ þat Pictes beeþ Agatirsis,*. [Agartirses, α.] þat hadde som wonynge places aboute þe wateres of Scythia, and þei beeþ i-cleped Pictes by cause of peyntynge [and snittynge]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of woundes þat beeþ i-sene on hire bodies, for þey hadde moche fleem,*. [flewme, Cx.] and were ofte bois|tousliche i-lete blood,*. [ofte boxed and lete blood, Cx.] and hadde many woundes i-sene on hire bodies,*. [body, α., Cx.] so þat þey semede as it were men i-peynt wiþ woundes; þerfore þey were i-cleped Pictus, as it were peynted men. Þese men and the Gotes ben al oon peple: for whan Maximus þe tyraunt was i-went*. [wente, Cx.] out of Britayne in to Fraunce for to occupie þe empere; þanne Gratianus and Valentinianus, þat were breþren and felawes of þe empere, broȝte þese Gothes out of Scythia wiþ greet ȝiftes, wiþ flater|ynge and false*. [fayre, Cx.] byhestes, in to þe north contray of Britayne; for þey were stalworþe and strong men of armes. And so þese briboures were i-made men of þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] lond and of þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] con|tray, and wonede in þe northe contraies, and hilde þere citees and townes. Gaufridus.*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Carausius*. [So α.; Caraucius, MS. (which has Careucius below), and Harl. MS.] þe tyraunt slow*. [slouȝ, α.]Page  149, vol.2 Bassianus by help and tresoun of þe Pictes þat come in help and socour of Bassianus, and ȝaf þe Pictes a wonynge place in Albania, þat is Scotland. Þere þey wonede long tyme afterwarde i-medled*. [i-melled, α.] wiþ Britouns. ℞. Þanne siþþe þe Pikkes*. [seþþe þat Pictes, α., Cx.] occupied raþer*. [firste, Cx.] þe norþside of Scotlond,*. [þere þey wonede added in MS. (not in α. or Cx.)] it semeþ þat þe wonyng place þat þis Carausius ȝaf hem is þe souþ|side of Scotlonde þat streccheþ [from þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þwart ouer wal of Romayn werk to þe Scottische see, and conteyneþ Gale|wey and Lodouia [þat is]*. [Added from Cx.] Lodway. Þerof Beda, libro tertio, capitulo secundo, spekeþ in þis manere: Nynyan þe holy man converted þe souþ Pictes. Afterward þe Saxons come and made þat contray longe to Brenicia, þe norþ partie of Norþhumberlond, for to*. [vnto the tyme that, Cx.] Kynadyus, Alpynus his sone, kyng of Scotlond, put out [þe Pictes]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and made þat contrey þat is bytwene Twede and þe Scottisshe see longe to his kyng|dom. Beda, libro primo, capitulo primo. Afterward longe tyme the Scottes were i-lad by duke Reuda, and com out of Irlond, þat is þe propre contray of Scottes, and wiþ loue oþer wiþ strengþe made hem a place faste by þe Pictes in þe norþ Page  151, vol.2 side of þat arme of þe see þat brekeþ in to the ilond in þe west side, þat departed in olde tyme bytwene Britouns and Pictes. Of þis duke Reuda þe Scottes hadde þe name, and were*. [weþe, MS.] i-cleped Dalreudynes, as it were Reda*. [Reuda, α.] his part, for in here speche a part is i-cleped dal. Giraldus, distinctione prima. Þe Pictes myȝte haue noon*. [no, α.] wyfes of Bretouns, but þey toke hem wifes of Irisch Scottes, and byhete hem faire forto wonye wiþ hem, and graunted hem a lond by þe see side; þere þe see is narwe;*. [narowe, α., Cx.] þat lond now hatte Galewey. Maria|nus. Irisch Scottes londede at Argoyl,*. [Argayl, α., Cx.] þat is Scottene Clyf, for Scottes londede þere forto harmye*. [doo harme to, Cx.] þe Britouns, oþer for þat place is next to Irlond forto come in*. [alonde in Britayne, α.] to Britayne. Beda. And so the Scottes after Bretouns and Pictes made þe þridde manere of*. [of] om., α.] peple wonynge in Bretayne. ℞. Þanne after þat come*. [comeþe, α.; come the, Cx.] Saxouns at þe prayenge of þe Bri|touns, to helpe*. [helpe hem, Cx.] aȝenst þe Scottes and þe Pictes; and þe Britouns were i-putte out anoon to Wales, and Saxons occupied þe lond litel and litel and efte more and more, and*. [and] om., α. and Cx. (the latter has other omissions.)] straiȝt*. [streiȝt, α.] anon to þe Scottische see; and so Saxons made þe Page  153, vol.2 fourþe manere men*. [of men, α., Cx.] in þe ilonde of Bretayne. Beda, libro quinto, capitulo quinto.*. [nono, Cx.] For Saxons and Anglis come out of Germania, ȝet som Bretouns þat woneþ nygh clepeþ hem schortly*. [So α. and Cx.; clepeþ schortly þe, MS.] Germans. ℞. Notheles aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord eyȝte hondred, Egbertus, kyng of West Saxon, commandede and het clepe*. [badde men to calle, Cx.] alle manere men of þe londe*. [So α.; londe of, MS.] Englische men. Alfridus. Þanne after þat þe Danes pursued þe lond, aboute a two hondred ȝere, þat is to menynge from þe forseide Egbertes tyme anon to Seint Edwardes tyme, and made þe fifte manere peple in þe ilond, bot þey faillede afterward. At þe laste come Normans vnder duke William his tyme,*. [his tyme] om. α. and Cx., pro|bably rightly.] and suduwede Englische men, and ȝit holdeþ*. [kepe they, Cx.] þe londe; and þey made þe sixte peple in þe ilonde. But in þe firste kyng Henries*. [Henry his tyme, α.] tymes come many Flemmynges and fenge a wonyng place for a tyme bysides Mailros in þe west side of Engelond, and made þe seuenþe peple in þe ilond. Noþeles by heste of þe same kyng, þey were i-houe þennes and i-putte*. [put thens and dryuen, Cx.] to Hauerforde his side, [in þe west side]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of Wales. [℞.]*. [Reference added from Cx.] And so now in Brytayne, Danes and Pictes failleþ al out, and fyue naciouns woneþ þerynne; þat beeþ Scottes in Albania, þat is Scotlond, Britouns in Cambria, þat is Wales, but þat Flemmynges woneþ ynne is in*. [is in] that is, Cx.] West Wales, and Page  155, vol.2 Normans and Englischemen [ben] i-medled*. [i-melled, α.; ben men medled, Cx.] in alle þe ilond. For it is no doute in stories how and in what manere þe Danes were i-putte away and destroyed out of Bretayne; now it is [to]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] declarynge how þe Pictes were destroyed and failled. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo 17. Bretayne was som|tyme occupied wiþ Saxons, and pees was i-made and i-stabled*. [stablysshyd, Cx.] wiþ the Pictes; þanne Scottes*. [the (sic) Scottes, α., Cx.] þat come wiþ the Pictes syhe*. [siȝe, α.; sawe, Cx., who varies the sentence.] þat þe Pictes were lasse þan þe Scottes, and*. [and] om., α.] were nobler of dedes and better men of armes þanne were þe Scottes; þanne þe Scottes*. [Cx. adds, hauyng therof enuye.] turnede to hir kynde*. [naturel, Cx.] tresouns þat þey vseþ ofte, for in tresoun þey passeþ*. [tresoun . . . apasseþ, α.] oþer men, and beeþ tretours as hit were by kynde. For þey preyed to a feste al þe grete of þe Pictes, and wayted her tyme when þe Pictes were at ese and mery, and hadde wel i-dronke, and drewe vp nayles þat helde vp þe holow benches vnder þe Pictes, and þe Pictes sodenliche an vnware fel ouer þe hammes into a wonder putfalle.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Þanne þe Scottes fille on þe Pictes and slowh hem, and lefte noon onlyue;*. [only, α.; alyue, Cx.] and so of þe tweye Page  157, vol.2 peple þe better werryour was*. [werriours were, Cx.] hollyche destroyed. Bote þe oþere, þat beeþ þe Scottes, þat beeþ traytours, wel*. [So Cx.; were wel, MS.] vnliche to þe Pictes, took profiȝt by þat false tresoun; for þei took al þat lond, and holdeþ it ȝit hider to, and clepeþ hit Scotlond after here*. [So α. β.; theyr, Cx.; his, MS. There is much confusion of num|bers generally, and of the pronouns especially, in the MSS. of Trevisa's text.] owne name. Þat tyme, þat was in kyng Edgar his tyme, Kynadyus Alpynus his sone was ledere of Scottes, and werred in Picten londe,*. [Pictelond, α., Cx.] and destroyed þe Pictes; he werred sixe siþes in Saxon, and took al þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] lond þat is bitwene Twede and þe Scottische see, wiþ wrong and wiþ strengþe.

De incolarum linguis. Capitulum quinquagesimum nonum.

As it is i-knowe how meny manere peple beeþ in þis ilond, þere beeþ also so many dyuers*. [dyuers] om. α. and Cx.] longages and tonges; noþeles Walsche men and Scottes, þat beeþ nouȝt i-medled*. [melled beþ, α.] wiþ oþer naciouns, holdeþ wel nyh*. [kepe neygh yet, Cx.] hir firste longage and speche; but ȝif the*. [yet tho, Cx.] Scottes þat were somtyme confederat and wonede wiþ Page  159, vol.2 þe Pictes drawe somwhat after hir speche; but þe Flemmynges þat woneþ in þe weste side of Wales haueþ i-left her straunge speche and spekeþ Saxonliche i-now.*. [speken lyke to Saxons, Cx.] Also Englische men, þey [þei]*. [þei] added from α. and Cx.] hadde from the bygynnynge þre manere speche, nor|þerne,*. [souþorn, norþorn, α.] sowþerne, and middel speche in þe myddel of þe lond, as þey come of þre manere peple of Germania, noþeles by comyxtioun and mellynge firste wiþ Danes and afterward wiþ Normans, in meny*. [many thynges, Cx.] þe contray longage is apayred, and som vseþ straunge*. [So α. and Cx.; strong, MS.] wlafferynge,*. [wlaffyng, Cx.] chiterynge, harrynge, and garrynge grisbayting.*. [grysbitynge, α., Cx.] This apayrynge of þe burþe of þe*. [of þe] om. α.; appayrynge of the langage, Cx.] tunge is bycause of tweie þinges; oon is for children in scole aȝenst þe vsage and manere of alle oþere naciouns beeþ compelled for to leue hire owne langage, and for to construe hir lessouns and here þynges in Frensche, and so þey haueþ seþ*. [seþþe þe, α.] þe Normans come first in to Engelond.*. [Sentence much varied in Cx] Also gentil men children beeþ i-tauȝt to*. [forto, α.] speke Frensche from þe tyme þat þey beeþ i-rokked in here cradel, and kunneþ speke and playe wiþ a childes broche; and vplondisshe men wil likne hym self to gentil men, and fondeþ wiþ greet besynesse for to speke Frensce, for to be i-tolde of.*. [Sentence abbreviated and much varied in Cx.]Treuisa. Þis manere was moche i-vsed to for firste Page  161, vol.2 deth*. [to fore þe firste moreyn, α.] and is siþþe sumdel i-chaunged; for Iohn*. [Sir Iohan, Cx.; who greatly varies the remainder of the extract from Trevisa.] Cornwaile, a maister of grammer,*. [gramyre, α.] chaunged þe lore in gramer scole and construccioun of Frensche in to Englische; and Richard Pen|criche lerned þe*. [þat, α.] manere techynge of hym and of*. [of] om. α.] oþere men of Pencrich; so þat now, þe ȝere of oure Lorde a þowsand þre hundred and foure score and fyue, and of þe secounde kyng Richard after þe conquest nyne, in alle*. [in al, α.; and alle, MS.] þe gramere scoles of Engelond, children leueþ Frensche and construeþ and lerneþ an Englische, and haueþ þerby auauntage in oon side and disauauntage in anoþer side; here auauntage is, þat þey lerneþ her gramer in lasse tyme þan children were i-wo|ned to doo; disauauntage is þat now children of gramer scole conneþ*. [So α.; comeþ, MS.] na more Frensche þan can hir lift heele, and þat is harme for hem and þey schulle passe þe see and trauaille in straunge landes and in many oþer places. Also gentil men haueþ now moche i-left for to teche here children Frensche. ℞. Hit semeþ a greet wonder how Englische, [þat is þe burþe tonge of Englisshe]*. [Added from α.] men and her owne langage and tonge, is so dyuerse of sown*. [soun, α.] in þis oon ilond, and þe langage of Normandie is comlynge of anoþer londe, and hath oon manere soun among alle men þat spekeþ hit ariȝt in Engelond.*. [Cx. amplifies the sentence thus: "And the langage of Normandye is comen oute of another lond, and hath one maner soune among al men that speketh it in Englond; for a man of Kente, southern, western, and northern men speken Frensshe al lyke in sowne and speche; but they can not speke theyr Englyssh so."]Treuisa. Neuerþeles þere is as many dyuers manere Frensche in þe reem of Fraunce as is dyuers manere Englische in þe reem of Engelond. ℞. Also of þe forsaide Saxon tonge þat is i-deled aþre, and is abide scarsliche wiþ fewe vplondisshe Page  163, vol.2 men is greet wonder; for men of þe est wiþ men of þe west,*. [west is, MS. (not α.).] as it were vndir þe same partie of heuene, acordeþ more in sownynge of speche þan men of þe norþ wiþ men of þe souþ; þerfore it is þat Mercii, þat beeþ men of myddel Enge|lond, as it were parteners of þe endes, vnderstondeþ bettre þe side langages, norþerne and souþerne, þan norþerne and souþ|erne vnderstondeþ eiþer oþer.*. [Sentence slightly varied in Cx.]Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. Al þe longage of þe Norþhumbres, and specialliche at ȝork, is so scharp, slitting, and frotynge and vnschape, þat we souþerne men may þat longage vnneþe vnderstonde. I trowe þat þat is bycause þat þey beeþ nyh to straunge men and naciouns*. [aliens, α. β.] þat spekeþ strongliche,*. [straungleliche, β. and Cx.; which seems right, but the extract from William is so altered, that Caxton's critical authority is here very slight.] and also bycause þat þe kynges of Engelond woneþ alwey fer from þat cuntrey; for þey beeþ more i-torned to þe souþ contray, and ȝif þey*. [he, α. β.] gooþ to þe norþ contray þey gooþ wiþ greet [help]*. [Added from α.] and strengþe. Þe cause why þey beeþ more in þe souþ contrey þan in þe norþ, [is] for hit*. [for hit] om. α. β.; is by cause that ther is, Cx.] may be better corne londe, more peple, more noble citees, and more profitable hauenes.

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De gentibus hujus moribus. Capitulum sexagesimum.

Giraldus in Itinerario. For þe maneres and þe doynge of Walsche men and of Scottes beeþ to fore honde somdel declared, now of þe maneres and of þe doynges of þe medled*. [melled, α.] peple of Engelond nedeþ forto telle. But þe Flemynges þat beeþ in þe westside of Wales beeþ now by torned as þough þey were En|glische by cause of companye wiþ Englische men, and þey beeþ stalworþe*. [myghty, Cx., who has also many slight variations.] and stronge to fiȝte, and beeþ þe moste enemyes þat Walsche men haþ,*. [haueþ, α.] and vseþ marchaundyse and cloþynge, and beeþ ful redy to putte hem self to auentures and to peril in þe see and in þe*. [þe] om. α.] lond, by cause*. [and by cause, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] of greet wynnynge, and beeþ redy for to goo somtyme to þe plowȝ and somtyme to dedes of armes whan tyme and place axeþ. Hit semeþ of þis*. [these, Cx.] men a grete wonder*. [þis crafte ys nat usyd þer now as y trow. Note in MS.] þat in a boon of a wethres riȝt schuldre, whan þe flesche is aweye i-sode*. [i-sode] So α.; is sode, MS.] and nouȝt i-rosted, þey knoweþ what haþ be do, is i-doo, and schal be doo, and as hit were by a spirit of prophecie and a wonderful craft þey telleþ what me doþ in fer contrayes, tokens of pees and of werre, þe staat of þe reeme,*. [reame, α.; royamme, Cx.] sleynge of men, and spouse|breche; soche þey declareþ certeynliche by schewynge of tokenes and of synnes*. [synes, α.] þat beeþ in suche a schulder boon. ℞. But þe Englische men þat woneþ in Engelond, þat beeþ i|medled*. [i-medled or medled is generally melled in α.]Page  167, vol.2 in þe ilond, þat [beþ]*. [Added from α.] fer i-spronge from þe welles*. [places, Cx., who has a few other slight variations.] þat þey spronge of first, wel liȝtliche wiþ oute entisynge of eny oþer men, by here owne assent tornen*. [torne, α.] to contrary dedes. And so*. [So α. and Cx.; Also, MS.] vnesy, also ful vnpacient of pees, enemy of besynesse, and wlatful of*. [on, α.; ful of, Cx.] sleuþe, (Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio,) þat whan þey haueþ destroyed here enemyes al to þe grounde, þanne þey fiȝteþ wiþ hem self, and sleeþ eueriche oþer, as a voyde stomak and a clene worcheþ in hit self. [℞.]*. [Reference added from Cx.] Noþeles men of þe souþ beeþ esier and more mylde; and men of þe north be*. [beþ, α.] more vnstable, more cruel, and more vnesy; þe myddel men beeþ somdele partyners wiþ boþe: also þey woneþ*. [vse, Cx.; who has also various slight deviations throughout the extract.] hem to glotonye more þan oþer men, and beeþ more costlewe in mete and in drynke*. [and in drynk] om. α. and Cx.] and in cloþynge. Me troweþ*. [Me supposeth, Cx.] þat þey took þat vyce*. [vse, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] of kyng Hardeknute þat was a Dane, for he sette twyes double messe and also at soper.*. [souper, α.; at dyner and at soper also, Cx. (but the improvement seems to be his own. See the text.)] Þese men been speedful boþe on hors and on foote, able and redy to alle manere dedes of armes, and beeþ i-woned*. [wonte, Cx.] to haue the victorie and þe maistrie in euerich Page  169, vol.2 fiȝt wher no treson is walkynge; and [beþ]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] curious, and kunneþ wel i-now telle dedes and wondres þat þei haueth i-seie. Also þey gooþ in dyuers londes, vnneþe beeþ eny men richere in her owne londe oþere more gracious in fer and in straunge*. [So Cx.; strounge, MS.] londe. Þey*. [þy, α.] konneþ betre wynne and gete newe þan kepe her owne heritage; þerfore it is þat þey*. [þeyȝ, α.] beeþ i-spred so wyde and weneþ þat euerich oþer*. [oþer] om. α. and Cx.] londe is hir owne heritage.*. [heritage] om. α. and Cx.] Þe men beeþ able to al manere sleiþe and witte, but to fore þe dede blondrynge and hasty, and more wys after þe dede, and leueþ ofte*. [of, α., Cx.] liȝtliche what þey haueþ bygonne. Polycraticon, libro sexto. Þerfore Eugenius þe pope seide þat Englisshe men were able to do what euere þey wolde, and to be sette and putte to fore alle oþere, nere*. [ne were that light wytte, Cx., just after.] þat liȝt wiþ letteþ. And as Hannibal*. [Hanyba, MS.] saide þat þe Romayns myȝte nouȝt be ouer|come but in hir owne cuntray: so Englische men mowe not be ouercome in straunge londes, but in hir own cuntray þey beeþ liȝtliche ouercome. ℞. Þese men despiseþ hir owne, and preiseþ oþer menis, and vnneþe beeþ apaide wiþ hir owne estate; what byfalleþ and semeþ oþer men, þey wolleþ glad|lyche Page  171, vol.2 take to hem self; þerfore hit is þat a ȝeman*. [ȝymman, α.] arraieþ hym as a squyer, a squyer as a knyȝt, a kniȝt as a duke [and]*. [Added from α.] a duke as a kyng. Ȝit som gooþ a boute to alle manere staate and beeþ in noon astaat,*. [no stat, α.] for þey þat wole take eueriche degree beeþ of non degre, for in berynge*. [beryng outward, Cx.] þey beeþ menstralles and heraudes,*. [herowdes, Cx.] in talkynge grete spekeres, in etynge and in drynkynge glotouns, in gaderynge of catel hoksters*. [hucksters, Cx.] and tauerners, in aray tormentoures, in wynnynges Argi, in trauaile Tantaly, in takynge hede Dedaly, and in beddes Sardanapally, in chirches mamettes, in courtes þonder, onliche in privelege of clergie and in prouendres*. [prebendis, Cx.] þey knowlecheþ hem silf clerkes. Trevisa. In wynnynge þey beeþ Argy, in trauaile Tantaly, in takynge hede Dedaly, and in beddes Sardanapally. For to vnderstonde þis reson ariȝt foure wordes [þerof]*. [Added from α.] moste be declared, þat beeþ þese foure, Argi, Tantaly, Dedaly, and Sardanapally; þerfore take hede that Argus in an herde, Argus a schippe, a schipman, and a chap|man. But here it is more to purpos þat poetes feyneþ oon þat was somtyme al ful of eyȝen in eueriche side*. [So α; a side, MS.] and heet Argus, so þat this Argus myȝte see*. [So Cx.; i-see, MS.] to fore and byhynde, vpwarde and dounward, and al aboute in eueriche side, and by a manere likenesse of þis Argus, he þat is war and wys, and kan see and be war in eueriche side is i-cleped Argus, and ful of yȝen as Argus was. Þan forto speke to meny such he moste be i-cleped Argi in þe plural nombre. Þan in þat cronyke he seiþ þat þey beeþ Argy in wynnynge, hit is to mene þat þey beeþ ware and seeþ aboute in euery side where wynnynge may arise. Þat oþer word is Tantaly; þerfore take hede þat þe poete feyneþ þat Tantalus was a man and slowh*. [slow, α.] his owne sonne, þerfore he was i-dampned to perpetual penaunce, as þe poete feyneþ þat Tantalus stondeþ*. [stondes, α.] alway in a water vp anon to þe*. [þe] om. α.] ouer Page  173, vol.2 brerde*. [brered, α.] of þe neþer lippe, and haþ all way euene at his mouþ*. [mouþ] om. α.] ripe apples and noble fruyt, ne water comeþ wiþ ynne his mouþ, he is so i-holde vp; and so he stondeþ in þat array bytwene mete and drynke, and may noþer ete ne drynke, and is an hongred and aþirst þat woo is hym on lyue. By a manere likeness of þis Tantalus þey þat dooþ riȝt nouȝt, þere*. [So MS. α. and β.; but where seems to be required. See p. 187.] moche þing is to doo in euery side, beeþ i-cleped Tantaly. Hit semeþ þat þis sawe is to mene, in trauaille þey beeþ Tantaly, for þey dooþ riȝt nouȝt þerto. Þe þridde word is Dedaly; take hede þat Dedalus was a wel sligh*. [subtyl and a slye, Cx.; who has very much re-cast the whole extract from Trevisa.] man, and by likness of hym men þat beeþ sliȝe beeþ i-cleped Dedaly in þe plurel noumbre, so it is to mene as hit semeþ in þis sawe, in takynge hede and in cry*. [kuyre, α.] þey beeþ Dedaly, þat is fel and sly. The ferþe word is [Sardanapalli; þerfore take hede þat],*. [Added from α.] Sardanapallus was a kyng, rex Assyriorum, and was ful vnchast, and by a manere liknesse of hym þey þat beeþ swiþe vnchast beeþ i-cleped Sardanapally. ℞. But among alle Englische i-medled to giders is so grete chaungynge and diuersite [of cloþinge and]*. [Added from α.] of array [and so many manere and dyuerse shappes, that wel nyghe is there ony man knowen by his clothynge and his arraye]*. [Added from Cx., who may have somewhat amplified his text.] of what degre he is. Þerof prophecied an holy anker to kyng Egilred his tyme in þis manere. Henricus, libro sexto. Englisshe men for þey woneþ hem to dronkelewnesse, to tresoun, and to rechelesnesse of Goddes hous, first by Danes and þanne by Normans, and at þe þridde tyme by Scottes, þat þey holdeþ most wrecches and leste worþ of alle, þey schulleþ be Page  175, vol.2 ouercome; þan þe worlde schal be so vnstable and so dyuers and variable þat þe vnstabilnesse of þouȝtes schal [be]*. [Added from α.] by|tokened by many manere dyuersite of cloþinge. Explicit Liber Primus.

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