Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

A quot, quando, et quibus inhabitata sit gentibus. Capitulum quinquagesimum octavum.

BRETOUNS wonede first in þis ilond þe ȝere of Hely þe preost eiȝtetene; of Siluius Posthumnus, kyng of Latyns, eleuene; after þe takynge of Troye, þre and fourty ȝere; to fore þe byldynge of Rome, foure hundred and two and þritty.*. [Sentence varied in Cx]Beda, libro primo. Þei come hider and took hir cours from Armorik, þat now is þe oþer Bretayne; þey helde long tyme Page  145, vol.2 þe souþ contrayes of þe ilond. Hit byfelle afterwarde in Vespasi[a]nus tyme, duke of Rome, þatt þe Pictes out of Scythia*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] schipped into occean, and were i-dryue aboute wiþ þe wynde, and entrede in to þe norþ costes of Irlond, and founde þere Scottes, and prayed for to haue a place to wonye inne, and myȝte none gete. For Irlond, as Scottes seide, myȝt nouȝt susteyne boþe peple. Scottes sente þe Pictes to the norþ side of Bretayne, and behiȝte*. [So Cx.; and hiȝt, α.; and he hiȝte, MS.] hem*. [So Cx.; hymself, MS.] help aȝenst þe Bretouns þat were enemyes, yf þey wolde arise, and took hem to wyfes of here douȝtres vppon suche a condicioun; ȝif doute fel who schulde haue ryȝt for to be kyng, he*. [they, Cx.] schulde raþer chese hem a kyng of þe moder side þan of þe fader side, of þe wommen kyn raþer [þan]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of þe men kyn. Gaufridus. In Vaspacian þe emperour his tyme, whan Marius Aruiragus his sone was kyng of Bretouns, on*. [one, Cx.] Rodrik kyng of Pictes come out of Scythia*. [Scicia or Scitia, MSS., as usual; and so below.] and gan to destroye Scotlonde. Þan Marius þe kyng slowe þis Rodorik kyng of Pictes, and ȝaf þe norþ party of*. [So Cx; to, MS.] Scotlond, þat hatte Cathenesia, to þe men þat were i-come wiþ Roderik and were ouercome wiþ*. [by, Cx.] hem, for to wone ynne. But þese men hadde non wifes, ne none myȝte haue of þe naciouns of Bretouns; þerfore þey Page  147, vol.2 seillede into Irlond, and toke hem to wyfes Irischemen douȝters, at*. [by, Cx.] þat couenaunt, þat the moder blood schulde be putt to fore in successioun of heritage. Giraldus, capitulo septimodecimo. Noþeles Seruius*. [Sirinus, MS. and Cx.] super Virgilium seiþ þat Pictes beeþ Agatirsis,*. [Agartirses, α.] þat hadde som wonynge places aboute þe wateres of Scythia, and þei beeþ i-cleped Pictes by cause of peyntynge [and snittynge]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of woundes þat beeþ i-sene on hire bodies, for þey hadde moche fleem,*. [flewme, Cx.] and were ofte bois|tousliche i-lete blood,*. [ofte boxed and lete blood, Cx.] and hadde many woundes i-sene on hire bodies,*. [body, α., Cx.] so þat þey semede as it were men i-peynt wiþ woundes; þerfore þey were i-cleped Pictus, as it were peynted men. Þese men and the Gotes ben al oon peple: for whan Maximus þe tyraunt was i-went*. [wente, Cx.] out of Britayne in to Fraunce for to occupie þe empere; þanne Gratianus and Valentinianus, þat were breþren and felawes of þe empere, broȝte þese Gothes out of Scythia wiþ greet ȝiftes, wiþ flater|ynge and false*. [fayre, Cx.] byhestes, in to þe north contray of Britayne; for þey were stalworþe and strong men of armes. And so þese briboures were i-made men of þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] lond and of þe*. [þe] om. α., Cx.] con|tray, and wonede in þe northe contraies, and hilde þere citees and townes. Gaufridus.*. [Added from α. and Cx.] Carausius*. [So α.; Caraucius, MS. (which has Careucius below), and Harl. MS.] þe tyraunt slow*. [slouȝ, α.]Page  149, vol.2 Bassianus by help and tresoun of þe Pictes þat come in help and socour of Bassianus, and ȝaf þe Pictes a wonynge place in Albania, þat is Scotland. Þere þey wonede long tyme afterwarde i-medled*. [i-melled, α.] wiþ Britouns. ℞. Þanne siþþe þe Pikkes*. [seþþe þat Pictes, α., Cx.] occupied raþer*. [firste, Cx.] þe norþside of Scotlond,*. [þere þey wonede added in MS. (not in α. or Cx.)] it semeþ þat þe wonyng place þat þis Carausius ȝaf hem is þe souþ|side of Scotlonde þat streccheþ [from þe]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] þwart ouer wal of Romayn werk to þe Scottische see, and conteyneþ Gale|wey and Lodouia [þat is]*. [Added from Cx.] Lodway. Þerof Beda, libro tertio, capitulo secundo, spekeþ in þis manere: Nynyan þe holy man converted þe souþ Pictes. Afterward þe Saxons come and made þat contray longe to Brenicia, þe norþ partie of Norþhumberlond, for to*. [vnto the tyme that, Cx.] Kynadyus, Alpynus his sone, kyng of Scotlond, put out [þe Pictes]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] and made þat contrey þat is bytwene Twede and þe Scottisshe see longe to his kyng|dom. Beda, libro primo, capitulo primo. Afterward longe tyme the Scottes were i-lad by duke Reuda, and com out of Irlond, þat is þe propre contray of Scottes, and wiþ loue oþer wiþ strengþe made hem a place faste by þe Pictes in þe norþ Page  151, vol.2 side of þat arme of þe see þat brekeþ in to the ilond in þe west side, þat departed in olde tyme bytwene Britouns and Pictes. Of þis duke Reuda þe Scottes hadde þe name, and were*. [weþe, MS.] i-cleped Dalreudynes, as it were Reda*. [Reuda, α.] his part, for in here speche a part is i-cleped dal. Giraldus, distinctione prima. Þe Pictes myȝte haue noon*. [no, α.] wyfes of Bretouns, but þey toke hem wifes of Irisch Scottes, and byhete hem faire forto wonye wiþ hem, and graunted hem a lond by þe see side; þere þe see is narwe;*. [narowe, α., Cx.] þat lond now hatte Galewey. Maria|nus. Irisch Scottes londede at Argoyl,*. [Argayl, α., Cx.] þat is Scottene Clyf, for Scottes londede þere forto harmye*. [doo harme to, Cx.] þe Britouns, oþer for þat place is next to Irlond forto come in*. [alonde in Britayne, α.] to Britayne. Beda. And so the Scottes after Bretouns and Pictes made þe þridde manere of*. [of] om., α.] peple wonynge in Bretayne. ℞. Þanne after þat come*. [comeþe, α.; come the, Cx.] Saxouns at þe prayenge of þe Bri|touns, to helpe*. [helpe hem, Cx.] aȝenst þe Scottes and þe Pictes; and þe Britouns were i-putte out anoon to Wales, and Saxons occupied þe lond litel and litel and efte more and more, and*. [and] om., α. and Cx. (the latter has other omissions.)] straiȝt*. [streiȝt, α.] anon to þe Scottische see; and so Saxons made þe Page  153, vol.2 fourþe manere men*. [of men, α., Cx.] in þe ilonde of Bretayne. Beda, libro quinto, capitulo quinto.*. [nono, Cx.] For Saxons and Anglis come out of Germania, ȝet som Bretouns þat woneþ nygh clepeþ hem schortly*. [So α. and Cx.; clepeþ schortly þe, MS.] Germans. ℞. Notheles aboute þe ȝere of oure Lord eyȝte hondred, Egbertus, kyng of West Saxon, commandede and het clepe*. [badde men to calle, Cx.] alle manere men of þe londe*. [So α.; londe of, MS.] Englische men. Alfridus. Þanne after þat þe Danes pursued þe lond, aboute a two hondred ȝere, þat is to menynge from þe forseide Egbertes tyme anon to Seint Edwardes tyme, and made þe fifte manere peple in þe ilond, bot þey faillede afterward. At þe laste come Normans vnder duke William his tyme,*. [his tyme] om. α. and Cx., pro|bably rightly.] and suduwede Englische men, and ȝit holdeþ*. [kepe they, Cx.] þe londe; and þey made þe sixte peple in þe ilonde. But in þe firste kyng Henries*. [Henry his tyme, α.] tymes come many Flemmynges and fenge a wonyng place for a tyme bysides Mailros in þe west side of Engelond, and made þe seuenþe peple in þe ilond. Noþeles by heste of þe same kyng, þey were i-houe þennes and i-putte*. [put thens and dryuen, Cx.] to Hauerforde his side, [in þe west side]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] of Wales. [℞.]*. [Reference added from Cx.] And so now in Brytayne, Danes and Pictes failleþ al out, and fyue naciouns woneþ þerynne; þat beeþ Scottes in Albania, þat is Scotlond, Britouns in Cambria, þat is Wales, but þat Flemmynges woneþ ynne is in*. [is in] that is, Cx.] West Wales, and Page  155, vol.2 Normans and Englischemen [ben] i-medled*. [i-melled, α.; ben men medled, Cx.] in alle þe ilond. For it is no doute in stories how and in what manere þe Danes were i-putte away and destroyed out of Bretayne; now it is [to]*. [Added from α. and Cx.] declarynge how þe Pictes were destroyed and failled. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo 17. Bretayne was som|tyme occupied wiþ Saxons, and pees was i-made and i-stabled*. [stablysshyd, Cx.] wiþ the Pictes; þanne Scottes*. [the (sic) Scottes, α., Cx.] þat come wiþ the Pictes syhe*. [siȝe, α.; sawe, Cx., who varies the sentence.] þat þe Pictes were lasse þan þe Scottes, and*. [and] om., α.] were nobler of dedes and better men of armes þanne were þe Scottes; þanne þe Scottes*. [Cx. adds, hauyng therof enuye.] turnede to hir kynde*. [naturel, Cx.] tresouns þat þey vseþ ofte, for in tresoun þey passeþ*. [tresoun . . . apasseþ, α.] oþer men, and beeþ tretours as hit were by kynde. For þey preyed to a feste al þe grete of þe Pictes, and wayted her tyme when þe Pictes were at ese and mery, and hadde wel i-dronke, and drewe vp nayles þat helde vp þe holow benches vnder þe Pictes, and þe Pictes sodenliche an vnware fel ouer þe hammes into a wonder putfalle.*. [Sentence varied in Cx.] Þanne þe Scottes fille on þe Pictes and slowh hem, and lefte noon onlyue;*. [only, α.; alyue, Cx.] and so of þe tweye Page  157, vol.2 peple þe better werryour was*. [werriours were, Cx.] hollyche destroyed. Bote þe oþere, þat beeþ þe Scottes, þat beeþ traytours, wel*. [So Cx.; were wel, MS.] vnliche to þe Pictes, took profiȝt by þat false tresoun; for þei took al þat lond, and holdeþ it ȝit hider to, and clepeþ hit Scotlond after here*. [So α. β.; theyr, Cx.; his, MS. There is much confusion of num|bers generally, and of the pronouns especially, in the MSS. of Trevisa's text.] owne name. Þat tyme, þat was in kyng Edgar his tyme, Kynadyus Alpynus his sone was ledere of Scottes, and werred in Picten londe,*. [Pictelond, α., Cx.] and destroyed þe Pictes; he werred sixe siþes in Saxon, and took al þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] lond þat is bitwene Twede and þe Scottische see, wiþ wrong and wiþ strengþe.