Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
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Page  255, vol.1

De Germania et eius prouinciis. Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

Isid. Eth. quarto decimo. Ysidre*. [Isidorus, Cx.] seiþ þat verray Ger|mania haþ in þe est side þe mouth of þe ryuer Danubius, in þe south þe Ryne*. [ryuer, MS.; Ryn, Cx.] þat ryuer, and in þe north and in þe west þe see of Occean. Þere beeþ tweie londes, eiþer hatte Germania; þe ouer Germania*. [þe ouer Germania] om. MS.] streccheþ by sides Alpes to þat mouþ and coost of þe grete see þat hatte Adriaticus; þere þe see*. [se, α.] is as it were lakes yn þe contrayes of Aquila.*. [Aquylia, Cx.] Þe oþer Germania is lower, toward þe west about the Reyne,*. [Ryne, α., Cx.] and is comounliche i-cleped Almania oþer Teutonia. In eiþer Germania beeþ many prouinces and londes, þat beeþ Boemia, Westfalia, Bauarria, Thuryngia, Sueuia, Saxonia → , Franconia, Lothoringia, Frisia, Selandia. Paulus, libro primo. Þe north contrey is fer from þe hete of þe*. [hete of þe] om. Cx.] sonne, and holsom for men to wone*. [α. adds, and dwelle.] yn, and able to brynge forþ children. Þerfore it is þat þere is more multiplicacioun and encrese of men and children in þe norþ contray þan in þe south, þat is ful nyh þe Page  257, vol.1 sonne, and vnholsom and siklewe for men to wonye ynne. And so þey eueriche londe and contray haue his owne propre name, noþeles*. [netheles, Cx.] al þe contray and lond from the ryuer Tanais anon to þe west hatte Germania; for he gendreþ and bryngeth forth mo*. [moo, α.] men and children þan þey*. [it, Cx.] may wel susteyne. Þerfore hit is þat so ofte goþ dyuers men out of þat side of þe world ynto oþer londes, oþer*. [oþer] om. Cx., who has or be|low.] by lot, oþer aȝenst hir wille, oþer by here good wille for to wynne and*. [wynne and] om. Cx.] gete oþere londes. So dede Gothy, Wandaly, Saxones, Wynuly, and Longobardi. Boemya is þe firste prouince of þat*. [þe, α., Cx.] ester*. [este, Cx.] Germania, and haþ in þe est side Mesia*. [Misia, MSS. (as usual.)] and Alania, in þe souþ þe ryuer Danubius and Pannonia, in þe west Bauaria and Thuringia,*. [Thurynga, MS., here and be|low (not so always α. or Cx.)] and in þe north and northwest Saxonia → , and is i-closed al most all*. [all] om. Cx.] aboute wiþ hilles and wodes, and haþ grete*. [agreete, α.] plente of lese and of gras þat*. [So Cx. (that); and, MS., α.] smelleþ ful swete, and of dyuerse wylde bestes, among þe whiche is oo*. [o beste, α.; bestes, MS.; one beeste, Cx.] beste, and hatte boz in þe langage of Boemia, but he deffendeþ nouȝt hym|self with his hornes, but he haþ a large ryuel, as it were a bagge, vnder þe chynne; þeryn he gadereth water and Page  259, vol.1 heteþ it in his rennynge scladeng*. [scald, α.; skalding, Cx., which is probably alone right.] hoot, and þroweþ it vppon hunteres and houndes þat purseweþ hym, and scaldeþ of þe heere of hem*. [So Cx.; hym, MS.] and brenneþ hem ful sore. Thuryngia*. [Thurynga, MS., here and below (not so always α. or Cx.).] haþ in þe est side Boemia, in þe west Franconia, in þe norþ Westfalia, and in þe souþ þe ryuer Danubius. Fran|conia is, as it were, þe myddel prouynce of Germania, and haþ in þe est side Thuryngia,*. [Thurynga, MS., here and below (not so always α. or Cx.).] in þe west Sueuia, in þe norþ a party*. [So Cx.; of a party, MS. and α.] of Westfalia, and in þe souþ Bauaria and þe ryuer Danubius. Bauaria haþ in þe est þe ryuer Da|nubius*. [Eight words preceding wanting n MS.] and Retica.*. [So α. and Cx.; Ratica, MS.; Rethica below.] Westfalia haþ in þe est side Saxonia → , in þe west Frisia, in þe norþ occean, in þe souþ a party of Fraunce*. [Some words repeated in MS.] and of Sueuia. Sueuia haþ in þe est Bauaria, in þe west þe ryuere þat hatte þe Ryne, in þe north a party of Franconia, and in þe south Retica and Alpes. Saxonia → haþ in þe est Alania, yn þe west Westfalia, in þe north occean, and in þe souþ Thuringia.*. [Cx. omits the last clause of the foregoing, and much of the following sentence.]Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Men of Saxonia → woneþ toward þe norþ endes of occean, and beeþ boþe liȝter*. [ben more lighter, Cx.] and strenger þan oþer Page  261, vol.1 skymours*. [scommers or theuys, Cx.] of þe see, and purseweþ her enemyes ful hard boþe by water and by lond, and hatte Saxones of saxum,*. [saxon, MS. (not α. or Cx.)] þat is, a stoon, for þey beeþ hard as stones and vnesy to fare wiþ. In þe hulles of Saxonia is wel nyȝ all manere metal i-digged, outakyn*. [outake, α.; founden, reserued tyn, Cx.] tyn. In Germania beeþ salt welles, of þe whiche wellis is salt i-made as white*. [whiȝt, α.] as any*. [ony, Cx. (and so often.)] snowe. Fast by þe*. [that, Cx.] hille þat coper is i-digged ynne is a greet hille of stones; of þat hille [the stones]*. [Added from Cx., who varies the sentence a little.] smelleþ swete as violet. Also faste by þe mynystre*. [monasterye, Cx.] of Seint Michel is marbil i-founde þe fairest þat may be. Beda, libro [quinto], capitulo vicesimo quinto. Þe olde Saxones haue no kyng, but meny knyȝtes of here owne ruleþ hem;*. [hem] om. Cx.] but in tyme of bataille þei casteþ lott whiche of here knyȝtes schal be ledere and cheveteyn, and folweþ him þat is so i-chose by lott*. [whiche of . . . lott] Added from α. and Cx.] as cheef lorde and maister durynge þe bataille; but whan þe bataile*. [Four words omitted in MS.] is i-doo, þan schal he be as he was raþer,*. [byfore; that is to wete, he, &c., Cx.] he and oþere knyȝtes al i-liche*. [alle lyche, Cx., who omits knyȝtes.] greet of power and of myȝt. Plinius, libro quinto. Frisia is a lond vppon þe clyue*. [coste, Cx.] of þe west occean, and bygynneþ Page  263, vol.1 in þe souþ side from þe Ryne, and endeþ at þe see of Den|mark.*. [Denmarch, α.] Men of Frisia beeþ i-schore*. [ben high shauen, Cx.] aboute, and euir*. [euere, α.] þe more gentil man and noble þe hiȝer he is i-schore. Þe men beþ faire of body and cruel and bolde of herte, and vsed*. [vse, Cx., which is better.] speres in stede*. [So α. and Cx.; dede, MS.] of arwes, and loueþ fredom most of eny þing. Þerfore þey suffreþ no man be a knyȝt þat wil be her lorde. Neuerþeles þey beeþ gouerned and ruled by domesmen and iuges, and euerich ȝere þey*. [he, α.] chcseþ of hem self her owne iuges. Þey loueþ wel chastite, and kepeþ besiliche here children, and suffreth hem nouȝt to wyfe*. [marie, Cx.] wiþ ynne*. [wiþ ynne] til they be, Cx.] foure and twenty ȝere.*. [yere old, Cx.] Þerfore þey haueþ stalworþe*. [stronge and stelworth childeren, Cx.] children and stronge; þey haueþ none wodes,*. [no woodes, α.] þerfore þey makeþ hem fuyre of torues.*. [turues, Cx.] Selandia is a litel lond vppon þe see, [whiche renneth thurgh the londe and causeþ xvij. ilondes, and about eueryche a shippe saylle,]*. [The words in brackets added from Cx. After see MS. and α have by-clipped aboute as an ilond wiþ armes of þe see, which occurs below.] and haþ in þe est side Ho|landia, in þe north Frisia, in þe west occean, in*. [and in, α.] þe souþ Flandria, and is by clipped aboute as an ilond wiþ armes of Page  265, vol.1 þe see and floodes.*. [Cx. thus: and is enuironed with water and highe bankes to holde out the rysynge of the see and floodes.] Þere is good corn londe and scarsete of trees, for þe rootes mowe not take depnesse and*. [ne, Cx.] fatnesse for saltnesse of þe erþe. Þe men beeþ grete of body and mylde of herte. Paulus, libro primo. In þe norþwest*. [west, Cx.] side of Germania is a peple þat hiȝte Scribonius, þat hath snow al þe somer tyme, and eteþ rawe flesch, and beeþ i|cloþed in goot bukkes*. [bukke, α., Cx. (buk.)] skynnes. In hire contray, whan þe nyȝt is schort, me may all nyȝt see*. [see alle the nyght, Cx.] þe sonne bemes; and eft*. [after, Cx.] in the wynter, when þe day is schort, þey may see þe liȝt of þe sonne, þey*. [þey] om. α.] me seeþ noȝt þe sonne.*. [Cx. thus: though men see the light of the sonne, yet the sonne is not seen.]Item Paulus, libro primo, cap. quarto.*. [Cx., omitting the reference, thus: Item fast, &c.] Fast byside þat peple Scribonius, vndir þe clif of occean, is a den vndir an hiȝe stoon; þer|ynne slepeþ seuen men and haueþ longe i-slepe, and beeþ hool and sound in body and cloþinge, and al wiþ oute wem.*. [wemme, α., Cx.] So þat vntauȝt men and straunge haueþ hem*. [For which cause the comyn peple have hem, Cx.] in gret wor|schippe.*. [worship and reuerence, Cx.] Þey beeþ i-holde Romaynes, as þei semeþ by hire cloþinge.*. [They ar supposed Romains by her clothing, Cx.] Þere was a man som tyme þat for couetise wolde stripe on of hem, and haue his cloþing. But anone his Page  267, vol.1 armes driede and wax al drye.*. [forwith his arme waxed al dreye, Cx.] Hit may be þat God kepeþ*. [list to kepe, Cx.] hem so hool and sounde, for mysbyleued men in tyme to comynge schulde þorwȝ hem be conuerted and i|torned to good byleue.

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