Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
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Page  249, vol.7


Capitulum primum.

THIS noble duke commen to London, was crownede kynge at Westemynstre of Aldredus archebischop of Yorke, Stigan|dus Page  251, vol.7 archebischop of Yorke*. [Sic.] declynede, on Christemasse day. Willelmus, libro primo. Whiche wente to Normandy in Lente nexte folowynge, levynge Odo the bischop Baiocense, [folio 335a] his brother, to kepe Ynglonde, takynge with hym the noble men of Ynglonde, Edwynus the erle and Morkarus, Edgar Adelynge, and specially Stigandus archebischop of Cawnter|bery, þauȝhe he was lothe þerto, leste eny treason scholde reigne in Ynglonde by his falsenesse in the absence of the kynge. And what folowede of that Stigandus archebischop of Cawn|terbery hit schalle be expresse in his place and ordre. Alfri|dus. After that, wynter drawynge nye, kynge William re|turnede Page  253, vol.7 to Yngelonde, commaundynge the peple to pay a tribute as importable to theyme; segynge the cite of Excestre, rebellynge ageyn hym, and brake hit; and Githa cowntesse, somme tyme wife of Godewinus the erle, levynge the cite, fledde to Flandres. Gentillemen off Northumbrelonde, dred|ynge cruellenesse of kynge William, takenge with theim Edgar Adelynge, and Agatha his moder, with Margaret and Christian his susters, saylede to Malcolmus kynge of Scottes. ℞. But mony men reherse that Edgar Adelynge, seenge Ynglonde to be trowblede on every side, takynge schippe with his moder and ij. susters, intended to have sailede into the cuntre where he was borne, but a tempeste trowblenge the see, he was brouȝhte into Scotlonde. Where hit happede þat Malcolmus kynge of Scottes mariede Margaret suster of Edgar to his wife, of whom he gate vj. sonnes and ij. doȝhters; Page  255, vol.7 of whiche vj. sonnes iij. were kynges by succession, Edgar, Alexander, and David. And oon of here doȝhters, Matilda by name, was mariede to Henre the firste, kynge of Yngelonde. That other doȝhter, Mary by name, was mariede to Eustachius erle of Bonony, of whom Matildis come, whiche was mariede afterwarde to kynge Steven. Kynge William made a castelle at Snotyngham þis yere, an other at Lyncolne, and ij. castells at Yorke. Matildis the qwene commynge from Normandy into Ynglonde, was crownede in this yere of Aldredus. Harold and Canutus, sonnes of Suanus kynge of Danes, londed in the water of Humbre, with cc. schippes; to whom Edgar Adelynge wente; for the commynge of whom Aldredus archebischop of Yorke was so sory that he died in the viijthe day folowynge. The Normannes kepers of the castelle of Yorke, dredynge that the howses of the subarbes scholde be helpe and socoure to the Danes, sette fire in theyme, whiche encreasynge moche, turnede into the cite, and brente a grete parte of the cite with Page  257, vol.7 the monastery of Seynte Petyr. But the Danes come or that brennynge was seasede, and did sle moo then iij. ml of the Nor|mannes. Kynge William havynge indignacion thereof, wastede [folio 335b] that province, insomoche that men did eite horses, cattes, dogges, and also the flesche of men for hungre, and the cuntre betwene Yorke and Dirham wontede inhabitators by ix. yere, the grownde or territory of Seynte Iohn of Beverlay except, where a knyȝhte of the kynge suffrede vengeaunce, for his horse brake his necke, and his face was turnede bakwarde. The monastery of Bede, whiche was sette on the brynke of the water of Wyre, was brente. Malcolmus kynge of Scottes wastede the cuntre of Northum|brelonde in this yere, insomoche that þer was unnethe eny howse in Scottelonde, but other a man or woman of Ynglonde was in hit. Kynge William by cownsaile of somme men causede alle monasteryes in Ynglonde to be serchede, com|maundynge the money founde þer to be brouȝhte to his trea|sure. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. A cownsaile Page  259, vol.7 was kepede soone after at Wynchestre in the octaves of Ester, by commaundement of pope Alexander the secunde, ij. cardi|nalls beynge presente þer, in whiche cownsaile Stigandus arche|bischop of Cawnterbery was deposede for thre causes. The firste cause was for he occupiede ageyne the lawe the seete of Wynchestre with the seete of Cawnterbery also; the secunde was for he occupiede the seete of Cawnterbery, Robert tharche|bischop beynge in lyve, and usede the palle lefte þer with owte licence of the pope; the thrydde cause was for he toke a palle of Benedict pope, whom the churche of Rome hade excommuni|cate. This Stigandus, makynge grete lamentacion with meke supplicacion, and preyenge the kynge of favor, prevaylede not, the kynge seyenge to hym he muste nedely obbey the writ|ynge of the pope; and so Stigandus was sende to Wynches|tre, and kepyde þer tyme of his lyfe in prison, havynge but a litelle summe assignede to his exhibicion. This Stigandus inquirede of his goodes, beynge hevy to lose theym, did swere by alle seyntes he hade not oon peny. Whiche was founde to have hade a keye secretely abowte his necke of grete treasures Page  261, vol.7 hidde in the erthe. In whiche cownsaile mony other bis|choppes and abbottes were deposed by the specialle labour of kynge William, that he myȝhte brynge into theire places men of Normandy. Mony men say that the kynge did so to the moore confirmacion of þe realme. In whiche cownsaile seynte Wul|stan, bischop of Worcestre, askede constantely certeyne posses|sions longynge to his office, retenede from hym by Aldredus archebischop of Yorke, returnede after his dethe to the use of [folio 336] the kynge. Where hit was decrete that the seide mater scholde not be diffinede in that cownesayle, in that the churche of Yorke was dombe and vacant. And in the feste of Pentecoste nexte foloynge, kynge William beynge at Wyndeshore, ȝafe the seete of Yorke to Thomas, a chanon Baiocense. Willel|mus de Pontificibus, libro suo tertio. A man of noble chere, eloquente in communicacion, whiche made a feire churche at Yorke, makynge the chanons ryche þer, and makynge also songes of the churche. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. After that the kynge callynge to Ynglonde from Nor|mandy Page  263, vol.7 Lanfrancus, borne in the cuntre of Ytaly, an excellente man in vertu and prudence to governaunce of thynges spirit|ualle or temporalle, made hym by assignacion archebischop of Cawnterbery in the feste of the Assumpcion of oure Lady; of the lyfe and maners of whom hit schalle be schewede abowte his dethe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Thomas, archebischop of Yorke by eleccion, come to this Lanfrancus to be consecrate after the consuetude; of whom Lanfrancus de|sirede to have afore his profession of obedience to be made to hym with an othe þeruppon. The seide Thomas seide utterly he wolde not do so withowte he see wrytynge of auctorite þeron, other herde evidente reason þerfore whereby he awe to do that with owte preiudice of his churche. And when this noble clerke Lanfrancus hade schewede sufficiaunte reasons and laud|able for his purpose and intente, the seide Thomas not assent|ynge to hym, departede not consecrate. The kynge herynge Page  265, vol.7 that was vexede soore, thenkynge that Lanfrancus did ageyne the lawe, and putte moore confidence in connynge then in reason; but Lanfrancus, schewynge the cause þerof afore the kynge, mitigate his wrathe. And the seide Thomas returnede ageyne by commaundement of the kynge, and wrote the profession off his obedience, by whom he promysede to obbey the seide Lan|francus in alle thynges pertenynge to the honoure of God, and soe he was consecrate and departede. And soone after that Lanfrancus desirede and toke professions of alle bischoppes of Ynglonde consecrate of oþer bischoppes afore hym.

Capitulum secundum.

EDWINUS and Morkarus, erles of þe Marches and of North|umbrelonde, understondynge that kynge William wolde have Page  267, vol.7 putte theyme in prison, fledde prively from his courte and rebel|lyde a certeyne tyme; but in that thei profite litelle, Edwinus goynge to the kynge of Scottes, was sleyne soone. Also Morkarus and the bischop of Dirham goynge to the yle of [folio 336b] Hely, kynge William compassede theim on the este parte that thei scholde not escape, and made a brigge on the weste parte of ij. myles in lenghte. Wherefore these men inclusede soe, yeldede theyme to the kynge, and kynge William sende the bischop of Dirham to the monastery of Abendon, to be kepede þer, where he died anoon in that he wolde not eite for sorowe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. Whom Walkerus succedid, borne in Lotharingia, whiche was a man of grete beawte, havynge heire white as mylke in coloure, as in the roddenesse of þe cheke lyke to a rose. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, Page  269, vol.7 libro quarto. Walterus bischop of Herdforde diede in this yere, of whom it is seide that þer was a woman in the same cite whom he luffede inordinately, the woman knowynge not of þat luffe. After that the bischoppe remembrenge that þer was noo thynge moore unhappy then the synne of an olde,*. [Sic. in MS.] thouȝhte to resiste that temptacion for reverence of his degre. But as the develle wolde, the seide woman come to the bischoppes chambre to schape clothynge for his men of lynen clothe; the servauntes, knowynge the cownsaile of the bischop, departede from the chambre. The bischop spekynge that to woman wordes inhoneste, and willynge at the laste to have taken his pleasure by strenghte, the woman persede moche the breste of the bischop with scheres, whom sche hade in her honde, where thro he diede. Whom Robert borne in Lotharingia, did Page  271, vol.7 succede, a man instructe gretely in astrony*. [Sic in MS.] and in geometry. Marianus the Scotte and monke, serchynge this tyme the storyes of cronicles, animadvertede or perceyvide firste or allon the dissonaunce of þe cicles of Dionise the lesse ageyne the trawthe of gospelles. Also he accomptede every yere from the begynnynge of the worlde, puttynge to the cicles afore|seide xxij. yere whiche wontede, makynge a grete and diffuse cronicle. Whiche boke this seide Roberte depeyntede, soe that the picture of hit semethe to be worthe moore in valoure then the diffusion of alle his grete volume. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Lanfrancus and Thomas, arche|bischoppes of Cawnterbery and of Yorke, wente to gedre to Rome for to have palles, but the seide Lanfrancus receyvide ij. Page  273, vol.7 palles, oon of honoure, an other of luffe; for Lanfrancus founde suche grace afore pope Alexander that he restorede to their seetes ij. bischoppes commyn in his companye, Thomas arche|bischop of Yorke and Remigius bischop of Dorchestre, deposede [folio 337a] afore the pope by merite, for the firste was the sonne of a preste. And the secunde beynge a monke Fiscanense, ȝafe grete helpe to William commynge to Yngelonde, whiche pro|misede to make hym a bischop if he hade victory. The seide Thomas archebischop of Yorke movede the mater aforeseide afore the pope, affermynge subieccion to be made to hym of thre bischoppes in Englonde, as of Lincolne, Lichfeld, and of Wor|cestre; and the seetes of Cawnterbery and of Yorke not to be subiecte in eny wise to other after the constitucion of Gregory, excepte that the oon is moore then that other for the priorite of Page  275, vol.7 tyme. To whom Lanfrancus schewede by reason that consti|tucion Gregorian not to have made mencion of the seete of Cawnterbery, but of the seetes of Yorke and of London. Wherefore the pope decrete that mater to be terminate afore the kynge of Ynglonde and bischoppes; but thauȝhe the seide Thomas was astricte by his profession to Lanfrancus, ȝitte he hade lever laboure ffor his successors raþer then to brynge eny thynge to be discussed afterwarde. Wherefore in the ml lxxij. yere of oure Lorde this cause was movede afore kynge William and the cleregy at Wyndeshore, where the story of Bede redde, hit was schewede that from the tyme of seynte Austyn unto the laste tymes of Bede, whiche tyme was as of a c. and xlti yere, bischoppes of Cawnterbery to have hade the principalite of honour of the yle of Briteyne; and also to have kepede cownsailes nye Yorke, and to have made bischoppes þer, and to have deposede somme þere. The Page  277, vol.7 seide Thomas obiecte by the constitucion of seynte Gregory that the churches of London and of Yorke scholde be egalle, and neiþer subiecte to that other. To whom the noble clerke Lanfrancus seide, "Y am not bischop of London," afferm|ynge the seide mater to be movede for the seete of Cawnter|bery. Then Thomas bischop of Yorke seide that hit was grawntede oonly to seynte Austyn of blissede Gregory to have alle bischoppes in Ynglonde subiecte to hym. And thauȝhe that seynte Austyn translate the seete from London to Cawnterbery, if seynte Gregory wolde have hade bi|schoppes of Yorke subiecte to Cawnterbery,*. [Sic in MS.] have writen Austyn, Y grawnte these thynges to the and to thy suc|cessors, makynge noo mencion of succession in his writynge. Page  279, vol.7 To the whiche obieccion Lanfrancus answeryde, seyenge that the grawnte of the pope was not worthe if that aucto|rite was grawnted oonly to Austyn and not to his succes|sours, sithe that seynte Austyn made not eny bischop of Yorke [folio 337b] in his lyfe, neiþer there was not eny bischop whom seynte Austyn scholde have subiecte to hym. The bischoppes of Rome grawntede that dignite to the sete of Cawnterbury and to the successours of seynte Austyn by ryȝhte, that alle the churches of Ynglonde scholde borowe the exemple of lyvynge from that place of whom thei toke firste the feithe of Criste. And that ye say seynte Gregory myȝhte have confermede by his writynge, and if he wolde, to the successors of Austyn the same privilege, trawthe hit is, neverthelesse that inducethe noo preiudice to the churche of Cawnterbery. For when Criste seide to Petyr, "I schalle ȝiffe to the keyes of the realme of hevyn," he myȝhte have adiecte also, and if he wolde, "I grawnte þe same powere to Page  281, vol.7 thy successors." Neverthelesse, the levynge of that seyenge pereschethe noo thynge of reverence or of auctorite to the succes|sours of Petre, but that the dispensacion of offices ecclesiasticall is liberalle in theym. And what causethe that but the strengthe of divine liberalite diffudede from Petre into his vicaryes by Iesu Criste. And if ye redde logike, reduce to mynde a proposi|cion: That thynge whiche hathe effecte in the holle, hathe effecte in the parte. The churche of Rome is as the holle body of alle churches, and thei be as partes of the churche of Rome. Then sithe the churche of Rome is moder and the holle body of all churches, and that thynge that hathe effecte in hit hathe effecte in the partes of hit. Wherefore, like as Criste seide to alle bischoppes of Rome, that he seide to Petyr, in lykewise, Page  283, vol.7 Gregory seide to the successours of seynte Austyn, that he seide to hym. Wherefore like as Cawnterbery is subiecte to Rome, in that hit toke feithe of hit, so Yorke awe to be subiecte to Cawnterbery, whiche sende þider prechers that made the cuntre bryȝhte with the feithe of Criste. These reasons approbate, Thomas archebischop of Yorke grauntede there that the ferther brynke of the water of Humbre scholde be the begynnynge of his diocyse, where hit was decrete that the byschop of Yorke scholde be subiecte to the metropolitan off Cawnterbery in alle thynges pertenynge to the honoure of God; in so moche that the archebischop of Yorke schalle come with alle his bischoppes into what place of Ynglonde hit schalle please the metropolitan [folio 338a] to assigne eny cownsayle. And the archebischop of Cawnter|bery dedde, the archebischop of Yorke schalle comme to Page  285, vol.7 Cawnterbery, and consecrate the man electe into the metropo|litan. And if þe archebischop of Yorke dye, his successor schalle comme to what place in Ynglonde hit pleasethe the archebischop of Cawnterbery, and take his ordinacion of hym, makynge an othe with profession of obedience. Whiche decrete Lanfrancus causede to be wryten, sendynge also an epistole to Alexander the pope, with the profession of Thomas the arche|bischop expressede in hit. Kynge William wente to Scottelonde in this yere, takynge ij. hostes with hym, oon for the see, an other for the londe, and subduede to hym Malcolmus the kynge þer, whiche was sworne lige man to kynge William. Sigefridus bischop Magontyne wente on pilgremage to Seynte Iames, and in returnenge he was made a monke of the ordre Cluniacense. But thabbot understondynge marchauntes to bye Page  287, vol.7 that seete, compellede the bischop to goe to his seete ageyne. Edgar Adelyng wente in this yere into Normandy unto kynge William, with whom he was accorded.

Capitulum tertium.

HILTEBRANDUS other Gregory the vijthe was pope xxj. yere; whiche callynge a cownsaile prohibite clerkes to have wifes, or to dwelle with women, theyme excepte whom the cownsaile of Nicene did permitte, other canon. But prestes despisynge this prohibicion, the pope commaunded that noo man scholde here the masses of prestes havynge concubynes. This pope, cardi|nalle afore, and sende to Frawnce, procedede soore ageyne men of the churche usynge symony, and putte in grete office þerby, where oon bischop accusede gretely þerof correct Page  289, vol.7 prively his accusers. The legate perceyvynge that, seide afore the cownsaile, "The iuggemente of man that is fallible schalle sease, and a token of God schalle be expressede. Wherefore sithe hit is certeyne that the grace of a bischop is a ȝifte of the Holy Goste, and whosoever byethe that office dothe ageyne the Holy Goste, þou bischoppe, if thow have not doen ageyne the Holy Goste, say openly in this cownsaile, 'Gloria Patri et Filio et Spritui Sancto.'" This bischoppe begynnynge, "Gloria Patria" ofte, cowthe not say in eny wise, "et Spiritui Sancto." This pope syngynge the firste masse on Cristes day in a churche of oure Lady ad presepe Domini, was taken by Crescencius, the son of the maire of Rome, and putte into prison, but the Romanes delyverede hym soone from hyt. This pope cursed also in a cownesaile of a c. bischoppes Henricus the thrydde emperoure, [folio 338b] and absolvede alle men from alle fidelite made to hym in that he Page  291, vol.7 labored ageyne the churche of Rome. Themperoure commynge afterwarde barefoted in forste and snawe, stondynge so by a grete space, and askynge foȝifnesse, cowthe unnethe obteyne absolucion of the pope. Neverthelesse that emperour after that segede the cite of Rome, sleynge the citesynnes, and im|prisonynge the pope, made Wibertus archebischop of Ravenna pope, namynge hym Clement. But Robert duke of Apulia herynge this processe, come to Rome, and delyverede þe pope. Roger erle of Herford, by the cownsayle of whom kynge William causede monasteryes of Ynglonde to be serchede for theire goodes, maryede his sustir to Rawf erle of Esteynglonde, ageyne þe wille of the kynge, and causede Waltef the erle to consente to theyme. But this erle Waltef wente to Lan|francus, and penaunce ioynede to hym for his synnes, wente to Normandy to kynge William, rehersynge his offense, and sub|mittynge hym to his mercy and grace. The kynge returnynge from Normandy, putte somme of þeim to exile, and chasede Page  293, vol.7 awey the erle of Este Ynglonde, Ridulphus by name, and caused Waltef the erle to be heded wickidly after his imprisonement at Wynchestre; the body of whom in processe of tyme was brouȝte to Crowlonde and beriede þer, whom Lanfrancus seide to have made an happy ende. A cownsaile was hade at London in the churche of Seynte Paule under Lanfrancus, where hit was ordeynede firste of the seetes of bischoppes, and of cown|sailes to be kepede. In the secunde, that the seetes of bischoppes scholde be translate from townes to cites of moore dignite, wherefore the seete Seliense was translate to Chichestre, and the seete of Cornubia to Excestre, Welles to Bathe, of Schirburn to Salisbury, of Dorcestre to Lincoln, of Lichefelde to Chestre in the tyme of Petir bischop. But Robert, his successor trans|late that seete to Coventre. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Hermannus, firste bischop of Salisbery, diede in this yere, of whom hit is rehersed afore; whom Osmund chaun|celer to the kynge did succede xxiiij. yere. Whiche made a Page  295, vol.7 newe churche þer; whiche getynge to hyt noble clerkes, and also men instructe in musike, whiche bischop was not aschame to wryte books, to elumyn theym, and to bynde þeim by his awne person. Also he made an ordinalle of the office of the churche, whom he callede a consuetudinary, whom alle Ynglonde and Wales usethe nowe and Irlonde; whiche did write also the lif of seynte Aldelme. Roberte Curthose, the firste sonne of kynge William, havynge grete helpe of the kynge of Fraunce, trowblede [folio 339a] moche his fader, in that he myȝhte not have Normandy, as kynge William his fader hade promisede to hym, insomoche that kynge William woundede in the arme, and unhorsede, cryede for helpe. Robert Curthose herynge the voice of his fader liȝhte downe of his horse, and sette his fader on him. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. Men of Northumbre|londe did slee Walkerus bischop of Dirhem, whom William succedid, a myȝhty man in the worlde, and promotede by his Page  297, vol.7 glosynge speche. Whiche takynge parte afterwarde ageyne William Rufus kynge, fledde from Ynglonde by ij. yere. But that tyme passede, he was restorede to his seete, folowynge the wylle of the kynge to obteyne his favor, and specially in that trowble betwene the kynge and seynte Anselme. But at the laste, a discorde movede betwene hym and the kynge, and commynge to Gloucestre to defende his cause, diede þer. This bischop induede the prior of Dirhem firste with his honoure that he is decan in that bischopryche and as vichaunceller. Warinus erle of Schrobbesbure edifiede ij. monasterys, oon in the subarbes of that cite, an oþer at Wenlok into the honour of seynte Milburgh Willelmus de Regibus, libro tertio. A noble man syttynge at meyte abowte was compassede with a grete multitude of myce, whiche was brouȝhte to the see, but hit availede not, but that Page  299, vol.7 multitude foloynge hym to the water were drownede by schippe|men. But the seide man brouȝhte ageyne to the londe was devourede of myce. A lyke thynge was seide to have happede to a prince of Polonia, whom a leoparde hade byten. Also hit is redde of a prince that cowthe not be helped in eny wise, but he was devourede of lyce. Henricus, libro sexto. A wikked and cursed sedicion was movede betwene Thurstyn, the prowde abbot of Glaston, and his convente in this yere, whiche despis|ynge the ordinaunce of songe assignede by seynte Gregory, began to compelle the monkes to exercise the songe of a monke Fiscanense. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. This abbot consumede the goodes of the monastery in wikkede and unreligious ordinaunce, compellynge his breþer to the streyte|nesse of the religion, takynge diverse meytes from þeim. But, as Lucanus the poete seithe, "A peple fastynge cannot drede," Page  301, vol.7 and soe after stryves hit come to armes soone after. Where|fore the abbot gedrenge his men, fauȝhte ageyne the monkes, sleynge tweyne of thyme afore an awter, wowndynge soore xviij. [folio 339b] monkes, and schotynge at the ymages in the churche. The monkes as coacte to theire defense, takynge formes and suche thynges as they myȝhte, did slee diverse knyȝhtes whiche were ageyne þeim. This mater movede afore the kynge, the abbotte was sende to Normandy to his monastery, and the monkes were dispersede into other places. But the seide abbot bouȝhte the seide monastery of William Rufus, after the dethe of kynge William his fader, for vc.li. Kynge William toke this yere of every hyde of grownde in Ynglonde vj. solidos of silver. Hildebrandus the pope, laborynge in extreme languor and in|firmite, callede to hym a cardinalle whom he luffede moste, and confessede that he hade movede grete division betwene them|peroure Page  303, vol.7 and oþer Cristen men. Wherefore he dissolvynge the bondes of his sentence diede soone after.

Capitulum quartum.

VICTOR the thridde succedid Hiltebrandus the pope oon yere and v. monethes, somme tyme called Desiderius, and abbote of þe mownte Cassyne. In whiche yere Canutus kynge of Den|marke hade intended to have entrede into Ynglonde with a grete hoste; but kynge William herynge that, gedrenge a grete hoste in Normandy, come to Ynglonde. But this hoste of the Danes lette, kynge William wente to Gloucestre, where he ȝafe iij. seetes of bischoppes to thre chapelyns to hym; the seete of London to Mauricius, of Tedford to William, of Chestre to Roberte, whiche translate that seete unto Coventre as hit is seide afore. A man of grete worschippe, Walterus de Laceo, Page  305, vol.7 fowndér of the churche of Seynte Petyr in Herdforde, goynge on a ladder when that þe werke was allemoste finischede, his foote faylynge, felle and diede. The ordre Cartusiense began abowte this tyme in Calabria, in the bischopryche Grannopolitan by a man callede Bruno, borne in the cite of Colony, chanon of the churche Remense in Fraunce, and maister of the scoles. But pope Urban the secunde movynge hym, the maister of whom Bruno was somme tyme, he come to Rome, where he helpede the pope moche in offices of the churche. Whiche electe to the Page  307, vol.7 archebischop Rifense despisede hit, and takynge leve of the pope wente to Calabria, where he diede. This kynde or maner of heremites admittethe not the nowmbre of xij. men as in clerkes, with owte hit be for a laudable person, receyvenge other lay men to the nowmbre of xxti, eiche man separate from oþer by [folio 340a] propre celles in private daies, and eite and slepe; eiche of whom have oon loofe of brede by whiche thei be refreschede by alle the weke, abstenynge from flesche, usenge no lynen clothes, but the heire nexte to þeire flesche; havynge a certeyn place as|signede where thei schalle laboure contiguate to gedre; syttenge to gedre on Sonnedaies and holy daies at a table, havynge com|municacion Page  309, vol.7 of spiritualle maters with oþer, kepynge the rule of seynte Benedict; but thei admitte not a man that hathe fallen in apostasy. Kynge William caused Ynglonde to be describede, and what londe every baron hade, how mony fees of knyȝhtes, how mony carucates of londe, how mony men, and how mony bestes were in the seide londe; where thro the londe was vexede with diverse infeccions; whiche descripcion was redacte into oon volume, and put in the kynges cofurs at Wynechestre. Edgarus Adelynge wente in this yere by licence of kynge William with a grete navy of schippes into Apulia, and Christian his suster entrede into the monastery of Rumesey. Urbanus the secunde succedid Victor the pope xiij. yere. A grete Page  311, vol.7 moreyne of bestes was in Englonde in this yere, and intemper|ance of the aier, where thro mony men diede of the axes and for hungre. Also a grete flamme of fyre consumede allemoste the principalle cites of Ynglonde, and the churche of Seynte Paule at London, with a grete parte of the cite. Alfridus. The Danes did sle Canutus theire lorde in a churche on this yere. Willel|mus de Regibus, libro tertio. The kynge of Fraunce did skorne William kynge of Ynglonde lyenge in bedde at Roone in the laste yere of his lyfe in this maner: "William kynge of Ynglonde lyethe nowe in his bedde in maner of a woman child bredynge, and gedrenge vices and ydelnesse." William kynge of Ynglonde havynge indignacion of that derision, sende to the kynge of Fraunce an epistole contenynge this sentence: "When that y go to here masse after my childynge, y schalle offre to the a c. ml candeles." And soone after that, in the monethe of Au|guste, when cornes were in the feldes, grapes in vineȝardes, and apples on trees, William kynge of Ynglonde brente the weste Page  313, vol.7 partes of Fraunce, and brente the cite Medantum with a churche of oure Lady in hit, in whom he brente a recluse not knowen to hym of here necessite. After whiche tyme hade soone a disease incurable, other elles for his horse lepynge over a diche oppressede the internalle partes of his bely in somoche þat thei were broken. Wherefore dethe schewede by the leches to drawe nye, kynge William assignede Normandy to Roberte his firste sonne, and Ynglonde to William Rufus, the possessions of his moder and treasure to Henricus clerke; also he causede alle [folio 340b] his prisoners to be losede, Morkarus and Roger, Wilnotus the sonne of Harold, Odo his broþer bischop Baiocense; and so he diede in the xxj. yere of his reigne, the lixthe yere of his lyfe, in the yere of oure Lorde a ml lxxxiiij. the vj. idus of December, and was beriede in the monastery of Caane whom he made. Whiche myȝhte not have sepulture þer with owte blame, for a knyȝhte inhibite his body to be beryede in that place, seyenge Page  315, vol.7 that the grownde longede to hym, whiche was taken awey from hym by violence affermynge that noo man awe to beriede in grownde taken by violence and by rape; wherefore Henricus his sonne beynge presente þer at that tyme, ȝafe to the knyȝhte an c.li. For Robert his sonne fauȝhte that tyme ageyne the cuntre, and William Rufus was departede to Ynglonde; whiche takynge the treasure of his fader at Wynchestre, distribute grete richesse for hym. Henricus, libro quinto. This William Conquerour was a man of grete prudence, and subtile ryche and covetous, glorious and ȝiffen to fame, affable to the servauntes of God; whiche destroyede mony townes and churches at the Newe Foreste in Hampteschire, to the space of xxx. myles, and putt|ynge dere þer, makynge a statute that whosoever toke a beste þer scholde lose oon eie, and he that oppressed a woman by strengthe scholde lose his stones. Willelmus de Regibus, libro tertio. This kynge William was a corpulente man, and of grete myȝhte, and specially in his armes, that allemoste noo man in Page  317, vol.7 his courte myȝhte drawe that bawe, whom he wolde drawe sittenge on his horse. But this kynge was ȝiffen moche to huntynge, insomoche that he made townes, stretes and churches to be a woode; usynge when he was in Ynglonde to kepe Christemasse at Gloucestre, Ester at Wynchestre, and Pentecoste at Westemynstre. Neverthelesse this kynge made excesse in gederynge of rychesse, other for expulsion of his enemyes, or for the mitigacion of his covetise. The commune peple say that this William expellede the archebischop of Roone, Malgerus by name, from his seete, in that he despisede the service of Alle|myȝhty God, and ȝafe hym to festes and to huntynge. But y suppose hit was for this cause, in that the archebischop excom|municate that kynge William and Matilda his wife, cosynne to hym, for unlawefull matrimony. For whiche synne that William duke of Normandy made ij. monasterys at Caan, oon of men, Page  319, vol.7 an oþer of women. ℞. Also kynge William foundede ij. mon|asteryes in Ynglonde, oon at Bermundesey, nye to London, an other in Sowthesax where he fauȝhte ageyne kynge Harald. [folio 341a] Henricus, libro sexto. This kynge William dedde, there was unnethe in Ynglonde a prince borne in the same londe; but Ynglische men redacte into servitute, hit was a grete rebuke and schame to be called an Ynglische man in those dayes. For God hade ordeynede to the mischefe of Ynglische men a cruelle peple to governe theyme, the nature of whom is to depresse theym selfe when they have depressede and devicte theire enemyes.

Capitulum quintum.

WILLIAM Rufus was crownede kynge in the feste of Cosmas and Damianus, Wulfstan bischop of Worcestre helpynge hym moche, Page  321, vol.7 and Lanfrancus, whiche noryschede and made hym knyȝhte; whiche reignede xiij. yere, oon monethe excepte. Roberte the eldeste son of William, beynge with a grete hoste in Alemayne, herynge thereof returnede to Normandy; the halfe parte of whom, castells excepte, he putte in plegge to Henricus his broþer, to hire an hoste ageyne William his broþer; and londed at the laste at Hampton. To whom kynge William sende enbassiators, seyenge to hym "William youre broþer claymethe not hym kynge but under yow, and to reigne by yow, whiche be elder to hym and better; he usurpethe not the realme, but kepede hit in youre absence. Neverthelesse, he desirethe now, in that he is crownede, he may reigne under yow, payenge to yow þer|fore yerely iij. ml markes, and wheiþer of yow lyve longer to possede bothe honors." Robert herynge this, condescende þerto, and returnede to Normandy, havynge noo thynge with him but feire promisses; ffor alle the noble men of the*. [messagers, γ. and Cx.] wolde,*. [Sic in MS.]Page  323, vol.7 have erecte Robert to be kynge, Lanfrancus and Wulstan excepte. After that, Roger erle off Schropschire wastede the weste marches of Ynglonde with men of Wales unto Worcestre; whiche hoste was made feble and blynde by the preiers of seynte Wulstan, insomoche that the hoste was dispersede by a fewe nowmbre of men longynge to that bischop, and by a fewe men of the castell. This kynge William seenge allemoste alle the Page  325, vol.7 Normannes to be conspirede ageynes hym, pleasede men of Ynglonde, promysynge to theym moore esy lawes, ȝiffynge licence to peple to hunte in his forestes. And so he inclinede to hym Roger Mowntegomerik, erle of Schrobbesbury; that doen he began to wexe cruelle ageyne his adversaryes, and occupiede the castells of Kente longynge to Odo, and takynge hym causede [folio 341b] hym to forsake Ynglonde; and segenge the cite of Rochestre, where alle the noble men of Ynglonde were allemost, toke hit. The body of seynte Nicolas was brouȝte to the cite of Barrus in Apulia. For when the Turkes destroyede the cite of Mirrea in this tyme, xxiiij. knyȝhtes of Barrus conveyede þider brouȝhte the boones of seynte Nicolas, swymmynge in oyle, unto theire cite. Urbanus the pope kepede a cownsaile at Claremownte in Fraunce, with Anselme prior Bectense, where hit was or|daynede that the howres of oure Lady scholde be seide dayly, and that servyce scholde be seide of her in Seturdayes. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quarto. Kynge William gate diverse castells Page  327, vol.7 in Normandy by fals kepers thro corrupcion of money, lettynge also the kynge of Fraunce leste he wolde have ȝiffen helpe to Roberte his broþer as so Normandy was nowe with that oon broþer and with þat other untille that Robert hade geten Cenomannia, and kynge William diverse castells in Normandy. Then Henricus the thrydde broþer, thenkynge that thei did wronge to hym, occupiede the mownt of Michael, troublynge bothe his breþer oftetymes. Where hit happede in a day kyng William to goe furthe of a castelle with fewe men ageyne mony enemyes, and his horse sleyne under hym hongede by the legges a grete space, neverthelesse he was salvede, by the signe of his armes that he was not hurte. The knyȝhte whiche hade caste hym owte of the sadelle put honde to his swerde to have sleyne hym. To whom kynge William seide, "Sease, gloton, y am kynge of Ynglonde;" and anoon an other horse was brouȝhte to the kynge. Whiche sette on hym inquirede what man hit scholde be Page  329, vol.7 that caste hym downe. The knyȝhte seide "Y am he that caste yow downe, but y supposede hit hade bene an other knyȝhte." To whom the kynge seide, "Now by the chere of Luke, y schalle luffe the better for that dede." When Henricus that oþer broþer was segede by kynge William and Robert Curtehose, in|somoche that he wontede water, he sende to Robert his broþer seyenge that hit was a wikkede thynge to denye water, which, is commune to every thynge mortalle; for hit is moore civile to fiȝhte with a multitude of knyȝhtes then with the violence of elementes; and then he suffrede his broþer to have water. Kynge William herynge þat skornede hym, seyenge, "Broþer Roberte, where lernede ye to use that crafte that ye scholde have victory of your enemyes ȝiffynge to theyme drynke." To whom Robert [folio 342a] seide "Luffe ye water moore þen youre brother, suffrenge hym to dye. If we loose hym, where schalle we have an other broþer?" Kynge William herynge that, dissolvede the sege, and toke bothe his breþer with hym into Ynglonde.

Page  331, vol.7

Capitulum sextum.

LANFRANCUS archebischop of Cawnterbery diede in this yere, the vthe kalendes of Iunius, after his presidency by xviij. yere, whiche seete was vacante after his dethe by iiij. yere. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. This Lanfrancus, borne in Lumbardy, was noble, instructe in the vij. science, whiche hade exspende the tyme of his yowthe in studyes and artes liberalle. This noble clerke Lanfrancus chosede afore the monastery Bectense to oþer monasterys for poverte of the place, and for the observaunce of religion kepede þer, where he was made monke under Herlewinus, the firste abbotte; whiche, not usede to servile labors, tauȝhte gramer and logike, that he myȝhte helpe the poverte of the place by the doctrine of his scolers. But the glory of his lawde engendred hate and envye in his enemyes, in so moche that William duke of Normandy hade purposede to have putte hym from that cuntre. Willel|mus, libro secundo. For Herfastus, chapeleyne to the seide Page  333, vol.7 duke, was supposede and trawede to have bene an excellent clerke afore the commynge of Lanfrancus; whiche come with grete pride in a tyme to the scole of Lanfrancus, whiche, per|ceyvynge anoon that he was but of simple intellect, toke to hym an abscedary; whiche, havynge indignacion þerof, movede duke William to expelle hym from Normandy. But this Lan|francus havynge communicacion with the seide duke, his cown|tenaunce chere and eloquence was soe grete*. [Sic in MS.] commendede, that of the prior Bectense he was made abbote of Caane, and after metropolitan of Ynglonde. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. This noble man was so famose in doctrine that he commynge to Rome, and apperynge afore the pope, the pope wolde have aryse to do reverence to hym, makynge protestacion to hym that he did not that honoure to the archebischop, but to his connynge. Wherefore, that doen, the pope desirede, sithe he hade doen that longede to honoure, Lanffrancus scholde Page  335, vol.7 do that dewe obedience required, that he scholde falle downe to the feete of the vicare of blissede Petyr. This Lanfrancus inducede kynge William Conqueroure by laudable meanes to vertu, not by bostuous communicacion, but makynge as a com|mixtion [folio 342b] of sadde thynges with thynges of disporte. This kynge William Conqueror disposede thynges temporalle and spiritualle after his pleasure, suffrenge not eny cownsaile to be hade with his specialle licence; neither eny thynge to have bene diffinede withowte his commaundement; commaundynge also noo gentille longynge to hym to be punyschede or correcte with owte he hade ȝiffyn that iuggemente to hym. The dedes Page  337, vol.7 of whom be rehersede nowe in this tyme of magnanimite amonge kynges, and that tyme those dedes were callede of synne and of presumpcion. This hooly clerke Lanfrancus suffrede these thynges ageyne his wylle, spekynge to kynge William Conqueroure for his synnes in places and tymes con|gruent. Neverthelesse, this noble metropolitan Lanfrancus stablede in mony vertues, floryschede specially in almes, usynge this sentence: "Moche ȝiffe ye almes, and alle thynges be clene to yow;" usynge also to calle poore clerkes to disputa|cions; that doen thei wente furthe bothe with gladdenes, the victor of the triumphe of science, and the man overcomen thro the solace of his doctryne. Whiche restorede specially to monkes possessions taken from theyme; whom vivacite of Page  339, vol.7 mynde and favor of seynte Dunstan made bolde to do soe; and as hit is collecte of the lyfe of seynte Dunstan, he was so meke and affable in herynge of confessions that he wolde kysse the hondes of peple confessed to hym after the confession made, and wolde say, "These hondes have made me a blissede man in this day." The monkes of Cawnterbery, and allemoste alle other monkes in Ynglonde, ȝafe theyme to ryette, to hawkynge and huntynge in that tyme, semynge to be lyke to lordes, raþer then to monkes, by theire apparaile and cumpanye of men doynge servyce to theyme. Whiche insolence Lanfrancus me|tropolitan of Ynglonde suffrede for a season, and reducede theyme to vertuous life afterwarde, not hastily, but by certeyne space folowynge, for scharpe correccion and hasty movethe the Page  341, vol.7 paciente raþer to vice þen to vertu. Unto whiche tyme presente the memorialle of that noble clerke is hade moche in that monastery amonge the breþer, whiche have grete devocion to God, comforte and hospitalite to poore peple, and habundant charite amonge theyme selfe. The seide Lanfrancus wolde not suffre eny broþer to departe from hym with hevy chere, and if he percevyde a man to be hevy he wolde soone inquire the cause, ȝiffynge to the monkes thynges necessary, that thei scholde not have eny occasion to refuse the observaunce of [folio 343a] theire religion. The malice and envye of bischoppes encreasede moche in that tyme, insomoche that they thouȝhte to have ex|pellede or expulsed monkes from theire places, and to have put seculer clerkes into þeyme. The auctor of whiche labour was Walkelinus bischop of Wynchestre, goode to other thynges, but Page  343, vol.7 condescende to the intente of wyckede peple; insomoche that he hade movede the kynge into the same purpose. But Lan|francus, herynge that, dissolvede that labour, insomoche that he caused Alexander the pope to sende an inhibicion that the wickede purpose of those men scholde not procede. Also he instaurede the monastery of Rowchestre that tyme, but of a convente unto þe nowmbre of lti monkes, with sufficiaunce of thynges necessary to theym; hit is ascribede also to the discre|cion of Lanfrancus that he brouȝhte Gundulphus, abbot of Caane, to the seete of Rowchestre, as hit is supposede, by the eleccion of God. This Gundulphus, disciple to Lanfrancus, sittynge with Walter his felawe and an oþer, havynge a masse booke in his honde, seide: "Lete us prove an experimente by turnynge of levys, whiche of us schalle be an abbot and whiche a bischop." The seide Gundulphus founde this texte: "Fidelis servus et prudens;" and Walter founde, Page  345, vol.7 "Serue bone et fidelis intra in gaudium." That oþer founde an oþer sentence not pretendynge to eny happy ende. This doen thai laȝhede, insomoche that Lanfrancus herde theym, whiche commynge to theym, and knowynge the cause, seide that Gundulphus scholde be a bischop, Walterus scholde be an abbot, and that the thrydde scholde turne to the worlde. And so hit was provede, for Gundulphus was made bischop of Rowchestre, Walterus abbot of Evysham, and the thrydde monke diede miserably. The seide Lanfrancus havynge not convenience with William Rufus kynge, felle into a fever, and so confession made and the sacramente receyvid, and receyvynge a pocion, diede like as he desirede; for he preiede Allemyȝhty Godde oftetymes that either he myȝhte dye of the fever or of the flix, in that those infirmites trouble not þe mynde neiþer lette the speche of a man.

Page  347, vol.7

Capitulum septimum.

A COWNESAILE hade in this yere at the cite Turon in Fraunce, pope Urban movede the weste partes of the worlde to the subsidy of the Holy Londe. Wherefore Henricus the thryd emperour, Reymund the erle of Seynte Gyle, Boamundus of Apulia, merkede with the signe of the crosse, saylede unto the arme of Seynte George, with whom were ijc. ml of Cristen peple; and so the Holy Londe was recurede þen, and the spere of Criste was founde by revelacion of blissede Andrewe made to a chorle. With whom Robert duke of Normandy wente, makynge accorde with kynge William Rufus his broþer, to whom he hade put Normandy in plegge for x. mlli for whiche thynge kynge William receyvyd a gret tribute of Ynglische men temperalle and spiritualle. Malcolinus kynge of Scottes robbede Northumbrelonde, wherefore kyng William toke with hym Robert his felawe, whose schippes were drownede and his hoste pereschede for hunger and colde. Neverthelesse, Page  349, vol.7 pease was reformede by the seide Robert in this condicion, that Malcolinus scholde make obedience to kynge William lyke as he did to his fader, and pay to the seide kynge William xij. mlli of golde yerely, and yelde xij. cites in Ynglonde. A huge wynde and stroke of lyȝhtynge pereschede the towre of the churche of Wynchecumbe in this yere, and persede thro the walle, castynge downe the hedde of the crucifix into þe erthe, brekynge the ryȝhte parte of hit; hurtenge also the ymage of oure Lady nye to the crosse; and then an ylle favoured smoke replete that churche, untille that the monkes, takynge holy water, and diverse relikes they hade with ynne*. [Sic in MS.] þeim, goynge with procession, songe the letanye. Also a whirlewynde destroyede moo then vj.c houses at London, sleynge ij. men in the churche of the Arches at London, where a parte of that churche felle in to the grownde, insomoche that unnethe a Page  351, vol.7 sixthe parte of hit apperede above grownde. Also a grete wynde putte aweye the coverynge of the churche of Salisbury, in the vthe day after hit was dedicate by seynte Osmunde. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. Remigius bischop, whiche hade translate but late the seete of Dorchestre to Lyncoln, intended to have dedicate a churche þer, whom he hade edifiede. But Thomas archebischop of Yorke resiste hym, seyenge that place to be in his paresche. Neverthelesse, kynge William receyvynge certeyne goodes ȝiffen to hym prively by Remigius, commaunded allemoste alle bischoppes of Ynglonde that they scholde mete at his churche in the idus of Maii, and dedicate hit; but the seide Remigius diede in the secunde day afore the consecracion. Robert bischop of Herdeford wolde not come, for he hade knowlege, by certeyn inspeccion of sterres afore, that dedicacion not to procede in the life of Remigius. Robert Bloet succedid Remigius, a man ȝiffen moche to Page  353, vol.7 lechery; fulfyllynge but slawely the dedicacion of þat churche; whiche beynge at Wodestoke, and departede from the presence of the kynge, hade his bowells taken owte from his body. The bowelles off whom were beryede at the monastery of Evysham, [folio 344a] whiche he made, and the other partes were beryede at Lyncoln, where the kepers of the churche were trowblede moche untille that place was made clene by preiers. Kynge William goynge in this yere to the costes of Northumbrelonde, repairede the cite of Caerliell, makynge a castell in hit. Henricus, libro sexto. But thauȝhe kynge William ȝafe to venerable Anselme the seete of Cawnterbery in this yere, he receyvyde not eny summe of goode longynge to that office untille that he hade paiede the tribute commaunded by the kynge. In lyke wise he saide the seete of Lincolne to be subiecte to the churche of Yorke untylle that Robert Bloet hade paiede v.ml marke to the kynge. Roger erle of Shrobbesbury diede in this yere, Page  355, vol.7 whiche lyenge in his bedde in his laste dayes, was made a monke, whom Hewe his sonne did succede. A grete inunda|cion of water was in this yere, and after a grete froste, inso|moche that waynes and cartes myȝhte passe over waters, in the dissolvynge of whom mony brigges were broken. Rees kynge of Wales was sleyne in fiȝhte nye to Brechnoc, and so kynges seasede in Wales. Malcolinus kynge of Scottes mette William kynge of Ynglonde at Gloucestre, in the feste of seynte Bar|nabas, to accorde with hym; but thei departede with malice. For William kynge of Ynglonde wolde that Malcolinus kynge of Scottes scholde comme and make obedience to hym in what place of Ynglonde he scholde assigne to hym. But Malcolinus refused þat, seyenge that he awe not to make obedience to Page  357, vol.7 hym but in the costes of bothe the realmes, where hit was usede to be made. In which yere Malcolinus, and Edwarde his firste son, were sleyne in Northumbrelonde, with mony moo, in the day of seynte Bricius, by the knyȝhtes of Robert erle. Margarete, qwene of Scottes, and the worschipper of God, herynge of theire dethe, was so sory that sche diede in the thridde day folowynge, as sche hade preyede to Allemyȝhty God. That qwene dedde, the Scottes erecte into theire kynge Dunwal|dus, broþer of Malcolinus; but Duncanus, son of Malcolinus, thro helpe of kynge William, reioycede the realme of Scotte|lande, and expulsede Dunwaldus. Willelmus de Pontificibus. Hit was schewede in a tyme to this Malcolinus that oon of his gentillemen hade conspirede his dethe. The kynge com|maunded [folio 344b] that man to kepe silence, and also he kepede silence hym selfe unto the commynge of that traytour. The kynge perceyvynge that he was commen, commaunded alle the hunters to be redy with theire dogges, and so the peple goynge Page  359, vol.7 to hunte, the kynge wente with that traytour unto a brode pleyne, compassede abowte with a thikke woode, in the myddes of whom was a litelle hylle. They tweyne beynge þer allon, the kynge seide to hym: "Now we tweyne be here with lyke weppyn and horses; there is not eny man that seethe us, neiþer for to helpe us; if thou be a man, fullefylle thy purpose nowe; I knowe not when þow may do hit better. For to ordeyne poyson is a properte of a woman; if thow ymaginede to slee me prively it is a signe of a cowarde, and noo man; þerfore prove nowe thy manhode." That knyȝhte felle downe anoon to his feete, made promyse to the kynge of fidelite, fyndynge certeyne suertes þerof; and after that tyme he was tru knyȝhte to the seide kynge. Venerable Anselme, Page  361, vol.7 abbot Bectense, come to Ynglonde from Normandy in this yere, at the instaunce of Hewe erle of Chestre, for thre causes: the firste was that he myȝhte helpe monasterys, whom he hade founded in Ynglonde, from a soore tribute of the kynge; that he myȝhte visitte also Hewe the erle of Chestreschire, beynge seke that tyme; and also that he myȝhte make a monastery at Chestre. In whiche monastery he made Ricardus his chapeleyne the firste abbote, chaungynge that place of seculer canons into monkes; whiche returnede from those costes, was made archebischop of Caunterbery.

Capitulum octavum.

ENGLONDE and Normandy was vexede with a grete tribute, and dethe of men, insomoche that plowynge of londes was seasede. Men of Wales, abhorrenge the charge of servitute, robbede in the provinces of Chestre, Schrobbesbury, and of Herdeforde, and toke the castelle of Osuania. The Scottes did Page  363, vol.7 sle Duncanus theire kynge, and erecte Dunwaldus ageyne into kynge; and sterres were seen to falle from hevyn, and as to fiȝhte to gedre. Kynge William returnede from Normandy, sende an hoste into Wales, where he loste mony men and horses. The kynge perceyvynge men of Wales to be as invincible, what for streytenesse of the cuntre, and what for habundaunce of woodes, made diverse castelles þer on the costes nye to the see, [folio 342a] and kytte downe a grete parte of the woodes, whereby he de|stroyede afterwarde mony of theyme. Seynte Wulstan, bishop of Worcestre, diede this yere, the xviij. day of Ianuarius. Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. This seynte Wulstan ap|perede in the howre of his dethe to his wellbelovyde Roberte, bischop of Herforde, in the towne of Crikkelade, commaundynge hym to ordeyne for his sepulture. Also in the xxxti day folowynge he apperede to hym monyschynge hym to correcte his awne negligence and of his subiectes, seyenge that he Page  365, vol.7 scholde not occupye his seete longe after that tyme; and so he diede soone after. This seynte Wulstan suffrede not that rynge, with whom he receyvede the benediccion of the bischop, to be taken from his fynger in his dethe, ffor he seide oftetymes in his lyfe that he wolde never leve that rynge. That bischop seide ofte to men of Ynglonde troublede soore, "Hit is þe cor|reccion of God that ye suffre." Ynglische men ansuerynge that the Normannes were of wurse disposicion then Ynglische men were, the bischop seide "God usethe in correccion to us the synnes or wickede disposicion of theyme, and dothe exercise grete correccion into men not gilty by unworthy men." Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. This holy bischoppe, borne in the province of Warwicke, was instructe at Petyr|borowe with letters and offices ecclesiasticalle; and at the Page  367, vol.7 laste he made preste, he seide masse with grete devocion, contente oonly with offrenges of peple, and as men supposede he was a virgyn, not usynge superfluous meites or drynkes, eitynge oþer while flesche, whiche thynge he refusede after by this occasion folowynge. This bischop goynge to plete for his ryȝhte in a day, thouȝhte to say masse afore, and after that to breke his fast, and so a goose was putte to the fire for hym. The seide bischop beynge at masse, felynge the savour of the goos, his mynde was trowblede soore, in so moche that he cowthe not avoide that from his mynde; where he made a protestacion to that sacramente that he scholde never after eite of that kynde of flesche in his lyfe. And so masse doen he wente to plete for his ryȝhte, tastenge not eny meyte. Afterwarde, devocion encresynge, he lefte the worlde, and was made monke at Worcestre, where he wente by alle the offices of that monastery, ȝiffynge hym to abstinence, vigilles, and to preyers, Page  369, vol.7 usynge to slepe on somme benche of that churche where he was wonte to pray. This holy man seynte Wulstan, beynge in contemplacion in a nyȝhte afore the hye awter, the develle apperede to hym in a forme visible, provokynge hym to synne [folio 345b] whom this holy man caste downe to the erthe thryes. After that the develle apperede to hym in the similitude of a ser|vaunte of the cowrte, and after that, this holy man seenge that servaunte was trowblede with drede and fere so ofte as he hade siȝhte of þat man. This holy bischop wolde not lyȝhte from his horse for brekynge of eny brigge. After that Aldredus made archebischop of Yorke, this holy man Wulstan was made bischoppe of Worcestre by laboure of the seide Aldredus, thenkynge to schado his rape by the simplicite of seynte Wulstan. Neverthelesse the seide holy man defendede the Page  371, vol.7 ryȝhte of his churche rather by vertu then by connynge. This holy man electe to be bischoppe, and not consentynge to the eleccion, was correcte and reprovede moche of an holy man, Wilsius by name, for his obstinaunce or obstinacion, whiche man was inclusede þerby xlti yere. And so seynte Wulstan monyschede by an oracle of God, consente to the eleccion; at the whiche consecracion ij. legates of the pope were presente. Wherefore seynte Wulstan made bischop keped grete absti|nence in meytes and drynkes; neverthelesse he omitte not the pride of Normannes, havynge mony knyȝhtes and gentyllemen Page  373, vol.7 in his servyce; and saynge masse dayly, seide also the complete sawter and mony other suffrages. Whiche usede to synge hye masse as soe ofte as he was at Worcestre, from whiche office he seide he wolde not be absolved, not for his bischopryche. Also he usede to kepe collacion with þe monkes, and so gene|ralle confession made, and his blissynge ȝiffen to theyme, he wente to his chamber. Whiche bischop travaylynge, seide dayly the sawter, usynge benediccions whom men of Ynglonde usede that tyme, and if he sate at the kynges table. And if necessite caused hym to plete, he preyede God to curse alle fals iugges, and to blisse alle iugges iuggenge trawthe, usynge moche furres of lambe. This bischoppe movede in a tyme to were the furre of cattes, in disporte answerde, "Beleve me, y herde never songe in the chirche the catte of Godde, but the lambe of Godde, þerfore y wylle raþer be made warme Page  375, vol.7 with the skynnes of lambe then with the skynnes of a catte." This bischoppe seenge the monkes goe to the newe monasterye whiche he hade edifiede, and the olde churche to be destroyede, whom seynte Oswalde hade edifiede, began to weipe. Then [folio 346a] diverse men stondynge by seide to the bischop that he scholde raþer be gladde to see suche honoure to his churche in his lyfe, that the edificacions were encreasede after the nowmbre of monkes. Then the bischp seide, "Y attende to an oþer sen|tence, that we wrecches scholde destroy the werkes of holy seyntes, for that tyme religious men toke litell attendaunce to ryalle edificacions." This bischop makynge an exhortacion to peple of pease, mony of theyme were turnede to pease, and oon of theyme wolde not be reconsilede to pease in eny wyse. To whom the bischop seide: "Scripture expressethe that men kepynge Page  377, vol.7 pease be blissede, where men that kepe not be pease be wrec|ches and childer of the develle; wherefore y commende the to hym to whom þow arte bownde, tylle thow returne to pease." And anoon a wickede spiritte entrede into hym, trowblynge hym so soore, that peple presente myȝhte perceyve the correc|cion of God in hym. Whiche man healede by seynte Wulstan, and returnede to synne ageyne, was troublede as he was afore, tylle that he lefte his trespasse. A man callede Alwinus by name, lyvynge an holy lyfe at Malverne, was movede to have goen to Ierusalem. Seynte Wulstan understondynge that by his reporte, seide to Alwinus, "Leve that purpose, for þow wolde mervayle if thow hade knowlege of those thynges that God is to do by the;" and so Alwinus disposynge hym after the cownsaile of seynte Wulstan, gedrede xxxti monkes to hym Page  379, vol.7 into his place. A merchaunte, Sexwulphus by name, usynge to be confessede of the seide bischop, confessynge hym in alle tymes as of the same synnes he was confessede afore. At the laste the bischop seide to hym, "Me thenke that oportunite makethe a thefe, wherefore y cownsaile the to be made a monke." But the man refusynge hit for streytenesse of lyfe, the bischop seide, "Go furthe, for thow shalle be a monke, wheþer þow wille or nay;" and so hit happede. Hit happede on a tyme this bischop to towche the hedde of a man, Nicholas by name, sonne of his norische, and to say, "Sonne, as y perceyve, thow wylle be ballede soone." To whom Nicholas seide, "Fader, why kepe ye not the heires that they falle not aweye?" Then the bischop seide, "Beleve me the residu schalle not falle while that y have lyfe;" and so hit happede; but in the same weke that the bischoppe diede alle the heieres of his hedde felle aweye, levynge noo thynge after theyme but the bare skynne. Also hit is rehersed of seynte Page  381, vol.7 Wulstan that William Conqueroure intendynge to have depo|sede hym for insuffience of intellect, and wontynge the langage of Fraunce, that somme men of Normandy myȝhte have hade that seete, seynte Wulstan takynge his pastoralle staffe fixede hit at the feete of seynte Edwarde kynge, beryede not longe afore, in a sadde stonne that noo man cowthe take hit awey untille that he toke that staffe ageyne at the desire of the kynge. Whiche seide to kynge William when he sette þe staffe þer, " A better man then thow arte ȝafe hit to me, take hit awey if thow can."

Capitulum nonum.

THE goynge to Ierusalem was made in this yere, with whiche peple Boamundus and Robert duke of Normandy were in com|panye, whiche putte Normandy in plegge to William Rufus, kynge of Ynglonde and broþer to hym, for xl. m.li. of silvyr. Page  383, vol.7 And after that, in the xiij. kalendes of Iulius, the cite of Acon was taken by Cristen peple; and a blasynge sterre apperede in the monethe of October by xv. daies, and mony men see the signe of the crosse to schyne in hevyn. In whiche tyme the hedde of seynte Steven was brouȝhte to Caan in Normandy by a monke, Odo by name. Henricus, libro vij o. A grete dissencion was movede and spronge betwene kynge William and Anselme the archebischop, for the kynge wolde not suffre hym to kepe eny cownesayles, neiþer to correcte thynges inordinate; and also the kynge requirede the investitures of prelates, trowblynge the poore peple with tributes, specially for coste made on the towre of London and on the grete halle of Westemynstere. Willel|mus de Regibus, libro quarto. In whiche tyme Ranulphus re|ioycede moche, somme tyme chapeleyne of William Conqueroure, noryscher of covetyse, made the proctor of this kynge, the Page  385, vol.7 oppressor of poore men and eschete of inheritaunce, takynge not hede to the hate of eny man, so that he myȝhte gette goodes and please his lorde. Whiche ȝiffynge to the kynge a thow|sand pownds, was made bischop off Dirhem; then pikede schons began to be usede, longe lokkes, and mony other abusions. The noble clerke Anselme wolde have correcte these, but he lackede helpe, wherefore he forsakede Ynglonde, but in his departynge his bowȝettes and caskettes were serchede by precepte of the kynge. Whiche goynge to pope Urban, dis|putede [folio 347a] nobly in a cownsaile at Bavarrus in Apulia ageyne the oppinion of the Grekes, whiche seide the Holy Goste to pro|cede oonly from the Fader. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libroPage  387, vol.7secundo. Radulphus bischop of Chichestre condescende not in that tyme to the kynge with other bischoppes, but toke grete parte with venerable Anselme. Also he wolde not condescende that the kynge scholde receyve money of prestes havynge con|cubynes, causynge the servyce of God not to be occupiede thro alle his diocyse, and stoppynge the durres of the churches with thornes. That cruellenes causede the kynge to ȝiffe to hym the correccion of prestes in alle his diocyse. This bischop sparede not men doynge synne and offense, visitynge his diocyse and goynge abowte hit thryes in oon yere, takynge noo thynge but thynges ȝiffen frely. Whiche thynge y wolde not have remembrede nowe in this tyme presente but that hit is hade nowe as for a miracle if diligence of prechynge be founde in a Page  389, vol.7 bischop and temperaunce of takynge goodes. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quarto. William Rufus, kynge of Ynglonde, goynge to hunte in a tyme, and havynge knowlege by a mes|synger that Cenomannia was segede, returnede his horse and wente to the see, mony noble men movynge hym to tary and to gedre an hoste. To whom the kynge seide, "Y schalle se now who wylle folowe me;" and soe he come to the see with fewe men, the wynde beynge contrarious to þeim also. Neverthe|lesse he commaundede the maister of the schippe to pulle up the sayles, seyenge that he redde never of kynge that was drownede, and soe the*. [Sic.] passede. The men that hade put sege to that cite, understondynge the kynge of Ynglonde to be comme, dissolvede the sege; and Helias, the chief causer of that trowble, was taken and brouȝhte to kynge William. To whom the kynge seide, "Maister, I have the nowe." That other man seide, "That is by chaunce; but and if y myȝhte escape, y wote what y scholde do." Then kynge William movede there with Page  391, vol.7 seide, "Depart y ȝiffe the licence to the; and if thow have vic|tory of me, take hit for a maistry." Henricus, libro septimo. A welle was seen to flowe and sende furthe bloode at Fincham|studde in Barokshire by xv. daies in this yere, and hevyn was seen as to brenne by alle a nyȝhte. Hewe and Hewe, erles of Chestresschire and of Schrobeschire, toke the yle of Angleseye in Wales in this yere also, and did sle the inhabitatours, and [folio 347b] made mony men blynde, kyttenge theire stones from theyme. Amonge whiche men thei drawede from the churche a preste, Kenredus by name, puttynge owte oon of his eien, and after that thei kytte awey bothe his tunge and his stones. But in the thrydde day folowynge his langage was restorede to hym by miracle. In whiche tyme the grete kynge of Norway, son of Olavus, takynge with hym Harold sonne of Harold somme Page  393, vol.7 tyme kynge, subduede to hym diverse yles, as the yles of Orcadas and of Meina. After that he come to Angleseye in Wales, where the seide erles were. The erle of Scrobbesbury ȝiffynge metynge to him was hurte in the eie with an arowe a*. [Sic.] in the viijthe day folowynge the cruellenesse to the preste, and so he diede, and was beryede at Shrobbesberye. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo, Herebertus abbot somme tyme of Ramesye, but then bischop of Tedforde, norischer of symone in that he bouȝhte that seete of the kynge, rememberyng hys wyckyde lyfe in his yowthe, wente to Rome abowte this tyme. Whiche returnede from Rome and commen to Ynglonde, trans|late his seete to Norwyche, where he foundede a noble monas|tery, and putte monkes of the ordre Cluniacense at Tedforde, ryche men in the worlde, and of beautuous religion in God. Page  395, vol.7 Whiche bischop remembrenge*. [Sic in MS.] moche this texte in his age, "Amice, ad quid venisti?" "Frende, wherefore come you?" and also this texte of seynte Ierom, "We have offended in yowthe, þerfore lete us amende in age." Henricus, libro septimo. Kynge William returnede from Normandy, and behold|ynge firste the grete halle of Westemynstre, seide hit myȝhte wonte welle ynowe the halfe parte of hit; wherefore he was in purpose to have made that halle a chamber.

Capitulum decimum.

THE ordre Cisterciense began abowte this tyme in Bur|guyn, in this maner folowynge. Willelmus de Regibus, libro sepuarto.*. [Sic in MS.] A man of Ynglonde, Steven by name, and made monke at Shirburne, wente to Scottelonde, and after to Fraunce, Page  397, vol.7 where he was instructe in the artes liberalle. Whiche movede thro the swetenesse of scripture to moore devocion, takynge with hym his condisciple with whom he usede to say the sawter dayly, wente to Rome, and returnede thens entrede into a newe monastery Molysyne, where he perceyvynge certeyne thynges commaundede þer to be observede, whiche thynges he herde not [folio 348a] afore, neiþer see in the rule of seynte Benedicte, he made reasons and inquisicions þerof mekely and religiously, seyenge: "God made alle thynges by reason, and governethe thynges made by reason; the sterres be movede by reason; and so oure naturalle lyfe excedynge from reason by slawthe and ignoraunce awe to be reducede by lawes and reasons. Wherefore thauȝhe there be somme thynges in the rule of seynte Benedicte, the intellect of whom the dullenesse of my Page  399, vol.7 mynde may not comprehende, y suppose hit be beste to ȝiffe credence to auctorite; for sithe that God made not eny thynge with owte reason, then how scholde y beleve holy seyntes and the foloers of God to ordeyne eny thynge with owte reason. Wherefore brynge auctorite or reason for those thynges that ye reherse, and ȝiffe exemples of the rule of seynte Benedict, and if ye do not ye professe in veyne the prerogatyf of hym the doctryne of whom ye despise to folowe." This sentence was open anoon amonge the breþer, and movede mony to avoide leste thei schulde labore in veyne; wherefore a decrete was made that the substantiall partes of that rule scholde be kepede, and oþer thynges as superfluous to be refusede. The abbot movede that alle men scholde conde|scende, but hit was harde to take awey the sedes from þeire Page  401, vol.7 myndes whiche hade bene sawen þer of olde tyme. Wherefore xviij. monkes oonly wente with Steven aforeseide, and lefte that monastery, confessynge due religion not to be observede þer where habundaunce of rychesse and delices of meites oppresse the sawle. Wherefore this Stephanus Hardingus bouȝte a place callede Cistercium, fulle of hilles, now a famous monastery, whiche place was encreasede moche by the helpe of the arche|bischop Vienense, and by helpe of the pope. ℞. After that, in the yere of oure Lorde God ml. c. xxxv., that ordre was brouȝhte into Yynglonde by a man callede Walterus Espec, a monastery of that ordre made at Rivallis. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quarto. This is the observaunce of theire religion: thei schalle were noo thynge of skynnes, as pilches, neiþer of lyne ne stamyn, neiþer bere or were breches, but in travayle; usynge ij. cootes with ij. towles in alle the yere, but thei may were oon in somer, but he schalle not were in eny wise moo then Page  403, vol.7 ij.cootes. Also thei slepe in theire clothes, not goynge to bedde after matyns; whiche moderate the servyce that the day begyn|nethe to be liȝhte afore the lawdes, syngynge prime anoon after the lawdes, and after that thei goo to theire laboures. [folio 348b] Noo man schalle absente hym from servyce, neiþer go furthe after complyn, but the infirmarer, celerer, and hostiler, whiche schalle serve the gestes with silence. Noo man of þeim eitethe flesche, but if he be seke. And thei have but oon refeccion in the day from the idus of September untylle Ester, Sonne|dayes excepte; not goynge furthe of the claustre but to laboure; not usynge to speke but to the abbotte or prior, usenge the Page  405, vol.7 office of seynte Ambrose, and havynge grete charge of hospi|talite. Thabbot Molimense began to kepe this observaunce streytely in the begynnynge, and causede oþer men to do so also, but he repente þer of soone after. For diverse of those monkes, knowynge the wille of thabbot, purchasede letters revocatory of the pope; and so alle monkes, viij. excepte, returnede to theire monastery, where thei were afore. Neverthelesse, those viij. monkes made Albericus abbot, and Hardingus prior, whiche Stephanus Hardyngus made abbot afterwarde, edifiede xv. monasterys, and began to edify an other. That religion en|creasede so moche in that tyme that the monkes of the ordre Cisterciense were as a lawnterne to alle oþer monkes.

Page  407, vol.7

Capitulum undecimum.

PASCHALIS the secunde succedid pope Urban xviij. yere, whiche was imprisonede, and his cardinalles also, in the xiij. yere off his office by the emperoure Henre the iiijthe, and myȝhte not be delyverede untille that he hade promisede fidelite to themperour, suffrenge hym to have the investitures of prelates with a rynge and a staffe, promysynge also that he scholde not excommunicate themperoure, of whiche thynges the pope did wryte to hym a privelege. But in the yere folowynge, a cown|saile hade at Rome, the pope dampnede the seide privilege in this maner: "I covette and holde alle holy scripture, the olde and newe testament, lawes, prophetes, gospelles, canons of apostles, alle cownsailes universalle, the decretts of bischopps of Rome, and that thei did holde, and that thei condempnede Page  409, vol.7 y condempne and specially y dampne for ever, that privilege grawntede late to themperoure, whiche may be called rather a pravilege then a privilege." Willelmus de Pontificibus, tertio libro. William bischop of Dirhem dedde, the kynge ȝafe that seete to oon Walter, chapeleyne somme tyme to his fader, [folio 349a] a mlli. receyvide afore; whiche compellede the monkes to eite in his halle, settynge afore theyme, olde meytes, and causynge feire women to ministre to theyme. In so moche that fewe did aryse from the table withowte a mocke; for and if a monke avertede his siȝhte from theym, he was callede an ypocrite, and if eny thynge myȝhte be perceyvede of myrthe in his cown|tenaunce he was callede dissolute. Neverthelesse this bischop hade grete lawde in that he causede the body of seynt Cuth|bert to be taken from the grave, and to be onornede with Page  411, vol.7 fresche clothes and newe, and the hedde of seynte Oswald was founde betwene his armes. Osmonde bischop of Salisbrey diede in this tyme; also the water of the see arysynge thro Thamys in this yere drownede mony townes. The develle apperede visibly and expressede to men of the sodeyne dethe of kynge William. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quarto. Kynge William monyschede þerof sette not thereby. In whiche yere Hewe abbot Cluniacense see in a dreame kynge William brouȝhte afore God and condempnede, whiche thynge he schewede to Anselme. Also that kynge dreamed that he was lete bloode, and þat the bloode of hym obscurede and hidde the sonne, insomoche that he cryede, "Seynte Marye, seinte Mary!" and causede his chamberleynes to brynge lyȝhte, and not suffrenge theyme to departe aftirwarde from hym. And after that, the thrydde nones of Auguste, and in the yere of oure Lorde a Ml and a c., the xiij. yere of his reigne, and the xliiijthe of his age, William Rufus was woundede soore by Walterus Tyrrelle, Page  413, vol.7 schotynge at a herte and sleenge þe kynge, and whiche man avoidede with owte eny persecucion. And so the kynge brouȝhte in a charyette to Wynchestre was beryede with in the bischoppes towre, whiche did falle in the yere folowynge. This kynge wolde not suffre eny cownsaile of bischoppes to be kepede in his realme, sellynge the honoures of the churche; whiche hade thre seetes of bischoppes in his hondes, or putte to ferme by hym, in the day of his dethe, as Cawnterbery, Wyn|chestre, and Salisbery, and xij. monasterys, for he thouȝhte to be the heire of alle men. Which denyede the tribute to Rome for cause þer was that tyme contencion betwene Urban pope Page  415, vol.7 and Wibertus pope afore. Henricus, libro septimo. Thauȝhe this kynge was lyȝhte in his dedes, he was stable in his worde, insomoche that and if he hade promisede to a man goode or ylle, he scholde have be sure þerof. Neverthelesse, thauȝhe he was a covetous man, ȝitte he didde oon thynge in his lyfe worthy to be hade in remembraunce; for an abbot in Ynglonde dedde, ij. monkes gedrenge a grete summe of goodes wente to [folio 349b] the kynge for to be made abbot, takynge with theyme an oþer to brynge home thabbot electe. The monkes stondynge afore the kynge and promysynge grete ȝiftes, the kynge callede the thrydde monke to hym, inquirynge of hym what goodes he wolde ȝiffe to be abbot; the monke seide that he wolde not ȝiffe oon peny to be made abbot. Then the kynge seide, "Truly thow arte worthy to take on the that holy charge;" and so that monke was made abbotte.

Page  417, vol.7

Capitulum duodecimum.

WILLIAM Rufus kynge dedde withowte childer, usynge moche concubynes, Henricus, the yonger broþer to hym, suceedid to the realme of Ynglonde, electe at Wynchestre the nones of Auguste, and consecrate at Westmynstre of Mauricius bischop of London, for Anselme was in that tyme in exile. This Henricus erecte so into kynge, made the churche of Criste Page  419, vol.7 free, by laboure of Henricus erle of Warwyke; retenynge his forestes in his awne hondes; commaundynge lawnters*. [Sic in MS.] to be usede in his cowrte in nyȝhtes. Whiche reclusede Ranulphus bischop of Dirham in the towre of London, and restorede Anselme archebischop of Cawnterbery to his seete; amend|ynge the elnes and measures of marchauntes; usynge to fiȝhte moore by cownsaile then by swerde. This kynge was moore temperate in meite then William Rufus his broþer, abhorrynge surfettes bothe of his awne person and of his awne men; resignenge at the laste þe investitures of prelates to God and to seynt Petyr, after grete controversies hade betwene hym and Anselme þerof afore. At the laste, a cownsaille hade at London, harlottes and hoores avoidede, he maryede to his wife Page  421, vol.7 Matilda, doȝhter of Malcolinus kynge of Scottes, whom venerable Anselme crownede into qwene in the day of seynte Martyne. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. Thomas archebischop of Yorke dedde in this tyme, a man Giraldus by name was successour to hym, ȝiffyn to ylle artes and lecchery, as peple did reporte. For a booke of subtile artes, Iulius Firmicus, whom he usede to rede in secrete tymes, was founde under a pelowe in a charyette in whom he diede, after his dethe. Wherefore the canons of Yorke wolde not suffre hym to be beryede in the churche, and unnethe in seyn|tuary. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quinto. Robert duke of Normandy, understondynge William Rufus, kynge of Yng|londe and broþer to hym, to be dedde, returnede from the Holy Londe to Apulia, and so to Normandy, and from Normandy to Ynglonde. That knowen in Ynglonde, mony gentillemen of the londe drawede from kynge Henricus, feynynge little occasions, and callynge hym godryche, godfadir, and sende prively for Robert, broþer to the kynge. Radulphus bischop Page  423, vol.7 of Dirham, herynge this rumor, brake owte from the towre of London, and wente to Normandy, and movede Robert ageyne kynge Henricus his broþer. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quarto. This Roberte was eldeste son of William Conque|roure, to whom he promisede Normandy, whiche laborynge to have hit in the life of his fader, and not reioysynge hit, ȝaffe mony soore sawtes and conflictes to his ffader. But his fader, skornynge hym in the begynne,*. [Sic in MS.] seide afterwarde, "By the resurreccion of Criste, Robyn Curthose, my sonne, wylle be a noble man." But at the laste his fader was trowblede with hym, that he expellede hym from the inheritaunce of Ynglonde, levynge unnethe to hym Normandye. The seide Robert did mony noble thynges in the Holy Londe, that he was not un|horsed in alle the batelles þer, neiþer by Cristen man neiþer by Page  425, vol.7 pagan. After that the seide Robert beynge in the temple of Ierusalem in the holy eve of Ester, and abidynge lyȝhte to descende from hevyn after consuetude, his taper was liȝhte, wherefore he was electe of alle peple to be kynge of Ierusalem. But the seide Roberte refusynge hit, in truste of the realme of Ynglonde, in that his broþer was dedde, was not fortunate in batelle after that tyme. Whiche returnynge from Ierusalem mariede þe doȝhter of William de Aversana in Apulia, with whom he receyvede grete goodes; whiche woman was peres|chede soone by disseyte of hire mydewife, whiche did bynde hire brestes habundant in mylke after that sche was delyverede, and so sche diedde. This Robert gedrenge a grete hoste ageyne kynge Henricus his broþer, londede at Portesmowthe; but pease Page  427, vol.7 was reformede by mediators in this condicion, that Robert scholde receyve yerely by the tyme of his lyfe iij.ml marke, and he that lyvede longer of theyme scholde be heire to that other, if thei diede with owte eny heire male. And so Robert depart|ynge, and commynge to Ynglonde in the yere nexte folowynge, forȝafe that pension at the peticion of the qwene. After whiche tyme the seide Roberte was not luffed in Normandy, insomoche that the Normannes sende for kynge Henricus, and were with the seide kynge ageyne Robert theire lorde. Whiche com|mynge into those costes occupiede alle Normandy, Roone, [folio 350b] Caane and Phalesia excepte, whiche cites the seide Robert kepede. Men of Caan grevonde thereof desirede kynge Hen|ricus to comme to that cite, and expulsede Robert theire lorde; where Robert fleynge to Roone with oon esqwyer desirede helpe of the kynge of Fraunce and of the erle of Flawndres. Page  429, vol.7 Neverthelesse the seide Roberte attemptynge the kynge by bataile, was devicte and taken, and kepede at Caerdeif by the tyme of his lyfe, where he died.

Capitulum decimum tertium.

ROBERT erle of Schrobbesbery, sonne of Roger Mownt Gomerike, made insurreccion in this yere ageyne kynge Hen|ricus, storynge the castells of Schrobbesbery, of Bruggys, of Arundell, and of Tikhull, drawynge to hym mony men of Wales. But the kynge toke alle those castells with yn xlti daies, thro ȝiftes and promisses to men of Wales, and com|pellede the seide erle to abiure Ynglonde; whiche saylynge into Normandy, drawede to William whiche was erle of Morton in Normandy, and also the erle of Cornewayle, whiche trowblede Page  431, vol.7 soore the cuntre of Normandy. Kynge Henry herynge that, and takynge an hoste with hym, wente to Normandy and ȝafe batelle to theyme; and so he obteynynge the victory, putte the erles in perpetuall prison. After that kynge Henricus, levynge Normandy, returnede to Ynglonde, where he made scharpe lawes ageyne theves and oþer trespassours, that is to say, the losynge of theire eien and of theire stones. After that he subduede to hym men of Wales, Scottes, and also the Britons Page  433, vol.7 that were behynde see. Hewe erle of Chestreschire diede in this yere, whom Richarde his sonne, a childe havynge vij. yere in age, did succede. Venerable Anselme, kepynge a cowne|sayle at London, deposed mony abbottes, and putte þeire places to ferme; cursynge every Sonneday alle men usynge the synne Sodomye, whiche sentence he retracte soone; for the publica|cion of that vice inducede peple that hade not knowlege of that synne afore to use hit. Also he prohibite prestes to have wyfes or concubynes. A grete discorde was spronge betwene the kynge and Anselme, in that he wolde not consecrate pre|lates whiche hade taken investitures of seculer men, for this cause specially, in that the pope hade prohibite but late afore that thynge on his curse. Neverthelesse Giraldus the arche|bischop of Yorke consecrate suche men when that Anselme was goen to the pope. The peple of Flaundres come into Ynglonde in this tyme, for the desolacion of a cuntre to in|habite, [folio 351a] Page  435, vol.7 in þat the cuntre of Flandres was oppressede with gravelle of the see. To whom kynge Henricus ȝafe licence to inhabite a cuntre nye to þe water of Twede; whiche peple wente after into Weste Wales in the xiij. yere of the reigne of this kynge. The body of seynte Cuthebert was founde incor|rupte in the iiijc yere after his sepulture, with the hedde of seynte Oswalde, for the incredulite of diverse prelates. iiij. whyte cercles apperede abowte the sonne in the vijthe idus of Iunius; and on Scherethursday nexte folowynge ij. moones were seen afore day, oon in the este, an other in the weste. In whiche yere a grete discorde was movede betwene Henricus themperoure and Henricus his son, insomoche þat the sonne imprisonede the fader. In whiche yere also seynte Anselme was accorde with the kynge commyn to Bectum, and sende after þat to Ynglonde.

Page  437, vol.7

Capitulum decimum quartum.

HENRICUS the iiijthe, sonne of Henricus the thrydde, began to be emperoure, whiche reignede ix. yere. This emperour put his fader in prison, where he diede; imprisonynge also Paschalis the pope, with his cardinalls; wherefore, as men suppose he diede withowte eny childer, thauȝhe he maryede to his wife Matilda, doȝhter of Henricus kynge of Ynglonde, unnethe of v. yere in age. A cownsaile was hade in*. [Sic in MS.] yere at London by Anselme, where a statute was made by grawnte of the kynge that noo seculer person scholde have investitures of prelates with a staffe and with a rynge. In whiche tyme Giraldus, archebischop of Yorke, made obedience to venerable Anselme, and after þat, the iiijthe idus of August, Anselme consecrate in oon day v. bischoppes at London, of Wynchestre, Page  439, vol.7 of Salysbery, Oxenford, Herdford, and of Glamorgan. Kynge Henricus ordeynede in this yere that thefes scholde be hongede, and that halpenys and penys scholde be made rownde. Gi|raldus the archebischop of Yorke diede in this yere, whom Thomas did succede þer vij. yere. Kynge Henricus made a bischoppes seete at Hely, makynge Hereneus bischop of Bangor president þer; whiche ȝafe the towne of Spaldynge to the bischop of Lyncolne, in that he hade ȝiffen Cantebrigge to the bischoppe of Hely. Hewe abbot Cluniancese diede in this yere in Ester weke, after that blissede Mary, seynte Petyr and seynte Hillarius had apperede to hym. Willelmus de Ponti|ficibus, libro primo. Venerable Anselme diede at Cawnterbery in this yere, and anoyntede with bawme sende from hevyn was beryede on Scherethursday; and so the seete of Cawnter|bery [folio 351] Page  441, vol.7 was vacante by v. yere. For the kynge made this excuse, seyenge that excellente clerkes reioycede that seete afore in the tyme of his predecessours, where hyt scholde not go owte of kynde in his tyme. This Anselme and*. [Sic in MS.] famose clerke, borne in the cuntre of Alpes, gretely instructe, and not fyndynge eny occasion how he myȝhte please his fader, fledde to Bectum in Normandy unto Lanfrancus. Whiche havynge xxvj. yere in age, was made monke under Herlewinus, abbot of þat monas|tery, and after thre yere y-paste, Lanfrancus made abbotte of Caane, Anselme was made prior Bectense under Herlewinus Page  443, vol.7 abbot. Whiche ȝafe hym to grete abstinence by xv. yere, and to the informacion of yonge peple, seyenge oftetymes that he hade lever be in helle withowte synne then in hevyn with synne. This noble clerke Anselme, after that he hade bene prior xv. yere, Herelewinus dedde, he was electe to be abbot. Page  445, vol.7 And after that kynge William Rufus laborynge in grete in|firmite callede venerable Anselme to hym, and ȝafe to hym the seete of Cawnterbery by consente of bischoppes. The seide Anselme refusynge hyt seide in this wyse: If Anselme as a meke schepe be cowplede to William Rufus as a wilde bulle, the plowe of the churche scholde not go ryȝhte for the in|equalite of the bestes in hit. Neverthelesse this holy bischop Anselme consecrate, and the kynge recurede of infirmite was worse then ever he was afore; his cownsellours movenge hym to vertu, he was wonte to say, "By the chere of Luke, my God schalle never have goode thynge of me for ylle;" not pleasede with eny ȝifte with owte hit were to his pleasure. Hit happede in a tyme this Anselme to have taken to hym for Page  447, vol.7 a ȝifte v.c.li.; and that ȝifte refusede of the kynge, he distribute hit amonge poore peple. Diverse mervayles were seen in Ynglonde in this tyme, for þer was a grete movynge of erthe at Schrobbesbery, and the water of Trente at Notyngham was so dryede up that men myȝhte goe over hit with owte eny moisture. Also a blassynge sterre apperede in the monethe of Iunius by thre weekes contynually, and after that a scharpe wynter did folowe, grete hungre, dethe of men, moreyne of bestes, and fiȝhtynge of briddes. Kynge Henricus made the monastery of Hyde, with owte the walles of Wynchestre somme tyme, with ynne the walles. Henricus the iiijthe emperour of Alemayne, mariede Matilda, suster*. [Sic.] of kynge Henricus, at Magoncia, the viij. idus of Ianuary.

Capitulum decimum quintum. [folio 352a]

A GRETE wontynge of water happede thro Yyglonde in the idus of October, insomoche that men and bestes myȝhte have Page  449, vol.7 go by water from the toure of London unto the brigge by a naturalle day. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. A cownsaile hade in this yere at London, the kynge intendede to have made Faricius, abbot of Abendon, metropolitan of Yng|londe; but the bischoppes electe Radulphus bischoppe of Raw|chestre. In whiche tyme a man callede Thurstinus was electe into the bischop of Yorke; and the seide man monyschede ofte tymes by the kynge to make profession and obedience to þe metropolitan of Ynglonde, chosede raþer to leve his seete. But after that he repent, and wente to the kynge in Normandy, where Paschalis the pope sende a bulle to the kynge for the restitucion of the seide Thurstyn. Whiche reioycnge that seete and refusynge to make obedience, a newe discorde began to sprynge amonge the bischoppes. Willelmus de Pontifi|cibus, Page  451, vol.7 libro primo. The pope grawntede this privelege to the bischopps, beynge there for this mater to be discussede, whiche privilege was grawnted afore by his predecessors, willynge that suche privilege scholde remayne stable and inconcussede for ever. But and if the pope hade expressede these and these dignites be hade in youre churches, he scholde have finischede that contencion; but he lefte that untowchede. And messyngers of the kynge departede, the pope consecrate the seide Thurstyn, and toke to hym a palle, a grete summe of goode ȝiffen to hym afore. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro tertio. And thauȝhe kynge Henricus hade grete indignacion þerof, and prohibite that seete to the seide Thurstyn, he dredde soore the wrytynge of the pope, where hit was contenede that other he scholde admitte the seide Thurstyne, or he scholde be excommunicate, and the bischop of Cawnterbery suspended. Wherefore the kynge Page  453, vol.7 admitte the seide Thurstyne at the laste as compellede. Wil|lelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. The seide Radulphus laborynge as in a peralisy thro huge vexacion, and the firste wife of this kynge dede, and mariede*. [Sic in MS.] to the duke of Loth|aringia, was crownede by an other bischop with owte licence of the metropolitan. After that the bischop recured, and seenge the kynge y-crownede, seide to hym, "Thow arte not crownede ryȝhteousely." Then the kynge seide to hym, "Fader, cor|recte that is wronge:" for the metropolitan hade seide to hym that either the kynge scholde abstene from his crowne, or he from masse. Whiche metropolitan wolde have a taken violentely the crowne from the kynges hedde, but that he was entretede into the contrary by the preyers of noble astates presente. [folio 352b] This metropolitan was a man of noble intellecte, not prompte to synne, neverthelesse he hade oon grete vice of moche laȝhynge, insomoche that he was callede as a japer of moche peple ℞. In this yere was a scharpe wynter, insomoche þat mony brygges were broken in Ynglonde by the dissolvynge of þat forste. Page  455, vol.7 Also a grete movynge of the erthe indurede at Italy by xlta dayes, destroyenge mony edificacions; in whiche tyme oon grete cite was movede from oon place to an other by a grete space asundre. Paschalis the pope diede in this yere, whom Gelasius, chawnceler to hym afore, did succede oon yere and a halfe. Themperour herynge the privilege of the investiture of prelates to be revocate, come to Rome that he myȝhte be vengede of Paschalis the pope. Neverthelesse the emperour, knowynge that he was dedde, made Mauricius bischop Ba|charense pope excommunicate of the pope but a litelle afore, whom he callede Gregory the vijthe. Gelasius the pope dredynge the emperoure, fledde to Cluniacum with the cardi|nalls, where he diede, and then the cardinalls electe into the pope Guido the archebischop Viennense, whom thei callede Calixte the secunde. ℞. Florencius, a monke of Worcestre, diede in this yere, thro labour of whom this presente storye ys Page  457, vol.7 gretely suppliede. A grete discorde spronge betwene kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, kynge of Ynglonde hade a glorious victory ageyne the kynge off Fraunce. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quinto. After that kynge Henricus mariede William his sonne the senior to the doȝhter of Fulco erle of Gascoigne, and then pease was made betwene the kynges, for the seide William helde Normandy of the kynge of Fraunce, and made to hym homage þerfore by consente of his fader. For kynge Henricus thouȝhte that hit were schame beynge kynge to have made homage to hym. Then kynge Henricus made men of Normandy and of Ynglonde to do homage to his sonne William. Fulco the seide erle goynge to lerusalem toke the cuntre of Gascoyne to the kynge of Ynglonde to the utilite of William his sonne in lawe, if that he come not ageyne.

Page  459, vol.7

Capitulum decimum sextum.

CALIXTUS the secunde was pope v. yere and v. monethes; whiche gedrenge a grete hoste come to Rome and toke Mauricius the pope, causynge hym to be putte on a camel [folio 345b] goynge or rydynge afore Calixte, his face turnede to the tayle of the camelle and holdynge hit in his hondes for a bridele. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quinto.

The ordre Premonstracense began abowte this tyme in þe province Landunense under fader Norbertus. Matilda, qwene [folio 353a] of Ynglonde, a woman nobly instructe in connynge and vertu. Page  461, vol.7Willelmus de Regibus, libro quinto. Kynge Henricus takynge schippe at Barbelflete in Normandy come to Ynglonde the vijthe kalendes of December. But William his eldeste sonne wyllynge to folowe hym, was drownede with mony noble men not ferre from the londe. Amonge whom Ricardus Nothus, sonne of the kynge, was Richarde erle of Chestre, with his wife, the archidiacon of Herford with a cxlti oþer moo in nowmbre, amonge whom noo man escapede ne woman, but a botcher whiche fletynge on the maste of the schippe was dryven to londe, that rehersede of this processe. For these peple en|trenge Page  463, vol.7 into the see with indiscrete schippemen, were sette anoon on a rokke, and the schippe brake; neverthelesse Wil|liam, son to the kynge, was taken into an oþer scaphe, whiche herynge his suster crye, returnede to save here, and so that vesselle was overcharged with peple commynge into hit, that hit sunke into the water. And in the morowe folowynge grete treasure was founde brouȝte to the londe, and not oon of theire bodyes. Henricus, libro septimo. And hit was seide that alle moste alle that peple pereschede usede the synne of Sodomye. Willelmus. Also the seide William, sonne to the kynge, seide openly mony tymes, and if he scholde be lorde of Ynglonde in his life, he scholde make men of Ynglonde to drawe in the plowe lyke to horses. ℞. Also the seide erle of Chestre manassede and promisede to destroy the monastery of monkes in Chestre, whom his fader did edifye and make. Willelmus de Regibus, libro quinto. Fulco returnede to Gas|coigne Page  465, vol.7 from Ierusalem, mariede an oþer doȝhter to the sonne of Roberte Curthose, with whom he ȝafe the cowntee of Cenomanny. After that kynge Henricus mariede Matilda his doȝhter to Henricus the iiijthe, emperoure. Kynge Hen|ricus made in this yere a grete parke at Wodestoke. Richarde erle of Chestre drownede, Ranulphus of Meschines, sonne to the suster of the firste Hewe, succedid þer viij. yere. Radul|phus archebischoppe of Cawnterbery diede in this tyme; and the ordre of the Templaryes began that tyme also. These men congregate togedre made to theyme a place in the porche of the temple of Ierusalem, whereby they were callede knyȝtes of the Temple, founde by the relefe of the Hospitilaryes in meytes and in drynkes. But soone after they encreasede soe in fame and rychesse that thei exceded þe Hospitilaryes. [folio 353b] Neverthelesse thei were destroyede in the tyme of pope Clement the vthe. for theire ignominiose apostasye and blas|phemy Page  467, vol.7 in Criste, in the yere of oure Lorde God a M.ccc.xij. Henricus, libro septimo. A cardinalle come in this yere to Ynglonde, and correcte soore prestes havynge concubynes, seyenge that it was a grevous synne amonge other synnes to aryse from a hoore and say masse after that. Neverthelesse the same cardinalle was taken with a womman in the same day after that he hade seide masse, for alle his hooly pre|dicacion. Honorius the secunde succedid Calixtus the pope v. yere. Henricus the iiijthe and emperour of Alemayne diede this yere, and was beryede at Spira with his progenitors, after the rehersaille of somme men, with suche on epitaphy, "Filius hic, pater hic, avus hic, proavus jacet istic." ℞. Neverthe|lesse Giraldus rehersethe more truly in his Ytinerary, seyenge that this emperoure, after that he hade imprisonede his fader carnalle and þe pope with the cardinalls, departede privily from his wife Matilda borne in Ynglonde, and taryede at Chestre, lyvynge as an heremite by the space of x. yere, Page  469, vol.7 callynge his name Godescallus, which sowndethe as callede of God. And this emperour departede in this maner from his cuntre. Matilda themperesse come to kynge Henricus her fader, beynge that tyme in Normandy, where sche was mariede after to Galfride erle of Gascoigne, by whom sche hade Hen|ricus the secunde, afterwarde kynge of Ynglonde.

Capitulum decimum septimum.

LOTHARIUS, the duke of Saxonia, was made emperour after the dethe or departynge of Henricus themperoure. A cowne|sayle hade in this tyme at London, bischopps preiede the kynge to correcte prestes havynge concubynes thro alle his realme; Page  471, vol.7 but truly he did noon oþer correccion to theyme, but toke theire moneye and goodes. Innocencius the secunde suc|cedid Honorius the pope xiij. yere and vij. monethes. Ana|cletus presumede to be pope, and soe a grete trowble and dissencion were movede in the churche of Rome, for Ana|cletus, electe but of fewe men, expulsede Innocencius from Rome, and spoylede the churches in hit, thro whiche money he corrupte the Romanes. But Innocencius taryenge with the kynge of Fraunce, and in returnynge from Fraunce he crownede Lotharius themperoure, thro helpe of whom he chasede awey Roger duke of Sicille and of Apulia, in that he rebellede ageyne hym. Ranulphus erle of Chestre dedde, Ranulphus his sonne was successour to hym xxv. yere. The erle of Flandres dedde, the kynge of Ynglonde was successour to hym [folio 354a] by ryȝhte of consanguinite. And Matildis thempresse, refusede of Gefray Plantaginet, comme soone after to Nor|mandy to here fader. Where the kynge had iij. mervellous visions. The firste was, he thouȝhte that he see a grete Page  473, vol.7 multitude of chorls to comme and to fiȝhte with hym, and to aske þeire dewte. The secunde was, he thouȝhte that he see a cumpanye of armede men to comme and to ȝiffe batelle to hym. The thrydde was, he thoughte that he see a cumpanye of prelates manassynge hym with theire staves pastoralle. The kynge was so trowblede with these visions that he did lepe from his bedde, and toke his swerde in his honde, cryenge for helpe, as and if he hade intendede to have sleyne somme men. A leche, Grumbaldus by name, see the seide visions of the kynge, and expressede theym in the morowe folowynge to the kynge, spekynge to hym lyke as Daniel did to Nabugodonosor, that he scholde redeme his synnes thro almes. Neverthelesse the seide kynge saylynge from Normandye towarde Ynglonde suffrede grete tempestes on the see, where he made promyse that he wolde relesche the tribute of the Danes vij. yere, and visitte Seynte Edmunde, and use ryȝhteuousenesse after. Lodowicus kynge of Fraunce, herynge of the dethe Guiller|mus duke of Aquitanny, sende Lodowicus his sonne, crownede into kynge and anoytede, to Aquitanny, to wedde Elianor, doȝhter of the seide duke, whiche takynge with hir the duchery of Aquitanny, wedde that Elianor at Burdewse. Of whom he gate Mary countesse of Campanye, and Aclides wife of Theobaldus erle Blesense. And Lodowicus, kynge of Page  475, vol.7 Fraunce diede with in a monethe after the weddynge of his sonne, the kalendes of Auguste, and beriede in the churche of Seynte Dionise in Fraunce, whom Lodowicus junior did succede. Roberte erle of Normandy, and broþer to the kynge, diede at Caerdif in this yere, and was beryede at Gloucestre afore the hye awter. The priory of Norton in the province of Chestre was founded this tyme by William sonne of Nigellus, and the monastery of Cumbremere in the same province also. Also Henricus Courtmantelle, son of thempresse, was borne in thys tyme. Kynge Henricus diede this tyme in Normandye, whom a metricion commendethe in this wise:

"Rex Henricus obit, decus olim, nunc dolor orbis,
Numina flent numen deperiisse suum.
Mercurius minor eloquio, vi mentis*. [Martis, MS.] Apollo, [folio 354b]
Jupiter imperio, Marsque vigore gemit.
Janus cautela minor, Alcides probitate,
Conflictu Pallas, arte Minerva gemit,
Anglia quæ cunis quæ sceptro numinis hujus
Ardua splenduerat, jam tenebrosa ruit,
Hæc cum rege suo, Normannia cum duce marcet.
Nutrit et hæc puerum, perdidit illa virum." Page  477, vol.7

Henricus, libro octavo. This kynge dedde mony men sayde that he hade iij. specialle vertues, wisedome, eloquence and fortune of batells; and somme men seide that he hade iij. specialle vices, covetyse, crudelite and voluptuosite. The cause of the dethe of this kynge was seide to have comme by the eitynge of a lamprey whiche meyte he luffed moche, never|thelesse hit chargede his stomake oftetymes. The body of this kynge was brouȝhte to Ynglonde, and was beryede in the monastery of Radynge that he did founde. Henricus, libro septimo. Symon þe sonne of Robert bischop of Lincoln, and decan in the same churche, flowrede moche in this tyme, scharpe of witte, eloquente in speche, beautuous of forme, yonge in age, but olde in connynge and intellect of divine scripture. Of whiche thynges he began to be prowde, and Page  479, vol.7 after that envy folowede, and so after by succession elacion and detraccion: whiche pronosticate in a tyme of hym selfe seyenge, "Y schalle be amonge cowrteours lyke salte amonge elys on lyve;" attendynge to oon proprete, and not to that [folio 337b] oþer, ffor like as salte destroyede elys, so he destroyede cowrteours by detraccion. But at the laste, lyke as salte is destroyede with the humoure of the elys, so he was de|stroyede by contempte of alle men. For he was putte into prison by the kynge for his hate and pride; from whiche prison he escapede by a sege and diede in exile.

Capitulum octavum decimum.

THIS kynge Henricus the firste dedde, Steven erle of Bonony, sonne of the erle Blessense, did succede, whiche reignede xvij. yere, a myȝhty man and a bolde, and was crownede into the kynge at London of William archebischoppe of Cawnterbery, ageyne the othe and promise made to the emprice; wherefore Page  481, vol.7 the seide metropolitan diede in the yere folowynge. And also alle noble men makenge fidelite to the seide kynge had an ylle ende. Also hit is seide the sacramente evaneschede awey in the day of his coronacion when hit was put towarde his mowthe. This Steven crownede into the kynge did swere afore the gen|tille [folio 355a] men at Oxenforde that he wolde remitte Danegeld, a certeyn tribute paiede to the Danes; whiche dredynge the com|mynge of the empresse grawntede also to the noble men of his realme to make towres and castells in theire awne grownde after theire pleasure; and soone after that he toke Excestre. William archebischoppe of Cawnterbury diede, whom Theo|baldus abbot Bectense did succede. Lotharius emperoure of Alemayne diede in this tyme; whom Conradus, duke of Bavar|ria, did succede, beynge emperour of Rome also by xv. yere. Thauȝhe this emperoure toke not benediccion off the pope, neverthelesse he, merkede with the signe of the crosse at the prechynge of seynte Bernarde abbot, did mony noble thynges Page  483, vol.7 in the Holy Londe. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo xviijo. Theobaldus the blissede, erle of Company, was in this tyme, whiche usede to visitte poore peple, and men infecte with the lepre; whom a metricion commended after his dethe in this wise:

"Ille comes, comes ille, pius Theobaldus erat, quem
Gaudet habere polus, terra carere dolet.
Nam hominem possum non audeo dicere numen;
Mors probat hunc hominem, vita fuisse deum;
Trans hominem citraque deum, plus hoc, minus illo,
Nescio quis neuter inter utrumque fuit."

David kynge of Scottelond entrede Ynglonde the thrydde tyme, wastynge that londe unto the water of Teyse, brennynge in the costes abowte Yorke, and sleenge moche peple. But Thurstyn archebischop of Yorke, gedrenge an hoste secretely, and metynge the seide kynge, put hym to fliȝhte, sleynge x. ml of his hostes, and brouȝhte ageyne grete goodes taken from the cuntre. Kynge Steven, takynge the castelle of Bedforde, con|trarious to hym, wente to Scottelonde, and doynge noo thynge Page  485, vol.7 þer worþy commendacion, returnede to Ynglonde, and impri|soned Alexander bischop of Lincoln, unto the tyme that he hade taken to hym the castelle of Newerke. Also he chasede awey Nigellus bischop of Hely, and prisoned Rogerus bis|choppe of Salisbery, untille that he hade ȝiffen to hym ij. castelles of the Vies and of Shirburne. Wherethro that famous edifier of howses and of castells diede for sorowe, levynge in his castells xlti ml marke, whiche summe was not spende in the servyce of God, but at the use of the kynge. With whiche treasure kynge Steven mariede Constancia, suster to the kynge of Fraunce, to his sonne Eustachius. Thurstyne, archebischop [folio 355b] of Yorke, and the noble edifier of Hangustalde and of other viij. monasteryes, takynge the habite of a monke at Powntefrete, diede in a goode age; the body of whom was founde redolente and incorrupte by ij. yere after his dethe. After that kynge Steven toke the castells of Gloucestre, of Herforde, of Walkely, Bristowe, of Dudley, and of Salisbery. Robert erle of Glowces|tre Page  487, vol.7 perceyvyng that, sende to Matilda thempresse, promisynge to hir helpe ageyne the kynge. Henricus, libro octavo. The seide Robert and the empresse comen to Portesmude in the monethe of Julius, and after that to Bristowe, where thei did grete hurte to peple of that province. The kynge herynge that, lefte the segenge of the castelle of Walyngeforde, and segede Lincolne. Wherefore Ranulphus erle of Chestre, and Robert erle of Gloucestre, come with mony men of Wales to dissolve that sege, and a marres fulle of redes passed over, and the wardes of theire batelle sette in ordre, the erle of Chestre seide that he scholde be the formaste man in that day to putte his body in perelle. To whom Robert the erle of Gloucestre seide, "Hit is not inconveniente to yow to desire the dignite of the fyrste stroke, bothe for the nobilite of youre bloode and for the vertu of strength, in whom ye precelle other men. Page  489, vol.7 But the cruellenesse of the kynge and perjury move me to fiȝhte ageyne hym, for hit is not to returne by that way we come, other lete us have victory here or lete us dye. For hit is necessary to a man to flee to manhode that hathe noon oþer socoure. But attende ageyne what men we schalle fiȝhte:the erle of Mellent stondethe ageyne us, the crafty man of dis|seyte, which hathe of properte wikkidnesse in hert, falsenesse in tunge, and slawthe in his dedes. Also the erle Albemarle wyne drunke, havynge noo crafte in batelle, and Symon of the province of Hampton is þer, whose promise is a ȝifte, and his doynge but as wynde, whiche hathe done when he hathe seide, and hathe ȝiffen when hathe promysede." Kynge Steven in his perelle herde masse, Alexander bischop of Lincolne seyenge masse afore hym; and the kynge offrenge Page  491, vol.7 his taper, hit brake anoon betwene þe hondes of the bischop; and the pix, in whom the sacramente was contenede, brekynge the chene, did falle, whiche was a pronosticacion contrary to [folio 356a] the victory of the kynge. Anoon after that the hostes joynede to gedre, moche peple was overthrowe; the kynge was taken and brouȝhte to the empresse, and was kepede in prison from the feste of þe Purificacion unto the Exaltacion of the holy Page  493, vol.7 Crosse. The empresse joyenge moche of that victory, occupiede anoon Ciciter, after that Wynchestre, where sche was receyvede with a procession by approbacion of a legate. After that sche goynge to Oxforde, Radynge, and to Kente, was receyvede with grete honoure of Theobaldus metropolitan. After that the empresse commen to London to trete of the state of the realme, was movede by the wife of kynge Steven that the realme restorede to the empresse, the kynge myȝhte be losede from prison, this condicion putte, that either he scholde be made a monke, or elles travayle in pilgremage by alle the tyme of his lyfe. But the empresse wolde not here this peticion. Never|thelesse the citesynnes of London made supplicacion that they myȝhte use the lawes of seynte Edwarde, and not the lawes of here fader, in that thei were more streyte; but sche wolde not condescende þerto. The peple trowblede þerwith intended to have taken her, but sche havynge knowlege þerof, and levynge the stuffe of howseholde, fledde to Oxenforde to abide her knyȝhtes that were dispersede. After that sche takenge her Page  495, vol.7 uncle with her, David kynge of Scottes, with a grete nowmbre of knyȝhtes, wente to Wynchestre, segynge soore the towre longynge to the bischop, where the broþer of kynge Steven was. But the qwene commynge with William Yprense, the empresse was so afrayede that sche was putte on a bere as sche hade be dedde, and brouȝhte with horses to Gloucestre as sche scholde have bene beryede þer. Robert the erle her broþer was taken and putte in prison. At the laste the qwene laborynge for the kynge, and the empresse for her broþer, this promision was hade, that the kynge scholde be restorede to his realme, and þe erle to his lordeschippe, and that thei bothe scholde be governoures of the realme, lyke as thei hade causede grete trowble in hit. But the erle forsakynge that, myche manslauȝhter and robbynge was in the realme by alle that yere. Neverthelesse the kynge delyverede from prison abowte the feste of Exaltacion of the [folio 356b] hooly Crosse, segede the empresse in the cite of Oxenforde from the feste of seynte Michell unto Cristemasse. But at the Page  497, vol.7 laste the empresse, clothed in white clothes, wente over the yse on Thamys in a grete snawe unto Walyngforde; so the siȝhte of the peple segenge that cite was deludede by the reverberation of snawe: and so the cite of Oxenforde was restorede and yolden to the kynge. Abowte this tyme a maister Arnald by name prechede at Rome ageyne ryche men, and ageyne the superfluite of men, where thro mony peple folowede hym, but at the laste he was taken and honged in the despite of prestes. In whiche yere John of tymes dyed, whiche hade lyvede ccclxj. yere, somme tyme esqwier to grete kynge Charls.

Page  [3], vol.8

Capitulum nonum decimum.

CELESTINUS the secunde succeded Innocencius secunde pope v. monethes, whom Lucius did succede xi. monethes. Eugenius the secunde was pope viii. yere and v. monethes. This pope, somme tyme the disciple of blissede Bernard, and after abbot of Seynte Anastatius nye to Rome, and com|mynge for devocion to the churche of Seynte Cesarius, was electe into þe pope by the cardinalls, and consecrate with|oute the walles of the cite for drede of þe senators. This pope marked Lodowicus kynge of Fraunce with the signe of the crosse, and kepede a cownesaile at Remis in Fraunce; to whom seynte Bernard did write bookes of Consideracions. Henricus, libro octavo. Ranulphus erle of Chestre commynge to Wal|yngeforde Page  5, vol.8 with a grete hoste was acorded with the kynge, but after that he was taken by treason in a parliament at North|ampton, and cowthe not be delyverede tylle he hade taken to the kynge the castell of Lincoln. And after that kyng Steven was crownede in the cite of Lincolne, whiche thynge was not seen afore. In whiche yere Conradus the emperour, the kynge of Fraunce, the erle of Flaundres, and mony oþer noble men toke their wey by Hungary to the Holy Londe, whiche were betrayede by treason of the emperour of Constantinopole, for mony men eitenge brede mixte with lyme diede þerof: somme men were sleyne, somme men diede for extorcion and synne. Giraldus, distinctione prima, capitulo octavo decimo. Lodo|wicus kynge of Fraunce returnede from the Holy Londe labored in grete infirmite causede by continence as phisicions seide, [folio 357a] Page  7, vol.8 wherefore he was movede to use somme maide; to whom he seide, "Y hade lever dye in chastite then lyve in adultery;" and after that he was recurede anoon. A clerke bryngynge to the seide kynge the privelege that he scholde rejoyce the investi|tures of prelates and the frutes of theire churches for theire vacacion he toke the lettres*. [Sic in MS. Evidently some words are wanting.] then that his sawle scholde be punyschede in helle þerfore. Also the seide kynge usynge to faste in the vj. fery in brede and water, was movede to leve that faste and to norische a c. poore men that day; whom he answerde seyenge: "We wylle that so mony poore men be norischede in þat day, but ȝitte we wylle not breke oure faste, for withowte that goode that hit causethe to the sawle, the reste of that day helpethe moche to avoide superfluous Page  9, vol.8 humors receyvid in the weke afore, and also to gendre an appetite." Hugo de Sancto Victore diede abowte this tyme, monke and prior of Seynte Victor nye to Parise, an excellent man in connynge and religion; of whom hit is rehersed that this holy man laborynge in extreme infirmite, and trowblede moche with debilite of stomake, desyrede oftetymes of his breþer that he myȝhte receyve his Maker. The breþer of the monastery willynge to satisfye his mynde, brouȝhte to hym a lofe not consecrate. This hooly man perceyvynge that in spirite or sawle, seide to his breþer, "God have mercy on yow, why do ye skorne me? this is not my Maker:" and after that thei brouȝhte to hym the verey body of Criste. The holy man seenge his Maker, and havynge noo myȝhte to receyve Page  11, vol.8 hym, extendynge his hondes into hevyn seide: "The Sonne may ascende to the Fader, and the sawle to God that create hit;" and that seide he diede, and the body of Criste evan|eschede. ℞. Somme men say that this holy man, perceyv|ynge that he myȝhte not receyve his Maker for feblenesse of his stomake, preide his breþer to putte the sacramente to his syde: that doen his side openede, and the hoste wente into his body. This clerke made mony noble werkes, as of þe sacra|mentes, of the arke of Noe or schippe, of the institucion of novices, of the erroure of the sawle, of the study of sapience, whiche is callede Didascalon, and of the lawde of the crosse. Maister Gracian, borne in Tuschia, and monke of Seynte Pro|culus in Bonony, compilede the decrees in this yere, as Hugo [folio 357b] seythe, secunda quæstio, sexta forma. And maister Petir Page  13, vol.8 Lumbard, his broþer german, bischop of Paris, compilede iiij. bookes of the sentence, and glosede the sawter and the epistoles of Paule.*. [The additional sentences in chap. xix. are peculiar to the Harl. MS.] Lodowicus kynge of Fraunce was departede from Elianor his qwene in that thei were nye of bloode, as the seide kynge did swere, of whom he gate ij. doȝhters: Mary, whom the erle Cretense hade mariede; and Aclides, whom Theobaldus the erle Blesense mariede afterwarde. Henricus the duke of Normandy and erle of Gascoigne, metynge this lady goynge towarde the cuntre of her nativite, toke her unto his wife, and after that Aquitanny returnede to the bloode of Ynglonde. That matrimony inducede grete discorde betwene kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce. This Henricus duke of Normandy gate of the seide qwene William, Henricus, Richard, Galfride, Philippe, and Iohn, tweyne of whom, William and Philip died in theire tendre age, and the other ij. sonnes were promotede by succession to regalle dignite. And Galfride the iiijthe sonne occupiede the cownte of Briteyne by the tyme of his lyfe. Also he gate of her iiij. doȝhters, oon of whom was mariede to the kynge of Castell, of whom Blanche come, modere of Seynte Lodowicus kynge, an oþer was maryede to Alexander emperoure off Constantinopole. The thrydde was maryede to the duke of Saxony, of whom Otho themperoure of Rome come; the iiijthe was maryede to the erle Tholosan, of whom Reymund come, the doȝhter of whom Alfonsus erle Pictavense, broþer of seynte Lewes kynge of Fraunce, toke into his wife.

Capitulum vicesimum.

FREDERICUS the firste, after Conradus, was emperoure off Alemayne and of Rome xxvij. yere. This emperoure did Page  15, vol.8 mony wicked dedes after the dethe of Alexander þe pope, whiche hade crownede hym or Adrian in drawenge to iiij. men electe into the pope ageyne the lawe of God, and trowblede soore the kynge of Fraunce, to whom the pope fledde for socoure. Neverthelesse he was expulsede from Fraunce by helpe of Richarde kynge of Ynglonde, but afore his departynge he destroyede utterly þe walles of the cite Mediolan, in the yere of oure Lorde God a M.C. lxij. This emperoure, after [folio 358b] grete tribulacion and iniury doen to þe pope, and dredynge the rebellion of Lumbardes, askede forȝifnesse of þe pope, and soe he was merkede there with the signe of the crosse that he myȝhte goe to the Holy Londe, where he was drownede soone after in a lytelle water nye to Armeny, and was beryede at the cite callede Tirus. And a noble yonge man his sonne diede at the sege of the cite of Acon, and allemoste alle the nobilite of Cristen peple. Anastasius the thridde succedid Page  17, vol.8 Eugenius the pope ij. yere. In whiche yere seynte Bernarde diede, abbot Clarevall, whiche entrede the ordre Cisterciense with xxx. felawes in the xxijti yere of his age, and was made abbot Clarevall after the vthe yere of his conversion. Where he wakede as excedynge þe nature of man, seyenge that he loste noo tyme but when he slepede, assimblenge slepe to dethe; whiche wente also to his meite as to tormente, insomoche that he hade loste discrecion of meytes for his huge abstinence, takynge and drynkynge oyle ofte tymes for wyne, seyenge þat þer was noo licoure that savoured his mowthe or that he myȝhte discerne in that hit made his chekes colde. And that connynge that he hade he gate hit by meditacions and preiers in woodes and feldes, seyenge ofte that he hade noo Page  19, vol.8 techer but okes and beche tres. The seide holy man hade poore clothes, but thei were clene, seyenge that the clothynge of man did represente his lyfe, usynge to say ofte this proverbe: "A man that doethe a thynge whiche noon other man usethe, causethe alle men to mervayle." Seynte Bernarde was wonte to say to novices willynge to entre into that religion in this wise: "If ye intende to kepe the observaunce of the religion, leve youre bodies here whom ye have brouȝhte from the worlde, and lete the sawles entre into religion as ac|cordynge to theym, for the body profitethe not." This holy*. [Sic in MS.] was founde at alle tymes other preyenge, redynge, wrytynge, in meditacion, other in techynge his brether. At the laste he knowynge in spiritte dethe to drawe nere, in the yere of oure Lorde God a M.C. and liiiti, callynge his breþer to hym, mony|schede theyme to kepe iij. thynges, whom he seide to have kepede in alle his life after his powere. "I wyllede not in my Page  21, vol.8 lyfe to sclawnder eny man, and if y hade knowlege of eny sclawnder y did sease hit to my powere. Also y toke lesse credence to myne awne wytte then to the reason of an other [folio 358b] man; also y askede never vengeaunce on a man that hurte and trowblede me." And so this blissede seynte Bernarde, noble wryter, specially of those thynges whiche towche the incarnacion of Criste, the doer also of mony miracles, and the edifyer of a c. and lx. monasterys, diede in Criste. Ranulphus, the iiijthe erle of Chestre after the Conqueste, dyed in this yere, whom Hew the secunde, and sonne to hym, did succede xxix. yere, which did mony noble thynges in his lyfe. Also kynge Steven diede in the same yere at the monastery of Faverisham in Kente, whiche monastery he edifiede and founded, and was beryede þer. In the tyme of this kynge a knyȝhte, Owen by name, entrede into the purgatory of seynte Patrikk abbot, whiche returnede from that purgatory taryede after in the Page  23, vol.8 monastery Ludense of the ordre Cisterciense in Yrlonde, re|hersynge ioyes and peynes that he see.

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

KYNGE Steven ded, Henricus the secunde, sonne of the em|presse and of Galfride Plantagenet, erle of Gascoigne, succedid. The maners, actes, vertues, and vices of whom Giralde off Wales describethe in his distincions, seyenge: "Hit is a drede|fulle thynge to allegate ageyne hym that may putte to exile, and to describe hym in mony wordes that may condempne a man with oon worde." But hit were a gracious thynge, and as excedynge my discrecion to wryte the trawthe of this prince in alle his condicions, and not to displease somme parties. This Henry kynge of Ynglonde was a corpulente man, large in hedde and breste, with yelowe eien, and with a grete voice; lytelle in meite and drynke to represse his fattenesse, vexenge Page  25, vol.8 his body with huntynge, walkynge, and stondenge; of a meane stature, eloquente and litterate. This kynge dredde also fortune in batells, more manly ageyne a dedde knyȝhte then ageyne a man beynge in lyfe; sorowenge dedde men and luffynge lytelle men in lyfe; and if he luffede a man or did hate hym, he scholde not be movede lyȝhtely to the contrary. This kynge was also a voluntary trangressor of his worde and promyse; luffer of ease and reste; the oppressor of nobilite, the seller of [folio 359a] ryȝhteuousnes, a open advouterer, unkynde alle tymes to God; luffynge discorde betwene his childer, supposynge þerby to Page  27, vol.8 have reste. Neverthelesse he flourede moche in chevallery of Mart and of Minerva singulerly, for he stablede in pease his londes longynge to hym by inheritaunce, subduynge Irlonde to hym, the realme of Scottelonde also, and toke William kynge of hit, concludynge his empire from the sowthe occean unto the northe yles of Orcades as under oon monarchye, whiche thynge was not seen from Iulius Cesar unto that tyme; also he subduede to hym in the partes behynde see Pictavia, Gascoigne, unto the hilles Pirene of Speyne and Alvernia, with other londes also by reason of his mariage. This kynge was wonte Page  29, vol.8 to say that alle the worlde were unnethe sufficiant to oon myȝty prince. In the firste he toke awey, ageyne the lawe of God, Elianor wife to Lodowicus kynge of Fraunce, and toke her to his wife ageyne the lawe, of whiche thynge he was prohibit by hys fader, in that he synnede with her when he was stuarde in the kynges courte of Fraunce. Neverthelesse this Henricus gate of her vj. noble sonnes, and iij. doȝhters, Matilda the eldeste, whom he maryede to the duke of Saxony; Alienore, the secunde doȝhter, to the kynge of Speyne; and he maryede also Iohan, the thrydde doȝhter, to the kynge of Sicille. And ij. of his sonnes dedde in theire yowthe, he was trowblede moche with the oþer iiij. sonnes unto the tyme of his dethe. Thritty yere of vj. lustres were ȝiffen to this kynge unto worldely glory, to the tolleraunce of conversion, to the ex|perience of devocion. And other v. yere was ȝiffen to hym by Godde to vengeaunce for his unkyndenesse and wickede lyfe. Page  31, vol.8 For in the xxxiij. yere of his reigne he loste Alvernia ageyne the kynge of Fraunce, whiche losede never grownde afore; and in the xxxiiijti yere he loste Bithurica, and in the nexte yere foloynge the cites Cenomanny and Turonense with mony other castells, and hym selfe also. This kynge usede to have reli|gious men moche of his cownsaille, and to use the cownsaile of theyme raþer then of oþer noble and discrete knyȝhtes, havynge theym in his cowrte that he myȝhte be more commendede of legates sende to hym from the pope or from other grete princes and estates. And also for an other cause, that he [folio 359b] myȝhte redeme and recure his fame whiche he hade loste in that he hade ȝiffen dignites of the churche to unworthy persons; whiche promotede Baldewyne, prior of the ordre Cisterciense, unto the seete off Lincoln. And that the reder of this processe Page  33, vol.8 scholde not mervayle of the unhappy departynge of this kynge and of his childer, the originalle of hym schalle be expressede bothe of the parte of his fader and of his moder. A cowntesse of Gascoigne, of the childe of whom Galfride Plantagenet, fader to this kynge, come, was maryede oonly for her beawte, whiche cowntesse used to comme but selde to the churche, and when sche come to the churche sche taryede unnethe to the secretes of the masse. That thynge perceyvede of the erle her lorde, he causede her to be holden in the church by iiij. knyȝhtes. But sche castynge awey here palle, and levynge ij. sonnes in that churche whom she noryschede in the ryȝhte parte of her mantell, toke with her ij. childer whom sche hade on the lyfte side of the palle, and did flye owte by a wyndowe of the churche, alle the peple in the churche seenge her, and appered not after. And Richarde kynge of Ynglonde was wonte to say that hit was not to be mervaylede that men and peple commen of that stokke scholde trowblede eiche oþer, as Page  35, vol.8 commynge from the develle and to goe to hym. Also a clerke sende from kynge Henricus to Gaufride his sonne, erle of Bri|teyne, for the reformacion of pease herde the seide erle seye to hym, "Whereto commes thow to putte me owte from my na|turalle enheritaunce? knoweste not thow that hit is naturalle to us and a properte by linialle descense that oon of us scholde trowble an other? þerfore laboure noo more to expelle nature." Also Matilda empresse was maryede to Galfride Plantagenet, Henricus themperoure here howsebond beynge an heremite and in lyve, by whiche Galfride this kynge was geten. Of whiche kynge beynge in tendre age in the kynges courte of Fraunce seynte Bernarde propheciede, seyenge afore the kynge, "He come from the devell, and he schalle goe to the develle," assignenge in that the cruellenesse of Gaufride where in he toke awey the stonys of the bischop Sagniense, and also the cruellenesse of this Henricus to comme, in that he scholde [folio 360a] schewe crudelite ageyne seynte Thomas of Caunterbery. Also the fader of this Alienor, the erle Pictavense, toke awey Page  37, vol.8 by myȝhte the wife of his shiref, and mariede here to his wife, here howsebonde beynge in lyfe. An holy man rebukynge hym and profitynge not his lyfe, seide in this wyse: "There schalle never oon of youre childer make an happy ende." Also hit happede a voide place as of picture to be lefte in the kynges chamber at Wynchestre, peyntede ryally in other places, where the kynge causede an eagle to be peyntede with iiij. bryddes, thre of whom did bete the egle with theire talauntes and wynges, and the iiijthe laborede moche to putte owte the eien of that egle. The kynge inquired what that thynge scholde portende, ansuered "These iiij. bryddes be my childer, whiche schalle not sease to trowble me unto my dethe, and specially my yongeste sonne Iohn, whom I luffe moste now, schalle laboure and intende my dethe and destruccion."

Page  39, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

ADRIAN the iiijthe, borne in Ynglonde, succedid Anastasius the pope iiij. yere. Somme men say this pope was the native man of thabbot of Seynte Alban in Ynglonde, whiche wil|lynge to have bene monke þer and was refusede, wente over see, and for his connynge and vertu he was made firste bischoppe Albanense, and sende in message to Wormacia converte þat province to the feithe of Criste. And after that this Adrian made pope interdicte alle the cite of Rome for þe dethe of oon cardinalle, and excommunicate William kynge of Sicille, compellynge hym to submitte hym. This pope taryede firste in the olde cite with the cardinalles of alle the bischoppes of Rome. The kynge of Scottelonde and allemoste alle the primates of Ynglonde diede in this yere: also in the monethe of October a signe of the crosse apperede in the moone. Kynge Henricus brouȝte an hoste firste into Page  41, vol.8 Wales in this yere, and made a castelle at Ruthlan, and founded the monastery of Basyngwere. Alexander the secunde suc|cedid pope Adrian xxij. yere, whiche overcome the iiij. popes electe ageyne the lawe, whom Frederyke the emperour hade erecte; also he accorded Frederyke with Emmanuel em|peroure of Constantinopole, and Thomas kynge of Sicille, and noryschede moche seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery in his exile. Also Henricus the eldeste sonne off this kynge Henry maryede [folio 360b] the doȝhter of the kynge off Fraunce. Also a childe was crucifiede of the Iewes in this yere at Gloucestre. Theobaldus archebischop of Cawnterbery diede in this yere, and seynte Thomas was consecrate the vjthe nones of Iunius, in the thrydde yere folowynge departynge from Ynglonde, and come to Ynglonde ageyne in the seventhe yere of his exile, in whiche yere he was martiriȝate; the lyfe of whom iiij famose clerkes did wryte, as hit is schewede in his lyfe. And Matildis the empresse, modere to kynge Henricus, dyed in the yere of oure Lorde a M.clxvij.*. [For this sentence no Latin appears in any MS. which I have examined.] Ioachim the abbot was abowte this tyme in Calabria, whiche did write comentes on the Apocalips and Page  43, vol.8 bookes of the prophetes, whiche seide to Fredericus thempe|roure and to oþer kynges that thei scholde profite but lytelle in the Holy Londe, for the tyme of delyveraunce was not commen. Neverthelesse the oppinion of this Ioachim ageyne the maister of sentenceȝ is reprovede, as hit is schewede in the begynnynge of the decretalles by Gregory the ix. Thre cercles and ij. sonnes were seen in the firmament in this yere abowt oon after none the xiiijthe kalendes of October, in whiche yere a grete dissencion was movede betwene kynge Henricus the secunde and seynte Thomas. Petrus Commester florischede this tyme in Fraunce, whiche did wryte the story of either Testa|ment, whiche is callede the story scolasticalle, and allegoryes on either Testament, whiche allegoryes he redacte into a booke of metre, whom he callede Aurora. Radulphus bischop of Colon brouȝhte from Mediolan, destroyede by Frederyke thempe|roure, the bodies of thre kynges to Colony. The bodies of Page  45, vol.8 these three kynges were brouȝte firste from Persida to Con|stantinopole, and from that cite to Mediolan by Sergius the pope. Seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery was martiriȝate in this yere, of whom a metricion rehersethe in this wise:—

"Quis moritur? Presul. Cur? Pro grege. Qualiter? Ense.
Quando? Natali. Quis locus? Ara Dei."

Giraldus in Itinerario. After the dethe of whome the myȝhte and powere of the kynge began to decrease, for in the yere folowynge the kynge wente in Yrlonde and kepede diverse cownsailes þer by licence of the pope, and specially at Cassilia, Page  47, vol.8 at whiche cownsaile Armachanus the primate was not for grete infirmite. Where he reformede that cuntre, specially to thre thynges, after his powere, to the servyce of God, to ȝiffe [folio 361a] theire tythes, and to dewe matrimonye. Also hit was ordeynede þer that men laborynge in extreme infirmite scholde make theire testamente in the presence off diverse wittenesse and neiȝhebors, and to divide theire goodes movable into thre partes, if thei have wife and childer, oon parte to childer, an other to his wife, the thrydde parte to his beryynge. And if he hade noo wife, his goodes scholde be divided but into ij. partes. The kynge returnede from Yrlonde, mony revelacions were schewede for the correccion of his life, firste by an olde man at the castell of Caerdif in Wales, in the viij. day of Ester after masse. When that the kynge scholde have take his horse, a man yelowe in coloure and pale of face, of semely Page  49, vol.8 stature, in a white coote and barefotte, stode nye to the kynge, and spake to hym in the langage of Almaynes, "Gode old kyge, Criste salutethe yow and his moder Mary, seynte John Baptiste and seynte Petur, commaundenge þe that marchan|dyse be not usede thro alle thy realme in Sonnedayes, auther servile labours, those thynges excepte which perteyne to tho lyfe of man; and if thow kepe these thynges thow schalle ende welle that thynge thow dose begynne." The kynge herynge this, seide in Frenche to the knyȝhte holdynge his brydelle, "Inquire of this chorle wheþer he did dreame this or nay." That doen, the man seide to the kynge ageyne in the same langage aforeseide, "Wheþer y dreamede þis or nay, remembre welle this day, for withowte thow kepe that y have seide to the and amende thy lyfe, thow schalle here suche tythynges with ynne this yere that thow schalle repent theyme by alle the daies of thy lyfe." This seide the man Page  51, vol.8 departede from the kynge. And with in the seide yere thre sonnes of the kynge, Henricus Gaufride and Ricardus, turnede to the kynge of Fraunce ageyne theire awne fader. Then the kynge of Scottes, the erle of Chestre, and the erle of Leicestre did ryse ageyne the kynge: and mony oþer monicions were hade for correccion of his life, but he despisede theyme. A man of Yrlonde movede the kynge to correcte his lyfe in schewynge to the kynge secrete tokynnes. And in the thrydde tyme a knyȝhte of Lindisey, Philippe Estreby, movede the kynge to amende vij. thynges, seyenge that and if he wolde amende theyme [folio 361b] he scholde reigne in honoure by vij. yere folowynge, and de|lyver the crosse of Criste from his enemyes. And if he wolde not amende theyme, he seide to the kynge þat he scholde dye in the iiij. yere folowynge with grete schame. Thre of the vij. thynges or articles he promysede to observe in his coronacion, as to defende the churche, of trewe lawes to be ordeynede, and not to condempne eny man withowte ryȝhteuous juggemente. The iiijthe was to restore goodes taken awey and enheritaunceȝ. Page  53, vol.8 The vthe article was to do ryȝhteuous withowte eny price. The vithe was to pay dewte to his ministres. The vij. was to expelle the Iewes, levynge to theym parte of theire goodes to goe furthe with alle. But the kynge not correcte by this, myȝhty men did ryse ageyne hym, his thre sonnes with the kynge of Fraunce. And so the kynge mekynge hym selfe, and visitynge with grete mekenesse the tumbe of seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery on his bare feete, hade victory at Alnewike, and William kynge of Scottes was taken þer, and the erles of Chestre and of Leicestre. That victory had, he ascribede hit to his power, and not to God, and beynge afore a secrete advou|terer, was knowen after that for an open advouterer, abusynge Rosamunde, that beautuous woman. To whom he made a mervellous chambre at Wodestoke, after the werke Dedalyne, that sche scholde not be taken lyȝhtely of the qwene. But þe seide Rosamunde diede soone after, and was beryede in þe Page  55, vol.8 monastery of Godestowe, nye to Oxonforde, with this epitaphy:—

"Hic jacet in tumba rosa mundi, non rosa munda.
Non redolet sed olet quæ redolere solet."

The beryalle of this Rosamunde is of a mervellous architec|ture, for conflictes of champions, fliȝhtes of bryddes, lepynge of fisches is to beholden in hit, withowte the handeworke other impulsion of man.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

IN this yere, the xiij. kalendes of September, William kynge of Scottes, by the cownsaile of his noble men and of prelates, made homage to Henricus the secunde and kynge of Ynglonde at Yorke. Also the seide kynge of Scottes schewede by his [folio 362a] letters patent that he, his successours, and men of Scotlonde awe to make homage, ligiament, and fidelite to kynges of Page  57, vol.8 Ynglonde as so ofte as thei were requirede; into a signe of whiche subjeccion the kynge of Scottes offrede his cappe and sadelle on the awter of seynt Petyr at Yorke; whiche thynges be kepede þer unto this tyme; also the gentillemen of Scottelande adjecte to with an othe that and if the kynge of Scottes brake his othe thei scholde ryse ageyne hym tylle that he scholde returne to his promisse and fidelite made. Whiche composicion pope Gregory sende redacte into a forme to the kynges of Ynglonde and of Scottes, commandynge that com|posicion to be observede. To the declaracion of þis subjeccion the kynge of Scottes come with his prelates to the parliamente off kynge Henricus at Northampton, and after that to Nor|mandy to kynge Henricus. The convente of Cawnterbery electe Ricardus, prior of theire place, to the archebischop of Cawn|terbery by licence of þe kynge; to whom Criste apperede in the xjthe yere of his presidency in a vision, seyenge to hym: "Thow hase dispende and wastede ylle the goodes of my churche, wherefor y schalle take the from this worlde;" Page  59, vol.8 and so he dyede thro þat fere in the viijthe day folowynge. Kynge Henricus sende to Rome to be discharged of the pro|myse that he made to go the holy Londe, in this condicion, that he wolde edifye iij. monasterys in Ynglonde. Whiche monasterys he made in this wise; for the firste he expelled canons seculer from Waltham, and putte chanons reguler into that monastery. For the secunde he putte awey the myncheons of Ambresbery, and putte other myncheons of behynde the se in hit. And for the thrydde, he instaurede a place of the ordre Cartusiense at Wytham, nye to Salisbery. Also the seide kynge Henricus receyvede late in to his kepynge the doȝhter of the kynge of Fraunce, that he scholde marye her to Ricardus his sonne erle Pictavense. But in that he usede to synne with that mayde after the dethe of Rosa|munde, Ricardus his sonne refusede to mary with her. Wherefore the kynge was in purpose to have maryede that mayde to his wyffe, insomoche that he desirede Hugucion the Page  61, vol.8 cardinalle to have commen to Ynglonde, and to have made specialle labor to hym to make a divorce betwene hym and Alienor his wife, that he myȝhte thro that mariage rejoyce [folio 362b] the favor of the kynge of Fraunce and prevayle ageyne his sonnes. After that a batelle lyke to folowe for the castelle of Radin, betwene the kynge of Ynglonde and the kynge of Fraunce, kynge Henricus desirede the doȝhter of the kynge of Fraunce to Iohn his sonne with the cowntes Andegavy and of Pictavia. But the kynge of Fraunce despisynge those letters sende theyme to Richarde his sonne, for whiche wrytynge a wikkede hate and a malicious was movede betwene the fader and þe sonne. Thundres to be mervaylede were herde on Cristemasse nyȝhte in this yere in Ynglonde, and a preste at Andover in Hampteschire with the lyȝhtenge in the myddes of the hoste, noon oþer man towchede, but hit semede that swyne did renne amonge theyme. A grete tem|peste of hayle consumede bestes, bryddes, and men in the nyȝhte of Mary Magdalen. Giraldus, distinctione sexta|decima. The body off kynge Arthure was founde this tyme Page  63, vol.8 at Glaston, betwene ij. berialles of ston in the churche yerde, putte depe into the erthe in an holowe oke, and was translate into the churche and put into a beryalle of marbole, conteyn|enge in the seide olde beryalle a crosse of ledde havynge þis wrytynge in hit: "The noble kynge Arthure with Guenera his secunde wif lyethe beryede here in the yle Avalon." The boones of theyme were so distincte that ij. partes of the beryalle towarde the hedde contenede the boones of Arthure, and the thrydde parte towarde the feete conclusede the boones of his wife, where thre yelow heres of the same woman were founde noo thynge chaungede in coloure by moisture of the erthe. And a monke of that place takynge Page  65, vol.8 theyme gredily in hys honde, thei were redacte sodenly into powdre. For this kynge Henricus herde oftetymes mynstrells of the Britons synge afore hym that kynge Arthure scholde be beryede depe in the erthe by the space of xv. foote in an holowe oke, for cause that he scholde not be founde liȝhtely by the Saxons enemyes to hym. Also hit is to be attended that the boon of the legge of Arthur, schewede to us at that tyme, excedede the boon of the legge of any man in this tyme by iij. fyngers, and the space betwene his browes con|tenede the palme of an honde in brodenesse. In the hedde of whom x. signes of grete woundes did appere, whiche semede to mete in oon, oon wounde excepte. Ierusalem was taken [folio 363a] and destroyede by the Saracenys. Lucius the thrydde suc|cedid pope Alexander iiij. yere and ij. monethes. In whiche yere Hew erle of Chestre diede at Leek, whom Ranulphus his sonne did succede xlvij. yere. Henricus the eldeste sonne of Page  67, vol.8 kynge Henricus the secunde diede in this yere, whom a metricion dothe commende in this wyse:

"Omnis honoris honos, decor et decus urbis et orbis;
Militiæ splendor, gloria, lumen, apex.
Iulius ingenio, virtutibus Hector, Achilles
Viribus, Augustus moribus, ore Paris.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

RYCHARDE archebischop of Cawnterbery dedde, Baldewyne bischoppe of Worcestre was electe by consente of the kynge and of alle bischoppes, but monkes of Cawnterbery were con|trarious. To whom hit is seide that he did never eite flesche from the tyme that he was made monke unto his dethe; whom a olde woman mette in a tyme, inquirynge of hym wheþer hit were tru that he did eite noo flesche. The bischoppe seide hit was tru. The woman seide, "Hit is fals, thow hase eiten me Page  69, vol.8 to the bare boones, for thy officers have taken a kowe awey from me, with whom y was norischede." The bischop seide, "Truly thro the favor of God thow schalle have as goode a kowe restorede to the." A dissencion spronge betwene hym and the monkes of Cawnterbery for a newe place nye to theym in whom he hade intended to have putte prebendaryes, and to have assignede to þeim prebendes of þe monkes. Neverthelesse he was compelled by pope Urban to take downe that place made, whom he brouȝhte to Lambithe nye to London, anendes Westemynstre. Urbanus the thrydde succedid Lucius the pope as ij. yere, whiche dyede thro sorowe for the takynge of Ierusalem. In whiche tyme Heraclius patriarke of Ierusalem comme to Ynglonde to kynge Henricus, askenge helpe ageyne Page  71, vol.8 the Saracenys in the name of Criste, schewynge to hym the keyes of that hooly cite, and of the sepulcre of oure Lorde, and letters also of the promisse of that kynge made to go to the holy Londe. The kynge made promyse to ȝiffe an answere at London, and soone after þat moche peple merkede with the [folio 363b] signe of the crosse at the prechynge off Baldewyne the arche|bischoppe; the kynge seide he myȝhte not leve his cuntre withowte a governoure ageyn the cruellenes of men of Fraunce. But he seide he wolde ȝiffe grete goodes to men that wolde goe. To whom the patriarke seide, "Þow dose noȝhte: we desire a prince, and not money, for every parte of the worlde sendethe money to us, but we gette noo prince. Wherefore we desyre a prynce that nedethe money, and not money that nedethe a prynce." And so the patriarke returnede from the londe, whom the kynge folowede unto the see to mitigate his Page  73, vol.8 passion and tribulacion. To whom the patryarke seide, "Kynge, thow hase reignede in grete honoure unto this tyme, but from this tyme Criste schalle leve the, whom thow hase forsaken. Remembre what þinges God hathe ȝiffen to the, and how thow hase made recompensacion, fals to the kynge of Fraunce, and did sle seynte Thomas, and now thow de|spises the proteccion of Cristen peple." The kynge vexede with this communication, the patriarke offrede his hede and his nekke to hym, seyenge, "Do to me as thow did to Thomas, for hit is as leef to me to be sleyne of the in Ynglonde as of the Saracenys in Siria, for thow arte wors then eny Saracene." To whom the kynge seide, "And if alle my men were oon man, and spake with oon mowthe, thei durste not say in this wise to me." The kynge seide, "Y may not departe now, for my sonnes wolde trowble my realme in my absence." The patriarke seide, "Hit is noo mervayle, for thei comme from the develle, and thei scholde go to hym also." Page  75, vol.8 Kynge Henricus sende John his sonne into Yrlonde in þis yere, and returnede ageyne with lytelle profite. The Saracenys toke Jerusalem in this yere, takynge the holy cross with theyme, and did slee the maister of the Temple with mony noble men. That understonde, mony Cristen peple were merkede to go to the holy Londe, amonge whom Ricardus erle Pictavense, sonne of this kynge Henricus, was merkede with the signe of the crosse. Gregorius þe viiijthe succedid pope Urban iiij. monethes, whiche sende mony epistoles for the subsidy of the holy Londe; whom Clement the thrydde did succede iij. yere. Oure Savioure Criste Iesus apperede visibly in the aiere hongynge on the crosse at Dunstaple in Ynglonde, moche peple seenge that syȝhte. In whiche yere kynge Henricus made Ranulphus erle of Chestre knyȝhte, and toke to his wife Constance the Page  77, vol.8 cowntesse of Briteyne, doȝhter of Gaufride his sonne, with Briteyne the lesse, and with the cowntee of Rychemund. Kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce were merkede with the [folio 364a] signe of þe crosse, and Ricardus erle Pictavense, in the feste of seynte George, and other peple unto the nowmbre of cliijti M. Frederyke þe emperoure excommunicate goynge to the holy Londe and bryngynge hys hoste by Constantinopole, bathynge in a water nye to Armeny called Glotony of Sathanas, was drownede in hit, and somme men say by the spurrynge of his horse, and was beryede at Tyrus. And his eldeste sonne diede at the sege of Achon and Henricus the vthe, an oþer sonne, was emperoure in Alemayne viij. yere, whiche subduede to hym Apulia and Sicille. Neverthelesse the seide emperoure was excommunicate by Celestinus the pope, in that he toke kynge Richarde commynge from the holy Londe, and wolde not delyver hym untylle that he hade paiede a grete rawnson. Whiche emperoure dyenge in that sentence, cowthe not be beryede untylle the seide summe receyvede were paiede to kynge Page  79, vol.8 Richarde, or withowte he wolde ȝiffe licence that he scholde be beryede. A dissencion movede in this yere betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, the money gedrede for the holy Londe was soone wastede. For the kynge of Fraunce and Ricardus erle his sonne, commynge ageyne kynge Henricus, the seide kynge causede the subarbes of the cite of Cenomanny to be brente, that the kynge of Fraunce scholde have noo socoure by hit. But the wynde returnede sette alle the cite in fyre, and compellede kynge Henricus to go from hit; whiche seide in departynge, "Thow God, in that thow hase taken from me that y luffede beste in this day so fowle, I schalle recompense the in lyke wyse. For after this tyme y schalle take from the that thynge whiche þow luffes beste in man, that is myn herte." At the laste this kynge vexede soore with the fevers at the cite Turonense, desirede to have pease of the kynge of Fraunce in this wyse, that he wolde submitte hym to his grace, his honoure and crowne of his realme salvede. But hit was in Page  81, vol.8 veyne, for he cowthe not have grace in eny wise withowte he wolde submitte hym to his grace utterly; and by meryte, for he grauntede not to seynte Thomas þat worde, "salvynge the honor of God, the dignite of his ordre and liberte off the churche." Wherefore kynge Henricus dyenge at þe castelle of Chinonense, men beynge abowte ȝafe to grete attendaunce to take and [folio 364b] purchase goodes, that the body of the kynge was bare by a longe season and space, untylle that a childe coverede the inferialle partes of his body. And then his name Courtmantell was fullefyllede, for the seide kynge brouȝthe a schorte mantell firste from Gascoigne unto Ynglonde. And somme men say þat while Ricardus his sonne was presente by that corse bothe the nostrelles of the kynge distillede bloode. Also by viij. daies afore the dethe of this kynge, fysches in a water in Normandy made so grete noyse with lepynge, that men commynge to see that syȝhte cowthe fynde unnethe oon fische in lyfe.

Page  83, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

KYNGE Henricus dedde, and beryede at Founte Ebrard, Ri|cardus his sonne succedid, reignynge by x. yere. The maners and actes off whom Steven of Cawnterbery describethe excel|lentely. This kynge was crownede at London, of Baldewyne archebischop of Cawnterbery, in the thrydde nones of September, callede an unhappy day, after the olde ryte of Gentiles. For that day was unhappy day to the Iues beynge in Ynglonde, where a grete multitude of theym were commyn to London to see the solemnite of the coronacion, dredynge specially leste thei scholde have lesse favor in the tyme of thys kynge then thei hade in the tyme of his fader. The kynge prohibite the Iewes to entre into the churche when he was crownede, and also when he was at meyte that thei scholde not come to his palyce. Neverthe|lesse Page  85, vol.8 the kynge beynge at meyte, somme of the Iewes entrede into his palice amonge other men, and oon of theym hurte by a ministre of the kynge, a grete multitude of peple off the cite supposynge the kynge to have commaunded that, did sle a grete multitude of the Iewes with bylles and wepyn suche as they myȝhte gette, and brente the howses to whom the Iewes were fledde, and wolde not leve in eny wyse: but pease was ȝiffen to the Iewes at the laste, a grete multitude of theyme sleyne afore. After that the kynge ȝafe to Iohn his broþer dignites beynge vacant, as the provinces of Cornewaile, Devonschire, of Notyngham and of Lancastre, withowte oþer ȝiftes of his fader in Normandy and in Yrlonde. After that this kynge Ricar|dus Page  87, vol.8 resignede to the kynge of Scottes the castells of Berwik and of Rokysbery for X. M.li. that he myȝhte have goodes suffi|ciaunte with hym into the holy Londe, and receyvyde also of the olde ryche bischoppe of Dirham as goodes with owte [folio 365a] nowmbre for the province of Dirham. And the kynge was wonte to say in disporte that he hade made a novice an erle by goode crafte, and so by that meanes the kynge gate grete Page  89, vol.8 goodes. This kynge Richarde, rebukede of his frendes for suche thynges, seyde, "I wolde selle London and if y cowthe fynde a byer sufficiaunte." And moche peple boughte diverse possessions of the kynge, thenkynge that he scholde not have commen ageyn. This kynge hade also licence of the pope to discharge men that were merkede with the crosse, whereby he receyvede mony Mlli. After that the kynge toke the governayle of þe realme negligentely, as hit was supposede, unto the bischop of Hely his chawnceler, and saylede into Normandy afore the feste of Cristemasse. In whiche tyme a signe of the crosse apperede at Dunstaple in the firmamente, and soone after the forme or similitude of the crosse was seen as to departe by a certeyn season and space from the baner. Page  91, vol.8 This kynge departede into the holy Londe, William bischop of Hely, chawnceller to the kynge, protector of the realme, and legate of the pope made for money, oppressede moche the clergy, Page  93, vol.8 portendynge the power of the kynge, depressynge the peple, schewynge his auctorite, rydynge with a ml. horses, and vexenge monasterys moche thro hospitalite of hym and of his peple. This made the noble men of the realme accordynge to hym, destroy|enge the seetes of Cawnterbery and of Yorke at his pleasure; for Baldewinus the archebischop of Cawnterbery wente into the holy Londe, and diede at the cite of Tirus, for the excesse usede by the bischop of Hely. Also he lette Gaufride, broþer to the kynge, electe to the seete of Yorke by x. yere, and putte hym in prison; after that kepynge a cownsayle at Westmynster as proctor of a realme and legate of the pope. In whiche cown|saile a felowe to hym, Hewe Nonant bischop of Chestre, made compleynte that monkes of Coventre wolde have sleyne hym afore the hie awter. Þat herde William bischoppe of Hely made a decrete that the monkes of the place scholde be putte aweye, and clerkes prebendaryes to be putte into hit. This occasion hade, this bischop of Chestre, a bolde man and withowte schame, Page  95, vol.8 whiche sawede alleweyes discorde betwene the prior and the,*. [Sic.] takynge with hym a grete multitude of armede men, expellede the monkes, and sende messyngers to the pope with testimony [folio 365b] of diverse bischoppes how the monkes of Coventre levynge the servyce of Criste returnede to the worlde, desirenge licence of the pope that he myȝhte dispose that place to hys pleasure. But the pope suspende the sentence in that mater by v. monethes, if eny of the monkes of þat place wolde comme and allegate ageyne that supplicacion, and so the bischop obteynede his desire. Of this bischoppe of Chestre men may rede, laborynge in soore passions and infirmite at Beccun in Nor|mandy on goode Friday, and fyndynge noo man that wolde ȝiffe to hym penaunce for his synnes, he seide openly, I iugge Page  97, vol.8 my sawle to be in the peynes of purgatory unto the day of iuggement for my synnes. In the yere of oure Lorde God M.C. lxxxviij. William kynge of Scottes sende messyngers to Clement the pope, and obteynede letters of proteccion of the seide pope that the churches of Scotlonde scholde not be subiecte to eny other but to the churche of Rome. Messyngers of the kynge of Fraunce sende to Ysacus emperoure of Constanti|nopole, returnede to theire kynge in this yere, and rehersede that the soldan Yconyke mariede his doȝhter to the sonne of the Saladyne, expressynge also þat Daniel the prophete of Constantinopole hade pophecyede that men of Fraunce scholde restore the londe of promission in that yere when the An|nunciacion of Oure Lady scholde falle on Ester day, and scholde sette theire horses in the paviment of Baldac, and fixe theire tentes over the drye tree, and whete scholde be departede from popy. Also thei seide that the messyngers of the Saladyne hade moore honoure schewede to theym in the palyce of themperoure then alle other men that were in hit. And also they seyde that the Saladyne by consente of themperoure of Constantinopole hade intended to have putte an ydole made after his similitude in the temple, that he myȝhte be worschippede of peple openly; but as God wolde, men of Venyse toke hit, or hit come þere in the see, and brouȝhte hit and the schippe also with theyme to the cite of Tirus. Also thei seide that an olde Greke seide to theyme [folio 366a] that the prophecy scholde be fullefyllede whiche is wryten in the ȝate of golde not openede by cc. yere, whiche prophecy was, "I schalle open by my selfe when that a redde kynge of þe weste schalle comme, and then men of Latyn schalle have dominacion in the cite of Constantinopole." Also thei seide that the emperour promysede to the Saladyn a c. gales and the Saladyne promisede to hym alle the londe of promission if he wolde lette the commynge of men of Frawnce. But the emperoure of Constantinopole made a constitucion thro alle his empire, that and if eny man vexede or trowblede eny man merkede with the crosse, he scholde be put into prisonne. For this was the prophecy and astronomye of the Grekes and of the Turkes, that with ynne the space of iij. yere oon parte of the Turkes scholde be sleyne, an other parte scholde flee behynde Page  99, vol.8 the drye tree, and the thrydde parte scholde be baptizede. In the yere of oure Lorde God M. c. xcj., þer was in the cite of Acon a devowte man and secrete for the drede of paganes, whiche sende oftetymes letters to the hoste of Cristen peple wryten in Hebrewe, in Grewe, and in Latyn, and schewede to theyme the purpose of the paganes. And so by that Cristen man the hoste of Cristen peple avoidede mony perelles, and the Cristen were soory that thei hade noo knowlege of his person neither of his name, confessynge in alle his letters that he was a Cristen man, and writynge in the begynnynge of theyme, "In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti." But hit is to be mervaylede that he wolde not schewe hym to Cristen peple neither afore the takynge of the cite neiþer after. In the yere of oure Lorde God M. c. xcij., seynte Hewe bischoppe of Lincolne makynge visitacions by religious places in his diocyse come to the monastery of Godestowe nye to Oxenforde. Whiche entrenge into the churche to make his preyers see a tumbe in the myddes of the qwere afore the hie awter coverede with clothes of sylke, and lampes and cerges brennynge abowte hit. And the byschop inquirede anon what person was beryede þer; peple presente answerede seyenge that Rosamunde, frende to kynge Henricus the secunde and sonne of the empresse, for whom the kynge hade doen mony grete benefites to theire churche. Then the [folio 366b] bischop commaundede that sche scholde be beryede owte of the churche with other peple, seyenge that sche was an hoore, leste the religion of Criste decrease, that ylle disposede women may take exemple by her to avoide the synne of advoutery and of lechery.*. [For this long passage on pp. 97 and 99 there is no Latin given by Higden.]

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

CELESTINUS the thrydde succedid pope Clement vj. yere and viij. monethes, whiche crownede Henricus, the vthe, sonne of Frederyke the emperoure, in the secunde day of his coronacion Page  101, vol.8 in this forme. The seide Henricus makynge an othe afore the churche durre that he scholde defende the churche and kepe the lawes and ryȝhtes of hit, and also restore to his powere þe patrimony of seynte Petyr, if eny patrimony were taken from hit. After that the pope sate in a noble cheire holdynge the crowne betwene his feete, and themperoure inclinenge his hedde, he putte the crowne on his hedde, and putte it from his hedde unto the grownde, with his feete. Whiche thynge was a token that the pope hathe power to make an emperoure if he deserve hit, and to depose hym if he do not his dewte. The cardinalles stondynge abowte toke the crowne up ageyne and putte hyt on his hedde. Richarde kynge of Ynglonde absente, William Longefelde bischop of Hely de|posede Hewe bischop of Dirham of alle honoure, and trowblede the bischop of Wynchestre and allemoste alle oþer bischoppes of the realme. Wherefore mony men disposede theyme to goe to compleynte to the kynge ageyne the commune tyraunte; Page  103, vol.8 but the seide bischoppe had bene with hym afore, and commen to Ynglonde ageyne, or that other men wente towarde the kynge. But the bischop of Lyncolne commen after from the kynge, pursuede William bischoppe of Hely unto Lincolne, where a day was prefixede to answere at the castell of Tyk|hull. And when the bischoppe of Dirham was commyn to that place, the bischoppe of Hely seide to him, "I take þe not as oon bischoppe an other, but as a chauncellor a man havynge castells, untylle thow fynde suertes to restore the kynges castells." The malice of that bischop of Hely was made commune, in so moche that Iohn, broþer of the kynge, remembrenge the imprisonmente of Gaufride his broþer electe into the archebischop of Yorke causede by hym, and gedrenge a grete multitude of men in his provinces of Ynglonde and of [folio 367a] Wales, with mony other bischoppes chased that commune tyraunte from Wyndeshore unto the towre of London, and from thens to Dovore. Whiche beynge adredde that he myȝhte not escape, toke the clothenge of a woman on his habite, cover|enge Page  105, vol.8 with a kerchief a grete parte of his face, walkenge by the see syde with a peace of clothe in his lifte arme, and holdynge an elne in the ryȝhte honde, as if he wolde selle clothe that he myȝhte avoide the cuntre by that meane; but at the laste he was taken in that he cowthe not behave hym selfe lyke a woman, and taken schamfully by the secrete membres. This seide bischop saylenge over see at the laste, the administracion of the realme was taken to the archebischop of Roone. The tyme of ver y-paste the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce Page  107, vol.8 come to Sicille, oon by londe, an other by water; where the kynge of Fraunce dissimilynge the trespasses of his peple deservede the name of a lambe. But kynge Ricardus levynge of moche thynge as nouȝhte deservede the name of a lyon, for kynge Richard did fiȝhte in Sicille and Calabre ageyne Griphones, and erecte a castelle of tre portatyve ageyne the cite Messana, with whiche instrument he toke the cite of Acon afterwarde. Where his moder the qwene brouȝhte to hym Berengaria, doȝhter of the kynge of Bavarria, a virgyn of noble beawte and of grete discrecion, whom kynge Richarde maryede unto his wife. The kynge of Fraunce commen into Siria, Ricardus kynge of Ynglonde taryede in the wynter season after hym a certeyn season, but he was not ydelle, but he sende to theyme vitells and made engynes. After that this noble Ricardus kynge turnynge to the cite of Ciprus loste ij. of his schippes þer, and thei were spoylede also by men of the cuntre of Ciprus. Richarde kynge of Ynglonde under|stondynge Page  109, vol.8 that, thouȝhte to be satisfiede þerof, and folowede the kynge of Ciprus from cite to cite, untylle that he hade the kynge. The seide kynge of Ciprus mekede hymselfe to yolde hym to kynge Ricardus in this condidion, that he scholde not be not*. [Sic.] grevonde with cheynes of yrne. Kynge Ricardus grawnted þerto, but he putte hym anoon after in cheynes and feturs of sylvyr, and disposede that realme at his pleasure, and taryede þer alle the tyme of wynter. After that kynge Richarde turnynge ageyne to the cite of Acon, [folio 367b] toke a ryalle schippe longynge to the Saladyne chargede with grete goodes. This prince commen to Acon, a mater of dis|corde spronge betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce. For the kynge of Fraunce chalangede parte of the goodes that kynge Richarde hade geten in the yle of Ciprus, by the convencion made betwene theym in the cite Turonense. But kynge Richarde seide that convencion was made of goodes to be geten in the Holy Londe and ageyne the Saracenys. Another cause of discorde was, the kynge of Fraunce wolde Page  111, vol.8 not leve eny thynge to the erle of Campany, beynge in grete necessite at that tyme, withowte the erle wolde have put Campany in plegge to hym. Then the erle seide, "Y have doen that was my dewte to do, now I schalle do that ne|cessite compellethe, þerfore y schalle go to hym that is moore redy to ȝiffe then to take;" and so the seide erle commynge to kynge Richarde was made ryche by hym. Also kynge Richarde favorede the parte of Guido kynge of Ieru|salem ageyne Conradus Marchio, kynge of Tirus, whom the kynge of*. [Sic.] favorede ageyne the kynge of Ierusalem. Never|thelesse kynge Richarde made haste to the cite of Achon, whiche was segede in veyne by ij. yere, ffor yngynes putte to that cite were brente with fyre of the Grekys, whiche cowthe not be extincte by water or eny other thynge. And the hoste of Criste men decreasede, what by dethe and discorde betwene the kynges of Ierusalem and of Tyre, and mony noble men were corrupte by money of the Saladyne.

Page  113, vol.8

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

BUT at the laste, in the yere of oure Lorde God a M. c. xcj., the vthe idus of Iulius, and the xxx. day after the commynge of kynge Richarde, the cite of Acon was geten by Cristen men. In the takynge of this cite the duke of Austry folowede kynge Richarde, that he myȝhte chalange peraventure parte of the victory. But the baner of the seide duke was troden under foote; y wotte not the trawthe wheþer hit was doen by chaunce or by the wylle of the kynge. That duke havynge indignacion þerof departede to his cuntre, thenkynge to venge hym on [folio 368a] kynge Richard. The goodes geten there departede betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and off Fraunce, the kynge of Fraunce solde his prisoners, and kynge Richard did honge his Page  115, vol.8 prisoners. After that Conradus Marchio sleyne by ij. wikkede men in this cite of Tirus, the kynge of Fraunce havynge in|dignacion of the glory of Richarde kynge of Ynglonde, thouȝhte to impute the dethe of that kynge to hym. Where|fore the kynge of Fraunce, kepynge a cownsaile at Parisius, thouȝhte to trowble kynge Richard in his returnynge to Ynglonde. Neverthelesse the noblemen of his realme movede hym that he scholde not schewe vengeaunce to kynge Richarde thauȝhe he had sleyne hym, seyenge that hit were worschippe to suffre hym to comme to his cuntre, that wente so ferre to fiȝhte for the luffe of Criste. That doen, if he cowthe purge hym þerof, or make satisfaccion if he hade putte hym to dethe, hit were sufficiaunte; and if he despisede to do that oon of these tweyne thynges, other to purge hym of that cryme, or if he putte hym to dethe and wolde not do satisfaccion, then we cownesaile that the extreme vengeaunce that ye maye do may be exercisede on hym. But thauȝhe the kynge of Fraunce Page  117, vol.8 was stylle as for a season, he thouȝhte to have vexede soore the realme of Ynglonde, for he sende to the kynge of Den|marke desyrenge the maryage of his suster, in this condicion, that he wolde grawnte to hym in the name of the dowery the olde ryȝhte that the Danes hade in the realme of Ynglonde somme tyme, and a navy of schippes with an hoste by oon yere. But the kynge of Denmarke myȝhte [not]*. [Evidently omitted by an error of the scribe.] satisfye his purpose in that he hade grete werre ageyne the Wandalynges. Neverthelesse the kynge of Fraunce receyvede with that lady x. Ml marke of silvyr, whom the kynge of Fraunce refused, after the firste nyȝhte, other in that sche hade a stynkynge brethe, or ells in that he founde sche was not a mayde. The noble prince Richarde kynge of Ynglonde beynge in the este partes off the worlde, and treasure begynnynge to decrease faste, remembrenge also his wikkede diffamacion caused by the [folio 368b] kynge of Fraunce, seyenge that kynge Ricardus hade intended his dethe, that he hade hired also ij. men to slee Conradus Marchio kynge of Tirus, and how he scholde have hade pro|misse of the Saladyn of the promission of the holy Londe, Page  119, vol.8 and þerfore he wolde not comme to the takynge of the holy cite of Achon, disposede hym to departe towarde Yngelonde, ffor a grete parte of the hoste of Cristen peple was gretely decreasede. Neverthelesse y suppose that men dyenge þer were moore happy then men on lyve goynge home and re|turnynge to theire synnes. Also hit behovethe the hooly cite of Ierusalem to be kepede and rejoycede of oure enemyes for a season, for the synne and wrecchidnesse of Cristen people, whiche tyme God knowethe. For withowte dowte, that tyme when that synnefulle peple schalle be avoidede from that holy Londe, and peraventure by a lytelle powere of Cristen peple, þat the expulsion of theym may be ascribede moore to the vertu off God then to the powere of man. For oon of the Page  121, vol.8 Machabees seide that mony men myȝhte be devicte by fewe men, which, seyenge was verifiede when oon man pursuede a M., and xij. men mony thowsandes. But God is not to be attemptede in this wise, that fewe Cristen men scholde ȝiffe conflicte ageyne mony enemyes of Criste indiscretely, in that they have a goode Lorde, ffor God wyllethe his peple to truste soe in hym that they despise not to do after prudence.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

PEASE made betwene kynge Richarde and the Saladyne for iij. yere, Hubertus bischop of Salisbery wente for the kynge and for hym selfe to the holy sepulcre, and seide masse þer; and returnynge from þens with the kynge to the yle of Ciprus; Page  123, vol.8 kynge Richarde sende from that cuntre ij. qwenes, his moder and his wyfe, with alle his hoste allemoste, unto Sicille, and the kynge hym selfe londed with a fewe peple with hym in the partes of Histria betwene Aquileia and Venyce. Whiche taryenge prively in those costes a lytelle season was taken and knowen by delicate meytes bouȝhte by his men for hym, and was brouȝhte to the duke of Austrye. The kynge of Fraunce havynge knowlege þerof, movede liȝhtely Iohn, broþer to [folio 369a] kynge Richarde, ageyne hym, and the emperoure of Alemayne. Wherefore themperoure promisynge to the duke of Austrye the thrydde parte of the proventus and rawnson, hade kynge Richarde delyverede to hym, whom he put in prison in a place callede Trivalles, where Aristotille seythe hit is goode to a man to sle his fader, havynge the signe of the crosse on hym. Whom he brouȝhte furthe abowte Palmesonneday, Page  125, vol.8 afore a grete multitude of noble peple to answer to thynges obiecte. This noble prynce did answere so to thynges obiecte with a glade contenaunce that the emperoure was not movede to mercy oonly, but also he schewede grete reverence to the kynge. In whiche tyme William bischop of Hely come to the kynge, thenkynge by his laboure made to visitte hym, and thro his glosynge, to have obtenede the favor of the kynge. Neverthelesse he hade suche comfort of the kynge as he hade deservede, and so he departede to Fraunce. But Hubertus commynge to Sicille for the kynge, was directe to the realme of Ynglonde for savegarde of hit, and for to provide for the re|demption of the kynge. Whiche commyn into Ynglonde was electe into the archebischop of Cawnterbery by the monkes of Cawnterbery and oþer bischoppes of the realme, schewynge not crudelite to theym lyke to Baldewyne. Of whom hit is to be mervaylede that he, made from a monke of the ordre Cister|ciense Page  127, vol.8 an abbot, after that bischop of Worcestre, and metro|politan afterwarde, that he wolde have derogate the monkes of Cawnterbery privilege of the eleccion of the metropolitan, and wolde have causede seculer prebendaryes to have reioycede the privilege of eleccion. After that kynge Richarde was Page  129, vol.8 delyverede from prison, contynuede by oon yere and iij. monethes, in the monethe of Ianuary, for a c. Mlli. of silver to be payede for his redempcion, the bischoppes of Roone and of Bathe lefte in plegge for a parte of that summe not payede. For whiche redempcion alle libertes, privileges, and immunites depressede of eny person or place, alle the wolles of white monkes and of chanons was taken, the rynges of prelates, vesselles of silver, crosses, chalyces, and the towmbes of seyntes were abrasede and meltede for the redempcion of that kynge. Kynge Richarde taryenge in Swina in Flaundres other for [folio 369b] wynde other for regalle vesture allemoste ij. monethes, was Page  131, vol.8 alle moste taken ageyne, for the emperoure was soory that he hade suffrede hym to departe, as kynge Pharao was somme tyme for the dimission of the childer of Israel. Neverthelesse kynge Richarde londed at Sandewiche in the monethe of Marche, and taryenge a lytell season at London, wente after that and toke the castells of Notyngham and Tikhull longynge to his broþer Iohn, imprisonynge the men founde in theyme, and deposede Iohn his broþer of alle his honor as a fals man and unkynde, by cownsaile of the gentylle men of the londe. And so the kynge kepede Ester at Hampton, and was crownede at Wynchestre as a newe kynge in the vthe yere of his reigne, askynge after that solennite doen, as by reason of a commende, what thynge that he hade ȝiffen afore or solde every title and instrumente made þeron beynge voyde. Whiche kynge taryenge but a certeyne season, saylede to Fraunce to venge hym on the kynge of that cuntre, and so thei fiȝtenge soore in diverse Page  133, vol.8 tymes, pease was grawntede for oon yere to kynge Richarde to amende his ordinaunce and to fortifye his hoste. Iohn broþer to kynge Richarde beynge with the kynge of Fraunce ageyne his broþer, and his goodes and power decreasede, was refusede of the kynge of Fraunce. Neverthelesse he was restorede to kynge Richarde by the meanes of Alienor, moder to hym, pro|mysynge to be tru to his brother after that tyme.

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

ABOWTE this tyme there was a proctor of Gascoigne, Steven by name, whiche hade governede that cuntre nobly in the tymes of kynge Henricus the secunde, and of this kynge Richarde. Ne|verthelesse this Steven, coniecturynge in mynde the tendernes of the body of kynge Richarde, and perelle of that iourneye to the holy Londe, supposede veryly that he scholde not have commen Page  135, vol.8 þens. Wherefore he began to make excesse in that powere taken to hym, and inquirede of a nigromancyer wheþer that kynge Richarde scholde returne and comme from the holy Londe. Whiche bryngynge Steven proctor of Gascoigne unto a secrete place, and schewynge to hym an hedde of brasse havynge a spiritte inclusede in hyt, saide to hym, "Inquire of this hedde what thow wylle in fewe wordes, for hit wille not answere [folio 370a] to mony thynges." Then this proctor inquirede of the hedde thre thynges. The firste was wheþer he scholde see kynge Richarde, and hit was ansuerede by the hedde nay. Also he inquirede how longe his administracion scholde endure. The spiritte seide unto his dethe. In the thrydde tyme he in|quirede where he scholde dye, and the spiritte seide in Plume. After that he commaundede that noo thynge of plume or fethers scholde be putte nye to hym in eny wyse, and after that he began to oppresse poore peple, and ryche also. Never|thelesse the seide person and proctor pursuynge a noble man Page  137, vol.8 to his castelle, and departede from his feloweschippe by a grete space, was taken by that noble man and sleyne. For that castelle was callede Plume, and so the decepcion of the spiritte was expressede. ℞. A similitude accordynge to this processe is rehersede of Albericus, erle of Northumbrelonde, whiche beynge a man of grete myȝhte, and not contente of his state, hade knowlege by a spiritte that he scholde possede Grece, the seide erle supposynge that he scholde have rejoycede the londe of Grece. The seide erle entrenge to the londe of Grece, hit was knowen anoon amonge the Grekes by the communicacion of that erle that he scholde say he scholde be lorde of that londe. Wherefore the Grekes takynge his goodes from hym expulsede hym from that cuntre. And so Albericus trowblede and vexede soore come at the laste to Normandy to kynge Henricus, where the seide kynge toke to hym a noble wedowe to wife. This erle, herynge in the benediccion of the wed|dynge the preste to inquire of the woman in this wise, "Dame Grece, pleasethe hit not yow to have this man," perceyvede anoon the allusion of the spiritte whiche hade erecte his Page  139, vol.8 mynde into veyne glory. Kynge Richarde makynge provision for xx. Ml marke whiche was unpayde to the duke of Austrye for his redempcion, the plegges lefte þer apperede sodenly afore the kynge, seyenge and rehersynge the dethe of that tyraunte by the iuggement of God, and mony grete mis|chefes schewede to that cuntre, and mony cites to have bene brente in hit; and also the water of Danubius to have des|troyede his cuntre, and cornes in the feldes to have wedrede, and how he was excommunicate by the pope. Also thei ex|pressede [folio 370b] that the seide duke cowthe not be absolvede untille that he hade made promyse to obbey the iuggemente of the churche for the iniuryes doen to Richarde kynge of Ynglond. That othe made thei seide thei were delyverede. And so after that tyme kynge Richarde began to amende his lyfe. Also an other thynge movede the kynge to correcte his life: A man of Page  141, vol.8 Cenomanny goynge to Seynte Iame come ageyne in goode heale. Neverthelesse, the seide man movede in lyke devocion wente to visitte the sepulcre of oure Lorde, to whom a terrible spiritte apperede. That man afrayede gretely with the siȝhte of hym made a signe of the holy crosse. But the spiritte as havynge noo regarde þerof seide: "Thow schalle not escape soe, but thow schalle be myne; neverthelesse, and if þow wylle falle to the grownde and honoure me y schalle make the a ryche man." Then the man seide: "Now y knowe that thow art a wykked spiritte; kepe thy goodes to thy selfe, for the goodes that God hathe ȝiffen to me be sufficiaunte to my person, whom y honoure with alle my herte." Then the spiritte seide: "Thow schalle have some thynge of me" and with that he caste on his hedde a palle of a thynne mater, whiche brente the heire of his hedde, and from that tyme the skynne of his hedde was as blacke as pycche. That man trowblede soore callede to helpe seynte Iame, whiche presente þer anoon, blamede the develle, inquirynge of hym what he Page  143, vol.8 was. The spiritte seide: "Y am a develle contrarious, and an enemye to mankynde at alle tymes. I lette the kynges of Christianite in theire laboure in the holy Londe; I causede kynge Ricardus to be taken in captivite by my ministre the duke of Austry. Also y compasse abowte the bedde of kynge Ricardus, and in especiall his treasures whom he gedrethe avarousely." These wordes y-seide the develle evaneschede, and that man returnede to Cenomanny, schewynge and ex|pressynge to kynge Ricardus the þinges that he hade seene and herde, causynge the kynge to correcte his lyfe. Hubertus arche|bischop of Cawnterbery, havynge auctorites of the pope and of the kynge, wente to Yorke abowte þis tyme, and kepede a cown|saile þer.

Page  145, vol.8

Capitulum tricesimum.

THERE were in this tyme ij. men laborynge for the profite and commodite of the kynge in lyke purpose, but in diverse [folio 371a] causes. For the abbot of Caane blamede the fraude and decep|cion of the officers of the kynge afore þe presence of the kynge, and movede that the insolence of theyme myȝhte be correcte for the reste and pease of comprovincialles. And William with the longe berde accusede the insolence of ryche men, whiche sparede theire awne goodes, and oppressede poore peple. This abbotte, takynge power of the kynge, come to Ynglonde in the monethe of Februarius, and commaunded streytely the govern|oures of provinces to comme to London to hym to ȝiffe ac|comptes of theire offices, but the seide abbotte diede afore Ester. Hit is seide that the oþer man William was borne in London, and was callede William with the longe berde in that Page  147, vol.8 he noryschede and suffrede hit to growe; a scharpe man of witte, litterate in a meane maner, but excellente in eloquence. The seide William havynge a citesynne of London to his broþer, and seenge that he wolde not ȝiffe to hym moore large exhibicion then he was wonte to have, accusede hym of treason in diverse tymes afore the kynge. Neverthelesse this William hade as in derision of the kynge þerfore hade secrete com|municacion with mony citesynnes off London of the insolence of ryche men oppressynge poore peple, insomoche that lij. M. of citesynnes of London were redy at his commaundemente as to obbey the commune provisor of alle poore peple. The seide William, assuerede of this grete nowmbre of peple, began to Page  149, vol.8 resiste noblemen, seyenge that the goodes of the kynge were diminute by the fraude and subtilite off theym. The noblemen of the realme havynge indignacion ageyne hym, he saylede to Normandy to the kynge, seyenge to hym that he hade suffrede grete iniuryes of myȝty men for the utilite of the kynge. And so the seide William returnede to Ynglonde, began to contynue as he usede afore, comfortynge the peple drawynge to hym by boldenesse of the favor of the kynge. The rumor of that conspiracion encreasynge gretely, Hubertus archebischop of Cawnterbery, havynge governayle of the realme, callede that peple afore hym, and rehersede the rumor of that conspiracion, wherefore he movede and preyede theyme to ȝiffe borowes for pease to be kepede, that alle suspicion myȝhte be avoidede. That peple as pleasede thro his speche obbeyede his desire, and assignede and toke to hym diverse borowes. Neverthelesse the seide William wente iettynge in the stretes, and moche [folio 371b] peple drawynge to hym, callenge hym selfe the saviour of poore Page  151, vol.8 men, and seyenge that the powers of myȝhty men scholde soone decrease, takynge to hym this theme of scripture, "Ye schalle drawe waters in ioye from the welles of oure Savioure: I am the savioure of poore men; ye poore men havynge experte the harde hondes of ryche men, drawe ye nowe from my welles the waters of hollesom doctryne." Seyenge oftetymes, "I schalle divide water from waters: this water is the peple; wherefore I schalle divide tru peple and meke from prowde peple and fals; I schalle divide the chosen peple of God from peple reprobable, as lyȝhte from derkenesse." Wherefore Hubertus, metropolitan and governoure of the realme, callede the seide William to answere to certeyne thynges to be obiecte ageyne hym: whiche presente hym, but he hade so moche peple with hym that thei were feyne to diferre the iuggemente and to prolonge the sentence. Neverthelesse a season aspyede Page  153, vol.8 by ij. citesynnes of London when this William hade but fewe men in companye with hym, a grete multitude of men in armore were sende to take hym. But this seide William did sle oon of the ij. citesynnes with an ax that he hade in his honde, and fledde with his concubyne, whiche folowede hym contynually with oþer certeyn men unto the churche of the arches, supposynge his peple to comme and to delyver hym. But truly the peple durste not, what for the men beynge in plegge, and what for the multitude of peple beynge in armoure and ageyne theyme. So this William by fyre and smoke was compellede to goe furthe of the churche, and as he comme furthe the*. [then, MS.] sonne of that citesynne whom he hade sleyne kytte his bely and woundede hym soore. Neverthelesse he was drawen by iuggemente and honged after with ix. men, which wolde not be from his felowschippe. That doen his felawes diffamede that metropolitan not oonly as mansleer, willynge to Page  155, vol.8 avoide the dishonoure of theire propre conspiracion and to com|probate the dampners of the seide William, by a subtile arte gate to hym the name of a martir. For as hit was seide a cosynne to the seide William and preste takynge the cheyne with whom the seide William was bounde, putte hit to a man havynge the fevers, and he was made holle anoon, whiche thynge the seide preste prechede. The peple herynge that, wente in the nyȝhte and toke aweye the galowes on whom he [folio 372a] was hongede, and the erthe also made redde with his bloode. This fame and rumor encreasede, moche peple wente to his grave and taryede þer in nyȝhtes, preyenge and doynge honoure to that newe martir. But a man of discrecion scholde have be a schamede to have callede hym a martir, whiche did sle a man voluntarily afore his takynge; and his laste confession awe Page  157, vol.8 to have schamede his worschippers. Whiche movede by diverse men to ȝiffe lawde to God, and confesse his synnes, mekely confessede that he pollute the churche of Oure Lady of the arches while that he was in hit. Also the seide William expressenge oþer thynges, seide that he cowthe not be de|lyverede, callede the devell into his helpe, forsakynge Iesu, in this condicion that he wolde delyver hym. Wherefore Hubertus metropolitan and governoure of the realme, doynge grete cor|reccion to that preste, assignede a certeyne nowmbre of men in armoure to kepe that churche, that peple scholde not offre to hym, and so the devocion of that martir wexede sone colde, and þe oppinion of the peple was seasede.

Page  159, vol.8

Capitulum tricesimum primum.

ABOWTE this tyme an holy preste of Fraunce, Fulco by name, come to kynge Richarde seyenge, "I say to the, kynge, on the parte of allemyȝty God that thou marye soone thy thre doȝhters leste that perelle falle to the." The kynge seide, "Thow lyes, ypocrite, I have not oon doȝhter." The preste seide, "ȝis truly, thow hase pryde, avaryce, and lecchery." Þhe kynge callynge the noble men of his palyce to him seide, "I ȝiffe my pryde to Templarys and Hospitalyryes, my covetyse to monkes of the ordre Cisterciense, and my lecchery to prelates of þe churches." Resus the prince of Wales diede in this yere, whom a metricion commendethe in this wise:

"Nobile Cambrensis cecidit diadema decoris,
Hoc est, Resus obit, Cambria tota gemit. Page  161, vol.8
Resus obit! non fama perit, sed gloria transit;
Cambrensis transit gloria, Resus obit!
Resus abest inimicus*. [invitus, MS.] adest, Resus quia non est.
Jam sibi nil prodest Cambria, Resus obit!
Decus orbis abit Resus, laus quæque tepescit,
In gemitu vivit Cambria, Resus obit!
Subtrahitur sed non moritur, quia semper habetur
Ipsius egregium nomen in orbe novum.
Grande decus tenet iste locus si cernitur ortus
Si quis sit finis quæritur ecce cinis [folio 372b]
Hic tegitur, sed detegitur, quia fama perennis
Non sinit illustrem voce latere ducem.
Excessit probitate modum, sensu probitatem,
Eloquio sensum, moribus eloquium." Page  163, vol.8

There was a crosse in the churche of Dirham in whom an ymage of the crucifixe was, whom mony peple honourede with grete veneracion. And when that ymage was putte downe to the erthe and compassede abowte with thornes, as other ymages were, in the sexte fery, the face off the seide crucifixe apperede with grete reddenesse lyke to brasse in a hoote fyre, and grete moisture come from the face of hit, and dropes felle from the eien of hit, and bloode and water come from the riȝhte pappe of hit, whom the ministres of the churche gedrede in holy vesselles with grete diligence. Innocencius the thrydde, or Lotharius, succedid Celestinus the pope xviij. yere iiij. monethes and an halfe. This pope made a booke of the misery of the condicion of man, and mony other constitucions. Also he dampnede the booke of abbot Joachim, whom he made ageyne Petrus Lumbardus, maister of the sentences, and Almaryke Carnotense with his erroneous doctryne. The emperoure dedde in this yere, the princes of Alemayne were at discorde, for somme of theym electe Otho to be emperoure, and somme princes electe Philippe broþer to Henricus the vthe and empe|roure. Neverthelesse the seide Philippe sleyne by treason, Otho was crownede into emperoure of Innocencius the pope in Fraunce; whiche ȝafe batelle anoon to the Romanes, and toke Page  165, vol.8 the realme of Apulia of Frederyke, ageyne the wylle of the pope, wherefore he was excommunicate of the same pope. And in the iiijthe yere of his governayle the princes of Alemayne erecte Frederyke into emperoure, whiche hade a glorious victory ageyne Otho the emperoure. Widomarus sherif Lenionicense in the lesse Briteyne, subjecte and servaunte to the kynge of Ynglonde, founde in this laste yere of the reigne of kynge Richarde the firste a grete treasure of golde and sylvyr in his grownde, a grete parte of whiche treasure he sende to kynge Richarde. But kynge Richarde refusede hit, seyenge that he awede to have alle by ryȝhte of his lordeschippe; but that oþer man denyede þat. Wherefore the kynge come to sege the cas|telle of Caluz, whiche pertenede to the seide sheriffe, supposynge that the treasure hade bene there. Neverthelesse the ministres [folio 373a] of that schireffe and kepers of that castelle offrede hit to the kynge with goodes in hit, theire lyves and armor grawntede to theyme. The kynge commaunded theyme to goe into the castelle and defende þeyme lyke men; whiche goynge abowte that castelle with the duke of Brabancy to inquire the moste Page  167, vol.8 unsure place abowte that castelle for his avauntage, a man Bertrandus Gurdon by name woundede the kynge soore in the arme with a crossebawe. That doen the kynge commaundede that castelle to be taken anoon, and that alle scholde be sleyne in hit, excepte the man that hurte hym, and so hit was. The seide kynge knowynge that he scholde dye, commaundede that man to be brouȝhte afore hym. To whom the kynge seide, "What hurte have y doen to the in my lyfe, that thow hase woundede me to dethe." That man seide, "Thow did slee my fader, my broþer, and wolde have sleyme me nowe also, wherefore y charge not what peyne y suffre sithe that thow schalle dye." Then the kynge commaundede that man scholde not be hurte in eny wise, and ȝafe to hym a c. s. of sterlynges; but after the dethe of the kynge the duke of Brabancy causede hym to be fleyede onlyve and hongede afterwarde. This Richarde kynge of Ynglonde dedde the Page  169, vol.8 viijthe idus of the monethe of Aprile, his body was divided into thre partes, and beryede in thre places, of whom a metricion rehersethe seyenge in this wyse:

"Viscera Careolum, corpus Fons servat Ebrardi,
Et cor Rothomagum, magne Ricarde, tuum.
In tria dividitur unus, quia plus fuit uno,
Nec superest uno gratia tanta viro."

An other metricion rehersethe in this wyse:

"Christe, tui calicis prædo fit præda Calucis:
Ere brevi deicis qui tulit era crucis.
Hic, Ricarde, jacet; sed mors si cederet armis
Victa timore tui cederet arma tuis." Page  171, vol.8

The epitaphy of the noble Ricardus cour de lyon:

"Acalus cecidit rex, regni cardo, Ricardus,
Hiis ferus, hiis humilis, hiis agnus hiis leopardus.
Casus erat lucis Caluȝ per secula nomen
Ignotum fuerat, sed certum nominis omen
Nunc patuit; res clausa fuit, sed luce cadente
Prodiit in lucem per casum lucis ademptæ.
Anno milleno ducenteno minus uno
Ambrosii festo decessit ab orbe molesto.
Pictavis exta ducis sepelis rea terra Calucis;
Neustria tuque tegis cor inexpugnabile regis;
Corpus das dandi sub marmore Fontis Ebrardi.
Sic loca per trina se sumpsit tanta ruina
Ejus vita brevis cunctis plangetur in ævis."

In the yere of oure Lorde God a M. cxcvj., erle John and Marthandeus not ferre from the cite Belvacense toke Philippe bischoppe of the same welle armede, and William Merlan with his sonne, and other peple as innumerable. And so the seide bischoppe was presentede to kynge Richarde, whiche was kepede in prison in his armoure. At the laste, the pope sende wrytynge to kynge Richarde, havynge grete mervayle that he kepede his wellelovyde sonne so in prison. Wherefore the kynge takynge the armor of the bischoppe in whom he was taken sende theyme to the pope, wrytenge in his epistole, "Beholde wheþer this be the coote of thy sonne or nay." The pope seenge that, laborede not after for hym, and soe the seide bischoppe was delyverede by a certeyne summe of goodes.

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

RICHARDE kynge of Ynglonde dedde with owte childer, his Page  173, vol.8 brother callede Iohn with owte londe was successor to hym, whiche occupiede anoon the treasures of Ricardus his broþer, and sende Hubertus, archebischoppe of Cawnterbery, to governe the realme of Ynglonde. But Thomas of Thorney toke Ande|gavia to Arthur, sonne of Gaufride, elder broþer to kynge Iohan, and duke of Briteyne. Where the noble men of the cuntres nye metynge, as of Andegavy, Cenomanny, and Turony, drawede to Arthurus, after the consuetude of that cuntre, where the sonne of the elder broþer is successour to the fader if the eldeste sonne dye withowte eny childe. And Constancia, the doȝhter of Gaufride, and also cowntesse of Briteyne, toke the kepynge of Arthur and his enheritaunce to the kynge of Fraunce. But Iohn destroyede soone after Cenomanny, in that hit drawede to Arthurus; and after that the seide Iohn was crownede into kynge of Ynglonde at Westemynstre, of Huberte, metropolitan of that londe, in the feste of Assencion of oure Lorde. In whiche day the kynge made Hubert archebischop of Cawnterbery his chawnceller. The bischoppe ioyenge moche Page  175, vol.8 of þat office, a man seide to hym, "My lorde, ye awe not to ioye of the bonde of servitute, for we have herde a archebis|chop to have be made of a chawnceller, and not a chawnceller of an archebischop." Kynge Iohn saylede into Normandy [folio 374a] after that, abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste, where trues was takyn betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, made suere by an othe and wrytynge, that wheþer of theyme broke pease firste, his men scholde be deschargede of the fidelite made to hym, and scholde turne unto that other kynge. But after that kynge Iohn hade sleyne Arthurus, sonne of his elder broþer, the kynge of Fraunce occupyede Gascoigne, Cenomanny, and diverse other provinces. The erle of Flaundres become the ligeman of kynge Iohn, and the kynge of Fraunce made Arthurus knyȝhte in this yere also, and toke homage of hym for the cuntres of Gascoigne, of Cenomanny, Pictavye, Turonye, of Briteyne the lesse, and of Normandy. In whiche yere a solenne divorce was made betwene kynge Iohn and his Page  177, vol.8 wife, doȝhter of the erle of Gloucestre, in the thrydde degre to hym of consanguinite, and toke to his wife, by the cowne|sayle of the kynge of Fraunce, Isabell doȝhter of the erle Engolisme, of whom he gate Henricus, Ricardus duke of Cornewaile, and iij. doȝhters; and after that he toke a grete tribute thro alle Ynglonde, of every hide of londe iij. s., and returnede ageyne into Normandy. In whiche tyme also Ranul|phus the secunde erle of Chestre, takynge exemple of the kynge, departede from Constancia his wife, cowntesse of the lesse Briteyne, and maryede Clemencia, the doȝhter of Radulphus de Fengero, of whom he gate noo chylde. Men of Fraunce toke in this yere the cite of Constantinopole, makynge Balde|wyn erle of Flaundres emperoure; and peple that dwellede nye to that cite wolde not beleve by mony dayes after the takynge Page  179, vol.8 of hyt that hit was taken, for the olde prophecy, in whom hit was seide that cite myȝhte not be taken but by an angelle. But men of Fraunce entrede ynto the cite by a place of þe walles where an angelle was peyntede, the men inhabitynge the cite perceyvede the equivocacion of an angelle. Frederike the secunde was emperoure xxxiijti yere. This emperoure crownede of Honorius þe pope favorede the churche lyke a [folio 374b] moder, but he spoylede hit soone after lyke a stappemoder, wherefore he was excommunicate by Honorius the pope, and absolvede alle peple from his fidelite; whiche sentence Gregory the ixthe innewede. This emperoure did sle Henricus hys awne sonne in prison, and causede the prelates to be taken whom Gregory the pope callede to a generalle cownsaile; whiche beynge faste in that grete and terrible sentence, wente to the holy Londe, levynge þer raþer desolacion then consolacion. Neverthelesse the seide emperoure was deposede at the laste by Innocencius the iiijthe pope, and after that the seide Frederyke, segenge a cite of Ytaly, was chasede awey by a legate of the pope unto Apulea, where he diede. Abowte this tyme Page  181, vol.8 so grete reynes, thundres, and hayle descended, that stones after the quantite of egges descended with theyme mixte with the reyne, thro whom trees, vynes, and cornes were gretely destroy|ede, and moche peple hurte. Also bryddes were seen to flye in the aiere with fyre in theire bylles, and to brenne howses. Seynte Hewe, bischop of Lincoln, dyed in this yere at London, and was beryede at Lyncoln. At the beryynge of whom was a legate of the pope, iij. archebischoppes, off Cawnterbery, of Dublyn, and of Ragnensis, and xiij. bischoppes, ij. kynges, of Ynglonde and of Scotlande, whiche come thider to swere fidelite on the crosse of Hubertus archebischoppe off Cawnterbery, and to do homage to kynge Iohn. In whiche day a woman blynde by viij. yere was restorede to siȝhte. This holy bischop was borne in the costes oversee, and a prior of the Chartrehows at Witham, nye to Salisbery, and after that made bischoppe of Page  183, vol.8 Lyncoln. The archidiacon of Lincolne askynge an horse or a kowe of hym by reason of his installacion, he seide that he wolde rather fforsake that seete then he scholde ȝiffe the worthe of oon peny þerfor. Bryddes were wonte to flye to his honde and take meyte. Eustachius abbot of Flay come to Ynglonde in this yere to preche the worde of God, and schewed mony miracles. Amonge whom he blissede the welle of Wy, nye to Cawnterbery, and mony seke peple drynkynge of that water were restorede to heale: a woman havynge a spiritte with ynne her, and drynkynge of þat water, evomette [folio 375a] ij. blacke todes, whiche were turnede afterwarde into dogges, and after that into grete asses, whiche corrupte the aiere moche after theyme. This holy abbot, Eustachius by name, causede moche peple to leve usure thro his prechynge, merchandyse on Sonnedayes, and specially to fynde lyȝhte afore the sacrament, and noble men to leve a messe in meytes to poore peple. At the laste prelates of Ynglonde, havynge envy at hym, seide, "Hit is not lawefull to the to put a sythe into the corne of oþer Page  185, vol.8 men." Eustachius seide, "Truly þer is moche corne, and fewe laborers;" and so he departede into Normandy. In this yere v. moones apperede in Provincense in þe monethe of December, oon in the este, the secunde in the weste, the thridde in the sowthe, and the iiijthe in the northe, the vthe in the myddes of hevyn compassynge vj. tymes the oþer iiij. moones as by oon howre, and at the laste hit evaneschede.

Capitulum tricesimum tertium.

IOHN kynge of Ynglonde did sle Arthurus, sonne of his broþer, at the castelle of Mirabel, and put Alienore his suster in perpetualle prison at Bristowe in this yere. For whiche cause the kynge of Fraunce occupiede Normandy, Briteyn, Pictavia, and diverse other cuntres. The ordre of Freres Precheours began this tyme under seynte Dominik in the partes Tholosan, but that ordre myȝhte not be conferemed Page  187, vol.8 afore the firste yere of Honorius the pope. Also kynge Iohn ȝafe Notha his doȝhter in mariage to Lewellinus prince of Wales. Hubertus archebischop of Cawnterbery dedde, þer was grete discorde for his successoure, for somme electe the bischop of Norwiche, and somme the supprior of Cawnterbery, but the pope avoidede theym bothe, and consecrate Steven of Langeton. A knyȝhte apperede to maister Maurice in his slepe, nowe begynnynge a verse and oþer while endynge a verse, in Sowthe|wales, seyenge to hym, "Maister Maurice, y wylle that thow ende this verse:

'Destruet hoc regnum Rex regum.'"

To whom Maurice seide, "Do the labour thy selfe, for thow Page  189, vol.8 hase alle moste made an ende." Then the knyȝhte seide, "In that thow arte olde and dulle, thow schalle finische hit in this wise: [folio 375b]

'Destruet hoc regnum Rex regum duplici placca.'"

Henricus the firste geten son of this kynge by Isabell was borne in this yere, of whom he gate also Ricardus erle of Cornewaile, and iij. doȝhters, Isabelle the empresse, Alienor, whiche was maryede to Marescallus erle of Penbroke, and after to Symon Mowntefort erle of Leicestre, whiche gate of her vj. childer; and Iohanne, the thrydde doȝhter, was maryede to þe kynge of Scotlonde. The interdicte of Ynglonde began in this yere, to indure by vij. yere, in that kynge Iohn refusede utterly Steven of Langeton, archebischop of Cawnterbery, confermed by the pope, and expellede the monkes of Cawnterbery and toke þeire goodes. Wherefore the pope did wryte to kynges nye to Ynglonde that thei scholde ryse ageyne kyng Iohn. Page  191, vol.8 Mony of the heretikes Albigense, commyn into Ynglonde, were brente in lyfe. A grete peple of Saracenys come in this yere from Affryke, and occupyede a grete parte of Speyne. Where|fore þe pope sende messyngers to diverse nacions for the sub|sidy of the holy Londe, for the Saracenes hade erecte and made diverse ordinaunce in the mownte of Thabor to ȝiffe batelle to the cite of Acra. Seynte Francise began in this yere the ordre of Freres Minors. Pandulphus, a legate of the pope, come into Ynglonde in þis yere, commaundynge streytely kynge Iohn to obbey the churche of Rome. Kynge Iohn, seenge perelle on every side by the kynge of Fraunce and gentylle|men of his realme, bownde the realme of Ynglonde and of Yrlonde, for hym and his successors for ever, to the pope and to his successors, to be tributaryes or feodaryes of the churche Page  193, vol.8 of Rome, and to pay yerely for Ynglonde vij.c. marke and for Yrlonde iij.c. marke. And if he or his successours fayle of the seide summes that thei scholde loose the tytle and ryȝhte of þe crowne of Ynglonde. This don Pandulphus the legate de|partede, and compellede the kynge of Fraunce to departe from Normandy. Steven the archebischop come to Ynglonde and absolvede the kynge an othe made afore to restore goodis taken awey. Kynge Iohn made an holy man to be drawen and honged, Petre off Pountefract by name, in that he seide mony infortunes scholde comme to hym for his cruellenesse and forni|cacion. Also the same man seide to hym that he scholde reigne xiiij. yere, when that he hade reignede allemoste xviij. yere. [folio 376a] Criste apperede to this Petre twyes at Yorke and oonys at Page  195, vol.8 Powntefract, in the lykenesse of a childe betwene the hondes of the preste, inspirynge hym, and seyenge, "Pease, pease, pease," and tauȝhte hym mony thynges, whom he schewede to bischoppes and peple lyvynge ylle. Also he was rapte in an excesse of mynde by thre dayes and iij. nyȝhtes, in whiche tyme he see the ioyes of blissede men and the tormentes of synnefulle men. Kynge Iohn toke the castelle of Rowchestre in this yere in the vigille of seynte Andrewe, where mony noblemen hade conspirede his dethe. Lodowicus, broþer to the kynge of Fraunce, come to Ynglonde at the requeste of the gentylle in hit, to whom mony men of Fraunce and of Yng|londe made fidelite, and the kynge of Scottes also at London. But Gualo, a legate of the pope, excommunicate the seide Lodowicus with alle men supportynge hym, neverthelesse as for that sentence he toke Wynchestre, and segede Dover and Wyndeshore. Innocencius the pope dedde, Honorius did suc|cede x. yere and viij. monethes, which confermed the ordre of Page  197, vol.8 frers Prechours in the firste yere. Iohn kynge of Ynglonde diede of the flix at Newerke, in the xvij. yere of his reigne and in the vjthe monethe; beryede at Worcestre in the myddes of the qwere of monkes. ℞. Neverthelesse the commune fame is that he was poysonede at the monastery off Swynyshed of white monkes. For, as hit is seide, he seide þer at a dyner that he scholde make a loofe, that tyme worthe an halpenny, to be worthe xij.d. by the ende of the yere if he myȝhte have lyve. Oon of the breþer of þat place, familier with the kynge, herynge that, ordeynede poyson, and receyvynge the sacrament afore, toke þat poyson to the kynge, and so thei dyede bothe by the drynkynge of hit.

Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

Henricus sonne of the seide kynge was erecte anoon into kynge, havynge ix. yere in age, thro helpe of the bischoppe off Page  199, vol.8 Wynchestre legate off the pope and of the erles of Penbroke and of Chestre. For Ranulphus erle of Chestre toke Lyncoln anoon ageyne Lodowicus, sleenge in hit mony men of Fraunce, wherefore the seide Lodowicus seenge his parte to decrease, takynge moneye for resignacion of his castells, and absolucion off the legate of the pope returnede to Fraunce. Clerkes drawynge to the seide Lodowicus loste theire benefices, other ells thei were sende to the cowrte of Rome for an absolucion. [folio 367b] Ranulphus erle of Chestre, accorded with Lewelinus prince of Wales, wente to Jerusalem, and the cite callede Daneta was taken by Cristen men. Abbottes of the blacke ordre come in this yere to Oxforde to trete firste of theire ordre. Kynge Henricus began a newe werke at Westemynstre, and Ranulphus erle of Chestre commyn from the Holy Londe edifiede the castells of Chartely, of Beeston, and the abbathy of Deulacresse of the white ordre, to the charge of whom he toke a tallage thro alle Page  201, vol.8 his lordeschippe. The translacioun of seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery was made in this yere by Steven the archebi|schoppe, whiche grawntede hey and fyndynge from London to Cawnterbery to peple that solennite durynge. Also he causede in the day of the translacion wyne to distille by condites in diverse places in the cite; whiche spende so grete goodes in that solennite that unnethe the iiij.the successoure to hym recom|pende for the dettes. Alexander kynge of Scottelonde maryede Johan, the sustyr of kynge Henricus. And also a grete huge wynde was in the feste of seynte Luke, commynge from the northe, depressynge howses and trees, and dragons of fyre and wikkede spirittes were seene to flye in the aiere at that tyme. A man was taken at Oxenforde in a cownsaile of bischoppes kepede þer, havynge woundes in his body lyke to the woundes of Criste, seyenge that he was redemer of man; whiche was cruci|fiede at Abbirbury by juggemente ȝiffen ageyne hym. John sonne of David erle of Scottelonde toke to his wife the doȝhter Page  203, vol.8 of Lewelinus prince of Wales, as for a finalle concorde betwene Lewelyn prince of Wales and Ranulphus erle of Chestre, uncle to the seide John. John kynge of Jerusalem come into Ynglonde in this yere for helpe of the Holy Londe, and the noble men of Ynglonde grawntede to þe kynge wardes of theire heires and londes. Whiche grawnte was the begynnynge of moche sorowe, for after that the kynge toke the xvthe peny thro alle the londe. Freres Minors come firste into Ynglonde in this yere, by ij. yere afore the dethe of seynte Francisse. Gregorius the ixthe suceedid Honorius the pope xiiij. yere. This pope roborate the sentence of excommunicacion ageyne Frederyke the emperoure. This Gregory causede Reymunde to compile [folio 377a] v. bookes of the decretalles, excerpte of mony epistoles and decretalle constitucions. This pope segede in the cite of Rome by the emperoure, and perceyvynge the Romanes to be corrupte Page  205, vol.8 with money of the emperoure, toke the hedes of Petyr and of Paule in his hondes, made a procession from the churche Late|ranense unto the churche of Seynte Petyr, and by that the hertes of the Romanes returnede to hym, and the emperoure departede from the cite. Steven archebischop of Cawnterbery diede in this yere, whiche did connotate the Bible at Paryse, expownede the bookes of Regum, dytede the lyfe of kynge Ricardus, and mony other noble werkes whom Ricardus We|chinschevede.*. [Sic in MS.] William Alvernense, a noble man in connynge, diede in this yere, levynge to his successours mony noble werkes, as Of the sacramentes, Cur Deus homo, and mony other com|mendable tretys. The bischoppe of London seyenge masse in the churche of Seynte Paule at London, so grete derkenesse of the sonne was in þat tyme, with a stynche intollerable, thundre Page  207, vol.8 and lyȝhtnynge, that peple departede, levynge the bischop þer and his ministre. Kynge Henry did grawnte in this yere grete libertes and mony to men of Ynglonde, but he toke from theym the xvthe parte of theire goodes to recure his londes over see; whiche goynge over with a grete hoste profite but lytelle þer. William de Brwes put in blame for the wife of Lewelyn prince of Wales, was imprisonede and hongede; for whiche thynge grete discorde was movede betwene the kynge and the seide prince of Wales. Ranulphus erle of Chestre, of Lyncolne and of Huntyndon, dyede at Walyngeforde, and was beryede at Chestre in the chapitre of monkes with his progenitors, whom John Scotte succedid, sonne of his suster. This Ranulphus hade iiij. susters: Matilda the eldeste of þeym was maryede to David erle of Scottelonde, of whom the seide John come. Mabily the secunde sustyr was mariede to þe erle of Arundell. Agnes the thrydde suster was maryede to the erle of Derby. Hawisia the iiij. suster was maryede to Robert Quincy, erle of Page  209, vol.8 Wynchestre. Kynge Henricus ordeynede an hospitalle off Seynte John withowte the este ȝate of Oxenforde, puttynge the firste*. [Sic in MS.] in hit. Ricardus archebischop of Cawnterbery dedde but late, seynte Edmunde of Abendon, that tyme treasurer of Salisbery, was successour to hym, whiche diede in the costes over see in the viijthe yere of his governayle, and was beriede at Pontiniacus in Burguigne, and translate in the viijthe yere [folio 377b] folowynge by the favor of the pope Innocencius þe iiijthe.

Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

FREDERICUS the emperoure toke to his wife Isabell, suster of kynge Henricus; in whiche yere Iewes were brouȝhte afore the kynge at Westmynstre, in that thei hade hidde a childe at Norwiche by oon yere, and hade purposede to have crucifiede hit after þe circumcision of hit. Kynge Henricus mariede Alienor doȝhter of the erle Provincense. Iohn Scotte, erle of Page  211, vol.8 Chestre and of Huntyngdon, diede at Sarenhall the viijthe idus of the monethe of Junius; the erledome of whom returnede to the kynge insomoche that the seide cuntre enjoyede a regalle pre|rogatife, oþer londes ȝiffen to the iiij. sustres, leste so noble a londe scholde have bene divided amonge the rockes of women. Otto the legate come into Ynglonde in this yere, whiche ordeynede mony noble constitutions to the utilite of the churche; whiche commynge thro Oxforde, a grete conflicte was made betwene the scolers and his men, insomoche that, oon of his men sleyne, he was segede in the towre of Oseney unto eve, and he myȝhte unnethe be delyverede by ministres of the kynge commynge from Abendon. Þis legate Page  213, vol.8 brouȝhte to Walyngeforde excommunicate those malefactors, and suspende the universite of Oxonforde untille thabbot and chanons of Oseney with regentes of the universite, goynge unschoede and ungyrde thro the myddes of London unto his ynne, cowthe unnethe have forȝifnesse. A fals clerke fenynge hym selfe madde, inquirede the secrete places off the kynges courte, and entrede the chambre of kynge Henricus at Wode|stoke in the nyȝhte, and wolde have sleyne hym. But the seide clerke was taken at the crye of an hooly woman, and drawen at Coventre. Edwarde the firste, son of kynge Hen|ricus, was borne at Westmynstre in this yere, whom Otho the legate baptiȝede, and confermede seynte Edmund archebischoppe of Cawnterbery. The kynges of the Tartarous havynge the provinces of the este subduede to theym, divided theire peple into ij. hostes: oon of the seide hostes attrivede so soore Hun|gary and Pannonye, that men of those costes were feyne to eite theire awne childer. Celestinus the iiijthe succedid Gre|gory [folio 378a] Page  215, vol.8 oon monethe, whom Innocencius the iiijthe succedid xj. yere and vj. monethes. The crowne of thorne of oure Savioure was brouȝhte in this tyme into Fraunce. Otho the legate departede from Ynglonde, was taken on the see by men longynge to the emperoure. Seynte Edmund dyede at Soysy, whom Bonefacius succedid. This Edmund, borne at Aben|don nye to Oxenforde, hade a religious fader and moder. The fader of whom was callede Edwarde Ryche, lyvenge in reguler observaunce afterwarde at Evisham by consente of his wife. And the name of his moder was Mabily, a woman devoute in the servyce of Allemyȝhty God. This holy seynte Edmund, clene from every filthy contagion, borne in the feste of seynte Edmunde kynge and martir, lay as dedde by alle that day, inso|moche Page  217, vol.8 that peple stondynge by wolde have beryede hym, but that his moder commaunded the contrary. This hooly bischoppe was callede Edmunde, whiche sowndethe happy and clene, in that he was borne in the feste of seynte Edmunde, and also for cause that his moder beynge at the tumbe of seynte Ed|munde perceyvede firste the lyfe of hym in here wombe. Whiche encreasynge in vertu and connynge, usede to say the Sawter complete every Sonneday or he did taste eny meyte, and fastynge with brede and water in every Fryday by the cown|saile of his moder. This floure of Criste immarcessible, beynge after that at the universite of Oxenforde, and walkynge in a Page  219, vol.8 mede nye to the universite, a beawtuous childe apperede to hym, seyenge, "Hayle, my wellebelovede, I have mervayle that thow knowes not me, specially sithe that y am nye to thy syde in scoles and other places. Enprynte the wrytenge in my forehedde in thy forehedde and mynde every nyȝhte;" in whom this wrytynge was contenede, "Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudeorum." After that tyme he hade grete remembraunce of the passion of Criste, but hit happede seynte Edmunde to forgete that impression in oon nyȝhte by study|enge for an ordinary to be redde in the morowe foloynge, and in the seide morowe the develle, enemy to man, hade bownde hym so that he cowthe not blisse hym. But this hooly man preyenge in mynde, the develle felle downe bytwene his bedde and the walle, whom he adjurede by the hooly bloode of Criste that he scholde expresse by what thynge he myȝhte be convicte [folio 378b] moste rathe. And then the develle seide by the precious bloode of Criste. Also seynte Edmunde forgetynge to say the preyer, "O beata et intemerata," seynte Iohn Evangeliste Page  221, vol.8 apperede to hym in his slepe, manassynge to smyte hym with a palmer, for Scripture affermethe "he that despisethe lytelle thynges schalle falle lyȝhtely." This hooly bischope was wonte to putte the silvyr that he receyvede of his scolers in a wyndowe openly, sayenge, "duste or powder to powdre, and asches to asches." Whiche silvyr was taken awey oftetymes other by his felawes in disporte prively, or by other thefes prively. This seynte Edmunde laborynge arismetrike to rede Page  223, vol.8 in his ordinary, his moder apperede in slepe to hym, dedde but late afore, inquirynge of hym what figures thei scholde be; he ansuerynge suche and suche. Then sche depicte in his ryȝhte honde iij. cercles, contenynge the Fader, the Sonne, and the Holy Goste, and seide, "Son, attende to these Page  225, vol.8Page  227, vol.8 ffigures." Hit happede in a tyme, the seide bischop beynge in study and in slepe, a candelle to falle on his bible, but the seide seynte Edmunde awakenge and sighenge, that booke was not hurte in eny thynge. Also he made in a tyme iij. crosses with his pen on a felon that he hade on his foote, and the posteme evaneschede awey anoon. The olde heires, whom he usede to were, putte to the fyre cowthe not be brente, an[d] unnethe eny vermyn were founde in theyme or in his other clothes. The decan of Salisbery seide to the messyngers sende from Cawnterbery for the promocion of seynte Edmunde trea|surer that tyme of Salisbery, "Ye be wellecomme, and ye be not wellecomme; ye be wellecomme in that ye comme for the honore of oure churche, and ye be not wellecomme in that ye come to take awey oure treasure with oure treasurer." Page  229, vol.8 This seynt Edmund usede for eny journey or eny tempeste to lyȝhte downe of hys horse and here the confession of a man or woman, if he were desirede, lyke an olyve tre whiche retenethe to hym selfe bitternesse of barke, and distillethe to oþer the liquor of swetenesse. This noble bischoppe ȝafe grete honoure to women, for the honoure of oure Lady, and ȝitte he was not [folio 379a] diffamede þerby. Neverthelesse seynte Edmunde reprovede in a tyme of a man familier to hym in that he spake so ofte with a feire woman, seide to hym ageyne, "Perceyves thow how feire and beawtuous that woman is; sche hathe sytte ofte nye to me, and unto this houre y was never attempte moore of her then of the walle. And if alle the synnes of lechery in whom y have synnede were wryten in my forhede y wolde not be Page  231, vol.8 aschamede þerof." This bischoppe hatede men that wolde take ȝiftes, seyenge in Frenche that there was but oon letter betwene prendere, to take, and pendere, to be honge. At the laste, thro the instigacion of the develle, kynge Hen|ricus and the chapitre of Cawnterbery also rebellede ageyne seynte Edmund, in whiche tribulacion he noryschede moche his adversaryes, and admitte theyme to grete familiarite with hym. The luffers of seynte Edmund were displeasede with hym gretely þerfore, seyenge that his grete mekenesse wolde be an occasion to peple to ryse ageyne prelates of the churche. To whom he seide, "We awe to sowke the bitternesse of tribula|cion lyke mylke, and eite wilde hony in the deserte of this worlde with seynte Iohn Baptiste, for the powere of cor|reccion awe to be attribute to God." After that seynte Edmunde callynge a cownsaile of bischoppes, inquirede of theyme how he myȝhte releve the churche, where hit was seide Page  233, vol.8 that the kynge and the rebellious awe to be monyschede, and if thei wolde not be correcte, to schewe to theym the sentence of the churche. This holy bischop wente to the kynge, whiche askede deliberacion to answere to these thynges movede by seynte Edmund, but hit profite not, wherefore he ȝafe sen|tence ageyne alle the rebellious of the churche, the kynge excepte, thenkynge if that he made eny sentence, the legate presente þat tyme scholde have releisched hit, and peraventure to have movede the kynge to moore symplenesse. Wherefore he chosede to absente hym for a tyme, that he myȝhte schewe the actes of those rebellious, and lothe the malice of theyme. This seynte Edmund vexed soore in the extreme infirmite, de|partede from Pontiniacus to Soysi, promysynge theyme to returne and to be þer ageyne in the feste of seynte Edmunde. Page  235, vol.8 The blissede sacramente brouȝhte to this holy bischop, he seide, "O Lorde, thow arte he whom y have luffede and prechede;" and that sacramente receyvede he seide, "Men say that play or disporte goethe into the wombe; but y say that hit goethe [folio 379b] into the mynde." After that he waschede the woundes of the ymage of the crucifix, and seyde, "Haurite aquas in gaudio."

Capitulum tricesimum sextum.

INNOCENCIUS the iiijthe succedid Celestinus the pope, xj. yere and vj. monethes; whiche fullefyllede the voide seetes of cardinalls with honeste persons, and made Hewe frere of the ordre Precheours a cardinalle; whiche postillate alle the bible, and compilede grete concordances on the bible. This pope kepede a cownsaile at Lugdune in Fraunce, grawntenge the canoni|zacion Page  237, vol.8 of seynte Edmund in the vijthe yere after his dethe, and decrete Frederyke the emperoure to be deposede for his re|bellion. A Jewe diggenge in this yere at Tholetum in Speyne to amplifye his vyneyerde founde a stonne holle on every syde, in the myddes of whom he founde a booke after the quantite of a sawter, with levys of tre wryten in Hebrewe, Grewe, and in Latyn, spekynge of the threfolde state of the worlde from Adam unto Antecriste, expressynge the proprytes of men, puttynge the begynnynge of the thrydde worlde in Criste in this maner: "The Sonne of God schalle be borne of Mary a virgyn in the thrydde worlde, whiche schalle suffre dethe for the redempcion of man." Suche a derthe of corne was in Ynglonde in this yere, that a quarter of whete was solde for xvj. s. Seynte Edmunde was translate in this yere, and Frederyke emperour diede excommunicate; Manfredus the naturalle sonne of whom Page  239, vol.8 occupiede that realme untylle that he was sleyne by Charls broþer to the kynge of Fraunce. This Frederyke dedde, Innocencius the pope procurede that the chosers of the empire scholde electe diverse men. A solenne procession was made at London in this yere to mete the precious bloode of Criste, whiche was sende to kynge Henricus from the patriarke of Jerusalem in the thrydde idus of October. Lodowicus kynge of Fraunce wente to the Holy Londe in this yere, and toke a [folio 380a] cite callede Damieta, and the seide kynge of Fraunce was taken of the Soldan in the nexte yere folowynge. A c. and lti M. schepardes or kepers of bestes merkede with the signe of the Page  241, vol.8 crosse come in this yere to Parisius, by whom the universite was troublede moche, and mony scolers were sleyne by theyme also. Kynge Henricus ȝafe to Edwarde his eldeste sonne Vasconia, Yrlonde, Wales, and Chestreschire. In whiche yere the erthe was made soe drye by fervente hete that hit ȝafe noo fruite, and in the ende of herveste were so moche wete and reyne that the erthe myȝhte not receyve the waters, whereby mony incommodites folowede. Seynte Robert callede Grosse|hede, and bischop of Lincolne, diede in this yere þe vijthe idus of October; whiche was instructe excellentely in alle the artes liberalle, and made mony compendious werkes, specially in logyke, moralle philosophy, and in astrology. Whiche sende to pope Innocencius the iiijthe a notable epistolle whiche began "Dominus noster Jesus Christus," in that he began to vexe the churches of Ynglonde with undewe exaccions and inconsuete. And also he ȝafe to Frederyke sonne of his broþer a prebende in the churche of Lincolne with the nexte vacacion of that seete also, whom the seide bischoppe wolde not admitte. And the rescription of the bischop began, "Noverit discrecio vestra," and hit was his answere also to the archidiacon off Cawnterbery and to an oþer man, whiche was the collector of the pope in Ynglonde, whiche tweyne receyvede the bulle of the pope to Page  243, vol.8 inducte the seide Frederyke into the prebendary of the churche of Lincoln. But the seide bischop seide moore over that he awe not ne wolde not admitte oon to the cure of sawles that cowthe not governe hym selfe. Wherefore this Robert called to the cowrte of Rome and excommunicate, appelled from the cowrte of Innocencius the pope unto the hie juge Allemyȝhty God. Wherefore hit happede that the seide bischop apperede to that pope beynge in bedde, as hit is seide, after his dethe, induede with his vesture pontificalle, and seide to hym, "Aryse wrecche, and comme to juggemente;" and he prikkede hym anoon with his pastoralle staffe in the lyfte side unto the herte; and so the bedde was founde fulle of blodde, and the pope was dedde. Wherefore the bischoppes off Rome wylle [folio 380b] not suffre that holy bischop to be canonizede, thauȝhe that he have doen mony miracles. Alexander the iiijthe did succede Innocencius. vij. yere and iiij. monethes. Also pease was Page  245, vol.8 reformed this yere betwene kynge Henricus and Lewelyn prynce of Wales at mownte Gomeryke in this forme, that the seide prynce of Wales and his successours from that tyme scholde do homage to the kynges of Ynglonde. Also kynge Henricus receyvede of hym iij. M. marke, on whiche thynges the kynge made a chartoure roborate by auctorite of the pope. In whiche tyme kynge Henricus made so ryche his iiij. halfe breþer to hym, that thei despisede alle other gentylle men of the realme. For whiche cause Symon Mowntefort, erle of Leicestre, Ricardus of Clare, erle of Glowcestre, with mony oþer noble estates, mette at Oxenforde in the feste of the Trinite, and electe xij. discrete men by the cownsaile of whom thei chaunged the ministres off þe kynge and expellede the iiij. halfe breþer of the kynge from the londe. Kynge Henricus saylede into Fraunce in this yere, and makynge a concorde to be schamede with the kynge of Fraunce, delyverede to hym Normandy with other provinces over see in this condicion, that he myȝhte rejoyce holly the cuntre of Gascoigne. Urbanus the Page  247, vol.8 iiijthe succedid pope Alexander allemoste iiij. yere; this pope was patriarke of Jerusalem afore, whiche grawntede to Charls broþer of the kynge of Fraunce the realme of Sicille, if he cowthe expelle Mainfredus, and so he did. Abowte this tyme a Jewe felle into a sege at Theoskesbery on theire sabbathe day, and wolde not suffre to be drawen from the sege in that day for the reverence of theire sabbat. And Richard of Clare, erle of Glowcestre, beynge þer þat tyme, and understondynge and knowynge of that Jewe, wolde not suffre hym to be taken furthe on Sonneday for reverence of his sabbat day, and so the Jewe diede in the sege.

Capitulum tricesimum septimum.

A GRETE discorde sprong betwene kynge Henry and gen|tyllmen of Ynglonde of certeyne constitucions, ordeynede in the parliamente at Oxenforde, not observede by the kynge: the [folio 381a] Page  249, vol.8 seide gentillemen toke the bischop off Herforde, the prior of Wenlok, and oþer prelates of aliauntes, abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptist, and put þeim in sure kepynge, and chased from Ynglonde oþer men nye to the kynge, the goodes of whom thei occupiede. But at the laste the kynge and the barons put theyme as unto the seide articles in the ordinaunce of the kynge of Fraunce, whiche reprovede alle the articles. Never|theles the seide gentilmen despised his iuggement, and con|tynuede in the thynges begunne. Abowte this tyme, in the day folowynge the feste ad Vincula sancti Petri, a Cristen childe, Hewe by name, as of viij. yere in age, was crucifiede of the Iewes at Lincolne. Firste the tunge of that childe was putte thro his teithe, after that the interialle partes of his body were extracte, puttynge hurdes or the residu of line in his wombe, and prikkede thro alle the body with nalles, neldes, and pynnes. To whiche dede horrible as a multitude of Iewes infinite were gedrede from alle the cites and borowes of Yng|londe, and from behynde see also: and so mony of theyme were drawen, and mony were hongede. The noble men of Ynglonde whiche sustenede the foreseide constitucions, mette at Lewes in Sowthesex, ȝafe a soore batelle to the kynge, and toke hym with Ricardus duke of Cornewaile his broþer and Edwarde the firste sonne of þe kynge, and mony oþer noblemen; and Page  251, vol.8 so thei compellede the kynge to the observaunce of the seide constitucions. But the seide gentillemen kepede Edwarde son to the kynge in prison at Herforde by viij. monethes, whiche escapede from kepynge in the vigile of the Trinite folowynge by helpe of Roger Mortymare. For the seide Edwarde hade licence to ryde a stede for cause of solace, and so he escapede to the mownte of Dunemore, where he see the baneres of Roger Mortymare displayede. And after that, abowte ad Vincula sancti Petri, a soore batelle was hade at Evisham, betwene the kynge and the barons, where ryhteuous Symon erle of Leicestre diede by the subtile subtraccion of the erle of Gloucestre, whiche was on his parte afore. Of whiche Symon mony men reherse that he schewede mony miracles after his dethe, whiche peple durste not expresse for drede of the kynge. After that [folio 381b] knyȝhtes of the seide Symon Mowntefort kepede the castelle of Conilworthe ageyne the hoste of alle Ynglonde by halfe a yere. Clement the iiijthe did succede pope Urban as iiij. yere Page  253, vol.8 after the dethe of whom the seete of the pope was vacante iij. yere and ij. monethes. Octobonus, a legate of the pope, come abowte this tyme into Ynglonde, ordeynynge mony thynges to the utilite of the churche; by cownsayle of whom kynge Hen|ricus grawntede to men that hade loste theire enheritaunce by rysynge ageyne hym, that thei myȝhte redeme theire londes, the erle of Derby and Robert Ferrarius excepte, whiche men hade vexede hym soore. Neverthelesse the seide erle trowblede the kynge in the yere folowynge, but he was taken at Chestrefelde, and put from his enheritaunce tylle his heirs, or oon of þeym, scholde pay to the kynge in oon day 1ti M. li. Octobonus the legate denowncede men of London and of Chichestre to be Page  255, vol.8 excommunicate in the cownsaile of Clement þe pope to whom he ioynede the enterdite of Cristianite. That doen he sus|pende the bischoppes of London and of Chichestre untille that thei were absolvede by the pope; wherefore men of London segede the bischop in the towre or legate,*. [Sic in MS.] untylle that mony bischoppes come in armoure and brouȝhte hym furthe. The soldan of Babilony wastede Armeny in this yere, and destroyede the noble cite of Antiochia, sleenge the peple inhabitynge hit. Kynge Henricus taryede with his hoste at Stratforde, with owte London, untylle that pease was reformede betwene hym and his barons. Octobonus the legate departede from Yng|londe with grete treasure, and Edwarde, the eldeste sonne of the kynge was merkede with the crosse, and Clement þe pope diede. The translacion of seynte Edwarde, kynge and con|fessoure, was hade and made in this yere, in the iiijthe idus of October, under kynge Henricus; and þe xxti peny of laymen Page  257, vol.8 was ȝiffen to the kynge, and the xthe peny thro alle the clergy. Edwarde son of the kynge, takynge his wife with hym, wente to the Holy Londe in this yere. Gregory the xthe succedid pope Clemente iiij. yere, whiche kepede a solenne cownsaile at Lug|dune for the utilite of the Holy Londe, whom he intendede to visitte in his awne person, in whiche cownsayle þe messangers [folio 382a] of þe Grekes and of the Tartarous were; and the men of Grece promysede to returne to the unyte of the feithe, and the Tartarous were baptisede, in whiche cownsaile vj. C. bischoppes were, and a M. prelates. Where a noble, a notable decrete was ordeyned, that alle persons of the churche and governoures scholde be prestes from that tyme, and that men scholde not ȝiffe tythes after theire pleasure, as thei usede afore, but unto theire moder churche. Also he condempnede pluralites of benefices with cure, and approbate certeyne of the ordres of beggers, as freres Precheours and Minors; and some he suffrede, Page  259, vol.8 as the Carmelytes and Austyns; and somme he reprobate, as frers Saccines, namede of penaunce or of grene vale. Kynge Henricus diede in this yere in the feste of seynte Edmunde Pontiniacense, and as men suppose he diede by his merite in that feste, for he vexede the seide bischop oftetymes un|ryȝhteousely in his lyfe; after that he hade reignede lv. yere. Also Bonefacius archebischop of Cawnterbery dedde in this yere, Ricardus prior of Cawnterbery was electe into arche|bischop; but þe pope made voide that eleccion, and made Robert Culwarby metropolitan, doctor of divinite of þe ordre of frere Precheours. And Lodowicus kynge of Fraunce wente soone after to the Holy Londe, with his ij. sonnes, and with the kynge of Navarria, and mony other prelates; but the seide kynge of Fraunce laborynge in extreme infirmite abowte the costes of the Holy Londe, the hoste whiche was of ijc M. Cristen peple was dispersede, for the legate of the pope, whiche was govenoure of the pilgremes in the Holy Londe, and the kynge of Fraunce Page  261, vol.8 diede þer bothe. The kynge of Fraunce preide afore his dethe in this wyse: "O Lorde, ȝiffe to us grace that we may despise the prosperites of the worlde, and that we drede not eny adversite in hit." Also he prayede for the hoste of Cristen peple, seyenge: "O goode Lorde, be unto thy peple a keper . and a protector:" that doen, he seide, "O Lorde, I schalle entre into thy holy hows."

Capitulum tricesimum octavum.

Edwarde the eldeste sonne of kynge Henricus come ynto Ynglonde from the Holy Londe in the iiijthe nones of August, and was crownede the xiiijthe kalendes of September of Ro|bert archebischop of Cawnterbery. And in the day nexte [folio 382b] folowynge he toke openly homage of Alexander, kynge of Scottes. Innocencius the vthe succedid Gregorius as v. Page  263, vol.8 monethes, whom Adrianus the vthe succedid ij. monethes; after whom John þe xxjti succedid viij. monethes, callede Petyr afore, a famose man in diverse sciences. Nicholas the thrydde suc|cedid pope John as iij. yere. Kynge Edward wente to Wales in this yere, and made the castelle of Flynte, and renewede the castelle of Ruthlan, in that Lewelinus prince of Wales wolde not comme to his parliamente into Ynglonde. But the seide prince comme to kynge Edwarde and submitte hym selfe, ȝiffynge to hym for his transgression lti M.li., and a M. marke after yerely for the yle of Angleseye. Nicholas þe pope made frere Robert Culwarby, cardinalle, and putte in his place Page  265, vol.8 at the seete of Cawnterbery frere John Pecham. Kynge Edwarde made a statute that noo man in his realme scholde ȝiffe, selle or assigne, eny londes or tenementes to religious men withowte his licence. Also he caused halpenys and ferthynges to be printed and made rownde, in whom the prophecy of Merlyn semethe to be fullefyllede, where hit is seide the halfe schalle be rownde. Honorius the viij. succedid pope Nicholas as vij. yere. This pope chaungede the habite of freres Car|melite into pure white, which was of ray afore. Fals David of Wales made insurreccion ageyne kynge Edwarde on Palme|sonneday, and did grete hurte to Ynglische men. But kynge Edwarde commynge into Wales abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste subduede Wales to hym, takynge to his noble men townes and londes in þe myddes of that cuntre, retenynge to hym selfe castells on the costes of the see, whiche policy causede grete tranquillity afterwarde. And after that, abowte the feste of seynte Lucy, the hedde of Lewelyne was sende to Page  267, vol.8 kynge Edwarde, and after to London. And David, broþer to the said Lewelyn, mover and causer of that tribulacion, was taken soone after, and was condempnede at the grete parlia|mente at Schrobbesbery, drawen with horses firste and hon|gede afterwarde, and after that his body dividede into iiij. partes, and sende to diverse places of Ynglonde. Too religious men, oon of Ynglonde, an other of Wales, made versus of the [folio 383a] seide Lewelyn, prynce of Wales. The religious man of Wales did wryte of hym in this wyse:

"Hic jacet Anglorum tortor, tutor Venedorum,
Princeps Wallorum Lewelinus, regula morum,
Gemma coevorum, flos regum preteritorum,
Forma futurorum; dux, laus, lex, lux populorum." Page  269, vol.8

The Ynglische man did wryte in this wyse:

"Hic jacet errorum princeps et predo virorum,
Proditor Anglorum, fax livida, secta reorum,
Numen Wallorum, trux dux, homicida piorum,
Fex Trojanorum, stirps mendax, causa malorum."

Kynge Edward causede the lawes of Ynglonde to be kepede in Wales, and putte schireffes þer to governe þe cuntre. Edwarde of Caernarvon, son of kynge Edwarde, was borne in this yere at the seide towne of Wales, in the feste of seynte Marke. Nicholas the iiijthe, of the ordre of Minors, succedid Honorius the iiijthe as vj. yere. In this yere were so grete drynesse and hete that mony men dyed þerby. In whiche yere merchandyses were brente at seynte Botulphus by the childer of Belial, whiche sette diverse places in fyre that thei myȝhte spoyle and gette goodes. And, as hit was seide, alle the money that was in Ynglonde Page  271, vol.8 myȝhte not recompense the hurtes doen þer, for ryvers of golde and of sylver did renne unto the see. In this yere a bushelle of whete was solde for iiij.d. Also in the nyȝhte of seynte Margarete folowynge, a grete tempeste of reyne, thundre, and lyȝhtnenge was drownynge corne, insomoche that a bushelle of whete, solde þat tyme for iij.d., encreasede by succession unto ij.s. contynuynge so allemoste by xlti yere unto the dethe of kynge Edwarde after the conqueste the secunde. The Jewes were expulsede from Ynglonde in this,*. [Sic in MS.] and come not ageyne into hit after that tyme. In the yere of oure Lorde God a M.cc.xc., Alienor qwene of Ynglonde and doȝhter to the kynge of Speyne, vexede soore with the fevers, diede at Herd|eby nye to Lincolne, and was beryede at Westemynstre. Celes|tinus the vthe lyvynge as an anchor succedid pope Nicholas the Page  273, vol.8 pope as iij. yere; whiche resignede that office specially by the labore of Bonefacius his successoure, and wente to his olde habitacion. In whiche yere Alexandre kynge of Scottelande diede, wherefore a grete discorde was hade amonge the Scottes [folio 383b] for the succession of the kynge.

Capitulum tricesimum nonum.

A CONTRAVERSY was hade what man scholde reioyce þe realme of Scottelonde after the dethe kynge Alexander, dedde withowte eny childer. And for cause that mony men chalangede that realme by reason of consanguinite, hit was decidede that the realme myȝhte not be reioycede by eny of theyme withowte consente of the principalle lorde of that realme. Wherefore hit was founde by writynge autentike and olde, that the kynge of Ynglonde is the principalle lorde of Scottelonde. Kynge Edwarde, willynge his successor to have Page  275, vol.8 knowledge þerof, causede alle monasteryes of Ynglonde and of Scottelonde to be serchede to knowe what ryȝhte he scholde have in Scotlonde. Where hit was founde in the cronicles of Marianus the Scotte, of William Malmesbery, of Roger Huvden, of Henricus Huntyndon, and of Rawfe Biȝete, that in þe yere of oure Lorde ix.c. and x. kynge Edwarde the senior subduede to hym the kynges of Scottelonde and of Cumbrelonde. Also in the yere of oure Lorde ix.c. and xxj. the seide peple electe kynge Edwarde into theire patrone. Also in þe yere of oure Lorde ix.c. and xxvj., kynge Athelstan devicte Constantyne kynge of Scottes, and suffrede hym to reigne under hym. Also Canutus, kynge of Ynglonde and of Denmarke, hade victory ageyne Malcolinus kynge of Scottes, in the xvj. yere of his reigne; and after that he was kynge of iiij. londes, as of Ynglonde, of Page  277, vol.8 Scottelonde, of Norway, and of Denmark. Also seynte Ed|warde ȝafe the realme of Scottelonde to Malcolinus, sonne of the kynge off Cumbrelonde, to holde hit of hym. Also hit was founde in bulles of the pope directe to Scottelonde, the kynges in hit to be excommunicate, in that thei wolde not obbey theire lordes, kynges of Ynglonde. Thes auctorites and mony other schewede to the noble men of Scottelonde, metynge Edwarde kynge off Yngelonde at Noreham, in the costes of Page  279, vol.8 the marches, they knowleged by theire letters patent the seide kynge to be principalle lorde of the realme of Scottelonde, and to abide his decrete and ordinacion in that eleccion and succession. Then the cownsellours longynge to the kynge [folio 384a] perceyvynge that the kynge myȝhte not grawnte the ryȝhte of succession of that realme withowte he hade that realme in his possession afore, wherefore suerte made to the Scottes that Page  281, vol.8 realme of Scottelonde to be restorede with in ij. monethes, to whom hit scholde longe by ryȝhte in the peyne of a c. M.li. of sterlynges to be payde to Rome unto the subsidy of the Holy Londe, and also in peyne of the sentence of excommunicacion and of interdiccion of his londe of Ynglonde; that doen the Scottes delyverede to kynge Edwarde þe realme of Scottelonde, with the castells, ryȝhtes, and consuetudes. After þat, kynge Edwarde herynge the allegacions of diverse men for that regalle succession, and the ryȝhtes discussede, preferrede Iohn Baillol, whiche knowlegede*. [Sic.] kynge of Ynglonde to be chiefe lorde of that realme, doynge homage to hym, and promysynge fidelite by an othe. Maister Iohn Pecham diede in this yere, whom maister Robert Wynchelese succedid in the seete of Caunterbery. In whiche yere Madoc, a man of Wales, mowede Page  283, vol.8 guerre in Wales, in the feste of seynte Michel; wherefore kynge Edwarde, commynge to Chestre, toke the yle of Angleseye abowte the feste of seynte Nicholas, causynge also mony woodes to be kytte downe in Wales; and the seide Madoc was taken soone after and brouȝhte to London. And so from that tyme guerres began to cease in Wales, for now Walschemen lyve lyke to Ynglische men, gedrenge rychesse and dredynge the losse of þeire goodes. Kynge Edwarde causede alle the monas|teryes of Ynglonde to be serchede in this yere, commaundynge alle the treasures founde in þeym to be brouȝhte to London, and arestede wolles and leder of þe londe, and a grete derthe of corne and wyne folowede.

Capitulum quadragesimum.

BONEFACIUS the viijthe succedid pope Celestinus the vthe xj. yere. This pope grawntede grete indulgences in vthe yere of Page  285, vol.8 his governayle, whiche was þe yere iubile to men visitynge the apostles Petyr and Paule. Also he made the vjthe booke of the Decretalles, in whom he decided mony dowtes; also he did in|corporate mony constitucions extravagant of Honorius, Adrian, and of Innocencius, of Clement, and of other. ℞. But Celes|tinus, immediate predecessor to hym, prophecyede of this Bone|face [folio 384b] the pope in this wise: "Thow ascendeste lyke a fox, thow schalle reigne lyke a lyon, and schalle dye lyke a dogge;" and so hit happede. Insomoche that he entretede noble men ungoodely, and deposede diverse cardinalles, laborynge with alle his myȝhte to depose þe kynge of Fraunce. Wherefore William Longaret, a man gretely circumspecte in thynges agible, stuarde to the kynge of Fraunce, gedrenge a grete hoste, Page  287, vol.8 toke the seide pope, settynge hym on a wilde horse, his face turnede to the tayle of the horse, and so thei causede the horse to renne, and at the laste he diede for hungre. Iohn Baillol, late made kynge of Scottelande, thro instigacion of the abbot of Meuros, brake his fidelite made to the kynge of Ynglonde, but he was taken soone and putte from his inheritaunce. Also William Wales instaurede guerre ageyn kynge Edwarde in the yere folowynge, but he was causede to fle in the secunde yere folowynge. Kynge Edwarde did sle lx. M. Scottes at Fou|church in the feste of Mary Magdalene. Also he seasonede*. [Sic in MS.] into his alle the temporalites of clerkes, and putte þeim as Page  289, vol.8 exempte from his proteccion, in that thei wolde not helpe hym in the yere afore with theire goodes towarde the Scottes. For Robert, metropolitan of Ynglonde, by the consente of bischoppes, hade procurede a inhibicion of the pope that the clerkes scholde not ȝiffe eny thynge of the goodes of the churche to the kynge; neverthelesse mony prelates souȝhte the proteccion of the kynge for fere and drede. Kynge Edwarde, despysynge the cownsaile of the noble men of the londe, toke with hym a certeyne nowmbre of men of Ynglonde and of Wales, and saylede into Flaundres, as if he wolde have ȝiffe batelle to the kynge of Fraunce. But mony men seide that his mynde was so gretely fixede on Blanche, doȝhter of the kynge of Fraunce, that he wolde have ȝiffen the cuntre of Gascoigne for here to the kynge of Fraunce. But in that kynge Edwarde was olde, and Blanche yonge, Margaret, the suster of the kynge of Fraunce, was maryede to hym, of whom he gate ij. sonnes, Thomas and Edmund. Kynge Edwarde dampned sodenly unlawefull money, whom thei called pollardes, crokardes, and rosaryes. Edmund [folio 385a] Page  291, vol.8 erle of Cornewaile, sonne of Richarde erle of Cornewaile and kynge of Alemanny, dyed in this yere with owte a childe, wherefore that cowntee returnede to the crowne. This yere was þe yere of Iubile, in whom mony pilgremes wente to Rome. Kynge Edwarde ȝafe to Edwarde the principate of Wales and the cowntee of Chestre. And William Waleis, a governoure of the Scottes, was drawen at London and honged, the hedde of whom was sette on the brigge of London, and his body, dividede into iiij. partes, was sende to iiij. places of Ynglonde. Kynge Edwarde sende to the pope letters decla|ratyve of the ryȝhte and lordeschippe that Ynglonde hathe on the realme of Scottelonde and of the kynges þerof. For Robert Bruȝ hade made compleynte afore to the pope that Edwarde Page  293, vol.8 kynge of Ynglonde hade vexede þe realme of Scotlonde with|owte ryȝhte or title. Wherefore þe pope commaundede the kynge of Ynglonde to absteyne from þat vexacion, withowte he schewede more clerely that the realme of Scottelonde awe to be subiecte to hym. Benedict the thrydde succedid pope Bone|face not oon yere complete. Clement the vthe succedid pope Benedict xij. yere; þis pope laborede moche to gedre treasure and to edifye castells, and dampned the ordre of Templaryes. Also he ordeynede the vijthe booke of the Decretalles, whiche he callede Constitutions Clementyn, but he revokede þat booke Page  295, vol.8 afterwarde in a cownsayle at Vienna, whom Iohn the xxijti his successor, innewede and incorporate. This pope Clement translate firste of alle other bischoppes of Rome the seete of the pope unto Avinion, but y leve as untowchede wheþer it was doen by the wylle of God or by the boldenesse of man. Kynge Edward made grete inquisicions in this yere ageyne malefactors and usurpers of the crowne, which inquisicion is called trail|baston. Robert Bruz usurpede the realme of Scottelond, and did sle Iohn Comyn abowte Ester, in the churche of freres Minors at Dounfrez, in that he wolde not consente to hym. But kynge Edwarde commynge into that cuntre, causede the seide Robert Bruȝ to fle, and hongede the sleers of the seide Iohn. [folio 385b] In whiche yere kynge Edwarde, taryenge nye to Carliell, causede Petre Gavaston, ffamilier with Edwarde his sonne, to abiure Ynglonde.

Page  297, vol.8

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

KYNGE Edwarde diede in this yere at Burghe uppon sonde nye to Caerliel, in the feste of the translacion of seynte Thomas and the xxxvti yere of his reigne. The dethe of whom Robert archebischop of Cawnterbery see in his slepe, beynge in exile that tyme at the cowrte of Rome. Whom Edwarde the secunde and his son did succede, whiche callede his luffe Petyr Gavaston to the realme ageyne, makynge hym duke of Corne|waille, and toke to hym the governaunce of Ynglonde whiles that he taryede behynde see for mariage. For he maryede Isabel, doȝhter of Philippe kynge of Fraunce, at Bonony. Whiche returnede thens was crownede kynge of Ynglonde at Westemynstre of the bischop of Wynchestre by auctorite of pope Clement, in the Sonneday of Quinquagesme, in that Robert Page  299, vol.8 archebischop of Cawnterbery was þat tyme in exile at Rome. This kynge Edwarde was a semely man of body, myȝhty in strengthe, but moche inconstant. For the seide kynge des|pisynge the cownsaile of the noble men of his realme, drawede to harlottes, syngers, carters, and to schippemen, ȝiffynge hym to ryette, exaltynge over moche a man that he hade luffed. Whiche causede obprobry to the kynge, obloquy to that oþer person, sclawnder to the peple, and hurte to the realme. And Page  301, vol.8 mony thynges and grete treasures ȝiffen to hym for to repelle the Scottes, were spende and wastede amonge harlottes and in excesse. But oon thynge was as fortunate to þis kynge, that Wales rebellede not ageyne hym, but oþer thynges were in|fortunate to hym. In his begynnynge he revokede Petyr Gavaston from exile, whose felowschip he hade abiurede by commaundement of his fader; by þe presence of whom he des|pisede his qwene Isabell, and despisede also the noble men of the londe. Wherefore the noble men of the realme havynge [folio 386a] indignacioun þerof, expulsede the seide Petyr unto Yrlonde, where the treasures of þe kynge beynge were spende frely. But the seide Petyr was callede soone ageyne, whom the noble men of the realme expellede from the kynge, and toke Page  303, vol.8 the treasures of theyme in the partes of Northumbrelonde, and toke the seide Petyr at the castelle of Scardeburghe, and heded hym at Gaverissiche nye to Warwyke. The seide Petyr sleyne, the seide kynge Edward drawede to unhoneste com|panye as he usede afore, wherefore a cownesaile provincialle was hade by Robert archebischoppe of Cawnterbery, in whiche cownsaile mony hollesomme thynges were ordeynede to the utilite of the realme. The kynge makynge an othe to observe the constitucions þer, returnede soone after to his olde com|panye, and to thynges prohibite by the seide constitucions. Wherefore the noble men of the realme, the metropolitan, and Thomas erle of Lancaster, with mony other noble men, were vexede moche ageyne the kynge. Petyr of Gavaston was in Yrlonde in this yere in exile, causede by þe noble men of the Page  305, vol.8 realme ageyne the wylle of the kynge, which was callede from exile in the yere folowynge, whom the kynge mette at Chestre. The kynge goynge abowte with hym lefte hym at the castelle of Scardeburghe, whom the noble men of the realme toke þer, and brouȝhte hym to Dadynton, and did sle hym nye to War|wyke. The seide Petyr heded at Gaverssiche in the feste of seyntes Gervasius and Prothasius. Edwarde the þrydde was borne at Wyndeshore, in the day of seynte Bricius. And Robert archebischoppe of Cawnterbery diede, and maister Thomas Cobham, a noble clerke, was electe to be his succes|soure, but Walterus Reynalde, treasurer to the kynge, succedid in the seete of Cawnterbery by labore of the kynge, and maister Thomas Cobham was made bischoppe of Worcestre. That doen, the kynge wente to Scottelonde with grete pryde, but he was fowle devicte at Stryvelyn, in the feste of seynte John Baptiste, mony noble men other taken or sleyne, and the kynges treasures taken, the residu of the hostes gladde to flee. [folio 386b] Page  307, vol.8 And after that by xij. yere folowynge the northe partes of Ynglonde were vexede soore by the Scottes. Edward Bruz, broþer of Robert Bruz, entrede into Yrlonde to subdue hit to hym, neverthelesse he was sleyne in the iiijthe yere folowynge, in the day of seynte Calixt. A knyȝhte of Lancastreschire movede gwerre in this yere ageyne Thomas of Lancastre his lorde abowte the feste of seynte Michell, which was taken and heded abowte the feste of seynte Martyn.

Capitulum quadragesimum secundum.

JOHN the xxijti succedid pope Clemente the vthe xviij. yere; whiche innewede the vijthe booke of þe Decretalles, ordeynenge at generalle studyes disciplyne of the langage of Hebrewe, of Grewe, and of Latyn. A grete moreyn off bestes and dethe Page  309, vol.8 of men were in this yere, and grete plenty of reyne in somer and in herveste, whom a grete derthe of corne folowede, inso|moche that a quarter of whete solde for xlti s. A wryter, Iohn by name, havynge a catte familier to hym, seide openly at Oxenforde abowte Pentecoste, that he was the tru heire of Yng|londe, wherefore he was convicte at Northampton before the noble men of the londe, the kynge presente, and was drawen and hongede. In whiche yere ij. cardinalles commen to Ynglonde excommunicate Robert Bruz, and alle peple support|ynge hym, and interdicte the londe of Scottes. In that kynge Edwarde noryschede ij. of the Spensers, Hewe Spenser the Page  311, vol.8 fader and Hewe Spenser his sonne, ageyne the commune desire of the noble men of þe realme, Thomas of Lancaster and mony other noble men made feble the power of the kynge, in|somoche that assente ȝiffen of the kynge as under a schado, thei exilede the seide Spensers and destroyede theire castells in Wales, toke theire bestes and goodes, and occupiede Gloucestre in wynter: but soone after the kynge callede theyme from exile withowte cownsaile of the noble men of the realme, whiche causede grete stryfes and debate. That doen, tweyne of the Mortymares began over hastily, or that Thomas erle of Lan|castre was redy, and toke diverse cites in the marches, and [folio 387a] expulsede the kynȝhtes of the kynge, untylle that the kynge come with a grete hoste, and so for lacke of money and for the longe taryenge of Thomas erle of Lancastre, the peple and hoste longynge to the seide Mortymars thei were compellede to dedicacion; whiche imprisonede at London, the kynge goynge to Glowcestre, callede bothe the Spensers from exile. After Page  313, vol.8 that the kynge come to Lichefelde abowte the feste of seynte Chadde, that he myȝhte take seynte Thomas erle of Lancastre and the erle of Herforde with theire peple, beynge that tyme at Burton and Tettebery. The kynge passede over the water of Trente, the erle of Lancastre fledde from Burton to Burg|brigge, where Andrewe Harkeley of the kynges parte metynge theyme did sle the erle of Herforde on the same brigge þe xvijthe kalendes of Apryle, and toke seynte Thomas of Lancastre with mony oþer noble men, whiche were hongede in diverse places for the moore parte, but Thomas of Lancastre was heded at Powntefret, his awne castelle, þe xjthe kalendes of Aprile. Of the merites of this erle Thomas of Lancastre diverse a ryve*. [Sic in MS.] dis|ceptacion is hade amonge commune peple wheþer he awe to be annumerate amonge seyntes. Mony peple affermynge hym to be nombrede amonge theyme, in that he ȝafe grete almes, honowrynge religious men, and by apparence dyenge for a ryȝhteous querele, and his adversaryes dyede soone after. Page  315, vol.8 Mony other men affermynge the contrary, seyenge that he refusede a noble gentille woman and his wife, and kepede mony concubynes, noryschynge men fugitive from theire ordre, and other transgressor, that thei scholde not be peyned to dethe, governede after the cownsaile of his secretary. Seyenge also that he awe not to be callede a martir in that he fledde from the defense of ryȝhte, and was taken and putte to dethe ageyne his wylle. But þis for a certente, that mony miracles have be schewede in that place where he suffrede dethe, and moche offrenge hade þer also. From that tyme unto the vjthe yere folowynge, the power of the Spensers began to encrease, and the powere of the qwene to decrease, untylle that the kynge of [folio 387b] Fraunce trowblede the kynge of Ynglonde in that he did not homage for the cuntre of Gascoigne. Kynge Edwarde kepede a parliamente at Yorke abowte the Assencion of oure Lorde, Page  317, vol.8 where he erecte Hewe Spenser the senior unto erle of Wyn|chestre, and Andrew Harkeley into the erle of Caerliell. Kynge Edwarde wente to Scottelonde in the same yere abowte Lam|masse, losynge moche peple þer, thauȝhe he hade noo resistence, by hungre and sekenesse: whiche returnede from that cuntre, the Scottes folowede hym on the bakke, and toke the castelle of Norham abowte the Nativite of oure Lady, and after that thei hade taken the kynge at Blachon moore, but that he fledde; neverthelesse thei toke the treasure of the kynge þer and the erle of Rychemunde. Andrewe Harkeley was taken at Caer|liell in the day folowynge the feste of seynte Chadde, drawen, hongede, heded, and his body divided, his bowells brente afore, lyke a traytour, and his hedde was sette on London brygge. Also abowte Lamasse folowynge Rogerus Mortimere þe yonger escaped from the towre of London, his kepers beynge Page  319, vol.8 in slepe by a drynke receyvyde made þerfore. The qwene of Ynglonde sende to the kynge of Fraunce, her broþer, to make labor for reste and pease. Kynge Edwarde sende Edwarde his sonne into Fraunce to make his homage to þe kynge þerof for the duchery of Aquitanny ȝiffen to hym, whom the kynge of Fraunce causede to tary with his moder in the cowntee Pontyne. The qwene and Edward her sonne taryenge over see, dredynge or ferynge to comme into Ynglonde for the Spensers, kynge Edwarde, by cownsayle of the ij. Spensers, exilede and banyschede theyme openly in the towre of London and thro alle þe cite as traytours of þe realme.

Capitulum quadragesimum secundum.*. [Sic.]

THE qwene of Ynglonde, with Edwarde her sonne and Roger Mortymare, whiche hade escapede from the towre of London, Page  321, vol.8 come into Ynglonde in this yere, and landed at Estesex abowte the feste of seynte Michell with a lytelle hoste of men, and made grete haste to London, where the kynge was in that tyme. And as a thynge to be mervaylede, the londe beynge quiete [folio 388a] withowte effusion of bloode, they folowede the kynge fleynge from London into Weste Wales; and soone after the bischop of Excestre, treasurer of Ynglonde, was heded in the day folow|ynge the feste of Calixt the pope, by cownsayle of citesynnes of London withowte the northe durre of the churche of Seynte Paule. That doen the towre of London was taken to the utilite of the qwene and Edward her sonne; and soone after the castelle of Bristowe was taken by the qwene and here men, where Hewe Spenser the elder was drawen and honged, and his hedde sente to Wynchestre. The erle of Arundell was taken þat yere abowte Schrobbesbery, and was heded at Her|forde. Edwarde kynge of Ynglonde was taken in the same weke at the castelle of Nethe in Weste Wales, but he was Page  323, vol.8 kepede in the castelle of Kenelworthe; and Hewe Spenser the yonger, whiche was taken from the kynges presence, was drawene, hongede, and his hedde sende to London brygge. In whiche yere a parliamente was kepede at London in the octaves of the Epiphany, by whiche ordinaunce solenne mes|syngers were sende to the kynge in prison, iij. bischoppes, ij. erles, ij. barons, ij. abbottes, and ij. justices, that thei scholde resigne theire homage made to the kynge afore; amonge whom William Trussell, knyȝhte, a proctor of alle the parliamente, seide to the kynge in the name of alle the oþer lordes: "I, William Trussell, proctor of alle the parliamente, in the name of alle the lordes of Ynglonde, depose the of thy regalle dignite, and never to obbey the as kynge hereafter." This was openly proclamede at London. Edwarde sonne of Page  325, vol.8 the kynge was made knyȝhte in the vigile of the Purificacion of oure Lady Mary.

Capitulum quadragesimum tertium.

EDWARD, sonne of kynge Edwarde, after the conqueste the thrydde, of xv. yere in age, was crownede into kynge in the feste of the Purificacion of oure blissed Lady at Westemynstre, his fader beynge in lyve and under kepynge. In the begyn|nynge of whom the erthe began to ȝiffe moche fruite, the aier [folio 388b] temperance, the see tranquilite, the churche liberte. Edward somme tyme kynge was brouȝhte from Kenelworthe to the castelle of Berkeley, where he was sleyne with a noote broche putte thro the secrete place posterialle. Wherefore mony peple say that he diede a martir and did mony miracles; neverthelesse kepynge in prison, vilenes and obprobrious dethe cause not a Page  327, vol.8 martir, but if the holynesse of lyfe afore be correspondent: for hit is welle and if þat vile dethe do aweȝ synne in hym and diminische his peyns. But women luffynge to goe in pilgre|mage encrease moche the rumor of suche veneracion, untille that a feble edifienge falle downe. Edmund Wodestoke, uncle to kynge Edward the thrydde, and erle of Kente, was heded in the parliament at Wynchestre, in that he conspirede ageyne the kynge as hit was seide. Edwarde the iiijthe sonne of this newe kynge, was borne in this yere, the xvij. kalendes of Iunius, of his qwene, doȝhter of the erle of Hunaldes. And Rogerus Mortymare was taken at Notyngham, in that he commaundede Page  329, vol.8 hym to be callede erle of Marche; whiche sende to London was drawen and hongede by juggemente of the parliamente in the vigille of seynte Andrewe. Edward le Baillol, sonne of Iohn Baillol, somme tyme kynge of Scottelonde, entrede into Scotte|londe with a fewe peple of Ynglische men, unnethe ij. M. in nowmbre, to recure that realme; whiche did sle abowte Lamasse lx. M. of the Scottes at Gledesmore. Kynge Edward come that tyme and segede Berwyke the iiijthe idus of Iulius, and William Neeth, a knyȝhte of Scottelonde, promysede to brynge an hoste of Scottes to remove hym from that sege. After þat the Scottes brente in diverse places of Northumbrelonde, and seged the castelle of Banburgh, where the qwene of Ynglonde was, thenkynge to dissolvede*. [Sic.] the sege of Berwyke þerby; but the Scottes come divided into thre wardes in the day of theire promyse ageyne men of Ynglonde, þe xiiijthe kalendes of Auguste, Page  331, vol.8 nye to Berwyke in a place called Boothull, whiche were oppressede by archers of Ynglonde, and folowede by men of armes unto nyȝhte; Insomoche that viij. erles of þe Scottes with a M. and iij.c. horsemen were sleyne, and xxxvti M. of footemen were sleyne. The men of Berwike seenge þat, [folio 389a] delyverede Berewik unto kynge Edwarde; and xiiij. men of Ynglonde were sleyne in that conflicte, and not oon man moore, as a thynge to be hade in mervayle, whiche were oon knyȝhte, oon esqwyer, and xij. footemen. Edwarde le Baillol, the tru kynge of Scotlonde, in the feste of Gervasius and Prothasius,*. [Some words are evidently wanting here, see Trevisa's version.] at the newe castelle on Tyne, in the presence of thre bischoppes, mony erles, barons, and oþer noble men pre|sente; but the Scottes rebellede soone after. Wherefore kynge Edwarde entrynge into Scottelonde at wynter folowynge de|stroyede that londe unto the Scottes see, and repairede the castell of Rokesburghe, where he taryede with alle his peple by alle wynter. Iohn the xxijti pope dyede in this yere; whom Page  333, vol.8 Benedicte, monke and abbot somme tyme of the ordre Cister|ciens, did succede, whiche made anoon constitucions to profes|sours of diverse ordres concernynge theire rules. Abowte the feste of seynte Gregory, kynge Edwarde in the fulle parliamente at London made of the cowntee of Cornewaile a duchery, whom he ȝafe to Edward his firste sonne, and Chestreschire also. Whiche ordeynede and made that tyme v. erles, oon at Derby, an other at Northampton, the thrydde at Huntyndon, the iiijthe at Salisbery, the vthe at Gloucestre. A grete discorde was movede betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, in that the kynge of Fraunce occupiede diverse cites and growndes in the cuntre of Gascoigne. Wherefore Edwarde kynge of Ynglonde sende to the kynge of Fraunce meke supplicacions if he myȝhte recure his cuntre in that wise; but kynge Edwarde profitynge not þerby, gedrede a myȝhty hoste, and saylede into Flandres; after that he wente to Colony, obtenynge the favore of the em|peroure, Page  335, vol.8 takynge mony men of Braban and of Flaundres with hym, and so he brente the northe partes of Fraunce unto the cite Tornacus. Kynge Edwarde returnede to Ynglonde abowte the Purificacion of oure Lady, levynge his qwene at Andewerpe in Seland, with Leonell and Iohn Gaunt, his childer geten in those costes, as in suerte of his commynge ageyne. A parlia|mente hade at London, and makynge grete ordinaunce to have with hym into Fraunce, he commaunded a grete tribute to be paiede to hym of þe vthe parte of the goodes of men, and occu|piede the wolles of alle men, and the ixthe parte of alle cornes, [folio 389b] of whiche proventus he commaunded lordes of townes that were nye to þeym to ȝiffe an answere. In whiche yere was so grete plente off corne, bestes and frutes, and so grete skarse|nesse of silvyr, that a quarter of whete was solde at London for ij. s., and a fatte ox for vj. s. viij. d. Kynge Edwarde entrede into the see with ij. c. schippes in the vigille of seynte Iohn Baptiste, whiche mette a grete navy of schippes abowte Page  337, vol.8 the costes of Flaundres; takynge cownsaile of his men what thei scholde do. But a noble knyȝhte Robert of Morley commynge into the helpe of þe kynge with þe schippes of the northe cuntre, the kynge with his hoste ȝafe a soore batelle to theyme. Where men of Fraunce and of Normandy were sleyne in a grete nowmbre by archers of Ynglonde, mony men of theym taken and mony drownede, and alle theire schippes taken and occupiede by Englische men, fewe of theyme excepte whiche escapede. That doen kynge Edward wente to Flaun|dres and fortifiede his hoste, destroyenge the northe partes of Fraunce, segenge longe the noble cite Tornacus, and departede from hit, in that his proctors sende not to hym money from Ynglonde, truse taken betwene the kynges. Kynge Edwarde wente to the Lesse Briteyne, losynge mony of his men by un|hollesomme meytes; to whom ij. cardynalls were sende to take Page  339, vol.8 truse betwene theyme by the space of thre yere, in whiche space hit myȝhte be discussede what ryȝhte the kynge of Ynglonde scholde have to the realme off Fraunce. Kynge Edwarde saylenge from Bryteyne to Ynglonde, loste mony off his men by tempestes of the see, whiche was seide to have be causede by nigromancyers of the kynge of Fraunce. Benedicte the pope dyede in this yere, whom Clement the vjthe did succede, whiche ȝafe diverse dignites vacante that tyme in Ynglonde unto his cardinalls. Wherefore kynge Edwarde displeasede þerwith, made voide suche promisions made by the pope, in the yere of oure Lorde God Mcccliiijti, commaundynge that noo man scholde brynge suche promisions into his realme from the pope in peyn of prisonment and of hongynge.

The compilator of this booke wrote unto this tyme. ℞.*. [For the remainder of the Har|leian text see Appendix, p. 429. Caxton's version is given in place of it to the end of Book VII.]

Page  [429], vol.8

Capitulum quadragesimum*. [Sic, though the preceding chapter is marked 43.].*. [This is the remainder of MS. Harl. 2261, and the marginal re|ferences are to the CHRONICON ANGLIæ and WALSINGHAM'S HISTORY as printed in this Series. See note, p. 339.]

EDMUND, sonne of kynge Edwarde geten of Philippa his [folio 390a] qwene, was borne in this yere at Langeleye, in the nones of Junius. Kynge Edwarde saylede in this yere unto Briteyne, receyvynge afore homage of Iohn Mountefort, the tru heire of the lesse Briteyne, where kynge Edwarde conquerede mony townes and castells. After that, he toke and segede the towne of Vanes, and thauȝhe þe kynge of Fraunce come with a grete hoste to ȝiffe batell to hym; and truse taken, the seide towne remaynede subjecte to the kynge of Ynglonde. In whiche yere a generalle chapitre of blake monkes was hade at North|ampton in the navitivite of oure Lady, Thomas Heule abbot of Westemynstre, Michael abbot of Seynte Alban, and the prior of Seynte Marye of Yorke, presidentes in that chapitre. Thomas Heule, abbot of Westemynstre, diede, whom Symon Bircheston succedid. The qwene of Ynglonde was delyverede of a doȝhter, Mary by name, in this yere. Henricus Lan|castre, erle of Derby, saylede into Gascoigne in this yere with mony noble men with hym, whiche toke at the firste sawte the cite of Brigerake, and take xj. noble men into cap|tivite, and subduede to the kynge of Ynglonde lvj. noble cites and townes. After that he hade victory of a grete hoste of men of Fraunce commynge ageyne hym at Allebroch, noble men of Fraunce taken þer by hym. Kynge Edwarde entrede into the see in the feste of the translacioun of seynte Thomas, his men havynge noo knowlege wheder he intended to goe, but he londed by the meanes of a knyȝhte of Harecourte, put in exile by the kynge of Fraunce, at Hogges nye to Sequana, and spoylede the cite of Caane and diverse other, whereby he and his peple were encreasede gretely in rychesse. And in that the kynge off Fraunce hade broken the brigges that the hostes myȝhte not mete to gedre, kynge Edward entrede into Nor|mandy destroyede that cuntre moche towarde Pykardy. After that kynge Edward commynge to Pusian founde the brygge broken, causede hit to be repairede withynne ij. daies. That doen, the erle of Northampton passynge the water of Sequan did sle vc men lettynge the makynge of the brygges. Kynge Edwarde passynge over the water of Sequana towarde [folio 390b] Crescy, destroyede the cuntre with the inhabitators of hit, and Page  430, vol.8 passynge the water of Somme unhurte with alle his hoste, did sle ij. M. men willenge to lette theire passage. After that the lorde Despenser toke manfully the towne of Croteye, iiij.c. men of armes sleyn in hit of men of Fraunce. And in the xxvj. day of the monethe of Auguste kynge Edwarde hade a glorious victory ageyne Philippe kynge of Fraunce, and putte hym to flyȝhte at Crescy: the same tyme ij kynges, of Boemia and of Majorica, and the duke of Lotharingia, ij. bischoppes, viij. erles, mony noble lordes, ij. M. knyȝhtes were sleyne on the parte of the kynge of Fraunce, and commune peple as in|numerable. In whiche batelle Philippe kynge of Fraunce was unhorsede ij. tymes by kynge Edward in his awne per|son, and was full feyne to fle. After that kynge Edwarde taryede by oon yere in segenge the cite of Calys, trowblynge moche men of Ynglonde afore. In whiche yere the xvij. day of Octobre, a grete hoste of the Scottes commyn unto Dirham by the movynge of the kynge of Fraunce, were overcommen by the cleregy of the province of Yorke. In whiche batell David Bruz kynge of Scotlonde was taken, William Douglas, and mony other noble men. Philippe kynge of Fraunce come abowte the feste of seynte Bartholomewe nye to Calese, as to dissolve that sege, but in the morowe he fledde, levynge his tentes fulle of vitells. Men of Calyse perceyvynge that, yel|dede that cite to the kynge of Ynglonde, whiche taryenge þer and disposynge that cite after his pleasure by a monethe, re|turnede into Ynglonde, suffrenge grete tempestes on the see, and losynge mony noble men. Insomoche that he compleynte to Mary, moder of Criste, seyenge, "O blessede Mary my lady, what thynge dothe hit portende that the weder is feire, the see is quiete in goynge to Fraunce, and that in returnynge to Ynglonde so mony infortunys succede?" A grete habundaunce of reigne was in this yere that hit reynede in every day or nyȝhte from the feste of seynte Iohn Bap|tiste unto Cristemasse. Whom a grete mortalite and dethe of men folowede thro the worlde, begynnynge from the plages of the sowthe and of the northe, that unnethe the halfe parte of men remayuede on lyve. For in somme religious place ij. men were not lefte of xxit. And a grete derthe of bestes [folio 391a] folowede, then the londe was not tyllede, whiche causede the erthe to be bareyne longe after. A knyȝhte and secretary to the kynge of Fraunce come to Calys in this yere, the secunde day of Ianuarius, with a grete multitude of armede peple to take the castelle off Calys by treason, after a convencion made betwene hym and the keper of the castelle. Kynge Edwarde herynge that come and taryde at Calys with fewe men secretely. The seide knyȝhte sende diverse men to the seide castelle, whiche entrede into hit, a brygge a tre was drawen up that thei cowthe not avoide. And kynge Edwarde goynge furthe of the Page  431, vol.8 cite fauȝhte boldely with men off Fraunce, and men of Yng|londe were so occupiede that tyme with theire adversaryes, insomoche that xxxti men remaynede not with the kynge. The kynge seenge that drawede his swerde, and seide, "Ha seynte Edward, ha seynte George." That seide, mony men of Ynglonde come to hym, and did sle j.c. men of Fraunce, compellynge the seide knyȝhte to fle with mony other. Maister Iohn Offord, chaunceler of Yng|londe, electe and confermede into the archebischop of Cawn|terbery, and not consecrate, dyede in this yere; whom mayster Thomas Bredewardyn succedid by eleccion. Also pope Cle|mente the vjte grawntede plenary remission to alle peple dyenge in Ynglonde that grete pestilence endurynge. A grete batelle and soore fauȝhten was hade on the see in this yere nye to Wynchelesey, in the feste of the decollacion of seynte Iohn Baptiste, betwene men of Ynglonde and of Speyne, in so moche þat unnethe eny man escapede from that batelle unhurte. But xxiiij. schippes taken of men of Speyne, the victory was re|joycede by men of Ynglonde by the favor of God. Symon Langham was made abbot of Westemynstre in this yere by elec|cion. This man was of suche sapience that he precellede allemoste alle other men in thynges agible. For he was of so grete circumspeccion and policy that unnethe a man cowthe be founde in Ynglonde egalle to hym; whiche enjoyede so mony vertues that the kynge made hym treasurer, and soone after bischop of Ely and chaunceler of Ynglonde, and after that archebischoppe off Cawnterbery. After that the fame of the seide noble man was so gretely encreasede that pope Urban [folio 391b] the vthe take hym into a cardinalle preste of the title of Seynte Sixte. After that he was made bischop Penestryne by pope Gregory the xijthe; whiche diede at Avinion þe xxijti day of the monethe of Iulius, in the yere of oure Lorde a M. ccc. lxxv., and was beryede at the monastery of Goodepasse, whom he founded, and his boones were brouȝhte after to Westemynster. The translacion of seynte Thomas, bischop of Herforde, was made in this yere with grete honoure, the kynge, the prince, and mony prelates beynge þer presente, as peple innumerable. This yere was the yere jubile, in whom moche peple wente to Rome for remission of theire synnes. Maister Thomas Brade|wardyn, archebischop of Cawnterbery, diede in this yere, whom maister Symon Islep did succede by eleccion. In whiche yere a batelle or conflicte of ij. men was made with ynne the kynges palice at Westemyntre, betwene lorde Iohn Bastarde, broþer of Philippe kynge of Fraunce, and a knyȝhte of Ypres; but the seide lorde Iohn rejoycede the victory. William Edyngton, bischop of Wynchestre and treasurer of Ynglonde, causede a grote to be imprintede, and halfe a grote, to the grete utilite of the kynge, and not of the commune peple; for after that alle Page  432, vol.8 thynges to be solde began to wex moore deere. Clement the vjthe diede in the day of Nicholas; and Steven, bischop Ostiense, was electe soone after, and callede Innocencius the vjte. In whiche [time] Haymo Attehethe, bischop of Rochestre, resignede his office to the pope voluntaryly; whom maister Iohn Shepey, prior of the seide place, did succede. Also in the same yere Syr Walter Bentele, knyȝhte and keper off Briteyne, hade vic|tory ageyne the marcialle off Fraunce nye to Mauron, peple as innumerable of Fraunce taken and sleyne. In this yere was so grete drynesse þat unnethe from Marche unto the monethe of Iulius eny drope of water did falle, whereby cornes and oþer frutes were destroyede in that yere, insomoche that men and peple of Ynglonde were compellede by necessite to labour for theire fyndynge to other cuntres nye to theym. William duke of Selonde, understondynge that, sende to Ynglonde mony schippes chargede with whete and flowre. Henricus, erle of Derbey and off Lancastre, was made duke of Lancastre in this yere, and Rawfe, lorde of Stafforde, erle of Stafforde. [folio 392a] A grete discorde and treason in maner was hade in this yere betwene men of Oxenforde and scolers, ffor the seide men of Oxenforde gedrenge a grete multitude of peple of townes nye to theyme, did sle mony of the scolers, and wounded mony, and at the laste thei toke theire goodes and compellede theyme to avoide the universite, wherefore Oxenforde was putte under interdicte by a longe space. But at the laste, pease was re|formede by the meanes of the frendes of the scolers in this wise, that the citesynnes of Oxenforde whiche causede that discorde bynde theyme for ever moore that thei scholde behave theyme honestely as to the scolers, and that the chawnceller scholde obteyne alle the governaunce of the universite. Also a concorde and an othe was made betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, so that seales were not putte to wrytynges indentede that the kynge of Ynglonde scholde have alle londes of the duchery off Aquitanny usurpede unto that tyme by the kynge of Fraunce. Soe that the kynge of Yng|londe scholde dimitte and resigne to the kynge of Fraunce alle hys ryȝhte and clayme that he hade unto the realme of Fraunce. Wherefore solenne messangers were sende from kynge Edwarde unto the pope for this accorde to be inbullede, and these were messangers: Henricus the noble duke of Lan|castre, Ricardus erle of Arundell, William bischop of Nor|wyche, and Guido Brian knyȝhte. But that acorde and con|vencion was made voide by meanes and fraude of the pope. Wherefore kynge Edwarde instaurede a batelle, and entrede into the realme off Fraunce with a regalle hoste; whiche herynge that Berwyke was taken by the Scottes, returnede to Ynglonde and delyverede Berwyk from Scottes. Tweyne freres of Minors were brente the thrydde fery in the weeke of Page  433, vol.8 Pentecoste at Avinon for erroneus oppinions as hit semede to the pope and to the cardinalls. Edward, the firste sonne of kynge Edwarde, saylede into Gascoigne in the same yere, abowte the nativite of oure Lady, with mony erles, noble men and archers, to recure the londes whom þe kynge of Fraunce usurpede of the duchery of Aquitanny. Where he taryenge fully by oon yere with owte batelle, toke diverse noble cites in the meane tyme, as Narbona and Carcasona, and destroyede mony other cites. But this seide Edwarde in the xxti day of [folio 392b] the monethe of September, goynge with the duke of Lancastre in the Lesse Briteyne from the sege of the cite Berenense longynge to the duchery of Aquitanny over the water of Ligeris, mette Iohn kynge of Fraunce with a myȝty hoste. But the seide kynge of Fraunce was taken þer, and was brouȝhte to Burdegale, a cite of Gascoigne, where he taryede unto the feste of Pentecoste nexte folowynge.

Capitulum quadragesimum primum.

EDWARDE sonne of kynge Edward the thrydde after þe con|queste, returnede in this yere into Ynglonde, abowte þe feste of Pentecoste, with Iohn kynge of Fraunce, taken in captivite. And soone after ij. cardinalls were sende from the pope to make acorde betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, whiche taryenge in Ynglonde by oon yere complete, the thrydde cardinalle come to comforte the kynge off Fraunce, and taryede at London with the other cardinalls. David le Bruȝ, kynge of Scotlonde, was delyverede in this yere, abowte the feste of Alle Seyntes, kepede in holde by xj. yere, a grete summe of goode payede afore to the kynge for his rawnson. In whiche yere a grete hoste entrede into Fraunce, callede peple withowte a governoure, whiche trowblede soore the realme of Fraunce. Isabel, moder of kynge Edward the thridde, diede in this yere the xxvj. day of the monethe of Auguste, and was beryede in the churche of the freres Minours at London. The interdicte fulminate into lay men of Oxenforde for the dethe of scolers was releischede in this yere. A grete contraversy spronge this yere in the cowrte of Rome, betwene Armachanus, arche|bischop of Yrlonde, and beggynge frers. Also grete hurte was made in Briteyne and Normandy by Philippe broþer of the kynge of Navarria, Iames lorde of the Pype, Roberte Knolles, and mony oþer men of Ynglonde, withowte commaundemente of the kynge of Ynglonde. Kynge Edwarde causede the feste of seynte George to be kepede with grete solennite at Wynde|shore in this yere. Edwarde sonne of kynge Edwarde, prince of Wales, saylede to Caleys with the duke of Lancastre, and allemoste with alle other noble men of the realme, and kynge Edwarde come to þe same cite soone after, abowte the feste of [folio 393a] Page  434, vol.8 Alle Seyntes; after that bryngynge his hoste unto Burguyn and Campany, taryenge þer unto the Annunciation of oure Lady folowynge. And soone after men of Normandy entrede into Ynglonde at Winchelesey with fewe schippes in the idus of Marche, and toke that towne, and did sle diverse men in hit, and brente parte of that towne; but thei were compellede to take theire schippes, mony of theym sleyne and drownede by Ynglische men. Kynge Edward made moche noble edifyenge at the castelle of Wyndeshore, where he was borne, William Wikham movynge hym þerto, whom the kynge hade made supervisor of his werkes of a poore clerke, and alle edifienges longynge to the kynge were disposede after hym. The kynge ȝaffe to the seide Sir William Wikham mony fatte benefices, and made hym to bere his prive sele, and after bischop of Wynchestre. Bloode flowede from the tumbe of Thomas somme tyme erle of Lancastre at Powntefrette, and mony noble men diede in the kynges hoste: the erle of Oxenforde, Iohn Gray, George Say, with mony other men. Truse taken betwene the kynge of Ynglonde and men of Fraunce, kynge Edwarde returnynge to Ynglonde suffrede grete losse of goodes and of men by a tempeste in the see, nye to Paryse, causede in the viijthe day after Ester. And abowte the feste of Lam|masse folowynge Armachanus and the frers seasede of theire contraversy by precepte of the pope. Armachanus diede in this yere at Avinon, the boones of whom were brouȝhte after unto Dundalke in Yrlonde, where he was borne, by whom mony miracles be schewed þer unto the lawde of Godde. In whiche tyme the prince of Wales, the duke of Lancastre, and mony other noble men of the londe wente with the kynge of Fraunce to Caleys for pease to be reformede; and an othe made for pease to be kepede of bothe partes, the kynges departede into theire cuntrees abowte the feste of seynte Michell nexte folow|ynge. And messangers were sende soone after to the pope for that acorde to be imbullede and confermede. After that a collacion made of the concorde betwene þe kynges in the parliament at Westemynstre, the noble men of the realme consente þerto. Wherefore masse seide of the Trinite by the archebischop of Cawnterbery, the kynge presente with his sonnes, causede the gentylle men of the realme of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, whiche hade made noon othe at Caleys, to [folio 393b] swere by that blissede sacramente to observe that convencion and pease made. Reynalde bischop of Worchestre, Michael bischop of London, and Thomas bischop of Hely, diede in this yere; and by provision of the pope, maister Iohn Barnet was made bischoppe off Worcestre, Symon Langham bischop of Hely, and maister Symon Sudbury bischop of London. Edwarde prince of Wales maryede to his wife the cowntesse of Kente, doȝhter of Thomas Holonde, whiche was departede Page  435, vol.8 from the erle of Salisbery for the luffe of þe seide prynce. Also the eclips of the sonne was in this yere the vjte day of Maii, in the myddes of the day, whom a grete dryenesse did folowe, causynge a grete derthe of hay and corne. Reyne lyke to bloode felle in Burguyn in this yere, and the crosse of Criste of the coloure of bloode apperede in the aiere in Bolony, from morow unto the vjthe howre, whiche movede hyt selfe, moche peple seenge that mervayle, and felle in the myddes of the see. In whiche yere in the tyme of ver ij. castells apperede in the firmament, bothe in Ynglonde and in Fraunce, from whom ij. hostes wente, oon hoste clothede in white, an oþer in blak. And in the firste batell the white hoste hade victory, and after that the blacke hoste gedred to gedre have victory of the white; that doen thei entrede into theire castells and evaneschede. A grete mortalite of men was in this yere in Ynglonde, and specially of male peple, in whiche tyme mony noble prelates dyede, somme names of whom we schalle expresse, thauȝhe we make not mencion of theyme alle: Henricus duke of Yorke, Reynald Cobham, William the son of Warinus, noble men. Iohn Gaunt, sonne of kynge Edward, was made in this yere duke of Lancastre, by reason of his wife, doȝhter and heire to Henricus duke of Lancastre. A grete companye of diverse nacions, the governours of whom were men of Ynglonde, never|thelesse thei were callede an hoste with owte an hedde, wastede Fraunce gretely þis tyme, and occupiede mony townes and castells in hit, and the kynge of Fraunce cowthe not expelle þeim from that cuntre by eny cautele or batelle. Also an other white hoste apperede in this yere, whiche wente by Provincia into Longobardy, takynge grete raunson of cites, castells, and of [folio 394a] townes, the governoures of whom were men of Ynglonde, also otherwhile sawdiours and oþerwhile ȝiffen to robbynge and ex|torcion, whiche men taryede longe in those costes. A myȝhty wynde commynge from the sowthe was in this yere in the xv. day of Ianuarius, so fers that hit destroyed anoon mony towres, churche steples, and oþer edifyenges semynge as durable, so that the residu stondynge unto this tyme be the wurs þerby. Of whom a metricion seythe in this wise:

"C ter erant mille decies sex unus et ille,
Luce tua, Maure, vehemens fuit impetus auræ."

An other metricion seithe in this maner:

"Ecce flat hoc anno Maurus in orbe tonans."

This is the intellect of the versus: that this mervellous wynde was in the yere of oure Lorde God a M. ccc. lxj., in the feste of seynte Maurus abbotte; whiche is tru after the computacion of the churche of Ynglonde, but the cotacion afore is tru after the computacion of the churche of Rome, put in the margyn above. Symon Langham, abbot of Westemynstre, was made bischop Page  436, vol.8 of Hely in this yere. Kynge Edwarde ȝafe in this yere to Westemynstre vestementes in the feste of Petyr and Paule, in whom seynte Petyr usede to say masse. Edwarde, the eldeste*. [Sic in MS.] of this kynge, made homage to the kynge of Fraunce for the cuntre of Aquitanny, promysynge to hym fidelite, in whiche yere he saylede into Gascoigne with his wife and his childer and goodes. Also kynge Edwarde made in that yere Leonelle his sonne duke of Clarence, and Iohn duke of Lancaster, and Edmunde, the iiij. sonne, erle of Cawntebrigge. Innocencius the vjthe diede in this yere, whom Urban þe vte succedid, a man of grete connynge, whiche made a constitucion ageyne men havynge pluralites of benefices in the secunde yere of his office, but clerkes thro the favor of lordes, what by labor, preyer, and by money, causede that the seide constitucion toke noon effecte. Also hit was ordeynede in the parliamente in this yere that men of lawe scholde plete in theire moder langage. Also wickede men dividede the body of a preste in London in this yere, whiche partes thei caste with grete contempte in diverse places of the cite, but those men cowthe not be knowen unto this tyme. The noble fame of kynge Edwarde and of his [folio 394b] realme spronge thro mony costes, thre kynges come to hym in this yere to see hym and to have communicacion with hym, the kynge of Fraunce, the kynge of Ciprus, and the kynge of Scot|londe. Tweyne of theyme, rewardede with grete treasures, departede to theire cuntre, but the kynge of Fraunce, laborynge in grete infirmite, taryede in Ynglonde. Raufe Shrovesbery, bischop of Bathe, a man of hie perfeccion, dyede in this yere. Then maister Iohn Barnette, bischop of Worcester, was trans|late to the seete of Bathe, and maister W. Withlesey from Rochestre to the seete of Worcestre, and maister Thomas Trikkell was confermede to the seete of Rowchestre. A grete forste was in this yere, contynuynge longe from the feste of seynte Andrewe unto the xiiij. kalendes of Apryle. In whiche tyme abbot of þe monastery de Bello, commynge to London, mette a man dampnede, goynge to be hongede, whom he salvede from dethe by vertu of his liberte. Also a grete batelle an*. [Sic in MS.] dedely was hade in this yere in Briteyne at Davaroy, betwen lorde Iohn Mowntefort and lorde Charls of Bloys; but the seide lorde Iohn hade victory by helpe of men of Ynglonde, in whiche batelle the seide lorde Charles was sleyne with oþer peple as innumerable, and taken. Iohn kynge of Fraunce diede in this yere at Saveye, for whom kynge Edward procured mony diriges to be seide, and caused hym to be brouȝhte to Dovore by noble men of his costes, whiche was beryede after at Seynte Dionyse in Fraunce; whom Charls his son did succede. In whiche yere Lumbardes were accusede for fals merchandyse Page  437, vol.8 and measures, wherefore mony of þeim were put in the towre tylle thei hade made a fyne with the kynge. Edmund Langley, sonne of the kynge, scholde have mariede the doȝhter of the erle of Flandres, and heire, but þat consanguinite was an im|pedimente, wherefore messangers were sende to the pope for a dispensacion. But the seide woman was maryede at the laste to Philippe duke of Burguyn, broþer to the kynge of Fraunce. A soore batelle was hade in this yere betwene Cristen men and pagans, on the Alle Halowe day, in the playnes of Turkey, where Iohn kynge of Hungary, Siwardus kynge of Gorgony, maister of the Hospitalle of the yle of Roodes, with oþer v. M. cc. and x. Cristen men were sleyne, and xlti M. of the pagans, [folio 395a] with oþer peple innumerable. In whiche batelle of the parte of pagans were mony princes, the soldan of Babilony, the kynge of Turkey, the kynge of Baldac, the kynge Belmaryn, the kynge of Tartarous, and the kynge of Lectowe; iij. kynges were sleyne of that parte in the same batelle. Edwarde prince of Wales and of Aquitanny hade a sonne borne to hym in this time, and callede Edwarde, whiche diede in the vijthe yere of his age, and not overtymely, as mony men seide. The lorde Cowey maryede into his wife in this yere at Wyndeshore with grete solemnite, the xxvijti day of the monethe of Iulius, Isabel the doȝhter of kynge Edwarde, whiche wolde be maryede oonly for luffe. The cite of Alexandry was taken in the same yere by the kynge of Cipria, sleenge afore a grete multitude of paganes, and soone after a grete hoste of the paganes were gedred to ȝiffe batell to that kynge. Neverthelesse that kynge toke with hym alle the rychesse of that cite as infinite, and brente a grete parte of the cite afore his departynge, whiche causede spice to be dere longe after. Symon Islep, archebischop of Cawnterbery, diede in this yere, whom Symon Langham, bischop of Hely, succedid, and maister Iohn Barnet was trans|late from the seete of Bathe to Hely, and maister Iohn Harewell was confermede into the bischop of Bathe. An oþer sonne was borne to the prince of Wales at Burdews, and namede Ricardus, whom Ricardus kynge of Armorica toke from the fonte. Abowte this tyme mony castelles and townes, occupiede by a grete hoste of Ynglonde, were takyn to the kynge of Fraunce by commaundement of kynge Edward. Wherefore Bertrandus Cleykyn, a noble man of werre, wente ageyne the kynge of Speyne with the seide hoste thro helpe of the pope, in that he was man of ylle disposicion. The kynge of Speyne, dredynge that company, fledde to Gascoigne to prince Edwarde for helpe and socoure. This kynge departede from that cuntre, Henricus, a bastarde broþer to hym, was erecte and crownede kynge by assente of mony noble men of Speyne, and of that oþer grete company, whiche were lx. M. in nowmbre. William Edyngton, Page  438, vol.8 bischop of Wynchestre, dyede in this yere, whom William Wikham did succede by laboure of the kynge; whiche eleccion [folio 395b] the pope differrede by a certeyne tyme for certeyne causes.

Capitulum quadragesimum secundum.

A SOORE batelle was hade in the thridde day of Aprile nye to the towne of Naser betwene Edward prince of Aquitanny and Henricus Bastarde occupyenge the crowne of Speyne. But fortune favorynge, prince Edward hade victory; amonge whom the erle of Deen was taken, and Bertrandus Cleykyn, chef causer of that trowble and duke or governoure of the firste warde. And after that this noble prynce Edward restorede Petyr kynge of Speyne into his realme, where mony noble men of Ynglonde dyed off the flix. In the same yere, in the begynnynge of the monethe of Maii, pope Urban þe vthe come with alle his cowrte from Avinon to Rome, where he did londe abowte the feste of seynte Luke the evangeliste, receyvede þer with grete solennite. Whiche repairede anoon hooly places falle down, and onornede the relikes of seyntes with golde, silvyr, and with precious gemmes, and did mony other noble thynges þer; wherefore his memoriall schalle be in lawde for ever. A blasynge sterre was signe in this yere betwene the partes of the northe and of the weste, directynge his beames towarde Fraunce. Leonell son of kynge Edward the thrydde and duke of Clarence, takynge with hym a grete multitude of the noble men of Ynglonde, wente to Mediolan to mary the doȝhter of the lorde of þat cuntre, with whom he scholde have halfe of that lordeschippe. That matrimony complete with grete glory, the seide duke diede abowte the feste of the nativite of oure Lady nexte folowynge. Symon Langham, archebischop of Cawnterbery, was create into a cardinall in the same yere, and in the monethe of October; and in the yere nexte folowynge he wente unto þe cowrte of Rome. Whiche tyme þe pope translate maistyr William Withlesey from the seete of Worcestre to the seete of Cawnterbery, and maister William Lynne, bischop of Chichestre, to þe seete of Worcestre, and confermed maister William Reed to be bischop of Chichestre. Men of Fraunce brake peas in the same yere, rydynge in the cownte Pontif and doynge grete hurte in that cuntre, puttynge the blame as of brekynge of peas of men of Ynglonde. The duchesse of Lancastre, doȝhter of Henricus somme tyme duke of Lancaster, diede in this yere, and was beryede at London in the churche of Seynte Paule. Kynge [folio 396a] Edward kepede a parliament in this yere at Westemynstre in the ende of the monethe of Maii, in whom he movede of þe promisse broken by men off Fraunce, and how he myȝhte venge þat injury beste. A grete pestilence of men was in this Page  439, vol.8 yere, and a moreyn of grete bestes; whom a grete habundaunce of reyne folowede, destroyenge cornes, in so moche that a buschelle of whete was solde for iij. s. in the yere folowynge. Philippa qwene of Ynglonde diede in this yere, and was beryede at Westemynstre with grete solennite. In whiche yere maister Henricus Percy bischop of Norwich, maister Lewes Charleton bischop of Herford, and Iohn Grauntson bischop of Excestre, diede in this yere also. And by provision of the pope maister William Courteney was made bischop of Herford, maister Henricus Despenser bischoppe of Norwich, and Syr Thomas Brantyngham was made bischop of Excestre. In the same yere, abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste, the duke of Lancastre and the erle of Herford, takenge with theyme a noble hoste, saylede unto Fraunce, where the seide hoste, and an other myȝhty hoste of men of Fraunce, lay nye to Chalk|hull by a longe season. And mony men of Ynglonde seide hit was schame for the hostes to lye so nye togedre, and not to fiȝhte; but the governoures wolde not soe in eny wise. After that the hoste of Fraunce, herynge of the commynge of the noble erle of Warwyk, fledde prively, levynge theire tentes fulle of vitells. That noble erle commen to londe, made haste to Normandy, and destroyede the yle of Caws by swerde and fyre. But allas! in returnynge towarde Ynglonde, that noble erle dyede at Caleys of the pestilence, levynge not after hym so noble a lorde in Ynglonde. Then the churche of Rome kepede batelle ageyne the lordes of Mediolan, in that thei occupiede diverse londes longynge to þe churche of Seynte Petyr, with whom the lorde Despenser was, and did mony laudable thynges in those partes after the dethe of the duke of Clarence. In whiche tyme the famose knyȝhte off Ynglonde, callede Syr Iohn Hawkewode, was havynge with hym the white hoste, rehersede afore, whiche ȝafe batelle oþer while with the churche ageyne the lordes of Mediolan, and oþerwhile ageyne the [folio 396b] churche, doynge mony mervellous thynges in that cuntre with his companye. Abowte the conversion of Seynte Paule kynge Edward kepede a parliament at Westemonastery, where a xthe was desirede of the clergy of iij. yere; but the clergy differede to grawnt theym untylle after Ester. And after that tyme thei made grawnte þerto, so that thei scholde pay the seide dymes in diverse tymes in the thre yere. And a xvthe was graunted of lay men in lyke wise. Sir Iohn Chaundos, a noble knyȝhte and discrete, was sleyne in this yere in Gascoigne. Kynge Edwarde, folowynge the cownsaile of wickede men in this yere, borowede a grete summe of goode of prelates, merchandes, and of other ryche men, seyenge that hit scholde be spende into the defense of the churche and of the realme. Abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptist folowynge, a grete hoste was gedred of diverse costes of Ynglonde, amonge whom was Page  440, vol.8 the lorde Fuzwater, lorde Graunteson, and oþer noble knyȝhtes, makynge a knyȝhte, Syr Robert Knolles, gretely experte in Marte, governoure of that hoste. But soone after envy and discrecion movede, the hoste was departede, wherefore Syr Robert Knolles wente with his men to a castelle in Briteyne, and so men of Fraunce comme and ȝafe batelle to that oþer parte of men Ynglonde, where thei were sleyn or taken in captivite. Pope Urban þe vthe returnede from Rome to Avinon to make a finalle concorde betwene the kynges of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, but he diede soone after on the xxjti day of December, and was beryede þer in the cathedrall churche afore the hye awter; but after oon yere paste he was taken from the erthe and beryede in the monastery of Seynte Victor, nye to Marsilia, afterwarde, where he was abbot afore, in whiche place mony miracles be doen by hym unto the lawde of Godde; whom Gregory the xjthe did succede, cardinalle diacon afore. The cite Lemovicense began to rebelle ageyne prince Edwarde, which prince wontynge moneye made grete haste to Ynglonde and in his iourney he allemoste destroyede that cite to the grownde, and toke into captivite and did slee men fownde in hit. And abowte the begynnynge of Ianiver he londed in Ynglonde with his wife and peple, levynge in Gascoigne the duke of Lancastre, and Edmunde erle of Cawntebrigge, with mony other noble men. In this yere a parliamente kepede at [folio 397a] Westemonastery, the kynge askede of the clergy a subsidye of lti M.li., whiche was grawntede by deliberacion after the feste of Ester, and other lti M.li. was grawntede of lay peple. The chawnceller of Ynglonde and the treasurer, bischoppes bothe were amovede from theire offices, and the clerke of the prive seale, at the peticion of lordes in that parliament in the hate of the clergy, and other laymen were subrogate in the places of theyme. Solenne ambassiators were sende from the pope to the kynge in this parliamente to trete with the kynge for pease, but with owte dowte noon effecte folowede þeron to eny purpose.

Capitulum quadragesimum octavum.*. [Sic.]

KYNGE Edwarde kepede a parliamente at Wynchestre in the ixthe day of the monethe of Iunius, durynge by viij. daies. Unto whiche parliament iiij. bischoppes and iiij. abbottes were citede oonly to appere, whiche parliamente was hade for merchandes of London, of Norwiche, and of oþer cites, in that hit was seide that thei wolde rebelle ageyne hym. The duke Page  441, vol.8 of Lancastre and the erle of Cauntebrigge commynge in this yere from Gascoigne, maryede ij. doȝhters of Petyr somme tyme kynge of Speyne, the duke the elder doȝhter and the erle the yonger doȝhter. Two cardynalls were sende from the pope in this yere to trete of pease betwene ij. realmes, whiche taryenge longe, returnede as withowte eny effecte as for that purpose. A grete batelle was hade on the see betwene men of Ynglonde and of Flaundres, but men of Ynglonde hade victory, and toke xxvti shippes chargede with men of Ynglonde, knowynge not that thei were of Flandres. Neverthelesse grete hurte wolde have commyn þerby, but that pease was reformede soone betwene the parties. In whiche yere men of Fraunce segede the towne of Rochelle, wherefore the erle of Penbroke was sende to Gascoigne with a grete multitude off peple to dissolve that sege. But a fleete of schippes of Speyne mette with theym, and toke theyme, or did sle theym, and brouȝhte the erle with theym into Speyne with a grete treasure, abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste. But hit is not to be mervaylede of this infortune, for that erle was an open advouturer, and laborede in the parliamente but late afore ageyne the liberte of the churche movynge the kynge that he scholde take rather goodes of the churche then the goodes of eny oþer peple: where|fore [folio 397b] fortune beynge contrarious, the kynge hade not so noble victorys of his adversaries after that tyme as he hade afore, in that he folowede his wikkede cownsayle. Kynge Edwarde entrede the see in this yere with a grete hoste to dissolve the sege at Rochell, but the wynde wolde not suffre hym; whiche taryenge longe by the costes nye to Ynglonde, returnede ageyne. Maister Thomas Trillek, bischop of Rowchestre, diede in this yere, whom Thomas Brompton, monke of Nor|wich and penitentiary of the pope, succedid by provision of the pope. The duke of ffr*. [Sic.] Lancastre saylede to Fraunce in this yere with a grete hoste, and passede by Paryse into Burguyn, and so thro alle Fraunce into Burdews, with owte eny resistence of men of Fraunce, and withowte eny hurte to hym or his hoste. But the seide duke toke grete rawnsons of cites, townes, and castells as he went thro that cuntre. Kynge Edwarde sende in the same yere certeyn enbassiatours to the pope, preyenge hym to leve after that tyme the provision made in his cowrte of benefices in Ynglonde, and that men electe to be bischoppes in Ynglonde may enjoye their eleccion, and be confermede of theire metropolitans as the use was afore. But the pope commaunded the ambassiatours to certifye hym firste in wrytynge of the wille of the kynge and of the realme, or that he scholde make eny determinacion of the articles afore|seide. Maister Iohn Thoresby archebischop of Yorke, maister Page  442, vol.8 Iohn Barnette bischop of Ely, and maister William Lynne bischoppe of Worcestre diede in this yere; whom maister Alexander Nevyle did succede at Yorke, Thomas Arundell at Ely, and Sir Henricus Wakefelde at Worcestre. A decrete was made in the parliament in this yere that cathedrall churches scholde enjoye their eleccions, and that the kynge scholde not wryte ageyn men electe, but helpe theym to theire confermacion, but this statute profite not. Oon dyme was grawntede to the kynge by the clergy in this yere and parlia|ment, and a xvtc of lay men. Alle Gascoigne rebellede ageyne the kynge of Ynglonde in this tyme, Burdews and Baio ex|cepte, and turnede to the kynge of Fraunce. William With|lesey archebischop of Cawnterbery diede in this yere, the vthe day of Iunius, wherefore the monkes of the seide place askede the cardinalle of Ynglonde into archebischop. The kynge [folio 398a] movede in grete wrathe þerfore, was in purpose to have putte the seide monkes into exile; neverthelesse thei spende grete goodes or that thei cowthe obteyne the favor of the kynge. And the kynge wolde not consente in eny wise to theire desire, neiþer the pope neither the cardinalls. Abowte þe monethe of Auguste a tretys was made at Brugges of certeyne articles towchynge the kynge of Ynglonde and the pope, whiche en|trety endurede by allemoste ij. yere. But at the laste acorde was made that the pope scholde not use from that tyme reserva|cion of benefices in Ynglonde. The noble men of Ynglonde and of Fraunce mette in this yere at Brugges, abowte the Puri|ficacion of oure Lady, to trete for pease betwene the seide realmes; whiche trety endurede by ij. yere to grete charges of bothe realmes, and departede withowte eny effecte. The seete of Cawnterbery vacant unto this tyme, maister Symon Sudde|bury, bischop of London, succedid in that seete of Cawnterbery; maister William Cowrteney bischop of Herford succedid in the church of London, and the bischop of Bangor unto the seete of Herforde. Truse were taken from the feste of Iohn Baptist unto that day twelvemoneþe betwene the realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce. Abowte the begynnynge of the monethe of April the duke of Briteyne, with mony erles, barons, and mony oþer noble men, saylede into Briteyn, where thei hade doen mony grete victorys, but that truse was taken oversoone. Grete hete and pestilence was in Ynglond in this yere, and in mony oþer partes of the worlde, by whom peple as with owte nowmbre pereschede and was extincte. Robert Wyfeld bischop of Salisbery diede in this yere, whom Rawfe Argum, doctor in civile, succedid; and Edward lorde De|spenser diede in this yere, and was beryede at Theokesbery, in the churche of monkes. The pope grawntede, at the instance of the cardinalle off Ynglonde, to alle men and women in Ynglonde truly contrite and confessed by vj. monethes in that Page  443, vol.8 tyme of pestilence plener remission of theire synnes. The erle of Penbroke, redemede this tyme be Bertrandus Cleykyn, dyede betwene Parys and Caleys, as he travaylede towarde Ynglonde. The duke of Lancastre, the duke of Andegavy, with mony lordes and prelates of eiþer realme, mette in this yere in the [folio 398b] monethe of November at Brugges, to trete for pease betwene realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce.

Capitulum quadragesimum nonum.

IN the begynnynge of the monethe of Maii kynge Edward causede a parliamente to be kepede at Westemonastery, in whom he askede a subsidy after his olde consuetude, for his defense and of þe realme also. But the commune peple seide that thei were so oppressede with exaccions that thei myȝhte not sustene þat burdeyn eny longer. For thei seide that þei hade tru knowlege that þe kynge hade goode ynowe if the realme were governede truly; but thei seide also that the kynge scholde not habunde in rychesse so longe as the realme were governede by wickede officers, and that thei scholde prove. That probacion hade if the kynge hade nede to theire goodes thei scholde helpe hym with theire goodes with goode wille. After that, mony ylle thynges were publischede of diverse officers beynge nye to the kynge, and specially of the lorde Latymer his cham|breleyn for wikkede disposicion. Also an other woman, Alice Perers, of wikkede disposicion, was rehersede þer for her wicked disposicion, whom the kynge kepede into his con|cubyne by a grete space. Wherefore the commune peple desirede þese unhappy persons to be removede from the kynge, and noble men and discrete to be subrogate in theire places. A noble knyȝhte, wise, beautuous and discrete, was amonge the seide communes, Petur Lamare by name, by whom alle the commune peple were governede, whiche accusynge the seide persons was commaunded to prison perpetuall soone after at Notyngham by the seide Alice Perers, where he taryede by the space of ij. yere. Edwarde prince of Wales diede in the tyme of þe seide parliamente, at Westemonastery, in the kynges palice, whiche was beryede in Cristechurche at Cawnterbery with grete honour. Kynge Edwarde kepede grete solennite in the feste of Trinite after the dethe of his sonne: by the tyme of his lyfe the fortune and nobilite of that myȝhty prince were dredde by alle Cristen men, and pagans also. Men and tenauntes of the erle of Warwyke made a malicious insurrec|cion ageyne thabbotte and covente of Evisham and theire tenauntes, intendynge to have destroyede that monastery, be|tynge [folio 399a] somme of theire men, woundynge somme, and sleenge somme. That doen, thei wente to theire maners, sleenge theire Page  444, vol.8 deere, brekynge up weres, and fischenge theire waters, utterly intendynge to have destroyed that monastery, but that the kynge schewede helpe to the monastery. Wherefore the kynge sende wrytynge to the seide erle of Warwyke that he scholde correcte those men trowblynge the pease, and so peas was reformede betwene bothe parties by laboure of theire frendes. And as hit is seide, the kynge wolde not be governede by the lordes assignede in that laste parliamente for that same bryge, but he toke ageyn to the governaile of the realme the duke of Lancastre his sonne, and so he contynuede to the dethe of the kynge. A parliament kepede the same yere at Westemonas|tery soone after þe Purificacion of oure Lady, suche a subsidy was grawntede to the kynge as folowethe. That is to say, that he scholde have of every lay person of either kynde exceedynge xiiij. yere in age iiij.d., poore peple excepte whiche lyvede by almes, and xij.d. of every person of the churche promotede, and of oþer persons not promotede iiij.d., the frers of iiij. ordres excepte. Maister Iohn Wyclef, doctor in divinite in the univer|site of Oxenforde, began to sustene openly in the seide univer|site erroneus conclusions contrary to the state of the universalle churche, and conclusions of heresy, and specially ageyne chanons, monkes, and religious men possessionate. Whiche drawede to hym in this tyme diverse felawes of the same secte dwellynge in Oxenforde, goynge barefote with longe gownes of russet, that thei myȝhte publische and fortifye theire errours ageyne men contrarious to theyme, prechynge openly the seide errours. Amonge whom thei seide that the sacramente in the awter after the sacrament or consecracion is not the verey body of Criste. Also he seide that temporalle lordes and men myȝhte take awey meritoriously the goodes men of the churche syn|nynge or trespassynge. Neverthelesse the pope with his cownsaile dampnede xxiijti conclusions as veyne, erroneus and fulle of heresy, and sende bulles directe to þe metropolitan [folio 399b] of Ynglonde and to the bischop of London, that thei scholde cause the seide maister John to be areste, and to examine hym of the seide conclusions. That inquisicion doen, and a decla|cion made, the archebischop of Cawnterbery commaundede and prohibited the seide maister John and his condisciples to use the seide conclusions, and so thei were stille as for a season. But soone after, by supportacion of lordes and oþer noble men, thei toke to þeim moore wicked oppinions, and hade grete continuacion in theire malice. Mony men of London rysenge that tyme intended to have brente the maner of the duke of Lancastre at Saveye with owte that Petyr Lamare were delyverede from prison. But the bischop of London thro his labore causede that þe place was not brente. The duke herynge that did aryse from meyte, and wente to the maner of Kyngeston, where Ricardus sonne of prince Edwarde was. Page  445, vol.8 Wherefore the kynge causede the mayre and noble men of the cite to be deposede, and oþer men to be create in theire places. The duke of Lancastre did grete persecucion in this tyme to the bischop of Wynchestre, sayenge that he was fals to his fader when he was his chawnceller, wherefore he was con|dempnede ageyne ryȝhte to pay a grete summe of goode to the kynge, insomoche that his temporalites were occupiede by the kynge, and cowthe not have theyme restorede to hym in eny wise unto the dethe of the kynge. Ricardus sonne of prince Edward was made prince of Wales, to whom the kynge ȝafe the duchery of Cornewaile with Chestreschire, havynge this gifte oonly in name, and not in possession. The cardinall of Ynglonde was taken sodenly with a palisy after meyte, and loste his speche, dyenge in the feste of Mary Mag|dalen, with ynne iij. daies after that vexacion.

Capitulum quinquagesimum.

IN the begynnynge of the monethe of October pope Gregory removede from Avinon to Rome. Syr Iohn Mensterworthe, knyȝhte, was drawen, hongede, and heded in this yere at the cite of London, and quatert after that, and his hedde was sette [folio 400a] on the brygge of London, in that he was a fals traytour to the realme of Ynglonde. Whiche dredynge to be accusede afore kynge Edward, fledde to the kynge of Fraunce, and promysede to hym to brynge the fleete of Speyne to hym in his helpe ageyne the kynge of Ynglonde. But Allemyȝhty God wolde that he scholde suffre dethe raþer then he scholde have be|trayede his lorde and the cuntre where he was borne so un|trewly. Kynge Edwarde ȝafe to Ricardus of Burdews, his heire and successour, the ordre of knyȝhtehode in this yere at Wyndeshore, in the feste of seynte George. Whiche kynge diede at Shene in the monethe of Iunius, after that he hade reignede lijti yere, and was beryede at Westemonastery. This noble and myȝhty kinge Edward, amonge alle oþer men of nobilite in the worlde, was a man of grete goodenesse, callede gracious, excellenge alle his predecessour by vertu and grace ȝiffen to hym of God, a bolde man in herte, dredynge not sinistralle fortune in batells, havynge grete fortune in theyme bothe on see and on londe. Also he was meke, benigne, and familier to alle maner of peple, devoute to God, honourynge the churche of God, and havynge his ministres in grete reverence. Also he was moderate in cures temporalle, provide in cownsaille, affable and eloquente, meke in behavoure, havynge compassion on men in tribulacion. Also he was elegant and beawtuous of body, havynge a comfortable and pleasante countenaunce lyke to the syȝhte of an angelle, for God hade induede hym with suche excellence of grace that a man wolde have thouȝhte as Page  446, vol.8 for a suerte that he scholde have spedde welle in the day folowynge after that he hade dremede of the seide kynge. This noble kynge governede his realme gloriously unto his laste dayes, large in ȝiftes, excessyve in expenses, induede with alle honeste of maners. Wherefore his fame was so encreasede amonge peple of Barbre, insomoche that thei seide there was noo londe in the worlde that hade so noble a prince, and that [folio 400b] Ynglonde scholde never have so noble ageyne after his dethe. But the inordinate luste of the flesche usede in his olde age helpede hym moche unto dethe. Also hit is to be attended, as the actes afore expresse, that lyke as in his begynnynge alle thynges enjoyede to hym, and the myddes of his age glorious and fortunate, soe the seide kynge drawynge to age and towarde dethe, alle thynges were as infortunable to hym, for hys synnes and mony incommodites began to sprynge, havynge after hym longe continuacion, whiche thynge was to be sorowede.

Capitulum quinquagesimum primum.

RICHARD of Burdews, sonne of prince Edwarde, sonne to Edward kynge of Ynglonde, havynge not xj. yere in age, was crownede solennely at Westemonastery into kynge of Symon archebischop of Cawnterbery, in the idus of Iulius, and in the yere of oure Lorde God a M.ccc.lxxvij., archebischoppes, bischoppes, prelates, and mony oþer noble men of the realme presente þer. Within whiche solennite he made iiij. erles, Thomas Wodestok his uncle at Bukkyngham, the lorde Percy at Northumbrelonde, the lorde Moubray at Notyngham, and Sithardus, a knyȝhte of Gascoigne, at Huntyngdon. The men of Fraunce brake the peas abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptist, for thei wolde not have peas withowte the acorde scholde have bene to theire pleasure and to þe grete hurte of Ynglonde. In whiche tyme the Scottes brente the towne of Rokysburgh, by the movynge of the erle of Dunbar. Where|fore Syr Henricus Percy erle of Northumbrelonde entrede into Scotlonde with x.Ml men, and brente mony townes lungynge to þe erle of Dunbar, robbynge þer by iij. dayes. After þat men of Fraunce entrede into the yle of Wyȝhte, and did grete hurte; whiche takynge a M. marke for rawnson returnede to þe see, kepynge the costes of Ynglonde, and brennynge mony noble places, sleenge men whom thei cowthe fynde in the sowthe partes, and takynge mony bestes with theyme. For moore hurte was doen in Ynglonde in þat yere, as hit was seide, then in xlti yere afore. Also men of Fraunce made a sawte to þe towne of Wynchelesey, but thei cowthe not entre into the towne, neverthelesse they sende diverse men whiche brente the [folio 401a] towne of Hastinges. Also men of Fraunce entrede in þe same Page  447, vol.8 yere into the towne of Rotyngton, in Sowthesex, where the prior of Lews mette þeim with a lytelle nowmbre of peple, whiche was taken and brouȝhte to theire schippes with oþer ij. knyȝhtes, Syr John Fallsele and Syr Thomas Cheyne, with a sqwyer John Brocas. But a esqwyer borne in Fraunce beynge in servyce with the seide fauȝhte manfully ageyne men of Fraunce, in so moche that his bely kytte, he fauȝhte soore, his bowells remaynynge behynde hym a grete space, and folowede his enemyes. In whiche conflicte a c. Ynglische men were sleyne, and mony moo of the Frenche men; whiche toke the dedde men awey with þeym, other ells thei brente þeire faces with yrne that thei scholde not be knowen, and þat Ynglische men scholde not solace of þeire dethe. Where a man of Fraunce was taken, confessynge afore his dethe that the realme of Ynglonde scholde not have bene trowblede by men of Fraunce if that the duke of Lancastre had be made kynge. Men of Fraunce toke the towne of Arde in this yere by treason of the keper, a lorde born in Alemayne, callede lorde Gumeney. Also ij. bischoppes, ij. erles, ij. barons, ij. baronettes, ij. bachiler knyȝhtes, and oon man of lawe were deputate in that yere, after the coronacion of the kynge, to have governaunce of hym, in that he was tendre of age, by the commune assent. Also hit was ordeynede that the seide men scholde be elect yerely. In whiche yere, soone after Michelmasse, a parliamente was callede at London, durynge allemoste unto Cristemasse, where ij. dymes were grawntede to be payede of þe spiritualite togedre in the Purificacion of oure Lady, and ij. xvte of lay men also, for the defense of the realme. Thomas Wodestoke erle of Bukkyng|ham, the duke of Briteyne, the lorde Latimer, and the prior of the Hospitalle of Seynte Iohn, takynge with þeim a grete hoste, entrede into the see in the same yere, sone after the feste of Alle Seyntes. And in the nyȝhte of seynte Martyn a grete wynde brake as sodenly the takellynges of theire schippes, and compellede theym to take the londe. But the schippes re|pairede thei toke the see, returnynge ageyne abowte Criste|masse, [folio 401b] withowte eny profite, or lytell if eny were off that viage. Pope Gregory the xjthe diede in this yere in the xxvij. day of Marche; after the dethe of whom the cardinalles entrede into a place for eleccion, a grete multitude of peple of the cite of Rome entrede into the palice, cryenge, "A Roman or an Ytalion." The cardinalls dredynge that peple, electe an olde man to be pope, a Roman by nativite; but that olde man refusynge that eleccion, thei electe Bartholomew archebischop Barrensis into pope in the viij. day of Aprile. Which called Urban the vjte was crownede solennely on Ester day, þe xviij. day of Aprile, and consecrate also, and did ryde in his pontificalls unto the churche Lateranense, the cardinalls folowynge hym. Where the masse songe solennely by the pope, he returnede to his palice, Page  448, vol.8 with whom alle the cardinalls dynede þat day, and afterwarde thei made obedience to hym with mony supplicacions, con|tynuynge by a season in pease. But abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptist allemoste alle the cardinalls rebellede ageyne the pope, and fledde into þe region of Neapols. Whom the qwene norischede ageyne the pope, seyenge that he was not truly electe, in that he was not elect but for drede of dethe. And so the seide cardinalls electe into the pope a cosyn to the kynge of Fraunce, namynge hym Clemente the vijthe, and sende letters anoon to the kynge of Fraunce for helpe and socoure; whom the kynge of Fraunce fortefiede with alle his myȝhte; and so a grete division was spronge in the hedde of alle churches. Pope Urban create xxti cardinalls and moo, and excommunicate the oþer cardinalles, takynge theire benefices, and inabilitynge þeim to eny benefice afterwarde. The erles of Arundell and of Salisbery takynge with theym a grete multi|tude of men entrede into the see þis yere, returnynge ageyne withowte eny victory of theire enemyes. And in the firste tyme of theire entrenge into the see, ij. breþer, Philippe Courteney and Petyr, fauȝhte ageyne discrecion with enemyes on the see. And soone after a grete schippe of Speyne come ageyne þeim with other diverse. Philippe Courteney wounded soore, and mony of his men sleyne, seenge that he was not able to resiste theyme, fledde, and Petur Courteney his brother, compassede [folio 402a] abowte with schippes, fauȝhte manfully, but at the laste he was taken, allemoste alle þe noble men of Cornewaile and of Devenschire sleyne in his schippe afore. In whiche tyme a noble citesyn and merchand of London, Iohn Philipotte, specially luffer to the realme of Ynglonde, seenge that the lordes did noo goode over the see, ordeynede a fleete of schippes of his awne costes. Whiche entrenge into the see, they mette anoon a vesell of Scotlond whiche hade taken diverse schippes of Ynglonde, and toke hit with moche treasure, and oþer xv. schippes off Speyne that come to helpe that veselle of Scot|londe. Also the erle of Salisbery hade made provision that the kynge of Ynglonde myȝhte sayle to Cheirburgh in Normandy, and kepe hit, to his grete socoure and so hurte of men of Fraunce, so that he wolde pay to þe kynge of Navarria a cer|teyn pension yerely þerfore. Syr Hewe Calverle, capiteyn of Caleys, toke þat tyme the castelle of Merke, and destroyede hit. In the yere nexte folowynge the duke of Lancastre, the erle of Bukkyngham his broþer, the erles of Warwyke and of Stafford, takynge with theyme a myȝhty hoste, saylede into Briteyne, and segede the towne of Seynte Malows allemoste by a monethe. The men of the towne dredynge soore, sende to the duke seyenge thei wolde delyver the towne in this condicion, that theire lyves and goodes scholde be salvede and the towne from brennynge. The duke despisynge that condicion, sende Page  449, vol.8 mony men to take the towne, whom he receyvid ageyne beten truly and withowte eny hepe to recure that towne. In the same yere abowte the feste of seynte Lawrence the sonnes of Beliall entrede into the churche of Westemonastery in the tyme of divine servyce, and pursuede unryȝhteousely ij. es|qwyers fledde from þe towre of London unto that seynctuary, Iohn Schakel and Robert Hauley. Whiche men did sle the seide Robert, resistenge theyme to his powere, afore the stalle of the prior, and hurte a ministre of þe churche movenge theym to leve for reverence of the sacrament. And thei toke Iohn Shakell owte of the seynctuary with theyme, destroyenge the privileges of that place grawnted by mony popes and kynges. Syr Rawfe Fereres, knyȝhte, Syr Alan Buxille, capitan of the towre, were governoures of that wicked peple, that the seyenge of the gospelle myȝhte be verifyede,*. [On the margin is written "a ridiculous application of a texte no where to be founde."] knyȝhtes did that thynge. The seide esqwyers, Iohn Schakel and Robert Hauley, toke the [folio 402b] erle of Deene in the batelle of Speyne at Naser, to whom he toke his son for plegge as for a certeyn summe of money. And his fader ded he was suffrede to departe, and his sonne re|maynede in plegge; and in that the seide esqwyers wolde not delyver that prisoner to the kynge, oon of theyme was sleyne, and the other esqwyer was imprisonede in the towre of London. And hit was to be mervaylede of the seide yonge man that he wolde not knowlege his name, but servede theyme mekely as if he hade bene theire servaunte. But soone after the seide yonge man was brouȝhte to the kynge, moche peple mervaylenge of his constance and mekenesse. In this yere the Scottes toke by fraude the castell of Berwyke, and kepede hit by viij. daies, and in the ixthe day thei were sleyne by Henricus Percy erle of Northumbrelonde, and so Ynglische men occupiede þat castelle ageyne. Abowte this tyme a grete dissension was movede betwene the kynge of Fraunce and gentilmen off Briteyne Armoryke, in that the seide kynge wolde have hade all the castells and towres of that cuntre delyverede to hym. But the gentylmen not consentynge þerto, somme were sleyne, and somme of theym were hongede. And mony of theym fleenge were salvede, whiche wolde not drawe afterwarde to þe kynge of Fraunce; and this was þe firste cause that men of Briteyne turnede as sodenly to Syr Iohn Mounteforte theire naturalle lorde. Kynge Ricardus began to holde a parliamente at Glou|cestre in þis yere, in the xij. kalendes of November; for diverse lordes dredynge men of London for þat grete offense doen in Westemonastery, movede the kynge that he scholde not kepe his parliament at London, that thei myȝhte have theire purpose ageyne the libertes of churches. In whiche parlia|ment Page  450, vol.8 princes and lordes acompanyede to þeim diverse doctors and clerkes to consente to theym, intendynge utterly to destroy þe privilege of churches. For thei were so cruelle that þer was not oon man in that parliamente that durste speke oon worde for thabbote of Westemonastery. But allemyȝhty God, whiche grownded his churche on so sure a fundacion, wolde not suffre theym to prevayle longe, and causede his tru peple to ryse ageyne þeim and to make resistence. And God movede so the herte of the seide kynge that he suffrede þat churche to [folio 403a] enjoye his libertes, immunites, and privilege, and confermede theym by his chartour. Iohn Brynkeley abbot of Seynte Edmondbury diede in this yere, and soone after the pope ȝafe that monastery to Edmunde Brumfelde, monke of the same monastery, professor of holy divinite, and proctor of the ordre of blake monkes of Ynglonde in the cowrte of Rome; whiche provision causede grete hurte to that monastery. A parlia|mente was kepede at London abowte the feste of the Annun|ciacion of oure Lady, in whom a subsidy was grawntede to the kynge, that the dukes of Lancastre and of Briteyne scholde pay to þe kynge eiþer of þeim x. marke, and archebischoppes as moche; erles and bischoppes vj. marke. And also every abbot for every broþer of the place iij.s. and iiii.d. And so noo man of worschip escapede, but he payede to that subsidy. And in the same yere, abowte the fest of seynte Iohn Baptiste, the cursed pope Clement fleynge from Ytaly come to Avinion, kepynge his cowrte þer with the cardinalls excommunicate. Syr Iohn Harlaston, knyȝhte, and keper of the towne of Cheir|burghe, with Syr Gefray Burle, knyȝhte, hade a grete victory ageyne men of Fraunce, vijxx of theym sleyn, and takynge prisoners of the seide men of Fraunce unto the same nowmbre. In the same yere Hewe of Calverly, knyȝhte, and Syr Thomas Percy, broþer of the erle of Northumbrelonde, made admiralles of the see occean, after the takynge of mony schippes of theire adversaryes, come ageyne to Ynglonde with gladde tythynges, that the Briteynes Armoryke were turnede to Syr Iohn Mownte|forte, theire naturalle lorde. In whiche tyme the archebis|choppe Cassellens come from the cowrte of Rome, and denowncede the kynge of Fraunce excommunicate, and so mony men or women as supported that fals pope Clement. And specially in that the kynge of Fraunce made a proclama|cion thro alle his realme that whatsoever were obediente to pope Urban scholde lose his lyfe and goodes. Fals men of Flandres toke by treason a barge of the towne of Fawey, and did sle alle men in hit, oon grome excepte, whiche fledde into theire schippe and hidde hym under hacches, while that oþer men did fiȝhte. These men of Flaundres commynge to londe to utter theire merchandyse, mony merchauntez of Ynglonde wente to theire schippes to by somme of theire ware. That Page  451, vol.8 grome herynge the voyces of men of Ynglonde, cryede preyenge theym of helpe. The men of Ynglonde spekynge with that [folio 403b] grome, and understondynge the falshede of the Flemmynges, toke theym and sende theym to be imprisonede at London. Iohn Mownteforte, duke of Briteyne, takynge with hym Syr Hewe Calverle and Syr Thomas Percy, saylede into Briteyne, where he was receyved with grete honor, in so moche that barons, knyȝhtes and other noble men induede with precious clothes mette hym in the see, wadynge in hit unto the chynne, to receyve theire naturalle lorde. And hit is to be mervaylede that the seide lorde beynge from that cuntre mony yeres, the olde and holle dewte of the proventus were reservede to hym, and*. [as is written above in a later hand.] if he hade taryede amonge theyme. In whiche tyme a noble merchaunde of Ianuense was sleyne by men of London, in that he seide he scholde selle wynes and spices for lesse price then men of London usede to do. Also þer was in this yere in somer a grete dethe of pestilence, and specially in the northe partes of Ynglonde; the bestialle peple of Scotlonde, havynge noo compassion, putte sorowe on sorowe, rydenge thro that cuntre and sleynge men laborynge in pestilence, and chasynge from that cuntre men that were not seke, insomoche that thei hade allemoste destroyede þat cuntre. Iohn Schakell esqwyer was taken to the kynges grace abowte this tyme, the sonne and heire of the erle of Deen delyverede to hym afore, and kynge Ricardus promysede to the seide esqwyer certeyne londes or a certeyne summe of money for the injuryes doen to hym. The erle of Flandres begynnynge to desire of his peple exaccions inconsuete ageyne the liberte of his peple, was ex|pulsede from that cuntre, not to returne into that cuntre ageyn withowte he wolde avoide from his servyce his cownsellours whiche movede hym unto that symplenesse. Edmunde Brom|felde, monke of Bery, comme to Ynglonde abowte this tyme from the courte of Rome, and with in fewe dayes he drawede and causede xiij. monkes to assente to hym, by cownsaile and helpe of whom he was taken and installed there. The prior of the seide monastery and oþer breþer, seenge that, com|pleynte to þe kynge, whiche commaunded the seide Edmund to be taken and brouȝte to hym. That doen, the seide doctor convicte, in that he entrede into that office withowte consent of the kynge, and that he did ageyne the statutes of the parlia|mente made abowte the yere of kynge Edward the thrydde [folio 404a] þe xxvti, was directe to the toure of London to be kepede þer, and oþer monkes that ȝafe assente to hym, ij. or thre except that fledde, and soone after thei were directe to diverse monas|terys to be kepede streytely. And so by this eleccion grete hurte and losse of goodes were causede, and specially to þat Page  452, vol.8 monastery. Also grete altercacions were causede betwene the kynge and þe pope for that eleccion, for the kynge wolde not in eny wise the provision of the man electe, but his confirma|cion. Wherefore the seide kynge sende embassiatours to þe pope, commawndynge theym to say to the pope that his wylle scholde not be flexible in that mater. But the kynge havynge not in ure of the seide promisse, in the meane tyme causede the monke electe into abbot to be blissede of the bischop of London after the forme wryten to hym afore by the pope, at whiche solennite the kynge and the qwene were with mony oþer noble men. But the pope did wryte bothe to the bischop of London and to the convente of that place also, annullynge that eleccion and benediccion, commaundynge theym to go to a newe eleccion, and to chose ageyne the seide man electe by hys cownsaile, whiche eleccion the seide bischop of London scholde conferme by auctorite of þe pope. Whiche thynges were complete abowte the yere of oure Lorde a M. ccc. lxxxv., and a certeyne pension of that lyvelode was assignede unto the susten|tacion of the seide Edmund, doctor, yerely to be payede to hym. Whiche doctor was releschede from prison by the kynges grace, an othe made afore that he scholde not go over the see in eny wyse with owte licence of the kynge. But he brake soone þat othe, and wente to the pope, where he was made reder of the holy palyce, and hade in grete favour and honoure in that cowrte. In the same yere, in the monethe of December, Iohn Arundell, broþer to the erle of Arundell, takynge with hym a certeyne nowmbre of men, entrede into the see to have saylede into Briteyne. But a tempeste to be mervaylede was movede as sodenly in the see, whiche dispersed theire schippes, somme to Yrlond, somme to Wales, somme to Cornewaile, and somme to oþer diverse costes, and were broken and destroyede. In whiche tempeste the seide Iohn Arundell, governoure of that hoste, was pereschede, and mony oþer noble men, bothe knyȝhtes and esqwyers in diverse partes and costes, theire horses and goodes drownede also. For as hit is seide, the seide Iohn [folio 404b] Arundell and his men also, taryenge at Plymmouthe for weder, to have vexede the peple of that cuntre, takynge theire goodes and payenge nouȝhte þerfore, usynge grete ryet with women þer, and with theire doȝhters. Also hit is seide that they entrede into a place of myncheons, and toke diverse myncheons, and synnede with theyme, and toke with theyme unto theire schippes diverse gentylwomen, sende to that place for to lerne vertu and connynge. Also hit is seide that thei toke a woman from her howsebonde in the firste day of theire mariage, and to have doen sacrilege also in takynge awey a chalice from a churche nye to theym. Wherefore the preste of the seide churche folowede theym to the see, and cursede theyme solen|nely; but the seide peple skornynge that preste suffrede dethe Page  453, vol.8 soone after, and were meyte to bestes of the see. The body of Syr Iohn Arundell was founde in Yrlonde, and beryede þer in a monastery. But syr Hewe Calverly and Syr Thomas Percy payede theire dettes to the peple of þat costes for thynges necessary to theyme, wherefore the peple folowede theyme to the see, preyenge allemyȝhty God to be theire governoure; but the seide peple preyede to allemyȝhty God þat þe devell myȝhte drowne the seide Iohn Arundell. And so the seide knyȝhtes escapede the see withowte eny hurte. In whiche tyme the fleete of Speyne and of Fraunce kepede the costes of Briteyne, that men of Ynglonde scholde not entre into Briteyne to helpe the duke, and if thei come in those costes to fiȝhte with theyme; but in the seide tempeste thei were drownede and dispersede. For whiche infortuny a parliamente was kepede at London in the octaves of seynte Hillarius, in whom oon dyme was grawnted to the kynge of alle men of churche, and a xvthe parte of laymen. The sonne and the heire of themperoure of Constantinopole and patriarke of the same cite knowlegede openly in this yere at Rome in Cristemasse pope Urban the vjte dewe prelate of þe churche universalle electe by the lawe and consecrate, besechynge the pope to do certeyn solennites for theyme, and so he did. Abowte whiche tyme in the parlia|ment at London oon dyme was grawntede to the kynge of the clergy, and a xvthe of laymen, on this condicion, þat þer scholde be noo parliamente from þe kalendes of Marche unto þe feste of seynte Michel folowynge after by oon yere; but this con|dicion was not observede. Also the erle of Seynte Paule [folio 405a] maryede in this yere at Wyndeshore, in the viijthe day of Ester, Iohan Cowrtenay, suster to the kynge, into the profite of mynstrells, and unto grete hate of noble men; to whom the kynge ȝafe the towne of Biflet with the maner. And in this yere in the vijthe day of the monethe of Iunius a conflicte of ij. men was hade and made betwene Syr Iohn Hanesley, knyȝhte, and Robert Karinton, esqwyer, in the paviment with owte the kynges halle at Westemonastery, in the presence of the kynge, of the duke of Lancaster, and mony oþer noble men in the realme. This was the mater of the conflicte: the seide knyȝhte accusede Robert Karinton that he delyvered, lyke a fals traytoure, the castell of Seynte Savioure in the yle Constantyn, when he was undercapiten, to the kynge of Fraunce for a grete summe of goode, where þat he hade peple ynowe to have kepede hit ageyne the kynge of Fraunce. Whiche accusacion semede to be tru, for the seide Robert was convicte and sleyne in that conflicte. The erle of Marche saylede abowte this tyme into Yrlonde to recure the cownte of Holnester, whom men of Yrlonde occupiede for the moste parte, where he hade grete victorys and mony, and recurede moche of his londes, and sub|duede mony of theyme to hym. Thomas Wodestoke erle off Page  454, vol.8 Bukkyngham, Syr Hewe Calverle and Syr Robert Knolles, takynge with theyme a noble hoste, saylede to Caleys, and rydenge by the bordres of Fraunce withowte eny resistence, brente mony townes in the bordres of hit, and did sle peple withowte eny mercy, untille that thei come to the costes of Briteyne, whiche cuntre thei entrede, theire hoste neither bestes hurte. In whiche tyme Charls kynge of Fraunce com|mitte the governayle of the realme of Fraunce and the kepynge of his sonne to his yonger brother, duke of Burguyn. Charls the elder broþer and duke of Andegavy havynge indignacion þeroff, movede gwerre ageyn the yonger broþer. In whiche tyme the Scottes entrede into Combrelonde and Westemare|londe unto Yngelwode, and toke mony bestes with theyme, and did sle also mony men of that cuntre. Also thei spoylede men at the feire of Penreth, mony men of Ynglonde taken by þeym and sleyne. In whiche tyme the galees of the kynge of Fraunce brente mony townes and places longynge to the prior and con|vente of Lewes. A newe contencion movede betwene the erle [folio 405b] of Flandres and the commune peple, the seide erle did sle abowte viij. M. men of the towne of Ypres, whiche come to have laborede for peas, and segede the cite Gandaneus. But men of that cite were not adredde of the erle, and sette open the yates of the cite that he myȝhte; and so after a longe contynuede sege the erle toke peas with theyme for a schorte season and dissolvede the sege. The sonne of Charls somme tyme kynge of Fraunce, of xj. yere in age, was crownede kynge of Fraunce abowte this tyme, in the monethe of September. In the begynnynge of the reigne of whom a grete tumultuacion and murmur was hade amonge the peple and gentyllemen of that londe for grete exaccions and taskes. Wherefore peple at Parisius compellede mony noble men of that londe to fle, and to take places of defense, sleynge so mony men as they cowthe fynde of the gate, men of the cuntre Ianuense, for they expende allemoste alle the goode of þe region of Fraunce. For withowte dowte thei receyvyde dayly a grete summe of goode lvij.c.li. payede dayly to theym, and dividede by egalle porcions to xxvti gates from the monethe of May unto the monethe of Auguste. The duke of Lancastre and other lordes wente to the Scottes to make a trety for pease abowte the monethe of October; in whiche trety hit was seide that noo thynge was doen to the profite of the realme, but that truse was taken unto Ester folowynge. Also in the begynnynge of the monethe of November the kynge kepede his parliamente at Northampton, where Iohn Kyrkeby was hongede for the dethe of the noble merchaunde of Lon|don. A grete subsidy was grawntede to the kynge in this parliamente, that he scholde receyve of every preste havynge benefice with other prestes and of oþer religious men vj. s. and viij. d. And of lay peple, of a man and his wife that were suffi|ciente Page  455, vol.8 ij. s., and alle peple after theire power, whiche exaccion causede moche wykkydnesse in that londe. The olde ypocrite, Iohn Wyclif, sustenede and toke the opinions of Berengarius of the sacrament in the awter, and deceyved moche peple. A [folio 405a] cardinalle come into Ynglonde þat yere with the duke of Tas|silia abowte the begynnynge of the monethe of Marche, with mony oþer noble men sende from the kynge of Boemia, whiche callede hym emperoure, for matrimony to be contracte betwene the kynge of Ynglonde and his sustyr. Whiche cardinalle gate grete goodes in this londe, and departede with grete rewardes of the kynge also. And abowte this tyme Edmund Langeley erle of Cantebrigge, and the broþer of þe erle of Warwyke, and Syr Mathewe Cowrtenay, toke theire iourney to Portyngale to helpe that kynge oppressede moche by the kynge of Speyne, and that he myȝhte conquere the realme of Speyne by reason of the duke of Lancastre his broþer whiche maryede the heire of Speyne. But the seide hoste commyn into that cuntre in savegarde, thei did noo thynge for the especialle cause of theire commynge; but that the sonne of the erle of Cantebrygge maryede the doȝhter and heire of the kynge of Portyngale. In the yere paste, as hit is schewede afore, the kynge receyvyde a grete tallage of the cleregy and laymen, whereby a grete*. [Sic.] trowblede was causede in the realme. For the enemy of pease sawede a dedely sede, of whom a corrupte frute did aryse and growe, whiche hade destroyede utterly the realme of Ynglonde, but that the moder of Criste putte to the honde of mercy and of clemency. This sede was avarice, the roote of alle synne, whiche brouȝhte furthe the corrupte frute of discorde, poyson|ynge moche peple unto dethe. For diverse ministres of the kynge willynge to please hym and to displease God, seide to hym that the seide tallage was not truly alleviate to the utilite of þe kynge. Wherefore thei offrede to pay a certeyne somme of money to the kynge, so that he wolde ȝiffe to theyme licence and auctorite; and so diverse of theyme, havynge wrytynge of the kynge, departede into diverse costes of Kente and of Estesex, and intretede the peple unmanerly, and did to theyme grete injuryes also. The peple seenge that, toke cownsayle to gedre and resiste those men longynge to the kynge, and did ryse ageyne theym, and did sle somme of theym and wounded mony. This doen, þat peple dredynge the wrathe of the kynge, movede a detestable perturbacion, for thei did excite alle the communes of Estesex and of Kente ageyne the kynge and lordes, gedrenge an hoste as innumerable, and takynge men put in exile and banysched into theire capitanes, ȝiffynge to theyme these names, Iak Shepe, Iohn Wrawe, Thomas Mellor, Watte Tyler, Hobbe Carter, and Iacke Strawe. And so they wente Page  456, vol.8 by diverse places, somme of theim in armoure and somme of theym with owte armoure, havynge diverse weppyn of de|fense, [folio 406b] with baners displayede robbynge and brennynge mony ryalle maners, and specially of the ministres or of men of lawe longynge to the kynge, and places of the retenement of the duke of Lancastre. And so that peple a C. M. in nowmbre come abowte the feste of the Holy Trinite to a place nye to London callede Blakehethe, and taryenge þer a certeyne season sende to the kynge, whiche was fledde into the towre of Lon|don for drede of theyme, that he scholde comme and speke with theyme at the same place. For the same peple thouȝhte that and if the kynge hade commyn to theym, thei wolde have brouȝhte hym thro alle the realme, and to have fulfyllede theire wickede purpose by auctorite of hym. Whiche pur|pose was to have sleyne alle the noble bloode in Ynglonde of eiþer kynde, and the kynge at the laste also, and so to have disposede the realme at theire pleasure. The kynge fulle|fyllynge theire wylle toke with hym Symon Sudbury, arche|bischop of Cawnterbery, and his treasurer Robert Hales, a noble knyȝhte, saylede over Thamys to theym. The peple seenge the kynge, come boldely towarde Thamys to mete hym. Then the archebischop and the treasurer ȝafe cownsaile to the kynge that thei scholde returne to the towre, sayenge that hit was grete perelle to goe amonge that cruelle peple, and so the kynge returnede to the towre. The peple seenge the kynge returne cryede with a lowde voyce, "Treason, treyson," mak|ynge grete haste to London; whiche entrede into þe cite in the vigille of the Corpus Christi, and did grete hurte, sleynge mony of the Flemmynges and robbynge theyme. And in the morowe folowynge they wente to the maners of Favey, long|ynge to the duke of Lancastre, and brente hit, not levynge oon ston unnethe on an oþer, fyndynge þer grete goodes, as clothes, precious stones, golde and silvyr, takynge suche thynges as they cowthe cary with theyme, and brennynge the residu, the seide duke of Lancastre beynge in the marches for to trete for pease betwene the realmes off Ynglonde and of Scotlonde, whom thei wolde have sleyne with goode wylle and if they myȝhte haven taken hym. That doen, thei wente to Clerken|welle, where they destroyede mony howses and a grete parte of the churche, and destroyede moche wyne founde þer after that thei hade drunke unto theire pleasure. Also thei de|stroyede a newe maner made but late afore by that prior with [folio 407a] owte London for to solace hym and his breþer þer. Also thei wente to the Temple and to the places of men of lawe, brek|ynge theire coffurs, and brennynge bookes and wrytynges founde þer, and departede from the cite with grete goodes. And the kynge with alle the noble men of that cite durste not ȝiffe batelle to theyme, in whiche tyme chorles hade gover|nayle Page  457, vol.8 and lordes were subjectes. And in the day nexte folow|ynge thei wente to a place callede Milende with owte London, sendynge to the kynge and commaundynge hym to comme to that place to theym unarmede with fewe peple; and if he wolde not comme thei scholde destroy the towre, and the kynge scholde not escape with his lyfe. The kynge havynge not audacite to displease þeym, takenge grete thouȝhte how he scholde, wente to theyme with grete drede of his lyfe. And so the yates of the towre open, a grete multitude of theym entrede into hit, and inquiryde with grete diligence for the arche|bischop and for the treasurer and oþer ministres of the kynge whom thei did hate. The noble men founde were hedede, and xv. oþer men sleyne, and mony escapede mervellousely whom they wolde have sleyne. This cruelle peple toke downe the hedde of Iohn Mustreworthe, a fals traytour, of whom mencion is made afore, from London brygge, and sette the hedde of the archebischop of Cawnterbery þer, naylynge faste his cappe to his forhede. The kynge commynge to that place as he hade in commaundemente, apperede amonge theym as a lambe amonge wulfes, ȝiffenge grete honor to peple beynge abowte; whom þat peple did beholde with a bostuous and a frowarde contenaunce, rechynge to hym diverse peticions redacte into wrytynge, to the grete hurte of the realme and of the churche, seyenge utterly that he scholde not departe from theyme untylle that he hade confermede theyme by his letters patent. The firste peticion was that he scholde make alle men fre thro Ynglonde and quiete, so that þere scholde not be eny native man after that tyme. Also an oþer peticion was, thei desirede the kynge to pardon alle the seide peple, and every man of theyme, for alle transgressions made ageyne the kynge, treason, felony, and for extorcions made by theyme in eny place, and that he scholde grawnte to theym to lyve in reste and pease. Also that the same lige men and subjectes scholde have liberte to bye and to selle in alle cites, burghes, and townes þro Yng|londe. Also that noon acre of londe scholde excede iiij.d. [folio 407b] Also they desyrede mony other thynges into þe prejudice of þe realme. The kynge seynge that he cowthe not escape from theym, grawnte to theire peticions, and sealede theym by his letters patent, and departede by licence from theyme. In the iiijthe day after, whiche was on Saturday, the kynge did ryde after meyte to Westemonastery to visitte seynte Edward kynge, and to see if that they hade doen eny hurte þer. Whiche re|turnynge from thens by Smythfelde founde alle that place fulle of theym. And Water Tyler, oon of theire governours, come to þe kynge with a frowarde contenaunce, with his cappe on his hedde, chargynge and commaundynge the kynge to correcte and amende the letters that he toke to theym. And þat tyme oon man was not abowte the kynge that durste rebuke in that Page  458, vol.8 he did not reverence to þe kynge; but at þe laste William Wal|worthe, marciall of London, rebukede Wat Tyler, and wounded hym soore with his swerde, and an oþer of theym beynge by hurte the seide William soore. And soone after a grete mul|titude of theym cryede, "Where is oure governoure?" The kynge beynge amonge theym, seide, "Folowe me, y am youre governoure;" and so thei folowede hym into þe feldes withowte London; where men longynge to the kynge did sle mony of theym, and so the peple were dispersed, havynge noo audacite to schewe theire hedes after that tyme; and so this grete rumor was mitigate thro the helpe of Godde. That doen, the kynge made incontinentli, or anoon after, the seide William Walworthe knyȝhte, and other iij. or iiij. of the noble men of the cite, and made Syr Robert Knolles capiteyn of þat cite of London, causynge the capiteyns of that unhappy hoste to be souȝhte and to heded if thei myȝhte be founde. The seide Syr William Walworthe causede the hedde of the archebischop, sette on the brygge of London, to be taken downe, and to be kepede with grete reverence, settynge on that brygge the hedde of Watte Tyler. In whiche tymes the communes off Sowthe|folke, Northefolke, Huntyndon, and of oþer cuntres abowte, made lyke insurreccions, destroyenge mony maners and places, and slenge also mony men. Whiche peple did sle cruelly, in the monastery of Seynte Edmundbery, Syr Iohn Candische justice to the kynge, and the prior of that place, with his chapeleyne. Hit is open and expresse that the seide peple entende the destruccion of the realme and of þe churche, for theire werkes ȝiffe experience, and confessions, whom we schalle expresse in theire ordre and place. Hyt may be schewede by [folio 408a] theire werkes, for thei did sle the hedde of the churche of Ynglonde, þe archebischop of Cawnterbery. Also unto the hurte of the feithe of Criste thei compellede maisters of gramer to swere that thei scholde not teche after that tyme; also thei brente olde munimentes, and did sle men of lawe, that þer scholde not oon man remayne þat scholde knowe newe munimentes from olde. Hit was grete perelle þat tyme to have be knowen for a clerke, and specially if that he bare pennes and ynke at his gyrdle. And that thei intended the destruccion of þe realme, hit may be schewede by the confession of Iohn Strawe, whiche was chiefe capiteyn amonge theym after Wat Tyler, whiche perceyvynge that he scholde dye, seide: "When we were at Blakehethe and sende for the kynge, oure purpose was to have sleyne alle knyȝhtes, esqwyers, and gentylmen þat hade commen with hym, and to have brouȝhte the kynge with us from place to place, that thro his presence alle þe commune peple myȝhte have drawen to oure companye; and when that we hade gedrede a grete multitude of peple, we wolde have sleyne alle the lordes of the londe sodenly, whiche wolde have Page  459, vol.8 ȝiffen cownsaile or resistence ageyne us. And specially we wolde have destroyede the places of hospitalaryes, the kynge, bischopps, chanons, monkes possessionate, and alle men of churche, the frers excepte oonly, whiche scholde have minist|erede the sacramentes of the churche to theym. That doen, we scholde have made lawes after oure pleasure, and Walter Tyler kynge of Kente, and oþer men in oþer cuntres; and in that oure purpose was lette by the seide archebischop, we hade hym in grete despite and hate. And also we hade in|tendede to have brente the cite of London in that same day in whom Wat Tyler was sleyn, and to have taken þe goodes of the cite and to have disposede theyme after oure pleasure. This was oure purpose, as God helpe me in the ende of my lyfe." And mony of theym confessede the same thynges. Also þe letters of manimission whom the kynge had grauntede to theyme were publischedein mony costes of Ynglonde, insomoche that natif men did ryse ageyne theire lordes and began to resiste theyme, seyenge that thei were free, whom theire lordes suffrede as for a tyme. These þynges y-paste, the kynge com|maundede all the lordes of the realme to comme to London in alle haste, that thei myȝhte make provision ageyne the seide [folio 408b] peple. Where hit was ordeynede that certeyne lordes scholde be sende into diverse cuntres where that insurreccions were made, with a grete hoste of armede men; and the kynge wente in his awne person into Estesex, and sette that cuntre in reste and in peas, but a grete multitude of the peple were sleyne or thei cowthe be reformede to pease. For as hit was seide, by that trowble vij. M. were sleyne and moo. In whiche tyme a preste, Syr Iohn Balle, disciple of maister Iohn Wyclif, was taken at Coventre, whiche hade comfortede peple to the seide insurreccions, seyenge that thei scholde rejoice hevyn þerby open in his predicacions. This preste was brouȝhte to the kynge at Seynte Alban, where he was drawen and quarterde, and wolde not aske mercy and grace of the kynge, but despisede the kynge utterly. Also an oþer preste of that same secte was taken in Sowthefolke, which suffrede lyke dethe in those costes. And after that the kynge hade causede reste in maner thro the londe, he sende letters into every cuntre annullynge alle the articles grawntede by hym at the importune instaunce of the commune peple. And soone after the body of the archebischop of Cawn|terbery with his hedde also was beryede at Cawnterbery, in Cristechurche, with grete solennite. Pope Urban crownede in this tyme Karolus de Pace into kynge of Sicill, as nexte by succession after þe qwene of hit, whom he deposede by processe of lawe, in that sche norischede longe cardinalls excommunicate ageyne the pope. Whiche kynge entrede into the region of Neapolis in the feste of the Trinite, whom the peple of that region receyvyd as theire lorde withowte eny batelle, where he Page  460, vol.8 toke the qwene and her lorde Otho Bruciswys, and putte theyme into sure kepynge. Also in the same yere, in the xjthe kalendes of October, pope Urban erect into a cardinall Adam Eston, monke of Norwiche and maister of divinite. In the same yere, in the begynnynge of the monethe of November, the kynge began to holde a parliamente at London, whiche parliament was allemoste occupyede holly to reforme pease and concorde betwene the duke of Lancastre and Syr Henricus Percy erle of Northumbre|londe; whiche cowthe unnethe be made by the kynge and the lordes of þe realme in alle that parliamente; whiche discorde was movede betwene þeim in that tretys amonge Scottes for peas for the seide insurreccion. Wherefore that parliamente [folio 409a] was contynuede unto the feste of seynte Hillary, in whiche par|liamente hit was towchede of the manimission of natife men, whiche men supposede that the kynge wolde have confermede in this parliamente that he grawntede to the commune peple in that insurreccion. But that thynge was denyede, firste by the kynge, and after by alle the lordes. Syr William Ufforde duke off Sowthefolde dyede sodenly in that parliament, in the halle at Westmonastery. Anne, suster of the kynge of Boemia, after qwene of Ynglonde, londed at Dovor abowte the feste of seynte Thomas þe apostle, with a noble company, wherefore the parliament begunne was dissolvede, for the mariage of the kynge, and for the feste of Criste folowynge. Syr Edmund erle of Marche diede in Yrlonde the vjte kalendes of Ianu|arius, after noble victoryes, by a colde in rydenge over a water, and was beryede þer for a tyme in a cathedralle churche in the feste of seynte Iohn Evangeliste, unto that tyme his body was redacte unto powdre, and after that the bones were brouȝte to Ynglonde, and beryede in the monastery of Wygge|more with his progenitors. Also his moder, the cowntesse, dyede in the nones of Ianuarius folowynge, whiche was beryede with her progenitors in priory of Chanons at Brusles|ham. And in the same yere pope Urban made maister William Courteney archebischop of Cawnterbery, John Ford|ham bischop of Dirham, and Robert Braybok bischop of London. Karolus de Pace, cosyn to the kynge of Hungary, was crownede into kynge of Sicille by pope Urban abowte the feste of Ester, whiche entrenge into that region with a grete hoste subduede hit to hym withowte effusion of bloode, and toke the qwene also. Men callede Gandavens expellede the erle of Flandres from that cuntre, and toke the towne of Burges, and did sle xx. M. of the Flemmynges, and put sege to the towne of Owdenarde, whiche thei contynuede from the feste of the Inven|cion of the Holy Crosse unto Cristemasse. In whiche tyme the kynge of Fraunce commynge downe to that cuntre with a grete hoste, did sle men of the city Gandavens and of the companye unto the nowmbre of xxv. M. In whiche yere, abowte þe feste Page  461, vol.8 of Seynte Iohn ante port Latyne, a parliamente was holden at London, in whiche parliament Iohn Wrawe, preste and capi|teyne of the commune peple, was drawen and hongede at Bury, by the desire of þe commune peple. And in the same somer the duke of Andegavy toke his journey towarde Sicille, to depose the kynge of that cuntre, for the cursed pope Clement [folio 409b] aforeseide hade crownede the seide duke into kynge of Sicille. In this yere, þe xij. kalendes of Iunius, a grete movynge of erthe was in Ynglonde, and an oþer in þe ixte kalendes of the same moone. In whiche tyme a parliament was kepede at London, in whom oon xvthe was grawntede to the kynge of laymen; and after that the clergy grawnted oon dyme to the kynge in this condicion, that he wolde ȝiffe helpe to the churche ageyne heretykes folowynge the doctryne of Wyclif and his folowers. For the seide conclusions, whom thei prechede openly amonge the peple, examinate were founde erroneus, fulle of heresy, and repugnant to the state of the churche. Wherefore the archebischoppe of Cawnterbery con|dempnede alle the oppinions as erroneus, and cursede solennely alle men prechynge, techynge, or ȝiffynge favor to þe seide conclusions openly or prively, of whatsoever state or degre he were. Also the seide metropolitan commaunded alle bischoppes of the province off Cawnterbery that thei and every bischop of theim scholde expresse þe seide monicions and inhibicions in theire diocyse, and to make inquisicions for these men prechynge that heresy. For as hit was seide, they were ac|companyede unto the nowmbre of cc., somme prechynge abowte Oxenforde and in diverse cuntres ageyne prelates of þe churche, and specially ageyne religious men possessionate, seyenge that hit were a meritorious dede to take temporalle goodes awey from theyme, exhortenge peple to do so in theire sermons. And withowte dowte if thei myȝhte have contynuede in theire purpose thei hade destroyede alle the churches of Ynglonde, and consequentely the realme also. The conclusions of heresy of þe seide doctor Wiclif folowe, repugnant to the determi|nacions of the churche. The firste conclusion, that the sub|staunce of materialle brede and wyne remayne in the sacrament after the consecracion. Also anoþer conclusion, that Criste is not in that sacramente ydemptifically, veryly and really in his propre presence corporealle. Also if a bischop or preste be in dedely synne he may not ȝiffe ordres, or baptize, or con|secrate that blissede sacrament, and if he do eny of the misterys hit avaylethe not. Also he seide and if a man or woman were duely contrite in herte alle confession externalle [folio 410a] were superfluous and unprofitable. Also he seide that Criste awe to obbey the develle. Also and if the pope be knowen afore a man of ylle disposicion, and by consequent the mem|bre of the develle, he hathe noo powere ȝiffen to hym on Page  462, vol.8 Cristen peple but peraventure of the emperoure. Also they seide that noo man awe to be made pope after pope Urban the vjte, but peple scholde lyve by theire awne lawes in the maner of Grekes. Also an oþer conclusion was that hit scholde be ageyne scripture that men of the churche scholde have posses|sions temporalle. Also he seide that accidentes remaynede not withowte a subjecte after the consecracion in the same sacra|ment. The conclusions erroneous and repugnant to the deter|minacions of the churche folowe here. The firste, that noo prelate awe not to curse eny man withowte he knowe hym excommunicate of God afore. Also he seide that a prelate cursynge in that wise was an heretyke or excommunicate. Also he seide that a prelate cursynge a clerke þat hathe ap|pellede to the kynge and to the cownsaile of the realme, is the traytor of God, of þe kynge and of the realme. Also he seide men were heretykes that wolde leve to preche and teche the gospelle of God for eny sentence of man. Also he seide hit was lawefull to a diacon or preste to preche the gospelle of God withowte auctorite of the pope or of eny other bischoppe, so that he hade abilite of sufficient intellect. Also he seide þer was noo lorde bischop or prelate while that he were in dedely synne. Also he seide that temporall lordes myȝhte take lawefully temporall goodes from men of the churche tres|passynge habitually, and dispose theym at theire pleasure. Also he seide that tythes were pure, and that men myȝhte reteyne theyme for the synnes of theire curates, and dispose þeim at þeire pleasure. Also he seide that spirituall suffrages doen by prelates or religious men for a man, profite that man noo more then other men. Also he seide that a man entrenge a private religion is made more apte to the commaundementes of God to be observede. Also he seide that seyntes whiche ordeynede privates religions with possessions or withowte synne in that institucion. Also he seide that men lyvynge in private religions be not of the feithe of Criste. Also he seide that freres were bownde to gette theire lyvynge by the [folio 410b] laboure of their hondes and not by beggynge. Also he seide that a man ȝiffynge almes to a frere beggynge or prechenge is acursede, and the frere also. And soone after þe nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste, the archebischop of Cawnterbery citede somme of the seide heretykes, and somme of þeim apperede at London afore hym, and appellede from his sentence and ex|communicacion unto the cowrte of Rome. Amonge whom mayster Iohn Aston was sende to be imprisonede at Seynte Alban, in that he wolde not answere to certeyn poyntes and articles objecte ageyne hym. Pope Urban committe in this yere powere to the duke off Lancastre to do persecucion ageyne the kynge of Speyne, and to rejoyce that realme by dewe en|heritaunce, in that he hade maryede the lawefulle heire of Page  463, vol.8 Speyne. Kynge of Fraunce entrenge into Flaundres ageyne abowte that tyme, did sle men of the cite Gaudanense by treason unto the nowmbre of xxv. M., and in returnynge from Flaundres mony of the cuntre abowte Parys rebellede ageyne the kynge of Fraunce, wherefore mony of theyme were sleyn and mony were honged, and grete hurte was doen to that cite. The kynge of Portyngalle seynge the helpe promysede to hym from Ynglonde not to comme, and thenkynge that he was not able to resiste the kynge of Speyne withowte moore socoure, toke peas with the seide kynge of Speyne in this condicion, that he scholde not lette men of Ynglonde beynge with hym to departe to theire cuntre, and take to theym schippes and sufficient goodes to theire exhibicion unto theire cuntre; and so the seide men of Ynglonde come into the seide londe abowte the ende of the monethe of October. A grete and mervellous reyne was in this yere abowte the feste of seynte Thomas apostell, inso|moche þat the water was encreasede þro alle Ynglonde by iiij. foote moore then ever waters were seen afore in altitude, whiche drownede mony townes and bestes and cornes, withowte bernes and howses and mony mylles and grete brygges. In the same yere pope Urban sende to Henricus Despenser, bischop of Norwiche, that he scholde doe persecucion unto the seide cursede pope and his norischers, grawntynge to alle men goynge with hym in the seide viage plener remission of theire synnes, [folio 411a] and men ȝiffynge eny of theire goodes towarde that viage. Also the pope ȝafe power to the seide bischoppe to dispense with alle men havynge benefices seculer or religions that thei myȝte be absente from theire benefices and dignites withowte licence obtente off theire prelates, with holle percepcion of the frutes of theire benefices, as and if thei were resident þer per|sonally. Also the seide bischop hade powere to compelle alle maner religious men and freres and þe governoures of theym, if the seide bischoppe thouȝhte that hit were expedient to the seide viage. In whiche yere the cursede pope ȝafe powere to the kynge off Scotlonde to do persecucion to the kynge of Ynglonde, in that he supportede pope Urban ageyne hym. Also the duke of Andegavy, chiefe enemy to the churche of Rome entrede into Ytaly with a grete multitude off peple to delyver the qwene of Sicille from prison, cursede by pope Urban and deposede, laborynge to restore here to that realme, and to ȝiffe batelle to the pope afterwarde. Kynge Richarde began to kepe a parliament that same yere at Westmonastery, sone after the feste of seynte Hillarius; in whom a xv was grawntede to the kynge by seculer and lay peple, and oon dyme of the cleregy. In whiche tyme the kynge of Fraunce come with a grete hoste to restore the erle of Flandres to his cuntre, whom men of the cite Gaudenens mette, and loste þe victory; and a grete multitude of theim was sleyne, and an esqwyer Philippe Nacerfelde, causer of that trowble and þeir capiteyn, was sleyne þer also. The Page  464, vol.8 residu of that peple fledde unto the cite Gaudanense intendynge to kepe hit untille that thei hade somme socoure from Ynglonde. Kynge Richarde began to kepe an other parliamente in the same yere at Westemonastery in the begynnynge of the monethe of Maii, to make provision for an hoste to be sende into Fraunce to remove hym if he wolde be, for he lay nye to Caleys with a grete hoste, after that he hade restorede the erle of Flaundres into his cuntre; other wheþer the kynge scholde go in his awne person, other what oþer lordes scholde take on theym that viage. For whiche mater a con|traversy was hade betwene þe lordes and þe communes; for the lorde wolde that the duke of Lancastre scholde have bene governoure of þat hoste, but the commune peple wolde not so, desyrynge the bischoppe off Norwiche to be theire governoure after the desire of þe pope, seyenge that they grawntede the seide tallage to the kynge þerfore: and so þe communes obtenede theire desyre. Where hit was ordeynede that the seide tallage [folio 411b] scholde be payede to the bischop, where with he scholde hire sufficient men of armes to ȝiffe batelle ageyne þe enemys of Criste, and to made redy that hoste in alle haste.

Capitulum quinquagesimum primum.

The bischop of Norwiche did londe in this yere at Calys with his hoste in the feste of the apostoles Petyr and Paule, havynge with hym Syr Hewe Calverly and but fewe moo men, proved and experte in batell, but the nowmbre of men of armes and specially of foote men encreasede dayly. For mony reli|gious men, chanons, monkes and freres, and oþer benefycede men, wente to hym after hys departynge. Whiche bischoppe wente anoon to the towne off Gravenynge, and layde sege to hit; but þe men inhabitynge hit seide utterly thei wolde not delyver hit, for thei did not holde with pope Urban, and resiste myȝhtely the bischoppe and his hoste. But the bischoppe pre|vaylede, and entrede into the towne, and did sle alle men in hit; and after þat he wente to Dunkyrke, and recurede that towne also in schorte space. And as sodenly XXX. M. of the communes of Flaundres come into the pleynes nye to the seide towne erly, with certeyne capiteyns and governoures, whiche hade inten|dede to have taken the bischop sodenly, and to have sleyne hym and his hoste. But as God wolde, the bischop hade knowlege by a lytelle space that þei cowthe unnethe make theym redy in theire armore afore theire commynge. Whiche conflicte begunne a M. men of Ynglonde were not þer in nowmbre, but the moste parte of þeim were archers, but the nowmbre encreasede; whiche men spende theire arowes so that thei causede that other hoste to flee, folowynge theym allemoste unto nyȝhte. And after þe Page  465, vol.8 estimacion of men of Ynglonde, men off Flaundres were sleyne allemoste unto the nowmbre of xj. M., and xv. men of Ynglonde were sleyne in that conflict. That doen thei toke the towne of Neuport with v. oþer townes and the goodes in theyme, whereby men of Ynglonde beynge þer gate grete habundance off goodes. Mony men in diverse partes of Ynglonde understondynge that the hoste there gate so grete goodes, a grete multitude of men wente to that cuntre. Whiche commyn into those costes wolde [folio 412a] not be governede, and departede unto diverse costes; whiche peple were sleyne or taken. The bischop of Norwiche wente to the towne of Ypres sone after with his hoste, and brente the subarbes of that towne, and spoylede theyme; whiche hade re|curede that towne also, but that diverse men of his hoste were corrupte with money of his adversaryes. Whiche thynge was lyke to be tru, for diverse of theym were convicte in Ynglonde after afore the kynge; and so moche labor wastede, the bischop departede from the sege. That doen the bischop wente to Gra|venynge and repayrede hit, taryenge þer with a certeyn nowmbre of men with hym; and the marescall and constable wente to the towne of Burbourghe, whom thei hade taken also, taryenge for moore helpe to be sende from Ynglonde. But theire hoste de|creasede and departede to Ynglonde for the salvacion of goodes that thei hade geten þer. And soone after the kynge of Fraunce come with a grete hoste, and fixede his tentes ageyne the towne of Burburghe and sette fyre in the towne, whiche fyre was so fervente that hit brente and consumede whatsoever thynge that hit towchede. That doen the duke of Briteyn, governoure of the fyrste warde, oppugned that towne soore, but the seide men of Ynglonde resiste hym manfully, and did sle and wounde mony of his warde, for they were disposed rather to dye manfully then to be sleyne cowardly by that cursede kynge of Fraunce. But that duke of Bryteyne seenge the manhode of theyme was lothe that thei scholde be put to dethe; whiche duke had maryede to his wife the suster of the kynge of Ynglonde. Wherefore he was mediator betwene the kynge of Fraunce and þeim, unnethe gettynge grawnte of theire lyfes. And the bischop beynge in the towne of Gravenynge was commaundede to avoide from hit by the kynge of Fraunce by a certeyn tyme prefixede, and so he did, but he destroyede utterly þat towne before; and so that viage was ended with schame, and after that thei saylede to Ynglonde. In whiche tyme the Scottes toke the castell of Werke on the water of Twede, and robbede hit and sette fyre in hit. Wherefore hit was ordeynede by þe commune assente that the kynge scholde entre into Scotlonde with a regalle hoste, and depresse the pryde of the Scottes. Kynge Richarde did holde a parliamente at Westemonastery in that yere in the Moneday nexte afore the feste of Alle [folio 412b] Page  466, vol.8 Seyntes. In whiche parliamente oon halfe*. [halfe di] MS.] dyme was grawn|tede to the kynge by the clergy, and and halfe a xvthe of lay peple, to be payede in the begynnynge of the monethe of Marche, and as moche after Ester on a condicion. Pope Urban perceyvynge that Edmund Bromfelde, monke of Bury, of whom mencion is made of afore, cowthe not obteyne the favor of the kynge to be abbot of þe seide monastery, ȝafe hym an other monastery of the Holy Crosse at Burdews, sendynge powere to the bischop of London to blesse that monke electe at Bery into abbot by the convente. But the seide Edmund wolde not receyve that benefice grawntede to hym by the pope, ne noon oþer, and so he was keped at Wyndeshore. In whiche yere abowte the Annunciacion off oure Lady, John duke of Lancastre, Thomas Wodestoke, brother to hym and erle of Bukkyngham, wente to Scotlonde with a myȝhty hoste. But the Scottes hydde theyme in woodes, other ells saylede over the Scotte see, knowynge that theire hoste scholde peresche, what thro hungre and thro colde; and soe the seide lordes returnede ageyne to Ynglonde, mony of their hoste loste and destroyede, withowte eny frute or victory. That viage doen, a parliamente was holden at Salisbery, in whiche parliamente that other halfe dyme grawntede in the parliamente afore on a con|dicion was grawntede to be payede sone after the feste of seynte Michell absolutely withowte eny condicion. In whiche parlia|ment a frere of the ordre of Carmelites, John Latimer by name, bachiler in divinite, come to þe kynge and spake with hym secretely, sayenge that the duke of Lancastre and oþer communes of the cite of London and of oþer diverse townes in Ynglonde hade conspirede his dethe, and that he scholde prove. Wherefore the kynge callede the duke to hym, and expressede this communicacion to hym, the frere stondynge secretely behynde a curtyn. The duke denyede utterly that accusacion, submyttynge hym to suffre accordynge to that offense as ageyne his sovereigne lorde, if that accusacion cowthe be provede tru. The frere herynge that, come furthe boldely afore the kynge, affermynge þose thynges rehersede of the duke to be tru, sayenge that he scholde prove those thynges to be tru in what|soever maner hit scholde please the kynges goode grace to assigne hym, adjectynge þerto and sayenge the lord Sowche [folio 413a] of Harneworthe to be wyttenesse and knowynge of these pre|misses. This doen the frere was committe to warde, and the lorde Sowche was sende for, whiche commyn afore the kynge afermede openly þat he herde never of that treason afore that tyme, whiche treason the frere seide that he scholde knowe. The frere seenge that he cowthe not be helpede by hym, seide Page  467, vol.8 that an oþer noble esqwyer of Oxenfordeschire was wittenesse of the seide premisses. Whiche presentede to the kynge excusede hym by an othe lyke as the lorde Sowche did. The frere seenge that he myȝhte not performe his purpose feynede hym as alienate of mynde and distract. But the seide ffrere was hongede with a grete peyce of lede tyede and made faste with a strynge to his prive membres and to his feete also, and a grete fyre under theyme, and soe he was tormentede a grete space, and drawen and heded afterwarde. But hit is to be mervaylede what cruellenesse scholde move the frere to ex|presse suche thynges. In whiche tyme Syr John Philipotte, knyȝhte and merchaunte of London, dyede, a trusty and specialle luffer to the realme of Ynglonde, and relevede moche the kynge and the realme, levynge but fewe men after hym of nobilite so feithefull to þe realme as he was. In whiche yere John of Northampton, a cytesynne of London, was convicte at Radyng in the presence of the kynge and of mony oþer noble men, by the accusacion of his awne preste, for grete and grevous offenses; where he was condempnede to perpetualle prison, and his goodes were eschete to the use of the kynge. Mony men say that cytesynne was ac|cused falsely by the meanes of Nicholas Bambri, cytesynne of London also, and that he ȝafe a grete summe of goode to that preste to accuse his maister. In whiche tyme maister William Cowrtenay, metropolitan of Ynglonde, purchasede licence of the pope that he myȝhte visite certeyne diocyses in the pro|vince of Cawnterbery, whiche auctorite scholde endure oonly by the space of ij. yere. And so soone after Ester he began to visitte the bischop of Excestre, whiche visitacion the bischoppe admitte; but he began to resiste the archebischoppe, in that he ȝafe ordres within his diocyse within the tyme of the seide visitacion, and so a grete discorde was movede betwene theyme. [folio 413b] For a man bryngynge a letter from the archebischop was com|pellede to eite the letter and seale also; and a man longynge to þe bischop of Excestre was compellede to eite the crawcows and leder of his schoone. Whiche thynges were doen, the archebischop and the bischop knowynge not of þeim, and pease was reformede betwene þeim by labor of theire frendes, and the bischop submitte hym mekely to þe visitacion of the metro|politan. That doen, the metropolitan contynuate his visitacion by the diocyse of Exestre, of Bathe, and of Worcestre, whom he visitte after personally, and departed at that tyme to Lon|don to the parliament. In tyme of whiche visitacion an oþer dissencion was movede betwene hym and the abbot of Evisham, by his men the enemys of peas. For the seide abbot mette the archebischop afore he come to his monasterye, preyenge hym entierly to vent his pleasure at a maner place of the seide monastery: that thynge grawntede by the archebischop he de|partede. But soone after his departynge, diverse men longynge Page  468, vol.8 to the archebischop seide the abbot intended fraude, and wolde not admitte utterly that visitacion by certeyne privileges grawn|tede to hym by the lawe. Neverthelesse the seide archebis|choppe commynge to that monastery was receyvede by the abbot and convente of þat place with grete solennite at the northe durre of that churche, where thabbot expressede openly that hit was not his wylle ne intencion to resiste the visitacion of his sovereyn and metropolitan in that monastery of Evis|ham, neiþer in eny oþer churche longynge to hit. And so the archebischop entrenge into that churche, and makynge his preyers afore the hye awter departede from that place unto that towne to his ynne. Also kynge Richarde began to holde his parliamente at London in the same yere in the day folow|ynge the feste of seynte Martyn, whom he contynuede by a certeyn season. In whiche parliamente the clergy of Ynglonde grawntede to þe kynge at his peticion halfe a dyme to be payede after Ester, and an oþer halfe dyme in this condicion, [folio 414a] that he wold go in his awne person to depresse the pride of men of Fraunce, and] the lay peple grawntede ij. xvthe in the seide condicion. In whiche tyme a conflicte of ij. men was made þer betwene Iohn Walische esqwiere and a man of Navarria, but the seide man of Navarria faylenge in the pro|bacion of his accusacion was drawen and hongede. Abowte whiche tyme the castelle of Berwyk was taken by treason of a Scotte, whiche dwellede with the capiteyn, a sqwyere of Yng|londe; whom the Scottes kepede myȝhtely ageyne men of Ynglonde. The erle of Northumbrelonde seenge that hyt cowthe not be delyverede withowte grete charge and costes, dredynge also the indignacion of the kynge, promysede to þeim a M.li. in this condicion, that thei wolde departe and delyver þe castelle withowte eny hurte. The Scottes receyvynge that summe departede from the castelle. Neverthelesse this mater objecte ageyne theym in a trety that thei brake pease and promyse of truse taken betwene þe realmes of Ynglonde and of Scotlonde, thei seide that men off Ynglonde brake promyse afore by takynge diverse of theire schippes on the see; where|fore thei seide thei wolde sette that oon ageyne that other. The duke of Andegavy, principalle enemy of the churche of Rome and of the realme of Ynglonde, dyede excommunicate and inpenitent, as hit is seide, þe xxti day of þe monethe of September in this yere, of the pestilence. In whiche yere kynge Richarde intended and ordeynede to holde a parliamente at Waltham, unto whom lordes were callede, unto whiche cownsaile and parliament the duke of Lancastre was desyrede to comme as chiefe cownseilloure to the kynge. But diverse men beynge nye to the kynge, and luffynge the seide duke, sende wrytynge to hym secretely that he scholde absente hym from þat parliamente, for an if he come thyder he was but a dedde man. The duke of Lancastre herynge that, sende wry|tynge Page  469, vol.8 to the kynge, besechynge his hihenesse to holde hym excusede if hit were his pleasure as for that tyme. But the kynge*. [Sic in MS.] to hym on his ligence that he scholde comme in eny wyse. The duke willynge to kepe his ligence and lyfe also, toke with hym a myȝhty hoste, and come to the kynge bese|chynge the kynges hyenes not to be displeasede in that he come with so moche peple, sayenge that he dredde to dye. Where the kynge made a protestacion by the confirmacion of an othe that he hade never knowlege of that treason afore [folio 414b] that tyme. And after that in Lente maister William Court|eney, archebischop of Cawnterbery, rebukede the kynge for his insolent lyfe and ylle governaunce in the realme longe con|tynuede, as hit longede to the seide metropolitan to do, sayenge withowte he applyede hym to sadder governayle, somme incon|venientes wolde folowe with ynne schorte space, bothe to hym and to the realme. The kynge havynge grete indignacion þerof, wolde have smyten the archebischop, but that Thomas Wodestoke, uncle to the kynge, causede hym to refreyne that passion of wrathe. Neverthelesse the kynge rehersede mony wordes of obprobry to the archebischop, and conceyved ageyne hym grete indignacion, and so the archebischop departed and wente into ferre costes from the kynge. Wherefore the seide archebischop apperede not at diverse cownsailes where that eny subsidy schole be grawntede to the kynge. In whiche yere and feste of seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery, archebishop and martir, the organ of the develle, the myrroure of ypocrites, the sawer of discorde, the promptnary of adulacion, maister Iohn Wiclif, was taken with a palisy horribly thro alle his body; neverthelesse he sende furthe his fals spiritte in the day of seynte Silvesters, and by meritte, for he hade despysede hym ofte with his tonge. In whiche yere Syr Edwarde le Bowser was made capiteyne of the cite Gaudanense, for the peple of that cite desyrede of kynge Richarde a capiteyne of Ynglonde; þro the prudence and circumspeccion of whom men of Fraunce were confusede, the oþer men not vexede in eny wyse. In whiche yere abowte the feste of Pentecoste, pope Urban the vjte degraded vj. cardinalles: the cardinalle of Venyse; the cardinalle of Ynglonde, Syr Adam Aston, somme tyme monke of Norwiche; and the cardinalle of Janua; wor|schipfulle religious men and professors in divinite. Also the cardinall Zang, the cardinalle Corsiensis, and the cardinalle Tarentyn, men of noble bloode; and the vij. cardinalle was of Reatinensis, whom the pope seide to be mover and causer of alle that grete trowble. But withowte dowte that cardinalle was seide to have be a man of grete prudence and a doctor of lawes, also chieffe cownseloure of Charls of Peas, kynge of Page  470, vol.8 Sicille. And soone after a grete discorde was movede betwene the seide kynge and the pope, in that the pope keped not [folio 415a] certeyn promisses made to that kynge; and the noble cite of Liceria, into whom the pope was fledde, was segede and taken and brente, the castelle excepte, into whom the pope was fledde. And so the pope was coacte to comme furthe, wheþer he wolde or nay, and to desyre pease of the seide kynge, whom he obtened with grete difficulte, and so he was suffrede to departe. In whiche yere Syr Robert Stretton, bischop of Coventre and off Lichefelde, dyede; whom maister Walter Shirawe, doctor of decrees, and bearer of the kynges prive seale, succedid by eleccion of chanons of Lichefelde and of monkes of Coventre. Whiche was consecrate solennely in the same yere, in the Sonneday nexte folowynge the festes of Hillarius and Remigius, of the archebischop of Cawnterbery at Westmonastery, with xij. oþer bischoppes assistent, kynge Richarde, the kynge of Armeny, with the qwene of Ynglonde, mony dukes, erles, lordes, and oþer noble men presente. In whiche yere a grete dissencion was movede betwene the kynge and the duke of Lancastre, by the instincte of yonge men drawynge to the kynge conspirynge into the dethe of the duke. But the seide duke havynge knowlege þerof, with|drawede hym, and wente to his castelle of Powntefret, whom he instaurede with armes and vitells: whiche dissencion was reformede by the laudable labor of lady Iohan, moder to the kynge. In whiche yere a grete movynge of erthe was made abowte myddenyȝhte of þe Invencion of the Holy Cross. In the same tyme a conjuncion of Jupiter and Saturn folowede in the monethe of May. Also abowte this tyme the Scottes hatynge pease, sende to the kynge of Fraunce, with whom thei be prompte ageyne the realme of Ynglonde, desyrynge helpe of hym, promittynge to hym moore then they were able to per|forme, seyenge that and if thei hade a lytelle helpe thei scholde destroye the kynge of Ynglonde. Wherefore the kynge of Fraunce sende to þeim a M. and V. c. speres, with thynges necessary to theyme, and, as hit was seide, the Scottes and men off Fraunce gedrede togedre were X. M. in nowmbre, and so thei intendede to have entrede into the northe costes of Ynglonde, and the kynge of Fraunce in the sowthe partes of Ynglonde, with an oþer hoste. Richarde kynge of Ynglonde understondynge þerof, made grete haste unto Yorke, taryenge þer unto that his hoste were gedrede, and by the tyme that kynge Richarde hade entrede into Scotlonde, [folio 415b] the hoste of men of Ynglonde was seide to excede the nowmbre of a c. M. Where the kynge causede his baner to be displayede, makynge þer allemoste iij. c. knyȝhtes, and anoon the men of Fraunce and Scottes were dispersede; somme of theyme lay in woodes and in marras, folowynge the hoste of men of Ynglonde, Page  471, vol.8 oþer while sleenge men goynge for vytells and takynge diverse men of Ynglonde also. The residu of men off Scotlonde were fledde over the Scottes see and to mownteynes, and the kynge wente unto the Scottes see, and brente theire townes, corne and herbage, with the towne of Edinburghe and the abbey of Meuros of the ordre Cisterciens; and mony men movede the kynge to have goen over the Scottes see, but he wolde not in eny wise, in that thei hade not vitells for the hoste, and so the kynge returnede into Ynglonde. In whiche viage toward Scot|londe Syr R. Stafforde, sonne and heire of þe erle of Stafforde, was sleyne by treason by John Holand, broþer to the kynge by reason of his moder. The kynge havynge knowlege þerof, was trowblede, takynge from his broþer alle londes, rentes, offices, and dignites; and the seide John Holand fledde to Beverlay to enjoy the privilege of that place. After that the kynge sende letters to his moder, commaundenge her that sche scholde not supporte John Holande here son, neiþer norische hym in eny wise. Wherefore the seide lady moder to the kynge toke soe grete sorowe that sche dyede with ynne þe space of iij. or iiij. dayes folowynge, and was beryede at Stafforde. The kynge of Fraunce disposede to have entred into the realme of Ynglonde, hade knowlege that men of the cite Gaudanense hade taken the towne of Ledam, in whom þei founde moche vitells and a M. and lxxxti tunnes of wyne, and so the purpose of the kynge of Fraunce was chaungede. Whiche kynge come with his hoste unto the seide towne, and segede hit, makynge mony sawtes ageyne the men in hit. The peple in hit seenge thei cowthe not prevayle, committe the kepynge off the towne to olde men and women whiche were in hit; and the men of the cite Gauda|nensis brekynge the tunnes, departede prively unto theire cite, that oþer hoste havynge noo knowlege of þat departynge. The [folio 416a] kynge of Fraunce entrede into that towne, perceyvede welle that he was mokede, for hit was as vacante or voide. Abowte the feste of the Exaltacion of the Holy Crosse, the schippes of the kynge of Fraunce commynge from Flandres were dis|persed and broken by an horrible tempeste in the see, and revede in diverse places longynge to Ynglonde. For men of Caleys toke v. c. men that were commyn to londe and salvede. And in the thryd day folowynge, men of Caleys fauȝhte soore ageyne lxxijti schippes of men off Fraunce, and toke xviij. of theire schippes and oon grete barge in whom lxx. men of armes were sleyne and taken. And in the thrydde day folowynge the seide conflicte, men of Caleys fauȝhte ageyne xlv. schippes returnynge from Scluse, and causede alle theyme to fle, ij. schippes excepte and oon carykke, whom they toke with grete goodes, in whom ij. cardinalles off Fraunce were with cc. and xxvj. schippe men and sawdyours. In whiche yere also Bar|nabo the lorde Mediolanense was taken and committe to Page  472, vol.8 prison by his sonne in lawe, whiche childe schewede grete liberte to þe peple of þat cuntre, and destroyede a grete multi|tude of dogges, whom ryche men of þat cuntre and poore men also did fynde to the use of his fader, whereby he was luffede moche of that peple. In whiche tyme þe kynge of Portyngall dyede, whiche was poysenede by hys qwene, and the maister of the Hospitall, a noble knyȝhte, was electe to be kynge ageyne his wylle, doynge mony grete victoryes ageyne the kynge of Speyne by helpe of fewe Ynglische men. But the kynge of Speyne knowynge men of Ynglonde to luffe golde, corrupte mony of theyme to betray the kynge of Portyngall. The seide treason expressede to the kynge of Portyngall, men of Ynglonde were taken and putte into prison. In whiche tyme pope Urban the vite was segede by Charls Pease, kynge of Sicille, whom the Ianuense did delyver, and brouȝhte hym to Ianua with grete honore. But thei wolde not suffre hym to departe from that cite untill that he hade payede to theym an inestimable summe of golde, whiche delyverede hym raþer for hit then for the luffe of God. The kynge of Speyne havynge with a pagan kynge of Garnade with a infinite multitude en|trede [folio 416b] into Portyngall to ȝiffe batell to the kynge, in that he norischede men of Ynglonde. Wherefore the kynge of Portyn|gall dredde soore to ȝiffe batell to theym with so fewe men as he hade in that tyme with hym. Neverthelesse men of Yng|londe comfortede hym moche, and desirede to have þe vowarde of that batelle, and so thei hade unnethe vj. c. men in nowm|bre. The grete and myȝhty hoste of Speyne and of the Pagans seenge so fewe peple ageyne þeim, come hastily ageyne theyme; but men of Ynglonde spende theire arowes welle at that batell, in so moche that the kynge of Speyne was feyne to fle, xx. M. of his hoste sleyne afore. And soone after, the seide kynge of Portyngall hade a glorious victory ageyne the seide hoste of Speyne, sleynge of theyme unto the nowmbre of xv. M. men. In whiche yere sawdyours of Caleys entrenge into the see in the monethe of September toke xxij. schippes moore and lesse of men of Fraunce goynge to Scotlonde and returnynge from that cuntre, and the men in theym taken, sleyne, other drownede, of whom somme were chargede with vitells, somme with marchandyse, and somme with men of armes. Kynge Richarde began to holde his parliamente at Westemonastery in the xiij. kalendes of the monethe of November, in whiche parliamente a new dignite was create not seene in Ynglonde afore that tyme. For the kynge wil|lenge to preferre the erle of Oxenforde, made hym markesse of Oxenforde, oþer mony noble men of the londe havynge grete indignacion þerof, in that he excellede not oþer noblemen in bloode, wisdome, neiþer in manhode. In whiche parliamente the kynge ordeynede also that the seide markesse scholde go to Page  473, vol.8 Yrlonde with a grete powere to conquere alle Yrlonde from Yrysche men, and to make the londe subiecte to hym, and to gette what he myȝhte, reservynge to the kynge superiorite. Also the kynge did grawnte that the seide markesse scholde receyve of hym towarde his costes by v. yere folowynge in every yere v. M. marke. In whiche parliamente newe dukes were create. Also thauȝhe the kynge hade ȝiffen to theym that name in the precincte of Scottelonde. Thomas Wodestoke erle of Bukkyngham was callede duke of Glocestre, and syr [folio 417a] Edmund Langley, erle of Cantebrigge, was callede duke off Yorke, ȝiffenge to either of londes and rentes unto the valoure of a M.li., willynge and grawntynge to theyme that theire heires male scholde be calede dukes for ever. Syr Michell Atte Poole, whiche was chaunceller of Ynglonde, was made erle of Sowthefolke, to whom the kynge ȝafe to þe valoure of a M. marke, a man moore apte to marchandyse then to chevallery. In whiche parliamente oon dyme was grawnted to the kynge of the clergy to the supportacion of his men, and oon xvthe and a halfe of seculer and lay men. In whiche tyme þer was a gentylle man at Cudlynton, Thomas Compereworthe by name, infecte with the erroure and heresy of doctor Wyclif, not usynge to pay tythes to the churche neiþer to be confessede. This gentille man was accusede to the bischop of Lincolne of the seide heresyes and errours, whom the bischop pursuede, but he cowthe not fynde hym in eny wise. Wherefore the seide bischop purchased of the kynge by his letters patent that what so ever man myȝhte take hym scholde make hym sure in the nexte castelle. The abbot of Oseney herynge that, made grete labor to take hym, in that he wolde not pay his tythes to the seide abbotte by mony yeres afore; whom the seide abbot toke at the laste in his awne place at Cudlynton, and causede hym to be brouȝhte to the castelle of Bannebery, where he taryede longe excommunicate, a competent processe made ageyne hym. Neverthelesse, a deliberacion hade betwene the archebischop of Cawnterbery and a bischop of Lincolne, the mater and charge and examinacion was committe to the chaunceller of Oxenforde and to oþer doctors. Afore whom the seide esqwyer apperede in the day prefixede at Oxenforde, whiche answerede to the inquisicions made to hym after the oppinions of maister Wyclif; and so he was convicte þer as an heretike of his awne confession. Whiche esqwyer brouȝhte afore the iugges did see mony of his secte and of his movers to that heresy, but they were dombe and durste not speke, and departede. The esqwyer perceyvynge that, thouȝhte veryly that thei hade inducede into a wronge way, whiche was a specialle cause of his conversion to the unyte of the churche, and to take pen|aunce for his offense. Wherefore he abiurede the thynges usede by hym afore as erroneous and full of heresy, promis|synge [folio 417b] Page  474, vol.8 that he wolde not sustene eny oppinion erroneus after that tyme. Where he was condempnede in xltili to be payede to the abbot of Oseney for his expenses, whiche summe was pardonede by the abbot for x.li. But the seide gentilman brouȝte his tythes to the place of the seide abbot with in ij. dayes after that he come to his place. Also hit was injoynede to hym in parte of penaunce that he scholde go afore the generalle procession in the ende of the terme with a cerge or taper of wexe in his honde. But that penaunce was not fulle|fyllede, for he dyede longe afore þat tyme, what þro infirmite causede by sorowe and what for schame. In the somer folow|ynge the kynge of Armeny come into Ynglonde to trete for pease betwene the realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, but truly þer was noo thynge doen þer to eny effecte, but that the seide kynge receyvede a M. marke of þe kynge of Ynglonde, and hade the letters patent of the same kynge that he scholde have a M. marke yerely by the tyme of his lyfe. For, as men seide, the kynge of Armeny was expulsede from his realme by the Tartarous, and so by that occasion he gate grete goodes of mony Cristen kynges, and lyvyde moore meryly then and if he hade bene in his awne realme. Charls de Pease, kynge of Sicille, doynge grete persecucion ageyne the pope, dyede in this yere excommunicate, whiche sentence of vengeaunce the pope usede moche that tyme, but withowte he wolde have venged hym by temporalle, if he hade accompanyde and geten a nombre of men sufficient. Somme men say that kynge of Sicille was sleyne by treason by a knyȝhte as he sate at meyte, in the day and howre in whom he hade intendede to have sleyne the pope. In whiche tyme Iohn duke of Lan|castre obtenynge licence of the pope, toke with hym an hoste of men of Ynglonde to ȝiffe batell ageyne the kynge, for that realme was dewe to hym by reason of his wife, eldeste doȝhter of Petyr, some tyme kynge of Speyne. Wherefore the pope grawntede to alle mene goynge in that viage with hym plener remission of theire synnes, in that the kynge of Speyne was a pagan, havynge the seide privilegys grawntede to hym by the pope lyke as the bischop of Norwiche hade afore. But men hade lytelle devocion in that tyme to ȝiffe eny goodes to go in that viage, in that pardon was so habundant. [folio 418a] Neverthelesse the seide duke toke his iourney to the see, but he was coacte to tary for pennury of wynde untille that he hade waste allemoste goodes brouȝhte with hym. And soone after thei hade a wynde whiche brouȝte theym into Briteyne nye to the castelle of Breste, where the Britons erecte ij. municions to prohibite the passage of the seide duke. Never|thelesse the seide duke of Lancastre was comfortede by his knyȝhtes, for diverse of theym goynge furthe with parte of that hoste, and toke that castell and oþer places of defense with Page  475, vol.8 grete goodes, and destroyede theyme. Whiche goodes departede, and the wynde arysenge, they londede in the secunde tyme in Speyne in the haven of Groyn, in the vigille of St. Laurence, with alle theire schippes; whiche taryenge þer did noo thynge worthy commendacion, but that allemoste alle the lordes of Ynglonde toke theire leve þer and dyed, and lxxxxti knyȝhtes dyede þer of the flixe. And soone after that the duke returnede into Aquittanny with the residu of his peple, taryenge in the province Baiocense, abydenge for a condicion off pease to be made betwene hym and the kynge of Speyne: the prolocutor as for þat mater was syr Thomas Percy. In whiche yere maister Iohn Harewell dyede, and maister Walterus Sharlowe, bischop of Lichefelde, reioycede that seete of Bathe, and maistyr Ricardus Scrope, doctor of lawes, was consecrate solennely into the bischop of Coventre and Lichefeld. Also in the same*. [Sic., yere should no doubt be supplied.] in the duchery of Austrye fortune schewede mutabilite in victoryes betwene the duke and the communes of that cuntre. For the seide duke was a covetous man and contrarious to pope Urban, havynge envy that pilgremes scholde come by his costes to Rome, and so he wolde not suffre pilgremes to have passage by his cuntre withowte they payede to hym a tribute importable for þeim. The peple of that cuntre seynge that pilgremes myȝhte not comme thro that cuntre, by whom thei hade grete lucre, compleynede to the duke, preyenge hym that thei myȝhte enioye the liberte hade afore in the tyme of oþer men. Whiche despisede of the duke wente to theire places, and come with a grete hoste and ȝafe batelle to the duke; but the commune peple not experte in batell was taken, sleyne, and put into captivite unto a grete nowmbre. Neverthelesse the commune peple wolde not [folio 418b] leve by that conflicte, but thei gedrede a newe hoste, and come to ȝiffe batell to the duke ageyne. That duke trustynge moche in the victory hade afore, come boldely unto theyme, where he was sleyne anoon with alle the states of that cuntre. Abowte whiche tyme kynge Richarde hade wrytynge that the kynge of Fraunce intendede to sege Caleys, wherefore he sente to that towne of Caleys syr Henricus Percy, callede of þe Scottes for his manhode syr Henricus Haatespur, with a grete multitude of peple of the realme of Ynglonde. Whiche wente anoon into Pikardy, and toke grete prayes, and did grete hurte to that cuntre; whiche havynge knowlege that the kynge of Fraunce wolde entre into the realme of Ynglonde and not to sege Caleys, returnede to the realme of Ynglonde, that he myȝhte mete the kynge of Fraunce þer. Men of London perceyvynge for trawthe that the kynge of Fraunce hade ordeynede a myȝty hoste and fleete of schippes to entre into the realme of Ynglonde, began to drede, and to seche places of refute, and Page  476, vol.8 mony to hyde þeim, as and if the kynge of Fraunce hade be at the cite with his hoste. They did renne abowte lyke madde men, and pullede downe and destroyed howses contiguate or ioynede to the walles, when hit was so that noo man of Fraunce hade entrede schippes to comme to Ynglonde: whiche citesynnes schewe a grete mustre in pease not worthy to be commended in batell. But after that, men of Ynglonde kepynge the see, toke nye to the haven of Sandewich, of the enemyes of Yng|londe, v. grete schippes and vj. carrykes. And the Ianuenses so taken desyrede helpe of Michell Attepole chaunceller of Ynglonde, moore apt to marchandyse then to þe use of cheval|ery, whiche ȝafe to þeim for amendes a grete summe of the kynges treasure, and suffrede theym to departe. Whiche sayl|enge into Scluse, did sle mony pilgremes of Ynglonde, whiche hade entrede into theire schippes, and hade ȝiffen to theym certeyn wages to brynge theym to places of theire pilgremages. And soone after that, men of Ynglonde toke ij. grete schippes longynge to the kynge of Fraunce, in whom a grete parte of the [folio 419a] walle of tre was whom the kynge of Fraunce hade intendede to have piȝhte in Ynglonde. Also the maister of that werke was taken also, whiche was a man of Ynglonde, and mony gunnes with grete plente of powdre; whiche walle of tre was sette up at Sandewiche ageyne men of Fraunce, whom they ordeynede to sette ageyne men of Ynglonde. And at the feste of seynte Michell folowynge a parliamente was holden at London; to whom men of armes and archers come from alle the costes of Ynglonde that they myȝhte be redy to resiste the kynge of Fraunce, whiche was redy with xij. dukes and xxvj. erles and oþer lordes to have entrede into Ynglonde, but allemyȝhty God schewede resistence, and did lette that iournay. In whiche parliamente kynge Ricardus made syr Robert le Vere, somme tyme erle of Oxenford, in that tyme markesse of Dub|lyn, into duke of Yrlonde, and afterwarde to be kynge, if fortune wolde favor, mony noble barons and governoures of the realme havynge grete indignacion þerof, in that he ex|celled not oþer men in nobilite of bloode, neiþer in prudence, neiþer in manhode. Michael Atte Pole, chaunceller of the realme, was convicte of the knyȝhtes of the parliamente of diverse articles of treason ageyne the kynge and the realme, for whiche cause he was deposede from the office of chaun|cellary and multed in xx. M. marke to be payede to the kynge, and was iuggede worthy dethe by iuggemente of the parlia|mente. But these doen were gretely ageyne the pleasure of the kynge, insomoche that he annullede that processe hade in the parliament ageyn Michell Atte Pole. Also the seide Michell hade intended by sovereigne supportacion to have desyrede his accusers unto a soper at London, and to have sleyne theyme sodenly with the duke of Glocester also. In Page  477, vol.8 whiche tyme the kynge of Armeny, havynge experience of the liberalite of the kynge of Ynglonde, intendede to have com|myn into the seide londe for a trety of pease betwene the realmes, when hit was so þat the kynge of Fraunce was redy to have entrede into the realme of Ynglonde. But with owte dowte he desyrede and luffed money moore then peas, and [folio 419b] golde moore then the kynge or the realme. Wherefore the noble men of the realme wolde not condescende to the kynge that he scholde comme into the realme, knowynge that he was but a tryfuller. The kynge of Fraunce lyenge at the haven of Scluse from the kalendes of the monethe of Auguste unto þe vigill of Alle Seyntes, to tary for wynde, entrede into the see in the same vigill with a pleasant wynde, and departede from that haven. And when the schippes were in the grete see as xxti myle from that haven after estimacion, a contrarious wynde did aryse and compellede theyme to returne, causynge mony of the schippes to be broken in entrenge into that haven of Scluse. Thro whiche occasion Ynglonde was delyvered from trowble, and the kynge of Fraunce made soory, blasphe|mynge God and the holy seyntes in hevyn, in that they wolde not suffre hym to performe his wickede purpose. Unto this tyme the parliamente expressede afore was contynuede for these grete causes assignede, in whom oon halfe dyme was grawntede to the kynge by the clergy, and the halfe parte of oon xvthe by the lay peple. In whiche parliamente syr Thomas Arundell and bischop of Ely was made chaunceller of Ynglonde, a man preferrynge gold afore ryȝhteousenesse. And syr Thomas Fordham, bischop of Dirham, was deposede from þe office of the treasurye; and Iohn Gilberte, frere of the ordre [of] Prechours, and bischoppe of Herforde, was subrogate into that office, a man that hade moore thryfte in tonge then in feythe. That doen, þe kynge causede Michael Attepole to dwelle in his cowrte with the duke of Yrlonde and Alex|ander Nevylle, archebischop off Yorke, ageyne the wylle of mony noble men of þe realme. After whiche tyme the seide lordes drawynge to the kynge, movede hym ageyne the noble lordes of the realme, seyenge that he was not kynge but oonly by name, and oþer lordes governede the realme. The kynge toke credence to theire sayenge, and began to have the lordes suspecte, and so from that tyme he eschewede theire company, and wente and toke his disportes with the archebischop of [folio 420a] Yorke and with the duke of Yrlonde, and oþer diverse of that wicked cownesayle. In whiche yere in the monethe of Aprile Richard erle of Arundell, and Thomas erle of Notyngham, toke the see with a ryalle hoste, and soone after thai ȝafe a sore conflicte to a grete navy of schippes of Speyne, of Fraunce, and of Normandy. And the seide erle of Arundell Page  478, vol.8 with his hoste reioycede the victory, and toke lxxxti schippes, mony men of armes taken and sleyne. From whiche conflicte diverse schippes fledde, whom the seide erle pursuede ij. dayes, and toke theyme and brouȝhte theyme to the schippes of Ynglonde. And so they toke schippes moore and lesse unto þe nowmbre of vxx, which, were chargede with wynes and specially with whyte wynes, which, causede grete solace in mony costes to whom the erle of Arundell sende those wynes, The hoste of men of Ynglonde comme to gedre, and fresche men wagede for men that were sleyne and woundede, crossede theire sayles unto the castell of Breste, whiche is the keye of Briteyne, ageyne whom men of Fraunce hade erecte oon de|fense or municion, and were besy to erecte an other moore myȝhty and stronge þen those municions were whom the duke of Lancastre destroyede in the laste yere afore goynge towarde Speyne. Whiche municions the seide erle toke and de|stroyed, and departede to Ynglonde with blissynges of mony peple. But the peple beynge with the kynge, as the duke of Yrlonde, Michael Atte Pole and Walterus Burley, depraved theire actes, seyenge that thei hade not doen eny thynge on the see worthy commendacion, but that they hade escapede certeyne merchauntez, sayenge that hit hade bene better to the realme of Ynglonde to have hade theire luffe then theire malyce. After that a certyne season paste, the seide cown|selle procurede that Henricus Percy, sonne of the erle of Northumbrelonde, scholde be sende to the see to defende and repelle the irrupcions of enemyes, whiche were redy in the see for hurte doen to theym by men of Ynglonde but late afore. To whom thei assignede not a sufficiente nowmbre, neither dewe favore, but thei hade grete envy that the seide Hen|ricus [folio 420b] Percy hade geten so noble a name bothe in Scottelonde and in Fraunce. The seide Henricus Percy not underston|dynge theire fals ymaginacion, other ells despisynge hit, toke that iourney, and come ageyne withowte eny hurte. And, as mony men seide, diverse of that wickede company made letters to the kynge of Fraunce that he scholde have taken lyȝhtely Henricus Percy; whiche letters were de|lyverede to syr Iohn Beauchamp off Holt, steuard to the kynge, but the seide knyȝhte sende not the letters ageyne Henricus Percy. Abowte whiche tyme þer was a frere in Ynglonde of þe ordre of the Carmelites, late confessor to the duke of Lancastre, Walterus Disse by name, whiche wente not into Speyne with the duke, as hit schalle be schewede and þe causes þerof. Pope Urban the vjte knowynge the realme of Speyne to be of grete rychesse, thouȝhte veryly that he scholde reioyce mony commodites if the duke of Lancastre myȝhte reioyce that realme, grawntede to hym a newe pardon by the Page  479, vol.8 seide frere Walter Disse, whereby goodes were taken to þat pardon as innumerable. This frere made oon specialle privi|lege, whom he toke to a ffrere of þe ordre of Austynes named Petyr Pasteschull. The frere havynge þat liberte, began to drawe soone to the folowers of maister Iohn Wiclif, whom somme men callede Lollardes. Amonge whom he lernede that he did welle in that he lefte a private religion and toke hym to a commune lyfe, whiche was moore holy and moore sure. And at the laste, what by the malice off theym and pre|sumpcion of that ffrere, he was movede to preche openly the vices and synnes usede amonge ffreres. This ffrere come to the churche of Seynte Christofor in London, allemoste a c. of the Lollardes folowynge hym, where he expressede so moche of the lyfe of ffreres þat peple were aschamede to here theym expressede. And somme men presente þer at that prechynge went to the ffrere Austyns, and expressede to theym of that processe made ageyne theyme. And anoon xii. or xiii. of þe freres wente to here that sermon, whiche commynge to that churche and herynge that ffrere expresse so wickedely ageyne theyme, were trowblede gretely, and oon of theym seide openly that he seide falsely of that religion. The Lollardes bytoke [folio 421a] that ffrere and trode hym under theire feete and bete hym surely, and put the oþer freres owte of the churche, and wolde have sleyne þeim utterly but that thei fledde, seyenge and cry|enge, "Lete us departe these mansleers, let us brenne those Sodomites, and let us honge those traytours to the kynge and to þe realme." And so thei had entendede to have sette the place of ffreres on fyre, but they were lette by the meanes of frere Thomas Ascheborne and of his felawe, bothe professors in divinite. Also mony noble men of the cite movede theyme to departe to theire places; but the seide Lollardes kepynge that frere with theyme, movynge hym, in that he was trowblede in a sermon but late, that he wolde drawe the articles in a byllet, and moo then he expressed if that he cowthe. This frere folowynge the sensualite of theyme, made a wrytynge in whom he accusede somme of his breþer off the dethe of diverse of that convent, assignenge the names of the freres whiche were sleyne and þe names of the freres that did slee þeim, and the places in whom thei were sleyne, and where they were beryede. Also he callede theyme Sodomytes, and traytours off the realme, and mony moo articles were wryten in that bylle, Þis wrytynge was sette openly on the churche dore at Seynte Paule in London unto the moore confusion of ffreres. In the begynnynge of whiche wrytynge the frere seide he thonkede pope Urban the vjte that he was delyverede from the neste of the develle, and that he myȝhte avoide the unhappy company of theym by the helpe of his ffrendes. Mony knyȝhtes of the same secte redynge that wrytynge seide utterly that thei were tru, and toke the copy of Page  480, vol.8 the seide articles. The names of þe knyȝhtes folowe: William Nevyle, Candawicus Clifford, Iohn Clenbow, Ricardus Sturry, Thomas Latimer, and specially Iohn Mountegu; whiche putte awey alle ymages owte from his chapell, and putte theym in secrete places, but that oon ymage of seynte Kateryne hade a prerogatyve to stonde þer. And soone after a preste, oon speciall causer and governoure of þe Lollardes, knowynge that he scholde dye, compunct and penitent for his grevous offenses doen ageyne Allemyȝhty God, desyrede to have a preste to [folio 421b] whom he myȝhte be confessed. Diverse men heynge nye to hym mervaylede þerof, and seide, "What is hit that ye desyre? have not ye prechede alle confession exterialle to be super|fluous, seyenge that hit was sufficient oonly to be confessede to God." To him he seide, "I errede and did wronge, but y beseche yow now that y may have a preste." Hit happede that tyme that Nicolas Herforde, doctor of divinite, was pre|sente, to whom alle men of that wickede secte drawede after maister Iohn Wicliff. The seide doctor commynge to hym seide: "What meanes þow? what desires þow? confesse thy synnes to God, whiche hathe moore powere to lose and bynde then oþer prestes have, and þat confession is sufficiaunte to the. Thow hase doen offense to hym, and not to the preste, and he awe to forȝiffe and remitte to whom the offense was doen." The seide preste desyrynge to be confessede con|tynually, seide to the doctor: "I beseche Allemyȝhty God that the perell may falle to yow if that y dye afore that y speke with a confessor;" and þerwith he dyede. In whiche tyme Robert Veer, prowde of his promocion by the kynge, refusede his wife, a noble gentylwoman, borne of noble blode, of Isabell doȝter of noble Edwarde, and maryede the doȝhter of a sadeller, as hit was seide, whiche come with þe qwene of Boemia into Ynglonde, the name of whom, after the langage of þat cuntre, was called Lamicecena; by which mariage grete dis|claunder of hurte come. And specially the duke of Gloucestre and mony other noblemen hade grete indignacion þerof, for the seide duke was uncle to his wyfe, whom Robert Veer hade re|fused; wherefore the duke of Gloucestre thouȝhte to venge hym on the duke off Yrlonde. Neverthelesse the duke of Yrlonde by sovereigne supportacion intended to destroy the duke off Gloucestre, ffor kynge Ricardus wente with the duke of Yrlonde as to brynge hym to his schippes into Wales, that þer scholde be noo discorde betwene lordes. But moore truly the kynge kepede hym þer, havynge communicacion togeder how that þei myȝhte putte to dethe the duke of Gloucestre, the erles of Arundell, of Warwyke, of Derby, and of Notyngham, and oþer trew men to the realme These men folowynge movede the kynge to the dethe of the seide lords: Michael Attepole, Robert Trisilian, iustice Alexander Nevile arche|bischop Page  481, vol.8 of Yorke, and mony oþer. A grete tyme paste the kynge returnede to Notyngham with the duke of Yrlonde and the other lordes, also that they myȝhte make a finalle conclusion [folio 422a] how they myȝhte destroye the true lordes of the realme. And abowte the nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste the kynge com|maundede mony off the citesynnes of London whom he knewe to be mutable schereffes and iustices of þe realme, causynge theyme to appere, that he myȝhte knowe what powere he myȝhte make ageyne barons and oþer noble men of the realme, and that thei scholde not suffre eny knyȝhte of towne or schire to be electe to the parliamente but whom hit pleasede the kynge. Then the schireffes seide to the kynge that the commune peple favorede moche the oþer lordes, seyenge that hit was not in theire powere to gedre an hoste þerto, and as for knyȝhtes to be electe to the par|liamente, they seide peple wolde reioyce theire olde con|suetude. This answere ȝiffen, the schireffes were suffrede to departe, and the iustices were callede. Robert Tresilian, chiefe iustice, and Robart Belknap, chiefe iustice of the commune banke, Iohn Holt, Roger Fulthrop, and William Burgh, knyȝhtes, iustices and felawes of the seide Robert Belknap, mette to geder at Notyngham in the xxvti day of the monethe of Auguste, the kynge requirede of theym by the feithe and ligence made to hym that thei scholde answere to certeyne questions movede by the kynge after trawthe and after the lawe. The firste question wheþer that newe statute, ordina|cion, and commission made and hade in the laste parliament at Westmonastery, derogate the regaly and prerogatyve of the seide kynge, ffor he hade ȝiffen a commission to the duke of Glocestre and to the erle of Arundell in a parte con|trarious to his wille, as hit was seide þer, to inquire here and to iugge as for certeyne offenses. The iustices answerede seyenge, that thei derogate the regaly of the kynge in that hit was ageyne the kynges wylle. An other question how those men awe to be punyschede whiche procurede the statute, ordi|nacion and commission of the seide thynges. They seide that they were worthy dethe, withowte the kynge wolde grawnte to theyme grace. An other question how they were worthy to be punyschede that excitede þe kynge to consente to the seide thynges. Thei seide that thei were worthy dethe also. An oþer question how thei awe to be punyschede that compellede the kynge to that ordinacion or statute. They seide þai awe to be punyschede as traytors. An other question, how men [folio 422b] awe to be punyschede whiche did lette the kynge that he myȝhte not exercyse thynges longynge to his regaly. They seide as traytours. An other question: If the parliament congregate, and causes of the seide parliament expressede by the kynge, the lordes and communes procede on oþer causes, Page  482, vol.8 and not on the articles limite to theym by the kynge, untille that a diffinicion were made of theire peticions and articles, notwithstondynge that they were commaundede by the kynge to do the contrary, wheþer þe kynge awe to have governayle in that parte, and that they awe to procede firste in these articles commaunded to theym by the kynge or nay? Other ells wheþer that lordes and the commune peple awe to have an answere of the kynge afore of certeyn articles movede by theym? Those iustices answerede, sayenge that the kynge awe to have governayle of the parliamente in that parte untille that hit were finischede, and if eny man did contrary he were worthy to be puneschede as a traytor. An oþer question wheþer the kynge may not dissolve a parliamente at his pleasure, and commaunde the lordes and communes to departe thens. The iustices seide that the kynge hade powere soe to do, and if eny man made eny processe as of the parliamente after that tyme, he awe to be punyschede as a traytor. An other question, how those men awe to be punyschede, whiche movede in the parliamente that the kynge scholde sende for a statute of Edward Karnarvan, by the inspeccion of whom a newe statute, ordinacion and commission were conceyvyde þerby. They seide that the mover and brynger of that statute to þe parliament were to be punyschede as traytors. An oþer question wheþer the iuggemente in the laste parliamente ageyn Michael Atte Poole was erroneus and revocable or nay. They answerede and seide that the iuggemente was revocable. In the testimony of alle whiche thynges the iusticiaryes afore|seide, and Iohn Labenton, servaunte to the kynge, put to þese presentes theire seales, Alexander Nevile and Robert, archebis|choppes off Yorke and of Dublyn, Iohn bischop of Dirham, Thomas bischop of Chestre, Robert duke off Yrlonde, Michell erle of Sowthefolke, Iohn Ripen, clerke, and Iohn Blike, es|qwyere, wittenesse. This doen, the kynge and the duke of Yrlonde sende mony messyngers into diverse costes of Yng|londe [folio 423a] to hire a grete multitude of peple, that thei scholde be redy to wayte on the kynge if that oþer lordes made eny resis|tence. This processe knowen amonge the duke of Glocestre and oþer noble men of þe realme were soory in that the kynge was movede so ageyne theym, and thei not gilty. Wherefore the duke of Glocestre, uncle to the kynge, wyllynge to mitigate his wrathe, made an othe afore the bischop of London over a masse booke, mony oþer noble men of the realme presente, that he ymagined not eny thynge to the hurte of the kynge in alle his lyfe. The bischoppe of London goynge to the kynge expressede that processe, and hade causede luffe and unyte, but that the erle of Sowthefolke causede the contrary. To whom the bischop seide in the presence of the kynge, "O Michael, hit semethe not thow that art a man condempnede Page  483, vol.8 to dethe to speke, for hit is the kynges grace that thow hase lyfe." The kynge herynge that was movede soore, and commaundede þe bischop to departe, whiche expressede to þe duke lyke as he hade herde, whereof rancor and grete tribulacion growede. Wherefore the duke of Glocestre sende worde to the erles of Arundell, of Warwyke and of Derby, how the ymagi|nacion of theire dethe was intendede by the kynge, and oþer lordes. Whiche lordes gedrede anoon a myȝhty hoste, and the kynge laborede how he myȝhte destroye the seide lordes, or that thei scholde erecte eny powere, sendynge men to the castell of Reygat to areste the erle of Arundell and the erle of North|umberlonde, syr Henricus Percy. Whiche commynge to that castelle, and seenge þer a grete multitude of peple, returnedde ageyne to the kynge, not fullefyllynge þeire commission. After the partynge of whom the erle of Arundell did ryde myȝhtely with his hoste, untille that he come to the woode of Harnegey, where he founde the duke of Glocestre and the erle of War|wyke with a grete hoste. The kynge knowynge these lordes to have a grete hoste, askede cownsaile what he scholde do to sease theire malice. Somme men seide that hit were beste to entrete theym in feire and honeste wise. Somme men seide that the kynge scholde gedre a myȝhty hoste and ȝiffe batell to theyme. But at the laste the kynge inquirede of a foole callede Hewe of Lynne what he scholde do ageyne the gentyll|men whiche were gedredde at Harnegey parke. The seide foole seide to the kynge with a hasty spiritte, "Lete us go and [folio 423b] slee every moders son of theym, and that doen, by the eien of God, thow hase sleyne alle the tru men of the realme of Ynglonde." But after that, by mediators, hit was brouȝte to this effecte, that the lordes scholde comme to Westemonas|tery and expresse theire greves afore the kynge, the bischop of Hely makynge promyse that there scholde be noo treason, but that thei scholde comme in suerte and go in suerte from the kynge. These lordes made redy to comme to London, the bischop of Hely sende worde to theym þat peple made wacche for theym at a place callede Muwes, nye to London, and þerfore thei cownsaylede thei scholde not comme to London but with a grete powere. The lordes herynge that, wolde not comme to the kynge, wherefore the kynge inquirede of the bischop of Ely why the lordes kepede not promisse. The bischop seide to the kynge that a M. men of armes keprede the way to have sleyne þeim. That treason avoided, the kynge sende to theyme the secunde tyme, promisynge to theym sure passage withowte trowble, whiche come anoon to Westmonastery with a grete powere, the kynge sittynge in the halle of Westemonastery in regalle apparaile, with his sceptre in his honde. These lordes entrede into the halle, the bischop of Ely and chaunceller off Ynglonde expressede this sentence: "The kynge underston|dynge Page  484, vol.8 that ye were gedrede at Harnigey parke oþerwise þen ye awe to have doen, and abhorrenge the effusion of bloode, wolde not gedre an hoste; for with owte dowte, and if hit hade bene to the pleasure of the kynge, he scholde have hade a moore myȝhty hoste. Wherefore the kynge de|sirethe to knowe the cause þerof." The lordes seide they mette þer for the utilite of þe kynge and of the realme, and to expelle traytours abowte the kynge from the realme. These were the men whom thei callede traytours, Robert Veer duke of Yrlonde, Alexander Nevyle archebischop of Yorke, Michael Pole erle of Sowthefolke, Roberte Trisilian, a fals iustice, and Nicholas Brambre, a fals knyȝhte, castynge theire gloves to prove the seide men traytours. Then the kynge seide that thei scholde not doe soe, but this mater scholde be discussede in the nexte parliamente, bothe parties beynge presente. This doen, the kynge with a bostynge and braggynge contenaunce seide to theym, "Ye supposede to have made me afrayede with youre hoste. Truly I sette noo moore price thereby then [folio 424a] y do by the laweste grome of my kechynne." And after that he toke the duke of Glocestre up from the erthe, whiche hade knelede unto that tyme, and commaunded oþer men to aryse. That doen, he toke theym to his chambre, where thei drunke frendely to gedre, and toke the duke of Yrlonde into his howseholde, and the duke of Gloucestre also, commaundynge theym that thei scholde not presume to gedre eny hoste afore the tyme prefixede by the kynge. These lordes returnede from the kynge wolde not departe in eny wyse, knowynge the mutabilite of the kynge and the falsenesse of the traytours abowte hym. For soone after, by consente off the kynge, the duke of Yrlonde gedrede a grete hoste of the costes off Chestre and of Wales, the governoure of whom was Thomas Molynes, constable of Chestre. But that treason was knowen soone after amonge the oþer lordes, how that the duke of Yrlonde come towarde London with a grete hoste. Neverthelesse the seide lordes sette men in diverse wayes, by whom thei supposede that the duke wolde comme. The seide duke of Yrlonde enhawnced in pride lyke Lucifer, and lookynge a lytelle on syde, see a grete hoste taryenge hym in a vale, and þerwith his herte began to drede, and seide to his men, "My frendes, as y thenke, hit is beste to me to flye and escape for a season, for theire hoste is moche more then this hoste; wherefore or that we mete to gedre y wylle returne, for thei desire me, and not yow. For and if y were departede thei wolde suffre yow to escape lyȝhtely." But somme of the knyȝhtes of that hoste seide to hym, "Thow movede us to goe from oure cuntre: we be redy to fiȝhte with the and gette the victory, if fortune be favorable, or ells to dye manfully with the." Neverthelesse the seide duke returnede, but the seide Page  485, vol.8 Thomas Molynes disposede hym to batell, for that tyme þer were noo lordes commyn to that place, but Henricus erle of Derby, son of the duke of Lancastre. And when they hade fauȝhte a certeyn season, a knyȝhte, syr Thomas Mortymare by name, seide to Thomas Molynes, "Take thyne horse, or withowte dowte thow schalle dye in the water." Then Thomas Molynes seide, Wille þou save my lyfe and if y do so." The knyȝhte seide, "Y wylle not make that promyse;" and so as the seide Thomas Molynesse toke his horse, the knyȝhte toke aweye his salette, and persede his breyne with a dagger. [folio 424b] The duke of Yrlonde fleynge, come to Rotcotebryge nye to Bampton, and that brygge was broken that he myȝhte not escape. And after that he wente to an other brygge, where archers were redy, and wolde not suffre hym to come by that brygge. Wherefore the seide duke toke þat water with his horse and escapede, in that hit was nye to nyȝhte; but his horse was founde with his breste plate and gantelettes, causynge mony men to suppose he hade bene drownede. But his ordi|naunce and trussynge cofres were taken þer, in whom thei founde letters directe to hym by the kynge, contenynge that he scholde make haste and comme to London with a myȝhty hoste, and the kynge was redy to dye or to lyve with hym. These letters schewede to the lordes an evidente inconstance of the kynge and mutabilite. Michael Attepoole in that trowble fledde to Caleys by the governayle of a knyȝhte callede William Attehoo, whiche commyn þider brouȝte bryddes to be solde untylle that he comme to þe ȝates of the castell of Calys, where Edmund Attepole his broþer, under capiteyne of Calys, was; whiche wolde not receyve hym untylle that he hade licence of William Bel|camp, chief capiteyne of Calis. Also Alexander Nevile arche|bischop of Yorke, and Robert Tresilian, iustice, dredynge the duke of Glocestre with his companye, fledde from the kynge. Abowte whiche tyme a messynger sende from the kynge of Fraunce, Lustracius by name, was taken, whiche brouȝhte wrytynge to the kynge of Ynglonde, that he scholde come to Bolony with the duke of Yrlonde and oþer certeyne men, where the kynge of Fraunce scholde have hade Caleys delyverede to hym and alle oþer castells and towres over see longynge to the crowne of Ynglonde. This knowen amonge the noble men, they made grete haste to London, where the kynge scholde kepe his Cristemasse, thenkynge that he myȝhte kepe the towre off London surely for alle his enemyes. And in the day of seynte Steven the lordes schewede theire hoste of xlti M. men in aray. In whiche tyme men of London were in grete dredde how they scholde dispose theym to please the kynge and the seide lordes. At the laste, the mayre wente to the duke of Glocestre, promysynge to him and to his hoste fre entre into the cite, and alle thynges necessary to theyme, with|owte [folio 425a] Page  486, vol.8 fraude or treason, and ȝafe to the hoste brede, wyne, and chese; whiche thynge causede grete profite to the cite. The kynge herynge this processe, dissimilate as if he sette noo price by the multitude, seyenge to the archebischop of Cawnterbery, and to oþer men that laborede for the reformacion of peas, in this wyse: "Lete theym lye here with theire hoste in the name of God untille that they have dispende theire goodes; and that paste, y schalle speke with oon of theym after an oyer." The lordes herynge this communicacion, made a protestacion that thei scholde not departe untille that thei hade spoken with the kynge; and so thei sende a grete nowmbre of men to kepe Thamys, that the kynge scholde not departe that way and skorne theyme. The kynge seenge that he was compellede abowte by theyme, began to speke moore mekely, seyenge þat he wolde trete with the lordes; whiche sende worde to the kynge that he scholde comme in the day nexte folowynge to Westmonastery, where thei wolde expresse diverse maters. The kynge seide he wolde not entrete with theyme at West|monastery, but in þe towre. The gentyllemen sende worde to the kynge that the towre was a place suspecte as for treason. Neverthelesse a certeyn nowmbre of the hoste hade licence to entre into the towre, and to serche and to see that þer scholde be noo treason in the towre. That doen, the duke of Glocestre entrede into the towre, and havynge schorte communicacion with the kynge, entrede into his chambre, where they rehersede his conspiracion hade ageyne theyme, and schewede his letters, whom he directe to þe duke of Yrlonde, that he scholde brynge an hoste to London; and letters also how that he wolde have solde Calys unto þe kynge of Fraunce, where by his honore scholde have decreasede moche, and the realme also. The kynge, herynge þis processe rehersede, was gretely confusede; neverthelesse they departede from the kynge, this condicion made and promysede to be performed, that the kynge scholde comme in the morowe folowynge to Westmonastery, to here and trete of certeyne thynges for the honoure and profite of þe realme. Whiche thynge he promisede to fullefylle, kepynge the erle of Derby at soper with hym that nyȝhte as a token off luffe. But the purpose of the kynge was chaungede afore he wente [folio 425b] to bedde. The noble men, understondynge that þe kynge wolde not come to Westmonastery, were soory, and sende worde to the kynge, seyenge that and if he wolde not kepe his pro|myse they scholde electe a kynge whiche scholde obtemperate the cownsayle of lordes. The kynge havynge that in ure come to Westmonastery in the morowe folowynge, where the noble men of the realme seide to hym, that hyt were to his honour to avoyde fals traytours from his presence, and to take tru men to hym. The kynge grawnted. The noblemen movede that these men, the names off whom folowe, scholde be avoidede from his Page  487, vol.8 cownsaile: Alexander Nevyle, archebischop off Yorke, Iohn Fordham bischop off Dirham, frere John Rushok, confessor to the kynge and bischop of Chichestre. Also thei expelled the lorde Sowche of Harmworthe, Albrede Veer, Baldewyn Berford, Richardus Addurbury, Iohn Wurth, Thomas Clifforde and Iohn Lovell, knyȝhtes, not utterly dimitte, but to appere n the nexte Parliamente, and the lady off Powyggus, wife of John Wurth, as unprofitable to the courte. That doen they areste Symon Burle, William Chircham, Iohn Beuchamp of Holte, Iohn Salisbery, Thomas Trivette, Iamys Bermers, Nicholas Dagwurthe and Nicholas Brambre, knyȝhtes. Also thei toke Ricardus Clifforde, Iohn Lincolne, Ricardus Myd|forde, and Nicholas Schak, decan of the kynges chapelle, and Iohn Blake, apprentice of lawe; whiche knyȝtes and clerkes thei sende to diverse castells to be kepede suere to the nexte parlia|mente. The parliamente was begunne at London after the Purificacion of oure Lady, whom the kynge wolde have avoided and if hit wolde have bene; to whiche parliamente the lordes rehersede afore come with a grete hoste, dredynge treason. Whiche parliament was contynuede unto Pentecost; in whom Robert Tresilian was taken firste and drawen and honged by iuggemente of the lordes, and after that Nicholas Brambre, knyȝhte, suffrede dethe in lyke wise. This doen Iohn Salis|bery and Iamys Bermers, ij. yonge knyȝhtes and ij. traytours, were drawen and hongede by iuggemente of þe parliamente. After þat Iohn Beauchamp of Holt, stuarte to the kynge, fals to kynge Edwarde of Wyndeshore, and to Leonell his sonne, [folio 426a] duke off Clarence, was drawen and hongede by iuggement of the parliamente. Iohn Blake, esqwyer, beynge gretely ageyne the seide lordes at Notyngham, was heded. Also Symon Burle was heded, thauȝhe that the erle of Derby laborede gretely for hym, whereby a grete dissencion was movede betwene the erle of Derby and the duke of Glocestre, but they were reduced soone to an unyte. The seide Symon Burle was keper of the castell of Dovor, whom he was redy to have delyverede to men off Fraunce at the commaundement of the kynge; whiche was an oppressor of poore men, a lechoure and an open advouterer. Also Roger Belknap, Iohn Holt, Robert Fulthorpe, and William Bourgh, iusticiaryes, were putte to exile, a certeyne summe grawntede to theim to theire exhibicion. And after the feste of Pentecoste the erle of Arundell wente to kepe the see with a myȝhty hoste, whiche fauȝhte nobly on the see, and toke, drownede, and brent lxxx. schippes. After that he entrede into the yle of Baas, whom he spoylede and brente, and the yles of Us, of Ree, of Lemnstre, of Rochele, of Olum, and of Olerum; in whom he spoylede and brente mony townes also, and takynges rawnson of mony townes, havynge victory ageyne men of Fraunce or of Briteyne that made eny resistence to hym; Page  488, vol.8 returnynge to Ynglonde with grete ffelicite. In whiche tyme men of Fraunce, impaciente of peas, entrede the cuntre of the duchery of Gelre with a hoste as innumerable, causede specially in that the seide duke was a trusty frende to þe realme of Ynglonde. Neverthelesse the seide duke, havynge mony of Ynglonde with hym, ȝafe batell to the men of Fraunce, where noon of men of Fraunce escapede, but thei were other take or sleyne. Where men of Fraunce hadde experience that hit was perellous to wake an olde dogge from slepe. Also men of Flandres did sle in that tyme a grete multitude of men of Fraunce. And in the same yere, abowte the nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste, the Scottes entrede into Ynglonde, brennynge townes in theire wey, withowte they were redemed by money, commynge nye to the Newe Castell on Tyne, and sette theire tentes þer; in whiche towne syr Henricus Persy þe yonger and syr Rawfe Persy, his broþer, were that tyme; but the Scottes dredde specially this syr Henricus Persy for his noble manhode. The seide sir Henricus havynge grete indignacion of þat presumpcion of the Scottes that they prevokede hym [folio 426b] to fiȝhte promysede to mete with theym within thre dayes folowynge. And the seide syr Henricus Persy, takynge with hym but a lytelle nowmbre of men, come sodenly on þat grete hoste, and made a grete murdre of þeym, and did sle also with his awne hondes the Scotte of Scottes, William Duglas. But that doen, the erle of Dunbar come with a grete hoste, and toke syr Henry Percy with syr Rawfe his broþer; but allemoste alle the noble bloode of Scotlonde was sleyne by syr Henricus Persy afore. A parliamente was kepede at Cantebrigge after the Purificacion of oure Lady, in whom newe statutes were ordeynede of the wages of servaunteȝ, of beggers, of armes not to be borne, of disportes not to be exercised excepte archery, and of the staple to be reducede from Mirbonrach to Caleys, and off laborers not to be receyvyde in an oþer towne withowte a seale of the hundrede. Also hit was ordeynede þer that men of þe churche scholde not go from this londe to laboure for eny benefice, with charge or withowte charge, withowte he have licence of the kynges awne person; and if thei brake this statute thei scholde not reioyce the proteccion off þe kynge. These statutes and mony oþer were made þer, whiche were not observede unto this tyme; but a tallage was grawntede to the kynge in the ende of the parliamente, oon dyme of the clergy and oon xvte of the lay peple. Sir Thomas Trivette rydynge in glorious pryde in the tyme of this parliamente with the kynge unto his ynne at Barnewell, and spurrynge his horse gretely, hade a grete falle, in so moche that his horse braste the interialle partes of his body. Neverthelesse this knyȝhte lyvede unto þe day nexte folowynge, whiche tyme was ȝiffen to hym to pennance if that he wolde take hit; whos dethe causede Page  489, vol.8 grete gladdenesse amonge moche peple, for as hit was seide he was fals to the bischop of Ely in that viage made by hym ageyne the enemyes of the churche. Also hit was seide that he movede the kynge moche ageyne the noble lordes of the realme in the yere laste afore. In whiche parliament Iohn Holande, broþer to the kynge by reason his moder, commyn late from Speyne from the duke of Lancastre, was made erle of Hun|tyngdon. In whiche yere the pope did translate Thomas Arundel, bischoppe of Ely, to be archebischop of Yorke, Alexander Nevyle, [folio 427a] traytour, beynge at Seynte Andrewes in Scotlonde; Iohn Ford|ham, bischop of Dirham, unto the sete of Ely; Walterus Shir|lowe from the seete of Bathe unto the seete of Dirhem; maister Rawfe Ergon from Salisbery unto Bathe; and confermede Iohn Waltham, clerke of the prive seale, unto bischop of Salisbery. Mayster Walterus Shirlowe, bischop of Dirhem, Iohn Clen|bowe and Nicholas Sagworthe, knyȝhtes, were sende on ambas|siate unto the kynge off Fraunce, for peas or truse to be taken betwene the realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, taryenge longe in þose costes withowte effecte. At the laste thei hade a finall answere that thei wolde not take truse withowte men of Speyne and Scottes scholde be contened in that same truse; and so that iourney was suspende, for men of Ynglonde seide that Scottes were subiecte to the kynge of Ynglonde, and lige men to hym, whiche hade causede grete trowble ageyn the kynge, wherefore thei awe to be punyschede as transgressors after the pleasure of the kynge of Ynglonde and of his cown|sayle. The Scottes, despisynge the malyce of men of Yng|londe, entrede into Northumbrelonde, sleenge moche peple þer, takenge mony men and grete prayes with theym into theire cuntre. In whiche tyme syr Thomas Mombray, erle of Notyngham, was sende to depresse the malice of Scottes, but hit profite not, in that his nowmbre of peple was not egalle unto theire hoste. In whiche yere the kynge, movede by the cownsayle of adulators, callynge and commaundynge mony noble men of the londe to appere afore hym, entrede as sodenly into the cownsaile howse, where gentylmen did tary for hym. Whiche sette þer inquirede of the noblemen how mony yere he hade in age, where hit was answerede he hade xxti yere in age. Then the kynge seide, "By that y may con|clude that y am of fulle age to governe my selfe, my howse|holde, and my realme, for me thenke hit is not ryȝhtefull that y scholde be of moore vile condicion then eny person in my realme. For every heire of my realme havynge xxti yere in age after the dethe of his fader is permitte to governe hym selfe and his londes." The barons seide that the kynge scholde reioyce alle thynges dewe to hym, and pertenynge to the crowne. The kynge seide, "Beholde ye knowe y have be governede unto this tyme by lordes and tutors that y myȝhte Page  490, vol.8 not do eny thynge withowte theym; wherefore from this tyme y ammove theyme from my cownsayle, and y wylle take to my cownsayle men after my wylle and pleasure as an heire of lawefull age. Wherefore y commaunde firste [folio 427b] that the chaunceller resigne to me his seale." The arche|bischop of Yorke delyverynge hit, the kynge putte hit in his bosom and wente furthe, returnynge soen ageyn. That doen he toke that seale to syr William Wikham bischop of Wyn|chestre, makynge hym chaunceller ageyne his wylle; where he create also mony newe officers, usynge and folowynge his propre sensualite, expellynge from his cownsayle the duke of Glocestre, the erle of Warwyke, and mony oþer noble men. In this yere, abowte the feste of the nativite of seynte Iohn Bap|tiste, truse as for iij. yere was taken betwene the realmes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce; Iohn Clenbowe, knyȝte, and Ricardus Ronhalle, clerke, receyvynge an othe of the parte of the kynge off Fraunce. And sone after, abowte the feste of seynte Laurence, the erle of Seynte Paule, whiche hade maryede the suster of kynge Ricardus, come into Ynglonde to receyve an othe of the kynge of Ynglonde for that truse to be kepede truly on his parte. In whiche tyme the Scottes entrede into Ynglonde, and did grete hurte abowte the costes of Tynne|mowthe, desyrynge to speke with the capiteyn of the castell. Whiche commynge to theym, and promysynge to pay a certeyne summe to salve that towne, the Scottes wente sodenly and sette fyre in that towne. The sawdiours of the castelle, seenge that, schotte at the Scottes, and hurte soore oon grome amonge the Scottes, whereby the capiteyne was lyke to be sleyne, but that he promisede to norische that Scotte, and to sende hym to Scottelonde of his costes also, if that he recurede. That pro|mysede the capiteyne was suffrede to departe. In whiche tyme somme off the messangers sende from Fraunce into Ynglonde wente to Scottelonde, ȝiffynge eleccion to the Scottes wheþer thay wolde be conclusede under the seide truse or be excludede utterly from the proteccion of the kynge off Fraunce. The noble men of Scottelonde seide that thei wolde kepe the seide truse, but hit wolde be harde to move the commune peple þerto. Wherefore thei preyede the messangers off Fraunce that thei wolde go with þeim and see what ordinaunce thei hade made for batell. The seide messangers off Fraunce goynge furthe, come to that hoste off the Scottes, and founde theyme sette in an ordre, and kepynge theire wardes as and if thei scholde have ȝiffe batell in þat tyme. The Scottes, havynge knowlege of the comynge off men of Fraunce, and the cause of theire com|mynge, seide openly that thei wolde not loose that grete coste for whom thei hade solde alle theire goodes. Neverthelesse [folio 428a] the seide melancoly was mitigate by men of Fraunce, and specially by the lordes in Scottelonde, whiche seide openly afore Page  491, vol.8 the commune peple that thei wolde not be theire governoures into Ynglonde; and if thei wolde goe nedely into Ynglonde thei scholde make governoures amonge theym selfe and stonde to theire owne aventure. And so the Scottes condescende to the seide truse taken. Abowte whiche tyme the feste of the dedicacion of the churche of Seynte Marye at Cantebrigge happede abowte the feste of the commemmoracion of seynte Paule, to the honoure of whiche feste the body of Criste was borne thro that peresche in procession in a schryne or pix, whom a childe of vij. yere in age myȝhte have borne with|owte eny grevaunce. The prestes bare the seide sacramente thro the seide towne untylle that thei come afore a place off freres Austyns, nye to market place of the towne, where the seide schryne, beynge on theire schulders, began to departe from theym violentely, and was so hevy that unnethe thei myȝhte berre hit, neiþer gette hit downe to theire schulders. The prestes were vexede soore, and preyede seculer men to putte to theire hondes, whiche commynge to hyt felede þer as noo weiȝhte. This trowble of the prestes indurede as so longe as thei wente afore the place of the seide freres, and that place apaste the schryne descended unto theire schulders, and was lyȝhte as hit was afore. In whiche tyme an unhappy man began to lepe and dawnce afore þe sacramente, and in that dis|porte he felle downe to the erthe and was dedde. The cause of these mervellous thynges were interpretate diverse wayes, whom we omitte at this tyme, levynge that iuggemente to oþer men. But thys y dar say of trawthe, that a pestilence to be mervaylede folowede soone after at Cantebrigge, causynge moche peple to dye as sodenly as madde men withowte the sacramentes of the churche. Abowte which tyme the freres Precheours in Fraunce kepede theire olde oppinion, sayenge and prechynge oure lady seynte Mary to have be conceyvede in originall synne: whiche freres were exalte so into pryde that thei wolde not obbey the bischopps puttynge theym to silence, neiþer the kynge ne oþer gentillemen of þe realme. Where|fore thei were expulsede from the proteccion of the kynge of [folio 428b] Fraunce, and prohibite to go into that cuntre and preche, leste they scholde induce the commune peple into erroure. Also thei were compellede that thei scholde not passe þeire places, but lyve by the labor of theire hondes on peyne off dethe. The promptuary of falsenesse, the sawer of discorde, the arti|ficialle detractor, Michael Attepoole, somme tyme erle of Sowthe|folke and chaunceller of Ynglonde, but he was a wikkede and malicious cownseilloure, dyede in this yere at Parisius; the rychesse of whom Robert Veer his felowe hade, somme tyme duke of Yrlonde, whiche were þer in exile to gedre. Pope Urban the vjte considerynge this tyme the age of men to decrease, ordeynede this yere to be the yere of iubile, willynge Page  492, vol.8 that hit scholde contynue in every xxxti yere folowynge. The Lollardes and folowers of maister Iohn Wyclif were excite into soe grete presumpcion and boldenesse that theire prestes create oþer prestes after the consuetude of the gentyles, whiche seide that every preste hade so grete powere to solve and bynde as the pope. And mony create so by theyme seide masse, and execute other ministerys of the sacramentes; but at the laste oon of the prestes create by theyme was confessede to the bischoppe of Salysbery at his maner of Sunnynge, expressynge to hym the seide erroure. In whiche tyme the seide heretykes prechede that pilgremages scholde not be usede, and specially to Walsyngham and to the crosse at the northdore of Seynte Paule at London, seyenge þat þer was noo thynge of Godhede þer, but that thei were roten stokkes. Bischoppes of þe realme herde this com|municacion, but somme of theyme stoppede theire eieres, lev|ynge theire schepe with owte eny keper, that thei myȝhte be devourede off wulfes, the bytenges of whom were violente and dedely. But truly there was not oon dogge that wolde breke ageyne those vulfes but the bischop of Norwiche, whiche suffrede not his flok to be infecte with that wikkede peple. For he made a protestacion that and if eny of theyme prechede with ynne his diocyse thei scholde be hongede or brente. And so there was not oon of the seide heretykes that durste pre|sume to comme to his diocyse and suffre martyrdome, and so the feithe off Criste was not contaminate in alle that province. In whiche tyme to the confirmacion of tru peple mony myracles were schewede at a crosse erecte in the hye way nye to the priory of Wynnemudham. Also there was in that same tyme [folio 429a] in the place of Chanons at Bridlynton, in the diocyse of Yorke, suche open manifestacion of miracles schewede at the tumbe of seynte Iohn, somme tyme prior of that place, that alle peple of Ynglonde merveleyde of the seide miracles. For as mony men say he walkede on the see in his lyfe, schewynge mony miracles in his lyfe, insomoche that thro his preyer cornes or greynes semynge not to suffice that place by a monethe wolde be sufficiaunte by oon yere and moore. Abowte whiche tyme maister William Courteney, archebischop of Cawnterbery, visitte his province; whiche intendynge to visitte monkes of the blake ordre at Oxon, sende to the seide studentes that thei scholde be alle at the seide visitacion a certeyn day assignede. The scolers of monasterys exempte and not exempte were trowblede soore, in that thei see never afore; neiþer herde of suche an oþer visitacion; but the seide monkes laborede this processe folowynge to lette the seide visitacion. The abbot of Seynte Alban did wryte to the archebischop, preynge and movynge hym to chaunge his purpose as for that visitacion. The arche|bischop receyvynge the letters, toke þeim with goode chere, and causede the monke of that place, brynger of the seide Page  493, vol.8 letters, to tary and to dyne with hym. And after meyte the bischop callede that monke to hym, and seide that he wolde mony thynges for the favor of þat prelate his specialle frende, but he wolde not derogate the privilege of his churche, and if the kynge of Ynglonde laborede þerfore, and seide, "Is not þer a college? have ye not a prior that may kepe a chapitre and a commune chapell?" The monke answerede and seide that there was noo colege þer of þeire ordre, sithe that the monkes beynge þer hade noo conventuall seale, and that place was not possessede with temporalites and spiritualites, and mony other thynges did wante whiche were requirede to a college. To whom the archebisschop seide, "We wylle comme and see, and inquire how hit stondethe with yow." The monke seide, "My lorde, and if ye comme þer ye have noo iurisdiccion to inquire of such thynges, but in monkes not exempte, and thei be visitte in theire propre monasterys, wherefore they awe not to be visitte by yow in the secunde tyme." The archebischop seyde "Hit is certeyne that thei were not visitte by us in theire awne [folio 429b] monasterys, ffor thei were excusede by theire abbottes, in that they were at the universite, wherefore we intende to visitte theym in that universite." A monke a Cawnterbery commynge with the archebischop seide, "My lorde, ye may visitte monkes exempte þer so longe as they be in the universite, for they be under the iurisdiccion of the cawnceller." That other monke of Seynte Alban answerede, that monkes exempte hade grete privilege þer, and were not under the iurisdiccion of eny bischop but of the pope of Rome, oþer of a legate a latere sende from þe pope. The archebischop seide, if hit were so, he wolde not trowble theym in eny thynge. And on the day of seynte Tecla virgyn, maister Symon Sowtherey, monke of Seynte Alban, apperede afore the metropolitan, preyenge and besechynge that he wolde chaunge his purpose from the seide visitacion, but he wolde not be in eny wyse. And in the Sonne|day nexte folowynge, the seide Symon apperede afore the archebischop in the churche of Seynte Frydeswyde, with alle monkes exempte and not exempte, after þe goynge downe of the sonne. The archebischop seenge theym, inquirede wheþer that thei come to submitte theyme. They seide they come to obtene his ffavor and benevolence, and for noon oþer submission. The archebischoppe seide, "And y have yow excusede, and y intende not to vexe yow after þis tyme in eny thynge;" and here was the ende of the seide visitacion. And in the departenge of the archebischop of Cawnterbery, beynge at Dunstaple soone after, the abbotte of Seynte Alban sende the prior of his monastery to Dunstaple to the archebischop, to desire hym to solace hym in the seide monastery, and to tary þer alle nyȝhte. The archebischop condescende and come to that monastery, and taryede there by that nyȝhte at the costes of thabbotte, and Page  494, vol.8 departede in the morowe folowynge. And pope Urban the vjte dyede in the same yere in the monethe of September; whom the cardinalle Neapolitan succedid by eleccion of the cardinalls, and was callede Boneface the ixthe. Lorde Iohn duke of Lan|castre come to Ynglonde in this yere abowte the begynnynge of the monethe off Novomber, after that he hade taryede by iij. yere in Speyne, Aquitanny and Gascoigne. Whiche suf|frede mony infortunys in Speyne in the begynnynge, but after that he come to grete felicite: ffor in the begynnynge vitayles [folio 430a] begynnynge to fayle, the hoste of Ynglische dyede off the pestilence and flix, insomoche þat xc. famose knyȝhtes of Yng|londe dyede þer miserably. Wherefore the residu of Ynglische men coacte by necessite lefte the duke of Lancastre and wente to the hoste of men off Fraunce, whiche were þer to helpe the kynge of Castell, where they were grete noryschede and cheryschede. The kynge of Portyngale beynge þer that tyme with a grete hoste, seenge men of Ynglonde to have de|partede from theire lorde, seide to the duke, "Beholde youre men of Ynglonde how thei have departede from yow and be goen to youre adversaryes. I schalle goe and ȝiffe batelle to theyme, and y schalle not leve oon of theyme in lyfe." The duke of Lancastre seide to the kynge, "O my lorde, ye schalle not do soe, for y knowe that thei do soe for theire lyvynge, and not for treason." That seide, the duke began to wepe in his herte, and preyede allemyȝhty God to be his gyde, promy|synge to remembre his Maker afterwarde better then he did afore; and so Criste acceptynge his herte contrite, causede for|tune to enioy and encrease to hym from that tyme. For his adversary the kynge of Castelle dredde not the powere men, but he was compellede by the dredde of God to trete with the duke for peas. Where hit was brouȝhte to this conclusion, that the kynge scholde mary the doȝhter of the duke of Lancastre to his sonne, the frute of whome scholde enioye the realme of Speyne, and if thei hade noo yssue that realme scholde be reioycede by the frute of the duke of Yorke, broþer to the duke of Lancastre, whiche hade maryede the doȝter of the kynge of Castell. The convencion made sure, the duke re|ceyvede of the kynge of Castelle XX. M.li., and for a certeyne summe not payede, diverse borowes or plegges were taken to hym, that he scholde receyve of the seide kynge yerely the tyme of his lyfe endurynge X. M.li., and to lady Constaunce his wife iiij. M.li., for whiche summe of moneye to be payede iiij. goode townes were assignede to the seide lady Constaunce. Kynge Richarde kepede his Cristemasse in that yere with qwene Anne at the maner off Wodestoke. In whiche tyme the erle off Penbroke, of xvij. yere in age, wyllynge to disporte and iuste with a spere, was smyten of an oþer knyȝhte metynge hym in the flanke, his interialle partes were broken, and [folio 430b] Page  495, vol.8 dethe folowede anoon; for the dethe of whom lordes and moche peple of the realme were soory. For that erle was liberalle, affable, meke, and ientyll to alle peple, excedynge alle oþer yonge lordes of his age in the realme. And hit is to be mer|vaylede of the auncesturs of that erle, for from Emery erle of Penbroke, oon of the assessours and iugges on the dethe of seynt Thomas of Lancastre, unto this Iohn Hasting, noon of the erles of Penbroke see ever theire fader, ne þe fader þe sonne. A parliamente was holden at Westemonastery in the Mooneday nexte folowynge the feste of seynte Hillary, in whom the commune peple desyrede that lyverys of lordes myȝhte be putte awey, for mony men werynge the lyverys of lordes usede grete extorcion and oppression of poore peple. Where the lordes and gentilmen made grawnte that noo man scholde have of theire clothynge with*. [Sic., probably should be without.] he were of theire private howseholde, and toke a certeyne summe of þeim in þe yere. In whiche parliamente diverse men of Kente distrow|blynge peas were taken, drawen, and hongede. Also a statute was made that noo man scholde passe this realme to Rome for provisions in churche, or in churches to be geten and purchased, and if that he did, he schold be imprisonede as a rebellion to the kynge. Also a statute was made þer þat the kynge scholde not graunte his chartre to thefes, robbers, or murdrers of men, and if eiþer duke or archebischop laborede for eny man of that disposicion, thei scholde pay to the kynge a M.li., a bischop or erle a M. marke, a knyȝhte v. c. marke, oþer men XX.li. Also hit was grawntede to the kynge in this parliamente that he scholde receyve for customes of wolle for every sakke þat men of Ynglonde hade 1.s., and of straunge peple iij.li. Iohn Gawnte, duke of Lancastre, was erecte in this parliamente to the duke of Aquitanny; and Edward, son of the duke of Yorke, was made erle of Rutlonde, to whom the kynge ȝafe the castell of Okam. The duke of Gellerior come to London in the same yere, and in the monethe of Iulius, whiche was receyvede with grete honoure, and made hym oon of the knyȝhtes of the Garthur at Wyndeshore. Kynge Ricardus come to Leicestre in the same monethe of Iulius, where, at the instance of Iohn duke of Lancastre, Iohn [folio 431a] Northampton, citesynne of London, and his felawes, banyschede but late afore, were restorede to theire state afore and liberte. In whiche tyme mony noble men come from Fraunce, from Selande, from Alemanny, and from oþer cuntres to the kynges courte for grete iustynges usede þer in that tyme, bryngynge with theyme ryalle horses and armor pertenynge þerto, where the noble lyverey of the white herte, with a chene of golde, was ȝiffen firste. The kynge havynge cownsayle to schewe his Page  496, vol.8 excellent regaly to the lordes of straunge cuntrees, kepede the feste of seynte Edwarde at Kennynton, solennely crownede in that day, bothe at masse and meyte, and the qwene also. At whiche solennite the erle of Seynte Paule was, with his wife, suster to the kynge, and the erle of Ostrenaut, whiche was made þer knyȝhte of the Garthur. A parliamente was holden at London in Westmonastery, the xxti day of the monethe of November, unto whom Damianus de Cathenesia, messanger of þe pope, for a revocacion of the statute made ageyne provisions of churches to be laborede; but the seide messanger reioycede not his purpose, neverthelesse the kynge made graunte that the pope scholde ȝiffe alle benefices vacant in the courte of Rome. A bushell of whete was solde in thys yere at London for xx. d. and ij s. commynly, where hit was wonte to be solde for v. d. or vi. d. And Thomas Arundell, archebischop of Yorke, was made chawnceller of Ynglonde, and Iohn Waltham, bischop of Salisbery, treasurer of Ynglonde, in the begynnynge of October, and the erle of Stafforde maryede in that yere the doȝhter off þe duke of Glocestre. A parliament was holden at Westmonastery in the thrydde day of the monethe of November, and durede unto December; in whom hit was ordeynede that alle possessions, londes, and tenementes of religious men scholde be escheate withowte thei were deducte unto a dedde honde afore the feste of seynte Michell nexte folowynge. Kynge Richarde kepede that tyme his Cristemasse at Langley, to whom men of Aquitanny come, seyenge that thei were wonte to be governede by the kynge of Ynglond, or by the prince his sonne, and by noon oþer, seyenge also that they wolde not take the duke of Lancastre as theire chiefe lorde, but as a governoure under the kynge. Iohn duke of Lancastre come to Ynglonde from Aquitanny in the vijthe day of the monethe of Maii, whiche was receyvede of the kynge with grete honore. A grete cownsayle was keped at Stanforde in the xxvthe day of þe monethe of Maii, where mony thynges [folio 431b] were ordeynede; and amonge oþer constitucions, that gentyl|men havynge londes unto þe valoure of xltili. by yere scholde be knyȝhtes. Truse was taken betwene the kynges of Yng|londe and off Fraunce in this cownsaile for certeyne yeres, and alle the kynges courtes were translate from London to Yorke. That doen the kynge sende a wrytte to þe mayre of London, that he scholde appere at Notyngham with the shireffes with xxiiijti aldermen, and mony oþer noble men of the cite to answere afore the kynges cownsayle to thynges obiecte ageyne theyme. Iohn Hende, mayre of London, was deposede in the xjthe day of the monethe of Iulius folowynge, and sende to the castell of Wyndeshore, and the shireffes were deposed also, and oon was sende to the castell of Walyngforde, and that oþer to the castelle of Okam, Edwarde Dalkigbrugge havynge gover|nayle Page  497, vol.8 of that cite ffor the tyme. The duchesse of Yorke dyede in the same yere þe xxiijti day of the monethe of November, whom the kynge causede to be beryede at Langeley with grete solennite. Also in the same yere, the xxti day of the monethe of Ianivere, a parliamente was holden at Wynchestre, in whom syr Ambrey Veer was made erle of Oxenforde, and syr William Scroope was made chambreleyn of the kynge, and syr Thomas Persy stuarde of the kynge. And in the vij. day of Februarius folowynge, thefes brake the chapell of Oure Lady of Pewe at Westemonastery, and toke awey grete goodes with theyme. And in the vijthe nyȝhte folowynge thei brake the churche of Seynte Iohn at Clerkenwell, and did grete hurte þer, and somme of those thefes were taken and honged at Oxenforde. Solenne diriges were hade in this yere at Seynte Paules churche in London for the sawle of Anne empresse, moder of Anne qwene of Ynglonde. Anne qwene of Ynglonde dyede in this yere at Schene, þe vijthe day of þe monethe of Iunius, on the day of Pentecoste; the dethe of whom the kynge sorowede insomoche that he causede the maner there to be pullede downe, and wolde not comme in eny place by oon yere folowynge where sche hade be, the churche excepte; whiche was beryede in the churche of Westemonastery, in the feste of seynte Anne nexte folowynge, with grete honoure and solennite. That qwene [folio 432a] Anne purchased of the pope that the feste of seynte Anne scholde be solennysede in Ynglonde. The dethe of this qwene Anne induced grete hevynesse to noble men and to commune peple also, for sche causede noo lytelle profite to the realme. But mony abusions comme from Boemia into Englonde with this qwene, and specially schoone with longe pykes, insomoche that thei cowthe not go untylle that thei were tyede to theire legges, usenge that tyme cheynes of silvyr at the pykes of theire schoone. Kynge Ricardus toke his iourney to Yrlond abowte the feste of seynte Mathewe, taryenge þer in wynter with his hoste. And in the meane tyme the duke of Yorke kepede a parliamente at Westmonastery soone after the feste of seynte Hillary, to whiche parliamente the kynge sende his uncle, Thomas duke of Glocestre, to desyre of the clergy oon dyme, and oon xvthe of lay men, where that peticion was grawnte. Bartholomewe de Namera, messanger of þe pope, come to this parliamente for þe revocacion of the statute made afore ageyne provisors of churches, but he profite not of his message. Also maister Iohn Bloxham, governoure of Mertyn colege at Oxenforde, and doctor of divinite, was accusede of ij. felawes of the seide college in the same parliamente openly of a cryme not to be expressede, whiche men were movede to accuse hym by mony lordes of that parliament. But thei prevaylede not ageyne hym, in that thei cowthe not make sufficiaunte probacion. The kynge understondynge after of Page  498, vol.8 þat wickede mater was movede soore ageyne the lordes and his accusers. Henricus Wakefelde, bischop of Worcestre, departede from that parliamente, dyede at Blokley in the monethe of Marche, whom Tidemannus, bischopp Landavense, did succede. Kynge Ricardus, makynge mony knyȝhtes of Yrlonde, ȝafe to theym grete fees to be receyvede of the chekker yerely to þeim, and oþer grete ȝiftes, and departede into Ynglonde with his hoste. The kynge departede from that cuntre thei were moore maliciously disposede then thei were afore, and did sle a noble knyȝhte of Ynglonde þer, syr Roger erle of Marche. And in that somer folowynge Constaunce duchesse of Lancastre dyed, and Mary cowntesse of Derby, and were beryede at Levercestre. Henricus erle of Derby gate of Mary hys wife iiij. sonnes, Henricus, Thomas, Iohn, and Umfrey, and ij. doȝhters, Blanche and Mary. And in succession of tyme Iohn of Gaunt, duke of Lancastre, maryede into his wyfe [folio 432b] Kateryne Swynford, whom he kepede longe, his wife beynge in lyfe, of whom he gate iij. sonnes, Iohn Bewford, erle of Somer|sete, Henricus Bewford, bischop of Lincolne, Edmund Bewford, and ij. doȝhters, oon of whom was cowntesse of Westemar|londe, that oþer was cowntesse of Somersete; and alle these sonnes and doȝhters of Iohn duke of Lancastre were legitti|mate by the pope. In whiche yere, the vijthe day of the monethe of Auguste, Ricardus kynge of Ynglonde, purposynge to mary the doȝhter of the kynge off Fraunce, saylede unto Calys with a noble hoste, dukes, erles, barons, and mony oþer noblemen, taryenge þer unto the feste of Symon and Iude. Wherefore abowte the seide feste the kynges of Ynglonde and off Fraunce mette, with þe noble men of eiþer realme, on a pleyne nye to the castelle of Gynes, spekynge of the seide matrimony betwene kynge Ricardus and Isabelle doȝhter of the kynge of Fraunce, havynge viij. yere in age. And so at the laste the seide Isabell was delyverede to the kynge of Ynglonde; that doen, kynge Ricardus, takynge leve off the kynge of Fraunce, returnede to Calys with his companye, whom he maryede þer with grete solennite, in þe presence of the seide lordes, in the xthe day of the monethe of November. That doen thei come to Ynglonde with grete ioye and gladdenesse; but diverse of his schippes were drownede, havynge in theym moche clothe of Arras and mony other thynges for the apparayle of the kynges halle. This qwene come to London the xxiij. day of monethe of November, thro Sowthewerke unto Kenyngton, to whom mony peple wente to see, and in returnynge mony men and women were oppressed to dethe, amonge whom a prior of Estesex was oppressede to dethe, and a noble woman of Corun|hell. This qwene was brouȝhte ageyne the thrydde day off the monethe of Ianiver by London brygge, by the Bruggestrete, thro the Towre strete and unto the towre, and in the morowe Page  499, vol.8 folowynge sche was ledde thro Chepe unto Westmonastery, where sche was crownede with grete solennite in the vigill of the Epiphany by the archebischop of Cawnterbery. And a cownsayle was callede at Westmonastery in the monethe of February nexte folowynge, but the duke of Glocestre and the erle of Arundell, cited to appere there, excusede theym that infirmite oppressynge theym wolde not suffre his wylle to be [folio 433a] performede. The kynge herynge that was movede soore ageyne theyme, whiche folowynge þe cownsayle of yonge peple malicious and indiscrete, and specially of Iohn Busch, commaunded Ricardus erle of Arundell to be areste, and Thomas erle of Warwyke, puttynge theyme in suere kepynge. That doen, the kynge takynge with him Iohn Busche and a certeyne nowmbre of men of armes, come to Plesch, and areste in his awne person his uncle, Thomas duke of Glocestre, beynge in bedde and laborynge in grete infirmite. Notwith|stondynge the preyer of the duke, with mony teres of his wife and of his men, he was sende in the nyȝhte to Tyllyngborne, after þat to Dovor, and soe to Calys, to the erle of Norfolke capiteyne there, that he scholde be sleyne, as hit schal be schewede hereafter. Maister William Courtenay, archebischop of Caunterbery, dyede in the same yere, the kalendes of Auguste; whom Thomas Arundelle, archebischop of Yorke, did succede. In whiche yere also William Mountegu, erle of Salis|bery, dyede also, a noble man, tru to the kynge and to the realme, and fortunate in batell; Thomas Holand, erle of Kente, dyede in that yere also. In whiche tyme a pagan kynge of Turkeye reignede þer, Ambrot by name, ageyne whom mony men of Ynglonde, of Fraunce, and of other regions were gedrede; whiche were taken and sleyne þer in that þei were dispersede, and kepede not an ordre after the consuetude of batell. The kynge revolvynge in mynde how that he was coacte afore to graunte a certeyn commission to certeyne lordes to governe hym and the realme, thenkynge hym selfe of fulle age and discrecion, desirede gretely to do persecucion to theym. Wherefore the kynge thenkynge that he cowthe not punysche theyme withowte a parliamente were holden, sende messan|gers and wrytynge into þe costes of Ynglonde in the monethe of Iulius, that alle men scholde come to the parliamente that awe to be þer with owte eny excuse. Unto whiche parliamente a grete multitude of peple come, whiche began in October in the day of seynte Lambert, and contynuede untyll the conver|sion of seynte Paule. This parliamente was kepede in the myddes of his palyce at Westmonastery, where he made an halle betwene the towre and the dorre of the grete halle, that the seide kynge myȝhte appere in his solennite; whiche place [folio 433b] was taken awey after the parliament. In the firste day of that parliament the bischop of Ely and chauncellor of Ynglonde Page  500, vol.8 made a pronunciacion in the maner of a sermon, begynnynge with this proposicion, "Rex unus erat omnibus," and con|cludynge at alle tymes that the powere of the kynge awe to be unyte and annexed to hymselfe, and men causynge the contrary be worthy to be punysched after the lawe. But this parliament was ordeynede to make inquisicion of those persons that trowbled þe regaly, and that trowble and discorde scholde not have predominy afterwarde. That col|lacion finisched, the kynge commawnded the communes that thei scholde acorde of the speker of the parliamente, and pre|sente the man electe to hym in the day nexte folowynge. In whiche parliament þe kynge ȝafe pardon to alle peple that hade doen eny offence to hym, those persons excepte that scholde be correct in that parliament. And in Tyseday nexte folowynge syr Iohn Busche, knyȝhte, was chosen speker of þe parlia|mente and presentede to the kynge, whom þe kynge did accepte. The seide syr Iohn Busche, dewe protestacions made afore, expressed these wordes afore the kynges hihenesse:—"O, my lorde kynge, we desyre that we may expresse þe names of men causynge trowble ageyne your regaly. Firste, Thomas duke of Glocestre, Ricardus erle of Arundell, whiche causede yow to grawnte to þeim, in the ixthe yere of youre reigne, oon soore commission, by the meanes of Thomas Arundell, chauncellor of Ynglonde, to governe you and þe realme of Ynglonde to þe preiudice of youre regaly." And that commission grawnted was revocate and anni|chilhate in that parliamente, with alle thynges depend|ynge of hit; neverthelesse a speciall grace and pardon was grawnted by the kynge to Ricardus erle of Arundell at þe instance of þe metropolitan, broþer to hym. Where the seide syr Iohn Busche spake, sayenge that þe seide pardon is as infecte with treason, and that the seide bischop purchasynge hit awe to iuggede as a traytour. The bischop willynge to aryse and answere to þat mater, was prohibite by the kynge. Neverthelesse that archebischoppe off Cawnterbury apperede [folio 434a] not þer after that tyme. Also hit was ordeynede in this parlia|mente that the excesses of prelates scholde be terminate in the parliamente, and so licence hade þe prelates did departe with hevy chere. But in Wednesday nexte folowynge the seide statute ageyne prelates was revokede, where the seide prelates were charged, on peyne of the losse of þeire temporalites that thei scholde ordeyne a proctor in that day to condescende in theire names to thynges expedient in þat parliamente. And on Thursday nexte folowynge the archebischop of Cawnter|bery come to þe kynges palyce to have apperede at þe parlia|mente. But the kynge sende to hym by the bischop of Caerliel þat he scholde returne ageyne to hys ynne. The prelates ȝafe to syr Thomas Percy, stywarde of the kynge, theire plener Page  501, vol.8 powere, and made hym theire proctor, promysynge to fulle|fylle alle thynges grawntede by hym in theire names in þat parliamente. This proccy redde and expressede, syr Iohn Busche, speker of the parliamente, rehersede þese wordes to the kynges, "My lorde, hit is so nowe that the secunde article awe to be fullefyllede of þe peyne put to men trowblynge youre regaly. Wherefore y beseche your hihenesse of speciall pardon that y may goe and comme in suerte with my felawes to prosecute by the weye of appellacion and of impeticion ageyne certeyne persons." That grawntede by the kynge, the speker of the parliamente seide, "I accuse Thomas Arun|dell, archebischop of Cawnterbery, of thre maners and articles of treason. In the firste of the commission of the realme to hym, to Thomas duke of Glocestre, and to his broþer Ricar|dus erle of Arundell. In the secunde for the seide lordes did holde solenne parliamentes by usurpacion of that pro|ditorious commission into the grete preiudice of youre regaly. In the thrydde, in that thei did slee proditoriousely Iames Brueis and Symon Burle, your tru knyȝhtes and lige men, by the seide usurpacion. Wherefore we yonr tru lige men desyre your hihenesse to fulminate a sentence ageyne the seide archebischoppe condigne to suche a traytoure." The kynge ansuerede and seide that he wolde take deliberacion as in þat mater, for the excellence of his person, unto the day folowynge. And on Friday nexte folowynge that tyme, on [folio 434b] the feste of seynte Mathewe, the duke of Rotland, the erle of Kente, the erle of Huntyndon, the erle of Notyngham, the erle of Somersette, the erle of Sarisbery, the lorde Despenser, and syr William Scrope entrede into the parliamente in a sute of gownes of redde sylke, brawdrede with white sylke and letters of golde, purposynge to the kynge the appellacion made but late afore at Notyngham. Where thei accusede Thomas duke of Gloucestre, Ricardus erle of Arundell, Thomas erle of War|wyke, and Thomas Mortymare knyȝhte, of treason and insur|reccion made ageyne the kynge at Harnegay parke, promys|ynge afore the kynge to prosecute the seide appellacion. When Ricardus erle of Arundell was brouȝhte to the parlia|mente in a roobe of scarlet, whiche was taken from hym by commaundemente of Iohn duke of Lancastre. And the articles of treason rehersede, the seide erle denyede utterly that he was a traytour, desyrynge his pardon grawntede by the kynge myȝhte have execucion. Then Iohn duke of Lancastre seide, "O þow traytour, þat pardon is revokede." To whom the erle seide, "Y am noo traytour, ne have not bene a traytour." Then the duke of Lancastre seide to hym, "If þow were not a traytoure whereto desyres þow pardon?" The erle seide, "To depresse thy fals langage and oþer moo." Then the kynge seide to hym, "Answere to thyne appellacion." The erle seide, "Y am Page  502, vol.8 noo traytour," desyrynge ofte to reioyce that pardon grawn|tede to hym by þe kynge. Iohn Busche, speker of the parlia|mente, seide to hym, "That pardon is revoked nowe by oure lorde þe kynge, the lordes of þe realme, and by us his tru lige men." Then the erle seide, "Where be the tru commune peple and his lige men: y knowe the welle and thy felawes, for þow hase bene a traytour longe intendynge and ymaginynge my dethe." Then Henricus erle of Derby did aryse, rehersynge this sentence: "Seide not þow to me at Huntyndon, where we mette firste to make insurreccion, 'Lete us goe firste and take the kynge'?" The erle of Arundell seide, "Thow lyes, y seide not of the kynge in eny wyse but þat was for his honore and worschippe in eny thynge to the or unto eny other." Then the kynge seide to hym, "Seide not þow to me [folio 435a] in the tyme of thy parliamente, in a bathe behynde the white halle, that Symon Burle was worthy dethe for mony causes? and y seide to þat tyme that y cowthe not fynde eny cause of dethe in hym. Neverþeles y and my qwene preyenge for his lyfe, thow putte hym to dethe falsely and lyke a tray|toure, and despiseste my preyere." Then the kynge seide to the stuarde, "ȝiffe to hym his iuggemente." Then the duke of Lancastre seide in this wyse: "Richarde, I Iohn stywarde of Ynglonde iugge þe a traytoure, and condempne that thow be drawen, honged, and quartert, and alle thy londes taylede and not taylede to be applyede to the use of the kynge for ever." Neverthelesse the kynge grauntede that he scholde be but heded, for the reverence of his blode, and so he was brouȝhte to Chepe and heded þer, and beryede after at the freres Austyn in London. And on Seturday nexte folowynge, at proclamacion was made that syr Thomas Mortymare scholde presente hym to the kynge within vj. [dayes folowynge im|mediately, in peyne of treason and perpetuall exile. And in Monday nexte folowynge a certificatory sende from Caleys from the duke of Sowthefolke, that tyme capiteyne þer, was redde. In whom hit was contenede that that Thomas duke of Glocestre myȝhte not appere afore the kynge, in that he was dedde in kepynge. Neverthelesse the same sentence was ful|minate ageyne hym lyke as hit was to the erle off Arundell; and the goodes temporall of Thomas Arundell archebischop of Cawnterbery eschete, he was putte into exile. And in the Tyseday nexte folowynge the cowntee of Chestre was exaltede unto a duchery and augmentede by the hondes of Ricardus erle of Arundell. Also hit was ordeynede in that day that alle men ȝiffynge comfort, cownsayle, or helpe to the sonnes of men dampnede in þat parliamente, and to be dampned, that thei scholde suffre dethe as traytours. Also an ordi|naunce was made in this parliament, that alle lordes spirituall and temporall scholde swere that thei scholde observe alle Page  503, vol.8 thynges ordeynede in the seide parliamente. And on Fryday nexte folowynge Thomas erle of Warwyke was presentede; whiche herynge that appellacion made ageyne hym wepede soore, and denyede hit not, submyttynge hym to the mercy and [folio 435a] grace of the kynge. Then the kynge inquirede of hym by whom he was movede þerto. The erle answerede and seide by Thomas duke of Glocestre, by thabbot of Seynte Alban þat tyme, and by a monke reclused in Westemonastery, besechynge with grete wepynge þe kynge of mercy and of grace. The noblemen beynge presente and seenge hym to make so grete lamentacion movede the kynge to schewe grace to hym. And so the kynge grawntede to him lyffe, and sende hym to the yle of Man, grawntynge to hym and to his wyfe v.c. marke, to be payede yerely. In whiche tyme Henricus Lancastre, erle of Derby, was made duke of Herford, and Thomas Holand, erle of Kente, into the duke of Surrey, Iohn Holande, erle of Hun|tyndon, into duke of Excestre, Thomas Mowbray, erle of Notyngham, into the duke of Northefolke, Iohn Bewforde, erle of Somersete, into markesse of Dorsette, lorde Thomas Despenser into þe duke of Glocestre, lorde Rawfe Nevyle in to the erle of Westemarlond, syr Thomas Percy into erle of Wor|cestre, and William lorde Scrope into the erle of Wylteschire. This doen the parliamente was contynuate with alle lordes spirituall and temporalle, and to be terminate at Schrobbesbury by consente of the parliamente at the feste of seynte Hillary nexte folowynge; and so the kynge ȝafe licence to alle peple that thei scholde departe to theire cuntre. But in the feste of seynte Ierom the lordes spirituall and temporall made an othe by commaundemente of the kynge afore the schryne of seynte Edwarde that thei scholde holde and sustene alle statutes, iuggementes, and ordinaunces made in that parliamente; that doen, thei wente unto the hye awter, where the prelates seide, "We, the prelates and ordinaryes of the provinces of Cawnter|bery and of Yorke, ordeyne, monysche, and require that the seide provinces, on peyne of the grete sentence of excommu|nicacion, to procede ageyne men that breke hit." After that the kynge made a grete feste to his lordes spirituall and tem|porall metynge at Schrobbesbury in the tyme assignede to finische þe seide parliamente; where hit was ordeynede that the heires male or female of the lordes condempnede afore scholde not reioyce eny of theire londes, taylede or not taylede, but thay scholde be excluded for ever from eny accion to hyt or theyme or eny other clayme; and so Thomas Arundell, son of Ricardus somme tyme erle of Arundell, was sende over see into exile; and the heire of Thomas somme tyme duke of Glou|cestre, putte into the towre of London, was taken þens pri|vely by a merchaunte and brouȝhte over see. Also hit was ordeynede in that parliamente on Tyseday nexte folowynge Page  504, vol.8 that the heires of theyme whiche were convicte of hye treason scholde not ioye eny londes or possessions of theire progenitors, but thei scholde be excluded from theym for ever. This was the firste article, if eny man of whatsoever condicion or dignite hade ymagined the dethe of the kynge. The secunde, if eny man hade laborede to depose the kynge in eny wise. The thrydde if eny man hade ryden in armoure in the realme to move eny gwerre ageyne the kynge. The iiijthe, if eny man disclamede the homage of the kynge. In whiche tyme Iohn lord Cobham was presented to answere to ij. articles obiecte ageyne hym. The firste article was that he ȝafe cownseile to make the foreseide commission ageyne the kynge and his astate, and also that he usede the seide commission in iuggementes in his awne person ageyne the pleasure off the kynge and of his regaly grete preiudice. The secunde article was that the seide lorde Cobham sate in iuggement to iugge Symon Burle and Iamys Berners, knyȝhtes, in the absence of the kynge and ageyne his wylle; wherefore he was convicte and sende to the yle of Gersey, to be kepede þer by the tyme of his lyfe. And in the Wednesday nexte folowynge, hit was ordeynede that an if eny man did agene the promisses and statutes made in the seide par|liamente he scholde be iuggede as a traytour. And in Thursday nexte folowynge alle lordes spirituall and temporalle þer at that tyme did swere on the crosse of Cawnterbury that thei scholde observe the statutes, constitucions, and ordinaunces made in that parliamente durynge the tyme of theire lyfe after theire powere. And the statutes made sommetyme ageyne syr Hewe Despenser were redde and revokede by þe wylle of the kynge and consente [folio 436b] of the lordes and oþer peple in that parliament. In whiche parliamente oon xvthe and the halfe of an oþer xvthe was grawntede to be payede to the kynge, at Michellmasse nexte folowynge oon parte, that oþer parte at Ester nexte folowynge, the thrydde parte at Michelmasse after, and ltis. for a sakke of wolle of men of Ynglonde as for custom, and iij.li. of aliaunteȝ. And the kynge grawntynge a generall pardon to alle peple þer, that thei scholde not be in dowte as for eny thynge doen afore that tyme unto his person, ȝafe theyme licence to departe, and so that terrible and grete parliamente was dissolvede. And Thomas Arundell, archebischop of Cawnterbery, was deposede by that parliamente, and sende to exile into Scotlonde, abowte the feste of the purificacion of oure Lady; whom Iohn Walden, treasurer of Ynglonde, did succede. This parliamente doen, the kynge visitte mony costes of Ynglonde, as Herforde, Worcestre, Hanley, Hayleys, Wynchecombe, Gloucestre, and Bristowe, where he made listes for a conflicte to be made betwene an esqwyer of Ynglonde appellynge and a knyȝhte borne in Scotlonde, but he was sworn to be tru to Ynglonde, defend|ynge that appellacion. And so the man refusynge his appel|lacion Page  505, vol.8 was drawen and hongede. And in the same yere abowte the feste of Ad vincula sancti Petri, the kynge caused myȝhty lystes to be made at Cowentre for an oþer conflicte to be hade betwene the duke of Herforde and the duke of Northfolke. And this was þe mater and cause: these duke rydynge to geder, and havynge communicacion of the kynge, the duke of Northfolke seide to that other duke, "Beholde how mutable and variable the kynge ys; y drede that he wylle peresche us hereafter lyke as he hathe doen oþer lordes afore." Then the duke of Herford seide, "Y have noo diffidence in the wordes of my sovereign, and y wylle not withdrawe me from his presence tylle that y be commaunded by hym, for y have not doen eny thynge to the displeasure of my sove|reigne." [folio 437a] These wordes were rehersede to the kynge, where|fore the kynge inquirede of theyme to knowe the trawthe; oon of theym affermede that hit was soe, that other of theyme seyde nay; and so the day of theire fiȝhte was assignede to be in the feste and day of seynte Lamberte bischop and martir. In whiche day a grete multitude of peple come to see that conflicte. These dukes beynge with ynne lystes and redy to fiȝhte, the kynge beynge in his tente in regall apparayle, commaunded theyme to sease, and toke that mater in his iuggemente, commaundynge a proclamacion to be made that Henricus duke of Herforde scholde be putte into exile for certeyne inobedience doen ageyne the kynge by x. yere. And Thomas Mowbray, duke of Northfolke, scholde be in exile by the tyme of his lyfe, receyvynge yerely to his exhibicion a M. marke untylle that the towne of Calys were repayrede. For the seide duke was capiteyne by certeyne yeres of the towne of Calyȝ, and did hurte to the towne, doynge lytell reparacion or noon on hit, and puttynge hit in grete dette. And in the feste of seynte Michel nexte folowynge, the kynge commaundede xvj. schires in Ynglonde to be condempnede, and eiche of theyme payede to the kynge a M. marke or a M.li., puttynge theire bodyes in the grace off the kynge. Also alle religious men, gentylmen, and other commune peple thro alle the realme putte to theire seales on white chartres made by the com|maundemente of the kynge. Mony men suppose that thynge to be doen for money to be gedrede, for diverse men drawynge to the kynge movede hym to gette goodes, seyenge that and if he hade goodes sufficiaunte he scholde not have eny cause to drede, but alle men scholde drede hym. And so he borowede of lordes and of prelates a summe of goode as innumerable, whiche was not payede ageyn after. But O thou covetyse, moder of vices, that never dose replete the appetite of men desyrynge þe, comparable to a man havynge the dropesy, whiche is moore athurste after that he hathe drunke, and so in lyke [folio 437b] wyse a man havynge grete treasures is infecte þe moore with Page  506, vol.8 avaryce. Iohn Gawnte, duke of Lancastre, dyede in this yere at Cristemasse, at the castelle of Leycestre, and was beryede with grete solennite at the churche of Seynte Paule in London, Henricus his sonne beynge that tyme in exile over see. Kynge Richarde kepede this Cristemasse at Lichfeld, with whom mony straunge lordes were, as the broþer of the emperoure of Con|stantinopole and syr Petyr de Bristo, with the bischop Aquensis, messanger of the pope, sende into Ynglonde for the revocacion of the statute made ageyne provisours of churches, and for oþer diverse causes. Whiche hade powere to dispense with alle prestes entrede to theire benefices by symony, and to grawnte or ȝiffe the seide benefices newly to theyme, and mony other privilegys, by the pretexte of whom he gate treasure as innumerable. In this Cristemasse grete iustyngges were hade in every day, where so grete a multitude of peple hade resorte that xxviijti, oxen or xxvijti ccc. schepe, and wildefooles as innumerable were spende dayly. And after the feste of Pentecoste, kynge Ricardus toke his iourneye to Yrlonde with a grete glory and multitude of peple, thenkynge noo man so myȝhty; but fortune ȝafe hym a grete falle soone after. For abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste he hade worde that Henricus duke of Herforde, þen duke of Lancastre by the dethe of his fader, whom he hade put into exile, was commen into Ynglonde. The kynge made grete haste with his hoste to mete hym, thenkynge to have hade victory lyȝhtely. The seide kynge commynge from Yrlonde londed in Wales at Hertlouȝhe, nye to þe castelle, abowte the feste of seynte Iames apostole, taryenge by a lytelle season in that castell, depart|enge from that place to Chestre, that he myȝhte take with hym men of that cuntre, in whom he hade moste confidence and truste. But the seide kynge hade worde for a trawthe that alle castelles from the costes of Bristowe unto the northe partes of Ynglonde were delyverede to the seide duke. And also that alle lordes spiritualle and temporall and the com|munes of Ynglonde did aryse with hym ageyne the kynge, and how syr William Scrope, erle of Wilteschire and treasurer of Ynglonde, syr Henricus Grey, and syr Iohn Busche, [folio 438a] knyȝhtes, were hevede at Bristowe. The kynge herynge that sorowede moche, commaundynge the hoste, whiche was of xx. M. men in nowmbre, to comme afore hym, to whom he ȝafe licence to departe. But that hoste comforte the kynge moche, seyenge that thei wolde not leve hym, but they scholde lyve or dye in his parte ageyne the seide duke. Neverthelesse he toke with hym the bischop of Kaerliel, the erle of Salys|bery, and oþer persons unto the nowmbre of xxti, and wente in the nyȝhte prively from his hoste unto the castell of Flynte. The marcialle of the hoste understondynge of þe departynge of the kynge, brake his rodde afore the hoste into a signe of Page  507, vol.8 hevynesse þat men scholde departe, but the seide hoste was spoylede or that thei cowthe departe from Wales, after that hyt was dispersede, insomoche that mony knyȝhtes were feyne to go home on foote unto theire cuntres. But what schall the kynge do nowe with alle his treasure and rychesse, for whom he hathe vexede moche the costes of Ynglonde, truly hit schall not cause hym to avoide perelle folowynge. The seide duke of Herforde and heire of Iohn Gawnte, late dedde, somme tyme duke of Lancastre, come to Ynglonde, as hit is seide afore, abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste, with lx. persons in nowmbre. Amonge whom Thomas archebischop of Cawnterbery was putte but late afore into exile; Thomas, heire of the erle of Arundell, the confessor of þe kynge, the lorde Cobham, Thomas Herpyngham, and Thomas Remston, knyȝhtes; Iohn Norbury, Robert Waturton, Franciscus Court, esqwyers, and oþer moo, whiche londed in the northe costes of Ynglonde in Yorkeschyre, betwene Hull and Brydlyngton. Whiche were receyvyde with gladde chere of the lordes and communes of þat cuntre, and gedrenge a grete hoste þer made grete haste unto the sowthe partes of Ynglonde, turnynge by Evysham unto Berkeleye, where alle castells longynge to the kynge were delyverede to hym with in thre dayes. Then [folio 438b] Edmund Langley, duke off Yorke, and uncle to hym, gedrede a multitude of men, but þer was not oon of theym that wolde fiȝhte ageyne the duke off Lancastre. This duke of Yorke wente towarde Wales, abidynge the commynge of the kynge from Yrlonde, taryenge at Berkeleye; but the duke of Lancastre commynge with myȝhty men and with a grete hoste, the seide dukes spake togedre and were acordede abowte the feste of seynte Iame in the churche with owte the castelle of Berkeley. And the bischop of Norwich, the lorde of Berkeley, and of Seymor, and mony other knyȝhtes come with the duke of Yorke, Thomas Arundelle, archebischop of Cawnter|bery, the abbot of Leicestre, the erle off Northumbrelonde and of Westmarelonde, the heire of Ricardus erle off Arundell, late dedde, the baron of Greystocke, the lorde Wilby, and the lorde Roos, with mony other knyȝhtes, come with the duke of Lancastre. And in the same day the bischop of Norwyche was areste, syr William Elman and syr Walterus Burtley, knyȝhtes, Lawrence Dren, and Iohn Golafre, esqwyers, and were putte in streyte kepynge. That doen the seide dukes toke theire iourneye to Bristowe, schewynge theire hoste afore the towne and a castelle of a c.M. peple in nowmbre. In whiche tyme syr William Scrope, erle of Wilteschire, lorde Henricus Grey, and syr Iohn Busche, speker of the laste par|liamente, specialle cownsaillour of þe kynge, intendynge the de|struccion of the realme; whiche were taken at the laste and brouȝte into the feldes to theym arestede firste, and after pre|sented Page  508, vol.8 to the iugges, the constable, and marciall, where thei were convicte and heded for treason and ylle governaunce of the realme. And in the nexte day folowynge the duke of Lancastre toke his iourney towarde Berkeley, and the duke of Yorke taryede at Bristowe, and after that the duke of Lancastre toke his iourney towarde Schrobbesbery, where syr Iohn Alye and syr Roberte Alye, knyȝhtes, mette hym, preyenge hym to schewe favor to the province of Chestre in that thei submitte theym holly to his governayle. After that he removede to the cite of Chestre, where he schewede his hoste afore the cite, whom alle the religious men of that cite receyved with solenne procession. The seide duke sende anoon over see for the sonne and heire of Thomas somme tyme duke of Glocestre, but allas that noble yonge man was drownede in the see or he myȝhte gette to londe. The duchesse of Glocestre and moder to hym, herynge of his dethe, toke so grete sorowe that sche dyed also [folio 439a] with in fewe dayes folowynge. The kynge beynge in the castell of Flynte, sende Iohn Holand, duke of Excestre, to Chestre, to entrete for peas with the duke of Lancastre to the duke of Amnarlye, the duke of Surrey, syr Thomas Percy, erle of Worcestre. The lorde Lovell and syr Iohn Stanley come in that tvme. And in the Sonneday nexte folowynge the Assumpcion of oure Lady Thomas Arundell, late archebischop of Cawnterbery, the erle of Northumbrelonde, the erle of West|merlonde, and syr Henricus Percy, wente to the kynge from the parte of the duke of Lancastre, and spake with him, ȝiffynge hym an answere of the purpose of þat duke. That doen the kynge was brouȝte to the stronge castell of Conwey, where the seide duke of Lancastre apperede, schewynge his hoste that the kynge myȝhte see hym and the towne also. After that the duke lyȝhte of his horse and wente over the brygge, taryenge in the firste warde of the castell tylle that he did see the kynge. The bischop of Caerliel comme þat tyme with the kynge, the erle of Salisbery, and syr Steven Scrope berynge the kynges swerde, with fewe oþer men, syttynge in a place ordeynede for hym. The seide duke seenge the kynge ȝafe honor to hym onys, twyes, and in the thrydde tyme the kynge toke hym up. To whom he seide, "My lorde kynge, my commynge into the londe at þis tyme is to reioyce oure enheritaunce and patri|mony by youre licence." The kynge seide, "Dere cosynne, y grawnte that ye reioyce hit in fulle prosperite with owte eny contradiccion." This doen thei drunke a bolle of wyne togedre. And so thei toke theire horses and did ryde to Chestre, and so to London, and so faste as thei cowthe, inso|moche that kynge Ricardus was not suffrede to chaunge his clothes, but rode in symple apparayle thro the cuntre: and hit is seide that this kynge Ricardus hade oon garmente of golde, perles, and of precious stonys, havynge in valoure iij. M. marke. Page  509, vol.8 But, O goode Iesu, thy coote was not of soe grete price, and hit was moore vertuous and moore precious! The kynge was brouȝhte to Westmonastery, and the duke was receyvede of the cite of London with grete solennite, taryenge in the palyce of the bischop of London. In the morowe nexte folow|ynge, [folio 439b] the kynge was brouȝte to the towre of London and put in sure kepynge. That doen the seide duke of Lancastre ordeynede that a parliamente scholde be kepede thro the cownsaile of lordes drawynge to hym in the name of kynge Richarde. Wherefore wrytynges were sende thro the realme that alle peple longynge to be at þe parliamente scholde appere at Westmonastery in the day nexte folowynge the feste of seynte Michael. In whiche parliamente and in the firste, the kynge resignede his crowne, title, and ryȝhte, absolvynge arche|bischoppes, bischoppes, alle lordes spiritualle and temporall, and alle þe peple of Ynglonde, from his ligence and obedience made to hym in eny maner of wyse, makynge a solenne pro|testacion on a masse booke, and swerynge that he wolde never desire ne labor prively ne openly to reioyce the crowne of Ynglonde, confessynge by his awne person that he was worthy by his demerytes and insolente lyfe to be deposede. That doen he kyssede the masse booke, wrytynge under the resignacion his submission, in whom he did submitte hym to his trusty cosyn Henricus duke of Lancastre, and to reverende faders Thomas Arundelle archebischop of Cawnterbery, Ricardus archebischop of Yorke, Iohn bischop of Herforde, and to oþer noble men, Henry erle of Northum|brelonde, Ricardus erle of Westmerlonde, Thomas Arundell, and mony other barons and knyȝhtes. Also the seide kynge Richarde desirede that he myȝhte reioyce certeyne lyvelode bouȝhte afore, whiche he intendede to distribnte for his sawle to the monastery of Westmonastery. Whiche kynge desyrede and seide openly that hit was his wylle that the seide duke of Lancastre, cosyn to hym, scholde succede in that realme of Ynglonde and reioyce his crowne. That resignacion redde openly in the parliamente and admitte by the lordes and com|mune peple also, kynge Ricardus deposede and the trone vacante, þe lordes movenge for the successioun of þe realme, the commune peple cryede and desirede Henry duke of Lan|castre to be kynge. The duke herynge that did aryse and ascended unto the kynges trone, and makynge a crosse seide in this wyse:—"I Henricus, duke and lawefulle heire of the [folio 440a] honorable fader Iohn late duke off Lancastre, clayme and take in the name of þe Fader, and the Sonne, and of the Holy Goste the kynges trone and the crowne of Ynglonde with the pertinence as by lawefull enheritaunce and linealle de|scence from kynge Henricus the thrydde." This doen he sate downe in the seete, havynge this communicacion:—"I Page  510, vol.8 thonke my God and Kynge, my frendes alle, oþer lordes spirituall and temporall, and the commune peple also, that ye have exaltede me unto so excellente a governayle as unable þerto. Neverthelesse y intende thro youre hollesome cown|sayle and supporte that the realme schalle contynue in pease and tranquillite, whiche hathe bene longe in trowble for fawte and wontynge of sadde governayle. Where y wylle that alle men knowe that my wylle was not in eny wyse to expelle eny man from his enheritaunce, but men that wolde have destroyede the sadde governayle of the realme." And so this parliamente was dissolvede in the same day, and a newe parliamente assignede to be kepede in the name of kynge Henricus þe iiijthe, whiche scholde begynne in the day folowynge the feste of the translacion of seynte Edward Confessor. In whiche day kynge Henricus, the iiijthe after the conqueste, was crownede with grete solennite, syr Henricus Persy, erle of Northumbrelonde, presente, and mony other noblemen of the londe. And in the day nexte folowynge thei wente into the parliamente, where a certificacioun was hade of the dethe of Thomas somme tyme duke of Glocestre, how maliciously he was put to dethe by Thomas Moubray, duke of Northefolke, and capiteyne that tyme of Calys, by commaundemente of kynge Richarde. Whiche story we schalle expresse here in parte, whiche was taken at Plesch by kynge Ricardus and sende to Calys, as hit is schewede afore. But a mervellous processe folowethe nowe and a wickede, how he was putte to dethe; for hit is to be mervaylede that a kynges sonne, a noble knyȝhte, and so gentylle a duke scholde dye in so vile a dethe. This duke laborynge in grete infirmite was brouȝhte to Calys and [folio 440b] put into streyte kepynge with grete peynes and mony, ffor the kynge sende to Calys oftetymes prively that thei scholde schorte his dayes with owte effusion of bloode. And at the laste they brouȝhte hym furthe in a nyȝhte unto a chambre with owte eny lyȝhte, where they hade made redy a feþer|bedde, seyenge to hym "Make haste and dispose for thy sawle, for the tyme of thy dethe drawethe nere, by the precepte of kynge Richard." The duke seide: "Allas, frendes! God have mercy on yow; wylle my lorde and kynge that y dye in this wyse lyke a swyne? Neverthelesse y take me to the wylle and mercy of Criste my maker, preyenge yow that y may ȝiffe certeyn lawde to hym afore my dethe." That doen, he seide, "Performe that ye have intended: y truste in the Trinite, y schalle not drede whatsoever thynge that a man dothe to me." Then thei toke and put hym on a feder|bedde, puttenge on hym an oþer, and tredynge on hym unto the tyme that he was dedde; and þer were v. men at the puttynge of hym to dethe, whiche escapede not withowte vengeaunce, God be thonkede! And the body of the seide duke was sende Page  511, vol.8 to Ynglonde, and beryede at London in the churche of Seynte Paule with grete honoure. Thomas Arundell, archebischop somme tyme of Cawnterbery, was restorede to that seete by the pope, and Iohn Walden was deposede; and alle lordes erecte by kynge Ricardus in þe xxj. yere of his reigne into markesse, dukes, or into erles, were redacte in this parliamente unto theire olde state. And Thomas late erle of Warwyke was callede from exile to his enheritaunce, and Thomas Arundell, sonne and heire of Ricardus erle of Arundell, was restorede to his londes and enheritaunce. Also the lorde Cobham, putte to exile in to þe yle of Gersey, was restorede to his enheritaunce; and alle oþer lordes putte into exile in þe xxjti yere of þe reigne of kynge Richarde were restorede unto theire enheritaunces, excepte that thei scholde not make eny cleyme ageyne the occupyers of theire possessions in the meane tyme. And that parliamente of kynge Ricardus was made voyde and as of noo valoure, with alle thynges dependynge of hit. Also kynge Henricus þe iiijthe made a constitucion that eny man resortynge to hym from his commynge into Ynglonde unto þe tyme and [folio 441a] day of his coronacion, for eny dethe of man, trespasse, or offense, in the kynges presence or absence, scholde not be vexede or grevyde in eny wyse. But he commaunded that and if eny man hade doen eny offence after the tyme of the coronacion of the kynge, withowte he hade a specialle precept of the kynge.*. [Sic in MS.] After a constitucion was made in the same parliamente that archebischop, bischop, abbot, prior, or eny other spirituall lorde or temporall of whatsoever condicion or state, that he scholde not ȝiffe eny lyvery of clothe but to peple of the private howseholde, and to men of theire cownsayle which be instructe in the lawes, whiche statute was ordeynede to take vertu and begynnynge at the feste of the Purificacion of oure Lady nexte folowynge. In whiche parliamente the commune peple desyrede instantely diverse lordes to be iuggede for treason and wykked governaunce of the realme and of the kynge; but the kynge preyede the peple to suffre as for a sea|son. That parliament dissolvede, diverse lordes hade ymaginede to have sleyne kynge Henricus prively, the names of whom schall be expressede soon after [it].*. [Sic in MS.] Neverthelesse, the mayre of London havynge certeyne knowlege þereof wente in grete haste to Wyndeshore to þe kynge, and causede hym to comme to London, and so he escapede þeire hondes. And abowte the Epiphanye nexte folowynge, the erle off Kente and the erle of Salisbery sorowede moche that thei myȝhte not performe theire purpose, and thenkynge if þey myȝhte in eny wyse that thei wolde delyver kynge Ricardus from prison. And so thei come to Farinton, into Barkeschire, movynge the peple to aryse and to Page  512, vol.8 helpe theire kynge from prison, goynge to Cirencestre that same day, where thei made the same proclamacion. But the men of that towne tru to the kynge and to the realme fauȝte soore ageyn the lordes and theire men, where the lordes were taken and putte in sure kepynge in the monastery. Then the seide lordes dredynge the seide peple, commaundyd diverse of þeire men to sette fyre in diverse places of the towne, thenkynge þat the men of the towne wolde avoide from þeim, and by þat thei myȝhte escape. But men of that towne knowynge þat treason toke the lordes from the monastery and causede theyme to be hedede in the markete place in the thrydde day after þe Epi|phany. In whiche tyme a knyȝhte of the northe, syr Rawfe [folio 441b] Lumpney, was heded þer also. And syr Thomas Despenser was heded in the nexte weke folowynge in this maner. The seide lorde Despenser beynge in his castell at Kaerdef, the kynge sende a certeyne nowmbre of peple to those costes that thei scholde brynge hym to London wheþer he wolde or nay. But he knowynge hym selfe suspecte fledde with his goodes into a schippe, intendynge to fle into Fraunce. But the maister of the schippe corrupte with money hade hyddc prively in the body of þe schippes under hacches a xxti men of armes. And so thei saylynge in the myddes of þe water the maister of þe schippe inquirede whider he intended to sayle; the lorde seide into Fraunce; the maister of the schippe seide, "Truly þe moste sayle to Bristowe." The lorde seide, "Pre|sume not to do so, for thow schalle dye raþer with thys swerde." The men beynge under hacches did aryse and come to take the seide lorde. Neverthelesse the seide lorde fiȝht|ynge soore, and woundynge mony of theyme, was taken at the laste and brouȝte to Bristowe, and putte hym in the mayres prison. And in the secunde day folowynge the peple come to the mayre, cryenge and seyenge, "Brynge furthe that traytour to the kynge and to the realme, that he may be sleyne." And so at the laste they drawede hym from prison and heded hym at the crosse in the market place; the hedde of whom was sette on London brigge, beryede afterwarde at Tewkysbery at the instaunce off his moder. And soone after Iohn Holant, erle of Huntyndon, broþer to kynge Ricardus by reason of his moder, was taken at Plaschet in Estesex by the cowntesse of Herford, and was heded; and after that syr Walterus Brocas, knyȝhte, and oþer ij. clerkes, were drawen and hongede at London. Also the bischop of Karliell was convicte and condempnede for treason, and so by grete laboure he was suffrede to departe to his monastery, whiche cowthe not reioyce eny benefice in the tyme of kynge Henricus þe iiijthe. But O thow fortune, whiche scheweste pleasaunte aspecte to men in prosperite and chaunges thy whele in so schorte tyme, suffrenge men to falle from hye places to lawe! what Page  513, vol.8 presumpcion of audacite causede these lordes beynge in tran|quillite in the northe partes to come to the sowthe and suffre [folio 442a] dethe there. But a man may answere and say that they did aryse ageyne theire hedde and kynge, wherefore thei loste theire hedes by theire demerytes. Kynge Richarde herynge of the dethe of those lordes in whom alle his confidence was, dyede in prison for sorowe in the feste of seynte Valentyne, in the yere of oure Lorde Godde a M.CCC.XCIX. But y suppose that the oppinion of commune peple is moore tru whiche re|hersethe that he dyede in prison for hungre, and by the iuste iuggemente of God, wyllynge that he scholde dye with the swerde of hungre, whiche hade causede mony noble men to be sleyne insolentely with a swerde materiall in his tyme. This kynge Ricardus was of a commune stature, with yelowe heires, white in face lyke to a woman, havynge a grete impedimente in eloquency; inconstant of promysses, despysynge the cown|saile and company of olde men, drawynge to yonge men, ex|cessive in pride, ȝiffen gretely to lecchery, infortunate in batell, takynge in alle his lyfe mony taxes and tallages of the peple of his realme, excedynge in festes and in ȝiftes. But alle the goodes that he myȝhte gette were unnethe sufficiaunte to hym, for thei were spende by grete insolence. Neverthelesse the seide kynge luffede the churche of God, and promotede men of the churche, specially monkes of the blake ordre, and ȝafe to þe of Westmonastery unto the valoure of v. c. marke by yere to pray for hym: on the sawle of whom Iesu have mercy, Amen. And abowte the feste of þe Annunciacion of oure Lady, the kynge sende letters to diverse places of the northe that all men of the churche, freres excepte, scholde appere in armes defensive afore certeyne prelates ordeynede to see þeyme. Whiche answerede and seide that they were redy at all tymes to fullefyll the pleasure of the kynge. And abowte the feste of seynte Iohn Baptiste nexte folowynge, the kynge toke his iourneye towarde Scottelonde, but that iourneye prevaylede lytell or nouȝhte, a certeyne truse and fals pease taken betwene the realmes for a certeyne season. And so the kynge returnede from Scottelonde and commen to Leicestre herde straunge tythynges, how that men of Wales were gedrede in a grete multitude, and hade erecte into theire prince an esqwyer Owyn Glyndor by name, and trowbled the pease. The cause of that insurreccion folowethe. When that the kynge wente into Scottelonde, he sende letters to the seide Owyn Glyndor, in that he was a esqwyer of grete fame, that he scholde comme to hym in eny wise. The lorde Grey of Ruthyn was assignede [folio 442b] to bere the letters, whiche delyverede not the letters to the seide Owen untylle the day afore that the kynge toke his iourney unto Scotlonde. The letters taken and redde he excusede hym, seyenge that he hade not a competente monicion Page  514, vol.8 for suche a iourney. And so the lorde Grey levynge hym in Wales made grete haste unto the kynge, þat tyme in Scotte|londe, sayenge to hym that the seide Owyn despisynge his letters wolde not come in eny wyse. And so the kynge beynge stylle as for the tyme, made provision to go to that cuntre after his departynge from Scottelonde. And so the kynge entrede into Wales cowthe not fynde hym and his men, for they were hydde in caves and in mowntanes. Then the kynge seenge that he cowthe not prevayle, and þat his hoste pereschede for hungre, ȝafe to the lorde Gray the tenementes and londes of that esqwyer Owyn Glyndor, and returnede into Ynglonde. But the grawnte of þat londe caused grete trowble and hurte, as hit schalle be schewede hereafter, ffor after the departynge of þe kynge from Wales, Owyn Glyndor did aryse with his companye and wente to Ruthyn, a towne in Wales longynge to the seide lorde Gray, whom he spoylede firste, and that doen he destroyede hit utterly by fyre. Grete insolence of vesture began to encrease in the begynnynge of this kynge, and specially of gownes with longe pokus, made in the maner of a bagpype, usede indifferentely by ryche men and poore, whiche myȝhte be callede welle the receyvynge places of the develle; for men hydde in theym that they myȝhte gette, for somme of theyme were so longe that they were extente unto the grownde, and somme to þe knees. Whiche were demersede and maide moiste when men scholde serve theire lordes of potage or of sawce, tastynge of that liquore afore theire lordes, wherefore men say God to have punyschede and to punysche unto this tyme the realme of Ynglonde for insolente pride by Scottes, by men of Fraunce, and by men of Wales. Neverthelesse, peple awe to drede that with owte thei returne from pride inordinate that God wille schewe to theyme moore vengeaunce. A parliamente was holden in this yere after the feste of Cristemasse at Westemonastery, where a man, Walterus Sawtry by name, a Lollarde, and after his abiuracion detecte in [folio 443a] heresy, was brente miserably. In whiche yere the emperoure of Constantinopole come into Ynglonde, desirynge helpe of the kynge ageyne the paganes; whiche taryenge with the kynge by a certeyne tyme, and gretely rewardede, departyde unto his awne cuntre, desyrynge and besechynge the helpe of God, for he wonted the helpe of man; preyenge also that God wolde schewe somme token unto the Cristen sleyue in that batell, whereby they myȝhte be knowen. And so in the nyȝhte afore the day of batelle a voyce apperede to hym, and bade that he scholde not drede, for God hade ordeynede a glorious victory to hym. The hostes mette to gedre on Goode Friday, and as innumerable peple of the pagans were sleyne, and oþer causede to flee. That batelle doen, the emperoure wente into the felde to see the peple that were sleyne of his parte, whiche founde Page  515, vol.8 Cristen men sleyne þer lyenge on theire ryȝhte syde, and an hoste in theire mowthe, in a signe of the blissede communion, sende from hevyn by the powere of God. The emperoure seenge þat enioyede gretely, ȝiffenge grete lawde to allemyȝhty Godde, commaundynge þeim to be beryede after the maner of Cristen peple: whiche narracion y committe to the wylle of þe reder as to the credence of hit, neverthelesse scripture afferm|ethe alle thynges to be possible to a man belevynge, and eny thynge is not impossible as anendes Godde. The kynge purposynge to correcte the men of Wales, causynge grete trowble come in the same yere to Evisham in the secunde tyme with a grete companye of knyȝhtes and oþer peple, taryenge þer into the thrydde day after dyner, and after that to Worcestre, and so into Wales. Whiche taryenge þer by a monethe, profite lytelle for the cause of his commynge, but that he did sle oon man of Wales whiche promysede to brynge the kynge to Owen Glendor, and he performede not his promyse. The man in|quirede why that he fullefyllede not the promise made to the kynge, answerede sayenge he hade lever suffre dethe then to detecte the secrete cownsayle of the seide Owyn, in that he had ij. sonnes with hym. In whiche tyme the kynge made poore þe monastery of Stretflur, insomoche that he lefte not oon monke in hit; where oon of the monkes was heded in that he bare armoure ageyne the kynge and pease. Neverthelesse the kynge see not the seide Owyn Glyndor neiþer hade under|stondynge where he was or in what place; and so certeyne [folio 443b] men putte in diverse castells of Wales, the kynge returnede to London with his hoste. Owyn Glyndor understondynge the departynge of the kynge, spoylede a towne callede Poole, and did grete hurte, and brente mony places of hyt. Tidemannus bischop of Worcestre diede in this tyme, whom Ricardus Clifford succedid by eleccion. And Isabell, wife of kynge Ricardus, and somme tyme qwene of Ynglonde, departede from Ynglonde to the kynge of Fraunce, her fader, abowte þe nativite of seynte Iohn Baptiste. A grete derthe of cornes was in this tyme in Ynglonde, insomoche that a buschell of whete was solde by oon yere for ij. s., or oþer while for ij. s. vj. d. Also the kynge goynge to his bedde at Westemonastery abowte the Nativite of oure Lady, founde an horrible instrumente wher|with he scholde have bene sleyne if that he hade goen to bedde hastely. But as God wolde he escapede with owte eny hurte, schewynge hit to mony peple, and seyenge, "Beholde, frendes, y am beholden to my Lorde Godde, whiche wolde not that y scholde dye ȝitte in suche dethe." The smyth was taken anoon by commaundemente of the kynge, whiche inquirede by the kynge wheþer þat he made þat instrumente, confessede openly that he made that instrumente by the meane and movynge of a man longynge to Isabell the qwene. That man was areste anoon, whiche denyede utterly that he commaundede Page  516, vol.8 to make that instrumente, and soe by longe continuacion a verey prove cowthe not be hade in that mater, wherefore the kynge grawntede to þeim bothe theire lyves, and were suffrede to departe. The kynge intendynge to destroye the seide Owyn Glyndor wente towarde Wales in the thrydde tyme, and come to Evysham, taryenge þer by thre dayes, and after that he wente to Worchestre in the viijthe day of October, taryenge þer by ix. dayes. Neverthelesse hit was not seen afore that tyme, a kynge of Ynglonde to have taryede thryes in þat monastery in oon yere afore that tyme. Where diverse noble men movede the kynge that he scholde commaunde lordes and oþer gentyll men that hade eny lyvelode þer to kepe þat cuntre for theire awne avayle; that doen the kynge departede unto London. A [folio 444a] blasynge sterre was seene in the weste in this yere abowte the feste of the Purificacion of oure Lady, contynuynge and ap|perynge in diverse tymes unto Ester nexte folowynge. And in the same yere in Lente the lorde Gray of Ruthyn, beynge in his castelle at Ruthyn in Wales, hade knowlege that Owyn Glyndor was nye to hym with fewe men, and so he made hym redy with a certeyne nowmbre of men, and wente to fiȝhte with hym. The seide Owyn Glyndor seenge hym, fledde untylle þat he was by a certeyne space from the castell, that the lorde scholde not escape, for he lade mony men of Wales secretely in diverse places, and so that lorde Grey was compas|sede abowte by his enemyes, and taken and bownde faste in cheynes and brouȝhte unto Snawdon hilles. And so the seide lorde Grey intendynge to have hade a grete pray, was made a pray to his adversaryes. Also syr Edmund Mortymere, knyȝhte, was taken by the seide Owyn Glendor; for the seide knyȝhte beynge in Ludlowe hade worde that the seide Owyn Glyndor was on a hylle nye to Ludlowe, with a fewe men in his companye. Wherefore the seide knyȝhte sende to his tenaunteȝ of Milenythe in Wales, that thei scholde comme to hym in armes in alle haste. Those men commen the knyȝte wente to that hille boldely, and ȝafe batell to þeim, but the seide men of Wales that come with hym returnede to Owyn Glendor, and fauȝhte ageyne theire lorde, and so he was taken þer and mony other with hym. But þer was oon man of Wales þer soe myȝhty and cruell, that was callede Rees, a Gythe, whiche did sle, wounde, or take into captivite every man þat ȝafe resistence to hym. In whiche conflicte iiij. men of Ynglonde were sleyne, and iiij. knyȝhtes: where men lay dedde in theire awne bloode under the feete of horses, and were prohibite to be beryede by a certeyne season. And a certeyne signe schewede in the byrthe of the seide syr Edmunde semede to be fullefyllede in that tyme, for when he come into this worlde from the wombe of his moder, the horses in the stable stode in bloode unto the knees. Neverthelesse Owyn Glendor entretede hym lyke a gentylman, thenkynge Page  517, vol.8 that he scholde reioyce the crowne of Ynglonde after kynge Henricus þe iiijthe. And from that tyme Owyn Glendor en|creasede [folio 444b] in powere and in myȝhte, and the power of men of Ynglonde decreasede. Blanche, the firste doȝhter of kynge Henricus, saylede over see in this yere to be maryede to the sonne of the emperoure of Alemayne, for whiche mariage the kynge desyrede and hade xxti s. of every knyȝhtes see in Ynglonde. In whiche yere a prior at Lawnde deposede for his demerite, and after chapeleyne to the pope, havynge ix. freres of þe ordre of Minors with hym, prechede openly that kynge Ricardus was on lyve, to excite the peple ageyne kynge Henricus; wherefore thei were drawen and honged at West|monastery, and ij. oþer freres at Leicestre for þe same mater. Edmund Langley, duke of Yorke, dyede abowte the feste of the Assumpcion of oure Lady. And kynge Henricus wente into Wales ageyne with a grete powere abowte the feste of the Decollacion of seynte Iohn Baptiste, and taryede þer xxti dayes, losynge mony men of his hoste, and returnede into Yng|londe with owte eny victory. And in the same yere abowte the feste of the Exaltacion of the Holy Crosse, the Scottes, luffynge trowble and gwerre, were gedred in xij. or xiij. M. in nowmbre, and xxxti spere men of Fraunce, intendynge to spoyle the northe costes of Ynglonde, but as God wolde thei hade a grete falle. For men of Ynglonde havynge knowlege þerof, were gedred unto the nowmbre of xxti M. of speeres and archers, the capiteynes of whom were the erle of Dunbar, the erle of Northumbrelonde, syr Henricus Persy the elder, and syr Henricus Persy the yonger, the lorde Fiȝhehewy, syr Rawfe Ewre, and the baron of Greystok, noble men and ex|perte of marte or batell. The hostes mette, men of Ynglonde spende theire arowes well, after the cownsayle of the erle of Dunbarre, naylynge faste the salettes of the Scottes to theire hedes, insomoche that v. erles were taken þer with in the space of an howre, the erles of Duglas, of Vyf, of Murrey, of Anguys, and of Orkeneye. Also viij. barons and baronettes were taken. lorde Thomas Erskyn, þe lorde Mungumrey, Iohn lorde Sty|warde of Andrenethe, the lorde Patryk of Graym, syr Iames Duglas of Daweth, syr Robert Logan of Bestabrythe, Adam Forster, and syr William Styward, a man of Ynglonde and a traytoure, and xxxti knyȝhtes, with ix. c. men of armes and xxxti speeremen of Fraunce. In whiche conflicte syr Iohn [folio 445a] Swynton, knyȝhte, of Gurdon, with oþer vij. c. men, were sleyne, whom men of Ynglonde pursuede into Scotlonde, where a M. Scottes were drownede, as hit was reportede, and v. men of Ynglonde were sleyne in this conflicte. A parliamente was begunne þis yere at Westmonastery in the firste day of the monethe of October, and was contynuede unto the feste of seynte Kateryne, in whom oon dyme and an halfe was grawn|tede Page  518, vol.8 to the kynge by the cleregy, and oon xvthe of the commune peple, to be payede at thre tymes by egall porcions, at Ester, at Myddesomer, and at the feste of seynte Michael nexte folow|ynge. Also H. Bowette bischop of Bathe, was amovede from the office of the treasury in this parliamente, and the bischop of London was subrogate into that office. But þer was noo provision made in this parliamente for men of Wales, causynge moche peple to mervayle, in that thei supposede the subsidy to have bene askede þerfore. And in the same yere, abowte the feste of seynte Martyne bischop, the seide Grey of Ruthyn was delyverede from Owyn Glendor, v. M. marke payede afore, and ij. of his sonnes lefte in the kepynge of the seide Owyn for oþer v. M. marke to be payede to hym. In whiche yere syr Edmund Mortymere, of whom we have made mencion afore, maryede the doȝhter of Owyn Glendor abowte þe feste of seynte Andrewe thapostle, with grete solennite; and so that knyȝhte turnede holly to men of Wales, as hit was seide. In whiche yere on þe xvij. kalendes of Ianuarius, the schryne of Hayles was robbed, in whom the precious bloode of Criste was putte, havynge hurte doen þer unto þe valoure of a M. marke, after the estimacion of men; for hit was accompted at that tyme the rycheste schryne in Ynglonde, that schryne of seynte Thomas of Cawnterbery excepte. And soone after the shryne of seynte Edward at Westmonastery was spoylede of grete rychesse and iewells, and specially of oon table of golde.

Laus summo Regi.

Kynge William Conqueroure.
This myȝhty William duke of Normandy,
As bookes olde makethe mencion,
By iuste title and by his chevalrye
Made kynge by conqueste of Brutes Albyon,
Put Harolde owte of possession,
Bare his crowne fulle oon and twenty yere;
Buryede at Cane, thus seithe the croniclere.
Kynge Willyam Rufus.
Nexte in ordre by succession,
Wyllyam Rufus his sonne nexte crownede kynge,
Whiche to Godward hade litell devocion;
Destroyede churches of newe and olde byldynge
To make a foreste pleasaunte for huntynge.
Fouretene yere bare he his crowne in dede;
Beryede at Wynchestre in cronicle ye may rede. Page  519, vol.8
Kynge Henry the Firste. [folio 447a]
His brother nexte, callede the firste Henry,
Was at London crownede, as y fynde;
Whos broþer Roberte duke of Normandy
Gan hym werre, the cronicle makeþ ende;
Reconsilede alle rancoure sette behynde.
Thre and thretty yere, as recordethe wrytynge,
Reignede fully, and buryede at Rydynge.
Kynge Stephen.
Hys cosyn Stephen, when Henry was dedde,
Towarde Englonde gan crosse his sayle.
The archebischop sette on his hedde
A ryche crowne, beynge of his cownsayle.
XIX. yere with sorowe and grete travayle
He bare his crowne, but hade noo reste;
At Faversham lythe buryede in a cheste.
Kynge Henry the Secund.
Henry the secunde, sonne of the empresse,
Was crownede nexte; a manly knyȝhte,
As bookes olde pleynly expresse.
That same Henry by froward myȝhte
Did sle seynte Thomas for the churche ryȝhte.
Yeres xxxvti reignede, as hit is made mynde;
At Fonte Ebrard lythe buryede, as y fynde.
Kynge Richard þe Firste.
Richard his sonne nexte by succession,
Firste of that name, stronge, hardy, and notable,
Was crownede kynge, callede Cour de Lyon.
With Saresones hedes servede at his table.
Sleyne at Galyarde, with dethe full lamentable.
The space he reignede fulle of x. yere.
His herte buryede at Roone at þe highe awtere.
Kynge Iohn. [folio 447b]
Nexte kynge Richard reignede his brother Ion.
After soone entrede into Fraunce.
Loste alle Angeye and Normandy anon,
This londe entertyted by his misgovernaunce.
And alle this putte in remembraunce,
Xviij. yere kynge of this region;
Lyethe at Worcestre, and dyde on poyson. Page  520, vol.8
Kynge Henry the Thrydde.
Henry the thrydde, his sonne of ix. yere age,
Was at Gloucestre crownede, as y rede.
Longe werre hade he with his baronage;
Gretely delytede in almes dede.
Sex and fyfty yere reignede he in dede;
Buryede at Westmynstre by recorde of wrytynge,
The day of seynte Edward, maide martir and kynge.
Kynge Edwarde the Firste.
The firste Edwarde with the shankes longe,
Was after crownede, that was so goode a knyȝhte;
Wan Scotlonde, magre the Scottes stronge,
And Wales also, despite of alle theire myȝhte.
Durynge his lyfe mayntenede trawþe and ryȝhte.
Xxxvti yere he was here kynge;
Lyethe at Westmynstre with owte lesynge.
Kynge Edward the Secunde. [folio 448a]
Edward hys sonne, callede of Carnarvan,
Succedid after; to make his aliaunce,
As the cronicle welle reherse can,
Wedded Isabell, doȝter of the kynge of Fraunce.
On Thomas of Lancastre he toke vengeaunce.
Xix. yere helde he the regalye;
Buryede at Gloucestre, as bookes specifye.
Kynge Edward the thrydde.
The thrydde Edward borne at Wyndeshore,
Whiche in knyȝhtehode hadde so grete pryse;
Enheritore of Fraunce, withowte moore,
Bare in his armes quarterlette thre floure de lyse,
And he gate Caleys by his prudence devyse.
Reignede in Englonde lijti yere;
Lyethe at Westmynstre, suche is the croniclere.
Kinge Richard þe Secunde.
Sonne of prince Edwarde, Richarde kynge þe secounde,
In whos tyme was peas and grete plente;
Wedded qwene Anne of Beme, as hit is founde,
And after Isabell of Fraunce, who luste to se,
Xxijti yere reignede he harde.
At Langeley buryede firste, so stode þe cas,
After to Westmynstre his body caryede was. Page  521, vol.8
Kynge Henry the iiijthe. [folio 448b]
Henry the iiijthe, crownede in certeyne,
A famose knyȝhte and of grete semelynesse,
From his exile when he come home ageyne,
Travaylede after with werre and grete sekenesse;
Xiiij. yere reignede he in sothenesse;
Buryede at Cawnterbery, in that holy place:
God for his mercy do his sawle goode grace.
Kynge Henry the vthe.
The fifthe Henry, of knyȝhtehode the lodesterre,
Wyse and fulle manly, pleynly to termyne,
Ryȝhte fortunate provede in alle maner werre,
Grete experte in merciable disciplyne,
Worthy to stonde amonge the worthy nyne;
Reignede ix. yere and halfe, who luste have rewarde;
Buryede at Westmynstre, not ferre from seynte Edwarde.
Kynge Henry the Sixte.
The sixte Henry brouȝte furthe in alle vertu,
By iuste titull borne to enheritaunce,
Afore provided by Criste Iesu
To were ij. crownes of Ynglonde and of Fraunce,
To whom Gode hathe ȝiffe sovereigne sufficiaunce
With vertuous life, and chose hym to his knyȝhte,
Longe to reioyce and reigne here in his ryȝhte.
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