Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.
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Capitulum primum. Marianus, libro secundo.

ALUREDUS, the iiijthe son in byrthe, succedid after his breþer to the holle monarchye of the Westesaxons, whom he governede myȝhtely xxxti yere, but with grete and soore laboure. Of the begynnynge, progresse, and ende whom hit is to be adver|tisede that Aluredus was beawtuous of schappe, luffede moore of fader and moder then his oþer breþer, taryenge not instructe Page  355, vol.6 in eny science in his faders courte unto the xijthe yere of his age. But after that he tauȝhte poemes or metres in the lan|gage of Saxons, kepede theyme in his mynde, experte in the arte of huntynge, and specially in geometry; compacte psalmes and preyers into oon boke, whiche callynge hit a hondebooke, [folio 297b] bare hit besily with hym; also he gate not gramer perfitely, for that tyme þer was not oon techer of gramer in alle his realme.*. [Here is a marginal note in a later hand, "And none at Cam|bridge nor at Granchester. So Oxenford the firste Universitie, and one Scotus, borne at St. Davids, in Wales, was the firste that professed learninge in that Academie. There was a Coledge at St. Davids before that tyme.] Wherefore he ordeynede firste at Oxenforde scoles*. [Of the uni|versite of Oxenford.] of diverse artes after the cownsaile of Neotus thabbot, whom he visitte moche; whiche cite he causede to have grete privi|legys in mony thynges. Whiche wolde not suffre eny man illiterate to enioye eny benefice, and turnede noble lawes into Ynglische. At the laste he laborynge to translate the sawter, Page  357, vol.6 dyede soone after, unnethe the firste parte of hit complete. This Aluredus encreasede in age, wyllynge to fixe his mynde in the drede and lawes of God, and not havynge powere to per|forme his wylle for sensualite trowblynge hym soore, entrede into churches in the morowe, in the eve, and in mony other tymes, preyenge Allemyȝhty God to punysche his flesche soe with suche infirmite that scholde avoide that temptacion, so that he myȝhte applye hym to worldely thynges and profitable. Wherefore he suffrede by the wylle of God the flix by mony yeres; whiche beynge as in despaire as for that sekenesse or passion, wente to Cornewaile to the churche of seynte Guer|oure, where Neotus the confessor restethe, other for that passion to be mitigate other to be chaungede. ℞. But mony men say that he was healede by seynte Modwenne, virgyn, of Yrlonde, Page  359, vol.6 of þat passion; but, his promyse broken, that infirmite con|tynuede with hym in tyme of matrimony from xxti yere unto the xlvthe yere more grevous þen hit was afore. Whiche gate of Ethelswitha, his qwene, ij. sonnes, Edwarde the senior and Egelwardus, and iij. doȝhters, Elfleda, lady of the Marches, Ethel|gora, a myncheon, and Elfrida, whom he causede to be informede in the artes liberalle. Alurede, a ȝiffer of almes, herer of masses, the intracer of artes not knowen, callede to hym seynte Grimbalde the monke, nobly instructe in litterature and in musyke, from the partes of Fraunce, and a monke callede Iohn from the monastery of Seynte David in Menevia, that he myȝhte be informede. Whiche provokede so moche þe noble men of his realme to learn that other they scholde sende þeire sonnes to the scole, and if thei hade noo childer they scholde sende theire [folio 298a] Page  361, vol.6 servauntes to the study, if thei were capax of conynge, liberte grauntede afore to theym with a sufficient exhibicion. Whiche ȝafe grete attendaunce to the dedes of his ministres, and specially off iugges, in so moche that he wolde amove theyme from theire office if that he hade knowlege that they errede from the wey of ryȝhte by avarice or eny other meane. Also he causede Wilfrithe bischop of Worchestre to translate the dialogges of seynte Gregory into the langage of Saxons. Wil|lemus de Regibus, libro primo. This kynge divided alle his proventes into ij. partes, oon parte whereof he subdivided ageyne into thre partes, distributynge oon parte to his ministres, whiche were divided into thre companies. For ij. partes of the kynges ministres hade licence to kepe theire awne places for theire profite for ij. monthes, and in the thrydde monethe alle the ministres of the kynge scholde come and do hym servyce. Also he assignede an oþer parte of the thre to diverse laborers Page  363, vol.6 whom he causede to be occupiede in diverse costes; he ȝafe the thrydde parte to aliaunteȝ and pilgremes commynge to hym. Also he divided the secunde principalle parte of his proventes into iiij. partes, the firste parte of whom he ȝafe to poore men, the secunde parte to fundacions of monasterys, the thryd parte to scolers at Oxforde, the iiijthe parte was assignede to the reparacion of churches. Whiche wyllynge to spende his lyfe egally, dividede the day naturalle into thre partes, disposynge viij. howres in redynge, writynge, and in preyenge, viij. howres to the cures of his body, and viij. howres to the utilite of the realme. To the distinccion of whiche þinge he putte a candelle in his chapel of xxiiijti partes, and after the consumpcion of the partes he disposede hym to his ordinaunce. Also he fauȝhte*. [A batell of Ynglysh men ageyne þe Danes.] with the Danes at Wilton soore in the firste monethe of his reigne, for men of Ynglonde were decreasede moche by viij. batells that thei hade in oon yere, þerfore men of Ynglonde Page  365, vol.6 toke pease that yere with the Danes in this condicion, that the Danes scholde departe from theym, and so they did, for thei wente to London in that yere, and in the yere folowynge to Lindesey, and after that to Rependon. Charls the senior, broþer to Lodowicus the thrydde, wente to Rome after the dethe of his broþer, and was crownede emperoure of pope Iohn, and reignede ij. yere. For this Charls beynge at the cite Papy, and herynge the commynge of Karolomannus, son of his broþer, dredynge hym fledde towarde Fraunce, and diede at Alpes. After whom Lodowicus his son reignede ij. yere, whom Charls [folio 298b] þe yonger succedid, sonne of Lodowicus þe þridde, and reignede x. yere. The Danes levynge Lindisey in this yere come to Rependon, where Burdredus kynge of Marches expulsede, thei toke that realme to Colwulphus, a ministre of kynge Burdredus, in this condicion, that they scholde reioyce that realme when Page  367, vol.6 thei wolde. But thre yere paste þey divided that realme amonge theyme, and toke parte to Colwulphus, whiche was also laste of kynges of the Marches. After the dethe of whom, kynge Alurede toke London and parte of Colwulphus to his realme. The Danes beynge at this tyme in Rependon, citesynnes of Ham|burga, beynge v. myles from theym, were gretely aferde, and toke the body of seynte Werburga, untille that tyme incorrupte, and did translate hit to Chestre, as unto a place of suerte. Kynge Alurede toke pease with the Danes in this yere, for cause thei hade sleyne alle his horses in oon nyȝhte, wherewith he was trowblede, and causede theym to flee to Excestre, where borowes ȝiffen thei taryede by oon yere. Henricus, libro quinto. Rollo, a noble man of the Danes, entrede this tyme into Nor|mandy, in whom he reignede by xlti yere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. A man callede Hastingus by name, and after that Rollo Noricus, expulsede from theire cuntre by precepte of the Page  369, vol.6 kynge, and so wontynge a cuntre, and gedrenge a grete multitude of peple, kepede the see and grownde from the occean of Briteyne unto the see Tyrene, and so come at the laste to Carno|tum. Where the citesynnes not trusting in the defense of the walles, toke the smokke of oure lady, whom Carolus Calvus brouȝhte from Constantinopole, and sette hit on the walles of the cite in the maner of a baner; and the enemyes schotynge at hit, and havynge hit in derision, were made blynde. Never|thelesse Rollo fledde, and occupiede Roone in the yere of oure Lorde viijc. lxxvj., in the yere afore the dethe of Karelus Calvus, Lodowicus the sonne of whom hade victory ageyne the Normannes, but he expulsed theyme not. And Charls the Simple, brother of this Lodowicus, devicte oftetymes by this Rollo, accorded with hym at the laste by his cownesaile, that Rollo scholde be baptized, and knowlege hym to have Nor|mandy Page  371, vol.6 and Armorik of the kynge of Fraunce, as of his lorde. That doen, men of Fraunce stondynge þer movede Rollo to kysse the kynges fote. But Rollo havenge indignacion to bowe soe lawe, in drawenge the kynges fote to his mowthe causede the kynge to have a falle, wherewith the Normannes did lauȝhe. But Rollo excusede that offense doen by the use of his cuntre; [folio 299a] whiche goynge after that to Roone and disposynge his goodes diede soone.

Capitulum secundum.

LODOWICUS Balbus reignede in Fraunce ij. yere. In the firste yere of whom the Danes saylynge from Warham towarde Excestre loste c. and xxti schippes by a grete tempeste. Never|thelesse a parte of theyme come to Cipenham, and occupiede Page  373, vol.6 hit with the cuntre abowte hit, mony Ynglische men other made subiecte to theyme or expulsede from þat coste. In whiche tempeste kynge Alurede hade an incerteyne lyfe with fewe men with hym in the costes of Somersete, havynge noon exhibicion but by theire pray by huntynge or by fischynge. At the laste the felowes of kynge Alurede goen to fische, and he laborenge to solace hym in meditacion of Scriptures, a pilgryme come to hym askenge almes in the name off God. Then Alurede the kynge, extendynge his hondes up to hevyn, seide: "I ȝiffe lawde to my God, whiche hathe visite his poore knyȝhte by a poore man in this day, whom hit pleasethe to require that he hathe ȝiffen, and that he desirethe to restore with lucre." The kynge callede anoon his ministre, whiche hade but a litelle brede and a litelle wyne, commaundynge the halfe parte of hit to be taken to the poore man. The poore man thonkede the kynge, and departynge lefte noo stappes Page  375, vol.6 of goynge after hym that cowthe be founde, and the bredde and wyne ȝiffen to the poore man were founde þer ageyne, and the men that wente to fische brouȝhte with theyme a grete multitude of fisches. The kynge beynge as in a dreame, and*. [Sic in MS.] man induede in pontificalles movede hym to luffe God, [folio 280b] to kepe riȝhteousenesse, mercy to poore men, and to schewe reverence to prestes, seyenge: "O my Alurede, Criste under|stondynge and knowynge thy conscience, puttethe an ende to thy grevaunce; myȝhty helpers schalle be with the to|morowe, thro helpe of whom thow schalle have victory of thyn enemyes." The kynge seide: "Who arte thow?" The oþer man seide: "I am Cuthberte, the pilgreme, to whom þow ȝafe almes ȝisterday, havynge remembraunce of the and of thy men. Remembre this when þow arte in prosperite." How kynge Alurede remembrede that pilgreme afterwarde, the liberte and possessions of the churche of Durham expresse at this tyme. Willelmus, libro secundo After that Alurede, Page  377, vol.6 takynge an oþer habite on hym, come*. [Sic in MS.] the Danes in the maner of a ioculer, whiche perceyvynge alle thynge at his pleasure, come to Ethelingum, schewynge to his felawes the ydelnesse of his enemyes. Wherefore he, takynge his men with hym, made a grete murdre of the Danes, and in the nexte day folow|ynge [folio 299b] men of Wilteschire, of Somerseteschire, and of Hampte|schire come to hym, thro helpe of whom he made the towre Ethelingum, that is callede by interpretacion, the yle of noble men, nye to Selwoode, þat is callede the grete woode, in so moche that the moste noble men of theym taken to plegge, Alurede toke Guttrum kyng of þe Danes from the fonte, and namede hym Adelstan, with xxxti other noblemen. Wherefore the provinces of Este Ynglonde and Northumbrelonde were ȝiffen to that kynge Guttrum, whom he calle Gurmund. But Page  379, vol.6 a man of Ethioppe chaungethe not lyȝhtely his coloure: that kynge Guttrum governynge those provinces in grete crude|lelite xj. yere, diede in the xijthe yere. The other Danes, not willynge to receyve the feithe of Criste, wente to the costes of Fraunce. That place Ethelingeseye is not an yle of the see, but hit is so inaccessible thro myres and waters, that hit may not be commyn to but by bootte or schippe, havynge in hit diverse kyndes of bestes of venery. Karolus Iunior, sonne of Lodowicus the thridde, reignede in Fraunce x. yere, whiche goynge from Alemayne, occupiede Ytaly a certeyne tyme, and was consecrate into themperour by Iohn the pope. In the tyme of whom the cuntre of Flaundres toke begynnynge as in worschippe, for Flandres afore was not of grete name, but hit was governede by forsters of the kynge of Fraunce. This Page  381, vol.6 Charls refusede his wife for overhuge familiarite betwene hir and the bischop Vercellense, makynge an open protestacion that he hade never knowlege of hir. The qwene ioyenge hir to be callede a virgyn, as for the kynge takynge a libelle of repudy, of repulsion,*. [Sic in MS.] entrede a monastery. This Charls goynge from Fraunce towarde Ytaly, in the xthe yere of his reigne, was poysonede by a Iewe, Sedechias by name, at Alpes. ℞. As hit semethe this is the Charls that maryede Gilla, his doȝhter geten by his firste wife, to duke Rollo, grauntynge with hir the duchery of Normandy, by whom Rollo hade noo childe. Wherefore he maryede Popa, doȝhter of Guido the erle Sil|vanectus, by whom he gate Gerlota and noble knyȝhte Wil|lelmus Longa Spata, William longe swerde. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo, in fine. Dunbertus, bischop of Wynchestre, dedde in this yere, kynge Aluredus made Dune|wulphus bischop, whom he founde kepynge bestes in tyme Page  383, vol.6 of his tribulacion; but the kynge perceyvynge the capacite of his witte, put hym to the scole, made bischop of Wynchestre after that. Kynge Alurede repairede the cite of Shaftesbury in this yere, as hit is schewede by a grete ston in the chapitre of the mynchons þer, havynge wrytynge in hit accordynge [folio 300a] þerto. Martinus the pope succedid Iohn oon yere, whiche releschede the scole of Saxons from every tribute, at the in|staunce of kynge Alurede, and sende also a grete parte of the holy crosse to hym. Agapitus the pope did succede Martyne oon yere. In whiche yere the Danes commynge from Fraunce segede the cite of Rochestre, and made a towre ageyne the ȝates of the cite. But the citesynnes defended the cite untille that kynge Alurede commynge, and takenge the horses of the Danes, compellede theyme to flee, and they fledde that tyme ageyne to Fraunce, but men of Ynglonde toke xvj. of theire Page  385, vol.6 schippes. The Danes entrenge the water of Sequana, segede the cite of Parise by oon yere. In whiche yere kynge Alurede repairede London, whom he toke to the kepynge of Etheldredus kynge of the Marches, and þen Ynglische men þat were dispersede come to kynge Alurede. In whiche tyme Alurede sende his almes to Rome and to Inde, and made ij. monasterys, oon of men at Ethelingisey, an oþer of women at Schaftesbury, where he made Ethelgof, his doȝhter, presidente. Adrian the thrydde succedid Agapitus the pope oon yere, whom Basilius succedid oon yere, whom Steven the pope did succede by vj. yere.

Capitulum tertium.

KAROLUS Iunior poysonede by a Iewe, as hit is seide afore, was soore seke. Wherefore Arnulphus, sonne of Karoloman|nus his broþer, was made kynge; but after the dethe of this Page  387, vol.6 Charls, þer were v, kynges made, but thempire contynuede with Arnulphus, whiche crownede by Formosus the pope, devicte the Normannes and Danes, whiche hade trowblede Fraunce by xlti yere. Neverthelesse this Arnulphus, vexede longe with grete infirmite, cowthe not have helpe by eny medicyne, but he was consumede by lyes or vermyn. Franco the archebischoppe of Roone, baptisede Rollo, and kynge Gut|trum diede. Willelmus de Regibus, libro ij o, in fine. The body of seynte Martyne beynge at Turon, was translate to Altisiodre, in to the churche of Seynte German, for the incursion of the Danes and of the Normannes, where mony miracles schewede, and the monkes Turonense stryvede ageyne the monkes of Altisiodore for the offrenges, and either of theym ascribede the offrenges to theire seynte. A convencion made, a leprous man was brouȝhte afore theym, whiche was healede anoon of that parte of his body turnede to seynte Martyn, that other [folio 300b] parte beynge corrupte; and that the thynge doen scholde not Page  389, vol.6 be ascribede to chaunce, thei turnede that other parte that was corrupte to seynte Martyn, and hit was made holle anoon. After that the monkes Turonense hade the offrenges untylle that he was caryede to þeim ageyne, after that tempeste mitigate. But those thynges happede þer not for the impotence of seynte German, but for cause that seynte German schewede favor to his gestes. Henricus, libro quinto. iiij. hostes of the Danes come in this yere ageyne kynge Alurede; oon in Northumbre|londe, anoþer in Este Ynglonde, the thrydde at Excestre, the iiij. at Westechestre. But the Danes were segede soe at Westechestre that thei did eite theire horses for hungre. Thre Scottes, Dusblan, Mahbon, Malmunyn, willenge to lede a per|fite life for Criste, takenge mete with theym for oon weke, entrede a boote made of ij. skynnes and a halfe, with owte eny sayle or oþer thynges to a boote necessary, saylede from Scotte|lande Page  391, vol.6 to Cornewaile in vij. daies, and wente to kynge Alurede, nye to that cuntre. Formosus the pope succedid Steven v. yere. Þis pope lefte the seete of the bischop Portuense for drede of pope Iohn; whiche callede ageyne, and not return|ynge, was excommunicate. But at the laste he come to Iohn the pope into Fraunce, where he was degradate unto the state of a layman, and coacte to swere that he scholde nevere receyve his office hade afore, neiþer to go to the cowrte of Rome in the tyme of his life. But he was restorede ageyne by Martyn, the successor of Iohn. Plegmundus, archebischop of Caunterbery, receyvynge his palle of the pope, and commen into Ynglonde, made vij. bischoppes in oon day. Kynge Alurede chasede aweye in this yere the Danes, firste from Kente, from Oxenforde, and from Chichestre. Henricus, libro quinto. The Danes beynge at Westechestre, compellede for hungre to leve those costes, robbede Northewales, and so they compassede cuntre tille they come to Este Ynglonde, where theire wifes were and schippes. The Danes returnynge thens, Page  393, vol.6 entrede the water of Luya, and made a castelle nye to hit; but men of London, thro helpe of the kynge, destroyede the castelle, and dividede that water into thre armes, so that the Danes myȝhte not gette furthe theire schippes. Wherefore the Danes levynge those schippes toke brigges nye to Severne and to Wales where they made a noble castelle, and so Yng|londe was vexede in þat thre yere with a threfolde pestilence, with the Danes, with the dethe of men, and with dethe of other bestes. Bonefacius the pope succedid Formosus xv. daies, whom Steven the vjthe did succede oon yere and thre monethes, [folio 301a] whiche levynge that oficce was made a monke. This man made bischop of Anagum by Formosus the pope, and after that made pope, schewede so grete persecucion to Formosus, that he revokede not oonly hys dedes, but also he causede the body of Formosus, beryede but late afore, to be brouȝhte to the Page  395, vol.6 consistory, and there the clothynge papalle taken awey, and indued with seculer clothynge, and after that, ij. of the fyn|gers of the ryȝhte honde kytte aweye, was caste into Tiber. Romanus the pope did succede Steven iiij. monethe. Lodowi|cus, the sonne of Arnulphus, reignede in Fraunce xij. yere; but he atteynede not the crowne of thempire, and so the sucession as from kynge Charls reioycede not thempire. In the tyme of whom were v. popes, Theodorus, Iohn, Leo, Bene|dicte, and Christofor; but Theodorus the secunde, beynge president as but oon monethe, revokede the dedes of pope Steven, and confermede the dedes of Formosus þe pope. Iohn the ixthe succedid, whiche kepynge a cowensaile at Ravenna dampnede also the dedes of Steven, and fauȝhte ageyne the Romanes. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Kynge Alurede diede in this yere, beryede in the chyrche at Wyn|chestre, Page  397, vol.6 and after that translate by Edwarde his son, and putte in the newe monastery. ℞. In lawde of whom Henricus, libro 7o, writethe in this wyse:

"Nobilitas innata tibi probitatis honorem
Armipotens Alurede dedit probitasque laborem
Perpetuusque labor nomen, cui mixta dolori
Gaudia semper erant spes semper mixta timori.
Si modo victus erat, ad crastina bella parabat.
Iam post transactos regni vitæque labores.
Christus ei sit vera quies sceptrumque perenne."
Page  399, vol.6

Capitulum quartum.

EDWARDE the senior reignede after his fader xxiiij. yere, not so gretely instructe in connynge as his fadre, but moore glorious in chevallery. Whiche made newe cites, repairede olde, encreasenge his realme moore then his fader; for he toke the kynges of Scottes, of men of Cumbrelonde, and of men of Wales into dedicacion, and gate Estesexe, Northumbrelonde, and the Marches from þe Danes after the dethe of Elfleda, his sustir. This kynge gate of Egwina, his firste wife, Ethelstan, his firste sonne; and of Edgiva he gate Edredus and Edwinus, and vj. doȝhters, oon of whom he mariede to Otho themperoure, an oþer to Charls, kynge of the weste men of Fraunce, the thrydde to Schitericus, kynge of Northumbrelonde. WillelmusPage  401, vol.6de Regibus, libro secundo. Also he gate of Ethelwitha, the thrydde wife, Edmundus and Edredus, whiche tweyne reignede after Ethelstan their broþer, by succession; also he gate ij. doȝhters, seynte Edburga, a virgyn sacrate to God, beriede at Wynchestre, and Edgiva, a woman of beawte sovereigne, [folio 301b] mariede to Lodowicus kynge of Aquitanny. This kynge causede his sonnes to be instructe in the artes liberalle, and his doȝhters to the nelde and distaffe. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Hit is rehersede of this virgyn Edburga, that when sche hade iij. yere in age her fader, willenge to prove wheþer sche scholde declyne to God or to the worlde, putte in oon parte of the chamber ornamentes of diverse possessions, and in that oþer parte chalices and vestimentes longynge to þe churche, and in an oþer parte broches and rynges. That yonge maide, brouȝhte to the chambre by here norische, was commaundid to chose of those þinge, and the yonge virgyn, Page  403, vol.6 crepynge on the grownde, toke the chalices and vesture long|ynge to the servyce of Criste. Then the fader kyssenge hit, seide: "Go wheder God callethe the;" after that sche was made a myncheon. Benedicte the iiijthe succedid Iohn the pope iij. yere. Seynte Grimbalde, confessore, and somme tyme the maister of kynge Alurede, diede at Wynchestre in this yere. Plegmundus, archebischop of Cawnterbury, made vij. bischoppes, assignenge theym to theire seetes, þis yere; v. of theym to the cuntres of Westesaxons; that is to say, oon at Wynchestre, an other at Cornewaile, oon at Schirburne, oon at Welles, and oon at Cridington. Also oon at the Southesaxons, and oon at the Marches, in Dorkinga; for the pope Formosus cursede kynge Edwarde and men of Ynglonde for the wont|ynge Page  405, vol.6 of bischoppes, lackynge þeim in Ynglonde by vij. yere. Brede wontede or faylede in Yrlonde this yere, for vermyn lyke to wontes were seene to descende from hevyn and to waste the cornes; but thei were eiecte thro preyer. Clito Ethelwol|dus, cosyn to kynge Edwarde, did ryse ageyne hym, and occupiede the cite off Wynburne, nye to Bathe, affermynge that he wolde be victor þere or he scholde dye. Neverthelesse he, takenge with hym a myncheon of the monastery of Wynburne in the nyȝhte, wente to the Danes of Northumbrelonde, ask|enge helpe of theyme. But kynge Edwarde folowede hym myȝhtely, in so moche that Clito, levynge Ynglonde, wente to Fraunce; and the kynge brouȝhte the myncheon with hym, and restorede her to here monastery. Neverthelesse Ethel|woldus come to Ynglonde ageyne þe same;*. [Sic in MS., yere being acci|dentally omitted.] whiche, ioynynge to hym þe Danes inhabitynge Este Ynglonde, entrede þe Marches, and destroyede the cuntre unto Crikelade, and after Page  407, vol.6 that passynge Thamys, spoylede the cuntre unto Bradenestoke. But the kynge folowynge hym on the backe, robbede from the water of Owse unto þe grownde of seynte Edmunde, com|maundenge his men that noo man scholde remayne after hym; neverthelesse men of Kente, despisynge the precepte of the [folio 303a] kynge, and taryenge þere, were sleyne of the Danes, and mony of theym also, amonge whom Clito Ethelwoldus was sleyne. Wherefore the Danes, perceyvynge kynde*. [Sic in MS.] Edwarde to be invincible, toke pease with hym. Leo the vthe succedid Bene|dict the pope ij. monethes; for Christofor, his preste, put hym in prison, and occupiede his seete; but he was eiecte after the iiijthe monethe paste. Sergius the iiijthe, puttynge awey Chris|tofor the pope, succedid hym vij. yere; whiche beynge a cardinalle diacon, and reprobate by Formosus the pope, wente Page  409, vol.6 to Fraunce, thro helpe of that cuntre made pope, causede, in a signe of vengeaunce, the body of Formosus the pope to be taken from the grownde, causenge hym to be heded and caste into the water of Tiber. But the body of the pope founde by fischers, was brouȝhte to the churche of Seynte Petyr, and the ymages of seyntes ȝafe venerable salutacion to hit. The cite callede Caerlegion, and nowe Westechestre, destroyede moche by the Danes, was repairede in this yere by Ethelrede, gover|noure of the Marches, and Elfleda his wife, and wallede newe, and made moore then it was afore by halfe parte, insomoche þat the castelle of hit, whiche was a grete space with owte þe walles, is now with in the walles. ℞. Kynge Edwarde made a castelle at Herdforde; and then the monastery Cluniacense was foundede by William the meke, prince of Burguyne, the firste abbot of whom was seynte Odo, the secunde seynte Page  411, vol.6 Maiolus. The monkes of whiche place, after Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto, were in the begynnynge ryche in the worlde, and bryȝhte in the religion of God. In whiche tyme Ethelredus and Elfleda his wife did translate the boones of seynte Oswalde the kynge from Bradeney to Glowcestre, where they made a monastery of Seynte Petre.

Capitulum quintum.

CONRADUS was made emperoure in Alemeyne after Lodo|wicus, and reignede vij. yere. Neverthelesse he is not annumerate amonge emperoures, in that he reignede not in Ytaly. In thys tyme the empyre faylede from men of Fraunce, and was reioycede by men of Ytaly and of Alemeyne; for Lodowicus his predecessor was not sufficiaunte to defende the empyre from the Longobardes; and so after that ij. men were emperours, oon in Alemayne, an oþer in Ytaly, unto the tymes [folio 302b] of Otho themperour, whiche reioycede all the empyre. Yng|lische Page  413, vol.6 men hade victory of the Danes in this yere, at Totenhale in Staffordschire. And after that kynge Edwarde did sle at Wodenesfelde ij. kynges, ij. erles, with mony thowsandes of the Danes of Northumbrelonde. Ethelredus, governoure and underkynge of the Marches, died; Elfleda, the wife of whom, and suster to kynge Edward, governede nobly the realme of the Marches, a longe tyme, London and Oxenforde excepte, whom the kynge retenede to hym selfe. Also sche repairede olde cites, and made mony newe, as Brumnisbury, Brugg on Severne, Thomeworthe nye to Lichefelde, Stafforde, Warwyke, Cheris|bury, Wadisbury, Edisbury in the foreste, nye to Chestre, whiche cites be nowe destroyede. Also sche made a cite with a castelle in þe northe coste of the Marches on the water of Mersee, callede that tyme Runcofan, and nowe Runcorne. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. This Elfleda, a myȝhty Page  415, vol.6 and noble woman, favor of citesynnes and drede of enemys, helpede and movede Edwarde the kynge here brother to edifye cites thro here counselle. Whiche provynge oonys by experience the peyne of childenge, abhorrede after that tyme the fleschely concupiscence, seyenge that hit was not conveniente to the doȝhter of a kynge to attende to voluptuosite, whom so grete incommodite scholde folowe. The Danes whiche hade bene in Fraunce by xxti yere, comme to Ynglonde þis yere, whiche goynge abowte Cornewaile, entrede the water of Severne, and robbede the costes nye to theyme, and toke a bischop of Briteyne at Irchenefelde, whom kynge Edwarde redemede for xlti. libræ. Also he chased his enemys into Yrlonde, mak|ynge towres of defense at the mowthe or durre of the water Avena, and oþer defenses at Buckyngham, on either parte of the water of Owse, subduynge to hym Turketillus, with the Danes inhabitynge Bedford and Northampton. Anastasius was pope ij. yere, whom Laudo succedid v. monethes,*. [yere in MS. before monethes, but erased.] in whiche yere Page  417, vol.6 men of Hungary nye to the water of Danubius wastede Ytaly. Iohn the xthe was pope xiiij. yere, sonne to Sergius the pope and bischop of Ravenum, thro helpe of whom Abericus the markesse expulsede Saracenys from Ytaly. Neverthelesse, a discorde movede betwene theyme, the pope expulsede Abericus from his cuntre, whiche movede soore þerwith brouȝhte men of Hungary into Ytaly, that wastede hyt, wherefore he was sleyne, and the pope was throteled of his knyȝhtes. Rollo the firste duke of Normandy, after the xlti yere of his governayle, diede [folio 303a] in this yere, whom William Longa Spata, his sonne, did succede xxvte yere. Elfleda, lady of the Marches, toke prayes in the londe of Britons at Brehnoc, and toke the wife of the kynge Wales, and renewede Westechestre. Edwarde the myȝhty prynce made the cites of Touchestre and of Wiggemore, and destroyede the defenses whom the Danes hade made at Themesforde. Elfleda, lady of the Marches, toke the cite of Derbey from þe Page  419, vol.6 Danes, where iiij. of hire men were sleyne. Henricus, the sonne of Otho duke of Saxony, reignede on the Alemaynes xviij. yere, and not in Ytaly, and þerfore thei be not annumerate amonge emperoures. This Henricus overcome men of Hungary, and converte William Longa Spata, duke of Normandy, to the feithe of Criste. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Elfleda ladye of the Marches diede this yere, þe xixte kalendes of Iulius, by v. yere afore the dethe of kynge Edwarde here brother, and was beryede in the churche of Seynte Petur at Gloucestre, whiche hir howsebonde and sche made uppon the boones of kynge Oswalde, translate by hir howsebonde and hir from Bradeney to that churche. But that churche destroyede by the Danes, Aldredus, archebischoppe of Yorke and of Worcestre, Page  421, vol.6 repairede the newe monastery that is þer nowe. And kynge Edwarde toke Elswina, doȝhter to Elfleda his suster, with hym into Westesex. ℞. Into the lawde of this noble lady Elfleda Henricus, libro quinto, rehersethe in this wise:

"O Elfleda potens, O terror virgo, virorum
Te probitas fecit nomen habere viri.
Te quoque splendidior fecit natura puellam
Victrix naturæ nomine digna viri.
Te mutare decet sed solum nomina sexus,
Te regina potens rexque trophea parans.
Jam nec*. [nunc, MS.] Cæsarei tantum meruere triumphi,
Cæsare splendidior, virgo, virago, vale."

Kynge Edwarde herynge of the dethe of his suster, subduede to hym Thomeworthe and Snotyngham, where he made a newe cite on the sowthe parte ageyne the olde cyte, makynge a Page  423, vol.6 brydde*. [Sic in MS.] over Trente, betwene bothe cites. Also after that in the same yere he toke þe kynge of Scottes, þe kynge of the Danes, and the kynge of Wales into dedicacion. Kynge Edwarde made a cite at*. [α, MS.] Thelewall in þe northe parte of þe Marches, nye the water of Mersee, where he put a certeyne knyȝtes; and after that he instorede the cite of Manicestre in þe sowthe costes of Northumbrelonde. Kynge Edwarde diede at Farndon xij. myle from Oxenforde, and beryede at Wyn|chestre in þe newe monastery, with diverse of his aunceturs.

Capitulum sextum.

ETHELSTANUS, the firste sonne of kynge Edwarde, was electe to be kynge at Kyngeston in Sowtherey, nye to London, whiche Page  425, vol.6 reignede xvj. yere. In the firste yere of whom a noble childe, Dunstan by name, was borne at Glassynbery, the lyfe of whom unto the ende was replete with vertues and miracles. Alfridus. Kynge Ethelstan maryede his suster to Schitericus, kynge of the Danes of Northumbrelonde; which dedde soone after þat mariage, Ethelstan expulsede his sonne, and toke that realme to his governayle. After that he toke in dedicacion Hoelus kynge of Britons, and Constantyne the kynge of Scottes, by soore battles: kynge Ethelstan makynge the seide Constantyne kynge of Scottes, seide, "Hit is moore glorious to make a kynge then to be a kynge." Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Also kynge Ethelstan maryede an oþer suster to Otho them|perour; of whom he receyvyd mony ȝiftes, as gemmes, and horses, and a veselle made of onichinus, transparente, and polischede by so subtile an arte þat a man myȝhte see in hit as cornes to growe, vynes to burion, and ymages of men to be Page  427, vol.6 movede. Also he receyvyde of Otho themperoure þe swerde of noble Constantyne, contenynge in letters of golde the name of his possessoure, in whom oon of the nayles of Criste was fixede, with whom he was made faste to þe holy crosse. And also the spere of grete Charls the myȝhty prince, whiche havynge hit hade alleweye victory, whom men say to have openede the syde of Criste. And the baner of Mauricius the martir, whom kynge Charls usede ageyne the Saracenys. And also a parte of the holy crosse, and parte of the crowne of þorne; parte of whom kynge Ethelstan sende to þe monastery of Malmes|bury. Martinus. Leo the vithe was pope iiij. yeres and vij. monethes; and Odo was made bischop of Wylton. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Frithstanus bischop of Wyn|chestre diede, whom Bristanus did succede, of whom hit is redde Page  429, vol.6 that he seide as dayly masse of requiem; whiche commynge into the churche yerde, and seyenge certeyne suffrages for dedde peple, seide in the ende "Requiescant in pace," where he herde as voices of an hoste infinite from the beryalles, seyenge, Amen. And Odo, was made archebischop of Cawnterbury. Stephanus þe vijthe was pope ij. yere, and Bristanus, bischop of Wynchestre, diede, whom Elphegus the monke did succede, nye cosyn to seynte Dunstan. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Whiche excludynge men penitent on Askewensday after the consuetude from the churche movede theyme to applye þeym to abstinence and chastite, and to refuse the pleasure of the flesche in þat holy tyme and season of Lente. Amonge whom [folio 304a] oon seide, "My lorde, I may not absteyne bothe from festes Page  431, vol.6 and from my wife. Neverthelesse y schalle take ageyne my wife tomorowe, whom y have putte from me for the season." To whom the bischop seide, "O wrecche, þow makes me soory; hase þow not in remembraunce that the nexte day schalle passe awey:" and in the nexte day folowynge he was founde dedde in his bedde. The seide bischoppe Elphegus makynge thre monkes prestes, Dunstan, Ethelwolde, and Ethelstan, the minis|tery complete seide, "I made this day, afore God, thre men into prestes, tweyne of whom schalle receyve the dignite of arche|bischophode, and þe thrydde schalle ende his lyfe miserably." Then Ethelstan, as of moste familiarite with hym, seide, "Schalle not y be a bischop." Seynte Elphegus seide, "Thow hase noo parte in that ordre, and also þou schalle not bere þat clothynge longe." Constantyne kynge of Scottes brekynge his promisse, Kynge Ethelstan gedrenge a grete hoste made haste to Scotte|londe, and in goynge þider he visitte Seynte Iohn of Beverlay, Page  433, vol.6 on the awter of whom he lefte his knyfe for a plegge, promis|ynge that, and if he returnede with victory, he scholde redeme his knyfe with a condigne price, whiche thynge he fullefillede. In returnynge after þe victory he prayede God and seynte Iohn of Beverlay, that thro his preyer he myȝhte have somme*. [Of the sub|jeccion of Scotte|londe unto Ynglonde.] evidente token thro whom men presente and to come myȝhte knowe that Scottes awe to be subiecte to Ynglische men by ryȝhte. Wherefore the kynge takynge his swerde smote a grete ston with hyt nye to the castelle of Dunbar, whiche ston was made holowe by that stroke by a spanne into hit. After that he redemyde his knyfe at Beverlay with regalle ȝiftes. Iohn the xjthe was pope oon yere, whom Leo the vijthe suc|cedid iij. yere and vj. monethes. Lodowicus, son to Charls the simple, and to*. [Sic.] þe doȝhter of E.*. [Sic.] kynge of Ynglonde, reignede after his fader in the weste partes of Fraunce, xix. yere. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Whiche trowblede soore of Cenbarbus apostata, askede helpe of his gentilmen, and þei ȝiffenge noo answere, a noble yonge man, Hew by name, son of the erle of Mownte Desire, toke the batelle for the kynge, and Page  435, vol.6 did sle his provoker. Wherefore that kynge, laborynge in infirmite, made that noble yonge man his heire, and soe the bloode of Charls seasede, or elles he hade noo childe, or elles he lyvede not longe; and this Hewe maryede another doȝhter of kynge Edwarde. The firste Otho, the firste son of Henry the firste, [folio 304b] emperoure of Alemayne, was emperoure xxxvijti yere. Whiche makenge a feste to his princes in the feste off Ester, or thei were sette, the sonne of a prince, after the condicion of a childe, toke a messe from the table, whom the kynges kerver hurte soore. The maister of the childe beholdynge that did welle nye sle that kerver; themperoure dampnynge hym anoon withowte audi|ence was allemoste throtelede by the same maister of the childe. But the kynge or emperoure departede from hym with grete peyne, commaundide that maister to be reservede to lyfe, seyenge that he was culpable, that he sparede not for honoure Page  437, vol.6 of the feste. Anlaf þe pagan, and sonne of Sithricus, kynge of Yrlonde and of mony oþer provinces, movede by Constan|tyne kynge of Scottes, his fader in lawe, entrede the water of Humbre with a grete navy of schippes; whom kynge Ethelstan, with Edmunde his broþer, mette at Brumford. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. When the hostes were nye togedre, Anlaf takenge an harpe in his hondes, come in the maner of an harper to the tentes of kynge Ethelstan, whiche beynge þer, seynge alle thynges to his pleasure, and takynge a rewarde for his laboure, hidde hit in the erthe. That thynge was per|ceyvyde by a man dwellynge somme tyme with Anlaf, and schewede after the departenge of Anlaf the processe to þe kynge Ethelstan. Then the kynge incusede hym that he schewede not that thynge afore. The man answeryde and seide, "O my lorde kynge, I ȝafe my feithe somme tyme to Anelaf, lyke as y have doen now to yow, wherefore and if y hade betrayede hym, Page  439, vol.6 ye wolde have seide y wolde have doen so in lyke wyse to youre person; þerfore here my cownseylle, remove thy tente, and when he commethe with grete haste, thow schalle avoide his purpose lyȝhtely." That doen, Anlaf commynge in the nyȝhte founde a bischoppe removynge his tentes, whom he woundede soore with mony of his men, and after that he entrede þe tentes of the kynge. The kynge makynge grete haste, his swerde felle owte from the schethe, and cryenge to God and seynte Aldelme, thro preiers of Odo the archebischop, beynge with hym in that tyme, founde the swerde in his schethe, whiche is kepede unto this tyme in the kynges treasure: that swerde is scharpe of oon parte, and wylle not receyve golde or silvyr. In whiche tyme Ethelstan the kynge, havynge helpe of God, chasede his enemyes by that morowe, and by alle the day folow|ynge, where Constantyne kynge of Scottes was sleyne, with*. [Instead of scharpe, the MS. had at first divisible, but the rubri|cator has written over it the substi|tuted adjective.]Page  441, vol.6 v. kynges, xij. dukes, and allemoste alle the multitude of men of Barbre. After that he tamede the sowthe Britons at Herd|forde, insomoche that thei ȝafe ȝerely to hym xx. li. of golde, and ccc. li. of sylvyr, and xxvxx.*. [Sic in MS., xx. being an ab|breviation of score. So that the three texts vary, the Latin having millia, and Trevisa, hondred.] oxen and kyen. Into the lawde of whom a metricion rehersethe in this wise: [folio 305a]

"Regia progenies produxit nobile stemma
Cum tenebris nostris illuxit splendida gemma,
Magnus Ethelstanus, patriæ decus, orbita recti;
Illustris probitas a vero nescia flecti."

Martinus the thrydde succedid Leo the pope iij. yere and vj. monethes. Kynge Ethelstan dedde in þis yere at Glow|cestre, withowte yssue, was beryede at Malmesbury; whom Edmunde his broþer did succede.

Capitulum septimum.

EDMUND, the broþer of kynge Ethelstan, havynge xxti yere in age, reignede allemoste vij. yere; whiche gate of Elgiva his Page  443, vol.6 qwene ij. sonnes, Edwyne and Edgare a pesable man. Willel|mus de Regibus, libro secundo. Men of Northehumberlonde rebellede, and callede Anelaf from Yrlonde, of whom kyng Edmund hade victory, and putte to exile Reynalde the son of Gurmund, and toke Northumbrelonde to his lordeschippe, and wastede Cumbrelonde, rebellynge also; whom he toke to Mal|colmus kynge of Scottelande, that he scholde be tru to hym. ℞. In that travayle hit semethe that kynge Edmunde toke the boones of Colfridus thabbotte, and of Hilda the abbesse, and brouȝhte theym to Glassynbery. Alfridus and Marianus reherse that this kynge, wyllynge to delyver his sewer from his enemyes, was sleyne in the vijthe yere of his reigne by the same men at Pulkirche. But William, libro ijo de Regibus, seythe that this kynge kepynge a feste at Pulkirchirche, in the feste of seynte Austyn, and seynge a thefe, Leof by name, sytte þer amonge hys gestes, whom he hade made blynde afore for his Page  445, vol.6 trespasses, arysede from the table, and takenge that man by the heire of the hedde, caste hym unto the grownde. Whiche kynge was sleyn with a litelle knyfe that þe man hade in his honde; and also he hurte mony men soore with the same knyfe; never|thelesse he was kytte at the laste into smalle partes by men longynge to the kynge. Agapitus the secunde succedid pope Martyn viij. yere and vj. monethes. Lodowicus son of Charls, kynge of Fraunce, causede William longe swerde, son of Rollo, secunde duke of Normandy, to be sleyne by treason. The gentille men of Normandy, movede gretely ther at, toke the kynge of Fraunce in Roone, and kepede hym until that he hade [folio 305b] promysed and made an othe to Richarde, sonne of the seide William, to reioyce Normandy, and that he scholde were a swerde in the presence and speche to the kynge, and that the*. [Sic in MS.] scholde have neither swerde ne knyfe. Richarde, son to the seide William, was his successor, callede olde and withowte Page  447, vol.6 drede, in that he was never afrayde, whiche was governoure in Normandy lijti yere, commynge to his duchery by grete diffi|cultes. Whiche gate of Guimora his wife, borne in the cuntre of Denmarke, v. sonnes and iij. doȝhters; the firste off whom, Emma by name, and gemme of Normandy, he maryede unto Etheldredus kynge of Ynglonde. This duke was wonte to pray*. [Of grete devocioun of þe duke of Nor|mandy.] in every churche by whom he come, and specially withowte the churche if the durres were not open; where hit happede hym to entre into a churche allon in a nyȝhte, and founde þer a corse in a bere, and noo man presente, putte his gloves on a lectryne whiles he prayede; and anoon the dedde man with grete noyce wente to the churche durre and extendynge his hondes stode at the durre to resiste the duke. The duke seenge hym made a crosse in his forehedde, and adiurede hym to reste and sease; the spirit obeyenge not his adiuracion, he drawede owte his swerde, and smytenge hym kytte hym into ij. partes. After that the Page  449, vol.6 duke remembrenge his gloves lefte in the churche, returnede to the churche, and toke his gloves with hym; and after that tyme he causede corses to be wacchede thro alle his cuntre. Also hit happede a monke of Seynte Audoen in Roone to goe in a nyȝhte towarde the hows of his specialle, and goynge unto that place felle of a brigge into the water, and was drownede. A grete contencion hade betwene an angelle and the develle for that sawle, they condescende to the iuggemente of the seide duke, and compromitte to abide his decrete and sentence. Then the seide duke ȝafe this iuggemente, that the sawle*. [The discrete jugge|mente of þat duke.] scholde be restorede to the body, and sette in that place where hit felle into the water and then if þe body wente to synne hit scholde be dampnede, or elles hit scholde be salvede. That doen the monke fledde to the churche; the clothes of whom the seide duke founde moyste and weite in the morowe, and schewede this to the abbotte of that place. The seide duke and Guimora Page  451, vol.6 contynuynge a lyfe unchaste, he maryede that woman at the laste at the clamor of the peple. And in the nexte nyȝhte folowynge that sacramente hade betwene theyme, the seide Guimora turnede her hinder partes towarde the face of her lorde, where sche did not soe afore. Neverthelesse, the duke [folio 306a] desirenge to knowe the cause þerof, sche seide that sche myȝhte do that tyme firste at here pleasure. Also this duke laborynge in infirmite causede a beryalle to be made for hym; whom he commaunded to be fyllede in every Friday with whete, and to be ȝiffen to poore peple, contynuynge the tyme of his lyfe. Henricus. Edmunde kynge of Ynglonde toke v. noble cites from the Danes, whom they inhabite by a long season, Lincolne, Snotyngham, Derbey, Stafford, and Westechestre; and causede Christen peple to inhabite theyme, takynge Anlaf from the fonte, ȝeldynge hym to that sacramente raþer for armes Page  453, vol.6 and drede then for eny sawle healethe. This kynge was governede after the cownesaile of seynte Dunstan, and made noble the monastery of Glassynbery with goodes and persons.

Capitulum octavum.

EDREDUS, consecrate of Odo archebischop of Cawnterbury, in þe towne of Kyngeston, succedid Edmunde his broþer x. yere; for the childer of his broþer, Edwyne and Edgare, were but of tendre age. This kynge Edredus contryvede soore men of Northumbrelonde rebellynge ageyne hym in the firste yere of his reigne; wherefore the Scottes, dredynge hym, made theim subiecte to hym. Iohn the xijte succedid Agapitus the pope viij. yere. Albericus the fader of whom, a myȝhty man in the cite of Rome, commaunded the noble men of the Page  455, vol.6 cite to swere that, Agapitus dedde, thei scholde electe his son Octovian to be pope, and so thei did, and callede hym Iohn; whiche was a hunter and insolente, in so moche that he wolde kepe women openly. Wherefore somme of the cardinalles perceyvynge that, did wryte to Otho themperoure, that he wolde comme to Rome, and save the churche from sclawnder. The pope understondynge that, causede the noose of the cownseillour to be kytte awey, and the honde of the wryter. Neverthelesse the pope warnede oftetymes by themperoure and by the clergy to amende hym of that grete vice; whiche wyllynge not to amende hym, was deposede, and Leo subrogate in his stedde. But themperoure returnede, a man callede Benedicte was electe; wherefore themperoure turnynge to the cite of Rome, segede hit until thei restorede Leo to be pope, and sende Benedicte to hym. Lodowicus, son of Charls the simple, and kynge of the Weste men of Fraunce, diede in this yere; whom Lotharius his son did succede xxxvijti yere, and Page  457, vol.6 diede withowte eny childer. Marianus. But kynge Edmunde remembrenge the infidelite of men of Northumbrelonde, wastede theire londe, and brente the monastery of Ripen; but the kynge returnede from Yorke, an hoste brekynge owte from that cite hurte soore the extreme parte of the kynges [folio 306b] hoste. The kynge, displeasede moche, intended to have de|stroyede utterly the cuntre abowte Yorke; but men of Nor|thumbrelonde pleasede the kynge with ȝiftes. This kynge Edredus laborynge in grete infirmite, sende for seynte Dun|stan his confessour, whiche makynge grete haste to comme to hym, herde a voyce seyenge: "Kynge Edredus restethe nowe in pease." That voyce herde, the horse on whom seynte Dunstan did ryde felle downe to the grownde, withowte eny hurte to the sytter on hym, and dyede. And seynte Dunstan beryede hym at Wynchestre in the olde monastery; whiche Page  459, vol.6 dedde withowte eny childer, Edwinus, the firste son of Ed|mund, was consecrate into the kynge of Ynglonde, by Odo archebischoppe of Cawnterbery, at Kyngeston nye to London; whiche felle into unlawefulle desire of the flesche and synne in the firste day of his consecracion. Whiche reprovede of seynte Dunstan þerfore, put hym to exile, and, takynge the goodes of the monkes, constreynede theym to exile, and ȝafe the monastery of Malmesbery to his clerkes, the monkes ex|pulsed. But at the laste men of Northumbrelonde and of the Marches expulsede this kynge Edwyne for his wikked life, and erecte Edgarus his broþer into þe kynge, havynge xvj. yere in age. In the begynnynge of the reigne of whom seynte Dunstan herde angells syngynge: "Pease is spronge to the londe of Ynglischemen;" and the foreseide Edwyne reignede allemoste iiij. yere, and was beryede at Wynchestre. Never|thelesse his sawle was delyverede from helle unto purgatory Page  461, vol.6 after his dethe thro the praier of seynte Dunstan. Willelmus de Regibus, libro ij o. And lyke as the same grownde berethe and norischethe bothe goode herbes and ylle, and oþer while a feire roose is nexte to a nettelle, so in lyke wise of Edmunde kynge come ij. sonnes, Edwine moste wickede, and Edgare moste goode.

Page  463, vol.6

Capitulum nonum.

EDGARUS, havynge xvj. yere in age, was made kynge, and reignede allemoste after his broþer xvj. yere. In the xijthe yere of the reigne of whom he was consecrate into the kynge at Bathe, of seynte Dunstan and Oswalde bischop; whiche callede anoon seynte Dunstan from exile, and made hym of þe abbotte of Glaston bischoppe of Worchestre, and made holle realmes divided, repressynge wickede men, and luffynge goode men. Whiche repairede mony churches, and clerkes putte from theym lyvynge insolentely, he putte monkes in theyme, makynge moo then xlti monasterys; amonge whom he Page  465, vol.6 made ryche Glaston, Abindon, Petyrborowe, Thorney, Rame|sey, Wilton, and Wynechestre; whiche putte monkes into that newe monastery callede Hide at Wynchestre, and expulsede seculer prebendaries for theire wickede life. For those men fleynge the laboure of the qwere, and consumynge the goodes of þat churche in oþer places at theire pleasure, ordeynede vicaryes to occupye theire places, ȝiffenge litelle or nouȝhte to theym. Whiche clerkes spoken to by kynge Edgar, by Ethel|wolde, and by seynte Dunstan, and amendynge not theire lyfe, the kynges gave theire prebendes to the vicaryes þer. Whiche exaltede so, made vicaryes under theyme, and were wors then Page  467, vol.6 the oþer. The kynge movede soore þerat, and havynge grawnte of Iohn the xiijthe, successoure to Leo the pope, sette monkes there. In his tyme was noon open robbry or thefte, other thefe but he suffrede dethe. Also that kynge commaunded alle bestes that wolde destroy peple to be sleyne. Wherefore he commaunded Ludwallus, kynge of men of Wales, that he scholde sende to hym by certeyn yeres ccc. skynnes of wulfes; and when he payede the summe or nowmbre of skynnes by iij. yere, he cowthe not fynde oon wulfe in the iiijthe yere. Item Willelmus. And thauȝhe this kynge Edgare was litelle of stature, neverthelesse he wolde have made a myȝhty man feynte in fiȝhte. Of whom hit was seide that Kynadius kynge of Scottes scholde reporte in this wise, seyenge: "Y have mer|vayle that so mony provinces be subiecte to oon soe lytelle a man." This herde of a minstrelle, reportede the same Page  469, vol.6 to kynge Edgar of the seyenge of Kynadius, whiche kepynge thys secrete from his servauntes, rysynge from the feste where Kynadius was, toke him into a wode by a goode space from eny place, takenge to hym oon of ij. swerdes that he brouȝhte with hym, seyenge, "Nowe y ȝiffe to the licence to prove thy man|hode and myȝhte whiles we be allon, and we schalle see wheþer of us awe to be subiecte; for hit is a fowle vice in a kynge to be talkatyve in a feste, and not manfulle in a felde." Kynadius the kynge of Scottes confused felle downe to the feete of kynge Edgar, preyenge forȝiffenesse of those wordes seide in disporte. This kynge causede alle his schippes to be gedrede to a certeyne place in somer after Ester, whom he sende to iiij. partes of Ynglonde; whiche saylede with schippes in the weste unto the northe, and with schippes in the northe unto the este [folio 307b] partes of Yngelonde, and with schippes in the este unto the sowthe, and with the schippes þer unto the weste partes of Page  471, vol.6 Yngelonde, serchynge in the wyse leste schippe scholde do eny hurte. Also in the wynter he did ryde thro his provinces, inquirenge of the disposicion of his ministres, schewyng crude|lite to men despisenge the lawes. Neverthelesse this kynge favored so moche the peticion,*. [Sie in MS.] that there was not oon towne or street in Englonde unnethe in whom the Danes did not inhabite, mixte with Ynglische men. For the Danes, grete*. [The Danes lefte in Yngelonde a memo|rialle.] drynkers of nature lefte memorialles to Ynglishemen that thei be callede now the gretteste drynkers in the worlde amonge alle other peple; wherefore kynge Edgare made nayles to be fixede in his masers and peces, that men scholde drynke by measure. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. This kynge Edgarus gate of Egelfleda Edwarde his firste sonne, after this kynge and martir; and he gate of Alfrida, doȝhter of Edgare Page  473, vol.6 duke of Devonschire, Edmund, whiche diede afore his fader, and Egelrede whiche reignede after seynte Edwarde; and he gate at the laste of seynte Wilfrithe seynte Edithe virgyn. This Wilfrithe was not a myncheon as peple reherse; but sche toke the habite of a myncheon for cause that kynge Edgare hade inordinate luffe to here, and ȝitte the kynge toke his pleasure of here. Wherefore seynte Dunstan causede the kynge to do penaunce by vij. yere; and sche, delyverede of childe, forsakede the worlde and lyvede religiousely, and is callede a seynte, restynge at the monastery of Wilton. Hit is redde of Editha her*. [Of seynte Editha.] doȝhter, made a myncheon at the monastery of Wilton, and werynge clothes of gretter rychesse then were conveniente to a religious woman, and blamede þerfore of Ethelwoldus bis|choppe, to have ansueryde in this wise: "The infallible Page  475, vol.6 iuggemente of God is coverede oonly in the conscience; wherefore y suppose that is hooly a mynde and incorrupte taryethe and remaynethe under these clothes of golde as under thy furrede clothes." Seynte Dunstan halowenge a chirche in a tyme, see that virgyn makenge the signe of the crosse in his*. [Sic in MS.] forehede with hir fynger, wherein he havynge grete delecta|cion seide, "Y pray God that fynger never roote:" and at the masse tyme seynte Dunstan did wepe, seyenge, "That florisch|enge roose schalle fade after vj. weekes y-paste." And hit happede soe, for the body of that virgyn taken from the erthe was founde resolvede into powdre, the fyngre excepte and the secrete partes of here wombe. Seynte Dunstan beynge in meditacion and thenkynge þeron, sche apperyde to [folio 308a] hym, seyenge, "Have noo mervayle that y am incorrupte in the inferialle partes of my body, sithe y was never gilty in sur|fette Page  477, vol.6 or in lecchery." Also hit is redde of this holy virgyn Edithe that Canutus the kynge, whiche hade litelle devocion to seyntes, scholde say in Pentecoste at Wilton to the derision of this holy virgyn, seyenge that he wolde never beleve that the doȝhter of leccherous Edgarus and a tyraunte scholde be a seynte; but Ednotus archebischop þen presente seide contrary. Whiche goynge to the beryalle of that holy virgyn, openede hit, and sche arysede anoon, and as if sche scholde have made resistence to hym. Canutus trowblede soore of that siȝhte, lay on the grownde as dedde; whiche revivynge, was gladde that he was reservede to lyfe that he myȝhte do penaunce.

Page  [3], vol.7

Capitulum decimum. Item Willelmus ubi supra.

ODO the archebischop of Cawnterbery diede abowte þis tyme. This Odo was a Dane by nativite and nacion, but cruellenes putte aweye, he was in servyce with kynge Edwarde the senior, and after that made preste, and soone after bischop of Worcestre. Which made kynge Ethelstan his specialle lorde and frende for the restorynge of his swerde that was loste, as hit is schewede afore in the tyme of kynge Ethelstan, in so moche that he was made archebischop of Cawnterbery. Whiche willenge to take that benefice in grete perfeccion, perceyvynge alle his predecessours to have been monkes, passede Page  5, vol.7 the see, and goynge to the monastery Floriacense, nye unto Aurelians, toke the habite of a monke, and returnynge from that coste, come and drawede to the kynge of Ynglonde. Whiche goynge at the laste with kynge Edredus into Northum|brelonde, brouȝhte the holy powdre of the body of seynte Wilfride the bischop unto Cawnterbury with hym: wherefore a grete stryfe is hade at this tyme betwene men of Cawnterbury and of Yorke, wheþer þose boones were the boones of seynte Wilfride beryede at the churche of Ripen, or the boones of yonger Wilfride, that was the preste and the successor of Iohn in the seete of Yorke. This Odo suspende kynge Edwyne for excesse in the synne of lecchery, wherefore Edwyne rewarded that to the monkes of Ynglonde; when hit was so that noo man in the realme durste resiste the kynge, but Odo and seynte Dun|stan. Also the chirche of this Odo beynge uncoverede, was coverede thro his preyer while the churche was in coverenge, [folio 308b] Page  7, vol.7 in so moche that oon drope of reyne felle not into the churche, a grete reyne contynuynge alle moste thro alle the worlde. In an other tyme this Odo doynge the ministery at the consecra|cion of seynte Dunstan, that tyme bischop of Worcestre, schewyde as grete solemnite to seynte Dunstan as and if he scholde have consecrate the bischop of Cawnterbery; whiche re|provede in manner þerfore seide, Y knowe what the holy*. [Sic in MS.]dothe in me. But this Odo archebischoppe of Cawnterbery dedde, Elsinus bischoppe of Wynchestre ȝiffenge grete ȝiftes to his advocates, and gettynge the favor of the kynge, was electe to the archebischop of Cawnterbery. Whiche goynge to the towmbe of blissede Odo after his eleccion, and tredynge on hit violentely with his feete, seide, "O thow wickede olde man, thow haste loste thy sawle; þow hase made over late a place to thy bettyr; that y have desyrede longe y have nowe Page  9, vol.7 ageyne thy wylle; y thonke not þe þerof." That day paste, Elsinus goynge to bedde, and at reste, see an ymage of blissede Odo to rebuke hym and manassenge hym to dye. But this Elsinus, supposynge that to be a fantasticalle illusion, and goynge to Rome to receyve his palle by Alpes, congelede for colde, havynge his feete fixede amonge the bowells of dedde horses, with whom he did treyde the tumbe of blissede Odo, diede þer miserably. Whom Brinthelinus bischop of Wyn|chestre did succede; whiche inapte to so grete a cure returnede ageyne to Wynchestre by commaundemente of the kynge, and seynte Dunstan was made archebischop of Cawnterbery. Whiche goynge to Rome receyvid his palle of pope Iohn; and returnede from Rome, obteyned of the kynge that Oswaldus, son of the broþer to Odo, scholde reioyce the seete of Wor|cestre. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo. Seynte Dunstan, firste abbot of Glaston, after þat bischop of Worcestre Page  11, vol.7 and of London, and at laste the seete off Cawnterbery, movede kynge Edgare for the helethe of his sawle doynge correccion to the kynge for his excesses, to the ferefulle exemple of his subiectes, puttynge to þe kynge penaunce of vij. yere for the fleschely luste unlawefulle usede with that hooly woman Wilfritha: thro whiche exemple his men were as coacte to vertuous lyfe, and the peple of the realme. Then the ordre of the monkes wexede grene and florischede, in that hit hade religious governoures, noble men in connynge, whom slawthe caused not to be slawthefulle, and audacite neiþer causede theym to be over hasty. And so the corespondence of vertuous [folio 309a] lyfe betwene the kynge and the archebischoppe ȝafe an elec|cion to prestes and clerkes, other to sue vertu or to leve theire benefices and seetes, leste the membres scholde seme to discorde from the hedde. In whiche tyme was peas, reste, and tran|quillite, the elementes ioyenge þerof ȝafe dewe temperaunce to Page  13, vol.7 the erthe, plente of corne, pestilente aiers and corrupte expulsede. There was woman this tyme in Vasconia dividede from þe navelle, havynge ij. heddes and too brestes; and oon of theym eitenge or slepynge, that other did neither, or they lyvynge soe togedre a longe tyme, diede not togedre by the space of ij. dayes. Benedictus the vthe succedid pope Iohn iij. monethe. Nichophorus kynge of Grece, dredynge to be ex|pulsede from his realme by his sonnes in his olde age, causede theyme to be gelded, but the qwene his wife movede oon Iohn, a prince longynge to hym, to sle the kynge, that he myȝhte reigne, and so he did. Leo the viijthe succedid Bene|dicte þe pope oon yere and vj. monethes; whiche made a decrete for the malice of the Romanes imprisonynge his men, that the pope scholde not be made withowte consente of the emperoure. Whom Iohn þe xiiijthe succedid as viij. yere, whiche was taken at the laste of the governoure of the cite of Rome, and putte to exile; but he was restorede to þat office Page  15, vol.7 ageyne by the emperoure, and his adversaryes were sleyne. Benedicte the vjthe succedid pope Iohn oon yere and vj. monethes; whom Bonefacius the viijthe succedid iij. yere; whiche havynge noo powre to tary in the cite of Rome, robbede the churche of Seynte Petyr, and fledde to Constantinopole. Whiche returnynge to Rome with grete pryde, and prevaylynge not, pulled owte the eien of Iohn the cardinalle, and diede soone after. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro iij o. Asketillus the archebischop of Yorke dedde, seynte Oswalde bischop of Worcestre was his successoure, havynge hit with the seete of Worcestre also. Whiche made a churche of oure blissede lady, nye to the cathedrall churche of Seynte Petyr, where he was conversante with the monkes, havynge grete favor with the peple þerby. But the clerkes of that oþer churche seenge theym as derision to the peple, hade lever have be made monkes then to have be lefte soo. This Oswalde stallede archebischop of Yorke, drawede to that cuntre mony noble clerkes, withowte Page  17, vol.7 whom the cuntre was as voide; oon of whom was Albo, a monke Floriacense, whiche did write amonge other specialle labours the lyfe of seynte Edmund, kynge and martir, at the instaunce of seynte Dunstan. This holy bischop Oswalde wasch|ynge the feete of poore men, dyede in that ministery in [folio 309b] seyenge, "Gloria Patri." Willemus de Regibus, libro secundo. This kynge Edgare consecrate of seynte Oswalde and Dunstan in the xijte yere of his reigne, at the cite of Bathe, compassenge the northe partes of Ynglonde, come to Westechestre, where viij. under kynges mette hym; whiche entrenge with theym into a schippe, governede the sterne of the schippe, the oþer kynges laborynge with oores, goynge soe by the water of Dee unto the churche of Seynte Iohn. Whiche goynge ageyne to his Page  19, vol.7 palice in lyke wise, seide to þe men presente, his successours myȝhte ioy when thei reioycede suche glory.

Capitulum undecimum.

THE floure and worschippe of men of Ynglonde, Edgarus, to be hade in remembraunce as worthy to men of þat londe as kynge Alexander of men of Grece, Cirus of men*. [Sic. in MS.] Persida, Romulus to men of Rome, and kynge Charls of men of Fraunce, diede in the xxxvijti yere of his age and the xvj. yere of his reigne, the idus of Iulius, and was beriede at Glaston. Willel|mus ubi supra. The body of this kynge Edgare was founde Page  21, vol.7 clene and incorrupte of Ailwardus thabbot after the xlvijti yere of his beryenge. This abbot makynge a place overstreyte for the body of the seide kynge, presumede to kytte that hooly body that hit myȝhte be receyvyde more lyȝhtely into the place ordeynede for hit, and hit bledde þer with plentuousely as and if a man in life hade be woundede. Thabbot fallen to mad|denesse diede anoon. The glorious body of that noble kynge was taken with grete honour and drede, and sette in a regalle place, diverse signes of miracles folowynge. Where afterwarde in the yere of grace a mllijti, when Ailwardus thabbot diggede his grave irreverentely, his body was founde incorrupte, and so corpulente that hit myȝhte not entre into a newe schryne made for hit, and fresche bloode was seene to distille from his body. And þerfore that body was put in a schryne that he brouȝhte to þat churche with the hedde of seynte Appollinaris and oþer relikes of seynte Vincente, whom the kynge byenge for a grete summe of money ȝafe theyme to that monastery. The abbot made madde and goynge furthe of the churche brake his nekke and diede. ℞. The storyes of Britons reherse in the lyfe of [folio 310a] seynte Elcutus that the belle of seynte Elcutus was taken awey and hongede aboute the necke of an horse when kynge Edga|rus Page  23, vol.7 wastede the londe of Glammorgan for theire contumacy. Wherefore kynge Edgarus takynge reste after his meite, a man apperede to hym smytynge his breste with a spere, and after that the kynge awakede he commaundid that thynges taken aweye scholde be restorede, but the kynge diede in the ixthe daye folowynge. Into the lawde of whom Henricus, libro quinto, rehersethe in thys wyse.

"Auctor opum, vindex scelerum, largitor honorum,*. [Versus.]
Sceptriger Edgarus regna superna petit.
Hic alter Salomon, legum pater, orbita pacis,
Quod claruit bellis claruit inde magis.
Templa Deo, templis monachos, monachis dedit agros,
Nequitiæ lapsum justitiæque locum."

Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. But þere be mony men attemptynge to putte poyson to the grete glory of kynge Ed|garus, sayenge that he was cruelle in his begynnynge, and usynge grete lecchery, as by exemple: Ethelwoldus the erle was somme tyme secrete with hym, whom he commaundid in Page  25, vol.7 a tyme to go to Elfrida doȝhter of Ergarus erle of Devonschire, a woman of grete beawte, that sche scholde mary with hym if beawte and her condicions were congruente. But the erle goynge to that woman made labour for his awne person, and returnede ageyne to þe kynge seide that sche was but as of a meane beawte, and not apte to the mariage of a kynge, and so the erle maryede that woman of beawte, Elfrida by name. The kynge perceyvynge his decepcion and untrawthe, thenkynge to rewarde hym in lykewise, schewynge a pleasaunte conte|naunce to the erle, signede a day in whom he wolde see his wife, as in disporte. But the erle goynge afore to his wife, preide her as sche luffed his lyfe that sche scholde schewe as grete deformite in vesture as sche myȝhte with honoure in the pre|sence Page  27, vol.7 of the kynge. But hit avaylede not, for his wife, takynge a glasse, sparede not eny thynge to schewe the excellence of here beawte. The kynge beholdynge here beawte hade a brennynge luffe to here, wherefore he callenge the erle into Harewoode as to hunte did sle hym. And Nothus son of that erle commynge, and seenge his fader dedde, was inquirede of the kynge how that huntynge pleasede hym; whiche answerede and seide, "Welle, my lorde kynge, ffor þat thynge þat is to youre pleasure is to myne also." Whiche answere movede the kynge so moche, that þer was noo person in his realme that the kynge luffede moore aftirwarde. The seide lady for [folio 310b] the expiacioun of that offense made a monastery of myncheons at Werwelle. ℞. But hit was edifiede raþer for the dethe of kynge Edwarde here stappeson, whom sche causede to be sleyne for that entente, that Egelredus here son myȝhte reigne Page  29, vol.7 and be kynge. Willelmus ubi supra. Men schewe also an other exemple of lecchery to that dede of crudelite, that kynge Edgarus toke a myncheon from here monastery and defilede here. Also this kynge taryenge in a nyȝhte at Andover not ferre from Wynchestre, commaundede the doȝhter of a duke to be brouȝhte to his bedde. But the moder of that maide havynge indignacion þerof, sende an oþer servaunte arrayede nobly, beawtuous of person, and welle nurturede, to the kynge in stede of here doȝhter. The sonne begynnynge to schyne that woman besyenge her to aryse, was inquirede of the kynge why sche made soe grete haste, seide to goe to here daily laboure, askynge liberte of the kynge for here rewarde in that sche was knowen by the kynge. The kynge perceyvynge hym to be mockede, made that woman in servitute lady of lordes. But howsoever these thynges be rehersede of kynge Edgarus, Page  31, vol.7 hit is schewede that he expulsede his synnes by meke and hollesom penaunce. Benedictus the vijthe succedid Bonefacius the pope viij. yere and vj. monethes. Otho the secunde, and son of Otho the firste, reignede in Alemayne x. yere and vij. monethes, crownede in the vijte yere of his reigne at Rome of pope Bene|dicte. Men of Ytaly arysynge and brekynge the pease, this emperoure made a grete feste to the gentil men of Ytaly at the cite of Rome, causynge theyme beynge at meyte to be compassede abowte with a grete multitude of peple armede. At the laste the emperoure movynge the compleynte of brekynge of peace, commaundede the names of men causenge hit to be wryten in a bylle, which heded þer, the emperoure causede the residu to eite in pease. In whiche yere a grete hungre occupiede the londe of Yngelonde.

Capitulum duodecimum.

EDWARD, tendre in age, thro helpe of seynte Dunstan and of other bischoppes was erecte into the kynge ageyne the wylle Page  33, vol.7 of mony noble men, and specially of Elfritha his stappemoder, whiche laborede to have made Egelredus here son kynge; whiche reignede as iiij. yere. From whiche tyme the felicite of the realme was chaungede and diminute, and a blasynge sterre was [folio 311a] seene in the firmamente, whiche is wonte to portende other a pestilence of provinces other the chaungenge of a realme, and anoon there folowede a derthe of corne, hunger of men, and dethe of bestes. And Alferus prince of the Marches favor|ynge Elfritha, putte awey monkes whom kynge Edgarus hade sette in monasterys, and putte prestes into theyme with theire concubynes. But seynte Dunstan and the erle of Este Ynglonde resiste hym, and expulsede the clerkes. The clerkes so expulsede seide hit was a miserable thynge and honoure that a newe aliaunte scholde expelle olde inhabita|tors of the londe and that hit was not to the pleasure of God whiche hade grawnte that grownde to olde inhabitators. Wherefore a grete cownsaile was kepede at Wynchestre, Page  35, vol.7 where an ymage of the crucifixe in alle spake in this wyse, seyenge the weye of seynte Dunstan to be kepede and holden. But theire myndes not mitigate þerwith, an oþer cownesaile was hade at Calnewic, where the kynge beynge absente for his*. [An ymage of the crucifix spak.] tendre age, where seynte Dunstan was trowblede soore, insomoche that his men sleyne he escapede from his enemyes with owte hurte by grete manfullenesse, whiche miracle was schewede afterwarde. While this yonge kynge Edwarde wery thro huntynge and returnyd to his stappemoder, he was stryken soore with a knyfe as his stappemoder rechid to hym a pece that he myȝhte drynke; his horse movede and excitede to flee, this kynge hongynge by the oon foote and drawen so after the horse diede at Cornisgate. Whiche beryede at Warham, not Page  37, vol.7 accordynge to his astate, mony miracles were schewede: a halte man hade his goynge to hym, a blynde man siȝhte, and alle diversites of langore were healede þer. That rumor excitede, Elfritha cause of his dethe made haste to visitte hym, whiche cowthe not comme to hym in eny wyse, her horses and bestes on whom sche did ryde schewede that thynge. Wherefore sche did by an other that sche myȝhte not performe in here awne propre person, for Elferus here minister, whiche hade expulsede late monkes from the Marches, and putte seculer men in theire monasteryes, beryede solemnely the body of kynge Edwarde at Schaftesbery. ℞. But in succession of tyme parte of that body was translate to the monastery of Leof nye to Herdford, and a parte to Abindon. And that place at Schaftesbery where his longes or mylte be greene is callede Edwardistowe. Willelmus ubi supra. The seide Elfritha [folio 311b] made ij. monasterys of women for that offense, oon of theyme at Ambrisbury, an other at Werewelle, where sche levynge the Page  39, vol.7 pryde of the worlde did grete penaunce, werynge an heire on her body, and chastisynge hyt with grete abstinence, imprint|ynge in her forehede oftetymes þe signe of the crosse, in whiche place sche restethe. And the foreseide Elfricus escapede not unpunysched, for he was consumede by lyes in the yere after that he had beryede seynte Edwarde the martir. Fulbertus the bischoppe Carnotense was in this tyme a man precellente in the luffe of our blissede lady; whiche made in the lawde of that blissede virgyn, amonge other laudable werkes, these ij. respon|soryes, Stirps Jesse, and Solem justitiæ. Whiche laborynge as in the poynte of dethe that blessed virgyn Mary apperede to hym inquirenge the cause of his drede. To whom he seide, "O goode lady, y truste in thy mercy, but I drede the iugge|mente of thy Sonne." Then sche seide to hym, "Drede þow not, and for a suerte y schalle make the to be holle;" and drawynge furthe here brestes instillede thre dropes of that moste precious hevynly mylke to his face, and so departed. Page  41, vol.7 This bischop recurynge commaundede that hevynly liquor to*. [Sic.] receyvid in a vesselle of silvyr to be kepede to a memorialle.

Capitulum tertiumdecimum.

EGELREDUS the sonne of Edgarus, geten of Elfritha his secunde wife, erecte into the kynge at Kyngeston, after his broþer Edwarde, segede the realme xxxviij. yere, raþer then governede hit. For the cowrse of his lyfe was cruelle and infortunate in the begynnynge, miserable in the myddes, and fowle in the ende; for when seynte Dunstan baptisede hym, he filede the holy fonte. Seynte Dunstan trowblede þer with seide, "By God and by his moder, þis childe schalle be a loselle." Also seynte Dunstan adiecte this oracle to hym in the day of his coronacion: "In that thow ascendede to the realme by the dethe of thy broþer, whose dethe Ynglische men, with that wickede woman thy moder, conspirede, manslaȝter and Page  43, vol.7 the correccion of God schalle not wonte to theyme, untylle that the peple of uncowthe langage comme into this londe, and brynge theyme into grete servitute; and that offense schalle not be forȝiffen but by longe penaunce and grete vengeaunce." [folio 312a] This Egelredus havynge x. yere in age, herynge the dethe of Edwarde his broþer, trowblede his moder thro wepynge, inso|moche that sche havynge noo rodde nye to here honde, toke a taper, and bete hym þerwith soe soore þat he was allemoste dedde. Wherefore he did hate from that a cerge alle the tymes of his lyfe. This kynge gate of Ethelgiva, doȝhter of Egberte the erle, a sonne callede Edmunde Yrnesyde; and of Emma the gemme of Normandy, Edwyne, Ethelstan, and Edgiva, Alfrede and Edwarde. A clowde was sene in Yng|londe nowe of the coloure of bloode, and soone after lyke to fire, and after the nyȝhte paste hit evaneschede in the morowe. The cite of Sowthehampton, the yle of Thaneth nye to Kente, the monastery of Seynte Petrocus in Cornewaile, and the pro|vince of Westechestre, was wastede by the Danes. The cite of Page  45, vol.7 London was brente with fire of the cite. Seynte Ethewold, bischop of Wynchestre, died; whiche borne at Wynchestre, noryschede and made monke under seynte Dunstan, was made abbot of Abendon in the tyme of kynge Ededrus, and bischop of Wynchestre in the tyme of kynge Edgarus, where he made a monastery of myncheons, and did translate the body of seynte Swithyn from the erthe; whom seynte Elphegus abbot of Bathe did succede, sleyne by the Danes, as hit schalle be schewide here aftir. Otho the thrydde, son of Otho the secunde, reignede in Alemayne after the dethe of his fader xviij. yere, crownede emperoure at Rome by pope Gregory the vthe. And thauȝhe these thre men, Otho by name, succedid linially, hit was ordeynede that the emperoure scholde be chosyn by Page  47, vol.7 the sevyn chawncellers and noblemen of thempire, as these versus schewe:

"Maguntinensis, Treverensis, Coloniensis,
Quilibet imperii fit cancellarius horum,*. [Versus.]
Et palatinus dapifer, dux portitor ensis,
Marchio propositus, camere pincerna Boemus:
Hii statuunt dominum cunctis per sæcula summum."

This Otho the thrydde hade a wife, whiche movynge a man to take his pleasure of here, and he refusede that synne, was commaundede to be heded with owten audience. Neverthelesse this man spake to his wife or he was put to dethe, that sche scholde purge his innocency after his dethe by the examina|cion of hoote yrne. And at the laste the day come in whom Page  49, vol.7 themperoure seide he wolde schewe iuggemente to poore wedowes and to faderlesse childer. That wedowe was þer presente havynge the hedde of her howsebonde in her lappe, and inquirynge of themperoure, what dethe that man were worthy þat hade pereschede a man unryȝht|euousely, [folio 312b] themperoure seide that he were worthy to loose his hedde. The woman seide, "Thow arte that man, whiche y schalle prove by examinacion of hoote yrne." That exa|minacion doen themperoure ȝafe his body to the woman to punysche hit at here pleasure. Neverthelesse, respite was ȝiffen by the instaunces of bischoppes, firste of x. daies, and after that of viij. daies, and of vij. daies, and at the laste respite of vj. daies; in whom the kynge examinynge the cause þer of, brente his awne wife, and ȝafe to the wedowe iiij. castells in the bischopryche Brinense for his redempcion, the names of whiche castelles be callede after the nowmbre of the daies grawntede for respite, as x., viij., vij., and vj. Iohn the xiiijthe was pope viij. monethes; whom Iohn the xvte succedid Page  51, vol.7 iiij. monethes; after whom Iohn the xvjthe was pope x. yere. Willelmus ubi supra. Egelredus the kynge segede the cite of Rochestre, for certeyne dissencions spronge betwene hym and the bischop. Seynte Dunstan sende worde to hym that he scholde leve his cruellenesse, leste hit scholde move seynte Andrewe, patron of that place, ageyne him. That message contempte, the bischop sende to hym c. li. that he scholde departe from the cite; that taken he departede. Seynte Dun|stan mervellynge of the covetyse of the kynge, sende to hym by messangers, seyenge, "In that thow hast preferryd golde to God, and silvyr to his apostole, and thy covetyse afore my luffe, ylle thynges schalle comme soone to the, but not in my lyfe." After ij. yere y-paste nexte folowynge, seynte Dunstan diede, and the Danes come into Ynglonde. Too un|cowthe pestilence come in this yere amonge the peple of Ynglonde, and axes of men, and a dethe or infirmite of beste callede the schute. Ynglonde was redacte iiij. tymes into servitute Page  53, vol.7 in the tymes of kynge Ethelrede by Suanus kynge of the Danes. The firste tribute was of xxiiijte mlli. of silvyr; the secunde tribute was of xxxvjte mlli. of silvyr; the thrydde tribute was of xlviijte mlli. of silvyr; the iiijte tribute was of lxxij. mlli. of silvyr, whiche endurede by xvj. yere. This kynge hade to his secrete cownesayle specially an erle, Edricus by name, whiche was lorde of Schropschire, Herdfordeschire, and Worcestreschire, after whom alle thynge was rulede, and with|owte whom noo thynge was done. This Edricus hade a [folio 313a] brother, schireffe of Kente, whiche oppressynge moche men of Kente, was sleyne by theyme in the cite of Cawnterbery; wherefore Edricus, for vengeaunce þerof, willede to have destroyede the cite, but the kynge wolde not condescende and suffre hym to do so. This Edricus was a fals man, schewynge a pleasaunte contenaunce to the kynge, and intendynge the destruccion of the realme, schewynge to the Danes, whiche wasted and destroyede the cuntre, the secrete cownesaile of the kynge, and movede theyme to sege Cawnterbury, in that he hatede þat cite moste specially. The Danes toke the cite of Cawnterbury, destroyenge hit, sleynge and oppressenge the peple in hit; takynge with theyme blissede Elphegus the archebischop, and ledynge hym to Grenewich putte hym to dethe. The kynge, as clothede with misery and langoure, diede at London, and was beriede at the churche of Seynte Paule in the same cite. Blissede Dunstan diede, the vertuous lyfe of whom Osdernus monke of Cawnterbery did write. Amonge other miracles, he rehersethe that seynte Dunstan, preyede by a noble religious woman to make noble a scole for a preste with the ymages of Petyr and Paule and of apostoles and martirs, an harpe putte nye a walle was herde to repre|sente, as to sownde and to herynge, the tune of this antemme, Page  55, vol.7 "Gaudent in cœlis," withowte towchynge of eny man. Also he tellethe that seynte Dunstan instructe in diversites of hondecraftes, and abowte to make a chalice in his celle, the develle apperede to hym in a bodyly similitude, imprintynge to his*. [Sic. in MS.] diverse kyndes of voluptuosite. Seynte Dunstan perceyvynge that, toke the noose of the develle with the hoote brennynge tonges, and helde hym faste, untille that the develle makynge grete noyse causede his breþer to perceyve that thynge. Also seynte Dunstan beynge in a tyme as in a dreame, herde angells synge "Kyrieleyson, Christeleyson," whiche was*. [Sic. in MS.] armony is contenede in "Kyrie Rex splendens." This seynte Dunstan dedde, the Danes were entrede as in every parte of Ynglonde, in so moche that men knowede not where they myȝhte mete theyme. Wherefore thei putte from theyme by money, whom they myȝhte not putte from theyme by armes, payenge, by cownesaile of Siricius the archebischop, whiche was successoure to seynte Dunstan, in the firste yere x. mlli.; after Page  57, vol.7 that xvj. mlli.; in the thrydde tyme xxte mlli.; in the iiijthe tyme xxiiijte mlli.; after that xxxte mlli.; and at þe laste xlti mlli.; untylle [folio 313b] that money wontynge the Danes returnede to robbynge and to manslaȝter. Elfricus, governoure of the schippes longynge to the kynge, wente to the Danes in the nyȝhte afore that the kynges hoste scholde have fauȝhte with theyme, tellynge to theyme what men thei scholde eschewe. Wherefore Algarus, son of that Elfricus, was taken and made blynde; wherefore the Danes robbynge Northumbrelonde, and segenge the cite of Lon|don, compellede the kynge to pay a tribute. Elphegus byschop of Wynchestre baptisede Anelafus kynge of the Danes, suerte taken afore; whom Egelredus the kynge toke from the fonte, and the bischop confermede hym; whiche doynge noo moore grevaunce to Ynglonde, returnede to his cuntre. But the peple of þe Danes seasede not so; but wastede gretely the londe. The presence and comforte of audacite in batells helpynge Page  59, vol.7 moche, as by the person of the kynge, was a goen in that tyme; wherefore when an hoste was gedrede and schippes made redy, they profite not, for the peple ȝafe theyme to robbery and thefte, and the tempestes of the see brake mony schippes; and the schippes reservede a man callede Willenotus, putte to exile by the kynge, occupiede theym by treason, other drownede theyme, or causede theyme to be brente. And if the noble|men of the realme come to eny cownesaile, they did noo thynge to the profite of the realme; and if eny thynge were seide þer to the utilite of the realme, hit was rehersede anoon to theire enemyes. The condicion of this kynge was to putte men to Page  61, vol.7 exile, and to take theire lyvelode and goodes by fals accusacion; whiche was disposede to Emma his wyfe, that he refusede here knowlege mony tymes, and drawede to hoores.

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

LOTHARIUS son of Lodowicus, kynge of Weste men of Fraunce, diede withowte eny childe; in whom the progeny of kynge Charls the noble prince was finischede as to the gover|naile of Fraunce. But mony men say that this Lotharius hade childer, but they succedid not in the realme, for the childer of Lotharius were taken by helpe of Richarde duke of Normandy, oftetymes trowblede by Lotharius; and grete Hewe Capet, the suster of whom Richarde duke of Normandy hade maryede, was made kynge of Fraunce, and reignede ix. yere. Seynte Oswalde, archebischop of Yorke and bischop of Worcestre, diede this yere, and was beryede at Worcestre. Page  63, vol.7 Gregorius the vthe was pope as iij. yere. This pope was callede firste Brimus, cosyn to Otho themperoure, at the [folio 314a] instaunce of whom he was electe to be the pope; but Otho themperoure absente, Crescencius governoure of the cite of Rome made a ryche man, Placentinus by name, to be pope, whom he callede Iohn the xvijthe. But Otho themperour commynge to Rome, causede hym to be deposede, and made Silvestre the secunde pope. The seete of a bischoppe of Lin|disfarne Page  65, vol.7 was translate to Dirhem, and the body of seynte Cuthberte also, whom Ardulphus bare abowte but late. Rich|arde the firste, and thrydde duke of Normandy, diede, whom his son Richarde the secunde did succede xxviijte yere callede Rich|arde the goode. For he was devoute in the servyce of God, discrete in worldely thynges, liberalle in ȝiffenge. This duke gate of his firste wife iij. sonnes, Richarde, Roberte, and William, and iij. doȝhters; he gate of his secunde wyfe, William, and Roberte archebischop of Roone. In the tyme of whiche Richarde a knyȝhte hade stollen a spoon of silvyr, and hade put hit to plegge amonge other thynges. The duke perceyvynge that, oonly redemede the goodes of the knyȝhte; that knyȝhte understondynge that, fledde for schame; but the duke folow|ynge hym brouȝhte hym ageyne, and cherischede that knyȝhte moche after. A maister Bernardus by name herenge of the fame of this noble duke, and wyllenge to be conversaunte to hym, souȝhte an occasion; at the laste he toke a bawe in his honde, and sette an arowe in hit, and wente up and downe by Page  67, vol.7 a wyndowe where the duke was wonte to solace hym, as and if he scholde have schotte at hym. The duke perceyvynge that, and knowynge the cause, luffede hym moche afterwarde. Sil|vester the secunde succedid pope Iohn, eiecte iiij. yere and ij. monethes. Willelmus de Regibus, ubi supra. This man borne in Fraunce, Gerebertus by name, and made monke in the monastery Floriacense, levynge his monastery and chaung|ynge his habite, wente to Hispalis, a cite of Speyne, that he myȝhte lerne curious artes. Where lyke as Cristen men use Page  69, vol.7 Toletum for doctrine, so the Saracenys do use Hispalis. Gere|bertus studyenge þer overcome Ptholomeus in the Astrolaby, and Aliander in the interstice of sterres, and Iulius Firmicus in destene. Where he lerned what the songe and flyenge of briddes portended. Whiche loggede in a tyme at the place of an excellente philosophre, hade copy off alle his subtile bookes thro ȝiftes and promisses, oon excepte, in whom alle the subti|lite of his connynge was contenyde. This philosophre beynge drunke in a tyme, and sure in slepe, Gerebertus toke that boke Page  71, vol.7 from under his hedde and fledde. This man awakede, folowede Gerebertus by the iuggemente of sterres, in whom he hade grete science; and Gerebertus that fledde instructe in that same arte, knowynge hym to be folowede by the philosophre, hidde hym under the nexte brigge of tree to whom he come, hong|enge þer by his armes that he towchede neither the erthe neither the water. The laboure of the philosophre deluded by that arte, returnede home, and Gerebertus commynge to the see, and callynge a spiritte, promisede to be his servaunte and that he wolde bringe hym over the see with owte eny hurte, and so he was. Gerebertus commyn to Fraunce kepede a grete scole, havynge to hys disciple Constantyne thabbot of Maximinus nye to Aurelians, whom he tauȝhte the rule of measure; also he assignede the reason of þe diametre on Macrobius. Also he hade to his disciples Robert the son of Hew Capet kynge of Page  73, vol.7 Fraunce, and Otho sonne of Otho the emperoure. But Robert Capet made after that kynge of Fraunce, made this Gerebertus archebischop Ramense. At whiche churche be unto this tyme certeyne instrumentes of his makynge made by arte mechanicalle, and specially organes where the wynde brek|ynge up by violence of hoote water ȝiffethe wynde to theyme sufficientely. Otho made emperoure after that, made Gerebertus bischop of Ravenna, and after that pope. Willelmus de Regi|bus. The favor off the develle constreyned hym moche and his fortune, thro helpe of whom he founde grete treasures hidde by longe in the erthe by the arte of nigromancy. In whiche tyme þer was an ymage in the felde Marcius nye to Rome, havynge the firste fynger of the ryȝhte honde extente, and a wrytenge in the hedde of the ymage "Smyte here." Mony sup|posynge Page  75, vol.7 to fynde that treasure above, smote the ymage soore. Gerebertus reprovynge theyme merkede the shado of the fynger, the sonne beynge in the centre meridionalle, and fixede a signe þer; and in the nyȝhte he takynge his chamberleyne oonly with hym with a lawnterne, come to that place, and openynge the erthe entrede into hit, fyndynge þer a regalle halle of golde, knyȝhtes of golde playenge with chesses of golde, kynge and qwene beynge at soper, mony ministres and peces of golde; seenge a carbuncle in the interialle parte of the howse expellynge the derkenesse of the nyȝhte; and anendes hit in a cornelle stode a yonge man with a bende bawe in his honde. [folio 314b] But noon thynge of these myȝhte be towchede with honde, thauȝhe hit myȝhte be sene; for and if a man wente to towche hit, alle the ymages there wolde seme to have sleyne that man presumynge soe. Gerebertus knowynge that afore, towched not eny thynge, but his chambirleyne absteynynge not þerof, Page  77, vol.7 toke a knyfe from the table. And the ymages arysynge ageyne hym, the yonge man havynge the bawe in his honde schotte at the carbuncle, and brake hit, that alle the place was fulle of derkenesse. Wherefore and if the yonge man hade not putte the knyfe aweye by commaundemente of his maister, thei hade bothe suffred dethe. Also hit is redde that Ioseph digged from the grounde grete treasure, and Hircanus bischop toke iij.ml talentes from the sepulcre of kynge David to remove the*. [Sic. in MS.] from Ierusalem. Also hit is rehersede that this Gere|bertus made a hedde to hym by certeyne inspeccion of sterres, whiche scholde not speke but inquirede, and that hit scholde say the trawthe; whiche hedde schewede to Gerebertus that he scholde be pope, and that he scholde not dye untylle that he hade songe masse in Ierusalem. But this Gerebertus remem|bred not that þer was a chirche in Rome callede Ierusalem, where the pope seithe masse thre Sonnedayes in the yere when stacions be made. Whiche seyenge masse in that churche after the Page  79, vol.7 consuetude, was vexede gretely with infirmite, and takynge cownsaile of the ymage, perceyvyd the decepcion of the spiritte, and that he scholde dye. Wherefore he callenge the cardinalls to hym, knowlegede his synnes, as owte of mynde for grete con|tricion, in so moche that he causede his body to be kytte into smalle partes, and to be caste furthe, seyenge, "Lete hym have the membres and boonys that desirede the man the sawle go to God that create hit." Martinus. After that he commaundede his body so maymede to be putte on a carte, and to be beryede in that place where the bryddes restede that hade devourede mony membres of his body, and so he was beryede at the churche Lateranense. And in a signe of forȝiffenesse a pronos|ticacion and signe of a pope to dye is taken by the swetynge of his sepulcre, as hit is schewede þer by writynge.

Page  81, vol.7

Capitulum quintum decimum.

HEWE Capette, kynge of Weste men of Fraunce, died after the ixthe yere of his reigne, Roberte his sonne successoure to hym, whom he gate by the doȝhter of Edwarde the elder, and kynge of Ynglonde; whiche reignede abowte xxxti yere. In the tyme of whom, a religious man and pilgreme comme from Ierusalem to Scicille, whiche hade lernede of an incluse [folio 315b] that sawles of dedde men were punysched for theire synnes in a place of the see nye to Sicille, callede Olla Vulcani, evomitynge as flammes of fyre, þe voyces of whom, he seide, he hade herde mony tymes; and howe mony of theym were delyverede by the preiers and suffragis of monkes Cluniacense, and of oþer tru peple. Wherefore Odilo the abbot Cluniacense, perceyvynge that, ordeynede that a memory scholde be hade for alle tru dedde peple in the fery nexte folowynge the feste of Alle Seyntes; whiche consuetude was usede after as thro alle the worlde. This duke instructe nobly in mony artes, in the hie festes of the yere songe in somme monastery of his realme with monkes, other elles was one of the chawnters and governede the where. Whiche beynge at the sege of a castelle, lefte his hoste, and come to the churche in the feste of seynte Aman, Page  83, vol.7 bischop of Aurelians, and bare a coope; and as he songe the thrydde Agnus Dei knelynge on his knees, the walles of the castelle felle downe sodenly. This duke made the sequence of the Holy Goste, "Sancti Spiritus assit nobis gratia," and the responsory on Christes eve, "Iudea et Ierusalem." Dublyn, the chiefe cite of Irlonde, was wastede in this yere by the Scottes; and grete hoste of the Danes wente to Normandy; and kynge Egelredus wastede Cumbirlonde, and the yle of Monia or Anglesey. The body of seynte Ivo was fownde in this tyme. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro quarto. This Ivo borne in the londe of Persida, refusynge the delices of the worlde, come with thre felawes with a vile habite into the yle of Rameseye, where he lyvede afterwarde. And when the sepulcre and name of hym was not knowen of men þer by longe tyme, Ivo apperede to a man and tolde to hym his name, the place, and his degre, monyschynge hym to go to the abbot of Ramesey, and that he scholde come with hym, and take his body up from the grownde. That doen, a welle spronge from the grave, that þer is not liȝhtely in Englonde eny seynte schewynge mercy and grace to men havynge devocion to Page  85, vol.7 theym, rather then seynte Yvo. Egelredus, kynge of Ynglonde, mariede in this yere Emma the gemme of Normandy, doȝhter of the firste Richarde; whiche made prowde þerof, sende letters to the cites of Ynglonde that alle the Danes in that londe scholde be sleyne in oon nyȝhte; and so thei were [folio 316a] in the nyȝhte of seynte Bricius. In whiche yere the monastery of Burton was foundede by a noble man, Wulricus Spotte. Henre the firste, callede meke, after Otho the thrydde was emperoure in Alemayn xxijti yere, whom the archebischop Maguntyne did crowne; whiche emperoure contynuede in virginite with his wife. Martinus. Iohn the xviijthe was pope vj. monethes. Suanus the kynge of the Danes, herynge the Danes to be sleyne in Ynglonde by treason, come with a grete navy of schippes, and londed in Cornewaile; where Swanus*. [Sic in MS.] to Excestre and destroyede the walles of the cite, by the treason of Hewe, an erle of Normandy, whom Emma, wife of kynge Egelredus, made governoure of Devonschyre. Whom þe Westesaxons mette manfully; but when the hostes scholde mete, that fals traitor Edricus fenyde hym seke, and the Saxones returnede, Page  87, vol.7 Suanus spoylede Wilton and Shireburn, and toke schippe. Whiche commynge to Norwiche in the yere folowynge, wastede the cuntre, and brente Tedforde: that knowen the duke Usketel, commaunded comprovincianelles to brenne theire schippes. But they dissimilynge, that duke gedrenge so mony men as he myȝhte, ȝafe a soore batelle to the Danes; and kynge Suanus returnede to Denmarke, in that there was a grete derthe þat yere in Ynglonde, and commynge ageyne in the yere folow|ynge. Iohn the xixthe was pope v. yere. Elphegus bischop of Wynchestre was made in this yere archebischop of Cawn|terbery, after the dethe of Vulricus his predecessour; and in the vthe monethe folowynge a grete hoste of þe Danes londed at Sandwiche, robbynge Kente and Sowthesax, whom thre schrewid felawes folowede, robbynge, sleynge, and brennynge. For Egelredus the kynge, beynge at Scrobbesbury, myȝhte not repelle the Danes liȝhtely untylle thei hade spoylede Barokschire. Wherefore kynge Egelredus by the cownsaile of his gentillemen ȝafe to the Danes a tribute of xxxti ml li for to lyve in pease. In whiche yere he made Edricus the traytour governoure of the marches, a man meke of kynde, ryche of Page  89, vol.7 tonge, wyly or subtile in witte, swete of speche, and fals in herte. Sergius the thrydde was pope iij. yere. Henricus, libro sexto. Turkillus an erle of the Danes londed at Kente, to whom men of Kente ȝafe to have pease iij. ml li; and so the Danes, goynge to the yle of Wiȝhte, and toke theire pray. And when the kynge wolde have ȝiffen batelle to theym, that tray|tour Edricus movede hym unto the contrary. The Danes made ryche þerwith, wastede allemoste þe halfe parte of the realme of Ynglonde, as from the cite of Northampton unto the yle of Wiȝhte; takynge the goodes of men and sleynge after theire pleasure as withowte eny resistence.

Capitulum sextum decimum.

THE Danes segede the cite of Cawnterbery, abowte the feste of seynte Mathewe; whiche cite was taken in xxti day of the segynge of hit, and was brente by treason of Almarus the [folio 316b] diacon, whom seynte Elphegus delyverede from dethe but fewe dayes afore. Thabbot of the monastery of Seynte Austyn was suffrede to departe, and the flocke of Criste was tythede, ix. of theyme sleyne, and the xthe reservede; somme of whom were sleyne by the swerde, and somme hongede by theire mem|bres, Page  91, vol.7 and somme diede drawen by the heire of theire hedde. Amonge whom, Elphegus the bischop was taken and im|prisonede vij. monethes, and illuded with diverse peynes; wherefore the vengeaunce of God entrede amonge those mansleers, that a infirmite reignynge amonge theyme destroyede nowe x., nowe xxti, untille that þe hoste was consumpte moche. Wherefore the Danes were movede by Cristen peple that thei scholde make satisfaccion to the bischoppe; but thei wolde not: whiche takynge hym in the vigille of Ester, ȝafe choyce to hym other to pay iij. mlli. for his redempcion, or to loose his lyfe. The bischoppe commaundid his men that thei scholde not pay oon peny for hym. The Danes movede moche þerat, and made drunke thro ryette, brouȝhte furthe þe bischop in the Seturday folowynge, and did slee hym with stones and with boones of bestes, þe xiijthe kalendes of Maii. And sepulture*. [Of þe dethe of Seynte Elphegus.] was denyede unto hym untille that the nexte day folowynge a wedrede tree intincte with his bloode wexede grene. The body of whom brouȝte to London, was beriede in the churche of Seynte Paule: neverthelesse that body was translate holly to Cawnterbery afterwarde by licence of Canutus kynge of Danes. Willclmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. This Elphegus induede with the habite of a monke, lyvede as an ankre at Bathe, Page  93, vol.7 and gedrede a nowmbre of monkes þer aftirwarde, of whom*. [Of the vertuous lyfe of the seide seynte.] somme drawede to grete ryette; for, Elphegus not knowenge, somme of theym usede festes and ryette from the begynnynge of the nyȝhte unto the morowe. But the chiefe maister of that ryettous life dyede sodenly in the tyme of theire myrthe. Seynte Elphegus herynge a grete noyce, and goynge to þe wyndowe of his chambre, see too develles betynge that body. But that wrecche desirenge helpe, the develles ansueryde and seide, "þow was not obedient to God, and þerfore we wille not obbey the." And so at the laste seynte Elphegus was made bischop of Wynchestre, thro the suasion off blissede Andrewe, apperynge to seynte Dunstan; whiche ȝafe never attendaunce to the eitenge [folio 317a] of flesche, but if he were seke; deceyvynge his kepers in the nyȝhte, stondynge in water unto the knees, and ȝiffenge lawde to allemyȝhty God, contynuynge soe unto the morowe. And after that he hade bene bischop of Wynchestre xxijti yere, he was made metropolitan of Ynglonde ageyne his wylle; whiche goynge to Rome, was spoylede of his goodes in a towne by the weye, and after that the towne was in pereschynge thro fire. Then the wrecchide men confessynge theire trespasse preiede the servaunte of God of forȝiffenesse, and his goodes restorede the men see the fyre to be extincte thro his preyers. Martinus. Benedicte the viijthe succedid Sergius the pope xij. yere; of whom Petrus Damianus rehersethe that a bischop see hym syttenge on a blacke horse, and to be peynede soore. Where|fore he preiede that bischop that see the siȝhte, to goe to Iohn þe xxti his successour, and that he wolde pray hym to distribute into almes a certeyne summe of goode, assignenge the place where the treasure was, seyenge that the goodes distribute by hym profite not, for thei were of rape; that doen, the bischop Page  95, vol.7 entrede a monastery. A grete inundacion of the see en|creasede in this yere in the thrydde kalends of October, more then hit was wonte, in so moche that hit drownede townes, and moche peple. Henricus, libro sexto. Suanus kynge of the Danes, compassenge Este Ynglonde with a grete navy of schippes, entrede into the water of Humbre, goynge by the water of Trente unto Geynesburgh; to whom men inha|bitynge the northe partes of Watlyngestrete promysed fidelite, ȝiffenge to hym certeyne plegges; takynge oon hoste to his sonne Canutus to kepe that cuntre, whiles he did waste the sowthe marches, sleynge men, and reservynge women to the pleasure of theire flesche. After that he toke Oxenforde and Wynchestre; whiche goynge to London, and inquirynge noo brigge, loste mony men in the water of Thamys; and put from London by the presence of the kynge, subduede to hym þe West saxons; men of London seenge that submitte theim to hym also, sendynge to hym plegges þerfore. The kynge trowblede gretely þerwith, sende Emma his wife, with his ij. sonnes and the bischop of London, unto Richarde the secunde duke of Normandy, broþer to his wife, and he kepede a poore Criste|masse at the yle of Wyȝhte. Whiche beynge at the laste as [folio 317b] in desperacion, saylede to Normandy also. Suanus the kynge of Danes, inflate with pride þerwith to his destruccion and Page  97, vol.7 dampnacion, askede a grete tribute of that towne callede Seynte Edmundbery, manassenge to brenne the cite withowte thei wolde pay the seide tribute, and to sle the peple inhabitynge hit. Also he revilede moche and detracte seynte Edmunde, wherefore he was sleyne in the myddes of his men, in the begynnynge of the nyȝhte, folowynge that detraccion, with the swerde of seynte Edmund, at the towne of Geynesburgh, and so he diede the thrydde nones of February. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Canutus his sonne, herynge þerof, began to do moore mekely with seynte Edmund, and made a diche abowte the grownde of the seide martir, and grawntenge fre liberte and immunite to the towne, made a monastery on the body of the martir, and putte monkes into hit, induynge that place with noble possessions. From whiche tyme a con|suetude is usede in Englonde, kynges to sende the crownes whom they wylle not were to seynte Edmund, whom thei redeme by a grete pryce.

Capitulum septimum decimum.

SUANUS dedde the Danes erecte Canutus his sonne into theire kynge. Men of Yngelonde sende to Normandy to kynge Page  99, vol.7 Egelredus promisynge to be tru to hym, and to leve Canutus, so that he wolde be moore favorable to theim then he was afore. The kynge assentynge þerto, sende Edmund his sonne to theym afore. After that the kynge commen into Ynglonde, and takynge an hoste, expellede Canutus from Lindisey. Then Canutus perceyvynge moste avauntage to fle, caused men taken as plegges to his fader to be heded at Sandewiche in Kente, and somme to have theire nooses and hondes kytte awey; after that saylynge to Denmarke, and commynge into Ynglonde in the yere nexte foloynge ageyne. Canutus compassenge Este Ynglonde, wastede the sowthe partes, whom Edmund Irenside mette manfully, and fauȝhte soore with hym; but that traytor Edricus withdrawede hym, and the Westesaxons also. Egel|redus the kynge diede the ixthe kalendes of Maii at London, and was beryede in the churche of Seynte Paule; after the dethe of whom bischoppes and abbottes, and oþer gentylmen of the realme, denyenge the progeny of Egelredus, confessed at South|ampton [folio 318a] Canutus to be theire kynge; and he did swere to theyme that he scholde be a tru lorde to theyme after God and the worlde. But men of London, with mony oþer noble men, erecte Edmunde Irensyde into theire kynge; whiche subduede to hym the Westesaxons anoon, parte by armes, and parte by theire wylle. Canutus segede London, whiche repulsede from Page  101, vol.7 the cite fauȝhte ageyne Edmund in the province of Dorsette, nye to Gyllyngham, but he loste the victory. But after þat, Edmund Irensyde gedrenge to hym a moore myȝhty hoste in the province of Wiccions, in the myddes of somer, fauȝhte so soore ageyne Canutus that either hoste were feyne to departe from a sundre for werynesse of fiȝhte. Alfridus et Marianus. But Edmund scholde have hade a grete victory of the Danes in the day folowynge, but that Edricus the traitoure lette hit, schew|ynge to men of the hoste of Edmund, the hedde of a knyȝhte lyke to hym, seyenge to theyme, "Beholde, sers, the hedde of youre lorde." But Edmunde knowynge that treason, fauȝhte moore manfully untylle nyȝhte; and Canutus wente towarde London in the nyȝhte, and Edmund folowynge hym, delyverede the cite, and after that the Danes were devicte at Brenteforde in the thrydde tyme. Then that traytour Edricus promised fidelite to Edmund Irenside. Also the seide Edmund hade victory of the Danes robbynge Kente at Otteforde, chasede theyme to the yle of Shepey. This Edmunde turnede to Westesax, Canutus spoylede the Marches; whom Edmunde mette at Asshedon, makynge a soore batelle. That Edricus seenge the Danes to be inclynede, stale his weye from the hoste, where mony men were sleyne longynge to Edmund, with the bischoppe of Lincoln and thabbot Ramesey, commyn thyder to Page  103, vol.7 entrete for a knyȝhte. Where pease was reformede by the cown|sayle of Edricus in this maner folowynge, suertes made: A knyȝhte stode up in the myddes of the hoste, seyenge: "Moche peple dyethe dayly, but noo man hathe victory. Edmunde is invincible for his strenȝhte insuperable, and Canutus is in|vincible for the favor of fortune. But what wille be the ende of this fiȝhte? that theire peple sleyne, other thei schalle compown, other thei schalle fiȝhte allon; why do thei not so nowe, or compowne? sithe that the realme was sufficiente afore to v. kynges, why scholde hit not be sufficiente then to ij. men? And if hit be so that thei have indignacion to departe [folio 318b] the realme betwene theym, or the oon to be subiecte to that other, suffre theym to fiȝhte allon that desire to have lordeschippe allon, leste that theire hostes and men sleyne, peple of the realme schalle not suffise to resiste theire enemyes and to defende þe realme." Those ij. noble men metynge, with theire hostes, at an yle callede Olneye, nye to Gloucestre, the peple of bothe partes seide that other thei scholde com|pownde other fiȝhte allon. The kynges metynge in the myddes of the yle, firste on horses and after on foote, mette to|gedre Page  105, vol.7 and fauȝhte soore allon; where Canutus þe kynge, per|ceyvynge Edmund to be invincible, movede hym to divide the realme betwene þeim. Then the armoure caste awey, thei kyssede togedre, peple mervellenge and ioyenge moche þereof. This acorde made, that traytour Edricus, thenkynge to obteyne the favor of Canutus, wente prively under a sege at Oxen|forde, and when the seide Edmund come to þat place to do the dewte of nature, he was putte thro the body with a broche in the secrete place. And that doen, Edricus the traytour goynge to Canutus, seide: "Hayle, kynge allon." Then Canutus, knowynge of that treason, seide to hym: "In that thow hase sleyne oon of the noblemen of the worlde, sup|posynge to please me þerwith, y schalle exalte thy hedde above all the gentylmen of Ynglonde;" and so Edricus was heded, and his hedde sende to London, and sette on the hieste ȝate of hit. ℞. Neverthelesse mony writers of storyes re|herse, and specially Marianus, that Edmund died not so, but that he diede at London, abowte þe feste of seynte Andrewe, after that acorde made and division of the realme betwene þeim, and was beryede with Edgarus, his grauntefader, at Glaston; whiche thynge scholde appere to be tru, in that alle cronicles expresse that Canutus the kynge ȝafe to that traytour Ed|ricus þe Marches after the dethe of Edmund, or to have ȝiffen Page  107, vol.7 cownsaile to Canutus to have putte the sonnes of Edmund to exile, and mony other þinges myȝhte not stond if Edricus hade be heded afore.

Capitulum octavum decimum.

CANUTUS reioycynge the monarchy of Ynglonde after þe dethe of Edmund, reignede allemoste xix. yere; whiche dividede the realme of Ynglonde into iiij. partes, assignynge to hymselfe Westesex, to Turkillus the erle Esteynglonde, to Edricus the [folio 319a] traytour the Marches, and to Hiricius Northumbrelonde. After that, a cownesaile hade at London, Canutus the kynge inquirede of the gentillemen of þe realme wheþer in the acorde made betwene hym and Edmund eny mencion was made of the succession of theire childer or breþer. Whiche answerde falsely, sayenge Nay, supposynge to gette the favor of the kynge thereby, swerynge also that they wolde take hym to theire kynge, and refuse utterly the succession of Edmunde. Wherefore somme of theym were sleyne by the iuggemente of God, and somme of þeim were mischevide. For Canutus the kynge exiled Ed|wyne, brother to Edmund, by cownsaile of Edricus, whiche was Page  109, vol.7 callede the kynge of churles, whiche reconsilede afterwarde, was sleyne by treason. But Canutus the kynge, dredynge to sle Edmund and Edwarde, sonnes to Edmund Irenside, for schame, sende theyme to be sleyne of the kynge of Suaves. That kynge dredynge God, sende theyme to the kynge of Hungary, Salomon by name, that thei scholde have theire lyfe. And Edmund maryede the doȝhter of that kynge, whiche diede soone after withowte eny childer. Edward, that other broþer, mariede Agatha, doȝhter of Henre the emperoure, of whom he gate a doȝhter, Margarete by name, after qwene of Scottes, and Christian, a myncheon, and Edgarus Adelynge. Henricus, libro sexto. This worde Adelynge is compownde after the langage of Saxons, of Adel, that is noble, and of this worde lyng, that is an ymage, as a noble ymage. Wherefore the Westesaxons have in grete despite that person, whom they calle Hindirlynge, sowndynge as deiecte from honeste. Hooly kynge Edwarde intended to have made this Edgar Adelyng his successour of the realme of Ynglond, neverthelesse he, dredynge the sonnes of Godewyn and the wickydnesse of the peple, made William of Normandy his successour. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. This Canutus, thenkynge to be sure of the realme, mariede Emma the qwene unto hym, of Page  111, vol.7 whom he gate Hardeknutus, causenge in a Cristemasse folow|ynge that traytour Edricus to be heded in his palice, and his body to be caste into Thamys at London, luffynge moche Leofricus the erle. After that he kepede a parliament at Oxenford, where Ynglische men and Danes were acorded to observe the lawes of kynge Edgarus. Henricus, libro sexto. Canutus the kynge wente in this yere to Denmarke, takynge an hoste of Yng|lische men with hym ageyne the Wandalynges contrarious to hym. Wherefore in the nyȝhte afore that batelle scholde have folowede, Godewyn the duke, takynge with hym the hoste of Ynglischemen, the kynge not knowynge, wente to the Wandal|ynges, [folio 297a] and hade a noble victory of theyme, for whiche kynde|nesse that kynge Canutus hade Ynglische men in grete honoure afterwarde, and returnede to Ynglonde ageyne that same yere. Alfridus. Aldunus bischop of Lindisfarne dedde, and that seete beynge vacante allemoste by iij. yere, a seeyne was hade for eleccion of the bischop, where a preste, Edmund by name, commynge to the seide eleccion, seide in this wise to his felowschip, "Wherefore luffe ye not my person?" The peple fastynge by thre daies, desyred God and seynte Cuthberte that thei myȝhte have knowlege what man scholde reioyce that Page  113, vol.7 office and charge. Wherefore the preste beynge in the canon of the masse, a voice was herde from the sepulcre of seynte Cuthberte to say thryes, "Edmund awe to be bischop," and so he was. A thynge to be mervaylede happed in this yere in Saxonia in the churche of Seynte Magnus, a martir: xv. men*. [Agen peple dawnc|ynge.] and thre women dawnsynge in the seide churcheyerde on Cristemasse nyȝhte, the preste of that churche trowblede þer|with, preyed and desirede the vengeaunce of God, seyenge, God grawnte, thro the merites of seynte Magnus the martir, þat ye contynue so by alle the yere;" and so thei did: for in Cristemasse nyȝhte in the nexte yere folowynge they dawncede, beynge drownede in snawe unto the myddes of theire body; in alle that tyme neiþer eitynge, drynkynge, neiþer slepynge, un|tille thei were delyverede by the preier of seynte Cuthberte bischop of Colon. Whiche drawen up from the erthe felle afore the awter; somme of whom diede, and somme of theym contynuede in lyfe; and oon of the thre women was doȝhter to the seide preste that desired vengeaunce. The brother of the same prestes doȝhter, laborynge to have his suster owte from that dawnce, and pullynge at her arme, drawede hit aweye, and ȝitte sche lefte not that dawnce. Willelmus de Pontifici|bus, libro primo. Briȝhtwoldus monke of Glassynbery, after that bischop of Wilton, beynge in contemplacion, thouȝhte of Page  115, vol.7 the succession of kynges off Yngelonde abowte this tyme, whiche stocke or kynde was allemoste destroyede; and soone after he was as in a dreame, and did beholde seynte Petyr the apostole holde in his hondes Edwarde the son of Egelredus, beynge then in exile in Fraunce, and to consecrate hym into the kynge, and to schewe plenerly his vertuous lyfe, with the nowmbre of yeres in whom he scholde reigne. The monke inquirenge of the pos|terite [folio 320a] of Edwarde and succession, seynte Petyr answerde seyenge: "The realme of Ynglische men is the realme of God, and God schalle make providence after hym, or after this Edwarde." Thauȝhe Canutus the kynge come to Ynglond a pagan, he was soone after convertede to the feithe of Criste, and devoute in his servyce. In the firste yere of the reigne of whom þe men come to hym that hade sleyn Edmund Irneside by treason of Edricus, supposynge to have grete rewardes of hym; whom he causede to suffre dethe for sleynge of theire naturalle lorde. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Egel|nothus, archebischop of Cawnterbery, translate the body of seynte Elphegus from London to Cawnterbery in this yere by licence of kynge Canutus, and after that goynge to the cite Papy from Rome bouȝhte an arme of seynte Austyn for a c. talentes of silvyr and oon talente of golde, whiche he sende to Page  117, vol.7 Coventre for the luffe of Leofricus the erle. Henre the firste, emperoure of Alemayne, died in this yere, whom Conradus the firste did succede xv. yere; whiche made a lawe that whosoever brake the lawe of the londe scholde be heded. The firste transgressor of þat statute was Lupoldus the erle, whiche dredynge dethe, fledde to wildernesse with his wife. Conradus commynge to hunte in a season in those costes, and logged with the same erle, herde a voice sayenge to hym: "The sonne of this erle lyvynge nowe as an heremite, whiche is borne but late, schalle be thy sonne-in-lawe and successoure." Themperoure havynge indignacion commaunded the herte of childe to be brouȝhte to hym; but the messyngers dredynge God, lefte the childe on lyve in the woode, and brouȝhte the herte of an hare to the kynge. Hit happede that a duke com|mynge by that weye, and herynge the voice of a yonge childe, toke hit to his wife withowte childer, and namede hit Henre. This childe encreasynge moche, hit happede the emperoure to beholde hym, and remembrynge that voice hade afore to hym, causede that yonge man to tary in his palice, ymagynynge ofte howe he myȝhte putte hym to dethe. Wherefore he sende hym to themperesse with letters, that the letters redde he scholde dye in that day. But this yonge man taryenge in a Page  119, vol.7 nyȝhte with a preste, and takynge reste, þe preste takynge þe letters and redynge þeim, abhorrede that synne, and didde wryte for this clause, that he scholde dye in suche a certeyne day, he schalle be mariede to oure doȝhter in suche a day; and [folio 320b] so he was. The emperour trowbled þerwith, neverthelesse he remembrenge that he was the sonne of a noble erle, toke hit pacientely, makynge a monastery in that wildernesse where he was borne, callede Ursania.

Capitulum nonum decimum.

RICHARDE the secunde, and the iiijthe duke of Normandy, diede þis yere; whom his sonne Richarde the thrydde did suc|cede; whom Roberte the yonger broþer poysenede after the firste yere of his governayle. Wherefore the same Robert, successour to hym, after the vijthe yere of his governayle, with grete compunction wente barefote to Ierusalem, and diede at Bithinia; of whom hit is rehersed that he was myȝhty in batelle, liberalle in ȝiffenge, and profuse in makynge festes. Where hit happede in a grete feste that the seide duke offrenge with his knyȝhtes, oon of his knyȝhtes offred not; the duke suppos|ynge he hade not eny thynge to offre, commaunded an cli. to Page  121, vol.7 be taken to hym; whiche receyvynge that summe, offrede hit holle. That knyȝhte inquirede why he did soe, ansueryde that hit was ȝiffen to hym to offre. The duke herynge that, com|maunded an cli. to be taken to hym to his awne use. That duke playenge an other tyme at the chesse, a botelle of golde onorned mervellousely with gemmes, was brouȝhte to hym, whom he ȝafe anoon to a clerke playenge with hym, and the clerke diede anoon after. Leches assignede this to be the cause, seyenge that lyke as a herte schutte for grete sorowe, and not opened soone, inducethe dethe, so the herte openede for grete ioye, and not schutte soone, inducethe dethe. Also a man brouȝhte to the duke ij. ryalle knyfes, to whom he ȝafe a cli., whiche tellynge that money, in the meane tyme ij. noble horses were ȝiffen to the duke, whom he ȝafe also to þe same man, the man ȝiffenge thonkynge to þe duke departede prively awey. After that a cuppe of sylver was taken to the seide duke, that man bryngynge the knyfes to the duke souȝhte and not founde, the duke was soory, sayenge that he hade not a condigne rewarde for his knyves. Hit was seide that this duke wolde have ȝiffen to a man that hade brouȝhte hym enythynge of worschip or pleasure whatsoever thynge that hade ben ȝifen to Page  123, vol.7 hym in þat day, withowte the ȝifte hade ben to eite.*. [Sic in MS.]Willel|mus de Regibus, libro tertio. This duke Robert goynge in a tyme thro Phalesia a cite of Normandy, perceyvede the doȝhter of a skynner, Arlet by name, dawnesynge amonge oþer women, and takynge hir to hym in the nyȝhte, and usynge here a cer|teyne season in the maner of his wife, gate of here William þe [folio 321a] noble conquerour. The magnitude of whom to comme the dreame of his moder portended, thenkynge hire bowells to be spredde over Ynglonde and Normandy. And also in the tyme of hire childynge, William Conquerour here son towchynge the erthe, fyllede bothe his hondes of hit, and helde hit faste; wherefore the myddewife seide hit was a signe that he scholde be a noble kynge and prince. This maide Arlet brouȝhte to the bedde of the duke, in the firste nyȝhte brake here smokke from the chynne unto here feete. The duke inquirenge the cause, sche answerede and seide that hit was ageyne norture and curtesye that the laweste parte of here smocke, whiche hade compassede here feete, scholde be turnyde to the mowthe of here lorde. This duke goynge to Ierusalem, and callynge afore to hym the noble men of Normandy, caused theyme to swere and to promise fidelite to William his sonne, havynge that tyme Page  125, vol.7 vij. yere in age, makynge Gilbertus the erle his tutor, and the specialle charge of theim bothe to Henre kynge of Fraunce. Whiche promyse and fidelite was kepede to the seide William unto the dethe of Roberte, þat noble duke his fader, but his dethe knowen, every man allemoste amonge theyme despised the childe, and made provision for þeim selfe. But the seide Gilberte sleyne by the sonne of the broþer to the seide Roberte, Radulphus by name, and William Conqueroure but tendre in age, mony batelles were movede betwene parties. Neverthe|lesse the seide William Conquerour gedrenge an hoste toke and did sle Guido of Burguyn, cosyn to hym, getyn by the doȝhter of Richarde the secunde, auctor of those batelles, and causede Odo, broþer to the kynge of Fraunce, to flye, com|mynge with an hoste to ȝiffe batelle to hym. Henre kynge of Fraunce herynge that, and commynge with a grete multitude, was causede to fle by the seide William also; but pease was reformed by mediators, and the men of the kynge taken in captivite were restorede. Wherefore hit is to be attended that this noble William Conqueroure ȝiffynge mony batelles to the kynge of Fraunce, did not comme on hym not provided, as men use nowe, but assignenge a day and the place, hade victory contynually ageyne the kynge. The kynge of Fraunce dedde, William Conqueroure gate by grete victoryes Cenomannia and Briteyne the lesse, pertenynge of olde tyme to Normandy, whom Page  127, vol.7 kynge Charls ȝafe to Rollo with Gilla his doȝhter. In whiche batelle Harolde off Yngelonde was, as hit schalle be schewede after. Robert this duke of Normandy goynge to Ierusalem thro Burgundye, and commynge laste from the ȝate of the cite of alle pilgremes, was smyten with a staffe in the hedde by the porter, and thonkynge God, seide to his men that they scholde not do eny hurte to the porter, for he was worthy to have moore correccion, "ffor y luffe this stroke better than Roone." After that this duke commynge to Rome to take the crosse [folio 321b] of the pope, putte his precious palle on the ymage of noble Constantyne, skornynge the Romanes, in that thei wolde not ȝiffe oon tyme in the yere a clothynge to theire lorde. Also he causede the mule on whom he did ryde to be schodde with golde, prohibitynge his men to take the schoone and if thei did falle ofte. After that, he returnynge by the emperour of Con|stantinopole, and spekynge with hym, founde noo benche þer, sate uppon his palle after the maner of the cuntre, and his knyȝhtes in like wise. The duke arysynge and his men also lefte theire palles þer, seyenge that hit was not honeste to take theire seetes aweye with theyme. Themperoure proferynge grete ȝiftes to the duke, he refusede theyme, seyenge that he wolde Page  129, vol.7 lyve of his awne goode in his pilgremage and goynge to Ieru|salem, but in returnynge he wolde fullefylle the wylle of them|peroure. Wherefore themperoure commaunded that he scholde have woode y nowe necessary to hym thro his empyre withowte eny price. But the seide duke bouȝhte nuttes, with whom he caused his meyte to be made redy. Themperoure mervellynge moche the manhode of that duke, ordeynede benches and bankers in his place afterwarde. After that the duke was soo soore seke, that he myȝhte neiþer go ne ryde, wherefore he hirede poore Saracenys to beere hym on a beere in the day uppon theire schulders. Wherefore he commaunded a man of Normandy returnynge to that cuntre to say to men inquirynge for hym, that he see develles berrynge the duke towarde hevyn, ffor he callede the Saracenys develles, and the holy londe hevyn. The consuetude was in þat tyme that noo pilgreme scholde entre into the hooly cite, with owte that þei payede a certeyn summe of moneye; where mony Cristen men herynge of the commynge of that duke, come to hym, askynge helpe for the luffe of Criste; to whom he did swere by the herte of his wombe that he wolde be the laste of Cristen peple that scholde entre into that cite in that day, as longe as eny peny wolde dure. The noble Saracene and lorde of that cite herynge of the grete curtesye of that duke and manhode, commaunded that eny thynge scholde not be taken of hym or of men commynge with hym, and that offrenge of alle that day scholde be ȝiffen to the duke, whiche the duke distribute to poore men, and diede after þat in Bithinia.

Page  131, vol.7

Capitulum vicesimum.

IOHN þe xxti succedid Benedicte the pope ix. yere. In whiche yere Marianus the Scotte was borne, thro the labor of whom this presente cronicle was encreasede moche. Marianus. Men of Norway repellynge seynte Olavus theire kynge for his grete mekenesse, toke Canutus to theire kynge, whiche was sleyne wikkidly in the iiijthe yere folowynge. Roberte kynge of Fraunce diede in this tyme, whom Hewe his sonne did succede; in whiche yere also Canutus, levynge Denmarke, [folio 322a] wente to Rome, ȝiffenge regalle ȝiftes to seynte Petyr, and delyverede the scole of Saxons þer from every tribute. Also he ȝafe large almes in returnynge towarde Ynglonde, and redemede the passage of pilgremes in mony places with grete goodes, and releschede to the pope that the primates of Ynglonde were wonte to ȝiffe to hym for the palle, sendynge letters to the gentilmen of Ynglonde that they scholde correcte alle thynges to be correcte afore his commynge. Benedicte the ixthe succedid pope Iohn viij. yere; this pope was eiecte, and an oþer callede Silvestre subrogate; but that pope Silves|tre eiecte, Benedict þe pope was restorede. This Benedict made Page  133, vol.7 pope but symple in connynge, made an oþer pope under hym to supplye his office; þat thynge displeasynge mony men, an other pope was made; and so hit was þat tyme that tweyne did stryve ageyn oon, and oon ageyne tweyne. Wherefore this conten|cion hade for that office a longe season, Henre themperoure, sonne-in-lawe and successour to Conradus, deposynge theyme, made the bischop Rambergense pope, whiche was callede Clemens, of whom Henre themperoure was crownyde, con|streynynge the Romanes to swere that thei scholde not electe the pope with owte his consente. And this pope Benedicte appered to a man after his dethe, in a monstruous similitude, with the tayle of an asse, and a hedde lyke as of a beere, seyenge to hym that he appered lyke as he lyvede afore. Roberte duke of Normandy diede in this yere at Bithinia, levynge his yonge son William his successour. Marianus. Canutus the kynge, a lytelle afore his dethe, made Suanus his sonne, as men supposed, geten by Elgiva, kynge of Norway in þis yere. But mony men say that Elgiva havynge noo childe by Canutus, feynede her as with childe, and hade the childe of a myncheon, brouȝte to here bedde, delyverede and brouȝhte into the worlde but newly afore, and caused Canutus to beleve that hit was his sonne. But Canutus made Hardeknutus kynge of the Danes Page  135, vol.7 sonne of Emma, gemme of Normandy. Canutus the kynge diede at Septonya or Shaftesbury, and was beryede at Wyn|chestre, in the olde monastery. Henricus, libro sexto. This Canutus was seide to have done iij. noble thynges. The firste was that he mariede his doȝhter to Conradus themperour; the secunde was that he visitte Rome solennely, and come ageyne bryngynge with hym a grete parte of the holy crosse. The thrydde was that he commaunded in a tyme a cheire to be sette in the side of þe see, whiche commaunded the water [folio 322b] that hit scholde not towche his grownde, or make moyste the clothes of his lorde. But the water of the see ascendynge after the consuetude, and makynge moyste the clothes of Canu|tus, the kynge seide, "I wylle that mortalle men knowe the power of kynges to be veyne, and noo man to be worthy the name of a kynge, excepte hym to whom alle thynges be subiecte:" and after that day he bare noo crowne on his hedde, but putte hit on the hedde of the crucifix at Wynchestre. Canutus the kynge dedde, agrete altercacion was hade for the succession at the universite of Oxenforde, for Leofricus erle of Chestre, and other princes of the northe parte of Thamys, erecte into kynge Haraldus Harefote, son of Canutus and Elgiva, as hit was supposed, thauȝhe Godewynus laborede for Harde|knutus. Marianus. Mony men say this Haralde to have*. [Haraldi.]Page  137, vol.7 bene the sonne of a sowter, and brouȝhte to Elgiva by gyle lyke as Suanus was. This Harald erecte into kynge, toke anoon the treasure of the kynge from Emma wife to Canutus, and expellede here from Ynglonde; whom the erle of Flaundres norisched tenderly. Ethelnothus archebischop of Cawnter|bery diede, and in the vijthe day folowynge, Ethelricus bischop of Wynchestre diede, whiche preyede God oftetymes that he scholde not lyve longe after Ethelnotus. Wherefore Edsius chapelayn of kynge Harald reioyced the seete of Cawnterbery, and Stigandus, an other chapeleyne, was made bischop of Wyn|chestre, and archebischop after Edsius. This kynge Harold diede at London after the iiijthe yere of his reigne, and was beryede at Westemynstre; after the dethe of whom gentylle men of Ynglonde sende, for Hardeknutus kynge of Denmarke, taryenge at Flaundres with his moder.

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

HARDEKNUTUS commynge to Ynglonde reignede þer iij. yere, doynge not eny thynge worthy glory; sendynge anoon Alfricus archebischop of Yorke, with Godewinus the erle, to London, causede the body of kynge Harald, beryede but late Page  139, vol.7 afore, to be taken from the erthe, and the hedde kytte aweye, hit was caste into the water of Thamys, in signe and venge|aunce of the iniuryes doen to his moder by hym. But fischers fyndynge the body, beryede hit nobly. Also this Hardeknutus causede viij. marke of silvyr to be paiede to every schippe man in his schippes of the importable tribute of Ynglonde. Also he callede ageyne Emma his moder from exile, governynge the realme after hire cownesaile, and after Godewinus. This kynge puttynge to men of Ynglonde a tri|bute importable, ij. of the collectors of the seide kynge were sleyne at Worcestre. Wherefore that cite was destroyede and brente. Willelmus de Regibus libro secundo. This kynge Hardeknutus maryede his beautuous sustyr Guinulda to Henre the emperour, whiche accusede after that of adul|tery, her sonne whom sche brouȝhte from Ynglonde with here was assignede to fiȝhte ageyne the accuser of his moder; whiche yonge man hade victory ageyne the accuser of his moder, by the helpe of God. Guinulda, gladde of that victory, wolde not assente to themperour that he scholde fullefille the pleasure of the flesche with here after þat tyme; but sche refusynge his felowschippe, toke the habite of religion. Hen|ricus, libro sexto. In the tyme of this Hardeknutus, Alfridus and Edward, sonnes of Emma, after theire longe taryinge in Page  141, vol.7 Fraunce and Normandy, and also of Egelredus the kynge, come to Wynchestre to speke with theire moder, takynge mony knyȝhtes of Normandy with theym; Godwynus thenk|ynge to mary his doȝhter to Edwarde the yonger broþer, in that Alfridus his elder broþer wolde have skorne to marye with his doȝhter. Neverthelesse he seide to gentyllemen of the realme, that Alfride and Edwarde comme to the londe with so moche peple for somme treason, and not to speke with theire moder, wherefore thei were worthy to suffre dethe. Wherefore he did sle vj. c. of theyme at Gilleforde, for ix. of the Normannes were heded and the xthe was reservede; and after that he made theyme to be tythede ageyne, thenkynge the nowmbre over moche, causenge oon of theire guttes to be taken owte and fastede to a pale, and the bodye to be turnede abowte unto the laste partes of the inwarde partes or bowelles were extracte. Alfride takyn and made blynde, and after sende to Hely, lyvede not longe after; Emma herynge that sende Edwarde her sonne to Normandy. That erle Gode|winus blamede of the gentyllemen of the realme, and of Harde|knutus the kynge, for that offense swerede and made a protestacion, that he hade not do so but he was coacte by the strenȝthe of kynge Harald. Conradus the firste and emperour dedde, Henre the secunde, his sonne in lawe, was successoure Page  143, vol.7 to hym xvij. yere, of whom mony mervellous thynges be redde. This emperoure Henre putte from his cowrte alle ioculers and mynstrelles, and ȝafe to poore men the goodes he was wonte to ȝiffe to theyme. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. This emperour hade a sustyr made a myncheon, whom he myȝhte unnethe suffre to be from hym. But hit happede a clerke of the courte to be of suche familiarite with the myncheon that he lay with here alle a nyȝhte. That clerke perceyvynge that hit hade snowede moche, and that the snawe hade coverede the grownde, thenkynge bothe perelle [folio 323b] and schame to be taken þer, causede the myncheon to bere hym on here backe owte thro the courte. But hit happede thempe|roure to aryse to make uryne the same tyme, and goynge to the wyndowe of his chambre, perceyvynge that, lauȝhed in his mynde, kepynge that thynge secrete. But a bischoppes seete vacante, he made that clerke bischop, sayinge, "Ryde not after this tyme on the backe of a woman." And also a monastery of myncheons vacante of a governoure, he toke hit to his suster, seyenge, "Take this monastery, and attende that thow bere not a clerke rydynge after this tyme;" and so thei abstenede from that wickid lyfe after that. This em|peroure goynge to here masse at a chapelle nye to a foreste, in the Sonneday of Quinquagesima prively, where a preste of grete deformite as in bodily beawte ministred, this em|perour mervaylede moche in mynde that alle myȝhty God, Page  145, vol.7 excellente in beawte, wolde suffre so fowle a creature to ministre abowte his precious body. And this preste commynge to this verse, "Scitote quia Dominus ipse est Deus," in the tracte of the same day, as blamynge his clerke, turnede his face to the emperour, sayenge, "Ipse fecit nos, et non ipsi nos." The emperoure seenge and herynge that made hym a bischop soone after, whiche was a man of vertuous life. Whiche bischop departede a myncheon from a ryche man, and restorede hir to her monastery, and excommunicate that ryche man with men havynge communication with hym, in that he returnede to synne ageyne with the seide myncheon. This man taryenge and contynuynge in synne, sende to the bischop, preyenge hym of absolucion; whom the bischop answerede seyenge, "If that cursed man leve that cursede woman, y assoyle hym; and if he wille not, he schalle dye afore God in this day twelf|monethe, in what houre that y dye, and ȝiffe an answere of his dedes;" and the man diede as the bischop seide, and he also." The same prince hade a pleasawnte synger in his howseholde, usynge moche the synne of the flesche; them|peroure commaundede hym to rede the gospelle in a solemne feste, but the clerke wolde not in that he hade ben pollute with Page  147, vol.7 a woman in the nyȝhte afore. Themperoure seide, "Other rede the gospelle, other departe from my londe." The clerke tayknge his goodes departed, and themperoure commaundid his men that and if he departede thei scholde folowe hym, and brynge hym ageyne to his pressonce. That doen, them|peroure seide to hym, "Y lawde and commende thy manhode that thou dredes God moore then me, and the respecte of hevyn moore then thy cuntre; þerfore refuse the synne that thow haste usede, and y schalle make the a bischop." This prince beynge in the courte of Conradus themperoure in his [folio 324a] tendre age, toke a whistille of silvyr, with whom childer have delectacion to play, from a clerke in the courte, in this con|dicion, and if he were emperour he scholde make hym a bischop. This prince made emperoure, the clerke was made a bischop. After that, within fewe dayes folowynge, them|perour was vexid soore with infirmite, insomoche that he felyd not or tastede eny thynge in thre daies. But at the laste, at the preiers of men stondynge abowte, he began to revive, and callede that bischop so promotede by hym by the cownesaile of other bischoppes to be deposede. For them|peroure seide that he was tormentede by devells with bren|nynge flammes thro the myddes of that whistelle whom the Page  149, vol.7 clerke toke to hym, in respecte of the heete of whom this fyre materialle is but as warme warm water unto scaldynge water. But a yonge man come to hym in that peyne with a peace of golde conteynynge water in hit, whiche castenge water on hym extincte that soore brennynge, whom he seide to be seynte Laurence; wherefore themperoure repairede the churche of seynte Laurence, and ȝafe a ryalle chalice of golde thyder also. Marianus. In the tyme of this emperoure there was so greet division in the churche of Rome that iij. men were electe to be pope. For a preste, Gracianus by name, was made pope for goodes that he hade ȝiffen; but this emperoure comynge to Rome to mitigate that rumor, receyvyde a crowne of the seide Gracianus; neverthelesse he was deposed in that he was con|victe of symony, and an other subrogate. In the tyme of this emperoure the body off Pallas was founde at Rome incorrupte, havynge a wounde in hit of iiij. foote and a halfe, havynge a lawnterne inextinguible at his hede, the altitude of whom excellede the altitude of the walle of the cite; and that lampe Page  151, vol.7 cowthe not be extincte with blawynge or eny moistere untyl that a subtile hoole was made with a nelde and so the aier causede hit to be extincte.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

GREGORIUS the vjthe, callede afore Gracianus, succedid Benedicte allemoste iiij. yere. Willelmus de Regibus. This pope, a man of grete religion and audacite, ȝafe batelle on a season to Henre the emperoure, whiche founde the state of the churche of Rome so decreased that he hade unnethe eny thynge to hym and to the cardynalles excepte fewe cites and places nye to the cite of Rome, and the offerynges of tru peple. For theire goodes were taken awey by thefes and robbers, inso|moche that thei come to the churches and toke awey goodes offrede in þeim; and mony of theym usede woodes and rob|bede pilgremes, that the visitacion of Petyr and of Paule was not usede, what for robbers in the wey, and what for murdre of peple in the cite and in the churche of Seynte Petyr. Gregory the pope perceyvnge this, movede the wickede peple by feire wordes to amende theire wickede lyfe, but noo profyte folow|ynge, he cursede all those wickede men solennly, and alle men havynge communicacion with theyme. The pope prevaylynge Page  153, vol.7 not þerby, but excitynge trowble and perelle to his person, sende to þe emperour that he wolde helpe the cherche alle|moste destroyede. The emperoure excusynge hym by batelle ageyne the Wandalynges, preyde the pope to gedre an hoste and to expelle the enemys of the seide churche, sendynge to hym grete goodes þerto. Wherefore the pope gedrenge an hoste putte those robbers of the churche of Seynte Petyr other to fliȝhte, other elles thei were sleyne, whereby the pope recurede mony lordschippes to the churche of Seynte Petyr. But somme of the wickede peple usede to raven and extorcion callede the pope a sleer of men and unworthy that office, in so moche that mony of the cardinalls declynyde unto that parte thouȝhte and ordeynede that the pope scholde not have ben beriede in the churche. The pope laborynge in his extreme infirmite callede the convente of cardinalls to hym, and seyenge to them in this manner: "I mervayle moche, breþer, that ye iugge youre bischoppe so boldely withowte discrecion, whiche have lyvede so that y myȝhte transfude my patrimony to youre utilite, and have despysede the ioye of the worlde for youre liberacion. Wherefore, and if eny other persons hade seide wickidly of me, ye were bownde to have rebukede theym; for thefes toke aweye youre exhibicion, and y havenge not power to suffre that ȝafe batelle to theyme. Wherefore sithe Page  155, vol.7 that everyche operacion or dede of man awe to be ponderate after the intencion of the doer, after the seyenge of the gospelle, 'si oculus tuus fuerit simplex,' that is to say, if that the intencion be ryȝhte, alle the body schalle be bryȝhte and schynynge, that is to say, the laboure of thy dedes. I ȝafe to a poore man almes in a tyme, and he schewynge my benefite to a robber, was sleyne for hit; am y to be blamede in that y ȝafe almes to the poore man, thro whom he was sleyne? God forbede; for covetise causede the robber to sle hym, and not my liberalite. Soe in lyke wyse as anendes lawes oon dede is rewardede and to be reprovede in diverse respectes. For a thefe sleynge a man is punyschede, a knyȝhte sleynge his enemye is commended; for a thefe fiȝhtethe for goode, and a knyȝhte for the ryȝhte of his [folio 325a] cuntre. Also pope Adrian the firste was commended somme time in that he grauntede to kynge Charls the investitures of prelates; now bischoppes be commended that they do con|trary, takynge from princes that power whiche was ȝiffen to theyme in that tyme for causes resonable, whiche thynge is denyede by reason nowe at this tyme. For in that tyme the sawle of kynge Charls was not infecte with covetise, and the seete apostolicalle was ferre from men electe, and princes were nye whiche wolde not dispose eny thynge by avarice; but nowe in this tyme the ambicion of princes makethe alle thynges as vile. My cause may be appliede to either parte, Page  157, vol.7 but ye say the office of a bischop is not to schede bloode or to cause bloode to be schedde: I graunte þerto. Neverthe|lesse hit longethe to hym and if he see innocency to peresche to resiste the causers of hit bothe by tonge and honde. For Ezechiel accusethe prestes in that thei resiste not suche peple, and made theyme as a walle for the howse*. [Sic.] God. There be persons tweyne ordeynede in the churche of God to destroye vices, oon that makethe scharpe eloquence, an other person that berethe a swerde. I take God to my wittenesse and yow, y armede my tonge ageyne the enemys of the church while that y myȝhte profite; after that y certifiede in writyng to themperour of the state of the churche, havynge power temporalle. Whiche wrote to me schewynge his labors and batells ageyne the Wandalynges, prayenge that thro my labours and his costes those thefes myȝhte be de|stroyede or taken. Wherefore y perceyvynge the soore hurte of citesynnes, the dethe of pilgremes, and the poore lyvynge of the cardinalls, gedrede an hoste to resiste theyme, and he that sparethe a thefe ȝiffethe occasion that an innocent be sleyne. But peraventure ye obiecte, and say hit longethe not to a preste to schedde bloode; I graunte þerto; but what seithe the prophete, 'Blissede be men that do ryȝhteousnesse in every tyme.' For Finees and Page  159, vol.7 Matathias were commendede in that thei extincte men offendynge, moche moore we awe not to suffre oure hooly thynges to be defilede, when that thei kepede so solennely theire misterys beynge but as a schado. Also Zacharias the bischop expulsede from the temple kynge Osias sensynge, and wolde have sleyne hym but that he departede. Also I have doen a benefite to þeim to whom ye thenke y have doen hurte; for ever the longer a wickide man lyvthe he augmentethe his synne and peyne; wherefore [folio 325b] he that schortethe the lyfe of suche a man mynyschethe his synne and peyne, and so he dothe to hym a benefite. Neverthelesse, that y be not deceyvede, neiþer ye, putte my body after my dethe afore the churche*. [Sic in MS.] lockede and made sure, and if thei be not openede by the power of God, do with my body after youre pleasure." That doen as after his commaundemente, a wynde come as sodenly, and brekynge the lockes of the durre brouȝhte the corse unto the interialle walle of the churche. The cardinalles and moche peple seenge that miracle, beriede the body in the churche with grete solem|nite. Hardeknutus the kynge beynge at Lambeth nye to London, mery and gladde, felle downe sodenly, and so wontynge speche diede the vithe idus of Iunius, and was beryede at Wynchestre with his fader. Henricus, libro sexto. This man was called Page  161, vol.7 of so grete liberalite that he commaunded regalle festes to be ordeynede iiij. or v. tymes in a day, sayenge that hit was a pleasure to hym his gestes to leve raþer meytes untowchede then that þei scholde have desyrede moo. Willelmus de Regibus. Wherefore peple off Ynglonde sende to Normandy for Edwarde to be crownede into kynge, suertes made in this condicion, that he scholde brynge with hym fewe men from Normandy; the parte of whom Leofricus the erle of Chestre did helpe, Godewinus duke of Westesaxons, and Livingus bischoppe of Worcestre. ℞. Neverthelesse Marianus rehersethe that Hardeknutus the kynge sende afore Edward his broþer, and made hym to tary in his cowrte.

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

Willelmus de Regibus et Marianus. Edward commen into Ynglonde was crownede into kynge at Wynchestre of Edsius archebischop of Cawnterbury; whiche reignede xxiiijti yere. This kynge maryede Editha doȝhter of Godewinus the duke, whom he entretede soe that he expellede hir not from his bedde, neither hade eny fleschely knowelege of her; I knowe not wheþer hit was doen for hate of her bloode, or for the luffe of chastite. But this is for a trawthe, that the kynge lyvede in alle his dayes with owte eny actualle fleschely synne with Page  163, vol.7 woman, whiche luffede not moche his moder, neither he despisede her overmoche, neverthelesse he toke alle her precious goodes from here by the cownesayle of Godewinus. Whiche callede from Normandy diverse men of grete familiarite with hym, that he myȝhte rewarde theym; amonge whom a monke was callede Robert, whom he made bischop of London, and after metropoli|tan of Ynglonde, after whom the kynge was governede, insomoche that he putte to exile Godewinus his fader in lawe; and his awne moder, for suspicion with þe bischop of Wynchestre hade, here goodes taken from her, and putte her to the monastery of Werwelle, and imprisonede Alwinus the bischoppe. But Emma his moder beynge in liberalle kepynge did wryte to the bis|choppes of Ynglonde in whom sche truste, seyenge that sche was vexede moore for the trowble of the bischop then for here awne schame and peyne, seyenge that sche wolde prove that bischop to be diffamede by the iuggemente of God and examinacion of hoote yrne. The bischoppes gedred hade movede the kynge to mercy, but that Robert archebischop of Cawnterbury caused hym to do the contrary, seyenge to þeyme, "O þe bischoppes my breþer, howe darre ye defende that beste and noo woman, which diffamed the kynge here awne sonne. But thauȝhe sche Page  165, vol.7 wolde excuse the bischoppe, who schalle excuse here, whom men say to have conspired the dethe of Alfrede her sonne, and to have procurede poyson to Edward but with owte dowte sche hathe a preeminence above the kynde of woman. Neverthelesse and if sche goe iiij. passes on iiij. cultres of hoote yrne for here selfe, and v. for the bischop, with owte eny hurte, sche schalle be excusede of this cryme." Wherefore the day of examinacion was prefixede, but in the nyȝhte afore, this Emma preyenge at the sepulcre of seynte Swithyn was comforted moche. The day commen sche keverenge her face, passede by fulle stappes the ix. cultres or sughes with owte eny hurte. Then the kynge sorowynge moche, askynge mercy and forȝifnesse, toke disciplyne of either bischop, and also of his moder, restorynge to her goodes taken aweye. Then Emma the qwene ȝafe to seynte Swithyn ix. maners, and to the bischop other ix. maners, for the ix. cultres or schares that sche passed; and Roberte archebischop of Cawn|terbury fledde into Normandy. Marianus. Elfwordus bischop of London, and somme tyme abbot of Evysham, thenkynge hym not apte to kepe that governayle for grete infirmite, wolde have bene presidente at Evysham, but the breþer refusenge hym, he takynge awey the goodes of the monastery and ryalle Page  167, vol.7 bookes, wente to Ramesey, where he diede soone after and was beried þer. Marianus. Kynge Edwarde gedred a grete navy of schippes at Sandewiche, intendynge to have ȝiffen batelle to [folio 326b] Haralde Harefag kynge of Norway; but a batelle ȝiffen to hym by Suanus kynge of the Danes did lette that viage. Also hit is rehersed, this kynge Edwarde to have laȝhede hertily in a tyme at masse, ageyne the use of peple. Men of his companye mer|vellynge and inquirynge the cause, the kynge seide: "Men of Norway and of Denmarke make a convencion to entre into Ynglonde, and alle men made redy to take schippe, a man brouȝhte to theym firste oon pece of wyne, preyenge God thei scholde not sped welle with owte thei drunke; and so thei drynkynge moche were made drunke, and drunkenesse was turnede to talkynge, and speche to stryfe, and stryfe into fiȝht|ynge, and so the peple was dispersed; wherefore y suppose that aliauntes schalle not vexe this realme in my time." Edward consecrate to be kynge of Ynglond in Ester day at Wynchestre of Edsius and Alfricus, archebischoppes of Cawnterbery and of Yorke; the lyfe of whom was hooly and fulle of miracles; electe to be kynge afore that he was borne, and the noble men of the realme promisynge fidelite to him. Ethelredus his fader diede miserably, as hit is schewede afore, and the Danes trowblede the realme incessantely. That kynge considerynge hym unworthy that glory, and how he was made kynge by the dethe of his broþer, willede an oþer to be kynge if that the realme myȝhte be in moore prosperite. Wherefore a convocacion hade, the kynge spake to theym of the succession of the realme, and what Page  169, vol.7 man scholde be moste apte to the governayle of hit. Whiche kynge hade ij. sonnes, Edmund Irenside geten by a concubyne and Alfride geten by Emma his quene, whiche was also with childe also in þat tyme, whiche chosen to be kynge and borne afterwarde was callede Edward. Whiche certifiede of the dethe of his broþer, sorowede moche, makynge a promise to God and to seynt Petyr, that he scholde visitte the apostles at Rome and if he reioyced the realme of Ynglonde. And after that he was made kynge, he wolde have taken his iourney to Rome, but noble men of the realme purchasede of the pope that iourney to be prohibite, and to be chaungede into oþer meritorious dedes, for men of Ynglonde dredde the incourses of Danes. Benedicte þe xthe succedid pope Gregory allemoste ij. yere, whiche byenge that office was deposed, and Clement the secunde subrogate as for oon yere; whom Poppo or Damasus the secunde succedid ij. monethes, whom Leo the ixthe succedid v yere. Haralde kynge [folio 327a] of Norway, and broþer of seynte Olavus by his moder, expellynge Suanus the kynge of Denmarke, subduede to hym that londe. And Suanus so expulsede commynge to Ynglonde, desirede helpe of the kynge, but noble men of the realme movede the kynge unto the contrary. Neverthelesse, Haralde dedde, Suanus recurede his londe. Livingus bischop of Worchestre dedde, Aldredus, firste monke at Wynechestre, after abbot of Thaves|stoke, was successour to hym. Marianus. A grete snawe felle in this tyme in the weste partes of Ynglonde, in so moche that hit brake grete trees in woodes, contynuynge from the kalendes of Ianuary unto the feste of Seynte Patrikke; and Page  171, vol.7 also a grete dethe of men folowede hit, and of bestes; and the lyȝhtynge destroyede the cornes that yere. A grete batelle was hade in this yere betwene Henre, kynge of Fraunce, and the noble men of Normandy, in that they wolde not admitte William to theire lorde and governoure. But the seide William made duke, hongede mony of theym, and put mony to exile. Herlewinus, a knyȝhte of Normandy, refusenge the ioyes of the worlde, wente abowte this tyme to Bettun in Normandy, where he made a monastery callede Bethlewyn; beynge abbot and governoure, not aschamede to bere stones and cement to the makynge of the churche, to bake brede, and to dresse þeire meyte; to whom God sende ij. noble and excellente men in vertu and connynge, as ij. lawnternes of the worlde, Lanfrancus and Anselmus, bothe governoures of that place by succession, and after metropolitanes of Ynglonde. Marianus. Leo the pope and Suanus kynge of Denmarke wente with Henre them|peroure ageyne Baldewyn erle of Flaundres, and kynge Edwarde kepede the see with a navy of schippes untille themperoure hade his purpose. This pope Leo, put to that office be the seide emperoure, and not by tru eleccion, resignede that office, and was electe ageyne by the convente of cleregy. Men of Yrlonde havynge helpe of Gryffyn kynge of Wales, entrede the water of Page  173, vol.7 Severne, spoylede the cuntre nye to theyme, and returnyd. Suanus the eldeste sonne of Godewinus, whiche hade corrupte but late Edgiva abbesse of the monastery of Leof, and hade in|tendede to have mariede here, levynge Ynglonde þerfore, come to Ynglond ageyne, if he myȝhte have mercy of the kynge. But in his commynge he did sle Beornus the erle, and son of the suster of þe moder of Suanus, whiche laborede for to have geten grace for hym, wherefore he fledde to Flaundres; recon|silede after by Aldredus bischop of Yorke and of Worcestre.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

EDWARDE kynge of Ynglonde releschede to men of that [folio 327b] londe a grete tribute whiche thei were wonte to pay to saw|diours of the Danes as by xlti yere. Edsius archebischop of Cawnterbery dedde in this yere, kynge Edwarde ȝafe that seete to Robert, made bischop of London afore by the seide kynge. And in the monethe of September nexte folowynge Eustachius the erle Bononiense, whiche hade maryede but late afore Goda, suster of kynge Edward,*. [E., MS.] londed at the cite of Page  175, vol.7 Dovor. The knyȝhtes and men of this erle sekynge loggynge indiscretely, did sle oon of the citesynnes, and the citesynnes did sle oon of knyȝhtes. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. At the laste a grete conflicte made the citesynnes did sle xxti men longynge to that erle, mony other wounded soore, inso|moche that the erle unnethe escapynge wente to Gloucestre to the kynge with oon man, whom he moved soore ageyne men of Ynglonde. Wherefore Godewinus erle of Kente was com|maunded to venge the iniury doen to the erle. But erle Gode|winus seenge aliauntes to prevayle with þe kynge, and his peple like to be troubled, seide to the kynge that the kepers of the castelle of Dovor scholde by ryȝhte appere afore his hihenesse, and if thei were founde gilty to be entretede in theire bodies and goodes to þe pleasure of þe kynge. Wherefore the kynge perceyvynge this erle Godewinus as to despise his commaunde|ment, callede the noble men of þe realme to hym, commaundynge specially Leofricus erle of þe Marches, and Siwardus erle of Page  177, vol.7 Northumbrelonde, to obsiste Godewinus the erle, whiche hade gedred a grete hoste from Kente, Southerey and Westsex. And also Suanus, his eldeste sonne, whiche hade gedrede an hoste from the cuntres of Baroksbire, Oxenfordeschire and Gloucestre|schire; and Haralde that hade areysede a grete hoste in Estesex and Huntyngdon at Beverstan. This erle inquirede why he gedrede suche an hoste, answerde for men of Wales; but men of Walles returnede that offense to hym. Wherefore a cowne|saile was hade at Londe,*. [Londe] sic in MS.] where hit was assignede that Godwinus the erle and Harald sholde come to the kynges cowrte withowte eny armoure with xij. men, and that thei scholde take to the kynge servyces of knyȝhte dew to theyme in Ynglonde. But thei seide hit was not for theyme to come with soe fewe men with owte grete suerte made, and specially into the hondes of theire adversaries. After that the companye of this Gode|wynus decreasynge for drede of the kynges hoste, a proclama|cion was made by the kynge that either Godewynus scholde presente hym [at]*. [This word appears to have been written, and then scratched out.] the kynges courte withyn v. daies nexte [folio 328a] Page  179, vol.7 folowynge in the forme aforeseide, other he scholde departe from Ynglonde. Wherefore Godewynus the erle, takynge with hym his sonnes Suanus, Tostius, and Gurth, sailed to Flandres to Baldewyne the erle, Iuditha, the doȝhter of whom, Suanus hade mariede. And Harald and Leofwyne wente unto Yrlonde; the cowntee of whom Algarus sonne of Leofricus receyvynge, governede hit nobly; and Harald returnede to Ynglonde, he resignede hit to hym with goode wille; but this Harald re|storede to the patrimony of his fader, he askede hit manfully ageyne. Wherefore kynge Edwarde kepynge a parliamente banyschede Godewinus the erle with his sonnes, and putte Editha his quene, doȝhter of the seide erle, to the monastery of Werwelle with oon gentylle woman. This Godewinus and his sonnes putte to exile, robbed the costes of Ynglonde by ij. yere, and gedrenge a grete hoste at the laste hade purposed to have ȝiffen batelle to the kynge. But by laboure of gentylmen pease was reformede, and the qwene was restorede to the kynge, insomoche that Wilnotus son of Godewinus, and the sonne of Suanus, were taken to plegge, whom kynge Edward sende to William duke of Normandy to kepe theym. In the tyme of exile as of þe persons aforeseide William duke of Normandy come Page  181, vol.7 to Ynglonde with a grete multitude of peple, whiche rewarded gretely returned to Normandy. And Emma the qwene and moder of Edward the kynge diede in this yere, and was beryede at Wynchestre. Marianus the Scotte lefte the worlde in the xxvti yere of his age, and was made monke at Colonia, a cite of Alemayne, in the monastery of Scottes. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro primo, et Marianus. Godewynus and alle his sonnes were accorded with kynge Edward in this yere, Suanus excepte, whiche contrite and compuncte in herte for the dethe of Beornus his cosyn, wente from Flanders barefote to Ierusalem, and after that to Licia, diede for colde. And after this tyme the Normannes cownsellours of the kynge were exiled, and specially Roberte archebischop of Cawnterbery, whiche causede specially Godewinus the erle to be put to exile. Whiche goynge to Rome, returnede with letters of the pope to his monastery Gementike, where he diede. Whom Stigandus did succede; whiche levynge somme tyme the seete of Schir|burne, entrede the seete of Wynchestre by presumpcion and supportacion; a man makynge marchandise openly of the goodes of the churche, not instructe in connynge, as alle bischoppes [folio 328b] Page  183, vol.7 were in Englonde allemoste in that tyme, myȝhty in langage and in money; wherefore he cowthe not have the use of a palle, thauȝhe money may do moche þer. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. That tyme men songe openly in stretes that the man was not able to be a bischoppe that cowthe not abuse the pride of the worlde, surfettes, lecchery, ryalle apparayle, and grete company of knyȝhtes and of other men. The bischoppes were wonte to say to that objeccion, "Nowe is an oþer tyme, and the disposicion of us is after the disposicion of the tyme." Marianus. A famose clerke was in Yrlonde abowte this tyme, Barbosus by name, a man of mervellous religion, insomoche that he kepede a grete scole of clerkes, laymen, and of maydens; but he was put from Yrlonde in that he did rownde the maydes after the consuetude of men. Willelmus de Pontificibus, libro secundo. Seynte Alfwolde, the laste bischop of Schireburn, diede abowte this tyme; whiche made bischop of a monke of Wyn|chestre, usede brede and water, grete festes usede of other peple in Ynglonde from the commynge of Danes into that londe; Page  185, vol.7 a man havynge grete devocion to oure ladye Marye, and to seynte Cuthberte bischop. Wherefore a division movede betwene hym and Godewinus the erle, and not accorded in the day of accordemente prefixede, the bischop, beynge trowblede with a passion of wrathe, seide in returnynge, "By my ladye Marye he schalle repente;" and the seide erle was peynede soore in his body untille that he was blissede of the bischop after that tyme. At the laste this bischoppe wente to Dirham, and openynge the beryalle of seynte Cuthberte, spake to hym as to his frende, levynge þer a token of luffe, and departede.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

VICTOR the secunde succedid Leo the pope ij. yere and iij. monethes; whiche kepynge a cownsaile at Florence in Ytaly, deposed mony bischoppes for symony and fornicacion. Maria|nus. The noble duke of Northumbrelonde, Siwardus by name, contrivede the cuntre or londe of Scottes with ij. hostes, oon in the see, an other in the londe, by commaundemente of Edwarde kynge of Ynglonde, and expellede the kynge of Scottes, makynge Page  187, vol.7 Malcolmus kynge þer, sonne of the kynge of Cumbirlonde. In whiche batelle the son of Siwardus was sleyne by a wounde in the foreparte of his body; thauȝhe he was soory for the dethe of his sonne, ȝitte he ioyede of the audacite and boldenesse of his sonne sleyne manfully. In whiche yere Wilsius bischop [folio 329a] of Lichefelde deide, whom Leofwinus, abbotte of Coventre did succede. Also in the yere, in the secunde fery of Ester at Wyndesore, kynge Edwarde sittynge at meite, hit happede a childe ministrynge to the kynge to have commen into the place with a pece for the kynge, and stomblynge with oon foote to have supporte hym with þat other foote, and spillede not the liquor. Godewynus the erle, perceyvynge þat, and lauȝhynge þerat, seide, "Oon brother hathe holpen another nowe." To whom the seide kynge spake, seyenge, "Soe in likewise Alfride my brother scholde have halped me if that Gode|wynus hade suffrede hym." The erle perceyvynge that he hade spoken wordes of waste, and movede the kynge of the dethe of his broþer, seide to the kynge, "My lorde kynge, as y perceyve that hit is schewede oftetymes to yowe that y scholde be a traytoure to yow, and to have conspirede into the dethe of youre broþer;" and takynge a morcelle of brede, putte hit into his mowthe, seyenge, "If y were gilty of his dethe, y prey God þat y do eite no moore brede;" and anoon he was dede; and Harald toke hym from the table at the commaunde|mente Page  189, vol.7 of the kynge, and beriede hym at Wynchestre. ℞. Neverthelesse Marianus rehersethe that Godewinus the erle syttenge at the kynges table in the secunde fery of Ester at Wynchestre to be taken with a soden sekenesse, and to have died on the vthe fery; then the cowntes of Godewynus were ȝiffen to Harald, and the cowntee of Harald was ȝiffen to Algarus sonne of Leofricus the erle. Kynge Edwarde send in this yere Aldredus bischop of Worchestre to themperoure Henre the secunde, preyenge hym that his letters sende to Hungary he myȝhte have Edward, sonne of Edmund Irenside broþer to hym, to tary in Ynglonde with hym; for the kynge hade intendede to have made hym his successor. Neverthe|lesse the seide Edwarde commen to Ynglonde, diede at London in the thrydde yere folowynge, longe afore the kynge. That Edwarde was fader of Margarete qwene of Scottes, and of Edgare Adelynge; whiche Margarete was moder to David kynge of Scottes, and to Matilda qwene of Ynglonde, getyn of here by Malcolinus kynge of Scottes. Marianus. Kynge Edwarde exilede in this yere Algarus son of Leofricus with owte cause, whiche felowschippede to Griffyn kynge of Wales, wastede the province of Herdford, and toke the cite of Herd|ford, and brente the monastery, and did sle vij. chanons. But Harald the erle put theim to fliȝhte, and folowede theyme; never|thelesse Page  191, vol.7 he reconsilede the seide Algarus to the kynge, and made a newe walle to that cite of Herdforde. Marianus. Siwardus the noble duke of Northumbrelonde diede at Yorke of the flix, [folio 329b] and beriede at the monastery Galmanho, whom he made, causynge hym to be armede a litelle afore his dethe, and sit|tenge erecte, seide, "Hit semethe an erle to dye in this wise, and not lyenge like to an ox." The cowntee of whom was ȝiffen to Tostius, broþer of Haralde, for the sonne of the seide duke, Waltef by name, was but tendre of age; whiche governede that cuntre allemoste x. yere. Marianus. Hermannus bischop of Wilton or Ramesbury, desired of the kynge that he myȝhte chaunge his seete to Malmesbury abowte this tyme, and obteynede licence by grete instaunce. But the gentillemen of that cuntre not suffrenge hym to do so, he lefte that seete, and goynge over see was made a monke, contynuynge so thre yere, Aldredus bischop of Worcestre ministrynge in that tyme in his diocyse for hym. But in suche men hoote luffe of religion is made soone colde; the thre yere apaste he come to Ynglonde ageyne, for hit grevonde moche þe seide bischoppe, wonte of tendre age to obsequyes and delices, to wonte and leve theyme in age whom he hade expert in yowthe; and the rumor that the Page  193, vol.7 erle Godewinus was dedde inflate his eieres, whiche were ad|versary to hym; and herynge also that the bischop of Schir|burne was dedde, thenkynge of longe tyme to have unyte that seete to his bischoprike by olde promisses of the qwene. Whiche seetes so unyte he kepede with thre cites unto the ixthe yere of William Conqueroure, whiche tyme he wente from Schirburn to Salisbery. Willemus de Regibus. Haralde and Tostius playenge in this yere afore the kynge, Haralde drawede his broþer Tostius by the hedde otherwise then game required, and wolde have throteled hym, but that he was taken awey. The kynge perceyvynge that, seide to men sittynge nye to hym that þer scholde*. [not is here wrongly inserted above the line.] be grete dissencion betwene this broþer, and the oon of theyme sle that other. This erle Godewinus hade to his firste wife the suster of kynge Canutus, of whom he gate a sonne, whiche rydynge on a horse insolentely was drownede in Thamyse, and his moder was sleyne with þe liȝhtenge. And noo mervayle, for sche havynge moony maydes made theym to be as commune women for lucre of goodes. After the dethe of whom Godewinus maryede an oþer woman, of whom he gate vj. sonnes, Suanus, Harolde, Tostius, Wilnotus, Page  195, vol.7 Gurth, and Leofricus. Willelmus de Regibus libro secundo. A woman was in Berkeley abowte this tyme ȝiffen to ylle artes and craftes, whiche makynge a grete feste, and herynge a [folio 330a] dawe, whom sche hade noryschede tenderly, make moore noyse then hit was wonte to doe, began to chaunge in coloure, seyenge, "The plowe hathe commen this day to the laste forowe." That seide, a messynger come to her sayenge that her sonne was dedde, and alle his howseholde, by the fallynge of an howse. This woman wente to bedde, and sende for a monke and a myncheon, childer to her, whiche beynge presente, sche seide: "I am a woman usynge ylle artes by longe tyme, supposede to have bene salvede thro your preyers; neverthelesse I pray you nowe that ye wolde alleviate my tormentes, for sentence is ȝiffen of my sawle, and peraventure ye may kepe my body if hit be sawede in the skynne of an herte, and bynde hit with thre cheynes of yrne, putte in a beryalle of stone, the coverenge of the grave made sure also, and conglutinate with lede and yrne; and preye for me xlti nyȝhtes, and say masse by so mony daies. And if y lye soe by thre dayes, bery the body in the iiijthe day." But this laboure was made in veyne, for they preyenge in tweyne of the firste nyȝhtes the Page  197, vol.7 develles come and brake liȝhtely ij. of the cheynes; and in the thrydde nyȝhte, abowte the crowynge tyme of cokkes, oon develle more terrible then other, and hier in stature, com|maunded the corse to aryse, the cheynes broken and durres of þe churche sodenly there with. That corse answerede and seide that hit myȝhte not aryse for bondes. The spirit seide thei were losede and so he, takynge the body with hym, sette hit on a blacke horse, the voice of whom was herde by iiij. myles. Whiche thynge as mervellous is not to be hade as incredible, for seynte Gregory rehersethe in his dialogges that the develles toke a wickede man owte of his beryalle in the churche, and the same thynge was schewede by Karolus Marcellus.

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

HENRE the thrydde sonne of Henre þe secunde, was emperour reignynge in Alemayne as xlti yere. This emperoure troublede in a tyme the churche ageyne Hildebrandus the pope, willynge to make an oþer; neverthelesse he was pleasede, and wente from Page  199, vol.7 þens to the Holy Lond with ij. dues, Godefridus and Boamundus, of whom hit schalle be seide in theire place. Steven the ixthe, abbot of the mownte Cassyne, succedid Victor the pope viij. monethes, whom Benedicte the xthe succeedid ix. monethes, whiche made pope by powere lefte that charge. Agelricus bischop of Dirham, levynge his seete voluntaryly, wente to the monastery of Petyrborowe, where he was noryschede, where [folio 330b] he lyvede quietely xij. yere; whom Agelwinus his broþer did succede. Marianus. The noble erle Leofricus, son of Leof|winus duke off the Marches, diede in this yere in his towne Bromleygh, the secunde kalendes of Octobre, and was beryede at Coventre in the monastery þat he made. Whiche erle encreasede in grete richesse and repairede mony monasterys, by the cownsaile of God and Marye his blissede moder, whom Godgiva his wife honourede moche, as the monastery Leofnense nye to Hereforde, þe monastery Wenlacense, of Worcestre, and of Evysham, and ij. churches in Westechestre, of Seynte Iohn and of Seynte Werburgg; the circumspeccion of whom was grete profite to þe realme of Ynglonde. ℞. And at the instance of his wife he made the cite of Coventre fre from tolle, excepte the toll of horses; and to make the cite free from that tolle the cowntesse Godgiva, his wife, did ryde nakede thro the myddes Page  201, vol.7 of the cite in a morowe, coverede but with here awne here. After the dethe of this Leofricus, Algarus his sonne receyvid the erledome of the Marches; whiche convicte of treason afore the kynge, was putte to exile in the same yere, but after that reconsilede ageyne. Willelmus de Regibus. A citesynne of Rome, Lucianus by name, a noble man of bloode, and of grete rychesse, mariede a woman Eugenia by name; wherefore he made a feste to his felawes, and after that thei hade dynede thei walkede unto the feldes for cause of pleasure and of diges|tion. This Lucianus willynge to play at the balle, putte his weddynge rynge on the fynger of an ymage nye to hym. But his body begynnynge to be feynte thro that laboure, he de|partede firste from that game, and goynge to that ymage to take his rynge, founde the fynger of þat ymage folden faste to the honde of þe ymage, with the rynge on hit. This man makynge moche laboure cowthe neiþer take the rynge neiþer breke the fynger, where he departede prively, levynge that thynge from his felawes leste thei scholde have skornede hym or elles oftaken the rynge awey in his absence. Whiche com|mynge to that place in the begynnynge of the nyȝhte, and fyndynge þe rynge taken awey and the fynger extente, mervaylede moche. After that this yonge man turnynge hym Page  203, vol.7 to his wife in bedde, felede a clowdy thynge and ruȝhe betwene theyme, seyenge to hym, "Lye with me, for thow hase weded me this day; I am Venus the godesse." The yonge man affrayede þerwith, slepede not that nyȝhte; this usede amonge theym by mony nyȝhtes, the yonge man after the cownesaile of his wife rehersede the processe of this mater to his fader. [folio 331a] Whiche wente to Palumbus the preste gretely instructe in nigromancy, and ȝafe to hym a grete rewarde for to fynde a remedy; whiche toke to the yonge man an epistole, com|maundynge hym to take hit to that person whom he mette in a certeyne place of the cite commynge processionally in the nyȝhte. This yonge man, stondynge in the strete at nyȝhte, see a woman as in vesture of ylle disposicion, rydynge on a mule, with her heire hongynge downe, havynge in her hedde a fillette of golde, with a rodde of golde also in her honde. This yonge man toke that epistole to the spiritte commynge laste. That principalle develle redynge that epistolle, and extendynge his hondes up to hevyn, seide: "O God omnipotent, how longe schalle the wickidnesse of Palumbus the preste indure." And so the spirittes toke that rynge from Venus, and restorede hit Page  205, vol.7 to the yonge man. Then Palumbus þe preste herynge the develles to crye to hevyn on hym, kyttynge the membres of his body, confessede to the pope his synnes, moche peple herynge hym. Marianus. Aldredus bischop of Worcestre made seynte Wulstan, prior of Worcestre, bischop þerof by licence of the kynge, takynge the seete of Wilton to Hermannus; whiche passynge the see wente to Hungary, and from that londe to Ierusalem, on pilgremage, whiche thynge noo bischop of Yng|londe performede afore hym. In Alemayne ij. monasteryes of Scottes were brente by theire awne negligence, whiche destruc|cion a monke þer, Paternus by name, seide afore to falle, whiche was a incluse, and in the tyme of that fire he wolde not goe Page  207, vol.7 furthe, but was brente. An ymage of marbole with a hedde of brasse, havynge a cercle contennynge this scripture in hit, "In the kalendes of Maii, the sonne beynge in the este, y schalle have a hedde of golde," was founde abowte this tyme in Apulia. A Saracene taken into captivite by the duke of that cuntre, understondynge that wrytynge, merkenge the ende of the schado of that ymage, founde þer treasure as infinite, whom he ȝafe for his redempcion.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum. Willelmus de Regibus.

NICHOLAUS the secunde succedid Benedict the pope, eiecte or expulsede allemoste ij. yere. In the tyme of whom the churches of Fraunce were trowblede moche by Berengarius archidiacon Turonense, whiche seide the blissede sacramente in the awter not to be the very body of Criste, but a similitude of hit. Wherefore this pope callede a cownesayle of cxiij. Page  209, vol.7 bischoppes at Vercell in Ytaly, in whiche cownesaile Beren|garius did retracte his erroure, as hit is schewede in the decrees de consecrationibus, distinctione secunda, "Ego Berengarius." [folio 331a] But this heresy spryngynge after his dethe, Hiltebrandus the pope kepede a cownesayle ageyne his folowers, where Lanfran|cus prior of Beccun, and specially Wymundus bischop Aversan in Apulia, a man of noble eloquence, repugnede ageyne his erroures. But this Berengarius correcte his lyfe so in his olde age that mony men supposede hym to be a seynte, expownynge the apocalips after that, attendynge to mekenesse and almes, eschewynge the siȝhte of women, and was contente with poore clothynge and exhibicion, whom Hildebertus bischop Cenoman|nensis commendethe in his versus sayenge:

"Quem modo miratur semper mirabitur orbis;
Ille Berengarius non obiturus obit.
Et sic post obitum vivam, precor, et requiescam,
Nec melior fiat sors mea sorte sua." Page  211, vol.7

A man may perceyve here howe that laudable bischop makethe excesse in lawde of the seide Berengarius, but the use of poetes and of rethoricions is to wryte soe. But hit is to be adver|tisede that thauȝhe this Berengarius correcte his lyfe, he correcte not alle peple whom he hade infecte with his heresy in diverse cuntres, for thauȝhe his synne was doen awey the synne of other men schalle greve hym. Whiche thynge venerable Fulbert bischop Carnotense, laborynge in grete infirmite in his extreme daies, perceyved, whiche seenge Berengarius comme to visitte hym amonge oþer, seide: "Expelle hym, for y see a develle folowynge hym þat dothe corrupte the aiere." Also the seide Berengarius dienge in the day of the Epiphany, and havynge in remembraunce how mony wicked peple he hade causede thro his erroure in his yowthe, seide: "As y suppose, Criste schalle appere to me in þis day of his apparicion, other for my penaunce to glory, other to peyne for oþer men Page  213, vol.7 that y have averte from Criste." Marianus the Scotte was inclused abowte this tyme in the monastery Fuldense x. yere. Page  215, vol.7 Alexander the secunde succedid pope Nicholas xj. yere. This pope electe by the cardinalls, defended hym manfully ageyne Candulus, whom men of Ytaly hade electe into pope, seyenge þat noo man awe to be pope withowte that he were borne in Ytaly. Harold duke of Westesaxons wente to Wales by com|maundement of kynge Edward, and brente the palice and schippes at Ruthland of Griffyn kynge off Wales, but the seide kynge fledde. After that the seide Harold, goynge from Bris|towe to Wales, compassede that cuntre allemoste abowte, and Tostius his broþer, metynge with an oþer hoste, robbede soe the costes of Wales that plegges taken to theym, and the tribute paiede, men of Wales did owtelawe theire kynge, and after that sende his hedde unto Harolde. After that kynge [folio 332a] Edwarde grawntede the londe off Wales to tweyne breþer of the seide Griffyn, fidelite made to hym afore. Henricus, libro septimo. Harolde saylynge to Normandy in this yere to visitte Wilnotus his broþer, and Hacun the sonne of his broþer, beynge Page  217, vol.7 as plegges with William duke of Normandy, was brouȝhte by tempestes of the see into the province Pontike, whiche takyn by the governoure of þat province, was sende to William duke of Normandy. Where, as hit is seide, Harolde made promise to the seide duke of Normandy that he wolde marye his doȝhter and that he scholde kepe the realme of Ynglonde to hym after the dethe of kynge Edward, and so takynge the sonne of his broþer with hym returnede to Ynglonde. ℞. But Wilnotus his broþer, taryede in the kepynge of the seide duke, and after when he was kynge also. Henricus, ubi supra. Tostius beynge at Wyndeshore in the kynges courte, and displeasede, departede with indignacion unto Herford, where Harold his broþer hade ordeynede a regalle feste to the kynge, kyttynge the membres of the servauntes of his broþer, and castynge theyme into bryne, sendynge worde to the kynge that he scholde have salte meytes y nowe if ho wolde comme to his place. Men of Northumbre|londe herynge þat, expulsede Tostius from his cuntre, and did slee his ministres, brake his treasure howse, and caused hym to flee into Flandres. Willelmus de Regibus. But the kynge herynge that, sende Harolde into þat cuntre to venge the iniury Page  219, vol.7 of his broþer. That peple seide they were borne to have liberte, and not to suffre oppression of princes, but raþer to dye. That duke Harolde, thenkynge better to obtemperate and favoure the cuntre raþer then the private profite of his broþer, and takynge his hoste returnede to the kynge, and causede Malcherus to be made erle þer. The seide Tostius tariede in Flanderes with his wife and childer unto þe dethe of kynge Edwarde.

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

KYNGE Edwarde syttynge in Ester day at dyner at West|mynstre, and oþer men eitynge avarousely, lauȝhede after that he hade ben as in a study. The kynge inquirede after dyner the cause of laȝhynge, ansuerede and seide, "that the vij. sle|pers in the mownte Selius, nye to the cite of Ephesus in the lesse Asia, whiche rested by vij.c. yere by the ryȝhte side, Page  221, vol.7 turnede theim unto the lifte side in the tyme of my lauȝh|ynge; and it is to comme that thei schalle lye in the lifte side by lxxiiijti. yere, in which tyme that harde chaunce that Criste rehersethe in his Gospelle schalle comme to mortalle men, Peple schalle aryse ageyne peple; for Saracenes schalle ryse ageyne Cristen peple, and Cristen men ageyne theyme." Also the kynge adiecte the habitudes of theire bodies, whiche thynge noon oþer wrytynge expressethe, wherefore ministres of the kynge sende diverse messyngers to Nicent, emperoure [folio 332b] of Constantinopole, to knowe the trawthe of this mater and pro|cesse, whiche admittynge theyme mekely, sende theyme to the bischop Ephesyne, desirenge hym that the vij. slepers myȝhte be schewed to the messangers of Ynglonde; and the messangers provede the wordes of kynge Edwarde to be tru. And after that the Saraceyns and Turkes arysynge occupiede the lesse Asia and also Ierusalem; and the emperour Henre the thridde diede soone after; and Henre, kynge of Fraunce was poysonede. Also a blasynge sterre appered the viijthe kalendes of Maii, as thro alle þe worlde by vij. daies contynually, whom Page  223, vol.7 Olyver monke of Malmesbury salutede in this: "Thou haste comme nowe to be sorowede of the moders of mony peple; hit is longe sithe y see the, but y beholde now anoþer sterre moore terrible then the, manassynge the destruccion of the cuntre." This Oliver, instructe in mony science and olde in age, usede grete boldenesse in his yowthe, in so moche that he wolde take fethers in his hondes and feete, y wotte not of that crafte, and wolde flye by the space of a forlonge lyke to Dedalus. But at the laste he hade a falle, in so moche that his legges were moore feble afterwarde alle the tyme of his lyfe. Kynge Edwarde began to be seke at Westemynstre in this yere, in whiche extreme infirmite he see a vision, expressynge hit to men abowte hym, seyenge, "ij. religious come to me, whom y knewe somme tyme in Normandy, seyenge theyme to be sende from God to schewe these thynges to me; that dukes or gover|noures Page  225, vol.7 of Ynglonde afore tyme, bischoppes, and abbottes, be not the ministres of God, but of the develle. Wherefore God hathe ȝiffen this realme after thy dethe to the powre of the develle oon yere and oon day, and the develles schalle go thro this londe. And when y prayede that at my denuncia|cion that thei myȝhte be penitent, and delyverede after the exemple of men of Niniven, thei seide neiþer thynge scholde be, for neiþer the peple scholde be penitent, nor God scholde schewe mercy." Then the kynge inquirede of theym when remission scholde be hade, thei seide, "When that the hie parte of a grete grene tre, kytte from hit, and beynge from hit by a grete space, begynnethe to bere frute." Stigandus arche|bischop stondynge by, seide to the people stondynge by, that the communicacion of this mater was but a iape; but Eng|londe perceyvid this prophecy to be tru when hit was as de|stroyede by straunge peple. Kynge Edwarde was dedde and Page  227, vol.7 beriede at Westemynstre, in the vigille of the Epiphany, after that he hade reignede xxiij. yere and vij. monethes. ℞. The lyfe of whom Aluredus Rivallense did write nobly, whom he directe to Laurence abbot of Westemynstre, and the seide abbot sende that life soe wryten to Henre the secunde. Willelmus de Regibus, ubi supra. And Harolde occupiede the realme anoon as by ix. monethes. And somme men wolde have made Edgarus, sonne of Edmunde Irenside, to have been kynge; but for cause he was a childe, and not apte to that charge, Harolde was suffrede to reioyce the realme. ℞. Neverthelesse Maria|nus rehersethe that kynge Edward afore his dethe made Harolde his successoure, whom the gentillmen of the londe made kynge after the dethe of kynge Edward. This Harold consecrate into the kynge by Aldredus, archebischop off Yorke, began to destroye wickede lawes, to defende the churche, to have religious men in reverence, to punysche transgressors, and to defende the cuntre. Tostius, his broþer, herynge that Page  229, vol.7 he was kynge, toke with hym lx. schippes, and come to Yng|londe, robbynge the costes off Kente, whiche dredynge Harold his broþer, fledde to Lindesey, where he brente mony townes, and did sle moche peple, untille that he was expulsede by Ed|winus and Morkarus, dukes of þe Marches and off Northum|brelonde; and so he wente to Malcolinus kynge of Scottes, with whom he taryede by alle a somer. Kynge Harolde, dredynge moche the commynge of William duke of Normandy, causede a grete flete of schippes to kepe the see, and settynge an hoste of men to kepe the grownde of the costes of the sowthe nye to the see by alle a somer and herveste; but money and vitells faylenge, men returnede into theire cuntrees. After that Harold Harefagus, broþer of seynte Olavus, londed in the water of Tyne with ccc. schippes, whom Tostius mette with his schippes, as he promisede afore. Harolde kynge herynge that, made grete haste to ȝiffe batelle to hym; but the seide ij. breþer german, Edwinus and Morkarus, ȝiffenge soore batelle to theym, were devicte at the laste. But in the vthe day folowynge kynge Harolde ȝafe batelle to þeim at Stemesford|brigge, Page  231, vol.7 where he did slee in soore fiȝhte the kynge of Norway, and Tostius his awne brother, suffrenge Olavus sonne of the seide kynge, and Paulus duke of Orcades, havynge suertes and fidelite made to hym, to departe to theire cuntre. Oon man of Norway was worthy to have lawde perpetualle, whiche stond|ynge on Stemesforde brygge, did sle xlti men of Ynglonde with a batelle ax, and taryenge alle the hoste of Ynglische men, that thei cowthe not entre on the brigge from morowe unto xij. of the clokke, with owte eny wounde, untille that a man of Ynglonde goynge with a bootte under the brigge, pereschede hym thro the body with a spere. Harolde the kynge, gladde of that victory, hade indignacioun to divide the grete rychesse geten in that felde with his peple, wherefore mony noblemen of his hoste departede from hym, goynge to ȝife a newe batelle ageyne William the noble duke of Normandy [folio 333b] and Conqueroure. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo.

Page  233, vol.7

Capitulum vicesimum nonum.

THIS Harolde reioycynge the realme of Ynglonde, thouȝhte hym as free of that promyse made to William duke of Nor|mandy, in that the doȝhter of William, whom he scholde have mariede, diede with ynne yeres of mariage, and in that William duke of Normandy hade grete werre and batelles of cuntres nye to hym. Neverthelesse this duke sende to hym writeng pleasaunte in parte, and manassynge also, for the promyse broken that he made to hym. But Harolde sende to hym writynge ageyne, seyenge a presumptuous promisse not to be observede, and specially to hym of a strange realme with owte a generalle decrete of the londe; and also an othe or promyse made by foly to be broken, and specially coacte by necessite of tyme. Wherefore the seide duke instorethe a batelle, desirenge the favor of pope Alexander, whiche pope sende to hym licence to execute his purpose, with a baner also. ℞. The causes folowynge causede the seide duke to ȝiffe batelle ageyne Harolde. Page  235, vol.7 The firste was the dethe of Alfrede his cosyn, sonne to Emma somme tyme qwene of Ynglonde, caused by Harald. The secunde was for the owtelary of Robert archebischop of Cawn|terbery. The thrydde was for the promission of the succession made by kynge Edward, if he diede with owte childer, the same promise made to hym by Harold also. Henricus, libro sexto. The gentyllemen of Normandy takynge cownesaile of that viage to be made in Ynglonde, William the sonne of Usbertus, sewer to the duke, movede theim to leve that iourney, what for the fewe nowmbre of peple, and what for the cruelnesse. The seide gentillemen comfortede moche with that seyenge, seide utterly they wolde folowe the wille of the seide yonge man; this yonge man presentede to the duke seide that he was redy to þat iourney; the gentille men herynge that myȝhte not eny oþerwise for schame. Willielmus de Regibus, libro tertio. This duke William lyenge longe in the haven of Seynte Walericus for wynde, his peple grucchede moche, seyenge that hit was foly to Page  237, vol.7 usurpe the londes of oþer peple, God beynge contrarious to theyme and the wynde also. Wherefore William duke of Nor|mandy commaunded the body of seynte Walericus to be brouȝhte and sette þerowte; and anoon God sende to theyme a pleasaunte wynde, and so the seide duke toke londe at Pevenesey nye to Hastynge sone after the feste off seynt Michell. And in goynge from the schippe oon of his feete was fixede in the sonde. To whom a knyȝhte seide, "My lorde, now þou doste holde Yng|londe, [folio 334a] whereof þow schalle be kynge hastily." Then the seide duke commaunded his knyȝhtes to leve robbynge, contynuynge in those costes by xv. daies. Harolde returnede from the batelle ageyne men of Norway and herynge of the commynge of William duke of Normandy, made grete haste towarde this duke with a lytelle hoste, for he hade loste moche peple in the batelle afore|seide, and also moche departede from hym in þat he distribute not Page  239, vol.7 the goodes geten in that felde amonge his hoste. This Harolde sende certeyne men to serche and spye prively what nowmbre of men he hade in his hostes, the seide duke fyndynge theyme abowte his tentes, refreschede theyme with meyte and drynke, and sende theym to theire lorde. Whiche commynge to kynge Harolde, seide that the moste parte of his hoste stode by prestes, in that alle theire face was schaven in that maner at that tyme. But Harolde seide they were noo prestes, but myȝhty knyȝhtes. To whom Gurth his broþer seide, "My cownsaile is that ye goe not to the felde and we that have made noo promyse to hym schalle fiȝhte for the cuntre, and if we have victory welle be hit. If we be overcome thy mater schalle be goode ynowe, and thow may venge oure dethe aftirwarde." Then this William duke of Normandy sende a monke to Harolde, purposynge thre thynges, that he scholde avoide the realme, or elles to reigne under hym, or elles to prove the victory bytwene theyme tweyne, in that Page  241, vol.7 kynge Edwarde grawnte hym to be his successour if he died with owte yssue by cownsaile of nowblemen of þe realme. But Harolde despisynge the message, seide hit scholde be tryede with a swerde, preyenge God to iugge betwene þeim. The hostes gedrede and nye to gedre in the feste of seynte Calixt, men of Ynglonde ȝafe theyme to ryette and syngynge in the nyȝhte afore thro alle the nyȝhte. And the Normannes ȝafe theym to preiere, to confession of theire synnes, and in the morowe to the receyvynge of þeire Maker. In the vowarde of whom were foote men with bawes, and other partes were sette in ordre after use Page  243, vol.7 of batelle. Afore this conflicte, the seide duke turnede owte the wronge side of his haburion for haste, whiche perceyvynge that lauȝhede, seyenge an erledome is turnede to a realme. Henricus. But afore the hostes mette, a man of Normandy, Tailefer by name, toke a toohonded swerde, and playenge afore the hostes did slee oon of Ynglishe men berynge a standart metynge hym, and after an other, and the seide Tailefer sleynge the thrydde man was sleyne also, and with that the hostes mette togedre with a songe of Rolland begunne of the parte of the Normannes; [folio 334b] whiche batelle was protendede from thre of the clokke untille eve, neiþer parte seasenge from fiȝhte; but the archers of the duke prevaylede moche that day. At the laste this duke made a signe to his men that thei scholde flee, that doen Ynglischemen were dispersede anoon as to folowe the chase. But the Nor|mannes gedrede into an ordre made grete murdre then of Page  245, vol.7 Ynglischemen. At the laste kynge Harolde persede with an arowe thro the eie in the breyne diede þer; whiche dedde and lyenge on the grounde, a knyȝhte of Normandy pereschede his hippe with a spere. The seide duke perceyvynge that, expellede that knyȝhte utterly from his servyce, in that he did ageyne knyȝhtehode. This William duke of Normandy loste thre noble horses sleyne under hym þat day, ȝitte he schedde not oon drope of bloode. That victory hade, William commaunded his men to be beriede, grawntynge licence to his adversaries to bery theire dedde men also, sendynge the body of Harolde to his moder desirenge hit, whiche sche beryede at þe monastery of Waltham, whom sche made. ℞. Neverthelesse Geraldus re|hersethe in his itinerary that Harolde wounded soore, and his lifte eie pereschede with an arowe fledde to the cite of Chestre, where he lyvede as an ankor in a chapelle of Seynte Iames nye to the churche of seynte Iohn. This reporte is hade communely in the same cite, and also Aluredus Ryvallense, in his xxvjtiPage  247, vol.7 chapitre, in the ende, rehersethe in the lyfe of seynte Edward that Harolde other diede miserably or was reservede to penaunce. Alfridus. The dethe of kynge Harolde schewede, Edwinus and Morkarus, erles of the Marches and of Northumbrelonde, whiche withdrawede theyme from kynge Harolde, come to London; whiche sende Algitha theire sustir, wife of Harolde, to the cite of Chestre, with Aldredus archebischop of Yorke and of London, promisynge to erecte Edgarus Adelynge into kynge, and to fiȝhte for hym. But the fame of this noble duke spryng|ynge thei wente from theire purpose, whiche commynge to the seide duke ȝafe theire hendes to hym promisynge fidelite, plegges and suertes þereof taken to the seide duke of Normandy.

Explicit liber sextus.
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