Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Capitulum quintum.

CONRADUS was made emperoure in Alemeyne after Lodo|wicus, and reignede vij. yere. Neverthelesse he is not annumerate amonge emperoures, in that he reignede not in Ytaly. In thys tyme the empyre faylede from men of Fraunce, and was reioycede by men of Ytaly and of Alemeyne; for Lodowicus his predecessor was not sufficiaunte to defende the empyre from the Longobardes; and so after that ij. men were emperours, oon in Alemayne, an oþer in Ytaly, unto the tymes [folio 302b] of Otho themperour, whiche reioycede all the empyre. Yng|lische Page  413, vol.6 men hade victory of the Danes in this yere, at Totenhale in Staffordschire. And after that kynge Edwarde did sle at Wodenesfelde ij. kynges, ij. erles, with mony thowsandes of the Danes of Northumbrelonde. Ethelredus, governoure and underkynge of the Marches, died; Elfleda, the wife of whom, and suster to kynge Edward, governede nobly the realme of the Marches, a longe tyme, London and Oxenforde excepte, whom the kynge retenede to hym selfe. Also sche repairede olde cites, and made mony newe, as Brumnisbury, Brugg on Severne, Thomeworthe nye to Lichefelde, Stafforde, Warwyke, Cheris|bury, Wadisbury, Edisbury in the foreste, nye to Chestre, whiche cites be nowe destroyede. Also sche made a cite with a castelle in þe northe coste of the Marches on the water of Mersee, callede that tyme Runcofan, and nowe Runcorne. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. This Elfleda, a myȝhty Page  415, vol.6 and noble woman, favor of citesynnes and drede of enemys, helpede and movede Edwarde the kynge here brother to edifye cites thro here counselle. Whiche provynge oonys by experience the peyne of childenge, abhorrede after that tyme the fleschely concupiscence, seyenge that hit was not conveniente to the doȝhter of a kynge to attende to voluptuosite, whom so grete incommodite scholde folowe. The Danes whiche hade bene in Fraunce by xxti yere, comme to Ynglonde þis yere, whiche goynge abowte Cornewaile, entrede the water of Severne, and robbede the costes nye to theyme, and toke a bischop of Briteyne at Irchenefelde, whom kynge Edwarde redemede for xlti. libræ. Also he chased his enemys into Yrlonde, mak|ynge towres of defense at the mowthe or durre of the water Avena, and oþer defenses at Buckyngham, on either parte of the water of Owse, subduynge to hym Turketillus, with the Danes inhabitynge Bedford and Northampton. Anastasius was pope ij. yere, whom Laudo succedid v. monethes,*. [yere in MS. before monethes, but erased.] in whiche yere Page  417, vol.6 men of Hungary nye to the water of Danubius wastede Ytaly. Iohn the xthe was pope xiiij. yere, sonne to Sergius the pope and bischop of Ravenum, thro helpe of whom Abericus the markesse expulsede Saracenys from Ytaly. Neverthelesse, a discorde movede betwene theyme, the pope expulsede Abericus from his cuntre, whiche movede soore þerwith brouȝhte men of Hungary into Ytaly, that wastede hyt, wherefore he was sleyne, and the pope was throteled of his knyȝhtes. Rollo the firste duke of Normandy, after the xlti yere of his governayle, diede [folio 303a] in this yere, whom William Longa Spata, his sonne, did succede xxvte yere. Elfleda, lady of the Marches, toke prayes in the londe of Britons at Brehnoc, and toke the wife of the kynge Wales, and renewede Westechestre. Edwarde the myȝhty prynce made the cites of Touchestre and of Wiggemore, and destroyede the defenses whom the Danes hade made at Themesforde. Elfleda, lady of the Marches, toke the cite of Derbey from þe Page  419, vol.6 Danes, where iiij. of hire men were sleyne. Henricus, the sonne of Otho duke of Saxony, reignede on the Alemaynes xviij. yere, and not in Ytaly, and þerfore thei be not annumerate amonge emperoures. This Henricus overcome men of Hungary, and converte William Longa Spata, duke of Normandy, to the feithe of Criste. Willelmus de Regibus, libro secundo. Elfleda ladye of the Marches diede this yere, þe xixte kalendes of Iulius, by v. yere afore the dethe of kynge Edwarde here brother, and was beryede in the churche of Seynte Petur at Gloucestre, whiche hir howsebonde and sche made uppon the boones of kynge Oswalde, translate by hir howsebonde and hir from Bradeney to that churche. But that churche destroyede by the Danes, Aldredus, archebischoppe of Yorke and of Worcestre, Page  421, vol.6 repairede the newe monastery that is þer nowe. And kynge Edwarde toke Elswina, doȝhter to Elfleda his suster, with hym into Westesex. ℞. Into the lawde of this noble lady Elfleda Henricus, libro quinto, rehersethe in this wise:

"O Elfleda potens, O terror virgo, virorum
Te probitas fecit nomen habere viri.
Te quoque splendidior fecit natura puellam
Victrix naturæ nomine digna viri.
Te mutare decet sed solum nomina sexus,
Te regina potens rexque trophea parans.
Jam nec*. [nunc, MS.] Cæsarei tantum meruere triumphi,
Cæsare splendidior, virgo, virago, vale."

Kynge Edwarde herynge of the dethe of his suster, subduede to hym Thomeworthe and Snotyngham, where he made a newe cite on the sowthe parte ageyne the olde cyte, makynge a Page  423, vol.6 brydde*. [Sic in MS.] over Trente, betwene bothe cites. Also after that in the same yere he toke þe kynge of Scottes, þe kynge of the Danes, and the kynge of Wales into dedicacion. Kynge Edwarde made a cite at*. [α, MS.] Thelewall in þe northe parte of þe Marches, nye the water of Mersee, where he put a certeyne knyȝtes; and after that he instorede the cite of Manicestre in þe sowthe costes of Northumbrelonde. Kynge Edwarde diede at Farndon xij. myle from Oxenforde, and beryede at Wyn|chestre in þe newe monastery, with diverse of his aunceturs.