Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.


Liber Secundus. Capitulum primum. [folio 78a]

THE ordre of the narracion of stories requirethe that the gestes of the worlde scholde be describede also after the places of the worlde schewede and expressede; then, sythe the gretter worlde was made for the lesse worlde, as hit is seide, "The gretter worlde schalle serue the lesse," then the descripcion in the precedenge processe of the grete worlde schalle not be with owte a cause and vtilite. Wyllenge now to describe the lesse worlde in the begyn|nenge of his actes, that the qualite or quantite of hit may Page  177, vol.2 be knowen, whiche beenge so litelle worchethe so grete thynges in so grete a thynge. The maker of alle thynges, anendes whom the ydealle reasones of thynges be hidde, made the lesse worlde after the grete engyne of the worlde made, in whom he impressede the similitude of the grete worlde. For a man and the worlde be assimilate in iij. thynges, in dimension diametralle or dimetralle, in disposi|cion naturalle, and in operation virtualle. And thauȝhe þe longitude of the body of man, whiche is from the soole of the foote vn to the toppe of the hedde, be vj. tymes more then the latitude of hym whiche is from side to side, and x. tymes more then þe altitude of hyt, whiche is from the backe to the bely; for*. [The translator should have written yet.] after the grete clerk Plinius, libro quinto, capitulo decimo octavo, what distaunce is betwene Page  179, vol.2 cenit of oure hedde and a poynte contradictorious to hit in heuyn, soe moche distaunce is from the este in to the weste; soe in lyke wyse hit is in the body of man, that as moche distaunce is betwene the soole of his foote to the toppe of the hedde, so moche distaunce is betwene the extremites of the longeste fyngers, his armes extente. Also Plinius dothe reherse in the same boke, capitulo 17o, þat in euery thrydde age the measure of the peple schalle be but halfe of the firste age precedente in stature, if hit lyve. For lyke as we see in the worlde so hit is in man, that the partes and membres be corespondente to gedre and supplyenge the place of that other. For the bodies above gouerne and ȝiffe influence, the membres inferialle supporte and do seruyce, the meane other membres mediate, receyve, and refunde. And if a member of either worlde be owte of his place naturalle, and a straunge thynge haue introite [folio 78b] in to hit, the body is troublede anoon. As when the wynde is includede in the wombe of the erthe, a movenge of the erthe is made, and when hit is in the clowdes a thundre is Page  181, vol.2 causede and made by hyt, in lyke wise in the body of man; sorowe and sekenesse be causede when membres be owte of theire places naturalle, auther humores be corrupte. And also lyke as a goode habitude of the mynde is signi|fiede when the membres be welle proporcionate as vn to figure, coloure, qualite, quantite, place, and movenge, and in sentence contrarious when the membres be inproporcionate to gedre; wherefore Plato ȝafe sentence that man folowethe the maneres and affectes of that beste, of whom he hathe similitude. And lyke as the hieste thynge of a thynge inferialle towchethe the laweste place of his superior, in the ordre of worldely thynges; as oestres, whiche holde as the laweste place in the kynde of bestes, excede but a litelle the life of plantes in that thei be immoveable and drawenge to the erthe, hauenge oonly the witte of towch|enge. And the hieste parte of the erthe towchethe the loweste parte of the water, and so ascendenge by degrees Page  183, vol.2 vn to the laste worlde: so in lyke wise the hieste thynge in the kynde of bodies, that may be seide, the body of man egally complexionate, atteynethe the laweste thynge of the kynde superialle other generalite, whiche is the sawle of man, whiche holdethe as the laweste place in the kynde or generalite of substaunces intellectualle. Wherefore hit is callede orizon, and as the coste of thynges corporealle and incorporealle, in whom hit is ascended by degres from the laweste power to the hieste powere intellectiue; whiche, separate somme tyme from substaunces terrestrialle, as in affecte atteynethe otherwhile substaunce separate. Also a man hathe somme thynges commune with parcialle thynges of þe worlde. For after Seynte Gregory, in an omely in the As|cencion of oure Lorde God, "A man hathe beenge with stones, lyvenge with trees, felenge with bestes, vnderstondenge with angelles." Also erthe apperethe in the body of a man in the flesche and in the boones, water in the bloode and humores, aier in þe longes, and fire in the herte. But a man in Grewe is callede antropos, as a tre euertede; for a Page  185, vol.2 man hathe an hedde with heire, in the maner of a rote of a tre, and armes as bowȝes. As vnto the thridde simili|tude, whiche is virtualle operacion, we see, as Seynte Gre|gory seythe in an omely of Aduente, that the worlde hathe thryvede in yeres afore as in yowthe to the multiplicacion of peple, for hit was myȝhty as for healethe of bodies, grene and fatte as in plente of thynges. But hit is now as depressede with age, and is constreynede as with ryfe greuaunces to a nye dethe. Also in lyke wise the body of man encreasethe in youthe, the breste is stronge, the armes be fulle; but the stature is boede downe in age, the coppe is depressede, the breste is constreynede with mony sighes, the brethe is succidede, and vertu failethe thro alle the body. Also like as we see that þer be ij. movenges in the gretter worlde, oon naturalle, thro whom the worldes inferialle be movede from the weste in to the este, that other is a movenge violente, by whom the worldes be rapte thro the rape of the firste mover from the este in to þe weste: soe hit is in like wise in man, that the flesche Page  187, vol.2 covetethe ageyne the sawle, and the sawle ageyne the flesche, and þe powers inferialle laboure and stryve ageyne reason. Also a man is comparate with mony thynges in the worlde, and suffrethe as thynges commune with theyme, for he is slawe otherwhile as the erthe, floenge like to the water, ȝiffenge place like to the aier, brennenge as fire, chaung|enge like to the moone, sleenge as Mars, goenge abowte other couetenge like to Mercurius, goenge owte of kynde like Iupiter, beenge woode or cruelle like to Saturnus. Also, after Plinius, libro septimo, capitulo tertio, lyke as the extremalle places of the worlde be moste habundante in miracles, as in Ynde, Ethioppe, and Affrike, soe in like wise nature hathe made moste meruellous disportes in that kynde of men. For now there is suche diuersite in the face of man, where x. members were firste, or fewe moo, that vnnethe ij. men be lyke amonge mony ml. Also there be men in Affrike, thro the lawde of whom thynges com|mended dye, trees do wedre, and wexe drye: also in Tri|ballis Page  189, vol.2 and in Illyricis be men whiche cause thynges beholden longe to peresche, and specially if the men beholdenge be wrothe, whiche haue ij. apples in either eie. So in lyke wise the poete Varro rehersethe that nature hathe infuded in to the eien of somme men venom, so that þer is noone ylle thynge but hit is reperible in man. Also somme partes off men be causede for somme meruellous thynges, to be schewede, as a thowmbe in the ryȝhte foote of Pyrrhus*. [Pirus or Pirrus, MS.] kynge, the towchenge of whom ȝafe subsidy ageyne venom, whom auctores say not to haue be brente when the body of the kynge was brente. Also Plinius seithe, libro 7o, capitulo 17o, that somme men lyve alle the body concrete and compacte with boones, with owte eny maro, and these men do not thurste, neithe*. [So Harl. MS.] swete. Also in the same boke, Page  191, vol.2 capitulo 21o, somme men hauenge senowes as transuertede and ouercrossede thro alle the body, haue bene of grete myȝhte; somme preuayle in swifte course and rennenge; somme men be nowble in siȝhte, as a knyȝhte callede Strabo was, whiche see the schippes Punicalle and myrrours by c.xxxvti ml passes from hym. Also, after Plinius, libro xio, capitulo xlixo, Tiberius themperour see more clerely in derknesse then in lyȝhte, in so moche that he awakede in the nyȝhte see alle thynges clerely. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 27o. Mony men haue hade grete scharpenesse in mynde, as Cyrus kynge of Pers[i]a, whiche ȝafe names to alle the knyȝhtes in his hoste. Also Seneca rehersethe of hym selfe in the firste prologe, that he was of suche memory that he wolde haue rehersede ij. ml names by herte, after the ordre thei were seide, and also moo then ijc versus seide of an other man, begynnenge at the laste Page  193, vol.2 vn to the firste. Also he rehersethe there, that Cineas, meassenger of kynge Pyrrhus, salutede alle the senate of Rome and alle the peple abowte by theire propre names in the secunde day after his commynge to the cite. Also an other man rehersenge the versus of a poete, ascribede the lawde to hym, in that he rehersede theym more expedientely then the poete whiche made theyme. Also Plinius, libro 7o, capitulo 27o, rehersethe that somme men haue bene nowble of witte, as Iulius Cesar, whiche was vsede to rede, wryte, here, and to endyte epistoles at oon tyme. Also Plinius rehersethe, libro 7o, capitulo 28o,*. [The true reference is to capp. 17, 18.] that somme men haue moste strenȝhte in the ryȝhte honde, somme in the lifte honde,*. [londe, Harl. MS.] and somme men haue egalle strenȝhtes in either [folio 80a] honde. Also men be moore heuy then women, and dedde thynges more then thynges in lyfe, and thynges slepenge more then thynges wakenge. Also, libro 7o, capitulo 17, we haue a-redde a man to haue laȝhede in the firste day Page  195, vol.2 of his natiuite, and to haue put a way the honde of the man towchenge hym. Also, capitulo 20. Somme men be seide to haue not laȝhede in theire lyfe, somme men neuer to haue wepede, somme men neuer to haue spytte. Also, capitulo quarto, lyke as hit is in other bestes, so hit is in the kynde of man, that somme persones be gendred of bothe kyndes, whom we calle hermofroditas, callede somme tyme androdinos, namede as amonge wondres, now acomptede amonge delites. Also we haue seen and herde peple to haue chaungede theire kynde. For we see a maide in Affrike in the day of here mariage to haue ben chaungede in to a man, and to haue hade a berde and other membres of a man, and to haue mariede soone after with a woman. Also Seynte Austyn seithe, De Civitate Dei, libro tertio, capitulo 29, that A. Gellius*. [Agellius, MS., α., and Harl. MS.] rehersethe, libro Atticarum noctium, women to haue ben chaungede in to men, and that hit is not a fable but a trawthe. Wherefore A. Gellius*. [Agellius, MS., α., and Harl. MS.] dothe Page  197, vol.2 reherse hym selfe to haue seen at a cite callede Smyrna, a maide chaungede in to a man in the day of theire wed|denge. Wherefore suche a wondre brouȝhte oon tyme to the senate, in the tyme of Licinius Crassus, and Cassius Longinus,*. [Lascivius Crassus, Cassius, and Longinus, Harl. MS.] consulles, whiche was sende in to a deserte place thro the cownsaille of wicches. Also Titus Liuius spekethe of hennes chaungenge theire kynde in to kokkes, and also, Auicenna, libro octauo de animalibus, that an henne hade the victory of a cokke in fiȝhte, whiche lifte the tayle lyke to a cokke after the victory, spurres groenge in the legge of hit, hauenge a combe in the hedde. Also the same Auicenne, capitulo 5o. Also Trogus rehersethe a woman in Egipte to haue childede vij. childer at oon season, but other the moder other the childer contynue not in lyfe longe after. But mony women haue ij. childer at oon tyme, and tweyne at an other tyme, as hit was schewede in Hercules, and in Iphicles*. [Hispicle, or Hispicles, MSS.; Hispycle, Cx.] his brother. Also somme Page  199, vol.2 women haue in alle tymes male childer, somme women at alle tymes female childer, and somme women bothe at diuerse tymes. Also somme women be bareyn at alle [folio 80b] tymes and to alle men, and somme women beenge bareyn to somme men conceyve of somme men. Also, capitulo 13o. Somme women haue childer like to theyme, somme like to the fader, and somme like to theire predecessores afore tyme. An exemple may be schewede of Niceus, a nowble peynter at Byzantium, whiche borne of his moder, a feire woman, wente owte of kynde in to a fowle man of Ethi|oppe. Hugo, capitulo Malo. Philosophers say the nature of women to be of suche disposicion that thei brynge furthe suche childer like to the formes whom thei beholde in the tyme of concepcion, for the sawle of man in the vse vene|realle transmittethe interially formes other similitudes con|ceyvede exterially, and takethe, as by rape, the similitudes of theyme in to his propre qualite. Therefore men in Page  201, vol.2 Speyne vse to sette or putte feire horses to the siȝhte of the mares when thei vse to gendre, and to peynte in places where dofes vse freschely with feire dofes in picture. And Quintilianus*. [Quintelianus, Harl. MS.] defended a woman accusede of advoutery, in that sche was delyuerede of a man of Ethioppe, makenge allegacion suche an ymage to haue be made in picture a bowte the bedde in the tyme of here concepcion. Also that grete clerk Ypocras writethe a woman to haue been despisede, in that sche was delyuerede of a feire childe, like neither to the fader neither to the moder, but that Ypocras defendede that woman, in that there was suche an ymage abowte the bedde in the tyme of here concepcion. Plinius, libro septimo, capitulo tertio decimo. Therefore mony difference be in a man, swiftenesse of sawle, variablenesse of witte, impressenge mony similitudes in the concepcion of a man. But the sawles in other bestes be as immove|able, and þer fore euery concepcion of theyme is like to the kynde of hit.

Page  203, vol.2

Capitulum secundum.

Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro sexto decimo, capitulo septimo. A question may be movede of suche mervayles in nature wheder thei come of Adam or of Noe, as men callede Cyclopes, hauenge oon eie in the forehede. And somme be [folio 81a] seide to haue either kynde as the ryȝhte pappe of a man and the lifte of a woman, other while gendrenge to gedre and to conceyve. Also in other places hit is seide women of the age of v. yere to childe, and not to excede the viijthe yere from the natiuite of theyme, and somme men have thees with owte a homme of grete swiftenes, whiche peple be callede Sciopode,*. [stropode or scropode, Harl. MS.] in that thei lyenge in the somer tyme with theire faces vpwarde, defende alle theire body thro the schado of theire foote. To the whiche question we say that hit is [not] necessary a man to beleve the kyndes of alle men whiche be seide to be; neuerthelesse the same reason may be assignede of the monstruous peple whiche Page  205, vol.2 we schewede afore of the monstruous partes. For God knowethe how euery thynge awe to be create, and how he scholde dispose the pulcritude of the vniversite in hit, in similitude of partes either in dissimilitude. In oure tyme and age a childe was borne in the este, dowble in the superior parte vn to the myddes of the bely, and single from that place downewarde, ȝitte for alle that we schalle not [haue] diffidence but that he come of Adam. Therefore won|drefulle or monstruous thynges, other thei be not in eny wyse, or if thei be thei ar noo men, or if thei be men with owte eny dowte thei toke theire originalle of Adam. And that somme men say, as in fables, men callede Antipodas to be, that is to say, men to be in a contrarious parte of the worlde, and to trede with theire feete ageyne oure stappes; hit is not credible by eny reason, neither the cognicion of eny story dothe not expresse hit to be soo, but that the coniecture of man movethe that thynge. For thauȝhe the erthe be rownde and conuexede with ynne, neuerthelesse hit is not bare of þat parte, sithe that hit is circumamicte with waters, and thauȝhe the erthe were bare þer, hit wolde not Page  207, vol.2 folowe by a directe consequente that the erthe scholde con|teyne men in that parte. ℞. Perauenture but if we vnder|stonde Antipodas men so namede in that maner as Mar|cianus dothe in his Astrology, seyenge that Capricorne [folio 81b] makethe somer to men called Antipode, and Cancer wynter; whiche thynge is supposede to be caused ouer the sowthe parte of Ethioppe, for the stappes þer be oblike and con|trarious to theyme whiche dwelle abowte the yle callede Tyle vnder that pole artike. Isidorus, Eth., libro xj o. The creaciones of wondres be causede otherwhile to the Page  209, vol.2 significacion of thynges to comme, and then thei lyve not longe; as a fox was foolede of a mare in the tyme off Xerses kynge of Persa. And also þer was suche a wondre in the tyme of Alexander the Conquerour, the superior partes of whom were of a man, but dedde, and the partes inferialle were of diuerse bestes, and in lyfe, whiche signifiethe or signifiede the soden dethe of kynge Alexander, for the more vile partes lyvede more longe then the partes more nowble. Isidorus, libro xj., capitulo ultimo. And mon|struous transformaciones of men in to bestes be made other|while thro charmes of wicches and wikkede operaciones of yerbes. Somme thynges receyve mutacion by theire nature, somme thynges goe in to other kyndes by corrupcion, as bees of roten calfes, and vermyn callede scarabei of cor|rupte Page  211, vol.2 horses, cancres and scorpiones of mules. Augustinus, libro octavo, capitulo sexto. As vn to the monstruous trans|formaciones of men, hit is to be holden that the deuelles and ylle men may not create eny nature, neither chaunge that is create; neuerthelesse thei may thro the permission of God transfigurate similitudes, so that the thynge fan|tasticalle of a man that he*. [that he] These words should be cancelled apparently.] seethe diuerse similtudes, as in thenkenge other in dremenge, the wyttes corporealle op|pressede; sithe hit is no tru body, ȝit hit dothe appere as to straunge wittes as a thynge corporealle in the similitude of somme beste, and hit apperethe to hym suche as he did see in dreames and to bere burdones. But and if the ordre of trawthe be considerate, the burdones be borne of deuelles. ℞. We schalle expresse more of this mater after the batelle of Troye.

Page  213, vol.2

Capitulum tertium.

THEREFORE thauȝhe man haue convenience with the worlde, after thynges aforeseide, and with the contentes off hit, neuer|thelesse he differrethe from the worlde in mony prerogatifes of his condicion. But thauȝhe the body of man was made in the begynnenge of the erthe, hit was so proporcionate to the sawle that equalite of complexion was in hit, conformite of organizacion, rectitude of stature, and pulcritude of figure, and so the body scholde be afterwarde obtemperate to the sawle with owte fiȝhte of rebellion, vegetable with owte defawte of strenghte, immutable with owte corrupcion of mortalite. And also the concepcion of men scholde be withowte schame, the byrthe with owte sorowe, lyvenge with owte laboure, the movenge of membres with owte erroure. Paradise was ȝifen Page  215, vol.2 to man as a inhabitacion, where he scholde reioyce thynges afore seide, and a woman was ȝiffen to be his felowe, the tre of lyfe to refreschenge, euery creature to a solace, and at the laste God was ȝifen to hym in to rewarde. But allas so nowble a sterre hade soone a falle that spronge fulle tymely, whiche sette in honor hade not knowlege of hym selfe, whiche is comparable to brute bestes in drawenge to thynges prohibitte, in so moche that the corrupte body from that day laborethe to greve the sawle. For scripture dothe expresse that the flesche covetethe ageyne the sawle, and the wittes of a man be prompte to synne, and the propre wittes of a man be enmyes to hym, so that temptacion is alle the lyfe of man on the erthe. And also the accidentalle thynges of the sawle punnysche and transmute the body, soe in lyke wise the passiones of the body redunde in to the per|turbacion of the sawle, wherefore assiduite of feyntenesse longethe to a man, impossibilite of permanence, lyȝhtenes to falle, difficulte to aryse,*. [a ryse, MS., and similarly else|where.] disease to lyve, and necessite to dye. Plinius, libro 17o, capitulo 13o. And sythe other Page  217, vol.2 thynges brouȝhte furthe other haue schelles, barke, skynnes, hure, plumes other pennes, or scales; a man entrethe in to this worlde bare and nakede, wontenge eny couerenge, wepenge in his begynnenge, more feble then eny other beste. For he can not do eny other thynge of him selfe but wepe. The lyfe of noon other thynge is more frayle, replete with moste infirmite, noo beste moore leccherous. For alle other bestes luffe to gedre in theire kynde, and lyve to gedre, not cruelle but to bestes of other kyndes and contrarious to theim; but a man is contrarious oftetymes to his kynde and to hym selfe. ℞. Where fore ij. infortunys be ȝiffen to man by ryȝhteuousenes, oon is interialle in that he caste furthe his partes interialle in his lyve, he scholde not haue theim now in tranquillite, but that the partes interialle scholde be to hym a conflicte. That other infortuny is exterialle, that man scholde haue his inferior rebellante to hym, in that he was inobediente to God his maker, so that Page  219, vol.2 bestes and other creatures, whiche were create to the solace of man, to the sustentacle of recreacion, to the obsequy of subieccion, to the spectacle of admiracion, flec in grete parte the siȝhte of man, abhorrenge his towchenge, takenge not hym as theire lorde.

Of the creation of Adam, the firste man. Capitulum quartum.

ADAM the firste man, yformede of the slycche of the erthe, in the felde Damascene with owte Paradise, in the vjthe day of the worlde, and translate in to Paradise, was deiecte for synne, doen that same day, from Paradise after none. And so Adam felle from the state of innocency to the state of miserye, from the hie place to a lawe place, from liȝhte to darkenese, from inhabitacion to exile, from frute to weipenge, from ioy to peyne, from luffe to hate, from swetenesse vn to bytternesse, from prosperite to penaunce, from healethe to infirmite, from grace to blame, from familiarite to offense. Page  221, vol.2Methodius. Adam gate Cayn and Calmana his suster in the xvthe yere of his age; also in the xvthe yere after that, whiche is the xxxti yere of his age, he gate Abel and Delbora his sustyr, but Abel sleyne, Adam and Eve wailede his dethe by an c. yere folowenge. ℞. And, after men of Hebrewe, Adam gate Seth in the c. and xxxti yere of his age, and lyffede after viijc. yere. But, after the lxxti interpretatores and after Isidorus, Ethi. libro quinto, Adam was of ijc. and xxxti yere in age afore the natiuite of Seth, seyenge Adam to haue lyvede after vijc. yere. And soe hade Adam in age ixc. yere and xxxti, whiche dyenge was [folio 83a] buriede in Ebron, that is callede Cariatharbe, whiche sownd|ethe a iiij. cite, that is to say, of iiij. patriarkes whiche were beriede there, Adam, Abraham, Ysaac, and Iacob. Seth, beenge of a c. and v. yere in age, gate Enos, and lyvede after viijc. yere: but after the lxxti interpretatores, Seth, beenge of cc. and v. yere, gate Enos, lyvenge after vijc. and also vij. yere. Enos of xc. yere gate Cainan, lyvenge after dccc. and xv. yere. But after the lxxti inter|pretatores, Page  223, vol.2 Enos of c. and xc. yere to haue geten Cainan, and to haue lyffede afterwarde vijc. and xv. This Enos is seyde to haue callede to helpe specially and firste the name of Godde; for, as men of Ebrewe say, he made firste ymages to þe honor of God, to excite the slawthe of the memory of man in to the lawde of God. Cainan beenge of lxxti yere gate Malaleel, and lyvede after viijc. and xlti yere; but the lxxti interpretatores adde an c. yere afore lxxti, and after thei withdrawe an c. yere. Malaleel of lx. and v. yere gate Iareth, and lyvede after viijc. and xxxti yere; but the lxxti interpretatores putte an c. yere afore lx. and v. yere, and take after that an c. yere away. Iareth of an clxij. yere gate Enoch, and lyvede after viijc. yere; and the lxxti interpretatores acorde with other in that. Enoch of lx. and v. yere gate Matussale, and lyvede after iijc. yere, and walkede with God, and was translate; but the lxxti interpre|tatores putte an c. yere to lxv. This Enoch founde somme letters firste and did write bookes, as Iudas thapostle rehersethe in Canonica sua; in the daies of whom mony men suppose Adam to haue diede. And lyke as the vijthe in Page  225, vol.2 the generacion of Cayn, whiche was Lamech, was moste wyckede in his generacion, soe in lyke wise Enoch, the viithe from Adam, was moste goode. Matussale of c.lxxx. and vij. yere gate Lamech, lyvenge after vijc. and ij. yere, that is to the grete floode of Noe, and noo longer, after the trewe tradicion; by xiiij. yeres, as somme men putte: but he diede in the ixc. yere lx. and ix., in whiche yere the grete floode began. Lamech of a c.lxxxij. yere gate Noe, and lyvede afterwarde d.xc. and v. yere.

Capitulum quintum.

CAYN the firste son of Adam gate Enoc, whiche gate Iradus, whiche gate Mauaiel; and he gate Matussale, whiche Page  227, vol.2 gate Lamech. This Lamech, takenge to hym ij. wifes, Ada and Sella, gate of Ada Iabel and Tubal, and of his other wife, Sella, Tubalcaym, whiche was a smythe, and Noema, his suster, whiche founde firste the arte of weyvenge. Iosephus. Cayn gedrenge violentely richesse, desirede men to thefte and robbery, chaungenge the simple lyfe of men, founde measures firste, and made a cite, dredenge men, whom he hurte. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo, capitulo secundo. The firste men, as bare and with owte armore, not sure ageyne men either bestes, hauenge as noo places for coldenesse other hete, made places to theyme by naturalle reason of roddes and reedes, that theire life myȝhte be in more suerte. Petrus, capitulo vicesimo septimo. Lamech, the vijthe from Adam, and the moste wickede man, inducede firste bigamy, and so adultery, ageyne the lawe of God and of nature, and ageyne the ordinaunce of God. Iosephus. Iabel or|deynede firste flockes, diuidenge kyddes from lambes with Page  229, vol.2 carectes, and the elder from the yonger. Petrus, capitulo 27o. Tubalcaym founde firste the arte of smythes and gravenge, whiche laborenge at the foerge, Tubal hauenge delectacion in the sownde of the malles founde proporciones and con|sonance of the weiȝhtes of theyme; that is to say, Tubal was an exciter of consonances but not the fynder of instrumentes musicalle, for thei were founde by a longe season after that tyme. ℞. But discrete men say, thauȝhe Tubal exercisede firste musike to alleuiate the tediosenes pastoralle, neuerthe|lesse he was not the firste fynder of the reason of conso|nance by weiȝhtes, but rather Pitagoras, of whom hit schalle be schewede in the thrydde booke. Petrus, 27o capitulo. Lameche the schoter hade a yonge man to his gouernoure and leder, whiche vsenge to hunte for delectacion and vse of skynnes, for men vsede not flesche afore the grete floode, did slee Cayn lyenge priucly in couerte, trawenge hit to haue bene a dere, whiche did slee also his leder, in that he ȝafe not to hym a monicion þer of. Therefore, sythe the synne of Cayn was punyschede vij. folde, that is to say, in Page  231, vol.2 the vijthe generacion; the synne of Lamech was punyschede lxxti tymes vij. tymes, for lxxvij. sawles commenge furthe from Lamech were pereschede in the grete floode. Other clles so mony generaciones were betwene Lamech and Criste, which redemede mankynde. Iosephus. I move that a man thenke not this to be fals that is redde of the longe lyfe of men in that tyme, sythe thei were religious men, and oportune exhibicion was ȝiffen to theyme, hauenge glorious vertues, as astrology and geometry, whom thei serchede besily, whiche thynges they myȝhte not haue lernede with|owte thei hade lyvede vjc. yere, for the grete nowmbre of sterres is fullefillede in that space. Petrus. The childer of Seth were goode vn to the vijthe generacion; but after that men abusede men, and women abusede women. Genesis. The childer of God goenge to the doȝhters of men, that is to say the sonnes of Seth to the doȝhters of Cayn, gate gigantes. Petrus. And hit myȝhte be that spirittes gate gigantes, in whom hugenesse of sawle was corespondente to the hugenesse of theire body. But other gigantes were Page  233, vol.2 borne in Ebron after the grete floode, and other in Tan,*. [Can, Harl. MS.] a cite of Egipte, whiche were callede Titanes, of the stokke of whom Enachim was, whose childer dwellede in Ebron, of whom Golias come. Iosephus. Men in that tyme know|enge by Adam that thei scholde peresche with water other fyre, did write artes whom thei hade geten by labore in ij. pillers of diverse ston, that hit scholde not peresche from memory. Oon ston was of marbole, ageyne the floenge of water; that other was of tyleston, ageyne the brennenge of fyre; whiche pillers be seyde to be ȝitte in Siria. Genesis. Þerefore Noe beenge of vc yere in age, gate Sem, Cham, and Iapheth, that is to say, when Noe was of that age, he hade geten those childer, Sem, Cham, and Iapheth; and after that, by the space of a c. yere, Noe made the schippe of pleyne burdes, dressede with picche with ynne and with owte, conteynenge iijc. cubites in longitude and lti cubites in brode|ness, xxxti cubites in hiȝhte, that was from the bothom of hit vn to the hacches, where he made a wyndowe, and a Page  235, vol.2 durre in the side downewarde. And also mansiones and other chambres, endenge theym in a cubite. Petrus, 30. That schippe was made after similitude of the man, in whom the longitude, whiche is from the soole of the foote vn to the toppe of the hede, is in vj. tymes more then the brode|nesse of hym, whiche is extended from side to side; and also the longitude of hym is x. tymes more then the hiȝhte whiche is extended from the bak to the bely. Hugutio de Arca. That schippe myȝte not conteyne so mony thynges with owte the cubites were geometricalle, for the commune cubite and vsualle conteynethe a foote and a dimidia, a geo|metricalle cubite conteynethe vj. commune cubites, whiche make ix. footes. Genesis. Noe endenge that schippe in the Page  237, vol.2 vjc. yere of his life, entrede in to hit þe firste day of the secunde monethe, bryngenge to hit by viijthe dayes thynges commaunded to be brouȝhte to hit, or the reyne began: after that a floode was made, occupienge the erthe allemoste by a yere. The water of þat floode was above the hieste hilles by xv. cubites, by whiche altitude hit is seide the werkes of men to haue corrupte the aier. In whiche yere the firste age of the worlde is terminate, from Adam to the grete floode, vnder x. generaciones, hauenge, after Iosephus, libro 1o, capitulo 4o, and after men of Ebrewe, ijml vjc. lvj. yere. But after the lxxti interpretatores, and after Isidorus, libro 5to, ijml ijc. xlijti yere; after Seynte Ierom not fully ijml; after Methodius ijml, but he levethe yeres, if þer be eny ouer ml, for he dothe calcle the ages by ciliades.*. [(Here follow diagrams of the ark, entitled, Descriptio arcæ Noe, secundum doctos.)]

Page  239, vol.2

Capitulum sextum.

THE waters of that grete floode dryede, and Noe goen furthe from his schippe the xxvijti day of the secunde monethe, whiche was Maii, God promisede to Noe that the waters scholde sease, in a signe where of he put his bawe in the clowdes of heuyn. Petrus, 22o capitulo. That bawe is a signe of ij. iuggementes, oon paste by water, whiche scholde not be dredde, and an other iugge|mente to comme by fyre whiche scholde be taryede. Therefore hit is that a bawe hathe ij. coloures, the coloure exterialle as of water, whiche is paste, and a coloure of fire with ynne, whiche is to comme. Also holy men expresse that the bawe schalle not be seen by xlti yere afore the iuggemente. Also they say that there was noo reyne from Adam vn to the grete floode, neiþer that bawe did appere, neither the exercise of flesche, fische, either of vynes, was vsede; for that tyme was as the temperate tyme of ver, and habundaunce of hollesomme thynges whiche were chaung|ede afterwarde by synne. Wherefore the eitenge of flesche Page  241, vol.2 was grauntede to man after that grete floode, vsenge a fore that tyme to eite yerbes and rootes. Noe lyvede after that floode by ccc. and lti yere, and so he lyvede in alle ixc. and lti yere, whiche dyenge lefte his iij. childer after hym, Sem, Cham, and Iapheth, of whom alle the kynde of man was disseminate. Genesis. Sem beenge of a c. yere in age, in the secunde yere after the grete floode, gate Arphaxat, and lyvede after vc. yere. Arphaxat, the fader of men of Caldea, after Seynte Ierom, beenge of a c. and xxxvti yere after Ysoder and men of Hebrewe, when he was of the age of xxxvti yere, he gate Sale, and lyvede after ccc.iij. yere. But after the lxxti interpretatores, and after Seynte Luke Euangeliste, whiche foloede theyme, Arphaxat of a c. and xxxvti yere in age, gate Cainan, and lyvede after ccc. and xxxti yere. Cainan, hauenge a c. and xxxti yere in Page  243, vol.2 age, gate Sale, of whom the olde Samarites come. Sale, after men of Hebrewe, beenge of xxxti yere in age, gate Heber of whom men of Hebrewe toke name, and lyvede after cccc. yere; but after the lxxti interpretatores a c. yere be put afore xxxti yere, and after that ccc. and xxxti. Heber, of whom men of Hebrewe toke name, hauenge xxxiiij. yere in age, gate Phaleg, and lyvede after cccc. and xxxti yere; but the lxxti interpretatores put a c. yere afore xxxiiijti yere. Phaleg, after men of Hebrewe, of xxxti yere in age, gate Reu or Ragau, and lyvede after ijc. and ix. yere; but the lxxti interpretatores and Ysoder putte a c. yere afore xxxti and cc. and vij. yere after, and he was callede Phaleg, as diuision by interpretation, in that the langage were confusede in his daies in the construccion of the towre of Babel, and so the peple were diuided. Ragau, after men of Hebrewe, hauenge xxxijti yere in age, gate Sarug, lyvenge after cc. and vij. yere; but the lxxti interpretatores and Ysoder putte an c. yere afore xxxijti and after ijc. vij. yere. Sarug, after men of Hebrewe, of xxxtiPage  245, vol.2 yere in age, gate Nachor, and lyvede after ijc. and ij. yere; but the lxxti interpretatores and Ysoder putte a c. yere afore xxxti, and after that cc. yere. Nachor, after men of He|brewe, hauenge xxixti yere in age, gate Thare, and lyvede after a c. and ix. yere But Ysoder seithe Nachor to haue been of lxxix. yere when that he did gette Thare. Thare, after men of Hebrewe and Ysoder, of lxxti yere, gate Abra|ham, and lyvede after a c. and [x] xxti yere; but the lxxti interpretatores putte a c. yere afore lxxti. Petrus, capitulo 38o. And so the secunde age of the worlde is terminate from the grete floode to the natiuite of Abraham by x. generaciones, hauenge, after men of Hebrewe, Iosephus, and Seynte Ierom, ixc. xc. and ij. yere; but after the lxxti interpretatores and Seynte Austyn, ml yere, lxxij., vnder a xj. generaciones. And after Ysoder, ixc. yere xlijti. And after Methodius, hit hathe a ciliade. The cause of this Page  247, vol.2 diuersite may be assignede þat the lxxti interpretatores, and Seynte Austyn putte a c. yere to the age of euery man from Arphaxat to Nachor. Beda. And lyke as Noe was the xthe from Adam, soe Abraham was the xthe from Noe; but truly Seynte Luke folowede the lxxti interpre|tatores in the ordre of his genealogy when he seyde "whiche was Sale, whiche was Cainan," whiche putte oon genera|cion more then men of Hebrewe putte. Augustinus de Civi|tate Dei, libro quinto decimo, capitulo 13o. When a thynge is founde variable and diuerse in mony translaciones, that hit may stonde accordenge to the trawethe of the gestes, then hit is to ȝiffe moste specialle credence to that lan|gage from whom the translacion is made. Beda. The translacion of the lxxti interpretatores was made insuffi|cientely, either hyt was corrupte of peple afterwarde. Eusebius. There is noo storye founde from Adam vn to Abraham in Grewe other in the langage of Barbre. Me|thodius. Ionicus, the son of Noe, was borne in the c. yere of the thridde ciliade; to whom Noe ȝafe mony dominations; and God ȝafe to hym a ȝifte of sapience that he myȝhte Page  249, vol.2 fynde astronomy, and to knowe thynges to comme, and specially of the spryngenge and fallenge of iiij. realmes, that is to say, men of Assiria scholde [come] of Cham, of whom Belus come. Afterwarde men of Media, of Persa, and men of Grewe scholde comme of Sem, and the Romanes of Iapheth. Ionicus schewede this to Nemproth his dis|ciple, whiche accende in luste of dominacion reignede in Babilon among the childer of Cham, whiche obteynede men of Assiria and of Egipte vn tille that Ninus reignede there. Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo quinto. After the dethe of Noe in the daies of Phaleg, when the erthe was of oon langage, Nemproth techenge theyme, son of Chus, the son of Cham other Chuder,*. [The MS. has been corrected, and the reading is somewhat uncertain.] the son of Noe, trawenge felicite not to be of God but of theire propre vertu, supposede that God wolde separate theyme that he myȝhte subiecte theym diuidede the rather to hym, dredenge an other floode to comme, made to theyme an hie towre of sodde, tyle, ston, made sure with pycche, in the felde of Sennar, where Babilon was edifiede afterwarde. ℞. But truly God dispersede theyme Page  251, vol.2 rather leste thei scholde make dissencion amonge theyme selfe, whiche place was callede Babel, sowndenge a confu|sion, in that the langages of men edifienge hit were con|fusede by the wylle of God. But Heber was trawede to be with owte blame from conspiracion in the makenge of that towre, wherefore he was partelesse in the confusion of the langage of theyme. Petrus, 15o. There Nemproth the bos|tuous oppressor of men, expellenge Assur, began to reigne in the cite of Babilon amonge the childer of Cham, whiche cite he made, whom whene Semiramis made more large. After that Nemproth wente to men of Persa, and tauȝhte theyme to worschippe fire, where he made the cite of Niniuen, whom Ninus and Semiramis did ampliate after|warde.

Capitulum septimum.

Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo primo. This peple diuided in to the worlde, and folowenge the lustes of ambicion, seenge that thynge not to be suffici|aunte that was desirede, was diuidede amonge theyme selfe; Page  253, vol.2 and the stronger parte oppressede the parte more feble, preferrenge liberte to theire sawle healethe, to be hade in grete meruayle, wyllenge raþer to die then to be subiecte; sythe nature willethe rather to be subiecte then to be de|stroyede: whiche thynge was not doen with owte the proui|dence of God, that somme scholde be gouernoures in realmes and somme subiectes. Isidorus, libro octavo, capitulo tertio. Therefore peple descendenge from Sem, the firste son of Noe, hade in possession the londe meridien, whiche was from the rysenge of the son to the Feniceannes vnder xxvijti langages, occupienge cccc. and vj. cuntres. And men that come of Cham occupied ccc. xc. cuntres and iiij., vnder xxxti langages, from Sydon by the sowthe ocean vn to the see Gaditan. Augustinus, libro sexto. And men that come of Iapheth occupiede from the mounte callede Taurus towarde the northe, and halfe parte of Asia, and alle Europa vn to the see of Briteyne, conteynenge cc. cuntres, vnder xv. langages, levenge to the places and to Page  255, vol.2 the peple names. Of whom mony thynges be chaunged now, other of kynges of those places, other of the places, other elles thro the maneres of the inhabitatores of theym. Other thynges be permanente as thei were, as men of As|siria toke theire name of Assur, men of Hebrewe of Heber. Ozee,*. [So Harl. MS. for Iosephus.]libro primo, capitulo quinto. Men of Ethiope be callede vn to this tyme Chusei, of Chus, and men of Egipte Mesrei, of Mesra. Soe this peple, diuided by regiones and cuntrees, some men haue ȝiffen names to places, somme men haue ȝiffen names to them after theire pleasure, like to men off Grewe. Somme men haue chaungede the names for feirenesse of scripture, other for the delectacion of men redenge, other elles that thei myȝhte ascribe to theyme the lawde of olde men as theire propre lawde. Hugutio, capitulo Frigia. Diuerse names be assignede ofte for the qualite of labores, as callenge men of Troy Frigios, when we wille calle thyeme afrayede, callenge theyme Dardanos when thei be gentille, and Troianes when we wille calle theyme myȝty, and Hectores when we calle theyme bolde. Isidorus, libro decimo quarto, capitulo se|cundo. Peple of the este sownde the wordes in the throte, Page  257, vol.2 as men of Hebrewe and of Siria, peple of the myddel cuntre breke theire wordes in the hier parte of the mowthe, as men of Grece and of Asia, men and peple of the weste breke theire wordes amonge the teithe, as men of Rome and of Speyne. Augustinus de Civitate, libro octavo de|cimo, capitulo primo. Neuerthelesse the realmes of Assiria, Media, or of Persia, of Grekes and of Romanes, by succes|sion were realmes moste principalle amonge other realmes, as vn to progresse, the firste of whom and the laste were moste clere and durable. And other realmes and kynges were as dependenge to theyme; for the gestes of kynges of Athenes were made more glorious in fame than thei were in trawthe, and that was causede by the actes of phi|losophers and of other discrete men inhabitenge that study, exaltenge the gestes with grete lawde. ℞. And for cause that a generalle tracte of the iiij. principalle realmes afore seide, from the begynnenge of that realme of Assiria vn to the ende of the reigne of the Romanes, dothe require a large [folio 78b] Page  259, vol.2 processe, þerfore we wylle procede and determinate of the thre firste realmes as egalle to hit.

Of the inception of realmes. Capitulum octavum.

THE realme of Scitia, other the reigne of kynges in hit, whiche chalangethe the secunde place and ordre after men of Assiria, began in the tyme of Sarug, grawntefader to Thare the fader of Abraham, requirenge that place bothe by the reason of tyme and of age, vnder Thanaus, firste kynge of theyme, of whom that floode callede Thanay semethe to haue taken name, whiche diuidethe Asia from Europa in the northe partes of the worlde. That realme was not getten by conqueste of eny man, but men in hit conquerede iij. tymes Asia, causenge Darius kynge of Persia to flee; sleenge also Cirus the kynge, and destroyenge Zephiro, duke of grete Alexander. Petrus, capitulo sexa|gesimo. There was an other realme in the weste*. [este, MS. originally; but the correction may be by the first hand.] of men of Scitia, that is to say of Archadia, whiche is a parte of Grece in Europa, rennenge other contynuenge vnder the firste Agilaus by ixc. yere lxxj., vnder xxxjti kynges, from Page  261, vol.2 the xxiiijthe yere of Nachor, grauntefader to Abraham, vn to Zeuxippus.*. [Zeusippus, MSS. and Cx.] whiche reignede in the xvijthe yere of Hely the preste. Where of a region in Archadia was callede somme tyme Agialia, whiche was callede afterwarde Pelo|ponensis, where oon realme of Grece was. ℞. Neuerthe|lesse Dionisius wille that þe reigne of men of Scitia began in the lti yere of Thare, that was afore the natiuite of Abraham by xxti yere, in whom Cicrops reignede firste by xlv. yeres. Also the realme of men of Egipte in the [sowthe] was coegalle vn to theyme whiche began in the tyme of Nachor, grawntefader to Abraham, hauenge xv. hye potestates from the firste Mineus other Zones vn to the tymes of Abraham. After that men callede Thebei occu|piede and did holde xvj. hye potestates. At the laste Diapolitanes, whiche were callede Pharaones, holded xviij. hie potestates, and so the realme of men of Egipte durede vn to the times of Cambises, son of Cirus kynge of Persia, to Page  263, vol.2 whom his fader ȝafe, beenge in lyfe, the realme of Assiria, whiche he did translate to men of Medea, and namede hym Nabugodnosor, whose prince, Olofernes by name, subduede to him Egipte, and after that Egipte remaynede under vij. kynges of Persia. After whom Egipte was occupiede by x. kynges of that cuntre, vn til that Ochus, otherwise callede Artaxerses, þe xijthe kynge of Persia, expellenge Nectanabus, kynge of Egipte, vn to Ethioppe, recurede that realme ageyne. Whiche realme remaynede afterwarde vnder thre kynges of Persia vn to the vijthe yere of Alexander the Conqueroure, from whiche tyme the realmes of Persia and also of Egipte began to be subiecte to the domination of Grekes by ccc. yere, vnder xiij. kynges, whiche were callede Lagide other Ptolomei, vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar; other elles, after somme men, vn to the xvthe yere of Au|gustus Cesar, whiche hade victory of Cleopatra, the doȝhter of Dionysius Ptolomeus, laste of that name callede Lagide. From whiche tyme Egipte was subiecte to the Romanes. Soe alle the kynges in Egipte from the begynnenge to kynge Alexander were xc., of whom the firste were callede Dinas|tines, Page  265, vol.2 after that Pharaones, at the laste Lagide or Ptolomei. Iosephus, libro octavo, capitulo secundo. Kynges of Egipte, as I suppose, hauenge other names in theire yowthe, as|cendenge to the empyre were callede Pharaones, whiche is callede a kynge after the langage of men of Egipte. Soe in lyke wise kynges of Alexandrye ascendenge to them|pyre were callede Ptolomei, and kynges of the Romans were callede Cesares. Augustinus, libro sextodecimo, capi|tulo octavo decimo. The iiijthe realme, but firste in tyme, was of men of Assiria in the este, vnder Belus Nemprotides in the begynnenge, in the xxvti yere of Sarug grauntefader to Thare, whiche hade dominacion in alle Asia, Ynde ex|cepte. Petrus, capitulo sexagesimo. And that realme in|durede by a ml ccc. ij. yere, vnder xxxvijti kynges, vn to the laste Sardanapallus, whiche diede the vijthe yere of Ozias, kynge of Iuda. After that Arbases, other wise callede Arbaccus, the governour and sleer of the kynge, did translate the monarchye of men of Assiria vn to men of Media; whiche is to be vnderstonde in kynde other in similitude, but not in trawethe. ℞. For vij. myȝhty Page  267, vol.2 kynges reignede in Assiria after Sardanapallus, thauȝhe thei occupiede not the holle monarchye, from the vijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda, by a c. yere and xij., the names of whom were Arbases, Phullus, Theglatphalazar, Salman|azar, Sennacherib, Assaradon, and Sargon. Neuerthelesse somme men wille that the monarchye of the este stode at men of Media after the dethe of Sardanapallus, from the vijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda vn to the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion of the Iewes, by cc. yere and lx. yere, vnder viij. kynges, from the firste Arbases vn to the laste Astiages, whiche was vncle to Darius and graunte|fader to Cirus. Whiche Cirus, ouercommenge Astiages, did translate the realme of Media to the monarchye of men of Persia, levenge to that Astiages the realme of Hircannes. And in the reigne of Sennacherib kynge of Assiria, and of Ezechias kinge of Iuda, a grete realme of men of Caldea and of Babilon did aryse,*. [a ryse, Harl. MS.; similarly α passede below.] contynuede vnder vij. kynges, whiche were Merodac other Beladas, Nabugodnosor, Euil|merodac, Egesar, Regusar, Labefardac, Balthazar, other elles Nabar, whom Cirus sleenge, þro help of Darius his Page  269, vol.2 vncle, translate that realme to men of Persia and of Media in the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion of the Iewes. And so cc. and xlti yere apassede from þe vijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda, in whiche tyme the monarchye of men of Assiria began to fayle, vn to the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion of Iewes, when the monarchy of men of Parthia began. And so the monarchy of men of Persia indurede from the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion vn to the vijthe yere of grete Alexander, whiche was from the firste Cirus vn to the laste Darius, son of Arsannius, by cc. and xxxvti yere, vnder xiij. kynges. Whiche be, after Giraldus, Cirus; after hym Cambi|ses, whom his fader namede Nabugodonozor, and ȝafe to hym in his lyfe Niniuen with the realme of Assiria, by xij. yere afore his dethe, vnder whom the memory of that woman Iudith happede. The thrydde was callede grete Ermeides. The iiijthe Darius, son of Ytapsis. The vthe Xerses; the vjthe Artaxerses, whiche was namede otherwise Longimanus,*. [Logimanus, α.; Longinianus, Harl. MS.] in the tyme of whom Esdras and Neemias floreschede. The vijthe Perses. Fogodianus the viijthe. Darius Nothus the ixthe.*. [the ix the Nothus the ix the, Harl. MS.]Page  271, vol.2 Artaxerses other Assuerus þe xthe, vnder whom Hester was. Ochus the xjthe. Arsannius the xijthe. Darius the son of Arsanius the xiijthe. Whom Alexander ouercom|menge, did translate the realme of men of Persia vn to the monarchye of men of Macedony amonge the Grekes, whiche realme began afore vnder Cranaus in the xiijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda; and so that realme indured by vjc. and xxxvjti yere, vn to the laste, Persius, whom the Ro|manes did slee in the ixthe yere of Onias the bischoppe, other Menelaus. After that other realmes were made in Grece by succession; the firste was at Archadia, after that tyme translate to men of Peloponense, as hit is expressede afore. An other realme of the Grekes was at Argiuos, whiche was translate from þens to Mecenas. An other was at Athenes, an other at Lacedemonia. An other realme at Epira other Tracia; an other at Macedonia. Whiche realmes were made subiecte to the realme of Rome, and concorporate to hit, as other realmes were in this maner. The realme of Romanes, begynnenge vnder Ianus the firste Page  273, vol.2 kynge of Ytaly, vn to the vijthe yere of Darius, son of Arsanius, and kynge of Persia, whom Alexander the Con|queroure did slee, contynuede by viijc. and lxxx. yere, vnder xxvij. kynges, the firste vj. of whom were Latynes, and other xiiij. succedenge were Albani. Other vij. were after the makenge of the city of Rome, of whom Romulus was firste and Tarquinius the prowde was laste. Then, the kynges expulsede from the cite of Rome, ij. consulles were made and create yerly; after theym, tribuni, maisters of the peple, vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar, by cccc. yere lxiiij. After that, the name of a kynge ylefte, monarche, Cesares, emperoures, and men callede Augusti holdede the primate and chiefe place. Of whom Iulius Cesar, of a consul and a dictator, was made emperoure firste; Octa|uianus Augustus, his successor and nevewe, redacte in to oon monarchy the realmes of alle the worlde. At the laste, Philippus the xxviijti emperoure was made a Cristen man, firste of alle emperoures. After that, grete Constan|tyne Page  275, vol.2 ordeinede the seete imperialle at Constantinople, levenge the dignite of the seete apostolicalle at Rome to the suc|cessores of Seynte Petre. At the laste, the empyre translate to grete Charles kynge of Fraunce, son to kynge Pipinus, the name imperialle remaynede oonly at Constantinople.

Capitulum nonum.

Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo. Belus Nemprotides kynge of Babilon, entrede in to Assiria, in the daies of Sarug, conquerenge but lytel þer, whiche diede after that he hade reignede lxv. yere. Whom Ninus his son succedede, begynnenge to reigne in the xxxti yere of Thare fader to Abraham, reignenge in alle Asia, Ynde excepte, liij. yere; in the xliijti of the reigne of whom Abraham was borne, by a ml yere allemoste and ccc. afore the edificacion of the cite of Rome. Orosius, libro primo. In the ml and ccc. yere afore the edifienge of the cite of Rome, Ninus kynge of Assiria, movede thro the luste of domination, Page  277, vol.2 gedrede an hoste, ledenge a cruelle lyfe by lti yere, thro alle Asia, in batelles, begynnenge from the meridien and the redde see, made tame the cruelle peple of Scitia; sleenge also at the laste Zoroastes, kynge of Bactria, and the firste fynder of wicchecrafte. And at the laste Ninus was sleyne with an arowe at the seege of a cite. Petrus, 16o capitulo. Ninus, the son of Belus, after the dethe of his fader opteynede Assiria, and the cite of Niniuen, callede so after his name, and made hit the principalle place of his realme, makenge that cite more large by the iourneye of thre daies, whom Nemproth founded firste, ouercommenge Cham and Zoroastes kynge off Bactria, whiche did write ageyne either grete floode vij. artes liberalle in xiiij. pyllors, vij. of brasse and vij. of tylestones. The bookes of whom Ninus brente also. Isidorus libro octavo. The grete clerke Aristotille wrytethe of Zoroastes, that he made xxti tymes a c.ml versus of wicche crafte, whiche Page  279, vol.2 arte Democritus amplifiede in the tyme of Ypocras. Petrus, tricesimo sexto capitulo. Ydoles toke begynnenge of þis Ninus in this maner. Belus fader to Ninus dedde, Ninus made an ymage to the similitude of his fader in to the*. [Of ydola|trye.] solace of his sorowe. To whom he ȝafe so grete reuerence that he sparede gilty men fleenge to hit. Thro exemple of whom other nowble men made ymages of theire frendes; and lyke as other ydoles toke begynnenge of the ydole of Belus, soe a generalle name of ydoles is deriuate of the name of hym, after diuersite of speches. For men calle somme ydoles Beel, somme Baal, somme Baalim, specifienge somme names, as somme men Beelzabub, somme men Beel|phegor. Alexander in Mythologia. Alle figmentes toke begynnenge allemoste of ydolatry, for when Sirophanes of Egypte hade made an ymage of his son for grete sorowe. worschippede moche of his seruauntes, ordeinede hit to be a refute of gilty men fleenge to hit. Whiche inquirenge a remedy of hevynesse founde a grete place of sorowe, for olde erroure began to be diffudede thro the worschippenge Page  281, vol.2 of ydoles, neuerthelesse that rite was not ordeynede for alle men. For philosophers worschippede oon God, whom thei namede by diuerse names for the monyfolde dispo|sicion thro whom he gouernethe the worlde in diuerse maneres; as Vitumnus,*. [Victimus, Harl. MS.] in that he ȝiffethe life; Sentinus, in that he ȝiffeth wytte and felenge; Iupiter, for he helpethe. Also that grete clerke Plato rehersethe in a boke of his callede Philosophus, that poetes for cause of lucre and of fauore haue chaungede reasones, sciences, and powers to the vse of lyvenge grawntede a fore tyme to the actes and vile operaciones of men, callenge Sereris the science of tyllenge feldes, and Bac[c]hus of vynes, nowmbrenge these symple actes amonge goddes. Isidorus, libro octavo. The goddes, that paganes do worschippe, were men somme tyme, and began to be worschippede after their merites and magnificence in this lyfe; but, thro the persuasion of the deuel, theire successores trawede theyme to be goddes, whom men afore worschippede oonly for a memory; whiche thynges the figmentes of poetes helpede moche. ℞. And as Seynte Austyn semethe to reherse, De Civitate Dei, libro secundo, capitulo undecimo, poetes in wrytenge ȝafe iij. differences and diuersites of ydoles, callenge somme of Page  283, vol.2 theyme goddes, as Iupiter, Mars; somme halfe goddes, as Hercules and Romulus; and somme vertuous as hauenge parte of godhede, as Hector and Achilles. Also diuerse supersticiones began of ydolatry, as Seynte Ierom spekethe on the xviijthe chapitre of Ysay, seyenge that men of Egipte and of the este partes worschippe Fortune. The ydole of whom thei sette in the chiefe place, holdenge an horne in the ryȝhtehonde replete with hony, of whom alle men syttenge aboute do taste in the laste day of Nouember; and if thay fynde the horne fulle at that tyme thei prenosticate grete habundaunce of goodes to comme in that yere foloenge, and if hit be voide thei waile and sorowe. Trogus, libro primo. Ninus dedde, Semiramis his wife, lefte with Ninus other Ninian his son tendre in age, began to reigne, whiche wyllenge not here childe to reigne for infancy, feynede here as a son, beenge the moder. For thei were of an egalle stature, and lyke of speche. Wherefore sche made clothes for here hedde, legges, and armes of purpose, commaundenge the Page  285, vol.2 peple to be clothede in that maner also, whiche consuetude peple of that cuntre vse in to this tyme presente; whiche woman did grete thynges in here reigne. For sche made subiecte Ethioppe, and fauȝhte soore ageynes Ynde, whiche desirenge to haue hade the pleasure of the flesche with here awne son was sleyne by hym. And when Ninus, son to Semiramis, hade reignede xlijti yere, contente with the labores of his fader, [he] was seen but selde of men, drawenge and taryenge moche in the company of women; whose succes|sores vsenge the seide condicion ȝafe answeres to peple by messyngers betwene. ℞. Whiche thynge was obseruede and kepede vn to the tymes of Sardanapallus.

Capitulum decimum.

THARE beenge of lxxti yere in age gate Aaram, Nachor, and Abraham; whiche Abraham was borne in the xliijti yere Page  287, vol.2 of Ninus kynge of Assiria, cc.xcij. yere after the grete floode, after Iosephus. ℞. Beholde in the vjthe chapitre afore of the nowmbre of the yeres of the secunde age. Genesis. Aaram gate Loth, Saray, and Melcha, but Aaram diede afore Thare his fader, in the cite of men of Caldea, where|fore hit doth appere that Ninus diede in the xjthe yere of Abraham. Petrus, capitulo sexagesimo. The wife of whom, Semiramis by name, did wedde here awne son, that sche myȝhte reigne, whom sche hade by Ninus here howsebonde, hauenge a childe by here son, whiche did ampliate Babilony. Thare hauenge not powere to suffre iniuryes doen to hym as for fire to be worschippede in Caldea, where he peres|chede, Aaram his firste son wente furthe with Abraham and Nachor, and with the meyne other seruauntes of Aaram, to Carra in Mesopotamia, whiche diede there, cc. and v. yere complete. Thare ded, Abraham wente from Carra to Sichem, and afterwarde to Pentapolis, fixenge his tabernacle betwene Bethel and Hay. After that for hungre he wente in to Egipte, taking Saray with hym, sayenge here to be his sustyr. Iosephus, libro primo, capitulo septimo. Abraham, erudite Page  289, vol.2 firste amonge men in Caldea, goenge in to Egipte tawȝhte theyme arismetrik and geometry, and also astrology, not knowen amonge theyme afore that tyme. Genesis. Abra|ham, made ryche, returnede to the place of the firste taber|nacle; whiche taryenge þer, a debate was movede betwene his schepardes and the schepardes of Loth, wente from Loth vn to the vale of Mambra nye to Hebron. Petrus, capitulo 42o. Hebron other Chebron is a cite other wise callede Cariatarbe whiche is diriviede of Cariat, that is a cite, and tarbe, that is iiij.; for the iiij. grete patriarkes were beryede there, Adam, Abraham, Ysaac and Iacob. ℞. But Ioseph was buriede in Sichimis, nye to the mownte of Effraym, as hit is schewede in libro Iosue, ultimo capi|tulo. Genesis. When Abraham hade returnede from the seete of iiij. kynges he ȝafe the xthe parte of his goodes to Melchisedech kynge of Salem, metenge hym, whiche offrede to hym brede and wyne. Hieronymus in Epistola ad Evangelum; et Petrus, capitulo quadragesimo secundo. Hit is redde that tithes were ȝiffen firste by Abraham, but firste getten frutes were ȝiffen firste of Abel. Men of Hebrewe afferme Melchisedech to haue be the firste son of Sem, the firste son of Noe, and to have lyvede vn to Page  291, vol.2 Ysaac, and alle the firste geten childer from Noe vn to Aaron to haue be prestes, whiche blessede the peple in festes, and in oblaciones; to whom the firste geten thynges were ȝiffen, whom Esau solde to Iacob his brother. From whiche victory of Abraham, somme men say the yere of Iubile to haue taken originalle, for that remission of captif men; for Iobel is callede remission other begynnenge, where|fore the yere of Iubile is ordeynede in the lti yere. Other elles Abraham, experte in astronomy, knowenge by the planetes the intemperaunce of wedre eleuate and depres|sede to returne to temperaunce at the lti yere, folowede in erthe that he vnderstode by the disposicion of bodies supra|celestialle. Petrus 53o capitulo. Abraham gate Ismael of Agar seruaunte, whiche Ismael was circumsisede in the xiijthe yere of his age, whiche rite men of Araby kepe vn to this tyme, the auctor of whom Ismael was. Genesis. Whiche, made an archer, gate of his wife of Egipte xij. Page  293, vol.2 dukes and gouernoures of peple, callenge theyme Saracenes, as commenge of Sara, but in trawthe thei awe to be namede raþer Agarenes, of Agar moder of Ismael, other elles Ismaelites after Ismael, as Madianites were namede of Madian. ℞. God commaundede to Abraham the vse of circumcision, and to his sede, wyllenge to make a distinccion, as by a carecte, betwene his peple and other naciones. Petrus, 47o capitulo. And for cause that the name of Abraham was chaungede in the circumcision, þerfore men of Hebrewe name theire childer in the viijthe day, when the childer be circumcisede. And iiij. names be pronunciate in the olde testamente, that is to say, Ismael, Ysaac, Sampson, and Iosias, and ij. oonly in the newe testamente, Iohn Baptiste and Criste. ℞. Whiche thynge is a specialle schewenge of a singuler merite and vertu, as hit is redde in the life of Seynte Remigius. Genesis. Sodoma was destroyede that yere, and Loth delyuerede; and salvede, goenge in to Segor, a litel cite nye to the hille, drunke þro wyne gate of his elder doȝhter Moab, of whom Moabites come. Of Sodoma, whiche is callede the dedde see, loke in the firste boke, capitulo 14o.

Page  295, vol.2

Capitulum undecimum.

YSAAC was borne of Sara beenge of xc. yere in age, whiche, hauenge iij. yere in age, was weynede, and then a grete feste was made, in that Ysaac comme that tyme firste to the burde of his fader. Crees began to reigne in the yle callede Creta, of whom that yle tooke name, whom thei seye to be oon of theym whiche did hyde Iupiter and noryschede hym secretely. Sara beenge of a cxxvij. yere diede, and was beriede in Hebron: after that Heleeser, proctor of Abraham, was sende to gette a wife for Ysaac, whiche brouȝhte Rebecca. Abraham did wedde Cethura in to his wife, of whom he gate vj. childer, whom he departede from Ysaac his son. Petrus, 59o capitulo. Men of Hebrewe say Cethura to be a nowne appellatiue, as cowplede, by inter|pretacion, whom thei say Agar, whiche beenge his concu|byne, was made his wife after the dethe of Sara. Ysaac was of xlti yere in age when he did wedde Rebecca, Page  297, vol.2 whiche was bareyne by xxti yeres. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo. A woman callede Tritona apperede at a water callede Tritonides,*. [Tratonides, Harl. MS.] whom men of Grewe calle Minerua, whiche was callede also Pallas, of an yle in Tracia of that name, where sche was norischede, other elles of Pallas the gigante, whom sche did slee. ℞. Hit is to be attendede that this gigante, called Pallas, was an other then Pallas son of Euander, whom Turnus did sle in the tyme of Eneas. Augustinus, ubi supra. That virgyn callede Pallas other Minerua founde mony artes, and specially of makenge clothe, þe originalle of the byrthe of whom is not knowen, where|fore sche is callede a godesse. Ysaac gate ij. childer of Rebecca, Esau and Iacob. Augustinus, ubi supra. The realme of men callede Argyues, in Grece, began vnder Inachus fader of Ysides, otherwise callede Io, whiche Inachus reignede lti yere; and that realme contynude by vc. and xliiijti yere, under xiiij. kynges, vn to the laste, Acrisius, whom Persius did sle ageyne his wille, in the xijthe yere of Delbora iugge of Israel. Wherefore Persius dredenge Page  299, vol.2 lefte the Argyues, and translate that realme to Micenas. Abraham beenge of a clx. and xv. yere in age, diede and was beryede in Hebron. Petrus, 66 capitulo. The maner of men of Hebrewe is to accompte the lesse nowmbre afore the more nowmbre, as by grace of exemple we say, that Abraham lyvede an c. yere lxxv. Men of Hebrewe say, that Abraham lyvede v. xx. l. and a c. yere. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo. Foroneus, the secunde kynge of the Argiues, began to reigne, continuenge by lx. yere. This Foroneus ordeynede firste lawes amonge the Grekes, whiche ordeinede also causes to be ventilate afore a iugge, callenge the seete and place of the iugge Forum, after his name; whiche hade a sustyr, callede Isis other Io, whiche saylenge to Egipte tauȝhte theyme firste letters, and to tylle the londe, wherefore sche was made a goodesse Page  301, vol.2 after here dethe. Isidorus, libro 3o, et ℞. That men say Iupiter to have rauesched Io, and to haue geten Epaphus, is but a fable, and a fenynge of poettes, for the famose excellence of bothe persones. For poetes feyne mony nowble men to haue ben geten by Iupiter, that the kynde of theyme myȝhte be made more nowble þere by. For Io was in the tyme of Ysaac, and Iupiter was after the tyme of Iosue. Thessalus the son of Grecus reignede in Grece. Iacob wente in to Mesopotamy,*. [Egipte, Harl. MS. (first hand).] after the cownselle of his moder, after that he hade bouȝhte the fyrste frutes of Esau, and after the blessenge of his fader. Petrus, sexa|gesimo quarto capitulo. The firste geten thynges were callede certeyne dignites and prerogatifes, whom the firste childer hade in theire cognaciones vn to Aaron; that is to say, they were induede with a specialle vesture, in sacrifices and oblaciones to be offrede, that thei scholde receyve also the benediccion of the fader, and thei scholde haue also a dowble portion in festes, and in the diuision of inheritaunce, and that thei scholde blesse the yongers of theyme. Iacob gate of Lia Ruben his firste son. A particuler floode was that yere in Achaia, vnder Ogiges*. [Ogides, Harl. MS.] kynge, whiche renewenge Page  303, vol.2 the cite of Athenes made the cite of Eleusis. Iacob, beenge that tyme of xcj. yere, gate Ioseph of Rachel. Petrus, 74o capitulo. The xiiij. yere ypaste in whom Iacob did seruyce for his wifes, he made a couenant with Laban that he scholde haue alle lambes of diuerse coloures that comme of ewes of oon coloure. Wherefore Iacob gate roddes of almonde trees, of populer, and of other trees, whiche takenge barke from þeim putte the roddes in the places of water, afore the siȝhte of schepe when thei scholde be blissomede, that thei myȝhte haue lambes of diuerse coloure, lyke to Page  305, vol.2 the coloure of the water whom thei did beholde. Iacob returnede, or that he come to his fader in the xijthe yere afore the dethe of Ysaac, Ioseph a childe of the age of xvj. yere, was solde in to Egipte, where he tariede xxijti yere or that his fader Iacob comme to hym. Ioseph solde of his breder to Ismaelites merchaundes, was solde ageyne in to Egipte to Putiphar maister of knyȝhtes of Pharao. Augustinus super Genesim. This Putiphar was not of theyme whiche were geldede when thei were childer, for he hade a wife and childer, whose doȝhter Ioseph did wedde. But this Putiphar seenge the beawte of Ioseph, bouȝte hym, that he myȝhte vse hym after the vse of sodomy. But Godde made hym so colde of nature that he myȝte not fullefylle the luste of the flesche, whiche was made after that the bischop of Heliopolis.*. [Oliopolis, Harl. MS.] Apis the son of Foroneus, the thrydde kynge of Argiues, began to reigne, contynuenge hit by xxijti yere. Ysaac of clxxx. yere in age, diede and [was] beriede in the dowble denne in Hebron. In whiche yere Pharao hade the dreame of vij. eieres of corne, and of vij. oxen.

Page  307, vol.2

Capitulum duodecimum.

IACOB, beenge of a c. and xxxti yere in age, wente in to Egipte that yere, whiche was the secunde yere of the hungre. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo. Apis, kynge Argolicus, cariede in to Egipte with schippes, diede that yere, otherwise callede Serapis. The poete Varro schewethe a cause and a reason as for that name. For Senaropis in Grewe sowndethe as a beryalle, in whom Apis was putte. And after hit was callede Serapis, ij. letters taken aweye. That oxe distincte with white spottes, whom Egipte wor|schippede, was callede Apis, in that Ninus*. [The Harleian translator has misread his MS.] was worschip|pede; whiche oxe other bulle dedde, an other calfe was inquirede that was like to hit, whiche founde thei noris|chede hit tenderly. Hugutio, capitulo Apes. That bulle was callede Apis, whiche was wonte to swymme ouer the floode callede Nilus, and to schewe thynges to comme thro his gesticulation. Petrus. Somme men say that bulle ap|perede above the water in the feste of Serapis, whiche Page  309, vol.2 water was callede Nilus, hauenge in the ryȝhte schulder a white signe other merke cornerede lyke to the moone; whom men of Egipte attendenge syngenge with alle kyndes of musikes, that bulle was eleuate anoon in to the aier, as makenge a melody; at the movenge or stondenge of whom men of Egipte were movede other stode; whiche bulle euaneschede a weye the same day. Therefore men of Egipte worschippede a bulle for Apis, a kowe for Isis, and a schepe for Iupiter; wherefore to slee eny of those bestes was an abhominable thynge amonge theyme, other elles to eite eny of theyme. Argus, the iiijthe kynge of Argyues, began to reigne, whiche reignede xlvj. yeres, in whiche tyme the londe of Grece began to sawe corne. Iacob beenge of a c.xlvijti. yere in age, blessenge his childer with single benedicciones, and the childer of his childer, diede, whiche kepede xxxti daies, was brouȝhte at the laste to Hebron, and beriede in a threfolde denne. Petrus, decimo capitulo. The maner and consuetude of Ethnikes was to kepe bodies dedde by ix. daies, in whom they myȝhte sorowe theire dethe, and norische the body with hoote water, that thei myȝhte haue perfecte knowlege wheder thei were Page  311, vol.2 dedde other nay. After that thei dressede the bodies with spices, and kepede theyme by xlti dayes, other elles thei kepede theyme after thei were beriede by xlti daies. But the consuetude of the Iewes was to kepe the bodies vnberiede by vij. dayes, and kepede theym by xxxti daies after theire beri|enge. Augustinus, libro octavo decimo. Prometheus, the son of Iapetus,*. [Tapetus, Harl. MS.] and brother to Atlas*. [Athlas, MSS. and Harl. MS., and so below.] the astronomier, after Ouidus in Magno, is seide to haue made men, in that he made discrete men of rude peple. Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. And also for cause that he made the ymages of men to walke by crafte. Also he founde firste a rynge of yrne, puttenge a gemme in hit, callenge hit vngulum, for like as the nayle of a fynger is cloosede with flesche, so he compassede that gemme with metalle. Hugutio, capitulo Anulus. Also anulus, whiche is callede a rynge, toke begynnenge of this worde, anus; for somme tyme men taken in manslauȝhter other in thefte were wonte to bere an ape in theire necke, holdenge theire mowthes to the hynder partes of that ape. That vile consuetude y-ceasede, suche men taken in felony were wonte to bere a rynge of yrne in theire fynger, vn to the distinccion of whom now|ble Page  313, vol.2 men made rynges of golde and of syluyr. Isidorus, libro decimo nono, in fine. Whom thei putte in the iiijthe fynger, whiche is callede the fynger medicinable, for cause of more dignite, in that a veyne is protendede from that fynger to the herte. Also rynges were ȝiffen to nowble men in Rome, and schilenges were ȝiffen to other men. Wherefore free men vsede rynges of golde, libertynes rynges of syluyr, and seruauntez*. [So Harl. MS.] rynges of yrne. For hit was somme tyme as a thynge of grete infamy to haue werede moo rynges then oon amonge olde men. Augus|tinus de civitate Dei, libro 18mo. Atlas, the astronomier, and broder to Prometheus, was seide to bere heuyn, where|fore there was a grete hille in Affrike callede Atlas after hys name, whiche hille by the estimacion of commune peple is supposede to bere heuyn. Petrus. Tritholomus, peynt|enge a dragon in his schippe, is seide to haue entrede in to Grece, and to haue amplifiede the tyllenge of londe; and Ceres, whiche is callede Demetra of the Grekes, founde diuerse measures of whete, for whete was nowmbrede afore that tyme by grete heepes. ℞. And after Isidorus, libro Page  315, vol.2 quinto, from that tyme the londe of Grece began to haue cornes. Ioseph, beenge of a cx. yere in age, dyede in Egipte, whiche dressede with spices, was kepede there vn to the goenge furthe of men of Ebrewe from Egipte, that was by c. and xliiijti yere, in whom men of Hebrewe seruede men of Egipte. But the breder of Ioseph were beriede in Hebron, but the boones of theim were translate with the boones of Ioseph in to Sichem, now callede Neapolis, the cite of Samaritanes. And so hit was that cc. yere a pas|sede and xv. from the commenge of Iacob in to Egipte vn to the goenge furthe of men of Hebrewe from hit.

Capitulum tertium-decimum.

AMRAM, the son of Caat, the son of Leui, beenge of lxxti yere, gate of Iocabeth his wife Moyses. Petrus. The pro|pre name of Pharo, vnder whom Ioseph was, was Nemphers; the viijthe Pharao after whom was callede Amonophis, vnder whom Moises was borne. Iosephus, libro secundo. This Pharao did hate moche the peple of Israel, for the vertu of Page  317, vol.2 the witte of theyme, for the affluence of richesse, for the beaute of theire childer; where fore he thouȝhte to slee theyme priuely, that theire multiplicacion and frute scholde not be able to resiste theim. Where fore he putte to theyme diuersites of labores, to make tyle stones, diches abowte ryueres, and to make clay, ȝiffenge to theire fyndenge but chaffe, that peple oppressede with labore and hungre scholde refuse multiplicacion, and so theire frute scholde decrease and faile. But a scribe, hauenge prenostication of thynges to comme, schewede to kynge Pharao oon childe to comme of men of Hebrewe, that scholde make Egipte meke and tame, and exalte the kynde of Israel. Where fore the in|fantes of theyme were commaundede to be sleyne. Petrus. This not withstondenge and the peple causenge multiplica|tion, kynge Pharao commaundede the mydde wifes of Egipte to slee the male childer and to kepe the childer female, as a kynde not apt to make batelle, and pleasaunte to the luste of men of Egipte, commaundenge the childer to be caste Page  319, vol.2 freschely or newly in to the water after theire byrthe, leste that he scholde not preuayle in þat other wyse. For whiche synne hit is trawede men of Egipte to haue fallen in to that erroure that thei scholde worschippe Apis for Godde. Genesis. But Moyses borne was hidde iij. monethes, at the laste he was putte in a weele made of rishes dressede with picche, and caste in to the water, whom Thermuth, þe doȝhter of kynge Pharao, fyndenge, desirede hym in to here childe. Iosephus, libro secundo. That name Moyses is compounde of thys worde moy, that is, water, in Grewe, and esis, that is saluede, callede Moyses, as saluede by water. Whiche aborrenge the noryschenge of men of Egipte, was norischede of his awne moder, and when he was of iij. yere in age, God encreasede soe the beaute and stature of hit, that men movede thro labore, other in trowble, wolde refuse their occupacion to beholde þat childe. In a tyme when Thermuth offrede that childe to kynge Pharao here fader, vn to beholde hym, and that he scholde Page  321, vol.2 desire hym in to his son, Pharao meruellenge the beaute of þe childe, put the crowne on his heede, in whom an ymage of Iupiter was graven, whom that childe did trede with his feete. A preste stondenge þer by seide, "This ys the childe whom Godde willethe to be sleyne of vs, that we scholde not be in drede afterwarde." And so he wolde haue pereschede that childe, but that a discrete man was by and seide contrary, excusenge that thynge by the insolence of the childe. Petrus, libro secundo. For the probacion of whiche thynge hoote cooles of fire were brouȝhte a fore the childe, whiche takenge oon of theym, putte hit to his mowthe, and brente the extremite of his tonge. From whiche tyme men of Hebrewe suppose Moyses to haue hade an impedimente in his tonge. Hercules is seide to haue geten victories at Athenes abowte these tymes. Iosephus, libro secundo. Men of Ethioppe guerrenge ageyn men of Egipte, theire wicches ȝafe answere that thei scholde take a man of Hebrewe in to theire gouernoure, whiche hauenge grawnte made Moises theire gouernoure. Whiche beenge Page  323, vol.2 wise in batelle, lefte the iourney by water, and brouȝhte his hoste thro places fulle of serpentes, to whom he putte bryddes callede snypes, odious to serpentes and amiable to men. And so he concluded men of Ethioppe, as withowt deliberacion, in the regalle cite of Saba, whom kynge Cam|byses*. [Cambises, MS. and Harl. MS.] callede Meron afterwarde, after the name of his sustyr. That is a stronge cite, by reason of the diches of waters rennenge abowte hit, and of stronge walles, whiche is sette in the costes of Egipte, on that floode callede Nilus. Tharbis, the doȝhter to the kynge of Ethioppe, seenge the beawte of Moyses, toke to hym that cite, that he scholde wedde here to his wife. Petrus, libro secundo. That is the woman of Ethioppe for whom Maria and Aaron were at debate, and stryvede ageyne Moises in deserte. And when Moyses wolde haue goen in to Egipte, his wife wolde not condescende; wherefore Moises causede ij. rynges to be made, reteynenge with hym a rynge of memory, [and] ȝafe to his Page  325, vol.2 wife that other rynge of obliuion and forgetenge. Genesis. In whiche tyme, when Moises visitte his brether in the londe of Gessen, he did sle a man of Egipte, whiche hade smyten a man of Hebrewe, hidenge hym vnder sonde. Whiche dredenge in the day folowenge, when that thynge was seide to hym by a man of Egipte, fledde in to the londe of Madian, where he did wedde Zephora, of whom he gate Gersan and Eliezer. Petrus, libro secundo. That priste, fader to Zephora, was the moste nowble man in the londe of Madian, abowte the Redde See; the propur name of whom was Raguel, by an other name Ietro, hauenge vij. doȝhters, and kepers of bestes. For that office of kepenge and norischenge bestes was commendede to women, and specially in the region of Trog[l]odites. The realme of men of Athenes began vnder Cecrops,*. [Cicrops, MS. and Harl. MS., and so below.] of Latona the wife of whom, and of Iupiter, fables reherse Apollo to haue be geten. Deucalion began to reigne in Thessalia; in the xijthe yere of the reigne of whom the thrydde particuler floode was made in Thessalia, and a brennenge under Pheton. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo.Page  327, vol.2 This floode destroyede a grete part of Grece, in whiche tyme men fleenge to Deucalion in schippes, to that grete mownte callede Parnassus,*. [Pernasus, Harl. MS.] occupyenge hit were saluede. ℞. Thro whiche chaunce poetes feyne that Deucalion and Pyrrha*. [Pirra, MSS. Similar slight errors in this chapter have been tacitly corrected.] his wife renewede men of stones caste vp with the water. Isi|dorus, libro tertio, capitulo sexto. Where and when floodes be more habundante then thei were wonte, thei be wonte to signifie not oonly hurtes presente but also to come. Orosius, libro primo. In whiche tyme the son beenge of feruente heete, brente not oonly Ethioppe, but also Scyttica*. [Scicia, MSS.]; for whiche thynges the fable of Feton is feynede of the Gentiles.

Capitulum quartumdecimum.

MOYSES beenge of lxxx. yere in age, and Aaron his brother of lxxxiij. yere in age, spake to Pharao that he scholde suffre the peple of God to goe and to do sacrifice; whose herte was made harde, wherefore Egipte was smyten Page  329, vol.2 with x. plages and diseases. Augustinus; libro 18o. In whiche tyme somme men of Egipte dredenge hit to per|esche, wente furthe with Cecrops; whiche sailenge in to Grece made a cite callede Atthen, and after that Athenes. ℞. Of whom hit is declarede afore, libro jo., capitulo 22o. Elladia other Corinthus, callede afore Epira, was edifiede v. yere afore the cite of Athenes. Petrus, libro secundo. There were mony other plages of Egipte, those x. famose plages excepte, wherefore somme daies be callede in the kalendary, the daies of men of Egipte, in whom Egipte was smyten with somme plages; for whiche cause ij. daies of theyme be annotede in the kalendary in euery monethe, thauȝhe þer were moo. Moyses ledde furthe the peple of Israel from Egipte in the xvthe day of the moone, after cccc.xxxti yere of the goenge furthe of Abraham from Carra Mesopotamie in to the londe of promission. As vjc. Page  331, vol.2 men goenge furthe from Egipte bare the boones of Ioseph with theyme, and also the boones of his xj. brether, whiche ar callede patriarkes, and beriede theyme in Sichem, as Seynte Ierom seythe. They toke floure with theyme, whiche thei did vse; and a pylloure off a clowde wente a fore theyme xxxti daies in the day, and a pillore of fire in the nyȝhte. And the Redde See was diuidede at the entrenge of men of Hebrewe, and drownede the men of Egipte folowenge theyme. Iosephus. The diuision of that see is not be ȝiffen to diffidence, sythe hit is redde the see Pam|philyke to haue bene diuidede afore grete Alexander the Conqueroure, and afore his hoste, in the persecucion of Darius. Petrus, libro secundo. The water of that see is not redde, but that water is infecte of the redde grownde beenge abowte hit, where gemmes be founde of redde coloure; whiche water is diuidede in to partes, as in to Persia and in to Arabia. Iosephus, libro tertio. The corne of the childer of Israel faylenge after the xxxti day of the goenge furthe of theyme from Egipte, God sende to them certeyne bryddes, angelles foode, and water from the ston of Oreb. Page  333, vol.2 Whiche place is habundaunte with water vn to this tyme, as God ministrede hit in that tyme by Moyses. Whiche Moyses ascendede in to the mownte of Syna, after iij. monethes of the egression of the peple of Israel from Egipte, fastenge by xlti daies afore and xlti nyȝhtes, toke a lawe of God, settenge his tabernacle þere by vij. monethes, as he was commaundede to do; and so the tabernacle was erecte in the secunde yere of the goenge furthe of the peple of Israel from Egipte, in the firste day of Aprile. From whiche tyme cccc.lxxx. yere be annumerate other nowmbrede vn to the edificacion of the temple. In whiche tyme, after somme men, Io goenge furthe from the Argyues vn to Egipte, callede there Isis, and mariede to Theolo|genes,*. [Here and below the proper names, which are considerably cor|rupt, have been left unaltered.] gate Epaphus. Petrus, libro quarto, capitulo decimo sexto. After the secunde yere of þe egression of the peple of Israel from Egipte, xij. meassyngers sende to the londe of promission, and returnede ageyne; for þe murmur and desperation off the peple, the childer of Israel hade in com|maundemente that thei scholde returne, whiche returnenge were afflicte in deserte by xlti yere, of whom eny entrede not in to the londe of promission, Iosue and Caleph ex|cepte. Page  335, vol.2 The temple of Apollo Delphicus was edifiede of Heristones in the vjthe yere of the egression of the childer of Israel. In whiche yere also Cranaus, the secunde kynge of men of Athenes, began to reigne, and reigned ix. yere. Of Athis, the doȝhter of whom, that londe callede Athica was namede, as hit is schewede afore, libro j., capitulo 22o., Elladia. In whiche tyme men of Hebrewe receyvede let|ters, and men of Grece vynes. Lacedemonia was edifiede oones of Lacedemon. Eructonius, the iiijthe kynge of men of Athenes, reignede lti yere. Archas, kynge of Argyues, namede Archadia after his name, whiche was callede afore Scicionia. Egiptus toke the name of hit of a man calledde Egiptus reignenge in hit, for hit was callede afore Aeria. Danaus, the xthe kynge of Arguyes, reignede lti yere. Orosius, libro primo; et Petrus, li. 2, 6o capitulo. Danaus and Egistus were brether, but Danaus, by his lti doȝhters, did slee in oon nyȝhte lti sonnes of Egistus, oon childe lefte oonly, whiche scholde reigne after hym; wherefore Danaus, the causer of that mischefe, wente to the Ar|gyues, expellede S[th]enelus by fraude, whiche norischede Page  337, vol.2 Danaus when he was in exile and pouerte, that he myȝhte reigne þer. Dionysus Bacchus is trawede to haue bene that tyme, whiche made feldes, and began the vse of vynes, amonge men of Grece. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo. The nowble Mercury is seide to haue bene in this tyme son to the doȝter of Atlas, geten of Maia, wise in mony artes, wherefore he was callede a godde after his dethe. After whom grete Hercules was. ℞. Whiche was otherwise callede Dasaneus, as Marianus rehersethe, libro jo, capitulo cxlvto. Also that is Hercules, whiche did slee Busiris*. [Busirus, MSS. and Cx.] the tyraunte, as Ouidius the poete dothe reherse. Josephus. This Hercules did mary Stea, the doȝhter of Affer, son of Madian; wherefore he wente furthe with Affer to make Libya subiecte to hym, whiche was callede after Affrica, after the name of Affer. Aaron hauenge a cxxiijti [yere] in age, in the xlti yere of the egression of the childer of Israel from Egipte, diede in Oreb; and Moises the same yere, in the c. and xxti yere of his age, diede in Abarim, ageynes Iherico, and was beriede of oure Lorde in the vale of Moab.

Page  339, vol.2

Capitulum quintumdecimum.

IOSUE, the minister of Moyses, rewlede the peple of Israel, after Iosephus, xxvjti yere; neuertheles Scripture expressethe not the yeres. Whiche ledenge the peple þro the water of Iordan, in the firste yere of his gouernayle, vn to the londe y-promysede, offrede Ester, and renewede circumcision, refusede by xlti yere; and then the noryschenge that was ȝiffen of God to theyme failede, after xlti yere. Petrus. That yere was the yere of iubile, after Eusebius in his cronicle, and hit was the firste lti yere amonge other yeres, as if ij. ml. yere vc. and lti hade bene from the begyn|nenge of the worlde, alle the yeres of the iubile acomp|tede by lti yere: but after the lxxti interpretatores, there were mony moo yeres from the begynnenge of þe worlde vn to that tyme. Bede, folowenge the trawthe and the trewe acompte of men of Hebrewe, provethe vij. yere to faile from the nowmbre rehersede. Erichthonius*. [Erutonius, Harl. MS., twice.] the iiijthe kynge of men of Athenes, in the firste yere of Iosue, Page  341, vol.2 ordeinede firste a carte with iiij. wheles in Grece; neuerthe|lesse thei were afore in other places. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo. The seide Erichthonius ordeynede plaies to Apollo and to Minerua. In whiche tyme Busiris, the tyraunte and kynge of Egipte, exercisede cruellenesse, for he offrede men to his goddes, whom men say to haue bene the son of Neptunus of Libya the doȝhter of Epaphus. Iosue distribute to the peple of Iewes the londe of Pales|tines. In whiche tyme Fenix and Cadmus brether, goenge from Egipte to Syria, reignede at Tyrus and Sidon. Iu|piter kynge of Creta toke a weye Europa the doȝhter of Agenor kynge of Libya, whom Asterius kynge of men of Creta did wedde. Iupiter gate of Europa, whom he toke aweye, Radamanthus, Sarpedon, and Minos,*. [Minois, MS.; Minoys, Harl. MS.] whiche reignede after hym in Creta. ℞. Neuertheles Marianus rehersethe, libro io. capitulo vjco xo, that Asterius gate those iij. childer of Europa. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. Agenor kynge of Libya gate thre sonnes, Cilix,*. [Silix, Harl. MS.] Fenix and Cadmus, and oon doȝter, Europa by name. But when Iupiter hade taken Page  343, vol.2 here awey, he putte her in a schippe in whom he hade a bulle depicte, wherefore poetes feyne Iupiter to be trans|mutate in to the similitude of a bulle. Wherefore Agenor commaundede his thre sonnes that thei scholde inquire for theire sustyr, and not to comme to hym in eny wyse with owte here. Whiche childer not fyndenge here and dred|enge the wrathe of theire fader, Cilix returnede to Cilicia, namenge that cuntre after his awne name, and Fenix to Fenicea, and Cadmus to the londe of Grece, where he de|sirede exile; whiche folowenge the stappes of an oxe made a place, namenge hit Boetia, where he made Thebas after|warde. ℞. Beholde more of this mater afore, libro jo, capi|tulo 22o, Boetia. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo. Iupiter reigned that tyme in the yle called Creta, Saturnus his fader expulsede to Ytaly. Henricus. Whiche beenge wyckede and bellicose gate the londe of Grece by con|queste; wherefore he was callede of men of Grece, that be and were the greteste lyers, a god, after his death, and namede as godde of alle goddes for the magnitude of his power. Alexander in Mythologia. The trewe story hathe Page  345, vol.2 Saturnus to the fader, and Iupiter to the son, and to haue hade realmes contiguate in Creta; but at the laste a batelle movede betwene theyme for certeyn londe, Iupiter hade the victory, and Saturnus fleenge wente to Ytaly, whiche was receyvede of Ianus, reignenge there in to parte of thempyre, for the vse of vynes and off tillenge of londe, that he brouȝhte in to Ytaly, where he was callede Saturnus, for the plentuousenesse that he brouȝhte in to that cuntre. Eutropius. This Saturnus fleenge Iu|piter his son lay priuely in a parte of Tuscia not ferre from Rome, whiche place he callede Saturnia, after his name, where he tauȝhte rude peple to edifye, to tylle feldes, and to sette vynes, whiche peple lyffede afore with akornes, and inhabite places made with bowȝes of trees. Also he institute penyes of brasse, wherefore he was trowede to haue bene a godde of the rusticalle peple. ℞. And thauȝhe poetes feyne Iupiter to haue geldede Saturnus leste that he scholde gette eny childer to his supplantacion, neuerthe|less the story of the Romanes seithe that Saturnus gate Page  347, vol.2 Picus in Italy. Alexander in Mythologia. Other myȝhty tyrrauntes trowblenge peace were abowte to expelle Iupiter, whom he ouercome, wherefore hit is feynede of poetes Iupiter to haue sleyn diuerse gigantes. Petrus. Iosue afore that he diede schedde water in to the erthe, in to a signe of luffe begunne betwene God and the peple, that the peple hade chosen a trewe Godde. But the gentiles vsede to caste downe the bloode of a sowe in to a signe of luffe. Hugutio, capitulo Fedus. Fedus is callede so of a fowle swyne sleyne þer, as if hit scholde be seide, his bloode be schedde in lyke wyse that dothe violate and breke this bonde of luffe. Petrus, capitulo decimo sexto. But men of Hebrewe schedde water in to a signe, for like as water is schedde holly with owte eny signe or stappe apperenge afterwarde, soe in lyke wise the breker of that bonde scholde peresche with alle his progeny. Also olde men were wonte to electe thynges durable in to the signe of luffe, as stones and beryelles, that men succedenge myȝhte remembre the seide token of luffe.

Page  349, vol.2

Capitulum sextumdecimum.

The childer of Israel did seruyce to Chusan, kynge of Mesopotamia, viij. yere after the death of Iosue, whiche yeres be ioynede to the yeres*. [yereres, MS.] of Othoniel the brother of Caleph, after men of Hebrewe. Petrus. But if the yeres of the quietnes and seruitute be comprehended to geder vnder the daies of the iugges, the trawthe of computacion scholde not be in the storye. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo. Latona childedde Apollo abowte this tyme at the yle of Delos, whiche was not Apollo Delphicus, for he was longe afore, but this Apollo seruede kynge Admetus, with the later Hercules. The viijthe yere of the seruitute of men of Israel annumerate, Othoniel was gouernoure of men of Hebrewe xlti yere. Neptunus the vthe kynge of men of Athenes reignede. Cadmus did reigne in Thebis, of þe doȝhter of whom, Semela by name, Dionysus Bacchus was geten, other Liber pater. In þe tyme of whom Thebeus the musicion was. Bithynia was made of Phenix, callede afore*. [yereres, MS.]Page  351, vol.2 Mariandyna.*. [Morienduna, Harl. MS.]Isidorus, libris 2o et quinto. And lyke as Cadmus toke to men of Grece xvij. letters so in like maner, Phenix, brother to hym, toke certeyne letters of a redde coloure to the Pheniceanes. ℞. Attende to this pro|cesse afore, capitulo 15o, Phenicia. Isidorus, libro 2o. The letters of men of Grece, whom Cadmus toke to þeim, com|pounde wordes and make nowmbres. ℞. And in what nowmbre a letter is putte from the firste letter to the xthe, hit signifiethe a like nowmbre amonge men of Grewe, for the firste letter signifiethe oon, the secunde tweyne, and so vn to x., for the xthe letter signifiethe x. and the xjthe letter xxti, the xijthe xxxti, the xiijthe letter xlti, and so on to a c., whiche is signifiede by the xixthe letter. The xxti letter signifiethe cc., xxjti ccc., and so furthe. Petrus. The vse of yrne was founde this tyme amonge men of Egipte, and also those thinges happede whiche be seyde of Metria and Dana,*. [So Harl. MS. for Demeter and Danae.] the moder of Perseus. The cite of Corinthus was made, whom thei say to be Isis.

Page  353, vol.2

Capitulum decimum septimum.

Then xviij. yere annumerate in whom the peple of Israel ministrede to Eglon the fatte kynge of Moab, and also oon yere of Sangar the duke, which did sle vjc. men with the cultur of a plowe, Aioth reignede on the peple of Israel lxxxti yere. This Aioth, son of Ihera, the son of Geminus, vsede either honde as the ryȝhte honde. Petrus. Somme men say Geminus to haue bene a vile person in the tribe of Beniamyn, callede so as by effresis; for þei putte Iamyn where we putte Geminus, whiche sowndethe as pertenenge to the ryȝhte parte, whiche may be called welle in Latyn Geminus. Tritholomus commenge to Eleusis in a longe schippe, and the kynge of Thracia, raueschede and toke awey Proserpina, whose dogge callede Cerberus de|uoured Pirotonus, which come with Theseus to the takenge aweye of Proserpina; whiche hade deuourede Theseus also, but that Hercules delyuerede hym, for whiche thynge he was receyvede of helle. Achaia was foundede of Acheus, Page  355, vol.2 and Dionysus*. [Dionisius, Harl. MS. Similar slight errors have been tacitly cor|rected in both versions.] Bacchus, other Liber Pater, gouernoure of men of Athenes, was borne abowte this tyme of Semela. And the misterys of Perseus began, whiche did slee a strumpette other hore, Gorgones by name, makenge men beholdenge to meruayle the excellente beaute of here. In whiche tyme Frixus, and Elle his sustyr, dredenge the watches of theire steppemoder, were drownede in the see whiche is callede vn to this tyme Ellespontus,*. [Elespontus, Harl. MS.] after the name of his sustyr. Laomedon, the kynge of men of Scitia, the xviijthe kynge, reignede lti yere. Amphion and Zethus reignede at Thebas in Grece, Cadmus expulsede. Tros, of whom the Troianes toke name, reignede in Dardania, otherwise called Frigia, after that ȝiffenge batayle to Tantalus kynge of Athenes, for the rape of Ganimedes his son. Perseus, the brother of Eruteus,*. [Clerical error for Ericteus (Erechtheus).] ȝafe batelle ageyne men of Persia for the sleenge of Gorgones. That stronge man called Ion namede men of Athenes Iones after his name. Dionysus,*. [Dionisius, Harl. MS. Similar slight errors have been tacitly cor|rected in both versions.] other Liber Page  357, vol.2 Pater, fiȝhtenge ageyne men of Ynde, made that cite callede Nisan. This Dionysus hade firste women mixte with men in his hoste. Pelopos reignede firste amonge men of Pelo|ponens, and also at Olympus, whiche rebellenge ageyne Troianes was ouercommen by Dardanus. The later Her|cules was in the tymes of Aioth, duke and governoure of Israel. This myȝhty Hercules was the tamer of the worlde, the victor of þe Amazones, the perescher of Ynde, the expugnator of Troianes, the entrer of Libya, the lorde of Speyne. ℞. This Hercules, after Ouidius, in Methamor|phoseon libro octauo, ouercome the gigaunte of Libia at Athenes, and did sle Geryon the gigaunte and kynge of Speyne, causenge his bestes to be brouȝhte thro Ytaly in a signe of victory, gettenge of the doȝhter of Faunus*. [Fannius, Harl. MS.] Latinus the kynge; whiche did slee also a lyon and a grete serpente in a marras callede Lerna, rennenge the space of a fore|longe with oon brethe, settenge pillores at the yle of Gades; whiche finischede xij. huge labores. Augustinus, libro de|cimo octavo. Whiche hauenge as a disease intollerable after his grete labores, commaundede hym selfe to be caste Page  359, vol.2 in to a grete fire, in Ceta an hille of Speyne. ℞. Whiche labores were not like to be the labores of man, as hit is schewede by the poete Claudianus, libro vjto de raptu Proserpinæ, and by Virgilius, Eneyd, libro viijo, and by Oui|dius in Metamorphoseon libro nono. The firste was tak|enge aweye of apples of golde from the gardyn of þe vii.*. [Hoc Lu|canus af|firmat libro suo nono.] doȝhters of Atlas,*. [Athlas, MSS., as usual; which conversely have Tracia below.] the dragon and keper of theyme beenge in slepe. The secunde was of the grete bestes callede Centauri, whom he ouercome. The thridde was the sleenge of a lyon, in a woode callede Menena. The iiijthe was the chasenge of Arpines. The vthe was the chenenge of the grete dogge callede Cerberus, whiche did sle Pirithous*. [Pyrytheus, and Peritheus, MSS.] in the takenge aweye of Proserpina. The vjthe was the oppression of Diomedes kynge of Thracia, whiche fedde his horse with the flesche of man. The vijthe was the sleenge of the serpente in that marras callede Lerna. The viijthe was the victory of Achelo[u]s, chaungenge hym in to diuerse formes. The ixthe was the victory of Anteus the gigaunte of Libya, whiche encreasede in strenghte as he towchede the erthe. The xthe labore was the sleenge of Cacus, whom men seide to euomette fire. The xjthe was the sleenge of Page  361, vol.2 the boore of Arcadia.*. [Archadia, MSS., as usual.] The xijthe labore was the suppor|tation of heuyn while that Atlas beenge wery did reste; whiche diede or that he hade fullefyllede the xiijthe labore. Of whom hit is to be attendede, þat these labores attribute to Hercules sounde other a story, as that of the lyon, and the xjthe of the boore; other elles thei longe oonly to the couerenge of maneres, and then hit is a fable that thei expresse, þauȝhe thei do implicate trawthe, as the thrydde and iiijthe labore were of the takenge aweye of the apples; other elles thei sownde a story mixte with a fable, as alle other labores. Also hit is to be attendede, that þese xij. labores be not to be attribute to oon Hercules, for as Seynte Austyn seythe, De Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo quarto decimo,*. [The numbers are so written at length.] that there was an other Hercules to whom these xij. labores were attribute, then that Hercules whiche ouercome Antheus the gigaunte of Pales|tria.*. [It is possible that the translator's Latin text was corrupt.] And Boecius, quarto libro de Consolatione Philo|sophiæ, rehersethe that of Antheus among the xij. labores of Hercules. Also Seynte Austyn seithe that þer were mony Hercules, and also Sampson was trawede to haue be namede Page  363, vol.2 Hercules, for his meruellous strenȝhte. Also hit is ex|pressede in the boke of Frigius Daretis, of the batelle of Troy, that Iason, whiche did feche the fleece of golde at Colchos, was callede Hercules. Also Ouidius, in libro octavo Metamorphoseon, ȝiffethe that labore of the sleenge of the boore of Arcadia to Melandrus other Melander. For that name of Hercules was ȝiffen to nowble men for a singuler vertu and audacite, whiche thynge semethe to appere by interpretation of that name. For this worde, Hercules, is seide of this worde, eros, whiche is a man, and cleos, that is joy, as a glorious man.

Capitulum decimum octavum.

Eusebius in Cronica. Fables were founde specially in Grece in the tyme of Aioth, and hit is seide that Ysopus founde theym firste to onorne trawthe naturalle, leste the secrete Page  365, vol.2 thynges of nature scholde wexe vile. Wherefore thei fey|nede diuerse names and actiones of goddes after diuerse natures and qualites of thynges. Alexander in Mythologia. As thei seide men to haue bene made of stones after the grete floode; whiche was a thynge feynede of olde men, for men inhabite other in dennes made of ston, other in holo trees, afore that they hade howses made; other elles, if thei hade not suche habitaciones, thei wente abowte in the maner of bestes. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo, capitulo 13o. Fables were made in the londe of Grece after the dethe of Iosue vn to the batelle of Troy, as Vulcanus to haue tariede with Minerva, and that Erutonius was geten with the feete of a dragon, whiche is but a fable and a fenyede thynge of poetes. Neuerthelesse there was a childe founde in the temple of Vulcanus and of Minerua at Athenes, sette þer compassede and wrappede abowte with the tayle of a dragon, whiche signifiede the childe to be a grete man in tyme to comme, whiche childe was callede the childe of Vulcanus and of Minerva, the faders of whom were not knowen in trawthe. Also hit is seide off Tritho|lomus, Page  367, vol.2 that corne beenge skarse, he was brouȝhte in to the aier with bryddes, whiche flyenge brouȝhte cornes to londes hauenge necessite þer of. Also that Cerberus scholde be a dogge of helle. Also that Frixus and Elle hys sustyr cariede with a weder did flye. Also that the ylle dis|posede woman, Gorgones by name, chaungede men be|holdenge here into stones. Also of Bellofrons, that he was cariede with an horse flyenge with wynges, þe horse of whom was callede Pegasus. Also of Amphion, that he attracte stones to hym thro the swetnesse off an harpe. Also of Dedalus, and Icarus his son, that they did flye. Also that Anteus was the son of the erthe, whom Hercules did sle, in that he fallenge and towchenge þe erthe was more stronge when he did aryse. Isidorus, libro undecimo. Also hit is but a fable that Geryon the gigaunte and kynge of Speyne, sleyne by Hercules, was of thre similitudes. For there were thre breþer of suche concorde that thei were alle as of oon sawle. That the commune women, Gorgones by theire names, turnede men beholdenge them in to stones, is but a fable. But there were iij. sustyrs as of oon pul|critude, Page  369, vol.2 whiche meruaylede theire beholders, as if thei were stones. Also that poetes feyne iij. meremaydes to be in parte virgines and in parte bryddes, hauenge wynges and talandes, of whom oon songe with here voyce, an other with a trumpe, þat other with an harpe, whiche drawede men in the see to grete perelles, hit is but a fable. But there were iij. commune women, whiche inducede men drawenge to theym to grete pouerte, wherefore thei were seide to induce men in to grete perelle. Also that thei feyne Scylla*. [Scilla, MS., and Silla below.] to be a woman succincte with the hedes of dogges, with grete berkenge; that is seide for the see of Scicille, where in men saylenge and dredenge the turnenges of water þer trawede the water to berke like a dogge. Soe in like wise men feyne Idra, þe serpente, to haue hade ix. hedes, so that oon kytte awei iij. increasede, whiche Idra was a place conteynenge water, and euomet|enge hit, where of oon place stoppede other broste vp in mony places, whiche thynge Hercules perceyvenge schutte those goenges furthe; wherefore hit is seyde that Hercules Page  371, vol.2 did slee Idra the serpente. Isidorus, libro primo, capitulo tricesimo primo. Hit is to be attended that poetes in|ducede fables for iij. especialle causes. Oon was for cause of pleasure and delectacion, as Plautus*. [Plauctus, or Plauttus, Harl. MS., and so below.] and Terentius do reherse, and also the fables that be rehersede of commune peple. An other cause was for nature to be couerede and onornede that as a figmente callede chimera, expressenge the age of a man, scholde be of a triplicate nature. The firste parte of whom, that is adolescency, is cruelle as a lyon. The secunde is youthe, scharpe of siȝhte, or elles ille sauorenge like to a goote. The thrydde is age, de|clynenge to feblenesse like to a dragon. Therefore hit may be schewede that fables were ordeinede to the com|posicion and cause of vertuous exercise, that thauȝhe thynges be feynede the significacion of theyme is profit|able, as in Oratius of the mowse and wesylle, in Ysope and Arrian of the fox and of the wulfe, and Demosthenes*. [Demostines, Harl. MS.]Page  373, vol.2 of wulfes and dogges, made to the deliueraunce of poetes. Seynte Austyn acordethe to this, libro De Mendacio, sey|enge, thauȝhe fables be not trewe, neuertheles thei cause trawthe in the thynge significate by theyme. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro tertio, capitulo tertio. Also hit is confirmate by the auctorite of the Romanes that Eneas was geten of that goddesse callede Venus, and that Romu|lus was gotten of that godde callede Mars; but y ȝiffe not credence to that seienge, neither Varro the writer of stories of the Romanes ȝaffe credence þerto, seyenge, Hit is profitable that men of nobilite ȝiffe to credence þeim to be geten of goddes, and also to citesynnes, that the herte of man bolde thro hit scholde presume and be more bolde to go to grete thynges. Alexander, in Mythologia. As Macrobius rehersethe of the dreames of Scipio, somme fables be feynede for cause of delectation, as the fables of Menander and of Terentius; and thei do not perteyne to philosophres. Somme be feynede for cause of vtilite to the exhortacion of peple, in whom other þat mater, other Page  375, vol.2 the ordre of the narracion of the thynge y-feynede, that is feynede falsely, and tellede by a fals thynge; and these fables perteyne not to a philosophre; as the fables of Isope and Auian. Other elles a trewe thynge is rehersede by a feynede thynge, as the seyenges of Esiodus and of Orpheus of the acte and progeny of goddes; and that is not a fable, but a fabulous narracion; whiche perteyne not to philosophres and to diuines. But fables whiche be re|hersede by meke thynges and honeste, as Plato feynede a knyȝhte, Er by name, to haue risen from dethe, and to haue schewede mony thynges of the immortalite of the sawle. Soe in lyke wise Tullius feynede Scipio to haue dreamede of the immortalite of the sawle. ℞. Also Boe|tius, the grete clerke, feynede philosophy to haue apperede to hym. A diuyne may vse these maneres, the laste maner excepte but oon. Petrus. The latere Apollo, son of Latona, after the wrytenge of men of Grewe, founde the arte of medicines, and made an harpe, in the tyme of Aioth. ℞. And, after Isidorus, Ethymol., libro 3o, that man Page  377, vol.2 Mercurius did adde to the harpe vij. cordes, in the tyme of Gedeon, and streynede þeim in to a sownde in this maner folowenge. When that grete floode callede of Nilus after the flooenge of hit returnede ageyne, levenge diuerse bestes in the feldes, a schelle fische was lefte also, whiche putrefiede, the senowes of hit were extente within the couerenge of that fische, whiche ȝafe a lytelle sownde; Mercurius perceyvenge that, made an harpe vn to the similitude of hit, and toke hit to Orpheus the nowble harper. Petrus. The seide Mercurius founde in that tyme siringas, whiche be musicalle instrumentes made of pipes other reedes, whiche name was taken of Siringa, wife to Cadmus, whiche departede from here howsebonde for the luffe of armony. But hit is not hade in certitude what Mercury this was, wheder hit was Hermes, other Tri|megistus the philosopher, other elles grete Mercurius. For Iosephus rehersethe that there were thre nowble men cal|lede by that name Mercurius. Isidorus, Ethym., libro 5 to, etPage  379, vol.2Petrus. A instrumente callede chorus, other a chore, was founde in Grece, of fewe cordes and strynges, whiche is callede nowe a crowthe or a crowde.

Capitulum decimum nonum.

Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo decimo tertio. The xxti yere of Barach annumerate, whiche was of the tribe of Neptalym, in whom Iabyn, kynge of Canaan, trowblede þe peple of Israel, Delbora, the prophetisse of the tribe of Effraym, gouernede the peple of Israel xlti yere. In the dayes of whom the kynges of men callede Ar|gyues began to fayle, whiche reignede vc. and xlti yere from Inachus to Pelopis firste kynge of men of Pelopon|ense; and then the realme of Argiues was translate to Micenas. In whiche tyme the realme of Laurentines be|gan in Ytaly, where Picus the son of Saturnus began to reigne after the dethe of his fader and of Ianus, whiche reignede there longe. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo tertio decimo. Dionysus other Liber pater diede abowte thys tyme, whiche Ȝiffenge batelle to Page  381, vol.2 men of Ynde, hade women mixte with men in his hoste. But at the laste he was deuicte of Perseus, whose sepul|cre of golde is schewed ȝitte in Thessalia, nye to Apollo Delphicus in Parnassus.*. [Pernasus, Harl. MS.] Mida, the riche kynge, reignede abowte this tyme in Frigia, of whom poetes feynede mony thynges, as hit is schewede in Methologe of Fulgentius and of Alexander. And also a cite callede Ilium was edifiede and made in Troy by Ilus the son of Apollo.

Capitulum vicesimum.

THE viij. yere connumerate in whom the peple of Israel seruede the Madianites, Gedeon other Iherobal gouernede the peple of Israel xlti yere. In the thyme of whom, after Iosephus, that cite callede Tirus was made, abowte cc. and xlti yere afore the makenge of the temple of Salo|mon. Petrus. Minos kynge of Creta, son of Iupiter, obteynede that tyme the see, and ȝafe lawe to men of Creta. In whiche tyme Theseus, the son of Egeus, kynge of Athenes, a myȝhty man, whiche ouercome a beste Page  383, vol.2 callede Minotaurus; for whiche acte men of Athenes, whiche were tributaries afore, were delyuerede from that serui|tute. Minotaurus was a myȝhty man, and as a gigante hauenge grete strenȝhte, whiche was the bocheor of kynge Minois, callede Minotaurus, as the bocheor of kynge Mi|nois. Theseus toke awey Helena abowte this tyme, whom Castor and Pollux, breþer to here, broughte ageyne with the moder of Theseus, Theseus fleenge in to other cuntres for helpe. In whiche tyme Dedalus is seide to haue bene, whiche made bryddes of metalle to flye thro spirittes in|clusede in theyme. Also hit is seide that he made simi|lacres movenge theym selfe. Whiche diuidede firste the feete of ymages a sundre, for other men ioynede theyme to gedre. Isidorus, libro nono. This Dedalus hade with hym the son of his doȝhter, Perdix by name, whiche founde firste an instrumente whom men calle a sae. Also this childe founde firste the vse of a compasse, wherefore Dedalus his maister caste hym downe from a towre. Therefore Deda|lus Page  385, vol.2 fleenge with Icarus*. [Ycarus, MSS., and so below.] his son to that yle callede Creta, come afterwarde to Sicilia,*. [Scicilia, MSS.; Scilicia, Harl. MS.] and made a mase þere firste. Petrus. Whom men feyne to haue flyede, for the swifte fliȝhte of hym after that he hade doen that offense. Isi|dorus, libro quintodecimo. A turnenge, other elles a mase, is a thynge made with mony turnenges, and a man en|trenge in to hit with owte a clewe of threde, can not comme furthe from hit ageyne liȝhtely, and also a thundre dothe appere to men openenge the durres of hit. Hugutio, capitulo Labor. To whom men goe downe as by a c. grees, the weies þer be as innumerable by derkenesse, and þer be iiij. suche places in the worlde; oon is in Egipte, an other is in Creta, the thrydde is in the yle callede Lemnus,*. [Lempno, MS. Similarly Harl. MS.] the iiijthe is in Italy; whiche be made soe that thei can not be destroyede vn to the ende of the worlde. Hugutio, capitulo Cilleo. When men of Athenes laborede in þe pestilence for the dethe of Icarus, and of Erigon his doȝhter, and virgynes were compellede as vn to hongenge, hit was answerede to theyme by Apollo Del|phicus Page  387, vol.2 that pestilence to be mitigate if thei wolde inquire the cariones and bodies of Icarus and of Erigon his doȝhter. Whiche inquirede longe cowthe not be founde, men of Athenes schewenge a deuocion to the inquisicion of theyme, as to make inquisicion to fynde in an oþer ele|mente that thei cowthe not fynde in the erthe, houged ropes in the aier, to whom men fixede were seen to move in the aier. And when that men felle downe and were hurte, ymages were made lyke to theyme, and movede þer in the ropes. And men of Latyn calle that play ocillum, whiche worde takethe composicion of this worde cilleo es, that is, to move, and of this worde os oris for a mowthe; for men steryde in that wyse were mouede towarde the mowthes of men.

Page  389, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum primum.

ABIMALECH, the son of Gedeon, geten of a concubyne, was gouernoure in Sichem iij. yere after his fader, whiche did slee lxxti brether to hym, geten of diuerse women, oon ex|cepte. In whiche tyme the batelle of Athenes betwene Laphites and Centaures, whom Palefatus, libro De Incredi|bilibus, seithe to haue ben nowble horse men of Thessalia whiche did fiȝhte ageyne the Thebes. Thola, of the tribe of Ysachar, reignede on Israel xxiijti yere. In the iiijthe yere of whom Medea wente from here howsebonde Egeus, kynge of Athenes, vn to that yle callede Colchos, where sche was borne. Trogus, capitulo quadragesimo tertio. Fanus, the son off Picus, reignede abowte this tyme in Ytaly, vnder whom Euander, of the costes of Archadia, commenge to those costes, toke the feldes and the mownte Palatyne. This Fanus hade a wife, Fatua by name, whiche was vexede moche with a spiritte, whereof peple so vexede now in this tyme bene seide to be fatuate, after the name Page  391, vol.2 of þat woman. Of the doȝhter of whom Hercules gate a son, Latynus by name, whiche reignede after hym, not geten in trewe matrimony. Orosius, libro primo. Abowte whiche yere Vesores, kynge of Egipte, ȝafe*. [Sic Harl. MS. Probably the word should be cancelled; if not, or must be added: which seems to be omitted after afore.] intendede to ȝiffe batelle to men of Scitia, sendenge to theyme messen|geres afore commaundede theyme to obey him. To whiche messangeres the men of Scithia ansuerede, seynge, that the plentuous kynge of Egipte intendede a symple thynge to move batelle ageyne poore men, sythe the chaunce of victory in batelle is in dowte, where he knowthe to haue noon avayle but grete hurtes and losse. Whiche thynge happede accordenge to the seyenge of theyme; for they compellede the kynge off Egipte to returne, and peresch|enge a grete parte of his hoste hade spoilede a grete parte of Egipte, but that þe water of Nilus was an impedimente to theyme. That peple of Scitia, returnenge towarde theire cuntre, fauȝhte myȝhtely ageyne men of Asia, and made theym theire tributaries. The wifes of whom sende worde to theim that thei wolde take men to theym of oþer cuntres to cause multiplication, withowte thei wolde comme home. Wherefore ij. nowble men were electe amonge theyme, Page  393, vol.2 whiche, takenge with theyme a grete hoste, occupiede the londes of Pontus and Capodocia, whiche were destroyede at the laste by oþer peple of ferre cuntrees. The wifes of whom movede there with toke armoure, inquirenge vengeaunce for theire howsebondes. So at the laste, peace made by grete batelles and conflictes, thei toke to theyme straunge men for cause of multiplicacion, sleenge the male childer, reseruede the childer female, brennenge the ryȝhte pappe of here. Of whiche women were ij. qwenes at the laste, Marsepia and Lampeto, whiche kepede batelles by course. And when thei hade made that londe of Asia tame, and taken the principalle cites in hit, thei sende the chiefe parte of theire hoste to theire cuntre with grete richesse and goodes. That other parte of women lefte with Marsepia to be the defence of Asia were sleyne. The doȝhter of whom, Synope by name, kepede the realme after the dethe of here moder, in kepenge the glory of vertu with virginite perpetu|alle. Also thei were of so grete myȝhte, that when Her|cules was commaundede of his lorde that he scholde brynge Page  395, vol.2 to hym the armore of the qwene of theym, he toke with hym the nowble men of the londe of Grece in ix. schippes, whiche compassede the women as with owte deliberacion; hau|enge more pleasure to do soe then to make an open batelle ageyne theyme. The seide Hercules, those women oppressede, ȝafe Menalippa to his sustyr Antiopa, and mariede Ypolita, sustir to the same Menalippa, to Theseus his knyȝhte, tak|enge to hym the armore of the qwene as for a price of here redempcion. After that qwene callede Orthia, the qwene Penthesilea*. [Pentisilia, Harl. MS.] was at the battelle of Troye, and schewede mony grete actes ageyne men of Grece.

Capitulum vicesimum secundum.

IAIR GALATIDES, of the tribe of Manasses, reignede on the peple of Israel xxijti yere, whiche hade xxxti sonnes, whom he made princes of xxxti cites, whom he callede, after his name, Anot Iair, that is to say, þe cites of Iair. ℞. In the thrydde yere of whom, after diuerse men, that cite callede Carthago was edifiede, of whiche mater hit is rehersede afore, Page  397, vol.2 libro jo. Minois, kynge off Egipte, movenge batelle ageyne Dedalus, was sleyne of the sonnes of Cocalus in the xvjthe yere of the reigne of Iair. Isidorus, libro primo. Nicos|trata, the moder of Latinus kynge, founde letters of Latyne. Isidorus, libro nono. The langage of Latyn was departede in to iiij. For the olde tonge or langage of Latyn was in the tyme of Ianus and of Saturnus. And in the tyme of that kynge callede Latinus, and of other kynges of Tuschia, of whiche langage xij. tables were wryten of the lawes of theyme. Also the Romanes vsede that langage whom Plau|tus, Tullius, Virgilius, and Cato vsede; but langage that was mixte encreasede after the increase of thEmpyre. Israel, other the peple of hit, seruede the Philistes xviij. yere after the dethe of Iair, whiche be deputede to the yeres of Iepte folowenge.

Page  399, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum tertium.

IEPTE GALATIDES, son of an hoore of the tribe of Gad, was iugge in Israel vj. yere. In the firste yere off whom, Latinus the son of Fanus began to reigne in Ytaly, in whom he reignede xxxijti yere, from whiche tyme the realme of Latines toke begynnenge, and the name off the Lauren|tynes decreasede and faylede. Isidorus, libro octavo. Sibilla Eritria, Erifola by name, borne in Babilon, was in the tyme of Latinus, whiche seide to the Grekes Troy to be destroyede, and that the poete Omerus scholde write mony lesenges after|warde. But þer were x. Sibilles, amonge whom sche was putte the vthe in ordre, and is preferrede afore other. The firste of whom was callede Sibilla Persica. The secunde Sibilla Libica. The thrydde Sibilla Delphica, whiche was geten in the temple of Apollo afore the batelle of Troy, of the versus of whom Omerus toke mony and putte theyme in his werkes. The iiijthe was Sibilla Temeria,*. [Sic Harl. MS. for Cimmeria.] of Ytaly. The vthe was Sibilla Eritria, of whom we spake of afore. The vjthe was callede Sibilla Samia, of that yle callede Samos. Page  401, vol.2 where sche was borne. The vijthe was callede Sibilla Cu|mana, borne in Campania, whiche brouȝhte to olde Tarqui|nius, kynge of the Romanes, ix. bokes of the decretes of the Romanes. The viijthe was callede Sibilla Ellespontia, borne in the cuntre of Troye, whiche was seide to haue bene in the tyme of kynge Cyrus and Salomon. The ixthe was callede Sibilla Frigia. The xthe was callede Sibilla Tiburtina, the wrytenges of whom be extollede in that thei didde wryte mony thynges of God, of Criste, and of other peple. ℞. Neuerthelesse Seynte Austyn semethe to expresse, De Civi|tate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo sexto decimo, that Sibilla Eritria was in the time of Romulus, of whom he seithe that sche did write mony thinges of Criste. Isidorus, libro octavo. That name Sibilla is a name of an office, not of a person, for hit is seide of this worde, scios, þat is, God, and bele, that is a mynde, and þerfore Sibilla is seide, a Page  403, vol.2 woman hauenge the mynde of God. Wherefore like as a man prophecyenge is callede Vates, soe in lyke wise a woman prophecienge is callede Sibilla. In this tyme of Latinus the kynge, the Organautes seylede and keped the see, whiche was an occasion of the batelle of Troy, whiche was inducede in þis maner. Trogus, libro secundo. The realme of men of Athenes descendede to Egeus, after Nep|tunus, the successor of Erictonius, whiche gate of his firste wife a son callede Theseus. That wife dedde, he did wedde Medea, the doȝhter of the kynge of Colchos, of whom he gate a son callede Medus. Medea, dredenge Theseus when that he was commen to age, turnede ageyne to Colchos to here fader, with Medus here sonne. Theseus reignede at Athenes after Egeus his fader, whiche, goenge furthe with Hercules, hade the victory of the Amazones. Demophon, the son of Theseus, succedede in that realme, whiche ȝafe helpe to þe Grekes ageyne the Troianes. Trogus, libro 42o. Pelias,*. [Peleas, Harl. MS. here and below.] kynge of Peloponense other of Thessalia, dredenge leste that the nowble man, Iason by name, son of Eson his brother, scholde entre in to his realme, movede Iason Page  405, vol.2 to goe to the yle of Colchos to seche the skynne of golde, supposenge that by that laboure he seholde be pereschede other in the see other þro batelle on londe. Phrygius Dares,*. [Frigius, MSS. and Cx.] xxxijti. Wherefore Pelias made Argus to ordeyne ryalle schippes apte and pleasaunt to theyme. Petrus. The peple that were callede Argonautes, toke name of Argon, whiche were myȝhty men, gedrede of alle costes to go with Iason. Whiche londede firste in Frigia, Laomedon reignenge there in that tyme. Trogus. But Iason, expulsede from Frigia, come with his felowschippe to Colchos, and ouercome the kynge of hit, sleenge Egealius his son, and toke with hym the skynne of golde, and also Medea, the doȝhter of that kynge, and toke here to his wife, whom he refusede after|warde. But when that Iason was expulsede from Thes|salia by the sonnes of Pelias, and Medea his wyfe recon|silede to hym, with Medus here son, getten by Egeus kynge of Athenes, he gedrede a grete hoste and wente to that yle callede Colchos, and restored his fader in lawe vn to his realme, whiche was expulsede from hit, and brouȝhte to his realme mony oþer cites, in recompensation of the wronge doen afore. Phrygius Dares. After that Iason hade Page  407, vol.2 made subiecte that yle of Colchos, desirede with hym Castor and Pollux, and Peleus of Scitia, and Thelamon of Sala|mina, with v. schippes entrede in to Frigia in the nyȝhte, and did sle Laomedon the kynge of hit, and wastede Troy, and toke awey Hesion the kynges doȝhter, whom he toke to Telamon*. [Thelamon, MSS. and Cx.] his knyȝhte, to be his wife, in that he entrede in to the cite of Troy firste. And when thei hade taken preyes at theire pleasure, Iason returnede with his felow|schippe towarde his cuntre. Priamus the son of Laome|don, herenge of that treason, made that city of Troy stronge, dressenge hit with ȝates and walles, and began to reigne in hit.

Capitulum vicesimum quartum.

ABESSA, of the cuntre of Bethleem, was iugge in Israel vij. yeres, and reignede þer. In the firste yere of whom Priamus, the kynge off Frigia other elles Troy, sende An|thenor vn to the Grekes, seyenge that he wolde suffre alle Page  409, vol.2 iniuryes a-paste if that Hesiona his sustyr, taken aweye by theyme, myȝhte be restorede. The men of Grece denyenge that, Priamus made redy to make batelle ageyne theyme, makenge Hector, his firste son, gouernoure and rewlere of hit, whiche thynge Alexander other Paris exhortede to be fullefillede, seyenge that as he wente to hunte in a woode callede Ida, he see in his slepe Mercury to haue brouȝhte to hym Venus and Minerua to iugge of the beawte of theyme. Then Minerua promisede to hym sapience, if that he wolde preferre here beaute; and Venus promisede to hym oon of the feireste women of þe worlde to his wife, if þat he wolde preferre here beawte. Neuerthelesse schippes were made redy, and Alexander with Antenor were sende to the londe of Grece, whiche, commenge to an yle callede Cythera, where women were gedrede to the feste of Iuno, Paris toke awey Helena, the wife of kynge Menelaus, commenge to mete Paris to beholde his beawte, and broȝhte here to Priamus. At whiche acte Priamus ioyede moche, Page  411, vol.2 thenkenge to recure Hesiona his sustyr by that. Where|fore Menelaus, kynge of Lacedemonia, makenge compleynte to Agamemnon,*. [Agamenon and Agamynon, MSS., and so below.] kynge of Mecenas, v. myȝhty men con|descende to theire helpe, whiche were Achilles, Patroclus, Vlixes, Aiax, and Nestor, with mony other stronge men, xlvij. ml in nowmbre, hauenge a ml and cc. schippes redy at Athenes in the haven or porte. After that Apollo Del|phicus ȝafe an answere to theyme that Troye scholde be destroyede after the xthe yere; wherefore the Grekes goenge to the see londede in Frigia, and robbenge there, returnede after that thei hade taken þeire pray. Then Agamemnon*. [Agamenon and Agamynon, MSS., and so below.] sende Vlixes and Diomedes as messyngeres to kynge Pria|mus that he scholde delyuere Helena. Then Priamus re|membrede the iniurye doen to hym by the Argonautes, the dethe of his fader, and the takenge awey of his sustyr, and the contempte off Antenor his messyngere, refusethe peace, desirenge batelle. Wherefore an*. [So the MS.] grete hoste gedrede and metenge to gedre, Hector did sle Protesilaus*. [Prothesilaus, MS.; Prothesalaus, Harl. MS.] and Meno, and woundede soore mony other, vn til that Aiax, son of Page  413, vol.2 Hesiona, sustir to Priamus, did lette hym knowenge con|sanguinite betwene theyme. After that batelle doen, respite of ij. yere was grawntede, that men sleyne myȝhte be beryede. But that space a-paste, the batelle began, contynuenge by lxxx. daies, in whiche batelle Hector did sle x. nowble dukes, and Achilles did sle iiij. stronge men. After whiche batelle doen, space and respite of iij. yere were grawntede. The batelle begunne ageyne, mony nowble men were sleyne, where Hector, warnede by Andromacha his wife, that he scholde not goe to batelle in that day, was sleyne by Achilles, whiche beryede, respite was ȝiffen by a yere. And at the ende of the yere, in the anniuersary day of Hector, Achilles, movede to the luffe of Polixena, doȝhter of kynge Priamus, wente to theyme. Whiche desirenge of Priamus to haue Polyxena,*. [Polixena, MSS.; Policena, Cx.] his doȝhter, to his wife, and hauenge grawnte, come not to þe batelle, seyenge that hit was a wickede thynge alle Europe to be trowblede for takenge aweye of Helena. Whiche, goenge to batelle at Page  415, vol.2 the laste thro the supplication of the Grekes, was woundede soore of Troilus, whiche hade sleyne and woundede mony Grekes. Achilles seenge that, and vexede soore, did sle Troilus and Meno. Then Hecuba, the wife of Priamus, hauenge hym in despecte, intendede decepcion, thenkenge to ordeyne a day to Achilles in whom he scholde wedde Polyxena here doȝhter. Achilles, comenge to theyme that tyme assignede, was sleyne by disseite of Paris other Alex|ander. Where off an answere was ȝiffen of goddes that men of Grece scholde be victores thro the bloode of Achilles. Then Neoptolemus,*. [Neoptholomus, MSS., and so be|low; Neoptholomeus, Harl. MS.] the son of Achilles, wente furthe to batelle, in whom Aiax and Alexander woundede either other dedely. Penthesilea,*. [Pentasilia, or Pentisilia, MSS.] the qwene of the Amazones, come to helpe the Troianes in the vijthe yere of theire batelles and fiȝhte, whiche dissoluede the sege of the Grekes and brente mony of theire schippes. Neuerthelesse that qwene Penthesilea*. [Pentasilia, or Pentisilia, MSS.] was sleyne of the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus*. [Neoptholomus, MSS., and so be|low; Neoptholomeus, Harl. MS.] by name, whom sche hade woundede soore. After that, Antenor*. [So Cx.; Anthenore, MS., as often; Anthenor, Harl. MS.] and Eneas movenge Priamus that Helena, wife to Menelaus, scholde be restorede, he hade indignacion, Page  417, vol.2 seyenge þei scholde loose theire lyfes, if thei movede to hym eny more of þat mater. Wherefore thei, hauenge in|dignacion, sende Polydamas to þe Grekes, offerenge to theym the delyueraunce of the cite, the lifes of theym grauntede and of theire men. Whiche grauntenge to theyme peace, and to alle theire men, that is to saye, vn to An|tenor, Eneas, and to Polydamas, and to alle theire men, the ȝates of the cite were sette open to the Grekes in þe nyȝhte. Where Priamus was sleyne of Neoptolomus. Eneas takenge Polyxena, hidde here at a place of Anchisen his fader, in the temple of goddes. Also liberte was grauntede to Andromacha at the instaunce of Helena. Polyxena, doȝhter to Priamus, founde at the laste, was throtelede at the beryalle of here fader. Wherefore Eneas was commaundede to departe from that cuntre, for the hidenge off Polyxena. That londe was lefte to Antenor, and Helena was restorede to Menelaus her howsebonde, kynge of Athenes. Where thei did fiȝhte by x. yere and vj. monethes, and there were sleyne of the Troianes, afore the treason of hit, vjc. lxxvj. ml, and after the treason of that cite cc. lxxviij. ml. Eneas departede from that cuntre, takenge with hym xxtiiiij schippes, with iij. ml. men and ccc.; Page  419, vol.2 and also ij. ml. folowede Antenor, and ij. ml. Helena and Andromacha.

Capitulum vicesimum quintum.

AYLON, of the tribe of Zabulon, was gouernoure in Israel x. yere, whom the lxxti interpretatores do not annumerate; þerfore Eusebius ȝiffethe that tyme to the yeres of Iosue, Samuel, and of Saul, the yeres of whom Scripture dothe not reherse. Abdon, other Labdon, was gouernoure in Israel xltiiiij. yere, in the ccc. and fowrty yere of the egres|sion of the childer of Israel from Egipte, in the xxtiv. yere off the reigne of kynge Latinus in Ytaly, and cccc. xxxtiij. yere afore the edifienge of the cite of Rome. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo, capitulo decimo sexto. After the de|struccion of Troye, Latinus the kynge reignenge that tyme in Ytaly, the Grekes were afflicte and trowblede soore in Page  421, vol.2 theire returnenge home. For as the poete Varro rehersethe, libro iijo, de Historia, the felowes of Diomedes were turnede in to bryddes, and the same Diomedes euaneschede awey sodenly in that journey, in so moche that he is wor|schippede for a god, whose temple is an yle callede Dio|media, not ferre from the hille callede Garganus, in that londe callede Apulia. In whiche temple bryddes be of so grete diligence that thei caste water with theire billes, and if men of Greece comme thider, other elles eny of the kynde of theyme, thei schewe pleasure to theym. And if thei fynde other straungeoures there, thei hurte theyme with theire grete billes. To the whiche affirmacion Varro re|hersethe, not as in fabulose lesynge, but as in a trawthe historicalle, of the moste famose Circes, whiche chaungede the felowes of Vlixes in to bestes; and of men of Arcadia, or of Arcades,*. [Archades, MSS. and Cx.] whiche after chaunce did swymme ouer a water, and were turnede in to wulfes, lyvenge in deserte amonge wilde bestes; and if thei did not eite the flesche of man, thei scholde returne after ix. yere y-paste vn to theire propre similitude and kynde, that water y-swymmede ouer ageyne. Also he seythe, that when Demenetus hade tastede Page  423, vol.2 of the sacrifice of Archades*. [Read Arcas; but the error may safely be ascribed to the translators themselves.] he was turnede in to a wulfe, and restorede in to his propur forme after ix. yere y-paste, and to haue hade the victorye after that at the actes Olim|picalle. Plinius, libro sexto decimo, capitulo 22o. We suppose, in oure estimacion, that thynge to be false, as men to be chaungede in to wulfes, and to be restorede to theire propre forme ageyn. Neuerthelesse, auctores of the londe of Grece reherse that men of Arcadia be ledde to a certeyne watere in that cuntre, levenge theire vesture in an holo oke, swymme ouer that water, and be transfigurate in deserte in to wulfes, and to be conuersaunte with wulfes by ix. yere. And if they absteyne from the flesche of man by this sea|son, that tyme y-paste, and þe water passede ouer, thei schalle be returnede in to theire propre forme. But truly there is noo lesenge, thauȝhe hit be of euidente apparicion of falsehenes, but hit hathe somme testimony and wittenesse. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo, capitulo 16o. What schalle we say to these thynges? Truly when we were in Ytaly we herde of diuerse women of that cuntre whiche were wonte Page  425, vol.2 to ȝiffe chese to trauellenge men thro the whiche thei were chaungede in to other similitudes and did bere burthones, the mynde of man remanente in theyme. And to returne to theire propre forme, that office and labore doen. Also Apule[i]us rehersethe in his boke that same thynge to haue happede to hym thro the recepcion of suche venome, and to haue been made an asse, hauenge the mynde of a man. ℞. Willelmus, de Regibus et Pontificibus, libro 2o, re|hersethe, acordenge to the confirmacion of this mater, of ij. wicches dwellenge at Rome, wonte to chaunge a man in to an other similitude, if that he come to theire place sole. Whiche women turnede in a season a ioculer other myn|strelle in to the similitude of a ryalle asse, whom thei solde for a grete summe of money, vnder this condicion and mo|nicion to the byer, that the asse scholde not goe ouer the water in eny wise. The byer kepede that commaundemente streytely a longe season, neuerthelesse he hade more liberte in kepenge by processe of tyme, whiche goenge ouer a water was restorede in to his propre forme. The byer of the asse folowenge, inquirede of euery man with whom he did mete of his asse. That man restorede to his propre forme seide that he was that asse, and to be restorede to Page  427, vol.2 his propre similitude. The seruaunte and keper of that asse brouȝhte the man to his lorde. Then the lorde and byer of that asse brouȝhte bothe the wicches to Leo the pope, whiche conuicte afore the pope grauntede that thynge. The pope dowtenge of that thynge, Damianus, a man ex|cellente in sapience, affermede Faustinianus to be seen in the similitude of Simon Magus, and to be dredde soore of his awne childer. Augustinus, ubi supra. Hit is to be holden that the deuelles may not do eny thynge but by the permission and sufferaunce of God, neither to create eny nature, neither to chaunge the body or sawle of those thynges which be create of Allemyȝhty God. Ne|uerthelesse thei appere to chaunge thynges to the siȝhte, as the vertu fantasticalle, when a man is in slepe, causethe a man as to apparence to be chaungede in to an other simi|litude, and soe that thynge fantasticalle apperethe to theyme Page  429, vol.2 as thynge corporealle in a straunge similitude, and to bere burdones, whiche be borne of deuelles and if the trawthe myȝhte be knowen. A nowble man, Prestantius by name, rehersethe suche a thynge to haue happede to his fader by the eytenge of chese, lyenge in his bedde that he myȝhte not move. Whiche man awakede rehersede meruellous thynges whiche he hade suffrede, and how that he was made in the similitude of an horse, and how he bare corne amonge other bestes to Retica,*. [Rethica, MSS.] whiche thynge was provede to haue bene after his narracion. Also that men of Arcadia be chaungede in to wulfes, and that þe felawes of Vlixes were chaungede in to bryddes thro Circe,*. [So MSS. and Cx., for Circe; but correctly above; Sirces, Harl. MS.] y thenke that hit may be doen by this maner rehersede afore. The fe|lawes of Diomedes be supposede to haue bene chaungede in to bryddes, whiche were pereschede as sodenly of myȝhty bryddes, callede Gripes, but to be trawede raþer that thei were deuelles, whiche bryddes were brouȝhte thro the Page  431, vol.2 illusion of the deuelle, and subrogate in þe places of those men. Lyke as a herte was knowen to haue bene putte in the place of Iphigenia*. [Ephigenia, MSS. and Cx.] doȝter of Agamemnon.*. [Agamenon, MSS. and Harl. MS.] And that grete bryddes caste water with theire bylles in the temple of Diomedes, and schewe as a glosenge chere to men of Grece, is causede by the illusion of the deuelle, causenge men to beleve that Diomedes was a godde, that men scholde be deceyvede in the worschippenge of false goddes. R. Be|holde more of this matere afore, libro primo, capitulo 34o. Giraldus in Topographia. Deuelles or ylle men may not chaunge nature of eny thynge, but thei may chaunge similitudes thro the permission of God, so that the trawthe of the thynge dothe not appere, the wyttes oppressede with the illusion of the deuelle; but after a similitude fantasti|calle made and causede by wycchecrafte. But we beleve Godde, that made nature, to chaunge theym, lyke as he chaungede the wife of Loth in to a grete parte and quantite of salte, and water in to wyne.

Page  433, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum sextum.

Martinus. Eneas, with Anchisen his fader, and Ascanius his son, come to Sicille with xij. schippes, after the batelle of Troy, where Anchisen diede, whiche dedde, Eneas willenge to sayle to Ytaly, was brouȝhte thro tempestes in the see vn to Affrike, where he was luffede moche of Dido the qwene. Whiche, levenge Dido the qwene, wente in to Ytaly. ℞. And if that be trawthe that Trogus and Papias reherse, seyenge that cite of Carthago to haue bene made by Dido in the lxxij. yere afore the makenge of the cite of Rome, whiche was edifiede in the iiijthe yere of Achaz kynge of Iuda; then hit may be concludede that Eneas see neuer Dido qwene of Carthago, for Eneas was before the fundacion of Carthago more than ccc. yere. To the whiche confirma|cion Seynte Austyn seythe, primo libro Confessionum, in the ende, that men discrete denye Eneas to have seen Car|thago.*. [So α. β. γ.; Cartago, MS. and Harl. MS.]Hugutio, capitulo Elissa. That Dido was callede Elissa, that is to say, virago, of a chaunce folowenge, for Page  435, vol.2 sche did sle here selfe manly. Trogus, libro decimo octavo. That Elissa, doȝhter vn to Pygmalion, compellede by the peple to take an howsebonde, wente in to a place that sche hade made, and did sle here selfe, whiche was worschip|pede longe for a godesse. Martinus. Eneas, commenge to Ytaly, was confederate with Euander kynge, whiche reignede in vij. mowntes. Whiche ij. so confederate ȝafe batelle ageyne Latinus, kynge off Latynes, and ageyne Turnus, kynge of Tuscia, son in lawe to kynge Latinus, in whiche batelle Pallas, the son of Euander, and Turnus were sleyne. ℞. But Trogus rehersethe, libro xliiijo, that Eneas in his firste commenge to Ytaly founde suche grace of kynge Latinus, that he admittede hym in to parte of his realme; whiche toke Lauina, þe wife of Turnus and doȝhter of kynge Latinus, in to his wife. Wherefore thei, so confederate as Eneas and Latinus, ȝafe batelle ageyne Turnus for the fraude and delay of the weddynge of La|uina his doȝhter. In whiche batelle Turnus and Latinus were sleyne. That batelle doen, Eneas reioycede bothe the realmes, of Latynes and of Tuscia, and made a cite, cal|lenge hit Lauinium, after the name of his wife, whiche Page  437, vol.2 ȝafe batelle after that vn to Mese[n]tius kynge of Tuscia, in whom Eneas was sleyne, levenge after hym Ascanius his son, whom he gate of Creusa, at Troye. Isidorus, Ethym. Ilus was the son of Eneas; callede afore Ascanius, of a floode in Frigia callede Ascanius; callede after Ilus, by Ilus kynge of the Troianes. Hugutio, capitulo Iulus. Whiche ȝiffenge batelle to Messentius, and sleenge hym, was callede Iulus; for in that tyme he began to haue a berde. ℞. Also hit is to be attendede but if the yeres of Eneas be acomptede with in þe yeres of kynge Latinus, the calculacion of the story schalle fayle, whiche seythe kynge Latinus to haue reignede xxxtiij. yere; and after alle storyes after the takenge of Troy, Eneas come to Ytaly in the xxv. yere of the reigne of kynge Latinus. Trogus, libro 43o. Ascanius, the son of Eneas, began to reigne amonge the Latynes, contynuenge his reigne by xxxviij. yere; whiche levenge the cite callede Lauinium, whiche his fader made, edifiede a cite, callenge hit Alba, on the water of Tibere, Page  439, vol.2 whiche was adnecte to the realme off Latynes by ccc. yere, of whom the kynges of Latynes were callede Albani. Eu|tropius. This Ascanius norischede for pite his broþer Sil|uius Posthumus, geten of Lauinia*. [Lavina, MSS. and Cx.] his stappemoder after the dethe of his fader, whiche was callede Posthumus, in that he was borne after the dethe of his fader. He was callede Siluius, for he was noryschede in a woode; of whom kynges of Latynes were namede Siluii afterwarde. To whom As|canius, after that he hade reignede xxxtiviij. [yere], lefte that realme, in that Iulus his son was but of tendre age, as Marianus rehersethe, libro primo. Sampson was gouernoure in Israel xxti yere; in whose tyme those thynges happede of Vlixes the Greke, after the fables, that he causede Scylla and Sirenes to flee, of whom Palephatus,*. [So Cx.; Flixes, MS., as before.] libro primo Incre|dibilium, rehersethe, seyenge that Scilla was a woman wonte to spoyle here gestes, and Sirenes to be commune women whiche deceyvede men saylenge, in that Pyrrhus was sleyne of Orestes in the temple of Apollo Delphicus in the tymes of men of Egipte. In whiche tyme somme men saye Omerus the poete to haue bene, of the tyme of whom greet Page  441, vol.2 dissonaunce is hade amonge olde men, for somme men say that he was in the c. yere, other in the cxlti yere, and mony men in the clxxx., after the takenge of Troye. And mony men suppose that Omerus was a fore the takenge of Troye. The booke of Iudicum nowmbrethe ccc. yere vn to thys tyme, vnder xij. dukes and gouernoures.

Capitulum vicesimum septimum.

ELY the preste was gouernoure in Israel, after Sampson, xlti yere, after Ysidor, libro quinto, and after Iosephus, libro sexto; but after the lxxti interpretatores, Hely was gouernoure by xxti yere. In the tyme of whom the story of Ruth Moabitidis happede, a grete hungre beenge that tyme in Israel. The sonnes of Hector recurede and toke þe cite of Troye, expellenge the succession of Antenor, thro helpe off Helenus son off Priamus. Siluius Posthumus, son of Eneas, geten of Lauinia, brother to Ascanius, the thrydde kynge of Latynes, began to reigne; whiche reignede xxxti yeres þer. In whiche yere Brutus, son of Siluius, Page  443, vol.2 son of Ascanius, after storyes, began to occupye Briteyne. ℞. Storyes seme to discorde moche of the fader of Brute. For the storye of Britones seythe Brute to haue bene the son of Siluius, son to Ascanius. But the story of the Romanes seythe Ascanius to haue geten Iulus, makenge no mencion of Siluius: with owte þis Iulus hade ij. names, and [was] callede Siluius, the oon story faylethe. For hit ys seide that this Brute, of xv. yere in age, did sle his fader in huntenge, and Siluius Posthumus, after alle storyes, was the son of Eneas, and not the son of Ascanius, reignenge and lyvenge longe after that; but perauenture that the storye of the Romanes seythe Ascanius to haue noryschede þro pite Siluius Posthumus after the dethe of Eneas, and for that to haue bene trawede his fader. Whiche thynge y wolde admitte, if hit were not redde that Siluius Post|humus was sleyne of Brute his son. Giraldus. This Brute, whiche did sle his moder in the childenge, and also when he was of xv. yere in age, he did slee his fader in huntenge; wherefore Brute, putte from Ytaly, wente to the londe Page  445, vol.2 of Grece, ouercommenge Pandrasus, kynge of hit, thro the helpe of the Troianes, and did wedde Ymogen his doȝhter, and delyuerede the Troianes; whiche saylenge from that cuntre, hauenge an answere of Diana, londede at Affrike. After that he entrede in to the see of Tirus, whiche fyndenge there Corineus, brouȝhte hym in his companye to Acqui|tannye; whiche ouercommenge Gepharyus, the duke of Pictaues, and Turnus, the son of the suster to Brute, dedde, at Turnip, or elles Tiroune, callede after his name, come to Briteyne, to Totenese in Cornewaile. In whom he, occu|pienge the monarchye, destroyede gigantes that inhabite that cuntre, namenge that yle Briteyne, and his felawes Britones; ȝiffenge to Corineus Cornewaile; made a cite on*. [The cite of London was edifiede by Brute.] the water of Thamys, callenge hit Urbs Trinouantum, as Newe Troye, callede now London. Whiche gate iij. childer, Locrinus, Camber, and Albanactus, dienge after that he hade gouernede that yle xxiiij. yere. The kynges of Scitia faylede, whiche hade reignede a clxij. yere; after that prestes Page  447, vol.2 were made iugges and gouernoures. Samuel was gouernoure in Israel xij. yere after the dethe of Ely, after Iosephus libro octavo; but the story dothe not expresse that from whom the tymes of prophetes began, in the thrydde yere of whom kynge Dauid was borne. Petrus. This Samuel*. [Religion began.] ordeynede conuentes of religious men, whiche were seide also to prophecy, that is, to lawde Godde. Locrinus, the firste son of Brute, began to reigne as on the thrydde parte of Briteyne, from the sowthe see of hit vn to the water of Humbre, whiche parte he callede Loegria, after his name. Albanactus his brother sleyne, and Camber the thrydde brother dedde, Locrinus was sleyne in batelle after the xxti yere of his reigne, whiche batelle Guendolena his wife movede for an hoore callede Estrilda, whiche reignede after her howsebonde xv. yere.

Page  449, vol.2

Capitulum vicesimum octavum.

SAUL, of the tribe of Beniamyn, firste kynge off men of Hebrewe, reignede xxti yere, after Iosephus, whom Holy Scripture expressethe not. Petrus. For, Samuel lyvenge, Saul reignede xviij. yere, and ij. yere after his dethe. Eneas Siluius, the son of Siluius Posthumus, the iiijthe kynge of Latynes, began to reigne, whiche reignede xxxiti yere. Codrus, the son of Melanthus,*. [Melantus, MSS.] the xvijthe duke of Athenes, began to reigne, whiche reignede xxxjti yere, after the dethe of whom kynges of Athenes faylede. Augustinus, libro decimo octavo, capitulo 14o. Men of Peloponense beynge rebellous ageyne men of Athenes, an answere was ȝifen that theke parte scholde haue þe victory, the gouer|noure of whom scholde be sleyne; wherefore the knyȝhtes were commaundede that thei scholde not slee kynge Codrus in eny wyse. Neuertheles kynge Codrus, clothenge hym in a vile habite, berenge as kyttenges of trees in his necke, come amonge the companyes of his enmyes, where, a stryfe movede, Codrus was sleyne of a knyȝhte whom he hade woundede with a sythe. Whiche thynge y-knowen, men callede Dorienses wente from batelle, and men off Athenes Page  451, vol.2 were deryuerede. For Codrus wyllede rather to dye, that his subiectes myȝhte be victores, then for to lyve his sub|iectes oppressede. After the dethe of whom eny man reignede there after his pleasure, vn tille that Solon,*. [Salon, MSS. and Cx.] the nowble man and maker of theire lawes, was electe in to theire gouernoure. Maddan, the son of Locrinus, reignede on the Britones xlti yere, whiche gate Mempricius and Maulus. The Amazones entrede in to Asia. Saul was sleyne with his sonnes in the hilles of Gelboe. And so the thrydde age off the worlde is terminate, for*. [So Harl. MS.; probably a clerical error for fro.] the byrthe of Abraham vn to the reigne of kynge Dauid, hauenge after Ysidor, libro 5o, ixc yere and xlviij., by xiiij. genera|ciones, and after oþer ixc, xlij. yere. ℞. This diuersite of yeres may be causede of that thynge, that Ysidorus seythe Samuel and Saul to haue rewlede the peple of Israel xlti yere. But Iosephus seythe, libro octavo, and the Maister of storyes, Samuel to haue ben gouernoure in Israel oonly xij. yere, and Saul to haue reignede after hym xxti yere.

Page  [3], vol.3

The iiijthe Age of the Worlde begynnethe. Capitulum 29m.

DAUID, of the tribe of Iuda, the secunde kynge off men of Hebrewe, reignede xlti yere; fyrste in Ebron on Iuda oonly, and after that on Israel xxxti yere. Latinus Siluius, the vthe kynge of Latynes, reignede by lti yere. Ixion, the secunde kynge of the cuntre of Corinthus, reignede xxxviijti yere. The cite callede Ephesus was edifiede of Androni|cus; and Salomon was borne. Isidorus, libro decimo quinto.*. [v o, as in the Latin text, is the correct reference.] Cartago was edifiede abowte this tyme. Petrus. Somme men say that hit was edifiede of Carthedon, a man of Tyre, and after other men, of Dido his doȝhter. ℞. But and if Page  5, vol.3 lxxij. yere were betwene the edifienge of Cartago and of the cite of Rome, as Trogus and Papias reherse, then hit wille folowe that Cartago was edifiede abowte the firste yere of Ozias, kynge of Iuda, as hit is schewede afore, libro primo, capitulo 19o. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Mempri|cius, the vthe kynge of Britones, reignede xxti yere, whiche didde sle Maulus his broþer, callenge hym as for concorde, and so he exercisede grete crudelite in the realme, whiche levenge his wife, of whom he gate a nowble son, Ebrancus by name, ȝafe hym selfe to the synne of sodomy, whiche [folio 113b] was deuourede of wulfes, as he was in huntenge to take his pleasure. Dauid the kynge diede at the towre off Syon, the iiijthe kalendes of Ianuary, beryede at Ierusalem with grete richesse; of whiche richesse Hircanus the byschope ȝafe to Anthiochus, son of Demeter, iij. ml. talentes, that he Page  7, vol.3 scholde goe from Ierusalem. This kynge Dauid, beenge in peace, made songes and hympnes of iij. metres and of v. metres, and also diuerse organes and oþer thynges, in whom the diacones seide hympnes, ouer whom he ordeinede iiij. men, Eman in the myddes, Asaph on the ryȝhte parte, Ethan at the lyfte parte, and Idithim at the instrumentes musi|calle. There were also xxtiiiij. bischopes, hauenge vnder theym xxtiiiij. prestes and xxtiiiij. diacones, xxtiiiij. other ministres inferialle; the thrydde parte of whom entrede and ministrede in the temple from the Seturday to Seturday, lyeing that tyme from theire wifes; that other ij. partes attendenge to theire howses and to theire wifes. Salomon reignede on Israel somme yeres, Dauid his fader beenge in life, whiche yeres be annumerate to Dauid and not to Salomon, whiche reignede after the dethe of his fader xlti yere, as Seynte Ierom testifiethe in his epistole to Vitalis the preste; he gate a son of the doȝhter of Pharao, in the Page  9, vol.3 xjthe yere of his age, as hit is redde in lyke wise of kynge Achaz. Whiche Salomon takenge sapience of allemyȝhty God in the mownte, after the sleenge of Ioab, Semey, and Adonias, and after the iuggemente yȝiffen bytwene þe ij. women of ylle disposicion, intendede to do thre thynges. That is to say, to make a temple to allemyȝhty God, a ryalle place for hym selfe, and to compasse Ierusalem with a threfolde walle. So that the temple scholde be in the firste compassenge, the mansiones of the ebdomadaries, the kynges place, and the places for his seruauntes. In the secunde circuite, myȝhty men and prophetes. In the thrydde, men of crafte and other commune peple. The meyte of the howseholde of kynge Salomon was in euery*. [The meytes of Salomon.] day, xxxti grete measures of floure, whiche be callede chori, [folio 114a] and lxxx. suche measures of meyle, x. fatte oxen, and c, wedres, wilde bryddes excepte, and tame. Whiche did wryte iij. bookes of the Paraboles, other Prouerbes, Eccle|siasten Page  11, vol.3 and Cantica Canticorum; disputenge also of the nature of trees and of yerbes, from the cedre tre whiche growthe in the mownte off Libanus, vn to the ysope whiche growethe in the vale. Whiche laborede adiuraciones, by whom infir|mites were mitigate, and somme thro whom deuelles were eiecte from seke peple and diuerse carectes to be insculpte in gemmes, whiche putte to the noose of the paciente with rootes of certeyne yerbes, causede the deuelles to be ex|pellede. Salomon, wyllenge to prove a conclusion, toke a brydde of a grete brydde callede Strucio, and putte hit in a vessele of glasse; that brydde callede Strucio, perceyvenge that, flyenge in to diserte brouȝhte a lytelle worme, Thamir by name, causenge the glasse to breke thro the noyntenge of hit with the bloode of that worme. In the iiijthe yere of Page  13, vol.3 kynge Salomon, the secunde monethe, he began to edifie the temple, whiche was in makenge by vij. yere, in a figure of this chirche presente, and dedicate in the viijthe yere, whiche hade in longitude a c. and xxti cubites, in latitude lx. cubites, in altitude xxxti cubites. In whiche temple was suche habundaunce of golde, that when the Romanes brente hit, as a floode of golde flowede in to the ryuer of Cedron of the peaces of golde ymeltede. In whiche yere the qwene of Saba come to here the sapience of Salomon. Petrus. Men say that qwene to haue seen a tre in the temple, on*. [Nota de Cruce.] whom a man scholde be hongede, for the dethe of whom the realme of þe Iewes scholde be destroyede and pe|reschede. And when that sche hade schewede this to kynge Salomon, he commaundede that tre to be hidde vnder the erthe, and how hit comme in to that water, where hit was founde afterwarde abowte the tymes of Criste, verey certi|tude is not hade. Ebrancus, the son of Mempricius, and Page  15, vol.3 vjthe kynge of Britones, began to reigne, whiche reignede there by xlti yere. Whiche beenge a man of myȝhte, gate of xxti wifes xxti sonnes and xxx doȝhters, of whom Guales was the feireste. That kynge Ebrancus sende his doȝhters to Alba Silvius, kynge of Latynes, that thei myȝhte be cowplede to the bloode of Troy, for the women [folio 114b] callede Sabine despisede the companyes of theyme. The sonnes of the seide Ebrancus, with Duke Assaracus, occu|pyede a grete parte off Germany. Ebrancus made the cite*. [[This kynge Ebrancus made þe cite of Yorke.]] of Yorke ouer the water of Humbre, and Ascluit in the costes of Northumbrelonde and of Albania, and also a cite in Albania callede Edenburghe, callede somme tyme the castelle of maydenes. Whiche gedrenge a grete hoste, and goenge in to Fraunce, returnede ageyne with grete richesse. Alba Siluius, the vjthe kynge of Latynes, began to reigne; whiche reignede xxxixti yere.

Page  17, vol.3

Capitulum 30m.

ROBOAS, the son of Salomon, reignede on ij. tribes, on Iuda and Beniamyn, xviij. yere, after Iosephus, libro octavo, capitulo 5to, and after oþer men by xvij. yere; whiche des|pisede the cownselle of olde men, and drawede to yonge men. In whiche tyme Ieroboam, son of Nabath, reignede in Samaria, on x. tribes of Israel, xvij. yere. After Iose|phus, libro octavo, capitulo 7o., he reignede xxijti yere. Whiche made ij. calfes of golde, to be honorede of his peple, in Dan and in Bethel, leste the herte of his peple scholde be conuertede to his lorde Roboas, if the peple did ascende to Ierusalem to do sacrifice, and so he was cause of ido|latrye in Israel. Petrus; et Iosephus, libro octavo, capituloPage  19, vol.3quinto. Susac, kynge of Egipte, spoylede the scheldes of golde whom Salomon putte in Ierusalem, for whom Roboas putte scheldes of brasse; whiche goenge from that place made Siria subiecte to hym. Abias, the son of Roboas, and*. [Abias.] iiijthe kynge of Iuda, reignede iij. yere, that is to say, ij. yere and the thrydde parte of the thrydde yere, whiche Page  21, vol.3 ouercome Ieroboas, for cause he belevede in God, fiȝhtenge ageynes hym, lti ml. men sleyne. Asa, the ryȝhteuous man,*. [Asa.] and son of Abias, reignede xlj. yere; whiche destroyede ydoles, makenge clene the temple; and didde slee the kynge of Ethiop; whiche dyede at the laste thro disease in his [folio 115a] feete, whiche thynge happede, as men say, for cause he putte the feete of a prophete in a streyte place, in that he reprovede hym. Nadab, the son of Ieroboam, reignede*. [Nabab.] on Israel ij. yere, that is to say, oon yere and parte of that other yere; whom Basa did slee, and reignede for hym xxiiij. yere. Kynge Asa hirede Benedab, kynge of Siria, that he scholde lette that kynge Basa, whiche dide edifie that cite callede Rama, beenge from Ierusalem xlti for|longes, soe that noo man myȝhte goe furthe. Whiche Basa did sle the prophete Iheu, in whiche tyme Iheu, Ananias, and Azarias propheciede in Israel. Egiptus Siluius, the vijthe kyng of Latynes, reignede xxiiij. yere. Brutus, callede viride scutum, firste son of Ebrancus, reignede on the Britones xij. yere. Capis Siluius, the viijthe kynge of the Latynes, Page  23, vol.3 reignede xxviij. yere, whiche made a cite callede Capua.*. [Nadab.] Hela, the son of Basa, reignede on Israel ij. yere, that is to say, oon yere and parte of that other yere folowenge. In whiche yere Zamri sleenge Hela, reignede for hym vij. daies. Petrus. Whiche dedde, the peple was diuidede, oon parte folowede Zamri, that other parte folowede Tebni. This contencion indurede iij. yere and moore, for Zamri began to reigne in Israel in þe xxjti yere of Asa kynge of Iuda, reignenge with Tebni iiij. yere. But Tebni reignede allon after that in Israel viij. yere, soe that he reignede in alle xij. yere. Leil, the son off Brutus, callede viride scutum, other grene schelde, reignede on the Britones xxv. yere. Acab, the son of Zamri, reignede on Israel xxij. yere, the wife of whom was callede Ihesabel. Iosophat, the ryȝhteuous man, and son of Asa, reignede on Iuda xxv. yere. In the tyme of whom Micheas, Helias, and Abdias did prophecy. Ruthudibras, the son of Leil, reignede on the Britones xxxix. yere, whiche made thre nowble cites, Page  25, vol.3 Caunterbery, Wynton, and Septon. Carpentus Siluius, the ixthe kynge of Latynes, reignede xiij. yere. Ochosias, the*. [Ochosie.] son of Achab, reignede on Israel ij. yere, whiche hade noo son; whom Ioram his broþer succedede viij. yere. Ioram,*. [Ioram.] [folio 115b] the son of Iosophath, kynge of Iuda, reignede viij. yere. In the whiche yere Edom returnede, in that he wolde not be vnder Iuda, and made a kynge to theyme. Helyas was rapte in this tyme. Tiberus Siluius, the son of Carpentus, reignede amonge the Latynes viij. yere, of whom the water callede Tiberis toke name, callede afore Albula. Azarias*. [Azarias.] other Achasias, son of Ioram, reignede on Iuda oon yere. Mathewe th'Euangeliste puttethe not hym, and Ioas his son, and Amazias the son of his doȝhter in the genealogye of Criste, for the wickede life of theyme. Iheu, anoyntede of the childe of Heliseus, did slee Achasias kynge of Iuda, and Ioram kynge of Israel, and Iesabel his moder, and lxxti sonnes of Achab, and xlij. brether of Azarias kynge of Page  27, vol.3 Iuda, and alle the prestes of Baal, whiche reignede xxviij.*. [Azarius.] yere. Athalia, the moder of Azarias, doȝter to Achab, reignede in Israel viij. yere, whiche didde slee all the bloode of Ioram, Ioas the son of Azarias excepte, whom the suster of Achasia, whiche was the wife of Ioiada the preste, noryschede priuely by vj. yere. Agrippa Siluius, the xjthe kynge of the Latynes, reignede xx. yere. Ioas, the son of Achasia, reignede on Iuda xlti yere, whiche renewede the temple. Bladud, the son of Ruthudibras, reignede on þe Britones xxti yere, whiche, after Gaufridus and Alfridus, made by nigromancy that cite of Caerbadon, now callede Bathe, in whom he made hoote bathes. Ioa|chas, the son of Iheu, reignede on Israel xvij. yere, in the tyme of whom Heliseus the prophete diede, and was beriede at Sebasten, callede now Samaria. Oon of the calfes of golde that Iheroboam made loede scharpely in the natiuite of Heliseus, borne in Galgal. In whiche yere a priste of Page  29, vol.3 Ierusalem seide, "A prophete is borne now in Israel, that schalle destroy suche ydoles and similachres." And Zacha|rias, the son of Ioiada byschop, was stonede of kynge Ioas betwene the temple and the awter, whom oure Lorde callethe [folio 116a] in his gospelle the son of Barachias, that is to say, of blessede God. Leir, the son of Bladud, reignede on the Britones lx. yere, whiche made Leircestre, on the water of Sore, whiche gate iij. doȝhters, after the story of Britones.*. [[Leicestre was made.]] Ioas, the son of Ioachas, kynge, reigned on Israel xvij. yere. Aremulus Siluius, the xijthe kynge of Latines, reign|ede amonge theyme xix. yere.

Capitulum tricesimum primum.

AMAZIAS the son of Ioas reignede on Iuda xxix. yere,*. [Amazie.] after whom the realme of Iuda was with owte a kynge by Page  31, vol.3*. [Alnazie.]xiij. yere. Petrus. Perauenture hit is seide that realme to haue bene with owte a kynge, for Amazias in his life lefte that realme, and Ozias his son, of iij. yere in age, myȝhte not reigne. Whiche thynge may be schewede þat Amazias dedde, Ozias his son, of xvj. yere in age, began to reigne. ℞. Mony writers of storyes do not annumerate those xiij. yere in whom the realme of Iuda was with owte a kynge, other elles thei comprehende theym vnder the xxix. yere of Amazias. But withowte dowte the story of the Romanes constreynethe vs to nowmbre þose xiij. yere for the nowmbre of the yeres scholde not be founde elles whom Eutropius dothe annu|merate from the xxv. yere of kynge Latinus, in whom Troye was taken, vn to the edifienge of the cite of Rome vnder Romulus, whiche be in nowmbre cccc.xxxij. yere. Iheroboam the son of Ioas reignede on Israel xlj. yere. Auentinus Siluius, the xiijthe kynge of Latynes, reignede xxxiij. yere. Ozias other Azarias, son of Amazias, reignede on Iuda lij. yere. This kynge was luffere of tillenge of londes, whiche vsurpenge the office of preste of Azarias, was Page  33, vol.3 smyten with the lepre, and the myddelle parte of the hille was diuidede, and oppressede the gardynes of the kynge. Arbases other Arbactus, firste kynge of men of Media, sleenge Sardanapallus, the laste kynge of men of Assiria, [folio 116b] reignede amonge theyme xxix. [yere], and then the monarchye off men of Assiria, whiche contynuede from Belus other Ninus to the laste tymes of Sardanapallus, as by ml cccc. yere failede. Neuerthelesse there were myȝhty kynges in Assiria, after þe dethe of Sardanapallus, vn to the subuersion of the cite off Niniven, thauȝhe thei occupiede not the holle monarchye. Trogus, libro primo. This Sardanapallus, a man hauenge grete delectacion of women, and a violator of þeim, was founde of Arbases his stywarde amonge ylle dis|posede women drawenge purpulle of a rocke in the habite of a woman. Wherefore Arbases, hauenge indignacion, excitede hys felawes ageyne the kynge. Neuerthelesse, Sardanapallus ouercommon, goenge in to his regalle place, takenge fire with hym, brente hym selfe with grete richesse. Page  35, vol.3 ℞. The commentator on the firste boke of the Etkyes, in the xlj. commente, seythe that a man did write in his beryalle in this wyse, Y Sardanapallus haue so moche good as y did eite other drynke. Procas Siluius, the xiiijthe kynge of Latynes, reignede xxij. yere. In whiche tyme the Argyues hade weiȝhtes and measures by Sydon. Trogus, libro tertio. The nowble man Ligurgus ȝafe lawes to the men off Lacedemonia, movenge peple to the obsequy of princes, and theyme to exercise iustice to theire subiectes, movenge that parcimony scholde be hade of alle men, leste the labore of cheuallry scholde faile thro plente. Also he commaundede thynges to be bouȝhte with owte money, but the byer scholde recompense theyme in oþer merchandise, accomptenge the vse of moneye as matere of vices. Whiche diuidede also the amministraciones of the commune vtilite Page  37, vol.3 by ordre. To kynges powere in batelles, to the maistres iuggements, to the senate kepenge of the lawes. Also he diuided londe egally to alle men, soe that eny man scholde not be more myȝhty þen an other, and yonge men to be [folio 117a] contente with oon clothe by the yere. Also he ordeynede that oo man scholde not goe more ryally then an other, or to haue more delicious meytes, commaundenge yonge childer to exercise labore in feldes vn til that they attenede the age of a man. Whiche commaundede also virgynes to be mariede with owte eny dowery, ordeynenge not eny thynge to the peple, but he obseruede hit firste in his awne person. That nowble man Ligurgus feynede Apollo Delphicus to Page  39, vol.3 be auctor of þose lawes, that theke cite dissolute scholde admitte theym rather; constreynenge the peple by an othe to the obseruaunce of those lawes, that þei myȝhte be kepede continually, and that thei scholde not chaunge eny thynge in theyme vn til that he returnede to theyme. Wherefore he feynede hym to goe to Apollo Delphicus, as to aske cownselle if eny thynge were to be added to those lawes, other elles to be diminischede in theyme. Whiche wente to the yle of Creta, chosenge þer exile perpetualle; whiche commaundede in the time of his dethe his boones to be caste in the see, leste that he scholde be brouȝhte to Lace|demonia, and then they scholde be dischargede of theire othe. Cranaus, the firste kinge of Lacedemonia, reignede on theyme xxviijti yere. Gaufridus. Cordeilla the doȝter of kynge Leir, reignede on the Britones after here fader v. yere, whom Morganus and Cunedagius prisonede at the laste, the childer of here susters. Cunedagius reignede on the Britones after Cordeilla xxxiij. yere, whiche did sle Page  41, vol.3 Morgan his broþer rebellous ageynes hym at Glomorgan in Wales, wherefore that cuntre is callede to this tyme þe londe of Morgan. Riuallo reignede after Cunedagius, after whom Gurgustius, whom Siluius succedede, after whom Iago, whom Kymnarchus succedede, after hym Gorbodio whiche hade ij. sonnes, Ferrex and Porrex, whiche movede thro the luste of dominacion did sle his brother. The moder of whom hauenge indignacion, commenge to the bedde of Porrex with other women, fyndenge him in slepe, terede hym in to peaces. For whiche thynge batelle was continuede by the tymes of v. kynges, vn to the tymes off Molimicius duke of Wallo. Amulius Siluius, the son of Procas, reignede xliijti yere, but his yeres be annumerate wt the yeres of Numetor, [folio 117b] his elder brother. Numetor, the elder son of Procas, was expulsede from hys realme by Amulius, and lyvede in his felde; Rea other Etilia the doȝhter of whom getten with childe, seide that hit was doen by the God Mars; wherefore sche was beryede in the erthe beenge in lyfe. Whose childer Page  43, vol.3 putte furthe in to the woode, þat were Remus and Romulus, a wulfe norischede with here mylke diligentely, whiche wontede here whelpes. Faustulus, the kynges scheparde, perceyvenge that, toke the ij. childer awey from that beste, noryschenge theyme in his flocke of bestes with herbes, gresse, and suche other þinges. Whiche childer, encreasenge in age and stature, removede oftetymes thefes from the flocke, but Remus was taken in a season and brouȝhte to Numetor by thefes, whiche seide that he wolde haue doen hurte to the flocke. When Numetor did beholde the beawte of the childe, remembrenge the tyme of the settenge furthe of ij. infantes, Faustulus his scheparde entrede in to the place with Romulus his other brother. Then the originalle of theyme yknowen, how thei were of his awne bloode, bothe Numetor and the ij. breþer Page  45, vol.3 were prouokede in to the dethe off Amulius. Eutropius. Faustulus the scheparde fyndenge those childer sette on the side of the water of Tiber brouȝhte theyme to his wife, whiche was callede Lupa, what for here beawte and what for here crudelite. Wherefore vn to this tyme the places of ylle disposede women be callede Lupanaria. And when these childer were of a competente age, gedrenge a grete multitude of thefes and of schepardes, did slee Amulius at the water of Tiber, and restorede Numetor in his realme. Martinus. Neuerthelesse, wheder that woman was callede Lupa or nay, olde scripture in stones of marbole at Rome, expressethe that those ij. childer were noryschede of a wulfe. Zacharias the son of Ieroboam reignede on Israel iij. monethes, whom Sellum the son of Iabes did smyte, whiche reignede by oon monethe. Petrus. Other the realme of Israel was withowte a kynge after the dethe of Ihero|boam [folio 118a] xxiij. yere after the trewe computacion, other elles this Zacharias began to reigne in the xvthe yere off Ozias, Page  47, vol.3 and soe he reignede by xxiij. yere. Whiche yeres were not attribute to hym, for cause he was of wickede disposicion, but vj. monethes oonly be annumerate to hym, in whom he was correcte, in the xxxviij. yere of Ozias. Manaen the son of Gaddi reignede on Israel x. yere. Bocorus ȝafe lawes to men of Egipte, in the tyme of whom a lambe spake. Men of Lacedemonia provide for a batelle ageyne men of Micena, whiche fatigate and wery thro the compleyntes of theire wifes beenge at home, made a decre and ordi|naunce that thei scholde occupye mony men, thenkenge the nowmbre of men to be encreasede by that. ℞. Beholde more of this mater, libro primo, capitulo 22, Lacedemon. Iuges were made yerely at Corinthus in the stedde of theire kynge. The actes Olimpicalle other Olimpias began this tyme after Eusebius in his cronicle. Phaceas the son of Manaen began to reigne ouer Israel, reignenge ij. yere.

Page  49, vol.3

Capitulum tricesimum secundum.

Ioathan, the son of Ozias reignede on Iuda xvj. yere. In the firste yere of whom Phacee, the son of Romelias, reignede in Israel xx. yere. In the firste yere of Ioathan, after Iosephus and Beda, after cccc.vj. yeres after the takenge of Troye, the firste actes Olimpicalle, vnder Esi|olus, gouernoure of men of Athenes; in whiche acte Core|bus, a man of Athenes, was firste victor. Hugucio. Olimpus is the name of an hie mownte in the londe of Grece at Athenes, namede so for the amenite and myrthe usede þer, whiche be exercisede in euery vthe yere, and that space is callede Olimpias, whom Isicus, the son of Praxonides, institute firste. ℞. Whiche Olimpias began Page  51, vol.3 in the solstice of wynter, when men of Grece begynne theire yere. Hugucio, capitulo Olimpus. The actes and disportes Olimpicalle were institute to the honore of Iu|biter, under that hille Olimpus, in whiche actes the victor [folio 118b] scholde haue what thynge he wolde desire, and that acte was doen in every vthe yere, leste hit scholde be forgeten if hit were deferrede, and that hyt scholde not be more ofte exercisede, leste huge exspence scholde greve theyme. Teglatphalazar, kynge of Assiria, ascendede in to Israel, wastenge the region ouer the water of Iordan, whiche, takenge ij. tribes and an halfe of Israel in captiuite, brouȝhte theyme with hym in to Assiria, whiche was the begynnenge of captiuite of the x. tribes. Polic., libro octavo. This kynge of Assiria was of v. names, after Seynte Ierom, that is to say, Salmanazar, Sennacherib, Phul, Teglatphalazar, and Sargon, þerfore hit is not to be meruaylede, thauȝhe this kynge be expressede in diuerse names in diuerse stories. ℞. Other men wylle that these be diuerse names of diuerse kynges, whiche reignede after Page  53, vol.3 Sardanapallus, folowenge by succession, as Arbases, Phul, Teglatphalazar, Salmanazar, Sennacherib, Assargon, Sargon. After whom, grete kynges, Merodac and other, reignede in Babilon, vn to Balthazar, vn til Darius and Sirus did trans|late that realme to men of Persia. Wherefore kynges of Assiria, after the laste Sardanapallus, intendenge to recure the dignite of that realme, ȝiffenge grete batelles to peple of ferre costes, put the x. tribes of Israel in captiuite, reignenge vn to the tymes of Ezechias, kynge of Iuda, when Sennacherib, fleenge from Iuda, was sleyne of his awne childer in the temple.

Capitulum tricesimum tertium.

ACHAZ, the son of Ioathan, reignede on Iuda xvij. yere. In the iiijthe yere of whom the cite of Rome was edifiede in the mownte Palatyne of ij. breþer Remus and Romulus, Page  55, vol.3 xj. kl. of Maii, the vijthe Olimpias begynnenge; from whiche yere the reigne of Romulus began, and is accomptede; whiche reignede xxxix. yere. Martinus. Neuerthelesse hit is redde other men to haue reignede in Ytaly abowte that place longe a fore that tyme as Ianus, Saturnus, Pi|cus, Flauius, Latinus, whiche reignede vn to Eneas, abowte cc. yere. ℞. After that hit was reignede in Ytaly from Eneas vn to this Romulus, vnder xvij. gouernoures, abowte [folio 119a] ixc. and xxxij. yere; and after that, from the edifienge of the cite of Rome vn to the laste yere of Tarquinius the prowde man, hit was reignede in Rome, vnder vij. kynges, abowte cc.xliij. yere. And after that the ordeinede con|sulles vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar, as by cccc.xliiij. yere. Eutropius. Romulus reignenge, Remus his brother was sleyne of Affabius a duke of Romulus. Titus Liuius.Page  57, vol.3 Sythe Remus and Romulus were bere of oon byrthe, as of oon age, they were determinate that the mater movede, whiche was, wheder of theym scholde be gouernoure of that cite of Rome made by theyme, scholde be finischede by the syȝhte of bryddes. Whiche goenge in to the mownte Auentyne, vij. gripes apperede firste to Remus, and after that xiiij. to Romulus, either of þeym stryvede to haue the more nowble siȝhte, Remus for cause he see the firste, and Romulus in that he see so many moo; and so Remus was sleyne in that contencion. Martinus. The oppinion of commune peple testifiethe that Romulus*. [Of course an error for Remus.] diede afore thro lepenge the walles of Rome. Eutropius. Romulus callede men of that cuntre firste Romanes, refusenge the name of Latynes, and that cite Rome, after his name, whom he edifiede, whiche gedrenge peple abowte, electe an c. of the seniores, after the cownselle of whom he scholde dispose alle thynges, whom he callede senatores, namenge Page  59, vol.3 theyme as faders, for theire age and grete discrecion, com|maundenge theire names to be writen wt letters of golde. Titus Livius. And when Romulus hade gedrede to this cite a grete multitude of gilty men and fugitiue schepardes, and of contempte persones, women of nye cuntres to theym wolde not marye with theym for the ignobilite of persones. Romulus perceyvenge þat, desirede peple of that coste nye to hym to beholde a disporte, and when the virgynes of that cuntre were commen in to the cite they were taken. Amonge whom Thalasso was feireste, whiche was mariede to a gouernoure of the Romanes. ℞. Augus|tinus [folio 119b] Page  61, vol.3de Civitate Dei, libro 3o, capitulo xjo, towchethe that Titus Liuius rehersethe how grete batelle was contynuede longe betwene the Romanes and the Sabynes for the takenge of theire doȝhters. Neuerthelesse the wifes of the Romanes, and doȝhters to the Sabynes, at the laste in tyme of batelle wente betwene the hostes with theire childer, wepynge and pullenge the heire from theire heddes, and so procurede peace, that the kynges scholde reigne to gedre, but the name of the realme tariede amonge the Romanes. Eutropius. Whereof a consuetude was taken that euery Roman was of ij. names. Titus Livius. But Tatius, kynge of the Sabynes, was sleyne soone after that, Romulus consentenge to hit, whiche may be schewede in that he ȝafe grete liberte to the men that did slee hym. ℞. Titus Liuius rehersethe, and other moo, þat as Romu|lus nowmbrede his peple at a marras callede Capra, where he was coverede with a clowde, and apperede not after. But Seynte Austyn, De Civitate, libro 3o, capitulo 13o, re|hersethe Page  63, vol.3 that he was brente with the lyȝhtenge, other elles somme of the Romanes have wryten he was dilacerate and rente of his awne senate for his grete crudelite. And Iulius Proculus, subornate by the Romanes, seide Romulus to haue apperede to hym, commaundenge the Romanes that he scholde be honorede as for a God, and calle hym Quirinus, in that he usede a spere, whiche is callede quiris in the langage of Sabines. And after that the knyȝhtes of the Romanes were callede Quirites. The Romanes were lette in this maner that thei did not sle the senate for the dethe of Ro|mulus. Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo quarto decimo. Tales Millesius, the firste of the vij. wise men, was in the tyme of Romulus. Plinius, libro secundo. This Tales Millesius serchede firste amonge the Grekes philosophy, the causes of heuyn, and the strenȝhte of thynges naturalle, whiche science he distribute after to Page  65, vol.3 the peple in iiij. destincciones, as in to Arsmetrike, Geo|metry, Musike, and in to Astronomy. Polic., libro 7o. That philosophre and diuine, serchenge the natures of [folio 120a] þinges, seide afore the defawtes of the son and of the moone, trawenge that humor was the begynnenge of alle thynges, whom men say to haue lyvede vn to the lviiit Olimpias. Augustinus, libro octavo. Whom Anaximenes herde ȝiffenge the causes of thynges to the aiere, whose disciple Anaxagoras was, whiche vnderstode þe wille of God to be the maker of alle thynges, whiche tauȝhte Archelaus, maister to Socrates, whiche was the maister of Plato. Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, libro decimo octavo, capitulo 25o. Other vj. philosophres were in the tyme of the transmigracion of the Iewes, levenge noo wrytenge after Page  67, vol.3 theyme, whiche informede men in honeste of maneres and in vertues, the names of whom folowe: Pitacus Miletene, Salon of Athenes, Chilon of Lacedemonia, Piriadrus of Corinthus, Cleobulus of Lidia, Bias Pienus. Valerius, libro 4o, capitulo primo. Fyschers solde in a season, in the tyme of Tales Millesius, theire drauȝhte, in whom thei founde a table of golde, where of a contencion was movede, the fischers seyenge thei solde but the fische. But the philosophres seide thei boȝhte the fortune of theire takenge, whiche askede of Apollo Delphicus cownsaile in that matere. Then Apollo ȝafe in iuggemente that hit scholde be taken to the moste discrete man of theyme, whiche was ȝiffen to Salon, and he sende hit to Bias, and Bias sende hit to Pitacus, and so at the laste hit was sende to Salon ageyne, and then Salon did consecrate hit to Apollo. Ozee, the son of Hela, did sle Phasee kynge of Israel, and reignede for him ix. yere. Mida, the ryche kynge, didde reigne this tyme in Frigia.

Page  69, vol.3

Capitulum tricesimum quartum.

EZECHIAS the xiiijthe kynge of Iuda began to reigne, whiche reignede xxix. yere. In the secunde and thridde yeres of [folio 120b] whom the cites Siracusana and Catina were edifiede in Sicille. The kynge of Babilon honourede this kynge Ezechias with grete ȝiftes, for he herde by report the son to haue returnede at his preyre, and to haue ȝiffen obsequy to the kynge, whom thei worschippede as God. For whiche cause the kynge of Babilon sende messangeres to hym, inquirenge the reason of hit; to whom Ezechias schewede his treasures. Sennacherib other Salmanazar, kynge of Caldes, ouercome Ozee kynge of Israel, and toke Samaria, besegede by iij. yere, and toke þe x. tribus, putte in captiuite, in to the mownte of men of Media, nye to the water of Gozan. Giraldus. Ouer the hilles Caspy, where kynge Alexander Page  71, vol.3 includede tweyne vnclene peple, Gog and Magog, whom Antecriste schalle delyuer when he commethe, and schal brynge theyme furthe; whom the Iewes schalle suppose to be Messias. Petrus. Men suppose that Thobias was cap|tiuate in that thridde captiuite, and to have dwellede with kynge Ozee at Niniuen, whose story was endede vnder Manasses the son of Ezechias other elles in the xxti yere of Iosias. The kynge of Assiria brouȝhte diuerse men of diverse regiones in to Samaria, to kepe the londe of Israel, whiche peple were the enmyes of the Iewes, callede Sama|rites other Samaritanes, as kepers, Chutei or Iacobite sup|plantatores, whiche occupiede theire ydoles. Romulus dedde, after he hade reignede xxix. yere, the senate rewlede th'empire by a certeyn season. Numa Pompilius began to reigne amonge the Romanes and reignede xliiij yere. This Page  73, vol.3 man vsede not batelles with other peple. Hugucio, capitulo Ianus. The Romanes began the yere after men of Hebrewe vn to the tymes of this Pompilius, whiche addede Ianuare and Februare to the begynnenge of the yere, for thei began the yere afore at Marche. And so the yere stode as in|correcte from that tyme vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar. Eutropius. This Numa ordeinede the bischopes, wicches, and ydoles to be honourede, whiche thynge Numa seide he [folio 121a] was commaundede of a nowble godesse to fullefille; whiche edifiede the capitoly, ordeynenge firste a penny amonge his peple, callenge hit Numus after his name. Isidorus, libro 16o, capitulo 7o. This worde, pecunia, whiche is callede Page  75, vol.3 money, is seide of þis worde, pecus, for a beste, in that money was assignede firste of the skynnes of bestes. Saturnus then ordeynede theyme of brasse, and this Numa ordeinede theyme of siluyr, and did write in hit his name. Numus, whiche is callede a peny, was made of Numa.

Capitulum tricesimum quintum.

MANASSES the son of Ezechias began to reigne, whiche reignede on Iuda lij. yere. In the tyme of whom Sibilla Erophila was in the yle callede Samia, whiche was beryede at Nichomedia in Bithinia, callede afore Arthacus. Mida, the ryche kynge of Frigia, was sleyne þro the bloode of a bulle ydrunke. Manasses, that ylle kynge afore God, was taken in captiuite and brouȝte in to Babilon, after he hade made redde the weyes of Ierusalem with the bloode of pro|phetes, and after that Ysay was kytte with a sae of tree; whiche compuncte, thro penaunce and weipenge correcte his lyfe Page  77, vol.3 after that. Men of Hebrew reherse that Ysaias putte furthe of the cite to be saede, nye to a welle callede Siloe, desirede water to drinke, which obteynenge not his peticion, God sende water in to his mowthe, and soe he diede, for Siloa is callede by interpretacion as sende. Also Ysaias afore his dethe preyede Allemyȝhty God that the citesynnes myȝhte haue water þer in the segenge of the cite, and the enmyes noone. Wherefore the citesynnes goenge to that place in the tyme of Ezechias kynge, hade water in that place. For which cause, in to a memorialle, the peple beryede him vnder that oke of Regel nye to Siloe. Iugges were ordeinede at [folio 121b] Athens in the stedde of kynges. Tullius Hestilius, the thrydde kynge of the Romanes, reignede xxxij. yere. Eutro|pius. This Tullius kynge vsede firste purpulle in that cuntre, whiche, kepenge peace a long season, ȝafe batelle ageyne Albanes and men callede Fedenates, and obteynede the victory of theyme; whiche was perischede at the laste with Page  79, vol.3 the liȝhtenge in his howse. Augustinus, libro 3o, capitulo xjo. The chiefe place of that realme was amonge the Albanes, from the tyme of Ascanius vn to the tyme of Romulus, but after the construccion of that cite grete stryfe was movede betwene the Romanes and the Albanes of the name. Neuer|thelesse the ende of the contrauersy was translate at the peticion of the kynge of the Albanes in to iij. knyȝhtes of oon parte, and in to iij. of þat other parte; and so the name scholde tary with the cuntre of the three knyȝhtes, whiche were victores. Wherefore iij. men callede Oracius, borne at oon childenge, were chosen on þe parte of the Romanes; and in lyke wise of the parte of the Albanes thre breder callede Curiaci whiche didde sle tweyne of the Romanes in the firste meetenge of theyme to gedre. The thrydde Oracius, of the Romanes seenge hym allon, and to stonde in grete perelle, feynede hym to flee that he myȝhte hurte theim the raþer Page  81, vol.3 folowenge hym by foly; and so he did sle firste oon, after that the secunde, and at the laste the thrydde. Wherefore the name remaynede with the Romanes. Then the suster of that Oracius, mariede to oon of that other men whom he hade sleyne, seenge here broþer to haue the victory, and here howsebonde ysleyne, vmbraydede here brother for the sleenge of here howsebonde. Wherefore this Oracius, hauenge indignacion þer of, did sle here also, where a grete dubitacion was movede amonge the Romanes wheþer he scholde be delyuerede for the sleenge of his suster in that passion, other elles wheder he scholde be putte to dethe. Neuerthelesse hit was condescende at the laste that a temple of concorde scholde be made at Rome for his delyueraunce. Titus. This Tullius Hostilius, occupienge batelle ageyne men callede Fedenates, desirede Methius kynge of the Albanes with hym, what for old consanguinite, what for luffe renuede after the [folio 122a] dethe of the thre men Curiaci by name; but Tullius Hostilius goenge afore wente to batelle, and Methius kynge of Albanes returnede from the felde. But this Tullius Hostilius, hauenge Page  83, vol.3 the victory, toke Methius the kynge and drawede hym with horses; destroyenge that cite callede Alba, sende the rychesse and the peple to Rome. Archilocus and Simonides, excellent musiciones, were in this tyme. That cite callede Bisancium, now Constantinopole, was edifiede in Tracia. Amon the son of Manasses, after men of Hebrewe, reignede ij. yere, and after the lxxti interpretatores he reignede xij. yere; whiche lyvenge wickedely, was sleyne of his seruaunteȝ. Iosias the son of Amon, a childe hauenge viij. yere in age, began to reigne, which reignede on Iuda xxxj. yere. This childe in the iiijthe yere of his reigne, beenge that tyme of xij. yere in age, after Iosephus, correcte ylle werkes like an olde man; whiche herenge þe wordes of Deutronomy destroyede ydoles, and brente the boones of false prestes and of prophetes, and haloede Ester or Pasce; which was sleyne after that of Pharao Necaus kynge of Egypte. Whiche lefte after hym Page  85, vol.3 iij. sonnes, Eliachim other Ieconias, Ioathas oþerwise callede Sellum, Mathanias other Sedechias. Anchus Marcius, the iiijthe kynge of the Romanes, son of the doȝhter of Numa, began to reigne, whiche reignede xxiij. yere. This Anchus Marcius, hauenge grete favor to Tarquinius Priscus, made hym tutor of his childere, but this Tarquinius remembrede that luffe symplely. Ieremias, the son of Helchias the bischop, began to prophecy xlj. yere a fore the euersion of the cite, that tyme excepte also in whom he propheciede in Egypte. The seide Ieremy see these iij. signes, a wande other a rodde wakenge, a potte succendede, and his braygirdle roten whiche he did hide nye to the water of Eufrates; whiche made also the trenes, that is to say, the lamentaciones of the dethe of Iosias kynge of Iuda. Also the prophetisse Olda and Page  87, vol.3 Sophonias propheciede this tyme, of whom mencion is made in the bokes of Regum. Tarquinius Priscus, the vthe kynge of the Romanes, began to reigne, whiche reignede xxxvij. yere. This Tarquinius duplicate the nowbre of the cenatores, makenge pleyes, walles, and other necessary thynges for the [folio 122b] cite; which was sleyne at the laste by the sonnes of Anchus Marcius, his predecessor. Titus Livius. This Anchus Marcius dedde, Tarquinius sende his childer aweye falsely, that he myȝhte be made kynge, willenge Tullius his son in lawe to succede in the realme; wherefore the sonnes of Anchus Marcius conspirede with other schepardes his dethe. Wherefore those schepardes, feynenge a stryfe among theyme, appelede to that kynge for iuggemente; and when that kynge intendede oon of theyme, an other did slee the kynge. Ioathas, the myddel son of Iosias, after the dethe of his fader, his brother refusede, was made kynge of Iuda by the peple; whiche reignede þer iij. monethes, as from the kalendes Page  89, vol.3 off Ianuare to the kalendes of Aprile; whom Pharao Nechao brouȝte in to Egipte with hym, and made Eliachim his elder broþer kynge and tributary to hym, callenge hym Ioachim in a signe of subiececion; whiche, reignenge a xj. yere, lyvede wrecchidely. For he didde slee Urias the prophete for the seyenge of the trawthe, ad*. [Sic.] inprisonede Ieremy the prophete, and brente the boke of Baruc.

Capitulum tricesimum sextum.

NABUGODONOSOR, the grete kynge, began to reigne in Ba|bilon, whiche reignede xxxiij. yere; whiche, hauenge victory of Pharao kynge of Egipte, ocupiede his londe from the water of Egipte vnto Eufrates, and alle Siria, the Iewery excepte; whiche Nabugodonosor, after Iosephus, libro iiijto, capitulo septimo, in the iiijthe yere of his reigne ascendede in to the Iewery and toke Ierusalem, and Ioachim kynge Page  91, vol.3 þerof, levenge hym in the weye, in that he promisede to be tributary to hym. Neuertheles he toke with hym the nowble childer of the kynges bloode in to Babilon, Ananias, Azarias, Misael, and Daniel, and the veselles of the temple. From whiche tyme this Nabugodonosor reignede ouer men of Caldea, and in Assiria, in Egipte and in þe Iewery. Petrus, 143. The Rechabites, childer of Ionadab the [folio 123a] son of Rechab, folowenge the wylles of theire faders, dwellede from other peple, whiche, absteynenge from wyne, neither sawenge cornes, come in that tempeste to Ierusalem to salve theyme selfe. Kynge Ioachim, herenge that the kynge of Egipte wolde ȝiffe batelle to Nabugodonosor, denyede to pay his tribute. Where of Na|bugodonosor hauenge indignacion, come to Ierusalem, and toke hit, and did sle the myȝhty men of hit, castenge Ioachim, the kynge in hit, vnberiede ouer the walles of the cite, makenge Ieconias, his son, kynge. Petrus. As letteres of golde were founde in the body of this Ioachim Page  93, vol.3 the senior, ageyne the lawe of God, and Codonosea, the name of an ydole whom he honourede. Iosephus, libro decimo, capitulo octavo. Iheconias, the son of Ioachim, made kynge by Nabugodonosor, reignede oonly iij. monethes, whiche was to the monethe of Iulius. For Nabugodonosor, dredenge leste that Iheconias wolde drawe to men of Egipte and remembre the dethe of his fader, returnede and besegede Ierusalem. Neuertheles this kynge Ieconias yeldede hym Page  95, vol.3 willefully, with his moder and alle his howseholde, after the cownselle of Ieremye, to that kynge Nabugodonosor; whiche toke from the temple the veselles of golde, toke ij ml princes in captiuite and vij ml men of crafte. Amonge whom Mardocheus was and Ezechiel, that tyme of tendre [age], of the kynde of prestes. And so this Ieconias remaynede in prison amonge men of Caldea, by xxxvij. yere, vn til this Nabugodonosor was dedde and Nabugodonosor his son. Euilmerodac, that other son of Nabugodonosor, delyuerede hym from prison. Petrus, 144. Mony men do annumerate lxxti yere of the captivite of the Iewes from that trans|migracion whiche was made in the viijthe yere of kynge Nabugodonosor. But proprely these men that submitte theim selfe willefully be callede the transmigracion. And the other men, that were ledde ageynes theire wille, be callede þe captivite. Mathanias, the thridde son of Iosias, was made kynge by Nabugodonosor, makenge an othe to [folio 123b] hym that he scholde be tributary to hym, whom he namede Sedechias, whiche did reigne a xj. yere. Iosephus, libroPage  97, vol.3quarto, capitulo nono in fine. Ezechiel began to prophecy in Babilon to þe men in captiuite, after that thei hade re|ceyuede the epistole of Ieremy of the londe of Iuda. And Ezechiel sende his prophecy in to Ierusalem. But kynge Sedechias ȝafe noo credence to prophecy, in that þe pro|phecy of Ieremy and of Ezechiel semede to discorde; but alle the prophetes accordede in that the cite scholde be taken, and that the kynge scholde be brouȝte to Babilon. But there apperede dissonaunce in theire prophecy, that Ezechiel seyde Sedechias scholde neuer see Babilon. And the prophecy of þeim bothe was fulle fillede after, when Nabugodonosor made blynde kynge Sedechias in Reblata, and broȝte hym so made blynde to Babilon. Salon, oon of the vij. philosophers, ȝafe lawes to men of Athenes. Page  99, vol.3 Daniel the prophete ȝafe a solucion of a vision to Na|bugodonosor in Caldea. Wherefore hit is to be attendede that he see x. visiones, iij. of þe firste under Nabugod|onosor, thre other vnder Balthazar, the vijthe and viijthe vnder Darius, the ixthe and þe xthe vnder kynge Cirus. Somme prophetes propheciede of the captiuite longe a fore the captiuite, as Ysaias, Osee, Micheas; and other in the tyme of the captiuite, as Sophonias, Ieremias, and also Ezechiel. And also somme propheciede within hit, as Daniel and Abacuch; somme after hit, as Aggeus and Zacharias. Somme men wille that Daniel see that vision afore in the xxxv. yere of the reigne of Nabugodonosor. That kynge Nabugodonosor besegede Ierusalem for cause the peple wolde Page  101, vol.3 not pay theire tribute ypromisede to hym. Then Porro, kynge of Egipte, comme with an*. [Sic.] grete hoste to breke that sege. Wherefore Nabugodonosor brekede that sege, and chasede the kynge of Egipte from Siria. Then the childer of the prophetes, and other false prophetes, skornede Ieremy, seyenge men of Babilon scholde not returne as he prophe|ciede, [folio 124a] but Ieremias, seyenge the contrary, was putte firste in to prison, after þat in to a water of cleye vn to the throte. Nabizardan, the prince of the cheuallrye of men of Babilon, besegede Ierusalem in the xthe monethe, the same yere; the ȝates of whiche cite were schutte viij. monethes, in whiche tyme women did eite theire childer for hungre. Ierusalem was taken that yere in the iiijthe monethe; and Sedechias, fleenge in the nyȝhte, was founde in the morowe in the weye of deserte, and brouȝhte to Nabugodonosor in to Reblata; whiche, takenge awey his eien, brouȝhte hym to Babilon. Whiche brouȝte afore nowble men of Babilon, and receyuenge a drynke laxatyffe, diede in prison for schame. Page  103, vol.3 Also in the same xixthe yere of Nabugodonosor, Nabizardan brente the temple, and destroyenge Ierusalem toke the veselles of golde with hym, puttenge the peple in captiuite, and toke Ieremy from prison, suffrenge hym to dwelle with Godolias, ȝiffenge also licence to the Rechabites to departe. And so the temple brente in the cccc.xxxiiij. yere after the makenge of hit, but more trewly, after Ysidorus and the lxxti interpretatores, in the cccc. and xliiijti yere. And from the makenge of the cite of Rome, c. lxj. yeres. And so the iiijthe age of the worlde is terminate and finischede, whiche is from the begynnenge of the reigne of kynge Dauid vn to this captiuite of the peple of the Iewes, made in the xjthe yere of Sedechias kynge, in the monethe of Auguste; hauenge, after men of Hebrewe and Ierom, cccc. yere lxxiiij., vj. monethes, and x. dayes, by xvij. generaciones. But Seynte Mathewe th' Euangeliste assignethe xiiij. generaciones, for the cause of a certeyne mistery. But this age, after the grete Page  105, vol.3 clerke Isidorus and after þe lxxti interpretatores, conteynethe cccc. lxxxiiij. yere. And perauenture this dissonaunce of yeres may happe in that the commune cronicle seithe Amon to haue reignede ij. yere, but the lxxti interpretatores say [folio 124b] Amon to haue reignede xij. yere. Wherefore if xiij. yere be addede to those yeres in whom Iuda was with owte a kynge, after the dethe of Amazias, then the yeres of this iiijthe age schalle be in nowmbre cccc. lxxxxvj. by trewe calculacion.

Explicit Liber Secundus. Sequitur Liber Tercius.