Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis; together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century.
Higden, Ranulf, d. 1364., Trevisa, John, tr. d. 1402., Caxton, William, ca. 1422-1491., Malverne, John, d 1415?, Babington, Churchill, ed. 1821-1889,, Lumby, J. Rawson ed. (Joseph Rawson), 1831-1895.

Of the inception of realmes. Capitulum octavum.

THE realme of Scitia, other the reigne of kynges in hit, whiche chalangethe the secunde place and ordre after men of Assiria, began in the tyme of Sarug, grawntefader to Thare the fader of Abraham, requirenge that place bothe by the reason of tyme and of age, vnder Thanaus, firste kynge of theyme, of whom that floode callede Thanay semethe to haue taken name, whiche diuidethe Asia from Europa in the northe partes of the worlde. That realme was not getten by conqueste of eny man, but men in hit conquerede iij. tymes Asia, causenge Darius kynge of Persia to flee; sleenge also Cirus the kynge, and destroyenge Zephiro, duke of grete Alexander. Petrus, capitulo sexa|gesimo. There was an other realme in the weste*. [este, MS. originally; but the correction may be by the first hand.] of men of Scitia, that is to say of Archadia, whiche is a parte of Grece in Europa, rennenge other contynuenge vnder the firste Agilaus by ixc. yere lxxj., vnder xxxjti kynges, from Page  261, vol.2 the xxiiijthe yere of Nachor, grauntefader to Abraham, vn to Zeuxippus.*. [Zeusippus, MSS. and Cx.] whiche reignede in the xvijthe yere of Hely the preste. Where of a region in Archadia was callede somme tyme Agialia, whiche was callede afterwarde Pelo|ponensis, where oon realme of Grece was. ℞. Neuerthe|lesse Dionisius wille that þe reigne of men of Scitia began in the lti yere of Thare, that was afore the natiuite of Abraham by xxti yere, in whom Cicrops reignede firste by xlv. yeres. Also the realme of men of Egipte in the [sowthe] was coegalle vn to theyme whiche began in the tyme of Nachor, grawntefader to Abraham, hauenge xv. hye potestates from the firste Mineus other Zones vn to the tymes of Abraham. After that men callede Thebei occu|piede and did holde xvj. hye potestates. At the laste Diapolitanes, whiche were callede Pharaones, holded xviij. hie potestates, and so the realme of men of Egipte durede vn to the times of Cambises, son of Cirus kynge of Persia, to Page  263, vol.2 whom his fader ȝafe, beenge in lyfe, the realme of Assiria, whiche he did translate to men of Medea, and namede hym Nabugodnosor, whose prince, Olofernes by name, subduede to him Egipte, and after that Egipte remaynede under vij. kynges of Persia. After whom Egipte was occupiede by x. kynges of that cuntre, vn til that Ochus, otherwise callede Artaxerses, þe xijthe kynge of Persia, expellenge Nectanabus, kynge of Egipte, vn to Ethioppe, recurede that realme ageyne. Whiche realme remaynede afterwarde vnder thre kynges of Persia vn to the vijthe yere of Alexander the Conqueroure, from whiche tyme the realmes of Persia and also of Egipte began to be subiecte to the domination of Grekes by ccc. yere, vnder xiij. kynges, whiche were callede Lagide other Ptolomei, vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar; other elles, after somme men, vn to the xvthe yere of Au|gustus Cesar, whiche hade victory of Cleopatra, the doȝhter of Dionysius Ptolomeus, laste of that name callede Lagide. From whiche tyme Egipte was subiecte to the Romanes. Soe alle the kynges in Egipte from the begynnenge to kynge Alexander were xc., of whom the firste were callede Dinas|tines, Page  265, vol.2 after that Pharaones, at the laste Lagide or Ptolomei. Iosephus, libro octavo, capitulo secundo. Kynges of Egipte, as I suppose, hauenge other names in theire yowthe, as|cendenge to the empyre were callede Pharaones, whiche is callede a kynge after the langage of men of Egipte. Soe in lyke wise kynges of Alexandrye ascendenge to them|pyre were callede Ptolomei, and kynges of the Romans were callede Cesares. Augustinus, libro sextodecimo, capi|tulo octavo decimo. The iiijthe realme, but firste in tyme, was of men of Assiria in the este, vnder Belus Nemprotides in the begynnenge, in the xxvti yere of Sarug grauntefader to Thare, whiche hade dominacion in alle Asia, Ynde ex|cepte. Petrus, capitulo sexagesimo. And that realme in|durede by a ml ccc. ij. yere, vnder xxxvijti kynges, vn to the laste Sardanapallus, whiche diede the vijthe yere of Ozias, kynge of Iuda. After that Arbases, other wise callede Arbaccus, the governour and sleer of the kynge, did translate the monarchye of men of Assiria vn to men of Media; whiche is to be vnderstonde in kynde other in similitude, but not in trawethe. ℞. For vij. myȝhty Page  267, vol.2 kynges reignede in Assiria after Sardanapallus, thauȝhe thei occupiede not the holle monarchye, from the vijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda, by a c. yere and xij., the names of whom were Arbases, Phullus, Theglatphalazar, Salman|azar, Sennacherib, Assaradon, and Sargon. Neuerthelesse somme men wille that the monarchye of the este stode at men of Media after the dethe of Sardanapallus, from the vijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda vn to the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion of the Iewes, by cc. yere and lx. yere, vnder viij. kynges, from the firste Arbases vn to the laste Astiages, whiche was vncle to Darius and graunte|fader to Cirus. Whiche Cirus, ouercommenge Astiages, did translate the realme of Media to the monarchye of men of Persia, levenge to that Astiages the realme of Hircannes. And in the reigne of Sennacherib kynge of Assiria, and of Ezechias kinge of Iuda, a grete realme of men of Caldea and of Babilon did aryse,*. [a ryse, Harl. MS.; similarly α passede below.] contynuede vnder vij. kynges, whiche were Merodac other Beladas, Nabugodnosor, Euil|merodac, Egesar, Regusar, Labefardac, Balthazar, other elles Nabar, whom Cirus sleenge, þro help of Darius his Page  269, vol.2 vncle, translate that realme to men of Persia and of Media in the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion of the Iewes. And so cc. and xlti yere apassede from þe vijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda, in whiche tyme the monarchye of men of Assiria began to fayle, vn to the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion of Iewes, when the monarchy of men of Parthia began. And so the monarchy of men of Persia indurede from the xxxjti yere of the transmigracion vn to the vijthe yere of grete Alexander, whiche was from the firste Cirus vn to the laste Darius, son of Arsannius, by cc. and xxxvti yere, vnder xiij. kynges. Whiche be, after Giraldus, Cirus; after hym Cambi|ses, whom his fader namede Nabugodonozor, and ȝafe to hym in his lyfe Niniuen with the realme of Assiria, by xij. yere afore his dethe, vnder whom the memory of that woman Iudith happede. The thrydde was callede grete Ermeides. The iiijthe Darius, son of Ytapsis. The vthe Xerses; the vjthe Artaxerses, whiche was namede otherwise Longimanus,*. [Logimanus, α.; Longinianus, Harl. MS.] in the tyme of whom Esdras and Neemias floreschede. The vijthe Perses. Fogodianus the viijthe. Darius Nothus the ixthe.*. [the ix the Nothus the ix the, Harl. MS.]Page  271, vol.2 Artaxerses other Assuerus þe xthe, vnder whom Hester was. Ochus the xjthe. Arsannius the xijthe. Darius the son of Arsanius the xiijthe. Whom Alexander ouercom|menge, did translate the realme of men of Persia vn to the monarchye of men of Macedony amonge the Grekes, whiche realme began afore vnder Cranaus in the xiijthe yere of Ozias kynge of Iuda; and so that realme indured by vjc. and xxxvjti yere, vn to the laste, Persius, whom the Ro|manes did slee in the ixthe yere of Onias the bischoppe, other Menelaus. After that other realmes were made in Grece by succession; the firste was at Archadia, after that tyme translate to men of Peloponense, as hit is expressede afore. An other realme of the Grekes was at Argiuos, whiche was translate from þens to Mecenas. An other was at Athenes, an other at Lacedemonia. An other realme at Epira other Tracia; an other at Macedonia. Whiche realmes were made subiecte to the realme of Rome, and concorporate to hit, as other realmes were in this maner. The realme of Romanes, begynnenge vnder Ianus the firste Page  273, vol.2 kynge of Ytaly, vn to the vijthe yere of Darius, son of Arsanius, and kynge of Persia, whom Alexander the Con|queroure did slee, contynuede by viijc. and lxxx. yere, vnder xxvij. kynges, the firste vj. of whom were Latynes, and other xiiij. succedenge were Albani. Other vij. were after the makenge of the city of Rome, of whom Romulus was firste and Tarquinius the prowde was laste. Then, the kynges expulsede from the cite of Rome, ij. consulles were made and create yerly; after theym, tribuni, maisters of the peple, vn to the tymes of Iulius Cesar, by cccc. yere lxiiij. After that, the name of a kynge ylefte, monarche, Cesares, emperoures, and men callede Augusti holdede the primate and chiefe place. Of whom Iulius Cesar, of a consul and a dictator, was made emperoure firste; Octa|uianus Augustus, his successor and nevewe, redacte in to oon monarchy the realmes of alle the worlde. At the laste, Philippus the xxviijti emperoure was made a Cristen man, firste of alle emperoures. After that, grete Constan|tyne Page  275, vol.2 ordeinede the seete imperialle at Constantinople, levenge the dignite of the seete apostolicalle at Rome to the suc|cessores of Seynte Petre. At the laste, the empyre translate to grete Charles kynge of Fraunce, son to kynge Pipinus, the name imperialle remaynede oonly at Constantinople.