FOR to make a cleer soiling answere to the xiije. argument y putte bifore these vj. reulis or supposi|ciouns. Oon is this: Fro eeldist daies contynueli hidir to men weren*. [were, MS. (first hand).] woned forto speke and write her wordis not oonli in treuthe, but also ther with to gidere for to speke and write tho wordis in sum gaynes and bewte or in sum deliciosite; and into this eende and purpos thei vsiden certein colouris of re|thorik, that with hem her spechis schulde be the more lusti, and thei ordeyneden summe certeyn figuris rennyng therwith forto excuse tho colourid spechis fro vntrouthe, and summe othere certein figuris for to excuse tho spechis fro vncongruyte of gramer: euen riȝt as menn fro eeldist daies hider to weren woned not oonli for to ete her mete, but also ther with forto ete her mete in deliciose maner; and therfore thei ordeyneden spicis and saucis forto therwith make her mete the more sauori and more plesant. This reule is so open to alle men, which taken heede how the myche custom of spechis and writingis han be maad and ȝit ben mad, that nede is not forto make therto eny proof. Page 256
The ije. reule or supposicioun is this: Among suche now seid colouris and figuris of spechis and of writingis, summe ben these ij. now to be rehercid. Whane a man doith a deede bi a partie of him, (as bi his hond or his foot,) we vsen for to seie that his hond or his foot dooth thilk deede: not withstonding that in the speche of verri pure trouthe to be take withoute colour and figure, it is to be seid that the hond doith not the deede neither the foot dooth the deede, but the ful hool man doith the deede bi his hond or foot, as bi a parti of him seruyng to thilk deede; and ȝit bi cause the hool man doith the deede bi his hond or foot as a parti therto seruyng we vsen forto seie that his hond or foot dooth thilk deede. In lijk maner, whanne a man dooth a deede bi an other thing being an instrument forto therbi do the deede, (as is a spere forto ouerthrowe another*. [Possibly here also the word may have been intended to be written disjunctim.] man in iowsting,*. [iniowsting, MS.] or an hamer forto make a knyf in smythiyng,) we vsen forto seie that the in|strument doith the deede, (as that the spere throwith doun the other man, and that the hamer maketh the knyf), notwithstonding that in speche of pure trouthe to be take withoute colour or figure, it ouȝte be seid that oonli this man throwith doun bi his spere, as bi therto an instrument, the other man, and the smyth bi the hamer so makith the knyf; and the spere throwith not the other man doun, neither the hamer makith the knyf, for neuerneither of tho instrumentis hath the craft which is doon and bisett into the knyfis making. And ȝit bi cause that euereither of hem is an instrument to the doer of a deede, it is woned be seid that euereyther of these instrumentis dooth the deede which the man doith bi eny of hem. Page 257 Open experience is sufficient proof to this present ije. reule; ȝhe, and not oonli these colouris and figuris han ben vsid in spechis and writingis out of Holi Writ, but also Holi Writt vsith ful manye dyuerse colouris and figuris for cause seid bifore in the firste reule. And among al other Holi Writt vsith these ij. bifore ensaumplid colouris. Forwhi as to the firste colour ensaumpling therof is writun Iob xvije. capitulum. in the bigynnyng thus: Lord, delyuere thou me, and sette thou me bisidis thee; and the hond of ech fiȝte aȝens me,*. [This is Wiclif's version of Job xvii. 3. in its later form.] and as to the ije. colour ensaumpling therof is writun, ie. Regum ije. capitulum., thus: The bowe of strong men is ouercome, and infirme or feble men ben gird with strengthe. Lo, it is seid that the hond of ech schulde fiȝte aȝens him, and ȝit open it is that the hond of a man fiȝtith not, but the hool man fiȝtith and not his hond; but he aloone fiȝtith bi his hond, as bi a parti seruyng in to thilk fiȝting. And in lijk maner it is seid that the bowe of strong men ben ouercome, thouȝ in verri trouthe of propre speche the bowe is not ouercome; forwhi the bowe fiȝtith not, but the strong man is ouercome in and bi his bowe as his instrument. And thus it is open that Holi Writt witnessith this ije. reule to be trewe.
The iije. reule or supposicioun is this: Whanne oon thing is lijk to an othir thing in substaunce or being or in gouernaunce or in worching, thilk thing is woned be clepid vndir name*. [the name, MS. (first hand).] of the othir thing. Forwhi we seien that this knyȝt is Hector or Arthur, for that this knyȝt is strong and douȝti as was Hector or Arthur; and where euer this knyȝt is seen or cometh, it mai be seid in lijk maner of speche: "Arthur or Hector is here or is come:" bi cause that oon which is lijk to Arthur or Hector is come. Page 258 This maner of speche is had not oonli in comoun vce out of Holi Scripture, but also this maner of colouring speche is ofte and myche had in Holi Scrip|ture. Forwhi bi this colour of speche, which in rethorik is clepid transsumpcioun, Crist seid that he was a vyne, and hise disciplis weren braunchis, and his Fadir was an erthe tilier, and Iohun the Baptiste was Helie.3 And al for this, that he was lijk in wirching to a vyne, and hise disciplis weren lijke to braunchis of a vyne, and his Fadir was lijk to an erthe tilier, and Iohun Baptist was lijk to Helie.
The iiije. reule is this: Whanne oon thing is or|deyned and deputid forto represente and signifie and bringe into mynde or consideracioun an other thing, thilk thing is woned be clepid vndir the name of the other thing so signified or representid. Forwhi in this maner of colourid speche we seien: "This ymage is Seint Peter; and this ymage is Seint Marie; and here stondith Seint Iame; and a laumpe hangith bi|fore Seint Kateryn; and in this steyned clooth ridith Hector of Troie; and here in this steyned clooth King Herri leieth a sege to Harflew; in this dai, which we now in this ȝeer halewen, Crist was born; in this dai, which now is at Mydsomer, Iohun Bap|tist was born." And al for this, that this ymage re|presentith Seint Peter or Seint Marie or Seint Iame or Seint Kateryn, and this ymage representith Hector or King Herry, and this dai in this ȝeer is deputid forto represente and signifie the same dai in which Crist was born, and this other day in this same ȝeer is deputid forto represente the same dai in which Iohun Baptist was born. And not oonli the spechis of this iiije. reule ben vsid out of Holi Scripture, but also in Holi Scrip|ture. Forwhi in Holi Scripture, Genes. xlie. capitulum., vpon*. [See John xv. 1; Matth. xvii. 12.]Page 259 the dreem of Pharao is is seid thus: The vij. faire kijn and the vij. ful eeris of corn ben vij. ȝeeris of plente; and the vij. kijn thynne and leene, whiche stieden up after tho, and the vij. thinne eeris of corn and smyten with brennyng wijnd ben vij. ȝeeris of hungir to comyng. Also, ie. Cor. xe. capitulum., it is seid thus: Crist was the stoon which ȝaue water in desert, Numeri the xxe. chapiter. And also, Ephes. ije. capitulum., it is seid that Crist was the corner stoon, ioynyng the ij. wallis to gidere in Salamonis temple, of which it is writun in the cxvije. Psalme. And al for that the stoon in desert signified and representid Crist, and also the other corner stoon in the temple of Salamon signified and representid Crist, and the vij. fatte kijn and the vij. ful eeris*. [ȝeeris, MS. (first hand).] of corn signifieden the vij. plen|teuose ȝeeris next thanne comyng.
The ve. reule or supposicioun is this: Ech spech or writing so colourid and figurid as the ie., ije., iije. and iiije. reulis techen, ouȝten be reducid and brouȝt into the meenyng and vndirstonding of a speche or writ|ing, which in him silf is trewe with out such colour and figure. Forwhi no vntrewe speche, as and for that he is vntrewe, is alloweable and vsable; but ech such speche, as in that, is reprouable: for al vntreuthe, as such, is viciose, and ther fore ech such speche is alloweable and vseable in that, and for that, that he is mad trewe bi bringing and reducing him into the meenyng and vndirstonding of a speche, which is trewe withoute such colour and figure. And ther|fore the dewe menyng or vnderstonding of this speche or writing; "Thi riȝt hand dide this dede," is to be seid thus: "Thou bi thi riȝt hond, as bi thi partie therto seruyng, didist this deede." And the dew meenyng or vndirstonding of this speche or writing; Page 260 "Thi spere threwe doun hors and man," ouȝte be this: "Thou bi thi spere, as bi thin therto seruyng instrument, threwist doun hors and man." The dew vndirstonding of this speche; "Hector cometh now," is this: "Oon lijk to Hector cometh now." The dew vndirstonding of this speche; "Iohun*. [Iohun Baptist, MS. (first hand).] was Helie," is this: "Iohun was lijk to Helie." The dew vnder|stonding of this speche; "Crist was the corner stoon," is this: "Crist was representid and signified bi the corner stoon."
The vje. reule is this: Euen as it is alloweable me for to seie that the instrument dooth the deede, for that the man dooth thilk deede bi the instrument; so bi lijk skile it is alloweable me forto seie thus: I "preie the instrument to do the same deede," for that y preie the man to do thilk deede bi the same instrument. That this reule is trewe y proue thus: It is alloweable me to seie to the spere of this man thus: "Thou threwist doun the other man;" for that the dew meenyng and vndirstonding of this speche is this: "Thou, man, bi thi spere threwist doun the other man," (as it is open bi the ve. reule, and this meenyng and vnderstonding is alloweable as conue|nient:) but so it is, that as weel and as dewely the dew vnderstonding of this speche; "Y preie thee, O spere, throwe thou doun the othir man," is this: "Y preie thee, O man, throwe thou doun bi this spere the other man," as it is open bi the same ve. reule; and this meenyng and vndirstonding is alloweable and conuenient, as it is open bi the same ve. reule. Wherfore as weel and as alloweabili y mai seie this speche: "Y preie thee, spere, throwe doun this man," how weel and alloweabili y mai seie this speche: "I seie to thee, spere, that thou threwist Page 261 doun the other man," or ellis thus: "O thou spere, throwe doun the other man."*. [The following words occur in the MS., being in part written on an erasure by a later (?) hand, but some still later corrector has drawn a pen through every line:—"And thanne ferther, if this speche is alloweable: 'Y preie thee, spere, throwe thou doun the other man,' this present vje. reule muste nedis be trewc, that it is alloweable and conuenient speche forto seie, 'That y preie thee, spere, that thou ouer|throwe the othir man.' "]
Certis these vj. reulis or supposiciouns ȝeuen suffi|cient and cleer iustifiyng to manye spechis and writ|ingis seid to crossis and of crossis. Forwhi if it be seid or writun to the same crosse in which Crist henge: "Thou, crosse, aȝenbouȝtist man," the dewe meenyng and vndirstonding ther of is this: "Sum persoon aȝenbouȝte man bi thee, crosse, in that that thou were an instrument forto aȝenbie man." And if it be seid or writun of the same crosse thus: "The crosse of Crist saued the world and clensid the world," the dewe vndirstonding ther of is this: "Crist bi his crosse as bi therto a seru|yng instrument saued the world and clensid the world." And if it be seid or writun to an other crosse sett vp in a chirche: "In thee the Sauiour of the world henge," the dew vndirstonding ther of is this: "In oon thing lijk to thee (or in oon thing, which thou representist,) the Sauiour of the world henge." And if to the same crosse in which Crist died it be preied thus: "O crosse of Crist, y preie thee helpe me and defende me and iustifie me," the dew vndirstonding her of mai be this: "O Crist, y preie thee helpe me and iustifie me bi thi crosse as therto the helping instrument." And herbi it is open that the dew vndirstonding of thilk preier bifore rehercid in the xiije. argument and conteyned in this ympne, Vexilla Regis prodeunt, et cætera,Page 262 whanne it is seid*. [seid there thus, MS. (first hand, but the whole written on an erasure).] thus: O cros, the oon hope in this tyme of passioun, encrese thou riȝtwisnes to piteful men, and ȝeue forȝeuenes to gilti men, may be this, if the speche be maad to a crosse in oure chirche: "O God, encrece riȝtwisnes to men hauyng pitee, and ȝeue forȝeuenes to gilti men bi the cros, which representith and signifieth the instrument of oure oon hope in this tyme representing the tyme of passioun." And in lijk maner dew vnderstonding of the preier, which is conteyned in the prose of the response, O crux viride lignum, et cætera, whanne it is preied there thus: Thou, which barist the Lord, make the patroun (that is to seie, Crist) forto be to us redi or boweable; and thou, stok, which were worthi to bere the price of the world, ȝeue and graunte to this peple the benefice of the crosse, mai be this, if the preier be mad to eny crosse now being in oure chirche: "O God make the patroun (that is to seie, Crist) be to us inclynable bi this cros signi|fiyng the instrument or the crosse which bare the Lord: and, O Lord, ȝeue and graunte to this peple of Crist the benefet of the crosse, bi the stok which signifieth the stok that deserued bere the price of the world." And eftsoone in lijk maner the dew vndirstonding of the preier conteyned in the anteme O crux splendidior, et cætera, if it be preied ther to*. [therto, MS.] a comon crosse among us thus, O sweete stok, bering sweete nailis and sweete birthens, saue thou this present cumpany gaderid into thi preising, may be this: "O God, this present cumpany gaderid into the preising of thee to be doon bi the crosse saue thou bi this stok, signifiyng the sweete crosse instrument bering sweete nailis and sweete birthens." And in lijk maner dew vndirstondingis mowen be ȝouun to Page 263 the othere preieris mad to the cros, and rehercid bi|fore in the xiije. argument in the [xe.]*. [A space left in the MS. for the number.] chapiter of this present ije. partie.