Robert of Brunne's "Handlyng synne".
Mannyng, Robert, fl. 1288-1338., William, de Wadington, 13th cent., Furnivall, Frederick James, 1825-1910.
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Here bygynneþ þe seuene dedly synnes.*. [O. has 'Here begynne þe s. d. synnys.']

[Of Envy, the 3rd Deadly Sin.]

T[h]e þryd[ë] synnë ys enuye,
Þat ys ful of felunnye;
     3916
Holy wryt wytnessyþ hyt wel, [folio 26b:2]
Þat hyt comþ of þe fende eche del.
Þe man þat ys ful of enuye,
He ys euer sorowful, we se with ye;
     3920
Þe gode þat he seþ,*. [sykþ.] alle doþ hym euyl.
And alle ys þe tycement of þe deuyl.
Loke now þarfore, at þe bygynnyng,
ȝyf þou were euer payde of myschaunceful þyng Page  134
     3924
Þat befyl to any man,
Of grete enuye hyt fyrst began.
Ȝyf þou euer haddyst sorow oþer*. [&.] kare
Of þy neghëburs welfare,
     3928
Enuye haþ þe yn hys hand
Boundë wyþ þe deuylys band.
Ȝyf þou forþenke a mannys prowe,
Þat he haþ hegher state þan þow
     3932
Yn any manere of dygnyte,
Þat he may to, auaunssede be;
Þogh þou come nat to hys state,
But wust apeyre hyt and abate,
     3936
Þat he may nat haue hys baylè,*. [baylye.]
Dedly synne ys swyche enuye.
Ȝyf þou make one so hard stresse
Þat hys godnesse wexe þe lesse,
     3940
Or ȝyf þou euer yn placë were
Þat hys harme þe morë were,
Shryue þe wel ar þou deye,
For al þys cumþ of grete enuye.
     3944
Ȝyf þou euer on any manere
Lettydyst any man for to lere
Craftë, or*. [or any.] ouþer queyntyse,
But fordeddyst hys apryse*. [lernyng,]
     3948
For þou shuldest furþeryd be,
And more yn prys preysed þan he;
Beþenke þe weyl, ȝyf þou do þus,
Þat þyn herte ys ful enuyus;
     3952
For þou shalt neuere, with gode ye,
Se hym þat leryþ þy maystrye.
Ȝyf þou be enuyus, and no man trowe, [folio 27a]
And behynde hys bak make hym þe mowe,
As who seye þat "he naght can,
     3957
No ys wurþ as a-nouþer man," Page  135
Al ys þys enuyë grete;
Ȝyf þou haue do þus, y rede þe*. [þou.] lete.
     3960
Ȝyf þou here preyse one for sum þyng,
And þou forþenkyst hys preysyng,
And felyst weyl yn þy*. [þyn.] herte
Of a lytyl sorow or smerte,
     3964
Þat þou ne art preysed furþer þan he,
Enuye hyt ys, þou mayst wel se.
Many one are of so enuyus wyl
Þat þey may preyse none but with yl;
     3968
Alle þenkeþ hym euyl þat þey se,
Þey are enuyus, what-so*. [as.]-euer þey be.
Enuyus man ys so ful of susspecyun
Þat euyl hym þenketh al, as a felun.
     3972
who-so kan knowe þe properte,
Enuyus man may lyknyd be
To þe Iawnes, þe whyche ys a pyne
þat men mow se yn mennys yne.
     3976
þe ye þat ys ful of Iawnes,*. [Iawnys.]
Alle þenkeþ hym ȝelogh yn hys auys:
So hyt fareþ on hys party,
Hys þoght ys euer ful*. [al.] of enuye.
     3980
Enuyus men, euyl þey sowe;
Þát men telle hem, to euyl þey trowe;
Ȝyf þey se þat one doþ more,
Enuyús þan angreþ sore;
     3984
Alle godenes þey turne to euyl;
Enuyus men are lyke þe deuyl.
Of alle þat yn þys worldë are,
Enuyús man*. [Þe enuyus.] werst shal*. [shul.] fare.
     3988
Gladnes herë haue þey none,
But whan here neghburs haue mysgone.
Yn any maner defaute þat ys,*. [es.]
þan make þey ioye for þat wykkednes.
     3992
Yn þe toþer worlde þer þey shul be, [folio 27a:2]
Þey are nat wurþy any ioye to se.
Here and þere þey shul haue greuaunce, Page  136
But þere shal be here most veniaunce.
     3996
Enuye ys onë þe werst synne
Þat þe deuyl maketh any man fal ynne.
Seynt Gregory telleþ a tale þar-by;*. [A tale.]
And as he seyþ, so wyl y.
     4000
[The Tale of the Bear which kept the Hermit's Sheep, and how it was slain by envious Monks.]
Þer were twey men of holy wyl
Þat leuyd to-gedyr, with-outen yl,
A-lonë yn an ermytage,
And, as meke as bryd yn kage;
     4004
Þe toon, men calle Eutycyus,
Þe touþer hyght Florentyus.*. [florencyus.]
A gode clerk was þe toon,
he turned to þe feyþ many on.
     4008
Eutycyus was þe clerk
Þat taght þe folk of goddys werk.
Florens was nat so moche yn lore,
Yn preyours he was euermore.
     4012
þer besyde was an abbey,
And yn here tyme þe abbot gan deye;
whan þys ychë abbot was dede,
Alle þe munkës toke hem to*. [toke here.] rede,
     4016
And chese hem syre Eutycyus
To be abbot of here hous.
On alle manere fyl so here lot,
Eutycyus þey made here abbot.
     4020
Aftyr Eutycyus, Florens gan dwelle
And woned a-lonë yn hys celle.
Florens madë gretë*. [þarfore gret.] mone
For þat he shuld dwel*. [wone.] alone;
     4024
And had grete sorowe, and was drery,
As many be þat lese gode cumpany. Page  137
On a day, he bad hys orysun,
And was yn grete afflyccyon,
     4028
And preyd God he wulde hym ȝeue
Sum gode cumforte with-al to leue.
Þus preyd Florens yn hys bede [folio 27b]
Þat Gode shuld sende hym sum felaurede.
whan he ros vp of his orysown,
he ȝede yn hys celle vp and down,
And opened hys ȝate, and loked oute,
And sagh a berë wylde and stoute.
     4036
Þys ychë bere come to þe gate*. [þe gate, glossed wey, O, gate H.]
To Florens þat stode yn þe ȝate;
But when þe bere come at hym nere,
Þe bere to hym loutede, and made feyre chere,—
     4040
Feyre chere as a bere myght make,—
And was so meke þat he myȝt hym take.
þys ychë Florens hym beþoght
þat God hadde herd þat he besoght,
     4044
And þanked hym of hys swete grace,
þat he hym sent hadde swyche solace.
For a myracle, ȝe may hyt vndyrstande,
þat a wyldë bere was tame to hande.
     4048
Þys godë man hadde syxë shepe,
And noun hyrde hem for to kepe;
He badde þe bere þat he shulde go
And dryue hys shepë to and fro,
     4052
And kepe hem weyl þat noun hem dere,
"And þou shalt be my godë bere."
Þe bere hym louted with semblant glad,
For to do as Florens hym badde;
     4056
To þe bere, he seyde hys auys,
"Euery day whan y ete twyys,
Come þou home at hygh vndurne,
And no lenger yn þe felde soiurne;
     4060
And euery day, when y faste, Page  138
Come at þe noun, home, at þe laste."
So dyd þe bere,*. [bere þan.] euery day,
One oure passed hym neuer away
     4064
Þat he ne come home, þe yche cele*. [godly],
And boþe tymeus*. [tymes.] he knew hem wele.
Þys Florens hadde cumforte and game
At hys bere, þat hyt was so tame,
     4068
And loued hýt moche with-oute fayle [folio 27b:2]
For þe myracle and þe grete meruayle:
For soþë so*. [soþe to seye.] hym byrde*. [moste],
For he was a merueylus hyrde.
     4072
A bere þurgh kynde shulde etë shepe;
And here as an hyrde he ȝafe to hem kepe.
Þyt yche merueyle myȝt nat be hyd,
But yn alle þe cuntre hyt was weyl kyde
Þat Florens had a tamë bere,
And was an hyrdë, shepe to were*. [kepe].
Þe abbot þat hyghte Eutycyus
Had foure dyscyplys ful enuyus,
     4080
Þat alle day of þys berë spakk
with grete enuye, gretely to lakk;
And seyd, alle fourë hem betwene
wyþ grete enuyë, scorne, and tene,
     4084
"More merueyl doþe Florencyus
Þan doþe oure mayster Eutycyus."
Þey seydë "hyt shal nat so go;"
And made forward, þat bere to slo.
     4088
As þey seyd, þey dyd þat woghte;*. [O. reads 'wogh,' and then has the two lines— Þe berë in þe felde þey slogh; For gret enuye þus þey wroghte.]
Þe whychë dede ful soure þey boghte.
At þe tyme, þe bere, o day*. [o day þe bere hom.] come noghte;
Florens had þer-of*. [þar fore.] grete þoghte;
     4092
He ros and ȝede yn-to þe felde, Page  139
And aftyr hys berë faste behelde.
At þe laste, hys bere he fonde,
Besyde hys shepe, slayn on a londe.
     4096
Asswyþë hym self gan to rede
who hadde do þat ychë dede;
Ȝyt pleyned he more þe myschaunce
Þat þer shulde falle on hem veniaunce,
Þan*. [Þat H, O.] he pleyned hys ownë dere
     4101
Þat þey had slayn his godë bere.
Noþeles he pleyned wundyrly sore
Þat hys solas shulde be no more.
     4104
Eutycyus þe abbot, his felawe,
herd sey hys bere was do adawe;
And come to hym on hys dysport, [folio 28a]
To makë Florens gode cumfort.
     4108
Florens seyd Eutycyus vn-to,
"Yn God truly y tryst so,
Þat veniaunce shal on hem take
Yn þys lyfë for my sake.
     4112
Of Ihesu Cryst þey hade no*. [MS. non, with dots under n.] drede,
To sle þat hylpe me yn my nede,
Felunlyche, as*. [al.] for enuye,
And he ded no man folye;
     4116
He was me sent, þurgh Goddys grace,
To be myn helpe and my solace;
Þat God wuldë hym*. [dotted under in red ink.] me ȝeue,
why wuld þey nat suffre hym lyue?
     4120
God almyȝty shal do hys wyl
wyþ hem, and mo, þat do*. [doun.] so yl."
As he seyde, so gan hyt falle;
Gode toke veniaunce on hem alle;
     4124
Meseles þey waxë þan to pyne,
Here lemes roted before here yne;
Aboue þe erþe þey were stynkyng, Page  140
Þat to þe beres deþ were consentyng.
     4128
Þarfore þe pope seynt Gregory
Tellyþ þys talë, resun why,
Þat enuye ys a cursed synne,
Any man to falle þer-ynne.
     4132
Moche are they wurþy to suffre shame,
Þat*. [þat O, þan H.] for enuye brynge a man yn blame,
Or make hym lese hys wurldly aght,*. [gode]
Or frendys also to be vnsaght.*. [O. gloss 'at debate.']
     4136
who-so þat doþ, he may hym drede,
No þyng but peyne shal be hys mede.
Syn þys wurldë fryst bygan,
Enuye haþ be euer*. [eure be.] yn man;
     4140
Lucyfer had fyrst enuye,
Þat man was made to state so hye;
Yn paradys he made hym*. [Harl. hem.] falle,
And seþen of hys ofspryng alle;
     4144
So that enuye haþ reyned ay [folio 28a:2]
Yn alle mankynde vnto þys day;
And, Englys men namëly
Are þurgh kynde of hertë hy:
     4148
A forbyseyn ys toldë þys,
Seyd on Frenshe men*. [O. om. 'men.'] and on Englys,
'Þat Frenshe men synne yn lecherye,
And Englys men yn enuye.'

* John Morley, Speech in Daily News, June 27, 1894:—

"There is no better test of character in my judgment—whether individually or in public life—there is no better test of character than being able to work with other people. A friend of mine came back from the States the other day, and he said the worst feature in American life is the extraordinary distrust and suspicion which men there entertain of one another, and the readiness in which an inferior motive is found for conduct. I do not know whether that is a true account of America or not, but I am perfectly sure it is not true of my own country. (Hear, hear.) Englishmen are not suspicious, they are not jealous, they are not envious, and I think if they find themselves differing from this man or that upon this question or the other, that does not prevent them from being willing to listen to him upon other subjects upon which they have the happiness to agree. (Hear, hear.) Gentle|men, we hear a great deal of war between in|dividualists and collectivists. Well, I tell you frankly in practical affairs I for one am not very fond of these tickets and labels and solemn nick|names. They are very convenient for the purpose of vituperation, and no doubt a compact and handy nickname saves a lazy mind the trouble of thinking things out for itself; but I for one will never quarrel about a word, providing we are working for the same ends and marching towards the same goal. A great poet, who is the glory of the English race, name, and tongue, once used a sublime phrase. He speaks of the prophetic soul of the wide world dreaming on things to come. [Tennyson.] These beneficent dreams of a society elevated, purified, and renewed, must lead by many diverse ways and many hidden paths to their own realisation. I find no fault with them. They will enrich and vivify Liberalism. The great mission of realising, so far as realisation is practicable, those golden dreams, is the mission confided to our party, and I hope and believe that neither you nor I, in the various calls that may be made upon us, will be found unworthy of our trust." (Great cheering, amid which Mr. Morley resumed his seat.)

Page  141
     4152
lecherye ys flesshly synne;
Enuye cumþ of þe soule wyþ-ynne;
lechery ys þe lesse, we fynde,
And enuye ys þe more vnkynde;
     4156
For y se noun yn hys lyue
Þat of enuye kan hym shryue;
Þogh euery day a man hyt haunte,
Ȝyt wyl no man be hyt a-graunte.
     4160
Telle to any þat he haþ enuye,
He seyþ aȝen "hyt ys a lye."*. [O. gloss 'lesynge.']
how mow þéy þan shryue þat synne,
Þat seyn þey haue no gylt þerynne?
     4164
we Englys men þeron shulde þynke,
Þat enuyë vs nat blynk.*. [noght blynke.]
Bakbytyng cumþ also of enuye;
y haue ȝow tolde of þat folye;
     4168
lykenes of hem men mowe bere,
A nedder and a bakbytere;
Þe nedder makeþ þe semblant mylde,
And yn hys tayle ys venym wylde;
     4172
Þe bakbytere faryþ ryȝt so:
wyþ mylde semblant he spekth þe to,
And yn hys tayle he beryþ venym;
Behynde þy bak, he spekyþ wurdys grym.
Þe wys kyng Salamon
     4177
Seyþ þese wurdys to men echon:—
"hys lyppes," he seyþ, "he shal make swete,
wyþ feyrë wurdys he shal þe grete,
     4180
But yn hys hertë he shal þynke
For to do þe a wykked blynke."
So ded þe traytur, fals Iudas, [folio 28b] Page  142
Þat dampned ys wyþ Satanas,
     4184
whan þys Iudas, foule felun,
weytede Ihesu with tresun.
Fyrst he grete hym and gan lagh,
And syþen he kest hym*. [seþen hym keste.] þat alle men sagh,
     4188
And yn hys herte was tresun bolde,
For to þe Iewës he had hym solde.
'Treytur! recorde what þou hast herde
Seyde and sunge yn al þe werlde.'
     4192
Vndyr heuene ne ys so moche tresun
As yn feyre wurd of hert felun.
Þarfor, treytur, y tolde þe er,
Þy wonyng ys wyþ Lucyfer.
     4196
Þyr may no man so yware be,—
For fors, ne wysdom, ne pouste,
For byhest,*. [beheste.] ne for rychesse,
Ne powere, ne hardynesse,*. [O, hardnesse H.]
     4200
For lynage, ne for onour,
For felawshepe, ne for socour,
Ne for breþerhede, ne for spousayle,—
Þat treytorhede ne wyl hym asayle;
     4204
Ne for sweryng, ne for awe,
Þat a treytur ne haþ yn þys sum sawe.
who was wyser þan Salamon?
who was feyrer þan Absolon?
     4208
who was rycher yn euery þyng
Þan Alaxandre þe ryche kyng?
who was swetter þan Ionatas,
Or better clerk þan Vyrgyle was?
     4212
Alle þese coude hem neuer were*. [kepe]
From treytur ne fro bakbytere.
Of a treytur, þys ys þe resun smerte, Page  143
with feyrë wurdys, and felun herte;
     4216
1 Bakbytere, he haþ a lak,
He ys a treytur behynd þy bak;1*. [1_1 Harl. omits these two lines.]
Þe toon ys treytur yn þy present,
Þe toþer ys whan þou arte*. [art.] went.
     4220
A lyer may be on of þyse,
For he haþ of boþe a queyntyse,
Behynde þy bak, and eke before, [folio 28b:2]
lesyng oueralle*. [oueral.] ys bore,
     4224
Yn þese þre men ys al tresun;
Þarfor hyt ys preued with resun
Þat þesë men, allë þre,
Mowe neuer lyghtly saued be.
     4228
Þe apostle seyþ þat God hem hatys,
Ande ouer al ouþer wyþ hem wlatys.*. [ys wrothe]
Þarefore ȝyf any swyche men wore,
hyt behoueþ betyme repente hem sore;
     4232
And leue hyt*. [hyt al.] whyl þey hauë space,
For þan y hope þey may fynde grace.
God ȝeue vs grace enuye to fle!
And alle treyturs, euyl mote þey þe!
     4236