Lanfrank's "Science of cirurgie". Edited from the Bodleian Ashmole ms. 1396 (ab. 1380 A.D.) and the British museum Additional ms. 12,056 (ab. 1420 A.D.) by Robert V. Fleischhacker, DR. PHIL. Part I--Text.
Lanfranco, of Milan, 13th cent., Fleischhacker, Robert von.
Lanfrank's "Science of Cirurgie."
Part I—Text.
Pub. for the Early English Society
by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.,
Page  versoEarly English Text Society.
Original Series, 102.
Page  1

[SCIENCE OF CIRURGIE. Ashmole MS. 1396.]


Ashmole MS. 1396.

[folio 1a] The firste tretis of surgerie halt wiþinne him general ruelis & canones, & haþ .iij. techingis / Þe firste techinge of þe firste tretis, haþ þre chapitlis. ¶ Cap. j. of þe first tretis of þe firste techynge is of definiciones & of parties þat ben sugettis to surgerie / Cap. ij. is of þe qualite, foorme & maners of a surgien / ¶ Cap. iij. is of intencioun of a surgien / The secunde techynge of þe first tretis is on summe & oon chapitle of anotomie, & þat is to seie: þe knouleche of þe foorme, & þe complexciouns, & þe helpingis of alle þe senews, veines, grustlis, brawnis, guttis, bladdre, lyuere, milte, & alle oþere synguler lymes, & of þe engendringe of þe child in þe modir wombe / The first*. [first, mistake for þridde, as below.] techinge of þe first tretis haþ .xv. chapitlis /

  • ¶ Cap. j. of þe þridde techinge of þe .j.*. [Chafed: not room for first.] tretis [folio 1b] is of a comoun word of woundis, & olde woundis / p. 31
  • Page  2¶ Cap. ij. of heelynge of a wounde I-maad in fleisch / p. 33
  • ¶ Cap. iij of heelynge of a wounde maad in senewe / p. 39
  • ¶ Cap. iiij. of a wounde in þe boon / p. 47
  • ¶ Cap. v. of a wounde maad wiþ smytynge / p. 50
  • ¶ Cap. vj. of a wounde bollid and out of kynde, to hoot or to coold / p. 54
  • ¶ Cap. vij. of a wounde of a wode hound or of a uenymous beest / p. 59
  • ¶ Cap. viij. of a wounde þat is out of ioynte and to-broken / p. 62
  • ¶ Cap. ix. of to miche flux of blood of a wounde / p. 64
  • ¶ Cap. x. of dietynge of men þat ben woundid / p. 72
  • ¶ Capitulum xim. of olde woundis / p. 77
  • ¶ Capitulum xijm. of a festre*. [After festre in a later hand is written festula.] / p. 89
  • ¶ Cap. xiij. of a canker I-woundid / p. 92
  • ¶ Cap. xiiij. of causis þat letten helynge of woundis and of olde woundis / p. 97
  • ¶ Cap. xv. of crampe þat comeþ in a wounde / p. 99

The secunde tretis is of particuler woundis of alle lymes of office from þe heed to the foot, techinge þe anotomie of alle lymes from þe heed to þe foot, þat happiþ to be woundid; & þou haddist tofore þe anatomie [folio 2a] of veynes & senewis, & oþere smale lymes.Page  3 And so whanne þis tretis is ful eendid, þou hast anotamie of alle lymes of þi bodi, & þis tretis vndir oon summe conteyneþ x. chapitlis.

  • ¶ Cap. j. of þe secunde tretis is of woundis of þe heed and is anotamie / p. 106
  • ¶ Cap. ij. is of woundis of þe face, and of anotamie of þe same face / p. 141
  • ¶ Cap. iij. is of anotamie of þe necke, and of woundis of þe same / p. 145
  • ¶ Cap. iiij. of woundis of schuldris, armes and hondis, & anotamie of þe same / p. 155
  • ¶ Cap v.*. [v. above line.] of woundis of þe brest, & lymes þat ben wiþinne þe brest, & anotamie of þe same. p. 161
  • ¶ Cap. vj. of woundis of þe rigboon & of whirlebones of þe rigge, & of anotamie of þe same / p. 166
  • ¶ Cap vij. of woundis of þe wesounde þat goþ to þe stomak, & of þe stomak, and of þe guttis, and þe wombe anotamie / p. 167
  • ¶ Cap. viij. of woundis of þe lyuere & splene. p. 171
  • ¶ Cap. ix. of woundis of þe ȝerde, þat is, in þi pintil, and anotamie / p. 173Page  4
  • ¶ Cap. x. of woundis of þe haunche, þies & feet, and anotamie of þe same / p. 176

The Ashmole MS. breaks off here.
Page  7

Ashmole MS. 1396.


[folio 2b] Now þese chapitles of þis book ben y-ordeyned, I wole fulfille my purpos pursuynge ech chapitle bi ordre, & confermynge my wordis aftir þe auctorite of myn auctouris and wiþ experiment þat I haue longe tyme vsed wiþ þe help of god. // // //

Al þing þat we wolde knowe, bi oon of .iij. maners þat we moun knowe, eiþir bi his name, or by his worchinge, or bi his verri beynge schewynge propirte of him-silf / In þis þre maner we moun knowe surgerie bi expownynge of his name; for siurge comeþ of siros, þat is a word of gru, & in englisch siros is an hand, & gyros gru, þat is worchinge in englisch / For þe ende & þe profite of syurgie is * [of hand-wyrchynge. Of þe Name of a thynge Galyen seyth: he þat wyl knowe] soþfastnes of a þing, bisie him nouȝt to knowe þe name of a þing, but þe worchinge & þe effete of þe same þing / Therfore he þat wole knowe what siurgie is, he moot vndirstonde, þat it is a medicinal science, which techiþ us to worche wiþ handis in mannes bodi, wiþ kuttynge or openynge þePage  8 parties þat ben hole & in helynge þo þat ben broken, or kutt, as þei were toforn, [folio 3a] or ellis as nyȝ as a man may, & also in doynge awey þat is to myche skyn: as wertis or wennys, or þe fleisch to hiȝe //

¶ Þe secunde chapitle of Þe firste tretis is of Þe qualitees, maners, and kunnynge of a surgian //

Nedeful it is þat a surgian be of a complexcioun weel proporciound, and þat his complexcioun be temperat / Races seiþ, who-so is nouȝt semelich, is ympossible to haue good maners *[& Auicenne: euyle maners] but folowen þe lijknes of an yuele complexioun/ A surgian muste haue handis weel schape, longe smale fyngris, and his body not quakynge, & al must ben of sutil witt, for al þing þat longiþ to siurgie may not wiþ lettris ben writen. He muste studie in alle þe parties of philofie & in logik, þat he mowe vndirstonde scripturis; in gramer, þat he speke congruliche; in*. [Lat.: quod docet dialectica] arte, þat techiþ him to proue his proporciouns wiþ good resoun; in retorik þat techiþ him to speke semelich. Be he no glotoun, ne noon enuyous, ne a negard; be he trewe, vnbeliche,*. [humbilly in margin, in smaller hand.] & plesyngliche bere he him-silf to hise pacientis; speke he noon ribawdrie in þe sike mannis [folio 3b] hous /Page  9 ȝeue he no counseil, but if he be axid; ne speke he wiþ no womman in folie in þe sik mannes hous; ne chide not wiþ þe sike man ne wiþ noon of hise meyne, but curteisli speke to þe sijk man, and in almaner sijknes bihote him heele, þouȝ þou be of him dispeirid; but neuer þe lattere seie to hise freendis þe caas as it stant / Loue he noon harde curis, & entermete he nouȝt of þo þat ben in dispeir. Pore men helpe he bi his myȝt, and of þe riche men axe he good reward / Preise he nouȝt him-silf wiþ his owne mouþ, ne blame he nouȝt scharpliche oþere lechis; loue he alle lechis & clerkis, & bi his myȝt*. [myȝt in margin.] make he no leche his enemye. So cloþe he him wiþ vertues, þat of him mai arise good fame & name; & þis techiþ etik. So lerne he fisik, þat he mowe wiþ good rulis his surgerie defende & þat techiþ fisik / Neþeles it is nessessarie a surgian to knowe alle þe parties and ech sengle partie of a medicyn. For if a surgian ne knewe nouȝt þe science of elementis, whiche þat ben firstmoost force of natural þingis & of dyuers lymes, he mai not [folio 3*a] knowe science of coniouncions, þat is to seie, medlyngis & complexiouns þat ben nessessarie to his craft / A surgian muste knowe þat alle bodies þat ben medlid vndir þe sercle of þe moone, ben engendrid of fourePage  10 symple bodies, her lijknes ech in oþere medlynge; þat is to seie: fier & watir, erþe & eir: þese*. [ben above line.] elementis for þe vttirmeste eende, & þe vttermeste contrariouste of here qualitees were fer drawen from bodilich lijf; but whanne her qualitees, þat is to seie, maner of beynge, comen into medlynge, so þat þe leeste partie of þat oon entre into þe leeste partie of þat oþer partie, medlynge brekiþ her contrariouste; & þerof comen a newe foorme, & a newe complexcioun of þe medlynge of her substaunce / Also þe medlynge of qualitees & þe quantitees is fer drawen from þe contrariouste of þe same elementis, & so complexioun is nyȝ brouȝt to a mele; & so þat þat is medlid is more able to resceiue þe noble foorme of lijf, þe which nobilite aboue alle bodies I-medlid is founden in mannes spirit. But for þat þe qualitees þat wiþ þo bodies of elementis [folio 3*b] comen into medlynge, & it is vnpossible to departe þo qualitees from bodies þat ben foure: hoot, coold, moist & drie, & complexiouns ben bi hem, it is nessessarie to fynde in bodies þat ben medlid foure complexiouns / Complexioun is no þing ellis but a maner qualite medlid in worchinge & suffrynge of contrarious qualitees þat ben founden in elementis, so þat þe leeste partie of ech element entre into þe leeste partie of þe oþere. & for þat ilkePage  11 .iiij. complexiouns, hoot, moist, coold & drie, sumtyme ben y-componed, þat is to seie, medlid, þer comen in hem .viij. as: hoot & drie, hoot & moist, & coold & drie, and coold & moist / Foure of þese ben symple, and foure componed; & for þilke .viij. sumtyme ben wiþ mater, & sumtyme wiþoute mater / þer ben .xvj.; & for þilke xvj. aftir sum consideracioun moun be naturel to summan, & summan vnnaturel / þer moun be .xxxij. Neuereþelatter among alle þe complexiouns þat man mai fynde, þat is componed of dyuers qualitees, þere ne is noon so temperat, as is mannes complexioun; & hauynge reward to mannes complexioun, alle oþere þingis *[ys] I-clepid, hoot, coold, moist, [folio 4a] eiþer drie. / Whanne*. [A mistranslation from the Latin: Illam namque rem ... dicimus esse temperatam, quæ cum passa fuerit a calore naturali, qui est in nobis, non calefit, etc.] þat a mete or a medicyn haþ suffrid kyndely heete þat is in man, þat heetiþ him nouȝt, ne drieþ him nouȝt, ne moistiþ hym nouȝt, so þat mannes complexioun may not conseyue wheþer it coldiþ him, heetiþ or drieþ or moistiþ him: it is clepid temperat / & þilke þing þat we seie is hoot in þe firste degree, þat is I-heet of kyndely heete þat is in oure bodies, & heetiþ oure bodies wiþouten greuauncis / & þilke we seien to be hoot in þe secunde degree, which þat is het of oure kyndely heete, so heetiþ oure bodi þat he ne myȝte heete us no more wiþoute greuaunce /Page  12 þilke we seie to be hoot in þe þridde degree, which þat is het of *. [vn above line.]kyndely heete bryngiþ to oure bodi sensible greuaunce. & þilke is in þe fourþe degree, þat is hot of *. [vn in different hand.]vnkyndely heete, distroieþ þe bodi openliche / & in þis same maner ȝe moun knowe degrees þat ben colde / I mai preue in þis maner, þat it is nessessarie a surgian to knowe complexiouns of bodies, lymes, & of medicyns. Take .ij. men þat ben of oon age, & lete hem ben I-woundid wiþ a swerd or a knyf*. [ouer above line.] þwert ouer þe arm in oon hour & in oon place; oon of þe men is of an [folio 4b] hoot complexioun & a moist, þat oþer of a cold complexioun & a drie. Þe comoun seiynge of lewid men is þat þei schulden boþe ben helid on o maner; but resonable surgerie I-preued techiþ us, þat þei ne schulde not boþe be helid aftir oon maner / For he þat haþ an hoot complexioun, & a moist, may liȝtly haue an hoot enpostym—þat is an hoot swellynge—& þat may be cause of an hoot feuere. What schalt þou þanne do? þou must loke, wheþer he haþ bled myche blood at his wounde, and þanne it is weel; ellis lete him blood of þe contrarious arme, or ellis*—of þe oon same side, if strenkþe & age acorde; or ventose*. [Lat. ventosare. Kersey, Dict. Ventose, a Cupping Glass.] him on þe two buttokkis, if þat he be feble. & if he may not schite*. [Lat. ascellare. Add. MS. translates accurately: go to sege. See below. Compare: a Sege of a Privay; gumfus. Cathol. Angl., p. 328. Compare the French: aller à la selle.] oones a day, helpe himPage  13 þerto, or with clisterie, or wiþ suppositorie. & brynge þou þe parties of þe wounde togidere þoruȝ sowynge, or wiþ plumaciols—þat ben smale pelewis—or wiþ byndynge, if þat sewynge be nouȝt nessessarie, & þanne worche aboute þe wounde, as it is told aftir in þe book. But aboute þe wounde leie a medicyn defensif, of bole armonyac*. [Bole Armoniack. See N. E. Dict.], oile of rosis, & a litil vynegre; so þat [folio 5a] þe medicyn touche þe brynkis of þe wounde, þat humouris moun not haue her cours to renne to þe wounde; & we forbeden him wiyn, mylk & eiren & fisch þat engendriþ myche blood / But he schal ete for his mete growel maad of otemele, eiþir of barli mele wiþ almaundis; & generaliche he schal vse a streit dietynge, til þat he be sikir þat he schal haue noon hote enpostym. & if þat we kunne fende him fro a feuere & apostym, þe science of his complexioun techiþ us, þat he may of his sijknes soone be hool / þe oþere of þe cold complexioun schal not be leten blood ne ventusid, for blood schulde be kept in him, as for tresour / Forbede hem neiþir wiyn ne fleisch, for þe stomak þat is so feble ne myȝte nouȝt engendre nessessarie mater of blood þat longiþ to þe wounde / Ne we drede nouȝt in him þe feuere, for his complexioun is nouȝt able to resceyue þe feuere / We mounPage  14 fynde a medicyn maad in oon maner þat worchiþ dyuers effectis, & he be I-leid to dyuers complexiouns / Grene vitriol, & he be do to a man of a drie complexioun engendrith fleisch*. [fleisch in margin.]; & if þou leie [folio 5b] him on moist compleccioun, he greueþ nouȝt oonliche, but corrodith it; and neþeles vitriol haþ but oon maner worchinge, þouȝ þat he worche dyuersliche in dyuers complexiouns / Riȝt as þe worchinge of þe sunne is dyuers, nouȝt for þe sunne, but for þe worchinge of dyuers bodies into whom he worchiþ / Vitriol drieþ wondirfulliche myche: in drie bodies he defendiþ*. [defendiþ, mistake for fyndiþ; see below.] þe smale lymes myȝt*. [myȝt for myȝty; see below.] to aȝenstonde his miȝt, wherfore he may nouȝt but drie þe superfluytees þat he fyndiþ in þe wounde; & whanne þo ben y-dried, kynde engendriþ fleisch. In moiste bodies, for þat þe smale lymes ben feble & moun not wiþstonde þe strenkþe of þe vitriol, þe fleisch meltiþ vndir it, & so bi vitriol þe fleisch rotiþ. & þat is seid of dyuers complexiouns, is y-seid of dyuers lymes / Galioun seiþ: If þat tweye woundis ben euene I-quytturid, & þe oon be a drie lyme, & þe oþer a moist lyme, þat þat is þe drie lyme nediþ þe moister medicyn / And if þat .ij. lymes leeue*. [leeue for leche?] ben I-woundid þat ben lichPage  15 in complexioun, & þe oon haþ myche quytture & þe toþer litil, he þat haþ þe myche quytture, nediþ to han þe drier medicyn /

[folio 6a] Iohannes damascenus seiþ, Medicyns & enplastris schulden ben acordynge to þe lymes þat þei ben leid on / Galienus: a kyndly þing schal be kept wiþ a þing þat is kyndly þerto / And þat is aȝen kynde schal be doon awei with þing þat is contrarie þerto / If þat a surgian knew not complexiouns of lymes & of bodies, he schal nouȝt conne to schewynge hise medicyns aftir þat kynde askiþ. A surgian must knowe generacioun of humouris, if he wolde knowe þe science & þe helynge of apostymes, as it schal be declarid in þe tretis of apostymes. He muste knowe þe dyuersitees & þe profitis & þe officis of lymes, þat he mowe knowe, what lymes han a greet worchinge in mannes body, & whiche ben of greet felynge, & whiche moun bere a strong medicyn / & þe vertues of lymes þou must knowe, þat he se, whanne þe worchinge of ony vartu failiþ in ony lyme, þat he mowe helpe þe vertu & þe same lyme failynge. & if he haue þe science of knowynge of vertues, þe science of spiritis schal nouȝt be hid fro him. Alle þese þingis bifore seid ben but natureles, & þei [folio 6b] ben but techinge of medicyns speculatijf /

Also he muste haue knoulechinge of þingis þat ben not naturels, þat he kunne chese good eir to him þat is woundid or ellis haþPage  16 a boch*. [boch, Latin apostema; M. E. botch. See N. E. Dict.] / Woundis moun not be*. [heelid cancelled.] dried in a moist eir & a vapouris, but þei þat ben woundid musten ben chaungid fro þat moist eir to a swete cleer eyr & a drie / In wyntir he muste kepe him fro cold; for no þing greueþ so myche boones & senewis as cold*. [as cold misplaced; see below.] þat ben I-woundid / & in somer he muste haue temperable eir. It is nessessarie þat he kunne dietyn his pacient, as I schal telle in þe same chapitle of dietinge / also he muste ordeyne meuynge & reste,*. [to cancelled after reste.] as it nediþ to þe same sijk man / for if þat he be woundid in þe heed eiþer haue ony puncture of ony senewe, it is nessessarie þat he reste & dwelle in stillenes & haue an esy bed & a soft; lest he suffre ony traueile of his lymes / But if þat olde woundis wiþout akynge weren in his armes, it were good to him, þat is sijk, to walke on his feet, & lete his arme be bounde to his necke; & if þat þe wounde be in hise schynes & in hise feet, it were good þat he lay & traueilide wiþ hise hondis / Also a [folio 7a] surgian, in al þat he myȝte, he muste tempere a sijk mannes slepinge; for to myche slepinge engenderiþ superfluyte & febliþ his vertewes, & coldiþ & lesiþ al his bodi / To myche wakinge dissolueþ & confoormeþ*. [confoormeþ, erroneously for consumeþ, as below. Lat. Orig.: dissolvunt et consumunt.] hise spiritis &Page  17 makiþ scharpe hise humouris; it bryngiþ vnkindly drowþe to woundis, & is cause of akynge / Also he muste kunne evacuener him þat is ful of yuel humouris & fulfille him þat is waastid, þat he brynge sike men to good temperaunce; ellis a wounde mai not be heelid / Entempre he þe herte of him þat is sijk, for to greet wraþþe. makiþ þe spiritis renne to myche to þe wounde & þat is caus of swellynge; to greet drede, ouþir vttereste*. [uttereste, only known as an adj.: extremus, erroneously for untryste. See below.] of heelþe of his wounde, holdiþ þe spiritis wiþinne his bodi, þat mater mai not come to heele his wounde / Þese .vj. þingis ben clepid vnnaturel,*. [Lat. quæ sunt secundum membrum theoricæ medicinæ.] which techiþ a man speculatijf of leche craft.

He muste knowe þe sijknes: as olde wounde, festre, cankre & alle oþere soris, þat he traueile not in veyn & brynge þe sike man to his deeþ / For ech dyuers soor nediþ dyuers helpingis. He muste knowe þe cause of þe wounde / ffor a wounde, þat is [folio 7b] maad wiþ a swerd eiþer a knyf, must oþerwise be heelid, þan he þat is maad wiþ stoon eiþer fallinge / And a wounde þat is biten wiþ an hound schal oþerwise be heelid, þan he þat is biten with a wood hound; as þou schalt fynde soone told in þe book herafter / & he muste knowe þe accidentis þat ben aboute a wounde / for þe wounde schal neuere heele, til þe accidentis be remeued awey / accidentis isPage  18 a þing þat falliþ to a wounde out of kynde as hoot, cold, drie, eiþer to myche moistnes, crampe & oþere þinges aȝens kynde / A surgian muste ordeyne dietynge in dyuers maner, as it is told in þe chapitle of dietynge; & whanne it is nedeful, he muste ȝeue dyuers drinkis / Galien: Laxatiues & vometis ben nedeful to hem, þat han olde rotid woundis & stynkynge / For whanne þe bodi is purgid fro wickide humouris, þe wickidnes of þe mater renneþ fro þe wounde & so þe wounde is sunner helid / He þat biholdiþ alle þe parties of a medicyn, he may weel se þat it is nessessarie a surgian to knowe phisik, & oþer dyuers science, as I haue told tofore in þe book.

¶ þe .iij co. of þe firste techinge is of intencioun of a surgian /

[folio 8a] Al þe entencioun of a surgian, how diuers þat it be, it is on* [of] þre maners / þe first is vndoynge of þat, þat is hool / þe secunde to hele þat, þat is broke / þe .iij. is remeuynge of þat, þat is to myche; so þat it be don with hand craft / ffor al entencioun of a surgian is vndir þese .iij. entenciouns, or ellis vnder oon of hem A surgian vndoiþ þat þat is hool, whanne he letiþ blood, eiþer garsiþ,*. [garsiþ] Lat. scarificat; Fr. gerçer; med. Lat. gersa, garsa. See Cathol. Angl., p. 150.] eiþer brenneþ, eiþer settiþ on watirlechis, for þis is aPage  19 surgiens craft; þouȝ we for oure pride haue left it to barbouris & to wymmen / for Galion & Rasis diden it with her hondis, as her bookis tellen. And we vndoon þat, þat is hool, whanne þat we kutten þe veynes, þat ben in þe templis & þe forheed & maken cauterizaciouns for þe sijknes of þe yȝen / And whanne þat we maken cauteries in þe heed & in dyuers placis of þe bodi, as I schal telle in þe chapitle of cauterisynge / Þe secunde entencioun is to hele þat, þat is broken as woundis, olde woundis, festris, cankris & in bringyng to her placis ioyntis þat ben oute & in helynge boones þat ben to broken / Þe .iij. intencioun is to remeue þat, þat is to myche, as [folio 8b] scrofulus of þe heed & þe necke & oþere parties of þe bodie / cataractis*. [cataract, sebel and ungula. See Notes.]—is a watir þat comeþ bitwene þe white of þe iȝen & þe appil; sebel—þat ben veynes þat ben in þe whiȝt of þe iȝen & beþ ful of blood / vngula—is a þing, þat bigynneþ bi þe nose & goiþ ouer þe iȝe til he keuere al þe iȝe—& knottis, þat ben in þe iȝe & oþer siknes of þe iȝe; & in doynge awey polippis, þat is fleisch þat growiþ wiþinne þe nose; wertis & wennys; ficus, þat is superfluyte þat growen vpon þe skyn of þe pintils hede wiþoute, emerawdis*. [The Latin text has: superfluitatem hermaphroditis.] & a skyn þat enclosiþ a wommans priuy membre, þePage  20 sixte fingre of þe hond & manye superfluytees þat beþ nouȝt semelich to a mannys body

¶ þe firste chapitle of þe secunde tretis is an vniuersal word of smale lymes & her helpingis, & of generacioun of embrioun, þat is þe child, in þe modir wombe // / /*. [See Vicary, ed. Furnivall, p. 78.]

Galienus seiþ, þat it is nessessarie a surgian to knowe anotamie; ne leeue we nouȝt þat ech brood ligament is a skyn, & ech round ligament to be a senewe, so bi his opinyoun he myȝte falle into errour / Þerfore I þenke to ordeyne a chapitle of þe kynde & of the [folio 9a] foorme & helpinge of alle smale lymes / Auicen seiþ / knoulechinge of a þing, þat haþ cause, mai nouȝt be knowen, but bi his cause. Þerfore we moten knowe þe cause, membriorum consimilium, þat is to seie, smale lymes. & I wole telle þe generacioun of embrioun: þat is to seie, how a child is I-gete in þe modir wombe / Galion & auicen tellen, þat of boþe þe spermes of man & of womman, worchinge & suffrynge togideris, so þat ech of hem worche in oþir & suffre in oþir, embrioun is bigete / But the worchinge of mannes kynde is more myȝtiere, & wommans kyndePage  21 more febler / For riȝt as þe roundeles*. [roundeles, rundelis. Add. MS. rendelys, coagulum. See Prompt. Parv., p. 429, renlys, or rendlys. Comp. O. Du. rinsel, runsel.] of chese haþ bi him-silf wei of worchinge & þe mylk bi wey of suffrynge, so to þe generacioun of embrion mannes sperme haþ him*. [mannes sperme haþ him, Lat. ita sperma viri se habet.] bi wei of worchinge & wommans sperme bi wey of suffrynge / & riȝt as þe rundelis*. [roundeles, rundelis. Add. MS. rendelys, coagulum. See Prompt. Parv., p. 429, renlys, or rendlys. Comp. O. Du. rinsel, runsel.] & þe mylk maken a chese, so boþe þe spermes of man & womman maken generacioun of embrioun. Þouȝ þat alle þe smale lymes of a child ben I-geten of boþe two spermes, neþeles, to cloþe hem with fleisch & wiþ fatnes, comeþ to hem menstrue [folio 9b] blood / Þe maris*. [maris, matrix.] of womman haþ an able complexcioun to conseiuen; & of hir kynde he castiþ þe spermes to þe deppest place of hir; & of hir nature he closiþ hir mouþ, þat þer myȝte not entre the poynt of a nedle / & þanne þe foormal vertu which almyȝty god haþ ȝeue to þe maris ordeyneþ & diuidid euery partie of þese spermes in her kynde, til þat þe child be born / Vndirstonde þat þe fleisch & þe fatnes is mad of menstrue blood, þe boones & gristlis, ligamentis & senewis, cordis, arteries, veynes, panniclis—þat ben smale cloþis—& þe skyn beþ engendrid of boþe þe spermes, as auicen & oþere auctouris tellen / If þat ony of þe lymes þat ben engendrid of þe spermes ben doon awey *[he] moun neuere veriliche be restorid, for þe mater of hem is þe sperme of þePage  22 fadir & of þe modir; but þe fleisch the which mater is blood, þat is aldai engendrid in us, may weel & verriliche be restorid / Þese smale lymes han dyuers foormes, complexciouns & helpingis aftir þe dyuersitees of þe proporciouns of þe mater, which þat þei ben maad of / for þouȝ þat alle þe lymes ben maad of oon mater I-medlid, neþeles in ech of þe smale lymes [folio 10a] þer is a dyuers proporcioun of mater, for þe which mater þei taken dyuers foormes & dyuers helpingis. Almyȝti god ȝeueþ to ech þing of his foorme after þat his mater is* proporciound disserueþ /

Þe boon is þe first of þe consimile membris—þat is oon of þe smale lymes; þe which ben*. [ben for is, see below.] cold & drie & he haþ dyuers foormes in mannes bodi: for he helpiþ dyuerslich / þe cause whi þer ben manye dyuers boones in mannes bodi is, for sumtyme it is nede to meeue oon lyme withouten anoþir & þat were impossible, if þat al þe bodi were but oon boon / Anoþer cause whi þer ben manye boones: for summe defenden þe principal lymes from harm, as þe brayn scolle from*. [from, erroneously inserted.] þe brayn of þe heed / summe ben foundementis, as þe boones of þe rigge & of þe schenes & of þe armes / summe ben as additamentis þat ben in þe side of þe rigge boon, & summe to fulfille the holownes of summe ioyntis, as þe handis & þe feet;Page  23 & summe þer ben þat þe roundnes of þe boon myȝte entre into þe holownes of þat oþer boon / & non les schulde not lacke his meuynge as þe schuldre boones & þe hipe boones. Þou maist fynde how manye boones þer ben in þe .ij. tretis, [folio 10b] where schal be told pleynlier þe anotamie of consimile membris of al þe bodi from þe heed to þe foot.

A gristil is cold & drie, & is neischere þan a boon, & hardere þan þe fleisch, and in þe fleisch he haþ sixe helpingis / þe firste, þat þat schulde be a meene bitwene þe vttir ende of þe hard boon & þe neische fleisch / þe .ij. þat þe harde schulde not hirte þe neische, nameli in þe tyme of compressioun, & in þe tyme of smytinge / þe .iij. þat þe eende of þe boones whiche þat ben in þe ioyntis schulden haue a softere confutacioun*. [confutacioun, erroneously for confricacioun. See below.] in her ioyntis / þe fourþe, þat he schulde fulfille þe office of þe boon to susteyne a brawne, meuynge a membre þat haþ noon boon, as þe ouer lid of þe iȝe / þe fifþe: for it is nessessarie a gristil to ben in place, þat is nouȝt ful hard as þe þrote bolle; for þe eende of þe þrote bolle is gristeli / þe .vj.: for it is nessessarie summe lymes to han a sustentacioun, and applicacioun,*. [applicacioun. Read a plicacioun.] þat is foldynge, to be streyned & drawen abrod as þe noseþrillis & þe gristile of þe eere.Page  24

Lygament is cold & drie, and goþ out of þe boones & haþ þe foorme of a senewe. & he may be bowid, but he feliþ nouȝt; & he [folio 11a] haþ foure helpingis / þe firste is, þat he knyttiþ oon boon wiþ anoþer / it is nessessarie, þat oon boon be knytt wiþ anoþer, þat many boonys myȝten make oon bodi as oon boon, & neuereþelatter ech membre myȝte meue bi him-silf, & þerfore þe ligament is as bowable & incensible / for if þat it hadde be censible, þei myȝten nouȝt han I-susteyned þe traueile & þe meuynge of þe ioyntis / & if þat he hadde be inflexible as a boon, of whom he comeþ of, oon lyme myȝte not han meued wiþouten anoþer / þe secunde help is, þat he is ioyned wiþ senewis to make cordis & brawnes / þe þridde help is þat he schulde be a restynge place to summe senewis / þe fourþe þat bi him þe membris, þat ben wiþinne þe bodies, schulden ben y-teied, þe whiche þat neden hangynge.

A corde*. [There is a constant confusion in all the mediæval medical books between nerves and sinews. See further Notes.] is cold & drie, & he comeþ from þe brayne, eiþer from þe mucha*. [mucha, an error for nucha; med. Lat. nucha. Dufr.: postera pars colli. Fr. nuque. Littré gives references from the 14th cent. for the signification, marrow. See Notes.]; þat is þe marie of þe rigge boones // From þe brayn comen .vij. peire cordes. & þei ben clepid sensible senewis / ffrom þe nucha þer comen xxx peire cordis & oon bi him silf & þei ben mouable / And alle þe cordis þat comen of þe [folio 11b] brayn & nucha, haþPage  25 boþe felynge & meuynge. & þe cordis ben white, bowable, strong & towȝ. & of her kynde þei bryngen meuynge & felynge to lymes. & for þat it is long & dyuydiþ*. [& dyuydiþ] a mistake for to dyvyde. Latin: De divisione vero membrorum multum longa est doctrina.] alle þe parties of þe senewis *[in þe secunde tretys y schal ordeyne Anotamye of ȝenewes & here place] as þei ligge; in þe whiche placis þou must be war whanne þou schalt kutte eiþer brenne / whanne þat we schulen ordeyne anotamie of official membris & of her woundis / Official membris is to seie: a fyngir, a ioynt, an hand, eiþer a foot *[ore] oþere lymes of office /

Arteries ben hoote nouȝt of her owne kynde, but for þe hoot blood & lijf þat goiþ in hem from þe herte. Of her kynde þei ben colde & drie & þei han two cloþis, outcept oon þat goiþ to þe lungis; þe ynnere corde is stronger & grettere, þat he mowe wiþholde a meuable mater & an hoot. & her bigynnynge is in þe lift side of þe herte. & þere bigynnen two arteries; oon goiþ to þe lunge & haþ but oon coote and sprat in þe same lunge, & þere endiþ & bringiþ blood to þe lunge, bi whom he is norischid, & spirit of lijf, and þat he myȝte brynge from þe lunge eir to þe herte for to entempre þe fumosite of hete of þe herte. & þis arterie*. [Arteria venalis, Pulmonary vein. It was taken to be an artery, as it carries arterial blood. See Vicary's Anatomie, ed. Furnivall, p. 58, note 1.] is [folio 12a] y-clepid venales. & it Page  26 is a maner veyne, for as myche as he ne haþ but oon coote, and þerfore he is þe more obedient to be drawe abrood þoruȝ out alle þe lungis; & also þat þe blood þat norischiþ þe lungis myȝte liȝtly swete out of þis arterie / Þe toþer arterie þat comeþ out of þe lift-side of þe herte haþ two cootis, bi cause þat oon myȝt not aȝenstonde þe strenkþe of þe spiritis; & also þat, þat is wiþinne þe arterie, is ful derworþe & nediþ greet kepinge / Þer ben þre helpingis of þe arteries: oon is þat cold eir myȝte bi hem be drawe & I-brouȝt to þe herte whanne þe arterie is drawe abrod. Þe secunde is, þat þe fumosite myȝte be cast out whanne he is constreyned / þe þridde is, þat þe spirit of lijf myȝte be brouȝt bi hem to al þe bodi / þese arteries ben deuydid many weies; whos dyuysiouns man mai nouȝt conseyue bi his witt, ne þei ben nouȝt dredful to*. [a erased.] surgiens craft, but whanne þou schalt drede þe arteries I schal telle þee in her placis /

Veynes bi cause of her bodies ben deemed cold & drie; for þe blood þat is withynne hem þei ben deemed hoot; & alle þe veynes han her bigynnynge [folio 12b] at þe lyuere, in þe which lyuere .ij. veynes han pryncipal bigynnynge / oon veyne bigynneþ of þe holowȝ side of þe lyuere. & is clepid porta*. [Vena Porta. See Vicary, p. 22, note 1.]—þat is a ȝate / & her office is to drawe *[Chilum]Page  27 fro þe stomak & þe guttis bi mene of þe veynes miseraices*. [Veynis miserak. See Vicary, p. 66, note 7.]; & þilke chilum sprediþ þoruȝ al þe lyuere bi mene of veynes capillares / Chilum*. [Chilum. See Vicary, p. 68, note 2.] is þe licour of þe mete, whanne it goiþ out of þe stomak & þe guttes / Veynis miserak*. [Veynis miserak. See Vicary, p. 66, note 7.] ben smale veynes þat comen out of þe veyne þat is clepid porta & cleueþ on þe stomak & þe guttis / Venes capillares, þat ben veynes as it were heers of a mannes heed /

After hem comeþ panniclis—þat is to seie smal clooþ, þat is maad of sutil þredis of senewis, veynes & arteries / wherfore þei ben colde & drie & censible / & þei han þre helpingis / þe firste is: þat þei moun bynde manye þingis in oon foorme, as þe panicle of þe heed byndiþ seuene boones / þe secunde Iuuament is: þat þei hangen & bynden summe membris wiþ oþere as þe reynes to þe rigge & þe maris*. [MS. þe maris to þe maris to þe rigge. The second maris is cancelled.] to þe rigge / þe þridde helpinge is: þat þe membris [folio 13a] þat ben incensible bi her kynde, bi þe panniclis þat wrieþ hem velen bi accident: as þe lungis, þe lyuere, & þe splene, & þe reynes. Þes lymes bi her kynde han no felynge, but what þei felen it is bi accidens of þe pannicle þat wrieþ hem.

Þe*. [Latin: Caro vero calida est et humida.] fleisch is not hoot, but it is moist & haþ þre maner lijknes: oon is a symple fleisch, & his helpinge is to fulfille þe voide placisPage  28 of smale lymes to brynge hem to a good schap, & þat ech hard lyme schulde nouȝt hirte oþer wiþ confucacioun*. [confucacioun. Addit. confricacioun. See page 23, note 2.] togidere / Anoþer maner fleisch þer is þat is glandelose, þat is as it were accornis,*. [accornis, glandes.] & his Iuuament is þat he turne*. [Latin: eius juvamentum est, ut convertat humiditates ad eius colorem. The English translator read: calorem.] humedites, þat is to seie moistnes to her heete; as þe glandelose fleisch of wommans brestis þe which þat turneþ þe blood þat is drawen from þe maris into mylk; & þe glandelose fleisch of þe ballockis, þat turneþ þe blood into sperme / & þe glandelose fleisch of þe chekis þat engendriþ spotil / þe þridde maner fleisch is a fleisch þat is in brawnys, þat is clepid a brawn fleisch, for he is medlid wiþ sutil þredis of cordis, as I schal telle after þe whiche helpingis schal be told in þe [folio 13b] anotamie of þe brawn.

At þe laste is þe skyn þat is temperat in al her qualitees; & it is maad of smale þredis of veynes, senewis, & arteries, þat makiþ him censible, & ȝeueþ him liȝf & worchinge, þat ben gouernouris of al þe bodi. & þe skyn is maad temperat, for he schulde knowe hoot, coold, moist, & drie, soft, hard, scharp, & smoþe / & if þat þe skyn were as sencible as a senewe, þanne a man myȝte not dwelle in erþe ne in hoot eir; ne þe skyn of þe fyngris endis þe whiche þat is more temperat þan ony oþir skyn of þe bodi ne schulde nouȝt be aPage  29 good demere in knowynge hoot, cold, hard, scharp, soft, eiþer neische.

Brawnes þouȝ þat þei be maad of mater medlid, neþeles þei ben rekened among membris consimiles, for þei comen to þe making of membris officials / Brawn is maad of fleisch, senewe, & ligamentis, & þei ben instrument voluntarie meuynge. Þe senewe þat comeþ fro þe brayn & þe nucha, & goiþ forþ to meue þe lymes, is medlid wiþ a ligament / & whanne þe senewe & þe ligament ben medlid togidere, it is clepid a corda / & þe corde is maad for þre skilis. þe firste*. [þe firste in margin.] for a symple sinewe is to censible [folio 14a] ; þe senewe bi him-silf myȝt not suffre gret traueile & meuynge, but þe felowschipe of þe ligament þat is incensible lettiþ þe felynge of þe senewe, & bringiþ him to a profitable temperaunce / Þe senewe haþ .ij. oþere defautis: neischenesse and liȝtnesse. But þo .ij. defautis þe medlynge of þe ligament fulfilliþ*. [fulfilliþ, supplet. See Cath. Angl., p. 145, to Fulfylle, supplere vicem Alterius.]; for þe neischenes is temperid & strenkþid, & þe litilnes is maad more. Þe neischnes comeþ of þe brayn for it is myche, & þe litilnes comeþ of þe nucha, for it is litil. Þat þat is maad of þis nerf & þis ligament is clepid a corde; þe which þat meueþ þe lymes to þe wille of þe soule, whanne þat it is schortidPage  30 ouþer drawen after þat þe lyme bouwiþ. To þis*. [Lat.: Huic autem chordæ—associatur caro simplex. Comp. Add. MS.] corde, þer is asocied a symple *[fflesch] for to make a brawn for þre profitis / þe firste profiȝt þat is in drawynge & wiþdrawynge of þe corde, þe fleisch schulde be as a pelewe vpon þe which he myȝt reste / þe secunde, þat þe fleisch þat is neische & moist schulde kepe þe corde, þat he drie nouȝt in her meuynge / þe þridde, þat þe makynge of lymes were þe more schaploker./ Þe brawn is maad bowynge as a bowe þat is bent; & for þe kynde wolde kepe þis complexioun, he cloþide [folio 14b] þe brawn wiþ a pannicle / þe corde whanne he entriþ into þe brawn is departid into many smale þredis, & þei ben clepid villes*. [villes. Lat. villi.]—þat is to seie wrappingis. & þese villes ben of .iij. maner: in lenkþe bi þe which vertu, þat drawiþ haþ myȝt, in brede, bi þe which vertu þat castide out haþ myȝt / in þwert ouer bi þe which vertu *[þat] with halt haþ myȝt / & at þe eendis of þe brawn þilke þredis ben gaderid togidere to make a corde, aftir þat it is nessessarie / many cordis eiþer brawnes to ben engendrid. & official membris ben maad of þese consimile membris, þe whiche þat ben instrumentes to resonable soule. And in þe ij. tretis I wole telle þe anotamie of lymes of office.Page  31

The firste chapitle //

¶ Þe .iij. techinge is of difference of woundis & of general curis / We schulen undrestonde þat wounde, & old wounde, festre & cankre woundid, & boon out of ioynte, & a boon to-broken, & apostyme, alle þese ben clepid vndoynge of þat þat is hool. & alle þese sijknessis, & many oon oþir as weel, moun falle to consimile membris as to official membris / vulnus is a newe wounde / vlcus is an old rotid wounde. [folio 15a] I schal tellen in her placis þe difference of festre & cankre & apostyme; plage comounly is taken for an oold wounde, & ofte tymes we fynde þat an old wounde is clepid vulnus, as ypocras seiþ / vulnera anua necesse est in eis os taliefieri*. [Read tabefieri.] & cicatrices concauas fieri: þat is to seie, it is nedful*. [it is nedful in margin.] þat þe boon in an oold wounde to be rotid & þe cicatrices to be holowȝ / Cicatrice is þe place of þe schynboon*. [schynboon, read schyn above. See below.] þe wounde, whanne þat it is hool / Summe woundis ben symple, & summe compound / in two maner he is clepid a symple wounde / oon maner, for he haþ not lost of fleisch / anoþer maner for he haþ noon oþir sijknesse wiþ him, ne is nouȝt distemperid / A wounde compound is clepid contrarie to him þat is symple / but boþe symple & compoundis sumtyme is in þe fleisch orPage  32 in þe senewe, or in þe boon, or in þe veynes, or in þe arterie / also þese woundis han dyuers cause. Summe comen fro wiþinne of þe malice, eiþer of to greet multitude of humouris. *[forto gret multitude of humores] oþirwhile tobrekiþ þe membre & wiþholdiþ & woundiþ him / Cold matere streyneþ, drie mater kuttiþ, moisture wiþoute mater makiþ no wounde, but selden with [folio 15b] mater, but he drawe þe lyme to brode. & also þe cause wiþoute*. [The cause wiþoute, causa exterior.] mai be dyuers oþirwhile wiþ a swerd eiþir wiþ a þing þat kuttiþ along, oþer while wiþ a knyf or wiþ a spere or an arowe þat prickiþ, & summe ben maad wiþ a staf or wiþ a stoon eiþir wiþ fallynge, & summe ben maad wiþ bitynge of an hound ouþir a wood hound; & alle þese ben diuers aftir þe dyuersite of her causis; & also þe maner of helynge is dyuers / Al þe intencioun of helynge of woundis is for to sowden or to helen & to restoren þat, þat is departid, þe which þat mai not oueral be doon / for if þat membris of office ben kutt of, þei moun neuere be restorid, ne noon of þe consimile membris mai be restorid, if he be doon awey: as boonis, pelliculis, gristlis, ligamentis & skyn / For þe cause of her generacioun is þe sperme of þe fadir & of þe modir, as I tolde tofore / but in place of þing þat is I-lore, kynde restoriþ þat, þat is moost conuenient to þe place; but fleisch mai be restorid bi causePage  33 þat þe blood is engendrid al day in us, & þe blood is þe mater of þe fleisch / & summe seien þat veynes, arteries, & senewis myȝt not be restorid as þei weren tofore; but þei moun [folio 16a] be restorid as boonys ben / But Galion and Auicen & I þat am expert here seiynge,*. [I þat am expert here seiynge. Lat.: ego qui sum expertus eorum dicta.] we*. [we, added above line.] seie þat þei moun be restorid wiþ veri consolidacioun, whanne þat her kuttynge is litil, & whanne þat þe senewis þat ben newe kutt &*. [&, mistake for ben.] soude aȝen; but þei moun not be consoudid, whanne þat her kuttynge is myche & greet; & resoun grauntiþ it / Senewis bi kynde ben neische & viscouse; & þerfore þei moun*. [not, erroneously added above line.] ben consoudid, & þe veynes & þe arteries moun be consoudid bi resoun of þe blood þat is in hem. I þenke to ordeyne ech chapitle bi him-silf after þe dyuersite of lymes & of placis, þe whiche þat þei ben maad ynne / & I wole bigynne at a symple wounde maad in fleisch /

þe secunde chapitle of þe þridde techinge /

Now we wolen trete of a wounde maad in fleisch. We wolen bigynne at a symple wounde maad wiþ knyf or wiþ swerd, or spere or arowe, or wiþ ony oþir þing semblablele to hem.Page  34 Bynde togideris þilke wounde with a boond þat closiþ þe wounde togideris, & kepe þilke wounde from swellynge wiþ þe whiȝt of an ey leid aboue þe wounde, & lete þe wounde be in reste; & þer nediþ noon oþer cure, namely, [folio 16b] whanne þe wounde is wiþoute akynge; but, & þer be in þe wounde greet akynge, þanne it is a tokene, þat þer is a senewe prickid vndir þe wounde, eiþer a pannicle þat is bitwene þe fleisch and þe boon; & þanne þer is anoþer cure, as I schal telle in þe chapitle of puncture of a senewe. þat*. [þat, scribal insertion.] I haue heelid a man þat was *[sefenty ȝere olde þat was] smyte wiþ a spere þoruȝ þe fleisch of þe buttoke, bi þe lenkþe of a fote, *[& more] but þilke wounde touchide no senewe, & þat I wiste sikirliche, for he hadde noon akynge / I heeld þe wounde open aldai wiþ a litil smal tent & a schort, þat I myȝte wite, if þat he schulde aken on þe morowe, & I comaundide him to reste / & on þe morowe I foond noon inflacioun ne akynge; & þanne I took awey þe tent & lete þe wounde closen, & so comaundide I him to reste þe secunde dai / In þe þridde day he was hool. & if a wounde were maad wiþ a swerd or wiþ ony þing þat bitiþ in lenkþe, anoon þou must loke if þe wounde be so litil þat he nede no sowynge, & þanne brynge þe parties of þe wounde togideris, þat it may be weel ioyned, & leie aboue þe wounde a poundir maad oon partiePage  35 of frankencense, & of two parties [folio 17a] of sandragoun,*. [Sandragoun. Sanguis draconis: the gum of the Dragon-tree. Kersey. 1706. See Notes.] & of þre parties of quyk lym, & lete nouȝt þe poudre entre bitwene in þe wounde but aboue, for þer schal no þing entre in þe wounde, & kepe þe parties of þe wounde þat ben brouȝt togidere wiþ a plumaciol*. [Plumaceoli: Bolsters used by Surgeons. Kersey. 1706.] .iij. cornered maad of herdis or of towe in þis maner: {illustration}
oon bi þe sidis of þe wounde, so þat boþe þilke plumaciols holde þe wounde þus iclosed*. [iclosed, inserted in margin.]: {illustration}
& ioyned togidere as it was ioyned arst, or it were kutt / & bynde þe wounde togidere aboue þe plumaciols wiþ a rolle þat goiþ ouerþwert aftir þis lettre .X. & take a lynnen clooþ & wete him in two parties of þe white of an ey, in oon partie of oile of rosis, þei ben togidere medlid, undir þe plumaciols, leid aboue þe wounde þat is brouȝt togidere, for to kepe þe*. [MS. wounde, cancelled.] poudre; & do nouȝt awey þi medicyn til .iiij. daies ben goon, but if þat þe wounde ake or be to-swollen. & þanne bynde þe wounde as it was biforn wiþ þe white of an ey; oile, poudre, & plumaciols. But if þe wounde were so myche, þat byndynge wolde nouȝt suffice, or were kutt ouerþwert ouer þe lyme, so þat þe parties of þe lyme myȝt nouȝt wel be [folio 17b] brouȝt togideris, þanne sowe þe wounde on þis maner / Ioyne þe lippis of þe wounde, & be war þat noon oile *[ne dust] ne no þing ellis, þat lettiþ consolidacioun, falle bitwene þe lippis of þePage  36 wounde, & haue a nedle þre cornerid, whos iȝe schal be holid on boþe sidis, so þat þe þred þat is in þe nedle may lie in þe holowȝ place, & þilke þred schal be twyned, & wiþoute knotte, & I-wexid, & þe lippis of þe wounde schal be sowid togideris; & þe þred schal be knytt wiþ two knottis in þe firste place, & in þe secunde place wiþ oon knotte; & so make as manye poyntis, as it is nessessarie, & ech poynt schal be from oþir bi þe brede of a litil fyngir, & streyne þe wounde with knottynge & þe sewynge of þe lippis of þe wounde togidere þat he ake sumwhat, but nouȝt to myche. & if þat þer nede mo poyntis to be þere þan two, euermore þer schal be odde poyntis. as .iij. v. or .vij. & þe oon poynt schal be first from þe oon eende of þe wounde, bi þe space of a litil fyngir, & þe toþir poynt schal be at þe oþir ende of þe wounde, & þe þridde poynt schal be in þe myddil of þe wounde / & if it be nede to haue mo poyntis, þanne schalt þou [folio 18a] bigynne at þe myddil poynt, & make as manye poyntis on boþe sidis as it is nede, til þou come to boþe eendis / For bi þis maner of sowynge neiþir partie schal be crokid, & so þe place mai faire be restorid, & euermore take kepe þat *[ȝif] þe wounde be not depe, þi sowynge schal be nouȝt deep / & if þi wounde be deep, þi sowynge schal be deep, þat alle þe parties of þe wounde mounPage  37 be ioyned / For if þe wounde were deep, & þi sowynge not deep, nede þer muste be in þe depþe of þe wounde a greet holownes, to þe which holownes blood & quyttere schulde be cast; & þilke quyttere & blood schulde lette þe helynge of þe wounde. & þe poudre þat is seid in þe same chapitle, schal be leid aboue on þe same wounde; & þou schalt kepe þe sewynge & þe parties of þe wounde þat I brouȝte togidere wiþ plumaciols þre cornerid, & wiþ alle þe oþere þingis þat ben in þis chapitle tofore seid / And if þat a wounde haþ be to longe in þe eir open, which þat is þe cause of quyttere þat lettiþ consolidacioun, þanne we musten clense þe wounde wiþ þis mundificatif þat is maad of flour of wheete & hony & water & mel roset, [folio 18b] I-colat, þat is to seie, clensid from þe rosis, and of barly mele / Of þese mundificatyues þou schalt haue a ful techinge in þe laste tretis /

But if þe wounde be compound, a leche muste haue as manye intenciouns as þer ben accidentis to þe wounde / I sette an ensaumple. I suppose þat a wounde be compound wiþ holownes & lesynge of fleisch & of skyn, & þere be myche quytter, & also þat þer be apostyme, & þer be a greet akynge; al þis is clepid a wounde compound / þanne schulen we nouȝt onliche take hede to consolidacioun of þat wounde: þat is to seie, helynge; but first we schulen aswagePage  38 akþe & apostymes, as it schal be teld in þe chapitle of an enpostyme & of akynge / Aftirward we schulen clense þe quytture, & aftir þat regenere fleisch, & at þe laste brynge ouer cicatrice. In alle þe worchingis of medicyns, where þat akþe is, first we schulen aswage akþe, for aboue al oþir þing strong akynge ouercomeþ myȝt of vertu & strenk þe / & also resoun telliþ; membris*. [Lat., Membra quoque dolorem habentia, dolor ipse est causa attrahendi aliunde humorum pessimitatem.] þat han akþe, þilke akþe is cause of drawynge from þe oþere placis to þe membre þat akiþ þe worste [folio 19a] þing of þe humouris / Auicen seiþ: humouris ben drawen to lymes þat aken for .ij. causis: o cause, for kynde *[& Spiritus and humoures rennyth þedyre; þe secunde cause, for akþe feblyth þe lyme, & humours] & spiritis rennen to þe feble lyme / þe swellynge schal eer be heelid þan þe wounde / Galion & Auicen tellen: þat al þing þat consowdiþ þe wounde greueþ þe wounde, if þat þer be apostyme wiþ þe wounde / & þe quytture schal be clensid or þou leie ony regeneratijf to holowȝ woundis. Auicen telliþ þe cause, whi þat yuel fleisch growiþ in a wounde / If þat a leche wolde bisie him wiþ a medicyn regeneratijf to regendre fleisch in a wounde, & er þan þe quytture were clensid / & whanne þat þe wounde is clensid, þanne we schulen fulfille þilke holownes wiþ fleisch or þat þe wounde bePage  39 heelid, lest perauenture*. [perauenture. See N. E. Dict., adventure, 1. b.] þat þer dwelle an holownesse vndir þe wounde, whanne þat he is helid, in whom þat quytture schulde be engendrid, þerwith*. [þerwiþ, scribal error for þe which.] ech dai schulde augmente þilke holownesse, & so we moten be constreyned to opene anoþir tyme þat, þat was heelid tofore / þou maist fynde in þe chapitle of woundis of senewis, how þou schalt aswage akþe, & in þe .vj. chapitle of þis techinge þou schalt fynde þe cure [folio 19b] of a wounde þat haþ a swellynge, & is out of kynde distemperid; & þou schalt haue in þe chapitle of olde woundis, how þou schalt clense quytture & regendre fleisch /

The þridde techinge of þe firste tretis is of heelynge of a wounde maad in senewe /

Almyȝti god hath ȝeue to senewe greet felyng, & if þat he be hirt, he suffriþ greet akynge / Galion seiþ: a senewe þat is more selynge þan anoþer *[lyme] it is nessessarie þat he haue grettere akþe / Vndirstonde þat a wounde þat is maad in a senewe, mai not be wiþoute akynge. Ne*. [no, scribal error for þe.] woundis þat ben maad in senewis, ouþer þat ben in lenkþe or in brede / Þe woundis þat ben maad in lenkþe of þe2 senewe, ben lesse perilous þan*. [þan erroneously inserted.] þo þat ben maad in brede of þePage  40 senewe ben moost perilous / Oþerwhile a senewe is kutt al atwo / & þanne þilke lyme, to whom þat senewe serueþ, lesiþ his meuynge & þe felynge, þat þilke senewe brouȝte to him from þe brain. & þilke senewe oþirwhile is not kutt al atwo, but he is I-preickid, & þanne it is perilous lest þe crampe come for to greet akþe / For akþe entriþ into þe part of þe senewe þat is kutt or prickid; & bi þe [folio 20a] partie of þe senewe þat is hool, akþe is brouȝt to þe brayn. & so þe crampe mai come to þe wounde bi oon of þre weies: þat is to greet akþe, cold, or rotynge. Of þese þre or of oon bi him-silf mai come a drawinge togidere of a senewe þat is cause of a crampe / & þat þat is seid of a wounde of a symple senewe may fallen ofte-tymes in a wounde of a corde & a brawn, & nameliche of a corde þat is in bigynnynge of a brawn. Þo woundis þat ben in þese þre consimile membris, þat is *[to] seie senewe, corde, & brawn han o. drede in cours of þe crampe, & also o. drede of felynge, lesynge & meuynge / &*. [&, above line.] þerfore be-war in þe cure of a wounde maad in senewe, wheþer þat it be a prickynge or þat it be kutt ouerþwert, or ellis be kutt oonly bi his lenkþe. If oonly he be prickid þe wounde of þe skyn is hool, & þanne it is clepid a blynde puncture; eiþer þe wounde is open, & it is clepid an open puncture / In a blind puncture it isPage  41 nessessarie to opene þe skyn, & aftirward heelde into þe hoole as hoot as he mai suffre, hoot oile of rosis swete smellynge, þat is maad of oile de oliue þat is nouȝt ripe, til al þe wounde be ful. & aboue þe wounde leie whiȝt terebentine [folio 20b] *. [terebentine, from Pistacia Terebinthus, L. The Alah of the Old Testament, and the [gap: 1] of Theophrast.: now almost obsolete.] I-drawe abrood bitwene two clowtis, & anoynte alle þe membris aboute þe wounde wiþ hoot oile of rosis maad þicke with bool armoniak. & aftir þat leie a lynnen clooþ I-het aboue, & aftir þat a good quantite of tow I-tosid, & bynde þe lyme softliche wiþoute streynynge; & if þe akþe wiþ þis medicyn wole not ceessen, remeue & chaunge þis medicyn ofte tymes in þe dai & in þe nyȝt / & if þe prickynge be in þe foot, anoynte þe grynde*. [þe grynde, inguina. W. Wr., p. 589. 39, 15th cent.: inguen, the grynde.] wiþ hoot comoun oile; & vndir þe arme holis & in þe necke pitt, if þat þe prickynge be in þe hand, for þis enoynture rarefieþ & eueneþ þe placis bi whom akþe goiþ to þe brain, & it lettiþ drawynge togidere of þe senewe / & þouȝ þat þou seest nouȝt þe akþe ceesse in summen as hastiliche as þou woldist, neuer-þe-lattere chaunge not þi medicyn, for þer may be no bettere medicyn. But if þat akþe dure ouer longe, it is not yuel to putte a litil opium to þe oile of þe rosis & þe bole armoniak, þat þou leidist aboute þe wounde. Þe sike man muste reste & bi no wey hePage  42 schulde nouȝt be wroþ; his bed muste be maad soft, euene, & smoþe, & þat he [folio 21a] myȝte haue reste / Whanne þat þe akþe aswagiþ & þe wounde ȝeueþ sum quytture, þanne þe sike man is saaf from al maner perel, but if he do ony newe errour / Of þis wounde Ypocras spekiþ: in vulneribus malis & fortibus sanie non apparante—þat is to seie: in yuel woundis and strong woundis, if no quytture appere it is yuel / Strong woundis ben clepid woundis þat sore aken / Yuel woundis ben þo, to whom scharpe humouris rennen & ben nouȝt obedient to kyndeli heete, to be turned into quitture / And þerfore Ypocras seide: þat whanne akynge & quytture appereþ it is a tokene of heele / Þe þridde signe a man muste knowe in þis place, þat lewide men, seyinge akynge & swellynge in a lyme þat is woundid, leie þerto a potage in maner maad of eerbis & swynes greece & water & wheete flour, corruptyn þe lyme, & þilke corrupcioun is cause of þe crampe / For Galion seiþ: þat a senewe is maad of moist mater & a cold, & þerfore he rotiþ of heete and moistnes / Also summen, for to aswage akþe as*. [as, error for of; see below.] a senewe þat is prickid, puttiþ þe lyme in hoot watir *[oþer ellys caste it on þe lyme] þe which mater*. [mater, error for watir.] is þe moost greuaunce [folio 21b] to þe senewe / Galion seiþ / Hoot watir, þouȝ it aswage akþe to þePage  43 prickynge of a senewe is most greuaunce / Cold also greueþ sore þe senewe as wel in somer as in wyntir / And Ypocras seiþ in þe .v. part of his auforismus: cold is bitynge & greuous to senewis & woundis, & also in þe chapitle next folowynge, but it be in a crampe wiþoute wounde / Galion seiþ in þe eende of his coment: coold is moost greuous to a senewy lyme þat is woundid & is sore swollen; namely, & he haue þe crampe. It schewiþ*. [schewiþ for sewiþ; see below.] þanne þat an hoot medicyne & a drie is moost acordynge to senewis þat ben woundid; but nouȝt to hoot a medicyn, lest perauntre þat he make þe lyme to swelle; & if it be drie, nouȝt wiþ stipticte, an auntre if þat he closiþ þe poris of þe skyn / Galion seiþ: þat it is yuele to close þe poris of a lyme þat is pricked. Þe medicyn þanne muste be hoot & drie with subtiliate as terebentine to moiste bodies; & to drie bodies he muste be medlid wiþ a litil enforbium, azafetida*. [Asa fœtida, a sort of gum pressed out of a certain plant, which grows in Persia.] is best medicyn if þou make of him enplastre, serapinum,*. [Serapinum = Sagapenum ... A gum resin obtained from the Ferula Persica. See Notes.] & þe fecis*. [fecis, Lat. fæces, dregs.] of a litil wex, & þe filþe of þe vessels of been, alle þei ben gode to a senewe þat is prickid, þouȝ þat þou putt [folio 22a] ech of hem bi him-silf or ellis compound / & þow schalt fynde a ful techinge of þese medicyns in þe antidotarie of þis book / Þou schalt nouȝt close aPage  44 wounde where þat þe prickynge of a senewe is, til þat þe senewe be perfiȝtly clensid & heelid, & til þat þou be sikir þat þe place schal not swelle / Galion telliþ of a man þat was prickid with a poyntel in þe pawme of þe hand, to whom came oon of tisilies*. [Lat., unus de secta Thessali. Thessalus lived in Rome at the time of Nero, and enjoys the reputation of being the first great quack.] clerkis þe which took hede to heele alle woundis generaliche; & he leide to þilke prickynge a consowdynge oynement þat was more acordynge to a wounde maad in fleisch; & he leide þerto a plastre maturatijf, wherfore al þe hand rotide & he fel into a crampe, & so he diede, or þat þe .vij. daies weren passid / & if þat ilke leche hadde maad þat wounde broddere, & þanne þat he hadde helt into þe wounde hoot oile of rosis, & þanne þat he hadde do*. [Lat., Si .. saniem .. subtiliter desiccantibus expectasset. Add. MS. translates literally, abyde. The use of do (= faire) is further illustrated by Mätzner. See don .6.] comen out quytture wiþ hoote medicyns sotil & driynge, & nouȝt wiþ moist medicyns, þat man schulde not haue be deed /

If þat a senewe hadde ben I-kutt ouerþwert ouer al atwo þanne, þouȝ þat Tederious*. [Theodoricus, an Italian (?) monk of the 13th century, was the author of a Surgery.] & summe oþere seien þe contrarie, it is good þat þow [folio 22b] sowe togidere þe eendis of þe senewis þat ben kutt wiþ þe sowinge of þe skyn. & aboue þilke maner of sowinge, þe firste dai leie oile of rosis, in þe which oile, maddockis*. [maddock, O.E. maðek, Dan. maddik. See Skeat, Etym. Dict., under maggot and mawkish.]—þat ben wormesPage  45 of þe erþe—han be boilid, & caste aboute þe wounde þe poudre þat kepiþ þe sowynge .o. day or two aftirward, & kepe þe sowynge wiþ plumaciols .iij. cornerid, & wiþ byndynge, & kepe þe lyme from swellynge, for bi sich a maner sowynge of a senewe þou maist consowde þe senewe aȝen; for þe lyme schulde han be lost in partie or in al, þe meuynge þat was brouȝt vnto him fro þe braun, for bi þat senewe þe lyme mai rekeuere his felynge, & so þe restoringe of þe braun may be fastere & schapliker. Þou schalt nouȝt drede of þe akynge þatt schulde be maad of prickynge*. [prickynge of þe senewe. The Latin, acus punctura, is correctly translated in Add. MS. See below.] of þe senewe, for þe akþe schal be doon awei wiþ oo leiynge to eiþer tweyne of þilke oile / Ne sich maner akþe may nouȝt make þe crampe, for þe senewe is al kutt atwo ne no man *[make an] obieccioun wiþ Galion wordis, þat we schulden be war in ioynynge parties of a wounde togidere *[þat non here ne oyle ne scholde noȝt entre wiþynne þe lippes of a wounde, þat betþ y-brought togedre] To þilke abieccioun we answeren: þat þe stipticite [folio 23a] of þe rosis & þe oile þat was nouȝt ripe, & þe glutinosite of þe wormes of þe erþe remeuen þe akþe of þe senewis & al þe harm þat schulde come of þe ilke sowynge.

If þat a senewe were woundid in lenkþe, he mai wel & liȝtlichePage  46 be sowdid togidere wiþ ioynynge of lippis, & wiþ þe sowynge & wiþ þe kepinge of þe lyme þat he swelle nouȝt / Vndirstonde here in þis place: þat þer is no þing more worschipful to a leche ne more profitable to a sijk man þan to kepe a lyme woundid fro swellynge, & neþeles it is hard to kepe senewis þat ben woundid from swellynge / Neþeles a leche here schal take heed aftir þe techinge þat schal be ȝeue him in þe chapitle of þe cure of a wounde, whanne þat þer is wiþ him a swellynge. If þat a wounde were chaungid of þe eyr and made quytture, þat þe sowynge were to-broke and þe puncture were vndir,*. [undir, mistake for undo. See below.] þanne make a medicyne mundificatif & leie him abrood on a lynnen clooþ & leie it aboue þe wounde, & putte a litil smal tent in þe eende of þe wounde þat is moost lynynge,*. [lynynge, for declynynge.] & þilke tent schal touche no senewe ne make noon akþe vndir*. [undir þat, donec.] þat, þat ilke wounde be [folio 23b] weel dried. A mundificatijf medicyn of senewis woundid is maad in þis maner: Take mel roset colat [ounce] .iij. smal flour of barly & medle hem togidere & boile hem slili þat þei brenne nouȝt, & remeue hem fro þe fier & bete hem longe togidere wiþ a spature;*. [spatur, spatula.] & þanne putte þerto [ounce] j. of whit terebentyne; & if þou mowe finde noon whiȝt terebentyne, þanne waische oþerePage  47 terebentyne with cold watir til it be whiȝt, & whane þat be þis medicyn þis wounde is almoost drie, þanne putte in þe same medicyn a litil poudre of frankencense mastik & saundragoun, medle hem togidere & leie aboue þe wounde til it be hool / & whanne þat it is hool manye daies aftir, leie flex in good strong wiyn het hoot til it be perfiȝtli al hool, & if þat þer leue ony hardnes in meuynge, after þat it is hool, þanne þou schalt vse þe techinge þat schal be ȝouen to þee in þe laste tretis þat schal be antidotarie in þe chapitle of medicyns mollificatyues; þere þou schalt fynde þe maner how þou schalt helpe best lymes þat ben heelid and moun not riȝt weel meuen /

Þe firste*. [firste, mistake for furþe.] techinge of þe firste tretis is of heelynge of a wounde maad in boon /

Whanne þat woundis ben so depe þat [folio 24a] oonly fleisch is not woundid but þe boon þat is vndir þe fleisch & þe senewe / þanne a man muste biholde, wher þat þe boon be kutt al atwo, as ofte-tyme it may happe in þe boon of þe thie & schene boonys & þe boonys of þe armes. And þanne þilke wounde is ful perilous; & nameli if þe boonys of þe thie ouþir þe boon of þe arme from þe schuldre to þe elbowe be kutt al atwo, so þat þe marie go out. But ofte-tymesPage  48 oon boon of þe schene or o. boon of þe armes is kutt al atwo ouertwert ouer & neþeles afterward may be restorid; ouþer a boon is not kutt al atwo but sum of his substaunce is don awey, & þilke substaunce, ouþer he is doon awey or ellis he hangiþ togidere / A general rule is in cure of woundis in whom boonys ben woundid: þat neuere bi a leche fleisch schal ben I-sowdid aboue þe boon, but first pleynerliche bi repeire*. [repeire, erroneously for repeired.]; for þe boon may neuere be*. [be has to be cancelled.] wiþ verri consolidacion be consowdid, for his mater was þe sperme of þe fadir & of þe modir; but in summe children, for þe age*. [for þe age is toward ofte tyme, for, for þe nyȝte of tyme. See below.] is toward ofte tyme þat þei were sperme / but þer schal be maad a maner of restorynge in place of þe boon þat was broken eiþer lost, þat men clepen [folio 24b] poris sarcoides or ellis caro poroydes, & a*. [a, above line.] maner þing þat is restorid is hardere þan þe fleisch & neischere þan þe boon / & if þat ilk mater þat is restorid be nyȝ as hard as is þe boon, it is clepid porus sarcoides / & if þat ilke mater be not hard but sumwhat neische, it is clepid caro poroydes / & if þat a neische fleisch were & a moist nouȝt regenered vpon boonys þat ben sett togidere, a man schulde not haue his purpos to heele & consowde þe wounde. Loke þanne wheþer þe boon be kutt atwo altogidere ouerþwert ouer, þatPage  49 þou bryngist togidere & bindist þe parties of þe wounde, as it schal be told in þe .viij. chapitle folowynge, where þou schalt haue how a wounde schal be heelid þat is out of ioynte I-kutt atwo & to-broken / & if a wounde*. [wounde, erroneously for boon.] be not kutt atwo al togidere ouerþwert ouer, loke if ony pece of þe boon dwelle sadliche with þe oþere partie of þe hool boon / & þanne if þou myȝt, brynge þilke pece to þe place þat he was yn tofore wiþ þristynge doun þilke pece wiþ sum instrument acordynge þerto, & sowde þilke pece wiþ þe hool boon wiþ þe poudre þat I shal telle aftirward; for so the [folio 25a] schap of þe lyme mai dwelle*. [hool, cancelled after dwelle.] faire & strengere / & if þat ilke pece haue no fastnes to þe hool boon, do þat pece awey & regenere in þe place of þe boon þat þat*. [The second þat has to be cancelled.] was lost a repeirement / For þouȝ þat ypocras & Galion tellen þat it is nessessarie after quantite of þe boon þat is lost, an holowȝ cicatrise to be alwey, neþeles wiþ þis poudre þe generacioun of þese poris may be mendid, not a litil, but riȝt myche / Þis is þe poudre: take frank-encense, mastik, mirre, dragagantum, gumme arabik, ana. [ounce] ij. flour of fenegrek, .[ounce]. s' caste þis poudre vpon þe defaute of þe boon þat is lost, til þat þou holde a pleynere repeirement *[& a restauracioun. Þenne & noȝt ere brynge ouere fflesch ouere þe repeyrment wiþ] regeneratiuis, mundificatiuisPage  50 & consolidatiuis aftir þe techinge þat þou haddist biforn / Undirstonde þat al þing þat is seid of boonys in þis chapitle is of alle þe boonis of þe bodi saf þe heed / I schal make a chapitle by hym-silf //

The fifþe chapitle of þe þridde techinge of þe firste tretis of woundis þat ben maad wiþ smytynge of staf or stoon, or fallynge or smytynge of an hors, or wiþ ony oþir þing semblable.

To hem happen greet difference [folio 25b] fro woundis þat ben maad wiþ kuttynge, as wiþ swerd, knyf, eiþir arowe prickynge; & in oþere maner þei schulen ben I-heelid / For þouȝ þat verry consolidacioun be þe firste & principal entencioun of heelynge of a wounde, to þis chapitle it acordiþ nouȝt, for in smytynge, þe fleisch & þe veynes, & senewis, & arteries ben brusid, for in þe ynnere part of þe lyme þe boon aȝenstondiþ, & on þe ouer part *. [The passage is corrupt; the correct version is given by Add. MS.: þe þynge þat smyteþ & kutteþ noȝt.]of þe þing þat is smyten knyttiþ nouȝt / Wherfore it is nessessarie, if þer schulde be a wounde, þat alle þe smale lymes þat ben bitwene þe boon & þe þingPage  51 þat smytiþ, schulde be brusid, & oþerwhile þe fleisch & þe oþere consimile membris ben brusid wiþoute wounde / Wherfore þe curis of boþe I wole ordeyne in þis chapitle. If þat a leche wolde enforse him to ioyne togidere wiþ consolidatiuis þe wounde þat is maad wiþ smytynge, nedis quytture & corrupcioun bi þilke consolidatif muste be vnder þe wounde; þe which quytture schulde corrupte þilke lyme & brynge him to putrifaccioun, but if þat kynde were so myȝty, þat he myȝte eftsoone opene þilke wounde, þat was consowdid bi a sori leche*. [bi a sori leche, a malo medico. See Halliwell, Dict., sorry Laten.]; or wiþ*. [wiþ, mistake for þat.] a good leche come & knowe þilke disposicioun [folio 26a] & knowe helpe, wiþ propre eir*. [eir, read cur.] to rectifien þe corrupcioun of þilke lyme / What schalt þou þanne do? Þou muste loke wheþer þat þe bodi be ful of wickide humouris, eiþer be clene; if þat he be ful late him blood, if alle particuler þingis acorden, as vertu, age, conplexioun & consuetude; & þese þingis moten alwey*. [be wanted after alwey.] taken in mynde, þouȝ alwey þei be not I-nempned & namely vertu; & he be not strong & alle oþere þingis acorden, þou schalt not lete blood, but þou maist ventosen, if þat it be nessessarie, or ellis [lose] *þe wombe if þat he be costif*. [costif, costive, subject to be bound in body.—Kersey.]; & if þat he be feble, & þe brosure were in þe ouer parti of þe bodi, voide þe fecis of his wombe bi clisterie. &Page  52 if þou wolt lete blood, þou schalt lete blood on þe contrarie partie of þe veyne, bryngyng norischinge to þe lyme þat was hirt; & þilke veyne þou schalt knowe, if þat þou knowist pleynerliche anotamie, þat I haue tauȝt þee in þis same book / & whanne þat þe bodi is clensid, if þat þe brosour be wiþoute þe wounde, anoynte þe membre þat is brosid, which bigynneþ to haue an enpostym, with hoot oile of rosis, & caste aboue a poudre maad of þe seed of mirtilles, & bynde it softly; [folio 26b] for ofte-tymes it nediþ noon oþer eir*. [eir, read cur.] / For þis medicyn fastneþ þe place, & defendiþ him fro putrefaccioun. & þouȝ þat þis medicyn mowe not letten al þe mater from rotynge, neþeles it defendiþ myche of þe same mater fro rotynge / & if al þe mater mai not be defendid from putrifaccioun, but sum partie þerof putrifieþ, opene þe place & exclude þe quytture, & clense al þe place. & his cure schal be seid in þe chapitle of apostymes*. [Latin, de apostematibus exituris, apostems which discharge pus.] & of exitours / But if*. [if, above line.] þat a brusour were wiþ a wounde, anoynte aboute þe wounde or ellis þe place þat is brusid wiþ þe forseid oile of rosis, & caste aboue þe forseid poudre of mirtilles, for it fastneþ þe place, ne it lettiþ nouȝt þe corrupcioun to spreden eiþer to be drawen abrood; & it castiþ to þe wounde þe corrupt mater þat is in þePage  53 place þat is brusid / Wiþinne þe wounde leie þe ȝelke of an ey, wiþ oile of rosis, with stupis, or ellis wiþ lint.*. [lint. Prompt. Parv., schauynge of lynnen clothe.] Leid*. [leid, mistake for leie.] aboue þe wounde a potage maad of .iiij parties of watir & oon partie of oile de olyue, & flour of wheete þat sufficiþ to þe medicyn, & leie þis medicyn to þe wounde, til þat þe akþe be aswagid, & til þat þe quytture be engendrid; aftirward clense [folio 27a] þe wounde, aftir þe clensynge regenerer, & at þe laste cicatrice. & þou schalt haue a ful techinge in þe antidotarie of mundificatiuis & cicatriȝatiuis / But if þe membre þat was brusid be ful of senewis, as þe hand ouþer þe foot, þou schalt not chaunge þi cure if þat þer be no wounde; but þouȝ þer be a brusour in senewy membre I-woundid, leie not þere þe potage tofore seid, but oonly hoot oile of rosis, & aboue þe oile poudre of mirtillis, & aboue þe wounde leie terebentine I-waischen & drawen abrood bitwene two lynnen clooþis. & make a plastre of pich & hony & bene flour, & leie aboute þe lyme þat is ful of senewis, as þe hand, þe foot, & speciali whanne þe flux of humouris ceessen not / & þouȝ þat þi cure be drawe along, ne go not awei from þis cure / & whanne þat al þe akþe is ceessid and þe swellynge is aswagid, for to clense þe wounde, vse þe medicyn of mel roset colath with barly mele, seid in þe wounde of senewis /Page  54 Þis cure is apreued bi galion, & I haue preued þis medicyn ofte tymes /

¶ Þe sixte chapitle of þe þridde techinge is of woundis þat han enpostymes & be distempered //
Off woundes Impostemede.

[folio 27b] A Wounde þat haþ enpostym or an yuel discrasiam—þat is to seie out of kynde distemperid, eiþer to cold eiþer to hoot— he mai not be heelid, ne he schal not ben heelid, but first he*. [The correct version is given by Add. MS.] be aswagid in þe yuel discurciour be amendid / & as I haue seid in anoþer place, it is profitable to þe sijk man, & worschipe to þe leche, if þat he mowe defende þe lymes þat ben woundid from enpostyme & from an yuel discrasie. For þanne a leche schal kepe þe canoun o*. [o, mistake for of.] galion, þat is oon of þe .iiij. canouns; oon is to kepe lymes in her owne kyndely complexcioun. For woundis moun not ellis be heelid, but if þei be brouȝt first into her owne kynde / & a wounde mai be kept from apostyme & an yuel discrasie if þat þe leche be kunnynge & do his deuer, & þe sike man be obedient to þe leche / Þe leche muste loke if þat þer go blood y-nowȝ out at þe wounde; & if þat þe wounde haue not bled blood y-nowȝ, þe pacient mustePage  55 be lete blood or ellis ventusid, takynge reward to alle particuler þingis tofore seid / & ordeyne him a couenable dietynge, as schal be told in þe chapitle of dietynge; & leie a defensif aboute þe wounde, [ounce] j. of bole armoniak distemperid wiþ oile of [folio 28a] rosis, & a litil vinegre: as þicke as hony tempere it / & if þat þe tyme of þe ȝeer were hoot, putte to þis medicyn þe ius of sum cold erbe: as morel,*. [morel, Lat. Solathrum. See Notes.] penywort,*. [penywort, Lat. umbilicus Veneris.] virge pastoris. Late not þe lyme hange; but if it be the arm, hange it aboute þe necke / & if it be þe foot eiþer þe schene, lete him ligge / & if þat þe lyme ake, aswage þe akþe wiþ an oynement of hoot oile of rosis / For as Galion seiþ: þer is no þing more noious to a wounde þan is akþe & declinacioun of a lyme, for þese .ij. maken soone an hoot swellynge, þe which is to þe feuere as a welle, & to þe bodi as an ouene / Þe woundid man muste absteyne him after þe chapitle of dietynge techiþ, & boþe þe sike man & þe leche, & alle þat ben aboute þe sike, moten absteyne hem fro fleischly knowynge of a womman, [ne a womman] *in tyme of menstrue,*. [See Notes.] ne loke not on þe sike man / & oonys in þe dai þe sike man schal go to priuy;*. [privy. Prompt. Parv., p. 414, Pryvy or gonge (or Kocay), Latrina, cloaca, ypodromium; p. 202, Goo to pryvy, or to shytyn, Acello. Pryvy still used in Yorkshire.] & if he mai not schite oonys kyndeli inPage  56 þe dai after þe quantite of mete þat he takiþ, make him a clisterie ouþer a suppositorie oonys ech day. & if þou myȝt not wiþ alle þese þingis defende þe lyme from apostyme, it is an yuel signe, for þe lyme is [folio 28b] feble, & þe humouris arn wickide; þanne bigynnen*. [bigynnen, mistake for bigynne.] to materen þe swellynge wiþ potage maad of flour, oile & watir, or ellis wiþ þis maturatif / Take malowe leues & leues of violet, & þe rote of holihocke; seþe hem weel in water, & staumpe hem, & take a pound of water, þat þei ben soden ynne, & comoun oile; [ounce] .iij.; of wheete flour [ounce] .iij.; of flour of lynseed [ounce] j.; of flour of fenegrek dj.*. [dimidium.][ounce].; of erbis I-staumpid half a pound. & boile alle þese togidere in a panne ouer þe fier, & stire it weel wiþ a spature; & þis maturatif leie on a lynnen clooþ, & leie it on þe postyme til þat it be maturid / & whanne þat þe postyme is maturid, make þe quytture, if þou maist, be cast to þe wounde; & if it mai not be cast to þe wounde, opene þe place þat is moost lowist þere, as þe quytture mai best goon out; & þanne hele þe wounde, as I schal telle in þe þridde chapitle of apostymes / Take hede alwey to þis techinge; & if þe postyme were for þe prickynge of a senewe, ne leie not þerto þis potage maturatijf, but wiþ þe oynement of oile of rosis, & of oþere þingis, as it is seid in þe woundis of senewis /

Page  57Þou schalt knowe þe yuel discrasie of a wounde, [folio 29a] if þat þou seest þe skyn þat is aboue þe wounde to reed & to hoot in felynge, þanne þe wounde is discrasie in hete; namely, if þat þer come out of þe wounde*. [MS. erroneously inserts quytture after wounde.] a sotil quytture, reed; þilke discrasie þou schalt helpe wiþ coldynge þe lyme aboute þe wounde with oile of rosis & vnguentum album, Rasis of ceruse, which þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie, & with þe ius of þe oþere eerbis colde.

& þou schalt knowe a cold discrasie bi þe whiȝtnes eiþer þe wannesse of þe place / & whanne þe place is cold in towchinge, & whanne þat þe quytture is þicke; þe which discrasie þou schalt remeue bi þe enoynture of hote oiles, as oile of coste,*. [oile of coste, Lat. cum oleo de castoreo.] oile of laurine, oile of enforbium, & so oþere hoote oilis /

A moist discracie þou schalt knowe bi þe neischenes of þe place, & bi aboundaunce of whiȝt liquide rotenes, þe which þou schalt helpe wiþ desiccatiuis: as wiþ waischinge of wiyn & hony togidere, in þe whiche ben soden balaustie,*. [balaustie. Balaustium, the floure of the wylde Pomgranate. Halle. Table, p. 16.—1565. Turner, Herbal, II., fol. 49 b., calls it Balaustrum.] gallis & þe ryndis of some garnadis, or alle or summe bi hem-silf /

Þe drie discrasie þou schalt knowe bi þe smalnes of þe lyme, & þe smalnes of þe lippis of þe wounde, & litil quytture, if þat þe quytture be þinne; þe which discrasie þou schalt [folio 29b] helpe: with Page  58 castynge on of hoot water til þat þe lyme wexe reed, & wiþ an oynement þou muste*. [þou muste, mistake for of moiste.] grece, as hennes, goos, & dokis, þe marie boon of a calf, & wiþ plenteuousnes of good mete þat norischiþ: as þe broþis of fleisch, & temperate wiyn, & rere eyren, & smale fischis, & wiþ reste, & softnes of al þe bodi, & of þe lyme þat is hirt; & alwey to þis techinge take hede þat as soone as a membre is brouȝt to his kyndeli disposicioun, anoon aȝenstondiþ*. [aȝenstondiþ, mistake for aȝenstonde.] wiþ contrarious medicyns, & turne aȝen to þe principal cure of þe wounde. But þenke nouȝt to heele þe wounde as longe as it is enpostemed, or ellis haue an yuel discrasie; but first remeue þilke discrasie, or þat þou heele þe wounde / For whanne two þingis þat schulden ben heelid ben togidere, & þe oon of hem mowe not be helid wiþoute helynge of þat oþere, first we schulen heelen him, þat mai nouȝt be heelid wiþoute þat oþer helyng, as þe apostyme eiþer þe discrasie / Þus Auicenne techiþ in þe laste chapitle of þe firste book. Neuer-þe-lattere forȝete nouȝt þe principal cure, þat whanne þe accidentis ben asesid turne aȝen to þe principal cure //

Page  59
¶ Þe .vij. chapitle of þe .iij. techinge is a wounde maad with a wood hound, eiþer of ony oþer venemous beest / *. [Heading to leaf 30, in a later hand, Off woundes betten with doges.]

[folio 30a] Bvt whanne an hound haþ biten a man, loke first if þat þe hound be wood; & if þat þe hound be not wood, heele þe wounde as þou doist oþere comoun woundis; & if þat þe hound were wood, þou schalt knowe it bi certeyn cause & disposiciouns / For a wood hound fleeþ mete & water; & he renneþ hidirward & þidirward as a drunken man, wiþ open mouþ & his tail bitwene hise leggis; his tunge hangiþ out, but he wolde biten alle men; ne he knowiþ not þo men þat ben in houshold. He berkiþ not / & if þat he oþirwhile berke, his vois is ful hors, & oþere houndis fleen fro him & berken vpon him. Also þou schalt knowe bi disposicioun of þe same wounde. For if þat þou wetist a crumme of breed in þe blood of þe wounde, & ȝeuest it to anoþer hound to ete, he wole not ete it; & if þat he ete it, he wole die / Or ellis take an ote, & staumpe it, & leie it on þe wounde al nyȝt, & on þe morowe ȝeue it to an hen; & þe hen wole not ete it / & if þe hen ete it, þe hen schal die /

Page  60And anoon as þou woost þat þe hound was wood, sette a greet ventuse aboue vpon þe wounde, & drawe out þe myche blood out of þe wounde, & aftirward drawe abrood þe wounde; & aboue al oþere þing, brennynge of hoot yren to þe ground [folio 30b] of þe wounde is moost profitable. & leie aboue þe wounde actractiuis, to drawe out þe venym / Summe of þese actractiuis ben symple, & summe compound / Symple beþ: þe lyuere of þe same wood hound þat boot þe man, garlik stampid, salt fisch, aischis of wiyn lies, appoponak þat is wondirful, þe leeues of a gourde,*. [gourde, cucumer. See Prompt. Parv., 203, Goord, Cucumer, cucurbita, colloquintida.] & þe rote of fenegrek, þe gile*. [gile, ne. gill. See Mätzner, Dict., p. 268. The Latin has, gluten, glue.] of fisch, & amptyn I-stampid / Þese medicyns ben compound: vreyne of a ȝong man wiþ nitre; ouþer mintis stampid*. [stampid, in margin.] wiþ salt, & distemperid wiþ vynegre, & maad an enplaster. Anoþer medicyn compound: take floris eris & salt, of ech .x. parties, & þe fatte of a calf, & of a wolf þat sufficiþ, & make a plastre / Anoþer: take schepis talow & buttere, & make a plaster / Þis wounde schal be holden open at þe leeste fourty daies, & þis schal be do aboute þe place. In anoþer maner regimen / Vndirstonde þat þe man þat is biten, schal not be lete blood in þe bigynnynge, lest þe venym be drawe abrood bi oþere lymes; ne þou schalt ȝeue him no laxatif, lest it drawe þe venym to þe entrailis wiþinne; but þou schalt settePage  61 vpon þe place a strong ventuse, as it is seid tofore, [folio 31a] þat it mowe drawe miche of þe blood. And whanne þat .iij. daies ben passid, it is not yuele to lete blood & to purge with a litil purgacioun, þat purgiþ þe malencolie, as with decoccioun epithimum,*. [Epithemum. See Notes.] wiþ gotis whey; & norischiþ him with dieting, þat fattiþ & makiþ him glad & bliþe; & waische his heed with decoccioun of water, þat þe feet & þe heed of a weþer were soden ynne. Ne late him not þirsten ne hungren, suffren, ne traueilen; & so if þat god wole, þou maist him kepe from perile / & ech dai to a monþis eende he schal take oþere symple medicyns or compounned / *— — Take þe ayschis of crabbis I-brent in an ouene .iiij. parties, of frankencense vij. parties, & make hem into a poudre / Þe pacient schal take ech dai of þis poudre .ij .[ounce]. / Anoþer medicyn: take þe pouder of crabbis brent vj. parties, gencian .iij parties, terre sigillate oon partie, make poudre / If þat þou were not at þe bigynnynge, & it bigynne to haue yuel accidentis: as yuel þouȝtis, soruful metynge in his sleep, & þat he be wroþ & grucche, & woot not whi; & if men aske him ony þing, & ȝeueþ no good answere þerto, & fley lith,*. [fley lith, altered to fleyntlith with different ink. Read: fleyth liȝt.] & he haþ alle oþere signes of malencolie, [folio 31b] þanne ȝeue to him a Page  62 medicyn maad of cantarides / Take old grete cantarides, & do awei þe heed & þe wyngis, .ij dragmis; lentis*. [docsnet above lentis; meaning?] I-clensid, .[ounce] j.; safron, spikenard, clowis, canel, .ana .[ounce] s'.; bete hem weel, & make of hem smale ballis, þat ech bal weiȝe a dragme. & ȝeue o. bal at þre tymes, at ech tyme þe weiȝte of þre cornys of wheete, til þat he pisse blood; þanne he schal be saaf / For whanne þou art sikir, heele þe woundis after þat fourti daies ben passid, in þe same maner. If þat þe wounde were maad of bitinge of an eddre or of ony oþer venemous beest, þe leche schal take heede to drawe abrod þe wounde, & sette aboue a uentuse, & drawe out miche blood; & it is miche worþ to enuyrounne þe place aboute þat is biten wiþ brome I-stampid / For if þat þe prickynge be in þe foot or in þe hand, if þou enuyrounne þe arme with brome, it lettiþ þe venym to go vpward; & ȝeue him þe medicyns writen aboue, & also lete þe wounde be open, til þe venym be excludid /

The .viij chapitle of þe þridde techinge of þe firste tretis of a wounde maad in a ioynt, & is dislocate /

Whanne þat a wounde is in a lyme, & þe boon of þe same lyme is to-broke [folio 32a] *. [Heading to leaf 32 in a later hand: Off woundes in Jintes.]atwo & dislocate—þat is to seie out of ioynte, þannePage  63 it is good þat þou putte in þe wounde whanne þe blood is staunchid, & also aboue þe wounde þe ȝolke of an ey wiþ oile of rosis, & anointe al þe lyme aboute þe wounde with two parties of oile of rosis, & half oon partie of vynegre maad þicke wiþ bole armoniak, til þe quytture be engendrid, & þat þou be sikir þat no postyme schal come. Ne take noon hede to brynge togidere þe parties of þe boon þat is to-broken or dislocate, til viij. daies ben goon in þe wyntir, & v. in þe somer; for þanne it schal make quytture, and be sikir from swellynge; & þanne brynge togidere þe brynkis eiþer þe disiuncture after þe techynge þat schal be seid in þe chapitle of algebra. & if þat þe prickynge eiþer þe dislocacioun nediþ splentis, make þat þe splentis & byndynge faile aboue þe wounde. Þat þou may do if þat þou kutte þe splentis & þe bindynge aboue þe wounde with a knyf or a rasour, & in drawynge abrood þe hoole of þe wounde*. [wounde, error for bonde.] aboue þe wounde wiþ a nedle, so þat þou maist bi þat hole ech day chaunge þi medicyn of þe wounde wiþoute choudynge*. [choudynge, error for chongynge.] of þe boond þat þou madist first aboute þe boonys [folio 32b] þat weren broken ouþer dislocate; þe which boond þou schalt nouȝt remeuen til tyme schal be teld in his place, but þou schalt bynde aboue þilkePage  64 boon a newe boond, which þou schalt remeue as ofte as þou chaungist þi wounde. & whanne þat þou art sikir fro þe enpostemynge, & whanne þat þou hast sett togidere þe boonys þat were sett togidere & dissolate, þanne leie vpon þe wounde bi þe hole þat þou madist in þe boond, a mundificatif of mel roset colat, & of barli mele til þe wounde be clensid; & leie on þat a*. [a, erroneously inserted.] mundificatif, þredis of oolde whiȝt lynnen clooþ, til þat þe wounde be ful clensid; aftirward regendre fleisch, & aftirward consowde with regeneratiuis & consolidatiuis, whiche þat schulen be seid in þe ende of þe book /

The nynþe chapitle of þe .iij. techinge of þe firste tretis is of fluxblood of a wounde /

Þer ben ij. maner of causis þat makiþ blood to blede out of a mannys body; þe oon cause is clepid—cause coniuncte; & þe toþer—cause antecedent / Þe enchesoun of cause coniuncte is compounned of þe mouþis of þe veynes and arteries, or ellis whanne þat þe veynes ben kut atwo, or ellis corrosion of þe bodies of þe [folio 33a] *. [Heading to leaf 33, Off fflux off blode in woundes.]same veynes & arteries, or ellis to greet febilnes or to greet losenes / And þer ben manie enchesouns of cause antecedentis: as toPage  65 myche frelenes*. [frelenes, mistake for fulnesse.] of blood, or ellis to myche acute of blood, & also manye oþere causis þer ben þat ben clepid cause of*. [of, erroneous insertion. See below.] primitif: as smytynge þat woundith, to greet lepinge, criyng; wraþe, chidynge, & so manye oþere; & ech of þese causis tofore seid haþ his maner heelynge by him-silf in fisik medicinal. But it is not þe entencioun of þis book to treten*. [but, omitted. Latin: Non est huius libri intentio tractare nisi de fluxu sanguinis...] of blood þat blediþ of wounde, þat is maad with wounde, þe which may be restreyned with craft of ciurgie. In flux of blood þat comeþ of a wounde, þe leche muste loke þe disposicioun, þe abitude, age, vertu, & complexioun of him þat is woundid; if þat þese acorden, & he be myȝty in vertu, he schal blede myche blood at þe wounde, þouȝ þat þe leche be clepid at þe bigynnynge, but if it be so þat he be*. [be, added in margin in same hand.] feble ouer greetliche. & if þat nede constreyne þe leche to staunche blood, he muste loke if þat þe blood go out at þe veynes capillares, þat ben smale veynes as heeris of a mannys heed / & þanne oonly þe whiȝt [folio 33b] of an ey leid aboue with towȝe of flex suffisiþ / whanne þat þe parties of þe wounde ben brouȝt togidere; & if þou caste aboue poudre of lym aforeseid in þe chapitle of sowynge of woundes, it schal be þe bettere; for þat poudre wiþstreyneþ þe blood & consoudiþ þerpartiesPage  66 of þe wounde togidere. & if þe blood come fro grete veynes he mai nouȝt so sumtyme be constreyned, but it nediþ a stronger medicyn & also a more cautele / & if þat þe blood go out of arterie, þou schalt knowe it bi construccion & dilatacion of þe same arterie—þat is to seie, þat þe blood go out wiþ lepinge & oþerwhile wiþ wiþdrawinge*. [Lat.: quod sanguis exit cum saltu secundum constrictionem et dilatationem ipsius arteriæ.]; & þanne sette þi fyngir vpon þe mouþ of þe grete veyne or ellis on þe arterie, & holde þi fyngir þeron bi a greet hour; for þanne by grace sum greet drope of blood may be congelid togidere & þere-bi vertu may be myche comfortid; aftirward leie plenteuousliche of þis medicyn vpon þe veyne eiþer þe arterie þat is kutt atwo / Take frankencense, whiȝt gummis, & fatt .ij. ȝ., aloes .ȝ. j., make poudre & distempere with þe white of an ey as þicke as hony / after take heeris of an hare smal kutt, [folio 34a] medle alle þese togidere, & þer is no medicyn so good as þis medicyn is in streynynge of blood & consowdynge of þe veyne / But whanne þat þou comest to chaunge þat medicyn of þe wounde, do nouȝt þe medicyn awey wiþ strenkþe, but leie aboue of þe same medicyn*. [MS. medicyn, repeated.] moist, to neische þe firste medicyn, þat it myȝte falle awey bi him-silf / Neþeles it is possible þat a medicyn caustik, þat is to seie, a medicyn þat brenneþ, sunner staunchiþPage  67 blood þan þis medicyn of frank encense; & þou schalt haue greet plente of medicyne caustik in þe antidotarie, but we ben nouȝt sikir þat þe blood of þe veyne eiþer arterie anoþir tyme wole goon out, whanne þat þe schorf of þilke caustik Medicine*. [medicine, added in margin.] is remeued awey / but þis medicyn of encense with þe heeris of an hare not oonliche staunchiþ þe blood, but also sowdiþ*. [MS. sowdynge.] þe veyne & þe arterie, as I haue preued it ofte tymes / And for to ȝeue autorite I sette a saumple þat come sumtyme to myn hondis: A child of þre ȝeer old hadde a litil knyf in his hond, & he fel on þat knyf in þe former partie of þe þrote persched þe veyne organise; þer cowde no man it staunche, & þanne I was clepid, & I cam to þe child in [folio 34b] greet haaste, & he hadde almost lost his siȝt; for hise iȝen in his heed weren turned vp so doun;*. [up so doun. See Mätzner, Dict., s. v. "doun." Latin: oculos habebat in capite revolutos.] & þe blood come out at þe wounde whiȝt as whey, vnneþe he hadde no pouste*. [unneþe he hadde no pouste. This passage is corrupt; for the correct version see below.] / & þanne I leide my fyngir on þe heed of þe veyne, & I heeld it faste þat þer myȝte no þing go out; & so I heeld þe veyne a greet hour, & þanne vertu of his bodi þat was almost lost quykenede aȝen, & þe pouse bigan to appere febiliche as it were a smal þred / Þanne I sente to þe spicerisPage  68 schoppe þat was a greet weye fro me / ne I remeuede not awey my fyngir fro þe place, til þat þe messanger cam aȝen, and þe child bigan þanne to opene hise iȝen; & þanne I ordeynede þis medicyn to be maad, & plenteuousliche I leide it aboue þe wounde, & I boond þe wounde wiþ plumaciols & with stupis*. ["Stupes (in Surgery), Pledgets of Tow, Cotton, etc., dipt in scalding hot Liquors and apply'd to the diseased Part."—Phillips.] I-leid in whit of an ey, & with a boond I boonde it streitly, and comaundide hem to ȝeue him crummys of breed leid in water; & on þe morowe I come aȝen, & þanne I foond þe child comfortid / & neuere þe lattere I nolde nouȝt vndo þe medicyn / þe fader preiede me wiþ greet instaunce to vndo þe medicyn, [folio 35a] but I wolde not; & so I lete it lie stille, til iiij. daies weren passid withouten remeuynge / & neþeles I visitide him ech day; & þe .iiij. day I vndide þe wounde, & þe medicyn was drie aboue þe wounde, so þat I myȝte not han remeued it wiþoute greet violence. & þanne I leide aboue þe whiȝt of an ey wiþ a litil oile of rosis, & so I lefte it lie oon day til on þe morowe I turnede aȝen; & þanne I remeuede awey þe medicyn wiþouten violence, & I foond þanne þe wounde & þe veyne al hool. & of þis heelyng his fadir & alle hise neiȝeboris hadden greet wondir / And if þat wiþ þis medicyn þou maist not sowde þe arterie ne þe veyne, ne þow maist not constreyne þe blood for sumPage  69 oþer inpediment: þanue þou must ouþer bynde þe veyne, or drawe hir out of hir place, & bynde þe heed of þe veyne or arterie, ouþer þou must brenne hir wiþ hoot iren, & make on hir heed a greet cruste & a depe. ¶ Anoþer ensaumple: þer was a child of .xv. ȝeer oold þat smoot him-silf with a smal knyf, & þilke knyf perside o. senewe of þe arm & prickide a ueyne þat lay vnder þilke senewe. & for þe prickynge of þat senewe [folio 35b] he hadde greet akynge, & blood drewe doun to þe wounde & nouȝt aȝenstood*. [aȝenstood, for aȝenstondyng.] for alle þe staunchis of medicyns þat me myȝte do þerto, it wolde not staunche, þe blood ran out at þe wounde. & colde medicyns ben greuous to senewis þat is prickid, for þei stoppen þat lyme, & þat is contrarious aȝens senewis; & þanne I demede nessessarie to drawe out al þe veyne out of her place & to bynde hir & to helpe þilke senewis wiþ oile of rosis / But þe modir of þat child sente for a lewde leche which þat repreuede foule my doom, & he bihiȝte to heele safly þe child. He dwellide on þe cure, & I wente my wey / Þe which leche took hede to him .x. daies, þat neiþir þe akynge ceesside ne þe blood was not staunchid, & so þe sijk man was nyȝ deed / & at þe laste I was clepid, & I wolde not come to þe pacient / Þanne a fisician þat was frend to þe freendis of þe pacient blamede þe modir & hir freendis þat þei hadden left counseil for þilke idiotisPage  70 biheeste; & þilke fisician purposide, after þat he hadde herd my counseil, þat þer was noon oþer wey þat myȝte saue þe sike man from deeþ, & he axide of þe sirurgian wheþer he coude do as I hadde seid bifore. & [folio 36a] he seide, þat he coude so doon, & so he dide / He kutte þe skyn aboue þe veyne & twynede þe veyne in hise handis, & boond þe eende of þe veyne with a þred; & after he helde on þe senewe hoot oile of rosis, & so bi þis counseil he was restorid aȝen to heelþe / But who so wolde aske how þat he myȝte so manye daies be kept from þe crampe for þat he suffride so greet akþe / I answere & seie: þat þe cause was, for þat he bledde at þe wounde ech day, so þat þe senewe*. [senewe, error for wounde. Add MS. has the same mistake.] miȝt not be to myche replete eiþer ful of blood / Alle þese þingis I haue told, þat he þat rediþ hem mai þe visiloker in semblable causis worchen. & if bi þis medicyn he myȝte nouȝt sikirliche be restorid or restreyned þat falliþ riȝt seelde whane*. [riȝt seelde whane. Polychron, i. 133, wel silde whanne. Stratm., seldhwonne.] / þanne we moten brenne þe heed of þe veyne eiþer of senewe*. [senewe, error for arterie. The same mistake in Add. MS.] wiþ hoot iren, & þilke hoot iren myȝte make an hard cruste. & be war þat þou touche not þe lippis of þe wounde ne þe senewe, ne noon oþer þing but oonly þe veyne wiþ hoot iren. & if al þis craft wole not helpen, we musten drawePage  71 out þe veyne & fle þe fleisch aboue here, & wynde þe veyne sadliche & bynde hir heed wiþ þin handis. [folio 36b] —Bi*. [An insertion of the scribe.] my witt I*. [I trowe a mene, "I believe to mean."] trowe amene þat a bodi schulde make þeron a knotte I-knytt of him-silf or ellis knytt wiþ a þred. I woot neuere wheþer he meneþ; for he seiþ in anoþer place tofore þat I schulde knytte it wiþ a þred, & þerfore I suppose bi my witt þat I schulde make a knotte þeron of his owne silf bi my witt.—& sumtyme it happiþ þat an arterie is broken ouþer kutt & þe fleisch þat is aboue is hool & nouȝt to-broke neiþir I-kutt, or ellis þe fleisch þat is aboue þe arterie is helid tofore & not þe arterie; & vndir þe fleisch þer is a swellynge of blood þat is clepid aperisma*. [aperisma, Lat. ophorisma seu mater sanguinis. Dufr. Gloss. med. Lat.: Aporisma—collectio sanguinis in aliquo membro extra venas non putrefacti maxime sanguinis arterialis.] ouþer mater sanguinis, & þerof þe pacient haþ greet drede, lest þat þe skyn to-breke & þe blood go out, þe which blood is hard to restreyne / for of þis maner sijknes spekiþ galion & seiþ þat a seruaunt of sich a disposicioun was helid of a lewde man þat tauȝte him þat he schulde leie snow on his siknes. Wherfore a man may vndirstonde þat to siche enpostymes colde medicyns & drie ben nessessarie. // // // // // // //

Page  72
The .x. chapitle of þe þridde techinge of þe firste tretis 1is of gouernaunce & diete1*. [1—1 added in margin.] of men þat ben woundid [folio 37a] /

Þer ben manye men þat discorden of dietynge of men þat ben woundid, for sum men ȝeuen to alle men þat ben woundid, wheþir þat it be in þe heed or in ony oþere place, good wiyn & strong fleisch of capouns & of hennes; & þei affermen þat bi sich a maner wey sike woundid men ben sunnere heelid / for þei seien þat water putrifieth lymes þat ben woundid & engendriþ enpostymes & corrumpiþ & febliþ complexciouns & makiþ manye harmys / & summe oþere men gouernen alle maner of sike men þat ben woundid wiþ breed & watir & applis soden til ten daies ben goon / And if god wole eende þis book, it schal be remeuynge errouris & declarynge & openynge doutis / I seie þat þese boþe sectis erren in her opynyouns, for þei taken hede oonly to her experimentis not considerynge resoun of complexioun of him þat is woundid / Þe firste secte of þese two *[seyth] þat summen oonly eten breed & watir in so myche þei ben feblid þat blood & mater in her bodies may nouȝt be restorid; þe*. [þe cancelled in MS.] which were sufficient to hele with her woundis,Page  73 but þei ben so feble þat þei [folio 37b] dien, or ellis þei languren*. [languren, languent. See Prompt. Parv., p. 286, Languryn yn sekenesse langueo. And ibid. note 5.] longe tyme; ne þe lymes may not receyue resonable vertu as þei schulde; & þese maner men ben of cold complexcioun & drie & her bodies weren feble or þei weren woundid, & her stomak & her entrailis wiþinne weren feble / Þe secunde secte seiþ: þat summe þat drinken wiyn & eten fleisch hadde in þe membre þat was woundid a greet enpostyme & a febre—& þo ben ȝonge men þat ben of an hoot complexioun & a moist—wherfore þei comaundide to alle maner oþere of complexioun þat þei schulden drynke no wiyn ne ete no fleisch / Ȝe schulen vndirstonde þat boþe þese sectis ben nouȝt; & þerfore I folowynge þe doctryne of rasis, auicen, & galion & of oþere doctouris, & also experimentis þat I haue longe preued, I seie þat it is nedeful þat a woundid man in þe bigynnynge absteyne him fro wiyn, & namely if þat þe wounde be in þe heed eiþir in ony partie of a senewe. for þer is no þing þat so soone smytiþ greuaunce in þe heed or þe senewis as wiyn; for he is soone conuertid of kyndely heete & for he is so sotil, he persiþ swiþe into þe senewis, & he assendiþ soone into þe heed, bryngynge wiþ him humouris & spiritis. It [folio 38a] troubliþ a mannys witt, & wiyn greueþ alle men þat han a feble heed / & þerfore in alle maner woundis ofPage  74 þe heed & of senewis he schal be forbode in þe bigynnynge namely to þo þingis*. [þingis, inserted.] þat han hoot complexiouns & moist into þe tyme þat þe cure be ful endid / & to þo þat ben of a cold complexioun, whanne .iij. daies ben passid, þou maist ȝeue to drynke smal temperat wiyn, & afterward a litil strengere, aftir þat þou art sikir þat þer schal nouȝt come to þe membre noon enpostyme. But þis*. [þis, error for his.] drinke schal be watir of barlich, eiþer water of crummes of breed bene soden in whit*. [whit, error for with.] wyn,*. [wyn, inserted.] or ellis lete þe breed lie in cold watir raþere þan þou faile þat he schal drynke / but he may tende weel to heete it, & nameliche in somer / & to þat ben woundid*. [woundid, error for wonid. Lat. homini assueto.] to drynke watir, or ellis with þe x. partie of wiyn of pome garnates or ellis with þe sixte partie of wiyn agrestis þat is smal brusk*. [brusk, Roman brusco (Lat. rusticus?), harsh. See later reference in N. E. Dict.] wiyn, or ellis þis is a perfiȝt drynke to woundis of þe heed & to senewis: / Take a potel of water & of barly clensid .iiij. [ounce]., juiube,*. [Jujube, a kind of prune growing in Italy. Kersey—1721.] sebesten*. [Sebesten, Arab. sebesten. Name for Cordia mysa vel sebastena.] ana. ȝ. [one half]., of drie prunis of damascenes [ounce] j, sugre of rosis .[ounce] ij., seþe hem*. [Corrupt passage. Lat.: donec consumetur tertia pars.] to .iij parties ben consumed, & þanne lete him drynke. To asaye it softly*. [softly, error for soþly.] / [folio 38b] Þis drynke is alteratijf: þat is to seie, chaunginge, ne it swelliþ not, & it lettiþ fumosite to arisePage  75 to þe brayn. Of mete I seie: to him þat is of a moist complexicioun & hoot / bi no maner wey schulde not be ȝouen fleisch, fisch, mylk, eiren, ne no comfortable mete, but if þei weren ouercomen wiþ to greet febilnes; but he muste holde him content wiþ ius of barli or ellis of ootis wiþ almaunde mylk; outake*. [outake, except. See Catholicon Angl., p. 264, Oute take, note.] wounde of þe heed, were*. [were, error for where.] I ne apreue nouȝt almaundis ne noon oþer vaperous fruyt: as notis eiþir walnotis eiþer avellanes; for þei han a maner fumose properte greuynge þe heed / he may eten amidoun, betis, letuse, & breed I-waische wiþ sugre if þat he were feble. & if þat he myȝte not absteyne him fro fleisch, ȝeue him fleisch of smale chikenes & of smale briddis & kidis & lambis & calues I-sauered with agresta eiþer wiþ wiyn of pome garnatis; & þilke dietynge he schal vse til he be sikir fro swellynge & þat þou schalt knowe whanne þat akynge swellynge & extencioun of þe lyme ben ceessid & þe wounde almoost consowdid. If þat it was a wounde [folio 39a] þat was sowid eiþer brouȝt togidere with byndinge, in whom quytture was nouȝt engendrid, & if þat it was a wounde maad wiþ smytynge or ellis chaungid wiþ þe eyr, in whom it is nedeful engendrynge of quytture, þanne it is siker þat it schal not enpostyme,Page  76 whanne þat he makiþ quytture plenteuousliche; & whanne þat þe lyme is weel disposid & not to swolle ne drawe abrood & is wiþoute akynge; þanne chaunge a litil & a litil his dietynge til þat þou come to his dietynge þat he was wont to vse tofore / & if þat þe pacient were of a cold complexioun & a drie & þat he hadde bi nature eiþer bi custum a feble stomak, þanne it were nessessarie to ȝeue him at þe bigynnynge fleisch a litil sauerid with swete spicerie: as canel, gynger & oþere semblable to hem, & to ȝeue him in þe bigynnynge Julep*. [Julep, med. Lat. julapium, Fr. julep, Pers. goulāb. See Skeat, Et. Dict.]—þat is a sirup maad oonly of water & of sugre —& aftir iij. daies ben passid, wiyn, & boþe in þe oon complexioun & in þe oþere complexioun. If þat a boon were broke wiþ a wounde or wiþoute a wounde aboute þe eende of þe cure, þat is to seye, whanne þou art siker from apostyme & swellinge, it is good to ȝeue norischaunt metis þat it [folio 39b] myȝte make a good & a strong repeirement of þe boon þat was to-broke: as furmente soden in,*. [in, erroneously inserted.] potage of flour weel soden & wiþ þe extremytees of beestis feet & swyne groynes & oxen wombe weel soden & bi siche oþere þingis bi whom a good ligament & a strong may weel be engendrid / Wherfore it is nessessarie to a surgian to knowe his dietynge, vertues of coplexciouns, agis, regiouns, consuetudes & þe tymes of þe ȝeer þatPage  77 he mowe chaunge his dietynge aftir þat dyuerse condicioun*... Ne he schal not aftir o maner of counseil procede in his dietynge.

The .xj. chapitle of þe þridde techinge of þe firste tretis.

is of olde woundis þat ben maad of kuttynge or of openynge of a postyme, or ellis of a wounde þat is not heelid in his tyme, or ellis of sum maner fleinge, or of brennynge, or of to greet heete, or of to greet drouthe, or of to greet cold constreynynge, or of to greet aboundaunce of mater corrumpinge / For euery olde wounde hauynge rotnes or wire*. [wire, Lat. virus.] þat is þinne venymous quyttir or ony oþir þing þan good quytture is not clepid a wounde, but it is clepid vlcus / Rowlond & Rogerine & þe moste [folio 40a] partie of men þat ben now, clepen it a festre*. [festre, fester in Mätzner Dict.; O.Fr. flestre, festre; Lat. flstula. Comp. N. E. fester vb.] or a cankre, but it is neiþir festre ne cankre, but festre & cankre han difference fro þis / Þis vlcus as a propre þing haþ difference from a þing þat is comoun / for ech festre & ech cankre þat is woundid, is clepid vlcus, but it ne schewiþ not þat ech vlcus is clepid cankre or festrePage  78 as I schal telle openliche in ech chapitle bi him-silf / Auicen seiþ, þat þer ben .vj. maner of þis vlcus: summe þat ben venemous, summe hore, summe depe, summe cauernose eiþer hid, summe corosif, summe rotin, summe ambulatif þat is spredynge abrood, & summe harde to consowde / Of þese maners tofore seid, summe*. [MS. summen.] han acordynge with festris in tokenes & in foormes as venemous & holowȝ & summe han acordynge with cankris as spredynge abrood & fretynge him-silf & neþeles þei han difference, as it is conteyned in þe chapitle of cankris I-woundid & of festre. & alle þese tofore seid han difference fro wounde / for in a wounde þer is whiȝt quytture & euene in alle hise parties & hole and nouȝt departid & wiþoute stenche. Þis maner of quytture is engendrid of goodnes & kyndely heete, & is perfiȝtly defied / But venym rotynes [folio 40b] & a cruste, & al oþere superfluyte of olde woundis ben engendrid of a strong vnkyndly heete.

A uenym vlcus is in whom aboundiþ venym sutil & liquid. If þat it be reed or ȝelu, or oon partie redisch and scharp bitynge þe lyme, it signifieþ lordschipe of a strong heete.

An hori elde wounde þat haþ summe greete crustis, or ellis a wroting, sum gret proud fleisch to hiȝe.*. [proud fleisch to hiȝe. Lat.: carnem superfluam grossam. Proud flesh, Fungosity. Dunglison.]

Page  79A deep vlcus is þat, þat haþ a greet depnes & an holowȝ & perauenture crokinge.

A wroting vlcus is þat of his malice fretiþ bi cause þat þe blood is sent to him so scharpe / Galion seiþ: þat scharp blood not oonli corrodiþ [noȝt]*—fleisch in woundis, but also hool fleisch /

A rotid vlcus is stynkynge, hauynge a strong heete in his ground, & out of him passiþ a stynkynge smel, eiþer smoke, as doiþ out of fleisch þat is rotid / þilke*. [This curious explanation of the word stynk is an insertion of the scribe. Read: ste her laddre. One letter half erased in lacdre. Ste, see Stratm. Dict., O.E. stîgan.] word 'stynk' I vndirstonde it bi my maner witt: sich breeþ þat comeþ out of a bodies ende, whanne a bodi breþiþ wiþ þe mouþ in frosty wedir, þat men taken a saumple, bifor to sle her lac dre / þanne whanne þou myȝt se þe breeþ of þin owne ende comynge out at þi mouþ in þe eir.

A walkynge / vlcus is þat walkiþ hidirward & þidirward, & neþeles he profoundiþ nouȝt depe [folio 41a] into þe ground.

An vlcus þat is hard to helin is he þat for his yuel propirte þat is sent to him fro þe bodi lettiþ him to heele.

& for to heelen ech maner of þese vlcus, þer ben manye dyuers rulis / Þe firste rule is þat þei moun not be heelid, but þe superfluytees þat ben in hem ben I-dried / Þe secunde rule / but if þat bodi ouþer þe membre be oute of his naturel complexioun, or þan þou þenke to heele þilke vlcus þou muste brynge aȝen to his dietePage  80 complexioun distemprid þilke bodi ouþir membre. Þe þridde rule is: þat if þe lyuere eiþir þe splene ben I-greued, as it happiþ ofte tymes in olde woundis, þou muste rectifien hem / Þe .iiij rule is: þat þe qualitees & þe quantitees of humouris schulden be temperid wiþ blood-letynge & purgaciouns & with good gouernaile / & if þat þe eir be yuel, þe sike man schal be chaungid into good eyr / & whanne þat þe leche haþ tofore seen alle þese þingis, þanne he may go to his cure /

& if þe vlcus be virulent, þat is to seie venemi, loke if þat þe venym þat goiþ out be redisch or ȝelowisch, & if þat þe lyme haue ony maner heete; þanne waische it wiþ water of rosis & barlich. alim*. [alim, Latin: aluminis.] & balaustia & lentiles with hony [folio 41b] symple eiþer compouuned ben soden yn, & lete þis watir peersen to þe depþe of þe wounde; & if þe virus be wiþoute heete & þe membre haue noon heete, waische it wiþ watir or with wiyn þat mirre wormode,*. [wormode, absinthium. O.E. wormôd, M.E. wormwood.] horhone,*. [horhone, Marrubium vulgare. See Britten, Dict.] sauge,*. [sauge, salvia.] pimpernelle*. [pimpernella, Pimpinella.] hony symple or compounned ben soden yn / Clense þe wounde perfiȝtliche & engendre fleisch & afterward consowde it wiþ þis propre oynement þat þi*. [þi, error for in.] olde foule venym woundis, eiþerPage  81 vlcus, engendriþ fleisch, clensiþ & heeliþ as auicen & rasis witnessen / recipe litargium*. ["Lithangyros, Litharge or Silver-glet, the frothy Dross, or Scum that arises in the purifying of Silver with Lead."—Phillips.] as myche as þou wolt & stampe it in a morter*. [MS. & putte it in a morter, scribal insertion.] & putte wiþ him good oile of rosis & vynegre now on & now þe oþere, alwey stiryng, til it be perfiȝtly an oynement & come into þe foorme of an oynement. & þis oynement is clepid litargirum nutritum, þat is to sai litarge nurschid, þat is profitable in manye causis / afterward take of þilke litarge norischid .vij. parties & of alim, & of balaustie or ellis in þe stide of balaustie wormes of þe erþe brent, bras brent, leed, gallis, sandragoun chathinie*. ["Cathima est minera de qua elicitur aurum vel argentum."—Sinonoma Barth. p. 14. Cathimia: argenti spuma, Cartelli Dict.] argenti .ana. as myche as is xij parties of al þe oynement; medle alle togidere and [folio 42a] make an oynement / Þis oynement schal be leid wiþinne þe wounde & al aboue þe wounde; for it drieþ þe wounde & engendriþ good fleisch & consowdiþ / Take hede to þis rule, þat in heelynge of alle olde woundis after þat þei ben clensyd, aboue þe oynement it is good to leie a lynnen clooþ, to distende abrood on of þe mundificatiuis of ony which þat schal be told in þe antidotarie, & leie aboue aboute þilke vlcus specialy from þe ouer partie fro whens humouris fleen, a defensif of bole armonyak & terra sigillata; þatPage  82 is maad on þis maner / take bole armoniak .[ounce] j. terra sigillata. [ounce][one half] oile of rosis & vynegre þat suffisiþ, I-nowȝ do in þe oon now in þe oþer til þe oynement be ful maad & liquide I-nouȝ / so þat of þe oile of rosis be double as myche as of vynegre / Þis defensiþ a membre fro corrupcioun & also vlcus þat he sprede nouȝt abrood /

An hory wounde shal be heelid, in remeuynge awey þe crust eiþere filþe þat is in him wiþ poudre of affodill, þat schal be said in þe eende of þis book, ouþer wiþ sum oþer mundificatiuis; aftir consowde it wiþ consolidaciouns /

A deep wounde is heelid [folio 42b] wiþ castynge into þe depþe of þe wounde with an instrument maad to þe lijknesse of a clisterie, ony of þe waischingis þat ben seid in þe venemy wounde aboue, aftir þat þe disposicioun of þe membre askiþ of heete or of cold. & aftir þat, he is clensid in castynge in watre ouþir wiyn þat mastik or frank encense is soden ynne & in leggyng wiþouten oon of þe mundificatiuis of hony þat schal be seid aftir. & also it is good to ordeyne þe lyme so þat þe mouþ of þe wounde hange dounward, & streyne þi ligature at þe ground of þi wounde, & bynde it losely at þe mouþ of þe wounde; also it were good, if þat it myȝte be, þat þer were maad a newe wounde in þe place þat is moost hangynge, þat þe rotynes & þe quytture myȝte þe bettere goon out; for so þilke vlcus myȝte þe sunnere be heelid /

Page  83A wroting vlcus is heelid in leggynge specialiche aboute him colde þingis whiche þat ben*. [ben, erroneously inserted.] obtunden or casten bach þe scharpnes of þe same vlcus; & also with amendynge, as with metis & drynkis, þe scharpnes of þe same blood, & in purgynge þe reed colere; & wiþ anoyntynge wiþ colde oynementis & consolidatiuis. & þerto [folio 43a] is miche worþ vnguentum album rasis þat schal be told in þe antidotarie /

A stynkynge wounde is heelid in remeuynge awey þe stinche & þe rotenes; & þerto is myche worþ a waischinge of ydromel: þat is hony & watir soden togidere wiþ mirre, & a mundificatif maad wiþ ius of wormod & barly mele & hony & mirre, þat is maad on þis maner / take ius of wormod. [ounce] iij. of hony. [ounce] iij. barli mele [ounce] ij. of mirre ana. [ounce] j. & compounne hem togidere & fille þe wounde wiþinneforþ with lynnet of lynnen clooþ. & if þat wormes ben engendrid in þe wounde, sle hem wiþ þe ius of calamynte ouþer wiþ þe ius of þe leeues of pechis, or ellis persicarie,*. [persicarie glossed colorag. See Notes.] eiþer wiþ decoccioun of elebre. & whanne þat a perfiȝt mundificatif is maad, engendre fleisch & consowde as it is seid tofore /

A walkynge vlcus is heelid wiþ fleobotomie & formacie*. [O.Fr. farmacie = purgation. See Littré, Dict.] þat isPage  84 laxatiuis purgynge þe colere & brent humouris, & in leggynge aboute a defensif of bole & terra sigillata þat is seid tofore in þis chapitle; & with oon of þe cold mundificatiuis, & sumtyme þou muste cauterise þe vlcus aboue with an instrument of gold. For þilke maner of brennynge rectifieþ weel þe membre /

Þe cause whi þat summe vlcus [folio 43b] is hard to consowde is, for an yuel disposicioun þat is hid in þe bodi, & þerfore it nediþ to rectifien þe membre & þe bodi as I haue seid tofore. & if þe cause be vpon,*. [vpon, error for open.] oon oþer manye, do awei þilke cause or ellis þe manye causis, or þat þou go to þis principal cure / Þese ben þe causis þat letten consowdynge of olde woundis: an yuel disposicioun of al þe bodi as ydropisie; or ellis an yuel disposicioun of þe lyuere as if þat he be to feble, as to hoot or to cold, to moist or to drie, wiþ mater or wiþoute mater, as wiþ to greet hardenes; or ellis þe splene is to feble to purge þe malancolient blood; or ellis to myche blood or ellis to litil blood; or ellis þe veynes ben to fulle of blood þat goon doun to þe vlcus; or elles þat glandeles þat ben kirnelis þat ben in þe ground*. [ground. See grynd, page 41, note 3.] þat senden doun mater to the vlcus þat is in þe þies & in þe leggis; or ellis þe lippis of þe vlcus ben to grete; or ellis myche fleisch; or ellis mys-ordynaunce of dietynge or ellis anPage  85 inconuenient medicyn to þat membre or ellis þe lyme þat is hirt haþ an yuel discrasie; or ellis þilke vlcus is in an yuel place as in þe eende of þe [folio 44a] elbowȝe; or ellis þe vlcus is al round; or ellis þe boon þat is vndir þe vlcus is corrupt / Alle þase tofore seid letten vlcus to be heelid / wherfore it nediþ þe, to take kepe to alle þese þingis tofore seid, to amende al þe bodi & namely þo lymes þat han principalte in mannes body, & kepen alle þe lymes þat ben in her naturel disposicioun with þingis þat ben acordinge to her naturel disposicioun, þo / & if þei ben discrasid, remeue þilke discrasie wiþ þat, þat is contrarie to þe discrasie / also tempre þe qualite & þe quantite of þe blood & streyne þe veyne if þat þou brynge þidir blood, or ellis if þat it be possible latt þe blood awey; vndo þe glandeles þat ben kirnels þat sendin þider mater, & remeue deed fleesch, smale þe lippis of woundis þat ben greete & kutte hem awey if þat þou myȝt do noon oþirwise; amende his dietynge; & brynge aȝen þe rondnes of þilke vlcus into a long forme aftir þe lenkþe of þe membre with a knyf hoot brennynge / but if a veyne or a senewe lette. & þou schalt remoue þe boon þat is corrupt on þis maner: in kuttynge awey al þe fleisch & þe boon þat is corrupt with an hoot [folio 44b] iren, or wiþ a medicyn þat schal be seid in þe laste eende of þis book, or ellis it is bettere to don it awey wiþ hootPage  86 iren. & whanne þat þe boon þat is corrupt*. [MS. corrrupt.] is vnkeuerid, schaue it not as manye men doon, but touche harde þat boon with hoot iren; & aftirward heelde on þilke boon hoot oile of rosis, & leie on oon of þe mundificatiuis þat ben in þe antidotarie whiche þat wolen remoue þe rotid boon wiþoute violence / For vndirstonde weel þouȝ þat þou clense þe rotid boon wiþ schauynge or wiþ filynge with violence, neuere þe lattere kynde wole afterward don awey a schelle of þilke same boon, nouȝt aȝenstondynge þi schauynge & þi rasynge / wherfore in remeuynge þilke boon þou multipliest þi traueile & makist newe*. [newe, error for no.] mundificacion to þe fulle*. [to þe fulle. Lat.: ad plenum. See Polychr., iii. 443, he forgaf him the trespas at the fulle.] & þerof may come ofte tymes an yuel festre. An inconuenient medicyn is amendid in considerynge þe complexioun of al þe body & þe complexioun of þe lyme & þe gre of þe medicyn; for if þat þe membre be drie as þe eeris & al bony & gristly lymes, & þei han greet putride & rotschipe, þanne þou nedist a ful drie medicyn / & if þat þe bodi or þe lymes [folio 45a] ben mene bitwene fatnes & lenenes þat is neiþer to fatt ne to leene, þanne þou nedist a medicyn þat is in kynde mesurabiliche driynge / & if þat þe bodi or þe membre be natureliche moist, & if þat he haue a litil putrede or rotschipe, þanne þou nedist a medicynPage  87 þat is litil driynge / & if þat .ij. membris ben in complexioun I-liche euene, & þe toon haue myche quytture, & þe toþer litil quytture, he þat haþ þe more quitture nediþ þe driere medicyn / & *he þat haþ but litil quytture, him nediþ his medicyn I-maad nouȝt fulliche so drie / Þerfore it nediþ bi mesure þat þou kepe naturel þing wiþ þing þat is acordinge to þe same naturel þing / & also remeue with mesurable contrariouste þing þat is aȝens kynde / But þe quantite of medicyns þat schulden be leid to þe soor as galion witnessiþ mai not wiþ lettris be writen / neþeles it sufficiþ þat a man diuise þe medicyn after*. [N. E. Dict. s. v., "after C. 2. c" gives later references for the use of after conj. = according as, without relative particle.] þe complexioun mai bere / For kynde þat is wondirful, fulfilliþ þing þat is absent, & þat. þat is to myche, castiþ awey, but if þat it be to myche aȝen kynde; & þanne kynde muste nede faile in his kyndely worchinge / A medicyn mundificatif [folio 45b] & exciccatif þat is nessessarie in ech old holowe wounde,——*. [Both MSS. omit the end of the passage. Lat. "Medicina vero mundificatiua & exiccatiua — — aut est fortior, quam conuenit, aut debilior competenti." Then, as a heading to the next passage: "Significatio si medicina est magis sicca quam oportet." The þat in & þat may be knowe, refers to this omitted heading.]

& þat may be knowe bi þis maner / if þat þe medicyn make þinne quytture & blodi & make þe wounde holower, þanne he schulde be, þanne is medicyn to scharpe / & if þe quytture be þicke & towȝ, þanne is þe medicyn to liþe / & also anoþer signe þat þePage  88 medicyn is to scharp, þat þe place aboute þe wounde is to grene, blak, reed, eiþer ȝelow; & þanne þe sike man schal fele to greet heete & brennynge, also þe venym of þe wounde multiplieþ / and whanne þe vnkunnynge leche seeþ þese accidentis tofore seid, he ordeyneþ a drie medicyn; & so ech day þe wounde apeiriþ.*. [apeiriþ intr. See Prompt. Parv. Appeyryn, or make wors. Pejoro, deterioro.]

& þe signe þat þe medicyn is of feble driynge is, þat þe quitture & þe rotynes þat goiþ out þerof is greet in substaunce, ponderous & vneuene, wan ouþir pale & þe membre is cold & is whiȝt ouþir wan, ouþir cleer in colour ouþer soft; & þe sike man feliþ cold in his membre / & whanne þat þou knowist þese þingis in þe firste cause make not þi medicyn so drie, & in þe secunde cause make þi medicyn more drie, & also chaunge þi worchinge as condicioun of kynde askith [folio 46a] boþe of bodi & membre as weel symple as compound medicyns / He þat knowiþ not þes canones. wel yuele schal he heele woundis / wherfore manye lechis bryngen liȝtliche woundis with her yuel worchinge into þe worste olde woundis þe whiche moun not aftir ben I-heelid bi a good leche / Þese ben liȝt medicyns whiche þat drien olde woundis þat neden a litil driynge: mastik, frank encense, barli mele. & þese medicyns ben sumwhat more driere: yrios,*. [yrios. Lat. Iris. See Prior, Dict., p. 123.] aristologie rotunda, orabum*. ["Orobus, gall. uesche, anglice thare uel mousespese."—Alphita, p. 131.] þat is wiilde tare, lupines,Page  89 þe rotynes eiþer þe drie poudre of trees; & þese medicyns ben strongere: balaustie, psidie,*. ["Psidia cortex est mali granati."—Synonoma Barthol., p. 35.] rose, notts of cipris et cetera / & þese ben liȝt mundificatiuis: sugre, hony, water of barlich, gotis whay, watir of þe see, watir of brimstoon þat clensiþ & heteþ, water of alym þat clensiþ & coldiþ. & þou schalt haue greet plente of enplastris, mundificatiuis, oyntmentis compounned in þe antidotarie of þis book /

The .xij. chapitle of þe iij. techinge of þe firste tretis is of festre /

Festre is a deep old wounde, & þe mouþ of him is streyt, & þe ground is brood, & he haþ [folio 46b] wiþinne him a calose*. [O. Fr. calus, (Godefroy). See later references in N. E. Dict.] hardnesse al aboute as it were a goos penne or ellis a kane / & a festre haþ difference from a deep vlcus & a cauernose / for a deep vlcus & cauernose of whom it is toold in þe chapitle tofore seid, þouȝ þat þei acorden togidere in depnes & in streitnesse of þe mouþ, þe vlcus haþ not wiþinne him a calose hardnes / Wherfore a festre mai not be clensid wiþ waischinge with which a cauernose vlcus mai be clensid / but it is nessessarie aftir þat þou hast waischen it toPage  90 remeue þilke calose hardnesse wiþ a cauterie eiþer with a medicyn cauterizinge þat is brennynge, þe which cauterie ouþir brennynge schulde make þe depþe of þe vlcus holowere þan he was / Wherfore it is nessessarie to a surgian to knowe þe difference of þis science, þat he mowe knowe to heele boþe þe vlcus & þe festre wiþ medicyns different þat longen to hem boþe /

& if þat a festre be in þe fleisch or ellis bitwene senewe & senewe, so þat þe substaunce of þe senewe be not corrupt ne þe boon, it is no nede to take noon oþere medicyn but egrimoyne & staumpe it with salt as þou woldist make sause, & drawe out þe ius of þilke egrymoyne, & do it into þe [folio 47a] hole of þe festre wiþ a penne & leie þe substaunce of þe same eerbe þere-vpon til he haue slayn þilke festre & clensid it; & þou schalt knowe bi reednes & sadnesse of fleisch þat is wiþinne þe festre al aboute; & aftirward haue þis sirup of hony wiþ þe whiche þou schalt waische þe festre þat is now vlcus I-compounned in þis maner / Take a pound water, vynegre half a pound, of hony dispumed [ounce] .iiij., of leeues of olyuetre bounden togidere wiþ a þred / [ounce] j., of galingale*. [galingale, ne. galangale, for sagitelle.][dram] j, boile alle þese to þe perfiȝtnesse of a sirup, & lete it colden, & do awey þePage  91 leeues of þe olyue, & kepe al þe remenaunt of þe sirup with þe leeues of sagittel & waische þe vlcus þat was festred tofore wiþ þis licour twies on þe day þat þe licour may go to þe ground, & aftirward drie it weel & fille it ful of drie leeues of sagittelle & leie a sagittel-leef aboue; & þis medicyn þou schalt contynuen til it be hool / Euery festre þat is in fleisch is heelid wiþ þis medicyn I-preued, but if þat substaunce of þe senewe & of þe boon be apeirid in þe ground, & specialiche if þat þe festre be not old, & if þat þe calosite be nouȝt to hard. In þese two causis þe medicyn of egrimoyne [folio 47b] ne suffisiþ nouȝt, but it is nessessarie to haue a cauterie of fier eiþer a medicyn caustik / & of þese medicyns þou schalt haue a ful techinge folowynge in þe book / & if þat þe boone were corrupt in þe depþe of þe festre, do it awei aftir þe techinge tauȝt in þe chapitle tofore / & herof take hede, if þat a festre perse bi þe weyes of þe vryne so þat þe vryne go out bi þilke weie, as we han seen ofte tymes, or ellis þat it go bi crokid placis & hid placis of þe face*. [Lat. per tortuosas aut occultas partes faciei.] persinge into depþe, it is*. [it is, above line.] an vnperfiȝt cure, but þou maist pale*. [pale, Lat. palliare. Dufr., Gloss.: 1. tegere; 2. simulare.] it, & do it awey þe stinche with hony waischinge, enplastre, & hony mundificatiuis, & with defensiuis aboute þe placePage  92 þat his malice mowe*. [MS. moore.] þen lasse greue. For a festre þat is in ioynturis as þe feet eiþer þe knee, eiþer þe hand, eiþir þe elbowe, is hard for to heele, & sumtyme impossible / & if þat he be in anoþer place, & he haue corrodid eiþer rotid sumwhat of þe senewe, þow þat it be greuous for to cure it, þer is noon oþer wey, but a liȝt cauterizacioun of þe senewe þat is hurt / For cauterizacioun wiþ hoot iren eiþer wiþ gold, þat is bettere, it clensiþ & drieþ þe senewe þat is corrupt & rectifieþ þe complexioun of al þe membre & [folio 48a] a medecyn caustik worchiþ þe contrarie / Brennynge medicyns, boþe þe symple & þe compound þou schalt haue to þe fulle*. [See page 86, note 3.] in*. [þe þridde tretis folowynge / & whanne þou hast maad a perfiȝt mundificacioun struck through in red. after to þe fulle in.] antidotarie of þis book, & þou schalt fynde þe maner of cauterisynge to þe fulle in þe þridde tretis folowynge. & whanne þou hast maad a perfiȝt mundificacioun of þilke colose fleisch, regendre fleisch & consowde with medicyns regeneratius & consolidatiuis þe whiche þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie //

The xiij chapitle of þe þridde techinge of þe firste tretis is of a cankre /

Cankre I-woundid comeþ of openynge, eiþer of kuttinge, eiþer of brekynge of a cankre not I-woundid, whos techinge þou schaltPage  93 haue in þe chapitle of þe apostymes in þe þridde techinge / & he comeþ of a wounde yuel heelid, to whom comeþ a malancolient mater rotid; or for þe mater þat comeþ to þe wounde is þere corrumpid & chaungiþ þe vlcus into a cankre /

& þese ben þe tokenes of þe cankre / Þe vlcus is foul & stynkynge, þe lippis ben grete, wan, or blak, hard, & wiþinne kirnely, & ouer al aboute arerid and [folio 48b] holowe / & þis is þe difference bitwene a cankre & a foul vlcus & an hori of whom I haue maad mencioun aboue, þat if þat þou waische hem boþe wiþ liȝe, þe cankre schal be palere & foulere þan he was bifore, & þere schal falle out of him pecis gobetmele.*. [gobetmele, piecemeal. Polychron., iv. 103: membratim. See further, Mätzner, Dict.] & þe vlcus is clensid wiþ þilke liȝe, & þe fleisch is maad fairer þan it was tofore, ne þe vlcus stynkiþ not bi þe same stinche as þe cankre doiþ; for þe cankre haþ a propre sauour, þe which mai not be write wiþ lettre; but þilke sauour is best knowe of men whiche þat best han seiȝe cankreis.*. [MS. cankre is.]

A general rule in þe cure of a cankre is, þat a cankre mai not be heelid, but if þat he be do awey wiþ alle hise rotis / Þe secunde rule is, þat he schal not be touchid wiþ hoot iren ne with hoot medicyn caustik, þat is to seie brennynge, but he be in placePage  94 where he may al be doon awey / for þe more þat þou touchist him wiþ a violent þing eiþer medicyn, þe more his malice is encreessid / Take þanne good heede if he be in a fleischi place, where þat he may be don al wey, & þanne kutte him al awey wiþ alle hise rotis / & þanne þriste out al þe malancolient [folio 49a] blood þat is wiþinne þe veynes þat ben aboute þe cankre. & aftirward brenne al aboute in þe place þere as þe cankre was with hoot iren / aftirward leie on þis confeccioun maad of flour of wheete & hony & ius of smalache,*. [smallage, Halle Table, p. 12. "Smalache, Marche, or Marshe Persley." See Prior, Dict., p. 217.] til þat he be perfiȝtliche clensid. After regendre fleisch & cicatrice. To þis rule / take hede as ofte as þou wilt wiþ sirurgie heelen a cancre: first euacue þe malancolient mater, for þat is ypocras techinge; & if þat he be growen in sich a place þere as he may not be doon al awey, as in þe necke or in þe tetis, or in þe face, or in þe arshole, or in þe mareis; & also for schortere conclusioun, & he be entrid in ony place þere as ony senewis, arteries, veynes, ben—as ypocras seiþ—it is bettere nouȝt to cure þe cankre þan to cure. For & he be curid, þat is to seie kutt or I-brent, þei perischen þe sunnere; & if þei ben not curid, þei lyuen þe lengere tyme—libro vjo. afforismorum: Cancri absconditi multum tempus perfuciuntPage  95 curati vero cicius pereunt / But defende þe lyme þat is hool aboute with defensif of bole þat I haue ofte tymes seid & waische þe wounde of þe cankre wiþ gotis whey, & drie it softly, [folio 49b] & anoynte þe wounde wiþinne & wiþoute with þis oynement of rasis &*. [&, erroneously for of.] tutie*. [tutie, Matth. Sylvat. "Tuchia . . Lat. Cadimia & pomfolix." Arab. tūtīā. Fr. tutie. See Wr. Wü., p. 559, 13. "Tucia, i. tutie" (xiiith cent.). It is: Oxidum Zinci impurum.] / take ceruse,*. [ceruse, white lead. See N. E. Dict. s. v. Ceruse.] tutie I-waische & medle hem wiþ oile of rosis & wiþ ius of purcelane*. [purcelane, Lat. portulaca. Halle Table, p. 90. "Another herbe there is also called Portulaca marina, only of the likenes that the leaves therof haue with porcelaine." See "Purslane," Prior, Popular Names, p. 193.] or of sum oþere cold eerbe, putte ynne sum of þe toon, & now sum of þat oþer, til þe oynement be weel I-maad / Þis oynement is myche worþ for to defende þat þe malice of þe cancre schal not wexen, & also þat þe pacient vse a good gouernaile: as drinke good wiyn & cleer & lithe, & he muste leeue reed wiyn & troublid & þicke wiyn, & he may ete good fleisch, as motoun*. [moton, carnes ovine, Wr. Wü., 741, 39, xvth cent.] of a weþer, kide fleisch sowkynge, capouns, hennes, chikenes, partrichis,*. [partrichis, Cathol. Ang., p. 270, a Partryke, perdrix. See further Skeat, Et. Dict.] fesauntis, & smale briddis, & he muste leeue: beeues fleisch*. [bef, added above line, in different hand.] & gotis fleisch, hertis fleisch & haris fleisch, goos, dokis, & alle greete briddis þat lyuen in watri placis, & al salt þing & acute þing: as garleek, oynonys & vynegre et cetera [þat]*Page  96 þe sike man may lyue þe lengere vpon erþe / Neþeles if vlcus be riȝt foul & haue nouȝt so greet malice as a cankre, of þe which vlcus I haue told tofore may be curid wiþ poudre of affadillis, and aftirward weel be clensid; & for þat þis vlcus [folio 50a] þat was so foul may be heelid / Rogeryn and Rowlond & manye oþere settide in her bokis þe cure of a cankre, þouȝ þat he be in a senewey place, & þei seien þat þei han heelid him / But vndirstonde weel for certeyn, þat an olde cankre mai not be heelid bi noon oþer wey, but bi þe same wey þat I haue seid in þe bigynnynge of þis chapitle / & if þat þou dredist wheþer þat it be a symple vlcus or a cankre & a foul, for þe signes & þe tokenes tofore seid beþ doutis, bigynne to mortifie it wiþ sum maner of poudre: as wiþ poudre of affadillis, & bi my witt poudre of erbe robert*. [erbe robert, insertion of the scribe. Geranium Robertianum. See Prior, p. 113. Cronenburg. De Compositione Medicamentorum, a. 1555, fol. 106, A. Ruprechtskraut: Roberti herba (Geranii species).] / & loke aftirward þe prosis of þi worchinge seiþ þis boke*. [seiþ þis book, erroneously inserted.] / For if þat he be a uerry cankre, þou schalt se þe more þou woldist clense him, þe more his malice schal wexen / & if he be not a cankré, he schal be clensid riȝt as an vlcus / Whanne þat þou seest þe wexynge of a cankre & his malice agmenten, ceesse from þe verry cure & turne aȝen to þe forseid cure of þe oynement of tutie, þe which þat paliþ þe cankre. For & þou bisie þee toPage  97 cure þe cankre, & þou procede in þi cure, þou schortist þe pacientis lijf / & if þou palist, þou lenkþist his lijf /

[folio 50b] The .xiiij chapitle of þe þridde techinge of þe firste tretis is for to remeue causis þat letten þe cure of olde woundis /

I tolde þee aboue in þe general chapitle of olde woundis cause whiche þat letten olde woundis to be heelid / & also I tolde þe techinge plenerliche þat ben nessessarie to remeue ech sengle cause þat is nessessarie, how þat alle maner causis þat letten mai be don awey bi a good surgien & a wijs; so þat þou ioynest þis chapitle wiþ þe oþere chapitle tofore seid, þou schalt han a pleyner techinge. If þat þe bodi be ful of olde humouris eiþer in þe idropisie, loke þat he may be heelid of þilke disposicioun, & þanne heele him if þat þou canst / &*. [The translator, perhaps intentionally, altered his original: si non (scis), pete physicum qui curationem illius dispositionis faciat.] if þat he be not ful of olde humouris whiche þat neden no curynge of olde disposicioun. Ne traueile not in deueyn*. [in deueyn = in veyn.] þe sike man neiþir wiþ medicyns corosiuis, ne wiþ kuttynge, ne with puttynge into þe woundis greete tentis; but do aboue þe vlcus liȝtPage  98 mundificatiuis & swete smellynge, þat kepiþ þe membre liȝtliche clene þat it stynke not / & whanne þat he is keuerid from an yuel disposicioun, thanne turne aȝen to þe principal cure / & þis same þing [folio 51a] *. [Heading to this page: Causes þat lettes þe cure off old woundes.]I saye of yuel disposicioun of þe lyuere of what maner cause þat he be enfeblid; þe same I saye of þe splene / But if þese tweyne ben in her kyndely disposicioun, olde woundis moun not be heelid. If*. [if above line.] þat greet multitude of blood lettiþ, þat may be knowen bi ful replecioun of þe veines of al þe bodi, bi reednesse & extencioun of þe face, bi swetnes of þe mouþ, bi flating*. [flating, Add. MS. wlattynge. See Wright Wü. O.E. wlatung.] / Whanne þat a man is fastynge, bi heuynes of þe browis, & bi ȝong age, & his complexioun is hoot & moist, & þat he haþ vsid in his dietynge wiyn and fleisch; & make him þanne be lete blood of þe veyne þe which þat bryngiþ norischinge to þe lyme, & aftirward of þe veyne þat mai best voiden þe membre þat is hurt / & if þat þe blood trespace oonly in qualite, amende him as if þat he be to hoot, voide him a litil & diete him with colde metis & stiptik. & aftirward procede forþ in alle maner oþir causis as it is told in þe general chapitle, takynge hede þat þer ben summe maner medicyns whiche þat ben driynge & clensynge, & han a priuy*. [privy. See Cathol. Angl., pryvay, occultus.] propirte to consowdePage  99 olde woundis whiche þat ben difficult to be consowdid; of þe whiche medicyns summe ben symple & summe [folio 51b] ben compouuned / Symple ben: limature of iren, flour of bras brent, vitriol leed brent, & alle scharpe corosiuis if þat þei ben brent; for þat þei han vertu more to consowden, & also her corrisoun is lessid / þis is a medicyn compounned: take floris*. [Lat. flor. æris.] eris, limature of bras ana. [ounce] j. litarge of gold, litarge of siluir, [dram] .viij. gumme of cipresse, [dram] .iiij. sal gemme,*. [sal gemme. A Salt so named, from its Transparent and Crystalline Brightness.—Kersey.][dram] .ij. aristologia I-brent smal to poudre of frankencense, ana. [dram] .v. wex & oile of mirtill þat suffisiþ // //

The .xv. chapitle of þe þridde techinge of þe firste tretis is of a crampe þat comeþ to a wounde /

Nessessarie þing is to a surgian to knowe þe causis of a crampe, þe which þat comeþ to a wounde þat schulde be heelid, & also þat he knowe þe disposicioun of him þat haþ þe crampe, & also what þing þat þe crampe is, þat he mowe resonabliche hele þe crampe / Þe crampe is a sijknes cordous eiþer neruous, in þe which sijknes cordis & þe senewis weren drawen to her bigynnynge; of þe whiche drawynge þat ben .ij. causis coniunct: þe toon is repleccioun of þePage  100 senewe, þe oþere of þe corde, þe oþer is inanisioun.*. [inanisioun, Lat. inanitio. Vigo. Interpretation. "Inanition, emptyng."] He þat is of in-anisioun, [folio 52a] ofte tymes he haþ a cause goynge tofore as to myche euacuacioun of blood eiþer of sum oþer þing, as to longe affliccioun for long akþe, or ellis for þe appetite of þe sike man haþ ben longe tyme enfeblid; & þis comeþ litil & litil, & þe crampe þat comeþ of boþe þese causis may not be heelid. & he þat comeþ of replecioun haþ oon of þe .iij. causis goynge tofore / þe firste cause is to greet akþe / þe .ij. cause is cold / & þe .iij. cause is putrifaccioun eiþer rotynge / & þouȝ þat oon sengle cause sumtyme suffice to make a crampe, ofte tymes alle þese causis happen to come togiders / And þis crampe may be heelid or þat he be confermed, & aftir þat he is confermed seelden or neuere / A surgian muste þanne be bisy in al þat he myȝte, þat a crampe ne wexe not in þe wounde þat schulde be heelid, wiþ obuiacioun*. [obuiacioun, Lat. cum obuiatione defensiuorum.] defendinge þe lyme, þat noon of þe .iij. causis tofore seid ne come nouȝt into þe wounde: þe oon is in defendynge þe lyme from putrifaccioun / þe toþere is for kepinge þe lyme fro rotynge / þe þridde is to gouerne him from a greet akynge / for it is more sikir to defende þat a crampe [folio 52b] ne come not, þanne aftir þat he is come with medicyns þat is douteful or dredeful toPage  101 do awey / For if a feuere come to an heed or to a senewe þat is woundid, & if þe crampe folowe, euermore it is deedliche.

Take hede þanne to aswage þe akþe wiþ anoyntynge of oile of rosis, in doynge as I haue seid afore in þe chapitle of senewis þat ben woundid; for ofte tymes þe crampe comeþ fro woundis þat ben maad in þe heed or ellis in þe senewe / & if þat akþe were so greet, þat makiþ þe crampe for þe prickynge of a senewe or ellis of a corde / & if þat þou myȝtist nouȝt defende þe crampe neiþir wiþ blood letynge, neiþer wiþ ventusynge, ne wiþ clisterie, ne wiþ suppositorie, ne wiþ defensif in anoyntynge þe necke, ne þe grynde, ne þe arm hoolis, þanne it is nessessarie þat þou kutte al atwo þilke senewe or þilke corde þat is prickid, þouȝ þat þe felynge or þe meuynge of þe lyme to whom þilke senewe or þilke corde serueþ in parti or in al be lost / For it is bettere þat a man lese þe felynge & þe meuynge of a lyme, þan for to deie. But it is bettere, if þat þou cowdist, to kepe a man þer-fro with oþere [folio 53a] medicyns þan þat þe senewe or þe corde be kutt al atwo. & if*. [if, above line.] þat þou were not at þe bigynnynge, & þou fyndist a man hauynge þe crampe for a wounde, do þou as I dide at melain. Þer was a scoler of myn þat was a surgian þat was clepid Olyuer, which þat curide a scheþerePage  102 of a wounde þat he hadde in þe heed; & bi þilke wounde þe pannicle ouþir þe skyn þat keueriþ þe brayn panne þat is vnder þe fleisch was hurt, & neuer-þe-lattere þe brayn panne was not hurt. & þilke leche, or þanne he hadde perfiȝtlich purified þilke pannicle, sowdide þe wounde wiþoutforþ*. [wiþoutforþ, extrinsecus, from without.]; & whanne þilke wounde was sowdid, þe pannicle þat was not weel heelid hadde a dedein*. [dedein, Lat. panniculus indignatus causa fuit spasmi. The translator misunderstood indignatus, and gives us an "indignant pannicle." indignatus, Med. Lat. damaged, hurt. See Tommas. s. v. indegnare 3.—Compare þe ludych lorde—hade dedayn of þat dede.—Allit. Poems, B. 74.] & was cause of gendrynge of a crampe in þilke wounde. & at þe laste I was clepid to þe sike man, & I foond him hauynge þe crampe, & wiþ þe crampe he hadde manye smale enpostymes aboute his face—& þat is an yuele tokene in þe woundis of þe heed—& þanne I demede him for deed / Neþeles at þe instaunce of hise freendis I wolde asaie þe worchinge of kynde vpon resoun; I made his heed to be schaue,*. [I made his hed to be schaue, abradi caput feci.] & I kutte aȝen þe wounde þat was [folio 53b] consowdid wiþ a rasour to þe depþe of þe same wounde, & aftirward I fulfillide þe wounde with hoot oile of rosis, & I anoyntide al þe heed with þe same oile of rosis & a litil vynegre medlid togidere, & I anoyntide þe nolle & þe necke oonly wiþ oile of rosis, & I dide on þe wounde þe ȝelke of an ey wiþ oile of rosis, and I boond alPage  103 þe heed wiþ a boond leiynge þer vndir herdis*. [herdis. See Wright Wü. 614. 2. "Stupa, herdes."] or towȝ smal I tosid, and I openede his mouþ & putte into his mouþ þe broþ maad of a chiken, wiþ comyn & also wiþ cleer wiyn medlid wiþ myche water; on þe morowe I turnede aȝen & I foond þe sike of bettere disposicioun, & I openede bettere his mouþ, & he spak bettere; neþeles I foond þe wounde drie, & þanne I dide ofte tymes þe same medicyn & þe same oynture. In þe þridde dai þe skyn of þe heed was maad moist, þe which was bifore as drie as þe skyn hadde be rostid at þe fier, & in so miche*. [þat, inserted.] þe skyn was maad þinne, þat þer was no þing bitwene þe skyn & þe brayn panne. & at þe laste þe wounde quytturide wiþ contynuaunce of þe same cure tofore seid, & in þis [folio 54a] maner þe ȝonge man was heelid boþe of þe crampe & also of þe wounde / But þilke crampe was wiþoute feuere; for I may not þenke þat I haue seen a feuere in þe woundes of þe heed, or ellis of þe senewis prickid a crampe, þat nouȝt aȝenstondynge remedie eiþer medicyns þe pacient þat hadde þe crampe diede / My beste counseil is to lete him blood in þe bigynnynge þat haþ þe crampe, namely, & he be strong & replete, & if þat he haue not bled ynouȝ at his woundis; & anoynte his nolle & his necke wiþ hoote oynementis as wiþ oilePage  104 of nardine, euforbine, oile of rue,*. [rue, ruta. Turner, Herbal, ii. 122 b. Ruta is named in Greke Pegamon, in English Rue or herbe grace, in French rue de gardin, in Dutch Weinraut.] lilijs et cetera / & also to make smale cauteries punctale, þat is to seie as smal as þe eende of a pricke, bitwene ech whirlebon of þe necke, so neuere-þe-lattere þat þe cauterie go not ouer depe / Aftirward bynde long wolle to his heed bihynde & to his necke & to hise schuldris, & do þeron hoot oile, & leie him in a soft bed & lete him be in reste & in pees / But þer ben summe þat setten in her bookis medicyns þat prouoken þe feueris; for þat ypocras techiþ in .iiijto afforismoris: a spasmo*. [Cramp and Tetanus. See Notes.] vel tetano [folio 54b] habito febre*. [febre superveniente, error for febris superveniens.] superueniente soluit egritudinem / þat is to seie: if þat a man haue a crampe or ellis a tetane þat is a sijknes þat halt þe membre lich streit on boþe sidis as a crampe halt þe oon side of þe membre & þe feuere come on þilke crampe eiþir þilke tetane, he distrieþ þe crampe eiþir þe sijknes; & also þei anoynte wiþ to hoot an oynement to prouoke þe feueres, þe which þing I ne apreue not in þe crampe of a wounde þouȝ þat þilke oynement myȝte be profitable in a crampe wiþoute wounde, & where þat humouris abounde, namely, if it be fleume.

Summe ben general tokenes & summe ben special of schewynge of þe crampe / General tokenes ben þese: to greet akþe, crokidnes*. [crokidness, Lat. obliquitas.]Page  105 of iȝen, & crokidnes of schewynge, & crokidnes of eeris, of þe nose þrillis, & of þe lippis, & whanne þat a man may not speke, & þe cheke be constreyned & difficulte of meuynge, and namely, of þe necke, & ofte constreynynge togidere, & a sodeyn schakynge togidere. Special signes maken oon of þre maner of crampis: þe toon is clepid amprostonos*. [Latin, Emprosthotonos.], þe toþer empistenos*. [Latin, Opisthotonos.], þe .iij. tetanus / In þis maner of crampe þat is clepid amprostonos, [folio 55a] þe senewis tofore ben drawe togidere / þe fore partie of þe heed is crokid, þe sike man may not heuen it vp, he beriþ his chyn as it lijþ on his brest, & his mouþ is streit & he may not opene it, & þe fyngris of his hand ben folden into his fist / & in empistonies þe necke is crokid, his mouþ is open, hise chekis ben open, & þe fyngris of his hand ben streyned bacward / & þe tetane halt þe boþe parties of þe body, so þat he may not turne his necke to no partie but al þe bodi is stif & streyned, as a staf were putt yn at his necke & out at his ers / Alle þese tokenes or ellis summe of hem schewiþ þe disposicioun of him þat haþ þe crampe / And whanne þat þese tokenes fallen in þe wounde of þe heed, or ellis of a senewe þei techen bettere þe leche to fle from þe sike man þan on him to abide & cure /

Page  106¶ The firste tretis is eendid wiþ þe help of almyȝty god. Now with þe help of þe same, go to þe secunde /
Now bigynneþ þe secunde tretis of particuler woundis of membris of office from þe heed to þe foot / and first bigynne at anotamie of þe heed / *. [Heading to this page: Anotemy off þe hed & woundes off the same. / Compare Vicary's Anatomie, ch. iii. p. 24.]

Al þing [folio 55b] brefly ordeyned aftir my symple will diuisynge, which þat longiþ to þe firste tretis of þis book which þat holdiþ certeyn rulis & techinge of surgerie vndir general chapitlis as we han bihiȝt / now we wolen bigynne to treten of curis aftir þat þe lymes ben in mannes bodi. & first I wole bigynne at þe heed & at his anotamie, & so procede forþ to ech membre dyuysynge þe anotamie of ech membre, & in ordeynynge þe curis of woundis þat ben maad in ech sengle membre. I seie þat þe heed is maad of þre parties: of a fleischi partie, of a bony partie, & a brawni partie. Þe fleischi partie is aboue þe brayn panne, þe which þat is maad of an hery skyn; & þilke skyn is fulfillid wiþ braynes in euery partie /Page  107

Þe heeris of þe heed weren for greet profite ordeyned þat neiþer cold ne hoot, ne schulde not sodeynli entre þe poris of the skyn, & neuer-þe-lattere þat þe fumosite of þe heed myȝte go out bi þe poris þere as þe heer growiþ; & þe heed myȝte be þe more semeloker, & þat þe colouris of þe heeris of dyuers men myȝte schewen þe complecciouns of þe heedis //

Þe skyn þat is [folio 56a] aboue þe brayn panne is lacertose, & ful of þicke fleisch, þat he myȝte wrie þe brayn panne, þat he schulde not fele sodeynliche to greet heete ne to greet cold. Þe which skyn is maad of sutil þredis of senewis þat comen fro þe brayn, & of veynes & of arteries sotilliche I-maad; & so þe skyn of þe heed is sotilliche ioyned wiþ þe skyn of al þe bodi / & also þe skyn of þe heed is more þickere þan þe brain sculle, þat it schulde ben more rare*. [rare. Lat. rarus.] & more porose, þat is to seie, more ful of hoolis / Þe lacertis of þe skyn proceden aftir þat þe goynge procediþ of þe heeris /

Þe brayn panne is maad of manye boonys / Þe firste summe,*. [Lat. Prima nanque summa ..] þe whiche þat holdiþ þe prouitis þat longen to þe brayn panne, haþ .ij. helpingis; oon helpinge is: þouȝ þat an hurtynge come to oon boon, neuere-þe-lattere he schulde not falle to alle þe boonys / Þe secunde help is, oon boon þat is to hard in oon partie ne schulde not be soPage  108 hard in anoþir partie. / Þe secunde summe, þe which þat wiþhalt þe helpingis þat ben vndir þe brayn panne, haþ wiþinne him. iiij. helpingis; þe whiche helpingis ben ful maad by þe [folio 56b] semis þat ben of þe brayn panne; ne þe helpingis myȝte not be maad, but if þat þer were manye boonys / Þe first help is, þat þe veynes myȝten go doun bi þe semis of þe brayn panne berynge*. [MS. inserts &.] norischinge to þe same brayn*. [panne after brayn cancelled.] / Þe secunde help is, þat þe senewis þat comen out of þe brayn myȝte haue wey in goynge out / Þe þridde help is, þat þe fumes of þe brayn myȝten haue wey of smokyng out / Þe fourþe is, þat neiþer dura mater, ne pia mater, þat as þei ben hangid, ne myȝte not greue þe brayn.

So þat þe brayn panne is maad of ij. smeþe liȝt tablis, þat oon is aboue, þe toþir is byneþe / & þei ben sumwhat spongious in þe myddis, & rare þat þe smoke of þe heete myȝte bettere passe out & þei ben smeþe þat þei myȝten not greue þe brayn / Dyuers men þat maken dyuers anotamie dyuyden þe brayn panne diuerslych / summen noumbren mo boonys þan summe oþir speken of / but soþenes is, þat þer ben .vj. & oon which þat susteyneþ þe sixte. Þe firste boon is clepid þe boon of þe forheed or ellis coronale, & he bigynneþ from þe browis & lastiþ to þe seem þat departiþ þe heed quarter.Page  109 [folio 57a] & þilke is clepid coronale / Þis boon haþ in sum maner of men a smal seem in foldynge of þe forheed, & þerfore sum men seyn þat þer ben .ij. boonis. ij oþir boonys ben ioyned with þilke boon coronable in þe myddis of þe heed ouerþwert ouer; þat*. [þat insertion.] þei ben bounde togidere bi oon ioynture, þe which þat strecchiþ from bifore to bihynde to þe lenkþe of þe heed, þe which is clepid sagittales, by as myche as he is schape lijk an arowe / & þese .ij. boonys ben clepid nerualia bi-cause þat þe figure of þe seem þat is with þe coronable is þe figure of a senewe eiþer of a corde / Þese boonys ben in þe hiȝeste coppe of þe heed & byhynde in þe nolle þer is a boon þe which is clepid alauda.*. [Latin: "Quartum os est ex parte posteriori in puppi; et conjungitur cum prædictis nervalibus mediante una commissura ad modum literæ laudæ grecæ." The word lauda is a corruption of lambda.] & it is maad in þe symilitude of þis: {illustration}
: which þat is ioyned wiþ þe boones nerualibus tofore seid bi þe mene of oon þan I-made to þe lijknes of þe boon tofore seid. & þese þre semes whiche þat ioynen togidere þe .iiij. boonys tofore seid, ben maad as it were two sawis, þe whiche teeþ ben ioyned, ech of hem in oþir in þis maner {illustration}
/ & þis ioynynge togidere of oon boon wiþ anoþir was maad bi-cause of iuvamentis þat I haue told toforn; [folio 57b] þer is no boon ioyned with anoþer as þese boonys ben. Page  110 Vndir þe boon þat is clepid alauda, þer is a ful hard boon & holid in þe myddil, þe which boon susteyneþ alle þe boonys of þe heed. Þe which boon is clepid passillus, & he is ioyned byneþe wiþ þe firste boon of þe nake. Þe schap of þe coniunccioun of þe .v. boonis of þe heed is in þis maner {illustration}
. Boþe on þe riȝtside & on þe lift side of þe forseid boonys, whiche þat ben clepid nerualia *[whiche þat beþ in lengthe in þe heyest place of þe hed, þere ben twey bonys on eiþere syde.] & þo boonys þat vndir setten ben clepid ossa mendosa. & þese boonys in oon partie ben ful hard þere as þe hole of þe eere passiþ þoruȝ, & þei ben clepid petrosa; & summen seien þat þer ben .iiij. boonys ij. on eiþir side / & whanne þat alle þe boonys of þe heed ben ioyned togidere, þou schalt fynde in soþfastnes þat þer ben but vj. boonys, whanne þat þou rekenest os*. [MS. as.] coronale for oon boon, & .ij. boonys þat ben clepid mendose, ij. & oon þat ben iij, & o boon þat is clepid alauda. & ij. boonys þat ben clepid nerualia þat ben .vj.; & þe .vij. boon is clepid passillare, þe which is not of þe boones of þe heed, but he susteyneþ alle þe oþere boonys of þe heed.*. [Add. MS. 10,440, fol. 2: "& he is vnterberynge in þe hynder partie al þe bones of þe heued, & þerfore he is clepid þe berere vp, or paxillus."] & iij. maner of semes [folio 58a] makiþ coniunccioun of alle þe boonys in þis maner {illustration}
Page  111 & wiþ .ij. semes mendose in þis maner {illustration}
. & whanne þat þe crounne of þe heed is perfiȝt, þe heed is maad in þis maner {illustration}
/ Þis is þe foorme of an heed weel propossiound, round {illustration}
þat he myȝte more wiþholde, & þat he myȝte lasse be hurt, & þat he be longe warpid*. [longe warpid, Lat. oblongus. Comp. Langwyrpe bôc, Indices Monast. 12, ed. Kluge.], hauynge tofore & bihynde eminence: þat is to seie apeirynge, þat þe senewis þat comen out of þe brayn myȝten haue a porose place of goynge out. & neþeles as ypocras & galion, whiche þat expowneþ ypocras, telliþ*. [telliþ, error for tellen.], it is possible to fynde oþir in maner of makyng of heedis. Oon maner is, if eminence be not in partie of þe heed tofore, for if þat he be pleyn in partie tofore, bi þat pleynes þe seem is lost, þat is clepid coronalis / Þe secunde is, if þat þe heed haue noon eminence bihynde, but þat þe hyndere partie be pleyn, & bi þat pleynes þe seeme is lost þat is clepid alauda / Þe þridde is, if þat þer be noon eminence bifore ne bihinde in þe heed, but al þe heed is round as a sercle, & þanne þer is but oon seem in þe myddil of þe brayn panne: for it is vnpossible þe heed to haue ony oþer [folio 58b] schap wiþoute lesynge of sum partie of þe brayn, & were contrarious aȝens þe lijf / Bi þe myddil seem which þat is in þe heed, þere discendiþ a ueyne comynge fro þe lyuere bi þePage  112 brayn panne of a boon which þat is holid þat is clepid passillarus. & bi þe same weye þer risiþ an arterie comynge from þe herte, & þei ben ioyned togidere, & of þe weuingge of þe tweyne þer is maad an hard pannicle þat is to seie a clooþ þat is vndir þe brayn panne; & he is hangid with summe smale ligamentis to þe brayn panne in summe of þe semes. Þe whieh pannicle byndiþ þe boonys togidere, & it is clepid dura mater. & it is riȝtful þat an arterie schulde arise vpward from byneþe, for þe blood þat is in him is sutil, & his meuynge is pulsatif; & he hadde discendid from aboue dounward, he schulde haue discendid wiþ to greet an hastynes, but þilke ascendynge temperiþ þilke flux. & it is couenable þat þe veyne discende bicause þat þe blood þat is in þe veynes is more þickere, & þe blood þat is in þe veynes goiþ doun sotilli. & boþe þese veynes þat ben pulsatif & not pulsatif ben ioyned wiþ dura mater / Also þe [folio 59a] veyne strecchiþ more lower, & of hem is engendrid pia mater / Aftir þei discenden doun to þe brayn, & þei bryngen lijf & dewe norischinge & cordialle*. [MS. inserts þe.] spiritis, þe which is in þe brayn & þere is defied, & þere resseyueþ naturel foorme of vndirstondynge. Pia mater enuyrounneþ al þe brayn, & departiþ him into iij. celoles þatPage  113 ben chaumbris: þe firste, þe myddile, & þe laste. & þouȝ þat alle þese ben dyuydid syngulerly bi hem-siluen, it semeþ þat þe celole*. [MS. celose.] þat is tofore in þe brayn is departid in two parties; & bi þat cause summen seien þat þer ben .iiij. ventriclis of þe brayn. Þe forþere partie of þe brayn is greet & brood, bicause þat he schulde resceyue manye spiritis þat ben sent to him; for þat place is propre instrument of ymagynacioun þe which resceyueþ þingis þat comprehendiþ of fantasie;*. [Lat.: res a phantasia comprehensas.] & þo þingis kunnen vndirstonde resceyueþ*. [Read, þo þingis comyn undirstondynge resceyueþ. Lat.: quas(res) communis sensus recipit.] bi propre instrumentis þat longiþ. & þouȝ þat al þe brayn, in comparisoun of þe herte & of alle oþere membris of þe body, be deemed cold & moist, þis celule hauynge comparisoun to oþere celules is deemed hoot & drie. & þe myddil part of þe brayn is lasse [folio 59b] þan ony oþere of þe oþere two parties, & her foorme is punat*. [punat, Lat.: pineatus.] brood twoward þe forþere side of þe heed, & scharpere twoward þe hyndere syde, þat he myȝte be þe more able to resceyue ymagynatif þingis, & þo þingis to ȝeue to þe ynnere partie, & þo þingis þat ben ȝeue to wiþholde / Þis ventricle is sett bitwene two addiamentis of þe brayn; þe whiche addiamentis ben lijk to tweie buttokkis of a man þat ben ioyned togidere, & þei ben [to]* þis ventricle as it were a sittyngePage  114 place eiþir a couche vpon þe which he is drawen abrood, whanne þat he resseyueþ ymagynatif þingis; aftirward he is drawe togidere as a worm, whanne þat he resseyueþ ymagynatijf þingis; & whanne þat þe sentence of þilke ymagynacioun is brouȝt forþ, þanne þilke ventricle is drawe along, & also þe smallere eende of þe ventricle entriþ into þe ventricle þat is bihynde in þe heed. & þis ventricle is myche lasse þan þe oþere tweyne, bicause þat no senewis proceden*. [MS. procende.] not out of him, & þat manye þingis myȝte be comprehendid [in litel]* place þat vertu of witt myȝte þe sunnere be gaderid togidere to take his [folio 60a] counseil; & þis ventricle to comparisoun of oþere ventriclis is deemed hoot & drie. & aftir þat þe hyndere ventricle, þe which is grettere & hardere þan þis; þe which [in]* comparisoun to þe oþere tweyne is demed cold & drie, þe which is brood twoward þe fore partie of þe heed & scharp bakward, þe which resceyueþ sentence þat ben schewid & kepiþ hem priuyliche as a cheste kepiþ tresour. & out of him goiþ out nucha þoruȝ þe hole of þe boon, þat is clepid passillaris, & þilke nucha is cloþid wiþ two pannicles þat goon ont of þe brayn.

& al þe brayn is deemed cold & moist, bicause þat he schuldePage  115 atempren spiritual fumosite þat comen of þe herte, & þat he schulde not ben dried for to myche meuynge þat he haþ in worchinge of vertues; & þe brayn is whijt, bicause þat he schulde þe bettere resseyue resoun & vnderstondynge / For if peyntouris whanne þey schulen peynte a table, first þei maken it whiȝt, for þer wole no colour lasten but þoruȝ him; & it is neische þat þe meuynge of vertues myȝte þe bettere han place; & þe brayn is towȝ þat þe senewis þat goon out of hym [folio 60b] myȝte be þe more towȝ, & þe more þei ben enlongid from her bigynnynge & þe more hardere þei schulen be, & also þat þei schulden be bowable ynowȝ & nouȝt aȝenstondynge her hardnesse. & it is nessessarie þat þe brayn be cloþid wiþ .ij. panniclis: þat is to seie .ij. cloþis, þat in his meuynge, [as]* I haue seid tofore, þat it schulde not be hurt of þe brayn panne. Al þe brayn is departid into .iij. colules*. [cellis, written above line.] with addiamentis of þe panniclis of pie matris, þat þe spiritis myȝten þe lengere dwelle in þe ventricle to resseyuen bi ordure of digestioun, foorme & perfeccioun more þan þei hadden first of þe herte; & þat euery vertu myȝte fulfille his accidens*. [accidens for accioun.] in his ventricle, or þan þe vois*. [vois, Lat.: "antequam res comprehensa posset ad sequentem ventriculum pertransire."] þat is comprehendidPage  116 myȝte passe to þe ventricle þat is sewingge.*. [MS. swingge.] Not aȝenstondynge þese propirtees þe brayn haþ sum substaunce of marie þe which fulfilliþ þe voidenes of þe forseid panniclis. & þilke mary enuyrounneþ þe forseid panniolis, of þe which mary þer may sum partie in hurtynge of þe heed be lost; & not aȝenstondynge þe goynge out*. [MS. inserts &.] of sum partie of þilke mary, a man schal nouȝt die. For þis mary [folio 61a] is not of þe substaunce of þe ventriclis of þe brayn of þe which mynde is maad; for þei ben of so greet nobilite, þouȝ þat þer be neuere so litil infeccioun, or ellis þat þer falle neuere so litil a lesyng of hem*. [of hem written on margin.] þei ben depriued of her heelþe, in so myche þat oon colule*. [cellul written above.] may not be lost & a man be saued, as manye idiotis supposen contrarie / *. [The MS. has a marginal note: Anotemy off eyen, eres, nose, chekes, mouthe, tounge, teth.]Anotamie of yȝen, eeris, nose, chekelappis, mouþ, tunge & teeþ, we deferren to ordeyne in þe þridde tretis, in þe whiche if god wole we þenken to treten, & of oþere siknessis, & of oþere lymes out-cept woundis.

& þo hurtyngis þat ben maad in þe heed eiþir þat ben maad wiþoute wounde or wiþ wounde. & wheþer þat þei ben wiþoute wounde or wiþ wounde, eiþir þei ben wiþ brekynge of þe braynPage  117 panne or wiþoute brekynge of þe brayn panne / Or wheþer þat it be maad wiþ breche of þe brayn panne, or wiþoute breche of þe brayn panne, summe ben wiþ hurtynge of þe brayn, & summe ben wiþoute hurtynge of þe brayn / & riȝt as þilke hurtis haue difference in tokenes, so þei han difference in perels & pronosticaciouns & maners with þe whiche þei musten ben holpen /

[folio 61b] & if þat ony hurt be in þe heed wiþoute ony wounde as wiþ fallynge or wiþ smytynge of a stoon or of a staf or wiþ sum oþir þing þat brusiþ, & if þat it be wiþoute breche of þe brayn panne & wiþ hirtynge of þe brayn panne, it nediþ not but schauynge of þe heed & anoyntynge with hote oilis of rosis & [abofen þe vncture]* to strawen on þe poudre of mirtillis seed, & streyne þe place wiþ a boond til al þe place be fastned & þe swellynge be vanyschid awey / In þis maner þou fastne al þe place þat no þing schal be corrumpid, or ellis þer schal dwelle a litil corrupcioun, & if þat ony þing of corrumpcioun abide, þe place schal be opened wiþ an instrument, & so schal þe quyttur be excludid, & he schal be curid riȝt as oþere empostymes þat ben woundid.

& if þat þe brayn panne were broke wiþoute wounde of þe heed þe which may be knowe bi disposicioun of þe cause & also of þe sike man, in biholdynge, if þat þat smytiþ were strong, or ellisPage  118 þat þe sike haue falle from his place, or ellis þat he was smyte with strong smyting, & also if þat he fel & myȝte not hastili arise. [folio 62a] & if þat he hadde scotomie,*. [scotomie. Vigo Interpret. "Scotomia. They shoulde saye, Scotoma, and it is a disease, when darckenes ryseth, when al thinges seme to go rounde about."] þat is to seie a maner sijknes, whanne þat þer semeþ as flien or oþere smale gnattis fleen tofore his yȝen / or ellis he spewiþ his mete, or he feliþ to gret akþe in þe heed, & if þat he may not breke a knotte of a straw wiþ hise teeþ, & if þe heed be smyte wiþ a liȝt drie staf as of salow or ellis of pinee—& þanne leie þin eere to his heed, & if þat þe boon be hool þou schalt here an hool soun aftir þe comparisoun of þe soun of an hool belle, also if þou makist þe sike man to holde bitwene his teeþ a þred twyned & I-wexid, & þanne bigynne to harpe with þi nailis vpon þe þred faste bi þe sike mannes mouþ, & so harpe wiþ þi naylis vpon þe þred alwey streyned & makynge soun to þe eende of þe þred, & þilke þred schal ben on lenkþe fro þe mouþ of a cubite, & so þou schalt harpe ofte tymes, & if þat þe pacient mowe susteyne þe soun, he haþ not his brayn panne broke, for if his brayn panne were broke, þe sike man myȝte not susteyne þe soun of þe þred. Alle þese signys, or ellis manye of hem bitokenen þat þe brayn panne is broken / & tweyne [folio 62b] of þe laste signys benPage  119 more certeyn þan ony of þe oþere. & vndirstonde þat þe brayn panne mai ofte tymes be to-broken, & neþeles þe brayn feliþ noon harm in þe bigynnynge. But aftirward ofte tymes of hirtynge of þe brayn panne, þe brayn is hirt / Galion witnessynge, þe brekynge of boonys in þe heed is dyuers in perels fro brekynge of oþere boonys in þe bodi, for þe accidens þe which þat falliþ ofte tymes to þe breche of þe brayn panne. Neiþir is no man ne neuere was þat myȝte euermore helpe to alle accidentis, whanne þat þe brayn was meued in þe bigynnynge þat not aȝenstondynge his help,*. [help in margin.] be he neuere so good a leche, þat þe sike ne muste die /

Euel accidentis þe whiche þat [comyth to þe accidentes of þe brayn & of hys]* pannicle ben*. [One word "spewinge" omitted, and as erroneously inserted in both MSS. Lat.: "Mala autem accidentia .. sunt vomitus perseverans constipatio ventris," etc.] alwey dwellynge as constipacioun of þe wombe, or ellis þe flix of þe wombe, or ellis crokidnes, or ellis lokynge asquynt of þe iȝen, or ellis wepinge of þe oon yȝe, or ellis an hard scotomie, or ellis febilnes of alle þe vertues & chaungynge. Not oonly animal vertues, þat ben vertues of þe brayn, ben*. [MS. inserts nouȝt.] I-chaungid, also naturel vertues & liui*. [liui, Lat. vitales.] vertues—sensibles & [folio 63a] motifes; Page  120 sencible, for þei ben*. [ben, error for seen. Lat.: quia non recte vident.] not riȝtfulliche; for boþe her heerynge & oþere comoun wittis ben troublid; also priuy vertues þat ben troublid as ymaginatif, for þei bileuen þei seen, [þat þey seen nouȝt];* also resonable vertues, for þei speken in deuyn*. [See page 102, note 2.] & answeren whanne þei ben nouȝt I-askide / also*. [MS. alle.] memorial þat þei þenke nouȝt on her owne name / also meuable vertues is so myche greued þat vnneþe þei moun nouȝt meue hem nameliche aboute þe necke. Þei syke greuousleche, & a scharp feuere falliþ, þe which arrigor, þat is to seie a cold schurgynge*. [schurgynge, schurien, to shower.] goiþ tofore / Arrigor is no þing ellis, but as it were a prickynge of nedelis, or ellis of netlis in þe fleisch, & if þis rigor come wiþ a feuere, or ellis without feuere, it is þe worste signe tokene of deeþ, & if þe crampe folowe it is deedly / Also þese ben yuel accidentis: blaknes of þe tunge, bleynis aboute þe skyn or þe chekis, or in ony partie of þe heed þanne [in]* þe wounde, is an yuel signe.*. [Lat.: vel in alia parte capitis quam in vulnere: quod est malum signum.] & sumtyme blood comeþ out at þe eeris & noseþrillis. & if þe more partie of þese tokenese or ellis alle comen, þe sike man muste nedis die, namely, & þe accidentis conteynen*. [conteynen for contynwen.]; [folio 63b] & specialy if þe sike man haue be her-to-fore manye daies in good disposicioun, & after þilkePage  121 good disposicioun þilke yuel accidentis fallen; but sumtyme in þe bigynnynge þese yuel accidentis fallen wickid, & aftirward bi good gouernaile & good help of þe leche þilke yuel accidentis ben departid & good comeþ, and þanne it is a [good]* signe, for it bitokeneþ strenkþe of kynde, hauynge no drede of þe sijknes, & kunnynge of þe leche / O holi goost, al þing fulfillynge, alle þingis sanctifiynge, & alle þingis liȝtnynge, & alle þingis gouernynge, opene þe yȝen of hem þat loken & reden on þis book, þat þei moun vndirstonde þat þing þat is weel seid, & þat þei moun demene*. [demene, O.Fr. "demener," for demen.] þoruȝ þi cleernes þat, þat is yuel seid, & specialy in þis caas*. [in þis caas. Lat.: in isto passu. See below pas.] where þat oonly not I þat am vnwijs & vnkunnynge, but also greete maistris & more kunnynge han writen sotilliche, & han sett in þis caas dyuers vndirstondynge. Ne þei ne I ne foond no wey in þis werk þat myȝte us make sikir, specialiche in scryuyngis of þe brayn panne, in þe whiche cure*. [cure, above line.] dyvers men haue*. [have, above line.] I-wrouȝt dyuersliche.

[folio 64a] I wole bigynne at a symple wounde of þe fleisch of þe heed, in þe which þat þer is noon hurtynge of þe brayn ne brayn panne. // Biholde wheþir þilke wounde be maad wiþ a swerd or ony þing sembla[b]le to it, & þanne sowe þilke wounde, & caste aboue þePage  122 wounde þe poudre of lym tofore seid, & do al þing bi ordre, as it is conteyned aboue in þe chapitle of woundis of fleisch /

& if þat a wounde be maad in þe heed wiþ brusynge, as wiþ a mace,*. [mace, Lat. macia.] or wiþ a staf, or ony þing þat brusiþ, þanne it is nessessarie to leie aboue þe brusynge a maturatif maad of .iiij. parties of watir, & oon partie of comoun oile & flour of wheete, þat suffisiþ to make it þikke,*. [MS. þilke.] til þat þe mater þat is brusid be maturid; þe which maturatif schal be do abrood vpon a lynnen clooþ & leid to þe wounde, & þou schalt fulfille þe wounde wiþ oile of rosis & ȝelke of an ey, & lynt of an oold lynnen clooþ medlid togidere, til þat þe wounde ȝeue quytture & þe akþe be aswagid. & aftirward leye in þe wounde drie lynt of old clooþ, & fille þe wounde of þe same lynet, & leie aboue þe mundificatif of mel roset & barly mele, [folio 64b] til þat it be perfiȝtly clensid; & leie aboute þe wounde, from þe bigynnynge til þat þe wounde be parfiȝtly clensid, a defensif of bole armonyak, þe which I haue told ofte tyme; aftirward incarne it, þat is to seie brynge ouer fleisch, & aftirward consowde.

& if þat þis wounde towche þe pannicle þat byndiþ boonys togidere, þouȝ þat þe boon be not to-broken, charge it not litil, butPage  123 take þerof good hede, & do þerynne in þe wounde hoot oile of rosis doun to þe pannicle þat byndiþ boonys togidere, til þat þer be noon akynge in þe wounde. & kepe þilke wounde as þou woldist kepe oþere woundis of þe brayn panne; & kepe þe brayn fro cold & fro heete, for cold is moost greuous to boonys & to panniclis þat ben woundid. Þer ben summe maner men þat leien wiþout forþ on alle maner woundis of þe heed, wheþer it be wiþ wounde of þe brayn panne or wiþoute þe wounde of þe brayn panne, in what maner þat þe heed be hurt, a lynnen clooþ wet in þe oynement þat is maad on þis maner / Take white rosis libram [one half], oile of rosis [ounce] v, whiȝt wex [ounce] iij, þei melten alle togidere in an yren panne, & þei maken [folio 65a] þerof .j. bodi, & boile it aftirward in good wyn bi þe space of an hour; & þei leten it aftirward nyȝ colden, & þei weten þerinne a pece of a lynnen clout, & þei schapen þilke pece wiþ a schere aftir þat þe wounde is, & þanne þei baþe þilke pece in good wiyn, & þanne leie þilke pece [on þe wounde]*, & anoon aftir þei leien vpon þilke pece on eiþir side of þe wounde a plumaciol I-wet in good hoot wiyn; & þei leien on a drie pelowe of herdis vpon þo two wete pelowis, þe which drie pelewe of herdis schal comprehende þe tweie wete, & bynde hem faste; & þei ȝeuen to summen to drynkePage  124 riȝt good wyn, & to ete good fleisch of hennes & of capouns; &*. [Lat.: & præcipiunt quod unam guttam aquæ non bibat.] þei comaunden to drynke a drope of water; & þei gouernen on þis maner alle men þat ben woundid in þe heed differentliche, & þei seyn þat mo men ben heelid bi þis maner cure þan dien. But bi as myche as alle auctouris ben aȝens þis cure, namely in dietynge, I ne was neuere hardi to preue þis maner cure; for in mannys bodi a medicyn schal not be preued which þat is not acordynge to resoun / For alle autouris acorden þat þer is no þing [folio 65b] þat so soone greueþ þe brayn & þe senewis as wiyn doiþ, & vsynge of fleisch is cause of bryngynge yn an hoot enpostyme. Neuere-þe-latter if a man þat vsiþ of custum sich a maner dietynge haue a strong heed, in his hele him drediþ no wiyn, & þe vertu of him þat is sijk be strong—in sum manere of folk wiþ þis maner gouernaile, vertu is more strenkþid, & þe sunner þei ben heelid. But I ne procede not wiþ sich a maner dietynge bi cause of drede lest an hoot enpostyme schulde come to þe sore, but I procede in dietynge & worche aboute þe wounde as I haue seid tofore.

Oþere men loke [in brekynges of þe brayn panne, wheþer þat]* þe brekynge of þe brayn panne be with a greet wounde, or smalPage  125 wounde, or withoute wounde. & if þat þer be a greet wounde, þei loken wheþer þei moun se if ony pece of þe brayn panne be tobroken, & þei don it awey. & aftirward þei putten bitwene þe brayn panne & duram matrem a þinne clout wet in þe white of an ey, & sumwhat þe white compressid out, & þei fulfillen al þe wounde of þe brayn panne with sich a maner clooþ. & þei leyn in þe ouer wounde which þat is in þe fleisch, lynet wet in þe white of an ey, til þat þe blood be staunchid; [folio 66a] & þei leien aboue a plumaciol wet in an ey. & whanne þe blood is staunchid, þei leien a dreie clooþ vndir þe brayn panne in þe wounde, & þei leien aboue þe wounde a potage, þe which engendriþ quytture; & whanne þat þe quytture is engendrid, þei leien in þe wounde carp,*. [carp, Lat. carpia, 'charpie.' oile struck through after carp.] eiþir lynet of a cloute; & þei anoynte aboute þe wounde wiþ vnguento fusco; & at þe laste eende þei leien aboue apostolicon.*. [Apostolorum Unguentum, a cleansing Ointment, so call'd, because it is made of twelve Drugs, according to the number of the Apostles.—Kersey. 1706.]

& þei asaie in þis maner if þat þe brekynge of þe brayn panne be wiþ a rimel,*. [rimel, Lat.: si fractura esset rimalis. O.Fr. rimule, Lat. rimula, a small chink.] þat is to seie a chene, eiþir a creueis; & if þat ilke creueis peerse to wiþinne, makynge þe sike man to streyne hisPage  126 mouþ & his nose, & þei maken him þanne to blowen, & þei loken*. [þanne struck through after loken.] if ony þing exale out bi þilke rimele,*. [as blod or ony oþer mater . þei drede not to perse þilke rimelle, this is as a note at the bottom of the page.]— as blod or ony other mater, þei drede not to perse þilke rimelle. & þanne summe seien þat þilke rimele schulde be to-broke eiþir peersid from þe toon eende to þe toþir wiþ rinspindelis,*. [rinspindil, see mod. Germ. Rennspindel, f., upright drill, pump drill. Trépan.—Rumpf, Technolog. Dict.] perischinge þe brayn scolle / A rinspindil is an instrument þat coteleris poudren*. [poudren for boren, under the influence of 'pore.' Lat. porus.] with her haftis, þe which figure schal be schapen in þis same chapitle folowynge. & þe worste þing þat a man may do is to peerse þe rimele on boþe sidis / But oþere [folio 66b] men don bettere which þat peerse þe rimele on þe oon eende which is moost hangynge; & þei maken as manye hoolis, oon biside anoþer, as it is nessessarie to make an hole in þe brayn panne, bi þe which hole if ony þing be fallen vpon, duram matrem myȝte be clensid; & þese, in as myche as touchinge trepanacioun*. [Lat.: quantum est ad trypanacionem.] worchiþ best / & whanne þat þei han maad manye hoolis, þei kutten from oon hole to anoþer hole wiþ an instrument, þat þei moun drawe out þe boon þat is bitwene þe ordure of holis þat was maad & þe rimele, & þei casten him awey, & aftirward þei procedenPage  127 forþ in oþere maner þingis as it is seid tofore / For whanne þou desirist way of*. [þe struck through after of.] trepaninge [þis manere trepanynge]* sufficiþ to þee in þe rimelis of þe brayn panne. Þis schal be þe foorme of a trepane [with þe whiche þe brayn scolle schal be trepaned wiþ]* {illustration}
. & þis is þe foorme of a spatinam, wiþ þe which a man schal kutte from oon hole to anoþer hole {illustration}
. & þou schalt smyte wiþ a mal*. [mal, Lat. malleus.] eiþer an hamer on þe greet eende; & whanne þou hast remeued of þe boon þat schal be remoued, euene þe brynkis with schauynge, þat þou mowe not leue no maner scharpnes in þe brynkis. Þis is þe maner of þe schap {illustration}
, [folio 67a] & þis schaue schal kutte on þe side þat foldiþ ynward, & it schal be blunt on þe oon side þat is outward. & þei fulfillen þe wounde þat is wiþinne þe fleisch wiþoutforþ, as I haue seid, with þe clooþ expressid of þe white of an ey & lynet, til þat þe wounde be ful, & also til þat þe kynde haue regendrid a repeirement, þe which schal fulfille þe place þere as þe boon was don awey. Aftirward þei curen þe wounde aftir comoun cure of woundis / Alle oþere maner of trepanacioun is comprehendid vndir o summe, þouȝ þat summen ordeyne particuler aftir her dyuyse, diuers maners.

But bi as myche as I haue not seen in þis caas no way þatPage  128 myȝte remeue me from doute, bi as myche as I haue saied bi longe tyme, boþe bi summe auctouris experimentis, & also bi myn experiment, & þat wei is not certeyn / þerfore here þei Galien, þat seiþ: if we mowe remeue quytture wiþoute doynge awei of boonys þat schulde be do awey, it is good / And auicen & serapie*. [Serapie, probably Ser. the Elder, an Arab physician, cc. 900.] acorden to þe same sentence of cure of heed akþe þat comeþ of smytynge or ellis of fallynge, where þat he towchiþ*. [towchiþ for techiþ.] þe worchinge of hurtis of þe brayn [folio 67b] panne, not bi trepanacioun, but bi emplastris & medicyns / & also I took good hede þat manye mo men ben heelid bi maner of medicyns & emplastris, þan ben heelid bi trapanes, þat ben peersynge or þrillynge / For I ne vse not instrumentis to remeue the boon but in two causis / Þe oon cause is if þat þe brayn panne be so myche I-slend*. [islend, Add. MS. ysclend. See slent, to tear, to rend (Dorset).—Halliwell.] þat þe part þat is broke, entre vndir þe partie þat is hool / Þe secunde caas is, if ony pece be departid from þe brayn panne, þe which þat prickiþ duram matrem / In þe firste caas dura mater is compressid. In þe secunde caas dura mater is prickid, which is cause of akþe, & akynge is cause of drawynge humouris, þere engendriþ an empostyme vpon þe same pannicle, þe which is cause of a crampe, & of oþere accidentis tofore seid; &Page  129 at þe laste þei bryngen deeþ to þe pacient / In þese .ij. causis I leeue hem*. [hem for am; leeue is erroneously added in margin.] constreyned to remeue a boon wiþ handely*. [handely ne. handy.] instrumentis. In alle oþere maners of brechis eiþer in creueis, in what maner þat þei happen, þouȝ þat I be not siker of þe pacientis lijf, neþeles I procede in þis maner with more trist, bisekynge alwey help of god, þe which þat [folio 68a] haþ heelid mo men bi myn hondis, þat am his instrument, þan haue ben deed, nouȝt aȝenstondynge alle my cautels & helpinge. For soþe þat I haue biholde soþliche resonis & þe proces of oþere auctouris, I holde þis wey lasse dredeful þan ony oþere / for I folowe þe sentence of Galien, which þat seiþ: if þat a man haue but o wei to his hele,*. [MS. ixele.] it is good þat he holde þilke wey, þouȝ þat it be yuel.

& whanne þat I come to a man þat is woundid in þe heed, & I knowe þat þe brayn panne be broke, bi tokenes tofore seid, first I considere þe vertu of him þat is pacient, & also his age & alle oþere particuler þing, & nameli vertu, & gladliche I leue þe cure, if þat I se ony deedly tokenes, but if it so be þat I be preied wiþ þe grettere instaunce of þe freendis of þe sike man. & not aȝenstondynge her preier I telle hise freendis þat bi wey of resoun þePage  130 pacient schulde die, & þanne I worche aboute him as in a man in whom yuele accidentis appere. & if þat þe signys ben not deedliche, & þe breche of þe brayn panne be with a greet wounde of þe heed, & þat a greet partie of þe brayn panne be do awey al togidere, so þat I mowe [folio 68b] haue a good wey to leie medicyns vpon duram matrem / First I do schaue his heed, afterward I leie on an eeld lynnen clout & a þenne,*. [MS. þanne, error for a þenne. Lat.: pannum lineum vetustum et subtile. See below.] wett in .ij. parties of oile of rosis swete smellynge, & oon partie of mel roset colat, bitwene þe duram matrem & þe brayn panne sliȝly & softli, þat dura mater be not compressid wiþ þe clooþ þat is wet tofore seid; & I fulfille þe wounde of þe fleisch wiþ lint of oold lynnen clooþ wett in þe ȝelke of an ey, & oile of rosis, boþe liche myche; & anoynte aboute þe wounde wiþ a defensif of bole armoniak ofte tymes I-seid, & leie aboue þe wounde a plumaciol, þe which þat schal keuere al þe wounde; & þanne aboue al-togidere I leie a greet plumaciol, wett in good hoot wiyn. & aftirward I bynde þe wounde wiþ a boond, byndynge ofte tymes aboute þe heed wiþ þe lynet & þe clooþ, þe which þat is in þe wounde & aboute þe wounde myȝte not slide to no partie, & bynde þe wounde in þat maner þat dura mater bi noPage  131 wey be compressid. Þe heeris of þe heed schulen be remeued awey on þis maner: clippe hem first with scheris, afterward take .ij. parties of water cold, & oon partie of oile [folio 69a] of rosis in somer, & make hoot þe same water & oile in wyntir, & waische þe heed softliche, takynge hede þat no water ne oile entre into þe wounde, & þanne schaue it wiþ a rasour / & whanne þat I haue serued þe pacient on þis maner, I lete him reste til on þe morowe, & aftirward I serue þe wounde on þe same maner til þat þe wounde be hool / Neþeles I considere if þat þe pacient be ful of blood, & his vertu be strong, & if he be ȝong, & litil blood bled at his wounde, & whanne alle þese þingis acorden, I make him to be leten blood on þe coral*. [coral veyne, vena cephalica.] veyne of þe arme / & but if he mowe go to priuy, I helpe him oonys aday, or wiþ suppositories or wiþ clisterie; & I procede in dietynge, as I haue seid in þe chapitle of dietynge / & whanne þat þe wounde makiþ sufficiently quytture, I leie in þe wounde of þe brayn panne, & vpon þe brayn panne, as I haue don tofore; & aboue þe wounde I leie a mundificatif of mel roset, colat, & barly mele, til þat þe wounde be clensid, & þat þe dura mater be sowdid with þe brayn panne / & þanne I caste in þe wounde of þe heed a poudre maad on þis maner / Take frank encense & ciperi, þat is þePage  132 note of a cipres, [folio 69b] *. [At the foot of lf. 69 is this note: R radicis erios, aristologe, thuris, mer, aloes, sanguis draconis, orobus ana, ffac puluis.]seed of mirtilles, mirre, ana. orobi, [ounce] j; make poudre, & leie þis poudre in þe wounde, & aboue þe poudre leie þredis of lynnen clooþ, or ellis lynet; & aboue al-togidere leie an entreet maad of .ij. parties of whiȝt rosyn,*. [whight rosyn, hardened Terpentine.] & oon partie of wex moltun togidere vpon strong vynegre, & colid þoruȝ a þinne streynour vpon cold water / & whanne þin hondis ben anoyntid wiþ oile of rosis, malaxe*. [malaxe, Lat. malaxo, mollify.] it longe tyme togidere. In somer take euene porcioun of whiȝt rosyn & of wex; in wyntir / take .iiij. partis of rosyn,* & þe .v part of wex, & drawe abrood þat treet*. [treet = entreet. See p. 123, note 1.] on a clooþ, & leie it on þe wounde til þat he be perfiȝtliche cicatrisid. & if þat þer were ony partie of þe boon þat prickide duram matrem, þanne I aforce me to remeue þilke partie þat prickiþ wiþ pynsouns,*. [wiþ pynsouns, cum piccario. See Pynsone, Tenella. Prompt. Parv., p. 400.] if þat I may; & if þilke partie þat prickiþ be ioyned so faste to þe hool boon þat he wolde not be remeued awey, þanne I remeue him awey wiþ rugement*. [wiþ rugement. Lat.: cum rugine ruginando, Fr. rugine, ruginer.] from þe partie þat halt,*. [Both MSS. omit to translate the Lat. si non possum.] in makynge oon hole or two, or mo, aftir þe quantite of þePage  133 boon þat schulde be don awey [þat halt with þe hole bon & afterwarde y kutte with a spatymene from on hole to anoþere tyl al þe bon be remeffyde aweye.]* / & whanne þat þe boon is remeued awei, I procede in þe cure as it is [folio 70a] seid in þis chapitle / But whanne I remeue a boon wiþ instrumentis of þe brayn panne, þanne I stoppe þe sijk mannes eeris, þat he mowe not heere þe soun of þe yren þat trepaniþ. & I remeue þe same maner þe partie þat is broke, þe which þat goiþ vndir þe partie þat is hool, & compressiþ þe dura mater. & if þat a gobet eiþir a pece of a boon holde sumwhat in þe wounde, & myȝte not liȝtliche be remeued away, & he prickiþ not dura mater ne compressiþ not dura mater, þanne at þe bigynnynge I do on þe boon hoot oile of rosis, & I fulfille þe wounde wiþ oile of rosis & þe ȝelke of an ey medlid togidere, til þat þe boon be neischid & may liȝtliche be remoued awey; þanne I remeue þe boon softliche, & I procede in þe worchinge bitwene þe boon & duram matrem, as it is seid tofore /

& if þat þe breche of þe brayn panne were as a creueis or ellis I-slend, & neiþer part of þe boon were lowere þan oþer, þanne I considere if þat ilke slendynge*. [slendinge, see p. 128, note 4.] perce al þe brayn panne; & þat þou schalt knowe bi þe tokenes tofore seid, or ellis þou schalt knowe bi þis signe, þat neuere failiþ / Make [folio 70b] a plastre of poudre of Page  134 mastik & þe white of an ey, medlid togidere as þikke*. [MS. þilke.] as hony, & distende*. [distende, Lat. distendo.] it vpon a clooþ, & leie it on þe place þat is hurt fro morowe til euen, or ellis from þe euene til þe morowe / & whanne þat þe plastre is remoued awey, if þat þe creueis peerse þoruȝ þe brayn panne, þou schalt se þe plastre more drie aȝens þe creueis þan in ony oþer place, for þe greet heete þat comeþ fro þe brayn [& ȝif þe breyn panne]* be nouȝt I-slend þoruȝ, þe plastre schal be nomore drie aboue þe creueis þan on anoþer place / & if þe creueis perse not þe brayn scolle, þe cure is as it is seid in þe bigynnynge of þis chapitle, þere as I tolde of cure of wounde of þe heed, where þat þe brayn panne eiþer þe brain is not hurt. For if þat ilke remile peerse þe brayn panne, þer is a greet doute in þe caas, for summen seien þat it is impossible sich a wounde to heele; but if þe remele be trepaned, & a quantite of þe boon be doon awey, þat þe superfluyte þat is cast vpon duram matrem may be doon awey, or ellis þe dura mater schulde putrifien & be corrupt, & bi þat skil*. [bi þat skil, Lat. quare. Skil = causa, synon. with 'resoun' occurs frequently in Polychron. See Gloss. The same construction in: '& by þe same skile' ea ratione, ibid., iii. 465.] þe pacient schulde die, þe which þat myȝte [folio 71a] be heelid bi þe remeuynge of þe boon / Neþeles I þat haue seen in trepaninge greet perel, namely whannePage  135 þat þe creueis is bisidis þe semys, where þat þe trepaninge is deedlich / & I haue seen manye þat wiþoute trepanyng almyȝty god haþ delyuerid bi myn hondis, wiþoute touchinge of ony brayn scolle wiþ ony trepan or wiþ iren; but I helde in to þe creueis hoot oile of rosis colat, & mel roset colat, medlid togidere aftir þe doctrine tofore seid, fulfillynge al þe wounde with sich maner cloþis; & aftirward leie aboue þe ȝelke of an ey & oile of rosis medlid togidere, & aboute a defensif of bole armoniak tofore seid, til þat þe quytture be engendrid. & aftirward I contynue mel roset & oile of rosis in þe wounde, & aboue a mundificatif of mel roset & barly mele til þat þe ligament be fully engendrid on þe brayn panne, & þat þou schalt knowe whanne þat þou seest þe boonys ben*. [ben, above line.] ioyned togidere, as it were two bordis weren ioyned togidere with cole*. [cole, Lat.: sicut si essent duo ligna cum glutino in simul incolata.] or with glu; & þanne I fulfille þe wounde wiþ drie þredis of clene lynnen clooþ, & aboue [folio 71b] a mundificatif, til þat þe boon be keuerid. Þanne I strowe on aboue þe capitale poudre tofore seid, & I leie on þe schauynge or ellis þe rasure*. [rasure, Lat. rasura.] of lynnen clooþ, & aboue al þis I leie on a treet of whiȝt rosyn; & I do alle þese þingis þat I haue seid tofore til þat þe wounde be consowdid /Page  136 & if ȝe make an obieccioun how þat it myȝte, wiþoute arerynge of þe boon, þe blood & þe quytture be dried, þe which þat fil doun bi þilke slendynge vpon duram matrem / I answere: riȝt as þe mater of þe frenesie & þe mater of þe litarge*. [litarge, Lat. lethargus. Lethargy, stupor.] þat is more doutes, bi emplastris wiþoutforþ I-leie is dissolued, & þer is no slendynge of þe brayn panne, ne no wounde in þe skyn, myche more liȝtloker & more bettere þe blood, þat is liȝt & able to be resolued, þe which þat wente doun bi þe forseid slending, may bi þe forseid slendynge þe bettere be exaled. Ne þilke blood is not viscat*. [viscat, Lat. inviscatus, inclosed. See below, inviscat.] in þe substaunce of dure matris, as þe mater is in empostymes, wherfore he is more obeisschaunt* — — to þe attraccioun of medicyns /

& if þe brayn panne be hurt wiþoute wounde [folio 72a] of þe skyn, þe which þou shalt knowe bi þe tokenes tofore seid / þanne summen kutte aboue þe hurtynge in þe maner of a crose, & þei areren þe .iiij. quarters, & þei kutten & fleen þe pannicle þat keueriþ þe boonis. & aftirward þei vsen trapanes & her oþere comoun curis, as it is schewid tofore / But I kutte not þe skyn in þe maner of a crose, but in þe maner of a scheeld or ellis of a þing þat is triangle in þis maner {illustration}
, & I make but oon quarter, & I vnwrie þe boon þat þe oile of þe rosis may peerse yn, & þat þe vertu of þe medicyn,Page  137 þat is maad of hony of rosis & oile of rosis, may drawe fro byneþe þe brayn-panne / & I do in þis caas al þing as it is declarid next aboue. & if ȝe make obieccioun aȝens me bi costantyne*. [Constantinus Africanus, c.c. 1070.] or ellis bi oþere, þat seien þat bi al oure myȝt we eschewen þat neiþer oile ne noon oyntuose þing falliþ not wiþinne þe brayn-panne / I answere wiþ auicen, þat seiþ: þat he worchiþ riȝtfulliche þat vsiþ teped*. [teped, Lat. tepidus.] oilis, & þe same tellen galion & serapion; & also I seie þat oile of rosis, þe which þat schal [folio 72b] be maad of grapis of olyue trees þat ben not ripe, is not oyntuose, but it is drie, & is clepid oile enfancinum;*. [enfancinum, for omfacinum [gap: 1] , oil made from unripe olives (Diosc. I. 29). Vigo Interpr.: "Omphax in Greke is an vnripe grape. Vigo calleth oyle of omphacyne, that oyle that is made of vnrype Olyves." Compare Tomm. Dict. s. v. onfacino.] & namely whanne þat rosis ben medlid wiþ þilke oile, þilke oile haþ gete to him a swete smellynge & a drie þing of comfortynge*. [See below.] animal spiritis; & also þat oile haþ a vertu expressif, as galion telliþ in þe book of symple medicyns, bi þe whiche þe brayn is comfortid & akþis ben swagid / & if þer be maad ony greet blood, it is maad sutil with þat oile; & whanne alle þese þingis ben congaderid & leid aboue duram matrem, it is clensid /

¶ Sumtyme þe brayn is meued of sum greet hurt eiþer of sum fallynge or of sum smytynge wiþoute ony wounde or wiþoute onyPage  138 breche of ony boon, þanne do þou as I dide to a chanoun of þe ordre of seynt austyn. Whanne þat he wolde haue lept vpon an hiȝ hors & haue seten in þe satel, þe hors areride vpon hise two hyndere feet, & þilke chanoun fel doun bacward vpon þe erþe vpon his heed; & al his bodi was brusid & namely aboute þe heed, þat anoon he loste þe meuynge and þe felynge of al his body / Þanne a lewid leche [folio 73a] þat was frend to þilke chanoun was clepid, & he cowde not helpen him, for he hadde neuere seen þe same caas, ne he cowde not no lettrure*. [Lat.: nec sciebat aliquid de scripturis. O.Fr. lettreure. See Piers the Plowman, ed. Skeat. Gloss.] / & at þe laste I was clepid, & I foond him neiþer heerynge, ne spekynge, ne no þing meuynge, & I deemede him for deed / & neþeless*. [Lat.: meo tamen addens judicio quod pro centum marchis argenti non dimitterem, quin adhuc probarem in eo, si meus esset frater, juvamenta medicinæ inducens.] I seide, & he were my broþer, I nolde not for an .C. mark, but I asaiede in him goodnes of þe helpinge of medicyns / for ofte tyme kynde wiþ good werkis helpiþ priuyliche þat semeþ vnpossible to a leche. & þei þanne preieden me with greet instaunce / & I made þe heeris of his heed to be schauen & þanne I anoyntide al þe heed wiþ. iij. parties of oile of rosis, & oon partie of vynegre hoot medlid togidere, & I castide aboue poudre of mirtillis, & leide aboue a sotil lynnen cloþ þinne, wett in þe samePage  139 oile & vynegre, & aboue þat towȝ smal tosid, & I boond al þe heed wiþ a boond, & aboue I leide a lambis skyn. & so I chaungide it þries ech day in anoyntynge þe nolle & þe necke into þe myddil*. [of þe myddil, inserted.] of þe rigge-boon bihynde wiþ hoot oile of camomille / In þe ij. day he openede a litil hise yȝen, & he bigan to loke aboute [folio 73b] him as it hadde be a deef man þat were in a wondring / & þanne summe wolden haue asaied if þat he myȝte haue ete / & I wolde not suffre him to ete / & I seide þouȝ þat he wolde ete þat he schulde not / In þe iij. day I spak to him / he answeride me babelynge as a child þat bigynneþ to speke, but he myȝte forþ wiþ no word*. [See below, note 8.] / In þe iiij. dai he spak boistousliche*. [boistisliche. Lat.: balbutiendo, stammering, seems to connect the sense of O.Fr. boistous, lame, with boisterous.] / & þanne I ȝaf him to drynke hoot ypocras*. [ypocras, errour for ydrosacre. See below. "Hydrosaccharum, a Syrup made of Water and Sugar." Phillips. Hippocras, a kind of "Artificial Wine, made of Claret or White Wine, and several sorts of Spice." Ibid.] þat is maad of sugre & of watir / In þe v. day he took þikke tiȝanne*. [Lat. ptisanam spissam. Matth. Sylv.: "Tisanna i. aqua ordei uel fariola."] / In þe vj. dai I ȝaf him broþ of a chiken; and þanne he bigan to strenkþe litil & litil, & litil & litil to meuen / & neuer-þe-lattere he myȝte not walke not manye daies aftir. & whanne þat he myȝte take sufficiently mete, I comaundidePage  140 him to take pilulas chochias*. [Cochia. An ancient name for several officinal purgative pills. Dunglison, Medic. Lex [gap: 1] ., a pill. Alex. Trall. Compare Fr. cochée.] for to resolue bi euaciacioun þe matere þat I-gaderide togidere in þe heed bi þilke fallinge / & I comaundide him to ete ofte þe braynes of briddis heedis, & of hennys & of smale briddis & kedis / & in þis maner he was hool; neþeles he was neuere so sotil of witt as he was tofore /

In þis ben yuel signes as þe face to be to*. [be to, added in margin.] crokid, & þe yȝen to loke asquynt [folio 74a] eiþer crokidliche, apoplexie, crampe, to schite wiþoute felynge, & vnmouablete of alle þe membris outcept þe lacertis of þe brest þat moun be saaf*. [Lat.: præterquam lacertorum pectoris qui sallire videntur. The translator evidently read salvere instead of sallire.] / He þat rediþ þis book may chese aftir his owne wil oon of iij. weies þe whiche þat ben now vsid / Þe toon is þe wey þe whiche þat is seid in þe bigynnynge of þis chapitle, þe which wey manye vsen, & a leche of Ianewe*. [Anselmus de Ianua. A. de Porte, quoted by Guy de Chauliac as Anserinus de Ianua, XIII. cent. Ianua is Genoa, see Eloys Dictionn. historique.] þat is clepid anselme vsiþ þis wey, & þerbi he gate myche money / neþeles I wiste weel þat manye men dieden in hise handis bi þis wey / Þe secunde maner is in almaner hurtynge of þe heed to vsen terabracioun*. ["Terebration, a boring or piercing; a Term more especially used in Surgery." Phillips. "Terebra, an Awger or Wimble, a Piercer; also an Instrument to engrave on Stones; also a Surgeon's Trepan or Trepandiron." Ibid.] eiþer remeuynge of þe boon wiþ handliche instrumentis / þe iij. is my wey þePage  141 which þat I haue told openliche in almaner caas / & I bileue, if þat he take hede to alle þese weyes & þat he wole wisely discussen alle þe opynyons of auctouris, þat he schal seen fewere die bi my .iij. wey þan bi ony of þe oþere .ij. weyes // Almyȝti god lede þe redere of þis werk in þe best wey, þoruȝ whos myȝtis, wordis takis sentencis & also vndirstondinge.

Þouȝ þat we han bihoten to tretyn of anotamie [folio 74b] of membris þat ben compound, in þe bigynnynge of eueri chapitle of þis secunde tretis, neþeles we leeuen*. [Lat. relinquimus tamen propter melius.] it for þe bettere for to treten of anotamie of þe visage, to þe þridde tretise, where we schulden treten of sijknes þat comen to þese membris, þe whiche syknessis ben non*. [MS. now.] woundis // // //

The secunde chapitle of woundis of þe face & anotamie of þe same.

Woundis þat ben maad in þe face, or þei be maad wiþ a swerd or wiþ sum dinge*. [dinge, in margin.] ellis þat woundiþ, or þei ben maad wiþ pricknyge of a knyf, arowe, eiþer spere. It is necessarie þat a surgian haue more diligence in þe woundis of þe face, for it is a place þat is myche seen, & it is wel to do make*. [Compare: þis instrument may ȝe do make wiþoute grete cost. Quinte Essence, p. 62.] a sotil*. [a sotil, in margin.] cicatrice / A woundePage  142 þat is maad wiþ a swerd or wiþ sumþing semblable þat is alwei in lenkþe, a man muste sotilliche sowen & gaderen þe parties of þe wounde togidere / & for þat manye men liȝen of þe wounde of þe nose, þei seien þat oon bar his nose kutt of in his hond, þe which nose was afterward sett aȝen in his owne kynde; þe which is an open lesynge / For þe spirit of lijf of felynge & [folio 75a] *. [Heading to this page: Off wondes off the fface & Anotumy off þe same ffrom the face to the ffote.]meuynge passiþ, whanne a membre is depertid from þe bodi / I wole bigynne at a wounde of þe nose þat is kutt in lenkþe, þe which cure is liȝt to hele / Brynge þe parties togidere of þe wounde & sowe hem, & worche aboute þe wounde as I haue seid tofore in þe chapitle of woundis / & if þat þe nose were kutt ouerþwert doun to þe ouer lippe, & neþeles þat þe ouer lippe & þe nose were kutt al awey, but þat it held faste at boþe þe eendis of þe eendis of þe wounde, þanne sette aȝen þe nose in his propre place, þe noseþrillis ech aȝen oþir as þei weren toforn, & make two smale tentis of wex & putte on eiþir noseþrille aboue þe wounde, if þat þou maist, & þanne make a poynt bi þe space of a litil fyngre from þe oon eende of þe wounde, & anoþer poynt at þe oþere eende of þe wounde, & anoþir poynt in þe myddil of þe nose aȝen þe forheed; and aftirward a poynt on eiþer side of þe nose, aftirward make [a poynt]* bitwene eueri poynt, so þat þou haue in noumbre of alle þe poyntisPage  143 whanne þei ben ful maad, .ix. Caste þe poudre þat is tofore seid vpon þe wounde, þat is maad of [folio 75b] lime, frank encense, & sandragoun / & take þe white of an ey & oile of rosis, & bete hem togidere, & wete þerinne a lynnen clooþ & leie aboue þe wounde / Aftirward bynde* þerto þre plumaciols, oon vndirneþe, anoþer on þe oon side, anoþir on þe toþir side / & þanne bynde þe nose wiþ two bandis / Þe toon schal holde vp þe nose þat he may not discende dounward / þe toþir schal be leid aboue þat he mowe kepe þe plumaciols, poudre, & þe sowynge / & þilke boond þat is vnder þe nose þat halt þe nose vpward, schal be knytt*. [MS. kutt.] aboue vpon þe heed, & aftirward he schal be turned ouertwert ouer þe forheed, þat he mowe holde þe boond, þat þe nose decline to neiþir*. [MS. þe neþir.] side. & þe boond þat is leid aboue þe nose, schal be bounden bihynde in þe nolle / & aftirward he schal turne aȝen aboue þe nose, holdynge þe plumaciols þat þei moun not wagge to neiþir side aboute þe sowynge; & aboute þe forheed, þou schalt leie þe defensif of bole, & aftirward þou schalt worche on þe wounde of þe nose, as I haue seid in a wounde of fleisch in þe fourþe*. [fourþe for firste.] tretis /

Þe woundis þat ben maad in oþere parties of þe face [folio 76a] as wiþ a swerd or ony þing semblable, brynge hem togidere & sowe hem & cure hem, as it is conteyned in general chapitlis of woundis, takyngePage  144 hede herto þat þe sowynge þat is maad in þe face schal be more sotil & fairer þan in ony oþere partie of þe body / & þou maist make a sowynge in þe face, if þat þe wounde be not to myche, on þis maner / Take mastik, sandragoun & poudre hem & tempre hem togidere wiþ þe white of an ey to þe þickenesse of hony, & wete þerinne two pecis of lynnen clooþ as longe as þe wounde / & leie þe toon on þe oon side of þe wounde, & þe oþer on þe toþir side & lete hem drien / & aftirward make þe wounde sumwhat to blede, & þanne brynge þe parties of þe wounde togidere; & sowe þilke .ij. pecis togidere, & caste aboue poudre of lyme, frankencense, sandragoun tofore seid, & wete a cloþ in þe white of an ey & oile of rosis, & leie aboue al togidere, & kepe þe partiee wiþ ligature & prosede forþ in alle þingis as I haue tofore seid /

& if þat þe wounde be maad wiþ a dart or wiþ an arewe & þe arowe be drawe out & þe wounde be myche sene, þanne þe cure is [folio 76b] þe same þat was seid in þe same chapitle or elles in þe firste tretis, wheþer þat þer be a senewe prickid eiþir noon. But if þe arowe heed were entriged in ony priuy place of þe face, so þat it myȝte not be seen, þanne euery man bisie him to knowe bi his witt how þat þe sike man stood, whanne þat he was smyte, & whens þat þe arowe cam, & to what partie þe wounde strecchiþ, þat he mowe lokePage  145 if þat he mowe fynde ony maner wey how he may drawe out þilke arowe-heed; & þanne drawe him out þe best maner wey þat he may / & if he may not, heelde he in þe wounde oile of rosis & þe ȝelke of an ey togidere medlid; & wiþ þis medicyn worche in þe wounde, til þat kynde schewe sum maner wey / Manye men han born an arowe-heed in þe parties of her face bi longe tyme; & after longe tyme kynde haþ cast out þe arowe heed, or ellis he haþ schewid sum wey bi þe which wey þilke arowe-heed myȝte be taken out. & þou must take hede bi al þi miȝt þat, whanne þat þou sowist þe woundis of þe face, þat þe mouþ be not crokid, but make so sliȝly þi sowynge þat þilke accident may [folio 77a] not fallen; & þat þou maist do weel, if þat þou cowdist ordeyne weel þi sowynge / & if þat þou canst, kepe weel þi sowynge wiþ plumaciols and wiþ byndyngis // // //

The þridde chapitle of þe secunde tretis is of woundis of þe necke & anotamie of the same.

Bi þe necke is conteyned al þe place þat is bitwene þe heed & þe schuldris, þe which anotamie I wole telle as I haue bihiȝt / Summen maken difference bitwene þe necke & þe wesaunt*. [wesaunt gula; wesande, ysophagus. Wright W., page 676, XV. cent. See Vicary, page 47, note 4.] & þePage  146 þrote-bolle, & alle þese ben comprehendid vndir þe name of þe necke. In þe necke þer ben .vij. spondelis þat is to seie whirlboonys / whirlboonys of þe rigge. Þe firste of þe boonys is bounde wiþ a boon of þe heed þat is clepid passillare*. [See Vicary. page 44, note 2.] with manye smale feble ligamentis; & þei were feble bi-cause þat þilke ioynt next to þe heed myȝte meue many weies. & þe cause whi þat þer were smale ligamentis multiplied in þat ioynt, þat manye smale myȝten susteyne a greet burþun as weel as a fewe greete; & if þat þer were a fewe greete, þei weren not so able to be meued / Þe firste spondile [folio 77b] is bounde to þe secunde / þe secunde to þe þridde, þe þridde to þe fourþe / þe fourþe to þe fifþe, þe fifþe to þe sixte / þe sixte to þe seuenþe / þe seuenþe is bounde loseliche to þe firste spondile of þe rigge, þat þe necke myȝte more liȝtliche meuen, which þat is clepid þe .viij. spondile / whanne þat þou rekenest [from þe hed dunwarde]* Seuene peire of senewis proceden out [by þese .vii. spondelis. Þe firste peire of synwe procedeþ out]* bitwene þe firste spondilis and*. [MS. of. Add. MS. 10,440, fol. 2: "& he is vnterberynge in þe hynder partie al þe bones of þe heued, & þerfore he is clepid þe berere vp or paxillus."] þe boon of þe heed þat is clepid passillare / Þe secunde peire of senewis is bore bitwene þe firste spondile & þe secunde, & so euery peire passen out bitwene ech spondile / Þese senewis benPage  147 dyuydid in many weies bi þe heed, þe necke and þe face, & þe brest, schuldris & þe armes; þe braunchis of þe senewis of þe heed in sum place ben conteynued & ioyned with þese senewis / & þese senewis ben clepid meuynge, riȝt as þe senewis þat comen of þe fore partie of þe brayn ben clepid felynge, & þese han also felynge. Of þese senewis þat comen of þe spondilis of þe necke þere ben maad braunnys, þe whiche ben instrumentis of meuynge of þo parties. In [folio 78a] þe necke bihynde, þere ben ordeyned open*. [open, Lat. manifestæ, superficial.] veynes comynge fro þe lyuere þe whiche þat ascenden into þe heed / & vndir þe veynes þer ben arteries priuyliche*. [Lat. arterie occulte.] comynge fro þe herte & goynge to þe heed for notable profitis. & whanne þat þei han*. [MS. ben.] doon al her office in þe heed þei discenden doun bi þe place þat is bihynde þe eeris & þei bringe partie materie spermatife: þat is to seie mater of sperme, doun to þe ballokis / & þerfore it is seid if þat þo veynes weren kutt, a man schulde neuere engendre*. [Avicenna quotes Hippocrates as authority for this curious belief: "Et Hip. quidem dixit in suis intentionibus quod plurimum materiei spermatis est ex cerebro & quod descendit ex duabus venis que sunt post ambas aures. Et propter hoc abscindit phlebotomia ambarum generationem & facit incurrere sterilitatem." Canon Lib. III, Fen XX, Tract. 1, Cap. 3, ed. Ven. 1523, fol. 5.] / On þe riȝtside & also on þe liftside of þe necke ben ordeined. ij. nollis*. [nolles, Latin cervices, seem to be the transverse processes.] whiche*. [whiche, struck through after nollis.] ben of ligamentis matire, þe whiche proceden out of þePage  148 boonys of þe heed & of þe spondilis, & þei strecchen doun to þe eeris*. [eeris for ers.] in lenkþe biside þe spin boon, & þei ben a couche & a restynge place to þe senewis þat comen out of þe nucha. In þe fore partie of þe necke þere is gula, þe which þat strecchiþ from þe chyn doun to þe forke of þe brest;*. [the forke of the brest, the clavicle.] & bitwene þe necke & gula wiþinneforþ þere is ordeyned mary,*. [mary, Lat. meri siue oesophagus. Arab. marī'.] þat is to seie þe wesant; þe which þat discendiþ of*. [MS. of, twice.] a smal skyn enuerounnynge [folio 78b] al þe mouþ wiþinneforþ & so goynge doun to þe stomak, & he is hool & conteyned wiþ þe stomak, & is of substaunce of þe same stomak, & he discendiþ doun bi þe hyndere partie of þe necke cleuynge to þe spondilis til þat he come to þe fifþe spondile of þe rigge; & þere he is departid from þe spondilis, & he declineþ into þe ynnere partie til þat he peerse þoruȝ þe mydrif,*. [mydrif, diaphragma. Wright W., Gloss., page 578, l. 23, XV. cent.] & is compounned of .ij. panniclis, & in þe ynnere clooþ þere ben braunnys in lenkþe bi þe whiche drauȝtis is maad of mete & of drynk, & þe vttere clooþ þere ben brawnys in brede bi þe whiche is castynge out of superfluytees; & he haþ noon transuersarie, þat is to seie goynge ouerþwert, for wiþholdynge is not nedeful to him. & in þe fore partie of þe brest þere is sett þe canne*. [MS. same. Lat. canna pulmonis. See Vicary, page 47, note 7.] of þe lungis, þe which is compounned of gristil ryngis boundePage  149 togidere wiþ pannicleris ligamentis, hauynge in þe ynnere partie a ful smeþe pannicle ioynynge togidere þilke gristili ryngis. & þilke ryngis whanne þei ben ioyned wiþ merie, þei ben defautif aȝens þe merie / & þe foorme of þe canne of þe lungis is* as it were þe foorme of a cane, [folio 79a] þat is to seie a rehed,*. [Read reed.] of þe which rehed þe fourþe partie were kutt awey in lenkþe, & aftirward þilke caane is wrie with a sotil clooþ þat whanne þat a greet mussel of mete passe doun bi þe merye, he schulde not haue lettinge, but þilke pannicle of merye ȝeueþ stede*. [ȝeueþ stede, Lat. cedere. See Catholicon Angl., page 155, to giffe stede, cedere, locum dare.] to þe greet mete passynge doun to þe stomak. Þe þrote-bolle*. [þrote-bolle. See Vicary, page 48, note 1.] is maad of iij gristlis, & is sett aboue þese two weies. & boþe on þe riȝtside & on þe lift side of þe caane of þe lungis þer ben ij. greete veynes þat ben clepid organice or ellis guydes*. [guydes, Lat. guidegi, Ibid. p. 48, note 3. Compare Arab. widādsch, vena jugularis. Matth. Sylv.: "Guedegi sunt vene guides. Alguidegi in collo flobotomantur."]; & vndir þe veynes þer ben greete arteries, & of þe kuttynge of þilke veynes & arteries þer comeþ ofte tyme greete perels, & sumtyme deeþ; for þe grete affenite þat þei han wiþ þe herte, and þe greet noyousnes*. [noyousnesse. See noyous, Cathol. Angl., page 256. The Latin has: propinquitatem, and the translator seems to have been influenced by the preceding affenite.] þat þei han to þe lyuere, bi hem sonner*. [sonner, in margin.] blood is euacued, wherfore spiritus exaliþ, þe whiche þat benPage  150 freendis boþe to þe body and also to*. [to, above line.] þe soule*. [Lat.: qui est inter corpus et animam amicabile ligamentum.] / Þe ligament of þe þrote is clepid emanence eiþir þe heiȝþe of þe epiglote, & in þe sidis of þe þrote þere is sett gula. &*. [in, inserted.] þe goynge of brawnys, senewis and cordis, veynes & arteries & her braunchis bi [folio 79b] parties of þe heed proceden aftir þe ordour of eeris,*. [eeris for heeris.] & þei ben ordeyned in þe necke & in gula aftir her lenkþe. & herbi þou maist se þat it is necessarie a surgian to make hise kuttyngis & hise brennyngis bi lenkþe of þe necke & of þe þrote, & þat þe woundis þat ben maad ouerþwert ben more perlous, þan þo þat ben in lenkþe /

Now we wolen tretyn of woundis þat ben maad in þis place, wiþ a swerd or wiþ sum þing semblable to him, or wiþ an arowe or sum þing semblable to him. & if it be wiþ a swerd, eiþir it is ouerþwert eiþir in lenkþe / & if it be ouerþwert & þere be kutt greete veynes eiþer arteries, it is to dreden. Neþeles þou schalt helpe to staunche þe blood & consowde þe veyne, aftir þe techinge tofore asigned in þe chapitle of flux of blood. & if þer be a senewe kutt, þanne brynge boþe parties of þe senewe togidere & sowe þe pelliclis of þe senewe wiþ þe sowynge of þe woundis, as I haue tauȝt tofore in þe place of sowynge of senewis, & leie aboue lumbricus of þePage  151 erþe, þat beth erþe-wormes staumpid & boilid wiþ oile of rosis, & kepe þe sowynge [folio 80a] with byndynge, & so procede forþ in al þing of þe cure, as it is told in þe chapitle tofore schewid / & if þat þe wounde were in lenkþe, it is not necessarie but for to sowe þe wounde & caste aboue þe poudre of lyme, frankencense, & sandragoun, & kepe þe poudre & þe sowynge wiþ byndynge, til þe wounde be ful consowdid / & if þe wounde were maad in þe parties wiþ an arowe or wiþ a knyf, or with a spere or sum þing semblable to hem, & if þer be an arowe, drawe him out; & if an arowe be drawe out, loke if þer folowe emorosogie,*. [Lat. emorosagia. Matth. Sylv.: "Emorogia. Emorosagia .i. sanguis fluxus vel discursus."] þat is to seie, a greet flux of blood, & þanne staunche it aftir þe doctryne þat is told tofore / & if þer be no flux of blood, loke if þer be akþe / & if þer be acþe, putte in þe wounde a litil tent þat may holde þe wounde open al a day, þat þou maist seen þat þe woundid man schal haue noon acþe / & if he haue noon acþe, lete þe wounde be consowdid; for sumtyme it happiþ, þat an arowe or sum þing semblable passiþ þoruȝ þe necke & þe þrote, & he touche not þe senewe, arterie, ne veyne, & þanne it nediþ not but þat þe wounde be [folio 80b] consowdid. & if þer were akþe eiþer bigynnynge of swellynge, þanne it were necessarie to fulfille þe wounde wiþ hoote oile of rosis & to putte in a tente not toPage  152 greet, wet in þe ȝelke of an ey & oile of rosis hoot, & so holde þe wounde open, til þat he ȝeue quytture, & aftir clense him & aftir consowde him / Vndirstonde þe perilis þat comen for [wondys]* þat ben maad in þis place / Þe firste perel is: if þat þe necke be kutt ouerþwert wiþ a swerd, so þat þe necke-boon & þe marie of þe necke-boon be al atwo, it is deedliche. & if þat nucha, þat is mary of þe necke boon, is not kutt al atwo but is hurt, it is perile of lesynge, felynge & meuynge,*. [Lat.: est periculum amissionis sensus et motus.] & at þe laste be deed, but if þat medicyns þat I schal telle moun helpe / & if þat ony veyne or ony greet senewe be kutt ouerþwert, I suppose þat he be heelid, þe necke schal neuere haue*. [haue, in margin.] his free meuynge; & if þat ony of þe veynes organik, þe whiche þat ben clepid guydes, or ellis ony of þe arteries þat ben vndir hem be kutt, it is drede of sodeyn deeþ, for sodeyn exalacioun of þe spiritis & also for affinite of þe herte; & also if þat þe cane of þe lungis be kutt ouerþwert [folio 81a] al atwo, for þe more partie it is deedliche / Also it is seid, þat if þe veynes þat ben bihynde þe eeris bee kutt al atwo, he ne schal neuere engendre. And also sumtyme it is kutt eiþir prickid þe senewe þat is clepid reuersif, þat is vndir boþe sidis of þe eere, of þe whiche kuttynge or prickynge euermore is maad hosnesse*. [hosnesse. Prompt. Parv., p. 248. "hoorsnesse, Rancor."] / And if þat þe placesPage  153 ben peersid with an arowe, & þouȝ þat trache arterie be peersid or ellis ysophage, so þat nucha be nouȝt prickid bi þe mydle, þanne ȝitt he may be heelid wiþ gode medicyns & acordynge.

Þou schalt helpe nucha þat is hurt in þis maner: þou schalt helde into þe wounde, in þe bigynnynge, oile of rosis, & aftirward do yn oile of rosis & ȝelke of an ey medlid togidere, and þou schalt be bisy in al maner to aswage akþe; & whanne þat quytture is maad, þanne leie a mundificatif wiþ medicyns comfortatiuis & incarnatiuis maad in þis maner / Take oile of rosis colate [dram] .iiij., wex, rosyn of ech two dragmis, terbentine .iij. ȝ, frankencense, mastik of ech .i. ȝ, mirre, sarcocol,*. [Sarcocolla, Gr. [gap: 1] , "is the Gumme or liquore of a tre growyng in Persia." Halle, Table, p. 109.] mummie*. [mummie, mumia. See Halle, Table, p. 72, and Notes.] of ech [dram] .[one half]., barly mele [dram][one half]., streyne it on a clooþ & [folio 81b] leie it on þe nucha þat is hurt. & þei þat hereof*. [MS. of here.] pronosticacioun schulde go tofore, þe which schulde schewe to yuel, neþeles bi þis medicyn þer comeþ a rectificacioun to þe nucha, & melioracioun of meuynge of lymes, þat ben byneþe þe place of þe nucha þat is hurt, more helpinge, þat semeþ possible to þe leche. For þer is no þing vnpossible to stalworþe*. [stalworthe. See Skeat, Et. Dict., s. v. Stalwart.] nature; namely, whanne þat it is holpen wiþ a good leche & wiþ þingis, þat benPage  154 helpinge & acordynge to a good intencioun / Here vndirstonde þat al maner wounde þat peersiþ to þe substaunce of þe brayn or ellis to þe nucha, so þat bi þer hurtynge of þe nucha þe meuynge & þe felynge of summe lymes ben lost, nameliche from þe whirle-boonys of þe rigge, of þe reynes vpward, & al maner wounde þat is maad in þe extremitees of*. [MS. as. Lat. in extremitatibus lacertorum.] þe lacertis*. [lacertis, the sinewy part of the arm. See Vicary, p. 57, note 1.] as .iij. fyngir mele*. [iij fyngir mele brede. Lat. tribus digitis.] brede vndir þe schuldris, eiþer .iii. fyngir mele brede aboue þe elbowe eiþer byneþe, eiþir .iij. fyngir mele aboue þe kne or byneþe / & ech wounde þat is in a senewe place with strengest akþe & hardnes, [folio 82a] schal be deemed deedlich, for þe nobilte of þilke brayn, & for þe affinite of þe nucha wiþ þe brayn, of þe which nucha passiþ as a reuere*. [MS. rēuere.] from a welle, & for þe affinite of þilke senewe wiþ þe brayn bi mene of nucha, of þe whiche þei passen out as a flood / Wherfore þou schalt euermore in sich maner woundis pronosteken deth, & euermore fle as miche as þou myȝt from vnresonable curis, but if þou be with þe more instaunce y-preied / Neþeles sumtyme nature wiþ good helpinge worchiþ þat semeþ to þe leche vnpossible, neuer-þe-lattere loue noon sich [cures]* but if þou be greetliche preied & þanne entermete of þe cure of þe sike man //

Page  155
The .iiij. chapitle of þe .ij. tretis is of woundis of þe spaude,*. [spaude, spatula = scapula, shoulder-blade. See Cathol. Angl., p. 352. "spawde Armus." O.Fr. espalde.] schuldre, arm, handis, fyngris, brawnys, veynes, & her anotamie /

Þe spawde is oon of þe iiij. boonys, þe which þat makþ þe foorme of þe schuldre / & þe spawde-boon is þinne & brood twoward þe schuldris & in hise endis gristly. On þe vpper side of him he haþ an egge sumwhat greet & twoward þe arm [folio 82b] in þe place of þe schuldre he is greet & round; & þilke eende is holowe as a box, & þis boon is lich to a pele*. [pele, Lat. palla. See Cathol. Angl., p. 273, note 4.] wiþ þe whiche men setten breed into þe ouene, & on þe hyndere partie of the schuldre he haþ an eminence. & in þe box of þis boon — —*. [Some words are wanting in both MSS. (entriþ þe extremite of a boon). Lat.: In hac pyside sive concavitate huius ossis, intrat extremitas ossis adiutorii.] þe which is clepd adiutorium; þe which is oon boon sumwhat crokid, greet & holowe / Þis boon is greet for necessite of strenkþe, & of schap holowe, þat he were liȝt, þat he schulde not þoruȝ his heuynes lette þe worchinge of lacertis, & þe round extremite of þis boon entriþ into þe holownes of þe spawde. & þei ben bounden togidere wiþ a bowable ligament. Þe canel-boon*. [See N. E. Dict. This is the earliest reference for canelbone = clavicula.] of þe brest is in þis maner maad, hauyngePage  156 an additament sumwhat round in þe neþer partie, þe which entriþ a maner box, þe which is in þe ouer partie of þe ouer boon of þe .vij. boonys of þe brest. Euery extremite of þilke vij. boonys ben ioyned with þe spawde, þat þe schuldre myȝte be þe more strengere, & forto make þis place more strengere, þer ben sett .ij. smale boonys, þe whiche ben clepid rostralia*. [rostralia. Coracoids. "Rostriformis Processus, a Process of the Shoulder-blade, and of the lower Jawbone."—Phillips.] to þe lijknes of þe bele [folio 83a] of a crowe, & for to fastne þe schuldre, þis boon rostral is putt in maner of a wegge / But þe boon of þe adiutori haþ in þe neþer partie twoward þe elbowe .ij. eminentis, & þe oon of þe eminence is more hiȝere þan þat oþer; & boþe þese eminence ben as þei it were holf a boket*. [Compare Vicary, p. 49, 1. 18, where the word polly is substituted for bucket.] wiþ þe which men drawen watir / & þilke .ij. additamentis ben ioyned wiþ þe boonys of þe arm / Þe arm from þe elbowe dounward haþ .ij. bonys; & þe ouer boon, þe which þat arecchiþ fro þe þombe to þe boon þat is clepid adiutorium, is þe smallere boon; & þe neþir boon þat strecchiþ from þe litil fyngir to þe elbowe is þe grettere boon. & he haþ in þe ouer ende twoward þe elbowe an additament lijk twoward a bille or a pike; & þilke pike makiþ þe elbowe scharp whanne þe arm is folden, & it lettiþ þat þe arm may not be bowid [bakwarde]*.Page  157 Þese .ij. boonys ben so ioyned togidere, þat it semeþ as þouȝ it were but oo. boon. & þe neþir ende of þese boonys ben ioyned with þe boonys of þe hand, þe whiche ben clepid rasceta,*. [Rasceta, Arab = carpus. Castelli, Lexicon medic., p. 139. See Littré: "rachette," and Devic Suppl. to Littré. Dict.] þat ben .viij. boonys, .iiij. of [folio 83b] hem ben ordeyned & ioyned with summe additamentis to þe .ij. boonys of þe arm / & þe oþere .iiij. ben conteyned*. [conteyned, conteyneþ for contynued, contynueþ.] with þe boonys of þe hand þat ben clepid pecten*. [pecten, Latin, pecten manus. See Halle, Treatise of the Anatomye, p. 62 (A.D. 1562). "And after these bones Rasseta, are constitute the bones of the palmes of the hands, called Ostea metacarpis. i. Postbrachialia, Palma, vel manus pectus." The corrupt form Patinis occurs in Vicary, p. 50, 1. 9.] / Þe firste boon of pecten is ioyned with þe first boon of rasceta,*. [MS. pasceta.] & þe oþere .iij. in þe same maner outaken þe þombe. ——*. [Two words (þe þombe) are wanting. Latin: Nam pollex tria habens ossa.... He counts the metacarpal bone of the thumb as a phalanx.] þat haþ .iij. boonys as þe oþere fyngris han, conteyneþ*. [conteyned, conteyneþ for contynued, contynueþ.] his firste boon wiþ þe extremite of þe ouer fosile,*. [fosile, Latin: focile. See Vicary, p. 49, note 3.] & þe þombe euenliche aȝenstondiþ þe strenkþe of þe oþere fyngris in clicchinge.*. [in clicchinge, Latin: (pollex) ut sit solus ex opposito comprehendens cum aliis firmius, et firmius retinens apprehensum.] & alle þese boonys þat mencioun is maad of, þat ben in ioynturis, as þe schuldris, elbowis, raschet, & þe knottis of alle þe fyngris, ben ioyned togidere bi mene of ligamentis, as it is seid tofore / & þese boonys ben cloþid wiþ symple fleisch & brawnys after þat þe dyuersite of foorme of lymes askiþ /

& alle þe greete senewis proceden out of nucha, þe whiche senewis ben conpounned wiþ ligamentis & wiþ symple fleisch, makynge brawnys meuynge þo parties; of þe whiche brawnys summe ben open to a mannys siȝt, & summe ben hid; for þei ben departid in two [folio 84a] þe leeste parties*. [Lat. in tres partes minimas diuiduntur.] / Þere ben .iiij. brawnys open in þe fleischy partie of þe arm, bitwene þe schuldre & þe elbowe: oon on þe ynnere half, anoþir on þe vttere half, anoþir on þe lowere half, anoþir on þe hiȝere half. Whanne þe ynnere brawn is drawe togidere þanne is þe arme foldid ynward, & þe contrarie brawn onPage  158 þe vttere half is maad long; & whanne þat þe vttere brawn of þe*. [brawn, struck through after of þe.] arm is maad schort, þanne is þe arm drawe outward & þe ynnere is maad long; & in þe same maner by*. [MS. ben.] oþere .ij. brawnys, þe arm is houe vp & lete falle doun / & whanne þat alle þe brawnys traueilen liche myche, þe arm stant euene riȝtliche & declyneþ to no partie / & þese brawnys,*. [ben, inserted.] .iiij fyngir mele from þe ioynture of þe schuldre, ben nakid cordis, & þei ben þe same from þe ioynture of þe elbowe & in þe myddil of þe adiutorie, þat is þe place þat is from þe schuldre to þe elbowe; þe cordis ben multiplied dyuersliche wiþ fleisch to þe composicioun of þe same brawnys, .iij. fyngir mele aboue þe elbowe. & .iij. fyngir mele byneþe [folio 84b] þe elbowe ben nakid cordis; & þere þei maken anoþir*. [corde, cancelled, after anoþir.] brawn; & in þis maner ben maad nakid cordis & generacioun of brawnys, til euery lyme haue his meuynge, after þat it nediþ him.

In boþe þe armes ben .iiij. open veynes þat comen from þe lyuere, & ben scharpeled*. [ben schorpeled, Latin: disperguntur—O.Fr. escharpiller, mettre en pièces. See Godefroy.] þoruȝ þe arm. For þere is a braunchid veyne þe which wexiþ on þe vttere partie of þe lyuere, & is dyuydid in two parties: oon arisynge, anoþir discendynge; þe veyne arisynge comeþ to þe mydrif; & sum partie of hir is sparpoiled*. [is sparpoilid, Latin: dispergitur—O.Fr. esparpeiller. See Cathol. Angl., p. 351, note 6.] þoruȝ þe mydrif & þe lymes of þe brest / þat oþere partie of þe veyne passiþ to þe arm-hoolis, & þere he is forkid. & þat veyne passiþ byneþe the arm to þe elbowe, & þere sche may be seen; & he is clepid basilica*. [Basilica. See Vicary, p. 52, note 5. There is one reference for [gap: 1] given in Stephanus Thes., from Synesius, De febribus, which is a translation of an Arab. treatise by Constant. Africanus.] or ellis epatica, & aftirward he strecchiþ bi þe neþir partie of þe arm to þe hond, bitwene þe litil fyngir & þe leche*. [leche fyngir. See Prompt. Parv., p. 291, note 4. O.E. læ¯cefinger, Leechd., vol. i. p. 394. See Notes.] fiyngir, & sche is clepid saluatella*. [Salvatella. See Vicary, p. 53, note 1. Dufresne gives one reference for Salvatella with a different meaning: "Pellicula involvens cerebrum." It occurs frequently in the Latin translations of Arab. authors, and translates Arab. sceilem or osailemon.] or ellis epatica in þe riȝthond, & in þe lifthand splenatica. Þe toþir partie of þis veyne þat is dyuydid fro þis assellari strecchiþ to þe vttere partie of þe schuldre: & þere isPage  159 [folio 85a] dyuydid. & þe oon partie goiþ to þe heed & þe oþir partie to þe arm. & þilke is eftsoones dyuydid, & þe oon partie is spred bi þe arm manye weies wiþoute forþ, þat is clepid funis*. [funis, Castelli, Lexic. Medicum, p. 351. "Arabes venam Medianam vocasse Funem brachii, testatur Ioh. Zecchius, lect. ii. in sect. 1. Sph. Hipp. p. m. 109." On this place funis evidently means not the vena mediana, but one of the recurrent veins.]; & þe oþere partie strecchiþ euene to þe elbowe, & þere sche is schewid bi þe ouer partie of þe arm; & so sche strecchiþ to þe hand, & þere sche apperiþ bitwene þe fyngir and þe þombe, & is clepid cephalica. ij. braunchis þat ben diuided þat comen fro þe schuldre, þe toon is cephalica, þe oþere from assillari,*. [Vena ascellaris. Matth. Sylv.: "Vena communis nigra purpurea media — — dicitur communis quoniam componitur ex assellari et humerali."] þat is basilica, maken oon veyne þat is clepid mediana eiþer purpurea. & þere ben .iiij. veynys, as it is seid bifore, scilicet, finis*. [finis for funis.] brachij þat strecchiþ bi þe vttere partie of þe arm, & sephelica þe which þat strecchiþ bi þe ouer partie, & basilica þat strecchiþ bi þe lower partie & communis seu mediana seu purpurea seu fusca quod idem est is comun veyne eiþir myddil veyne, þe which þat is compouned of basilica & cephalica tofore seid, & sche apperiþ openliche in þe foldynge of þe myddil of þe arm. // ¶ Þe veynes þat comen from þe lyuere han manie departingis [folio 85b] & dyuers placis, & for to telle alle þe departyngis, it is not profitable for a sirurgian / Saue it suffisiþ for a sirurgian, for to knowe in what place þe grete veynes sitten & þe arterijs, so þat he mowe saue him-silf from perel & helpe hem, whanne þei ben kutt / Þis þou schalt wite, þat from þe lyuere þer comeþ a veyne to euery lyme bicause of nurischinge. & for to make þe lymes ful of lijf, Arterijs comen þerto also. & þerfore in euery place þere þat ben grete veynes, in þe same place ben arterijs.

¶ Bi þes þingis þat ben aforseid, þou maist wite wel þat þere comeþ greet perel of woundis, þat ben aboute þe schuldris & vndir þe arme-pittis,*. [þe arme-pittis. See Wr. W., 627. 3. xv. cent.] & in þe boon of adiutorie, & in þe arm, & in þe hondis / for whi: if woundis be maad in adiutorijs & in þe arme ouerþwert, it is greet perel lest þe braun be kutt awey, wherby þe arme schulde haue his meuynge; & it is perel of kuttynge of veynes and arterijs, lest þe blood myȝte not be staunchid. ¶ And if it be maad a wounde with a þing þat prickide, & falle vpon aPage  160 corde þat is in þe [folio 86a] ende of þe braun, & is clepid thenantos,*. [thenantos, sinew. Matth. Sylv.: "Tenantos gre. est chorda que in capitibus musculorum aggregatur." It is a corrupt form of Gr. [gap: 1] (Suidas Gloss.).] þanne it is greet drede of þe spasme & aftirward of deeþ, for þe akynge entriþ in þe corde þat is prickid, & so þe akynge arisiþ vp to þe brayn, & þanne comeþ spasme. ¶ Also it falliþ many tyme þat a man is hurt þe brede of iij. fyngris wiþinne aboue þe elbowe, þer is þe eende of þe braun & þere ben cordis; & þanne þer wole come greet akynge, & þanne þe spasme aftir, & þese woundis ben mortal.

¶ If þat wounde be maad endlongis in þe arme & in adiutorio, þanne it is not so greet drede þerof, þerfore it is necessarie for a sirurgian to knowe þe perel of woundis þat falliþ in þis place, & wheþer þe wounde be ouerþwert or endelongis. & if þe wounde be endelongis, þanne he schal ioyne þe wounde togidere & sewe hem, & sprynge þeron þe poudre of lyme & oþere þingis, as it is aforeseid, for to kepe þe sewyngis & þe ligaturis togidere & alle þingis as it is aforeseid in þe wounde of fleisch. ¶ If þer be ony nerues, or arterijs, ouþer veynes kutt [folio 86b] ouerþwert: þanne þou schalt worche with þingis þat streyneþ blood, & þou schalt sewe þe hedis of þe nerues togidere or of þe cordis. & þe pacient schal be kept from akynge wiþ good kepinge & with reste, & he schal ligge in an euene bed. & þou schalt leie aboute þe wounde a defensif of bole & of oile of rosis þat is aforseid / And þouȝ þis defensijf be forȝete in oþere woundis, in þis wounde it may not in no maner. ¶ Þou schalt kepe þe sewyngis & þe ligaturis with poudre & lynet, as it is aforseid / Also þis þou must knowe if þou sewist sich a maner wounde of nerues & cordis, & if þe akynge go not awey, þou muste rippe þe sewynge aȝen, & þouȝ þis be contrarie to þe soudynge of þe nerues, ȝitt it is bettere to do*. [do above line.] þus, þouȝ he lese þe meuynge of sum lyme, þat þe nerue seruede þerfore, þan falle in þe spasme; for þanne it were drede of deeþ / Þerfore it is necessarie for to opene þe wounde & fille it ful of oile of rosis & of ȝelke of an ey. & vpon [folio 87a] þe wounde leie of þe same medicyn til þe wounde quytture, & þanne make þe wounde clene with mundificatiues, & þanne regendre floisch as it is aforseid // If it be so þat þere come ony hoot apostymes vpon woundis in þis place: þanne þou schalt worche as it is aforseid in a propre chapitre // If it so be, þat þou leie vpon þe wounde oile of rosis, & ȝelke of an ey for to do awei þePage  161 akynge, & if þere falle a flux of blood, & þanne if þou leidist þerto ony constreyning þingis, þe akynge wolde be þe more, & if þou leidist þerto þe ȝelke of an ey & oile, þat wole make þe flux of blood þe more—In þis caas what is for to done? Þou schalt brenne þe hedis of þe veynes & of þe cordis with an hoot yrn, but þou schalt not touche þe lippis of þe wounde wiþ iren in no maner; & þanne þou schalt leie in the wounde þe ȝelke of an ey & oile of rosis, til al þe rynde of þe brennyng falle awei. & þanne þou schalt leie þerto mundificatiues, & þanne þou schalt regendre fleisch, and þanne þou schalt soude þe wounde /

[folio 87b] Of woundis of thoracis & of þe brest & of þe membris þat ben conteyned in it, & anothamia.

Thorax is maad of .vij. boonys & euery boon at þe eende is cartilaginosum / Þese .vij. boonys ben ioyned togidere in þis maner þat euery leeneþ vpon oþir, & wiþ þese .vij. boonys ben maad fast .vij. ribbis þat ben grete ribbis, & þo .vij. ribbis ben maad fast in þe rigge boon bihynde, & þese ribbis ben crokid / Wiþinne*. [wiþinne. The Latin has infra, which the translator took for intra.] þese .vij. ribbis ben v. ribbis þat ben lasse, & ben clepid litil ribbis, & ben maad fast bihynde with .v. boonys of þe rigge, & in þe forside of a man þei haue no fastnynge to no boon, saue þei ben maad fast with lacertis.*. [lacertis. See Vicary, page 57, note 1.] & bitwixe þe .viij. boon & þe .ix. boon, diafragma is maad fast, for to bigynne tellyngis of boonys aboueforþ. & þis diafragma departiþ þe spirituals from þe guttis. & in þe holownes þat is aboue liggiþ þe herte & þe lungis /

Þe herte [folio 88a] is maad of hard fleisch & strong & of lacertes þat þei miȝte be hard, þat it ne schulde take a greuaunce liȝtli.*. [Avicenna, Lib. III., Fen XI., Tract. I., Cap. 1, ed. Venet, 1527, f. 204: "Cor quidem ereatum est ex carne forti ut sit longinquum a nocumento."] & þerfore summen seiden þat it is al braun; but it is not so, for þe braun of a man meueþ whanne he wole, & restiþ, & þe herte is alwei meuynge & not reste. & þe herte is schape aftir a pyne, & hangiþ in þe myddil of þe hiȝere holownes, & hangiþ sum-what to þe liftsideward; & þe hiȝere þerof is brood, & þat place is medlid wiþ cartilaginosis ligaturis, & is maad fast in þe lungis*. [lungis, a mistranslation of panniculi. The pericardium is also called panniculus cordis.]; & þe lungis touchiþ not þe herte, saue in þe aboue, þere it is maad fast togidere,Page  162 & þe lunge defendiþ þe herte from greuaunce. & þe herte haþ two ventriclis .i. two holowe placis wiþinne, & þat oon ventricle sittiþ in þe riȝtside of þe herte, & þat oþer in þe liftside*. [The translator has omitted the following passage: "In medio illorum duorum ventriculorum est quedam fouca: & vocatur a quibusdam ventriculus tertius, super ventriculo dextro et sinistro. Item duo additamenta cartilaginosa fortia et flexibilia quandam habentia concauitatem, et constringuntur & dilatantur, & recipientes & retinentes nutrimentum et aerem ad nutriendum et temperandum cor."]; & þese ventriclis holdiþ & resseyueþ eir & norischiþ þe herte / In þe riȝt ventricle comeþ a greet veyne þat is clepid ramosa*. [The translation is not correct. Lat.: "ad dextrum nanque ventriculum venit una vena ex ramosa vena." This vein is the vena cava inferior, which gets the blood from the liver by the venæ cavæ hepaticæ. "The seconde veyne is called Vena choele, or Vena concaua, and of some Vena Ramosa." Halle, Anatomie, page 78.—1565.] þat comeþ from gibbo*. [gibbus. See Vicary, page 69, note 1.] epatis, & comfortiþ diafragma, & peersiþ þoruȝ diafragma. & þis veyne is ful of greet [folio 88b] norischinge blood & hoot, & it norischiþ lymes of greet substaunce. & þis veyne goiþ bi þe riȝtside of þe herte, & filliþ þe herte ful of norisching blood. & þanne þe blood in þe herte sutilliþ*. [sutilliþ. Latin: subtiliatur] & filliþ ful þe two ventriclis of þe herte, & of þis clene blood þe spirit is engendrid; which spirit is more cleer & more schynyng & more sutil, þan ony bodi þat is maad of þe iiij. elementis. & þerfore it is turnid*. [MS. turid. Latin: vergit in naturam supracelestium corporum.] into heuenly bodies, & it is bitwixe a mannys bodi & his soule a louely byndynge. ¶ And of þe lift ventricle þere wexiþ out ij. [arteries]*. [arteries, wanting.] and þat oon þerof haþ a maner coote, & þerfore of summen it is clepid arteria venalis.*. [Arteria venalis. See Vicary, page 58, note 1.] & þis arterie beriþ sutil blood to þe lungis & norischiþ þe lungis / And þat oþere arterie haþ .ij. cootis. & of þe ilke*. [MS. inserts, ij cootis] comeþ alle þe arteries in a mannys bodi, & ben departid in euery lyme of a mannys bodi. & þese arterijs makiþ alle a mannis lymes to haue lijf & spiritis; & alle þes arterijs & alle þese spiritis þat ben aforeseid; and þese arterijs goiþ to þe brayn [folio 89a] & þei goiþ to þe lyuere & ȝeueþ him vertu ful myche & makiþ defiynge / And þese arterijs goiþ to a mannys ballokis & ȝeueþ him vertu for to engendre; & in þis place þe vertu of alle þe spiritis of a mannys bodi ben ioyned togidere.*. [The translation is corrupt. Lat.: Iste namque spiritus cordialis, qui per viam quæ dicta est a corde sumit originem, sicut omnes virtutes, quarum est instrumentum, cum ad ventriculos peruenit cerebri, aliam ibi recipit digestionem, quæ meretur formam suscipere spiritus animalis, & ita ut ad epar dirigitur, in ipso formam recipit nutritiui, et in testiculis generatiui, donec omnis spiritus, omnisque particularis virtutis perfectio cum virtutum operationibus coniungatur.]

Page  163¶ Þe lungis ben maad of .iij. substauncis: of fleisch þat is recchinge,*. [recchinge. Latin: rara.] & braunche of arterijs, & of veynis,*. [braunche of arteriis & of veynes. Latin: ramis arteriæ venalis.] & of cartilaginis þat ben holow, & þese goþ out of canna pulmonis as it is aforeseid. ¶ Þe profit þat þe lungis doiþ a man is þis: þe lungis drawiþ eir into þe herte, for to do awei þe fume & þe vntemprid heete of þe herte, & makiþ þe herte in tempre hete / And in tyme whanne þe herte is constreyned, þanne it is necessarie for to drawe coold eir to þe herte; & if þe lungis myȝte not drawe eir to þe herte, þe spirit of lijf schulde be stoppid, & so a man schulde be deed / & þerfore it is necessarie þat a man haue clene eir, for þe eir passiþ þoruȝ þe lungis þat ben tendre & goiþ to þe herte; & þerfore vnclene eir doiþ harm to þe lungis & also to þe herte. & þerfore þe lungis ben [folio 89b] departid into .ij. placis, & if þer falle ony harm to þe oon partie of þe lungis, þanne þat oþere partie beriþ al his charge //

¶ Woundis þat ben maad in þe brest. If þe wounde go into þe holownes, þanne it is miche to drede þerof, for þanne it miȝte falle þat sum substaunce of þe herte miȝte be harmed, & þanne þe wounde were mortal // ¶ Ouþer if þe wounde ȝede into þe lungis, þere were greet perel: for þe wounde mai not be helid but if it be soudid anoon // ¶ And if þe wounde go þoruȝ diafragma, it is mortal / And if it be so þat þe herte be hurt, þere lijþ no*. [MS. do. Lat.: Cor autem vulneratum curam non recipit.] cure þeron, saue he schal die anoon; for þe herte takiþ no lijf of no lyme of al þe bodi, saue þe herte ȝeueþ lyues to euery lyme of þe bodi; & þe herte ordeyneþ alle lymes to vertues, & þe herte is þe welle of lijf; & þerfor þe herte mai suffre noon harm, saue ioie ouþer sorowe / Þerfore if þe herte be kutt wiþ a swerd ouþer ony greet arterie þat is nyȝ þe herte, þe wounde is mortal; for þe arterijs goiþ to þe herte [folio 89*a] & þanne al þe blood of þe herte & þe spirit passiþ out bi þe arterijs, as þou myȝt se bi ensaumple of a candel. For if a candel þat brenneþ, ouþer a weke, be putt al in oile ouþer in grese, þe fier þerof wole out; in þis same maner is þe spirit of lijf queynt, whanne þe herte is hurt, for þe greet flux of blood, þat falliþ to þe herte & stoppiþ þe spirit of lijf / Ouþer if þer be greet flux of blood comynge fro þe herte, þanne þe spirit passiþ out þerwiþ; as þou miȝt se bi ensaumple of a candel: whanne þe talow of a candel is doon, or wex, or oile, þanne þe liȝt wole passe, & in þe same maner itPage  164 fariþ bi a mannis lijf, as it is aforseid. ¶ Þe lungis wolen take no souding whanne þei ben hurt, but if þe leche be þe more kunnyng & soude þe wounde or it quytture. For if it qutture, þe lungis moun not be maad clene but wiþ cowȝyng, & þe more þat þe pacient cowȝeþ, þe more þe wounde wexiþ // ¶ Also þe lungis ben euermore meuynge; & [if] woundis*. [þat inserted. Lat.: et vulnerata membra indigent ut quiescant.] schulen be soudid in lymes, þe lyme [folio 89*b] mote reste; & þerfore for þe contynuel meuynge of þe lungis, þe woundis þerof ben seid incurable // ¶ Also þouȝ a man wolde soude þe woundis of þe lungis wiþ ony medicyne þat is consolidatif, it ne mai not come þerto but bi a long wey as bi þe stomak, ouþer bi þe lyuere, ouþir bi veynes, & so þe vertu of þe medicyne ne may not come to þe lungs, but bi þe forseid weies; & þerfore men þat ben hurt in þe lungis falliþ in þe tisik*. ["Tisica, Italis et Hispanis Phthisis."—Dufresne. "Tissick, an Ulceration of the Lungs, accompany'd with an Hectick Feaver, and causing a Consumption of the whole Body."—Phillips, 1706. tysyk, Hampole, 701. "þat man þat hath þe tisik & þe etik," Quintess, p. 17, 7.] / ¶ If a man be hurt in diafragma, þer is no remedie þerof; for diafragma is alwei meuynge, for þat is an instrument of wijnd to the herte, riȝt as a belowe is an instrument for a fier / For riȝt as a below, whanne he is opened, he takiþ in wijnd, & whanne he is closid, he puttiþ out wijnd & blowiþ þe fier /

¶ If þe herte be woundid, in þis maner þou schalt knowe: þe pacient schal swowne, & þe blood þat comeþ out is blak, & he schal siȝe sore, & þanne he is but deed //

¶ If þe lungis ben hurt, þou schalt [folio 90a] knowe in þis maner bi cowȝynge, & þe blood þat goiþ out of þe wounde wole be spumous & cleer / If þe wounde hereof be streit wiþoutforþ, make it largere, & þanne in þe wounde of þe lungis caste poudre of mastix. & olibani,*. [Olibanum. Thus masculinum. Arab. al-louban (Devic. Dict.). N.E. oliban.] draganti, gumme arabici, fenigreci ana; & he schal ete no mete saue þat, þat he mai soupe, & penidis*. [Penidium, barley sugar.] medlid þeron, & loke þat he haue scielence & good reste, & þat he traueile not; & þou schalt not close þe wounde wiþoute, til þe wounde of þe lungis be sowdid, & þanne soude þe wounde wiþoutforþ //

¶ If þat a wounde be in diafragma, þes ben þe signys þerof: streit secchinge of breeþ, & greet agreuaunce for to drawe his breeþ, & greet akynge in his side, & greuous cowȝyngs; alle þese ben signys of deeþ, & principali if þese signys be greet & greuous /Page  165 If þese signys ben but litil & not strong greuous, þanne ȝeue him metis & drynkis þat mowe swage*. [swage. See Cathol. Angl., p. 372.] þe cowȝe, & þanne take a tent þat be not to greet, & wete it in þe ȝelke of [folio 90b] an ey & oile of rosis, & þanne cure þis wounde as þou doist oþere woundis /

If it so be þat a wounde be in a caua*. [MS. canna. Lat.: Cum autem vulnus est in cassum penetrans. Cassus, Pecten. Semibarbaris ex Arabico. Castellus, Lex. Med. Casse, Arab. Kas, cup, calice.—Devic. I would rather trace it from Lat. cassus adj. void, hollow, and cassum, i = cassa, orum sb. the hollows. The latter form cassa gave origin to Ital. cassa f. See cassa del cranio, etc.] & noon of þe forseid lymes ben not hurt, þanne wete a tent in oile of rosis hoot & putte in þe wounde; & whanne þou remeuest þi medicyne ouþer leist þerto ony medicyne, be war þat þer passe out noon eir þoruȝ þe wounde, ne entre in noon eir into þe wounde, & þerfore or þou chaunge þi tent, loke þat þou haue þingis þat ben necessarie þerfore redi, þat þe wounde mowe be stoppid anoon, þat þere go no breeþ into þe wounde, ne out of þe wounde / For if þer go ony breþ out, it wole afeble þe patient, & if þer go ony breeþ þere, it wole do harme to þe spaulis. Leie vpon þe wounde oile of rosis & þe ȝelke of an ey, & herwiþ wete þi tent til þe wounde quytture. & þanne euery dai make him to turne vpon his side, & make him cowȝe & spitte out þe quytture, & avoide þe quytture bi þe wounde also. & if þere be myche quytture, & may not be avoidid bi þe wounde, þanne þou schalt make sich a maner waischinge & putte it yn wiþ [folio 91a] an instrument maad lijk a clisterie / ℞ .mel ro. [ounce] iiij., mirre, fenigreci, farine lupinorum ana [dram][one half], boile hem to þe consumpcioun of þe .iij. part in lī j. of swete wijn, & lī j. of water, & þanne cole hem & putte in þe colature as it is aforseid. Vpon þe wounde wiþoutforþ, from þe tyme þat it quytturiþ, leie þis mundificatif planed vpon a clooþ.*. [&. Lat.: super pannum distensum. O.Fr. planer, Lat. planare.] ℞ mel ro. lī j., farina ordei substillissimi. [ounce] iiij., mirre, fenigreci ana. [dram] j., be þei encorperat*. [encorperat. Lat. incorporatus, O.Fr. encorperer.] & boilid at esi fier / & whanne þei ben weel boilid, & weel medlid togidere so þat it be þicke, do hem doun of þe fier, & do þerto [dram] .iij. of terbentyne waischen & medle hem weel togidere. Þis emplastre þou schalt vse, & þe waischingis þat is aforseid, & þou schalt holde open þe wounde with a tent wet in oile, til þe quytture þat is withynne be perfitli dried / Þis þou schalt knowe bi þe vertu of þe patient & bi þe sauour of his breeþ, & whanne his cowȝynge goiþ awei, & whannePage  166 his vnkyndely heete goiþ awei / If þou doist alle þese þingis to him þat ben aforseid, & þe quytture [folio 91b] be not wiþdrawe þerwith, & his cowȝynge & his akynge be not aswagid, & his vertu be feble, & his spirit be nouȝt, þanne do þou nomore þerto, saue he schal al turne him to goddis merci // ¶ Saue if it so be þat he haue þe cowȝe & greet quytture in þe wounde, & he be strong, & principali if þer wexe ony swellyng in his side bihinde bitwixe þe .iiij. & þe .v. rib, þan þere þou schalt make a newe kuttyng & lete out þe quytture, & bi þis place drawe out þe quytture, & holde þe wounde open, & lete þe olde wounde close togidere. & if it be nede, caste yn þe forseid waischinge bi þis wounde & leie a mundificatif wiþoute til þe quytture be al aweie, & þis cure þou schalt folowe / It falliþ ofte tyme þat a man is hurt an hiȝ aboue in þis place, & þanne þe blood & þe quytture falliþ vpon diafragma & gaderiþ togidere, þanne þou schalt kerue him bitwixe þe .iiij. & þe .v. rib as it is aforseid, for þe blood & þe quytture mai haue no cours to þe wounde aboue; & if he is kutt so byneþe, þanne þe blood & þe quytture mai be drawe awey; [folio 92a] & if þou doist not þus þe pacient schal die, & if þou doist þus þe pacient schal be delyuerid wel // Whanne woundis ben in thorase ouþer in þe brest, & þe woundis ne goon not þoruȝ, þanne þou schalt cure him as it is aforseid in oþere woundis //

Of woundis of þornis*. [MS. þorais. Lat.: De vulneribus spinæ seu spondylium & eorum anatomia. The scribe changed þornis, the translation of 'spinæ,' into þorais, for thoracis, as in the heading to Cap. V. The words: & of þo þat ben conteyned in him are taken from the same Chapter-heading.] ouþer spondilium, & of þo þat ben conteyned in him & anothamie /*. [See Vicary's Anatomy, page 74.]

Bonys of þe necke, as we haue aforsed, ben .vij, & rigge boonys of þe brest ben .xij, & of þe reynes ben .v. riggeboones, & vndir þe reynes ben .iij. riggeboones, & vpon þe place þat is clepid*. [One word is here wanting. Lat.: super locum qui dicitur aboratur alahume. aboratur is perhaps a corruption for ab arabis, alahume is the Os sacrum.] —Þe boon of þe tail is maad of .iij. rigge boones, & þere ben .xxx. ¶ Eueri boon of þe rigge is an hole þoruȝ, & þoruȝ þe ilke hoolis nucha*. [nucha, Arab. nukha', spinal marrow.] goiþ endelong þe rigge; & euery boon of þe rigge haþ .iiij. addiciouns to him, & summe han mo; þis is not necessarie to telle to a sirurgian, saue it is necessarie to a sirurgian for to knowe þis:Page  167 þat euery rig-boon haþ a greet hole, & nucha goiþ þer þoruȝ. & þer ben oþere smale hoolis in þe boones bi þe sidis aboutforþ, & þere þoruȝ goon nerues for to holde þe lymes faste [folio 92b] togidere. & so þese .xxx. boones ben bounden togidere wiþ stronge ligaturis, & þei ben so strongeli bounden togidere þat þei semeþ al oon boon. Þese boones bineþe þe necke is clepid þe rigge ouþer spina, & þis is þe foundement of al þe bodi //

¶ Woundis þat ben maad in þis place. If nucha be kutt þoruȝ ouerþwert, þe wounde is mortal for þe nobilte of nucha þat comeþ fro þe brayn riȝt as a ryuer comeþ of wellis.*. [Rases, Liber ad Almansorem, Tract. I, Cap. 1, ed. Ven. 1506, fol. 2. "Cerebrum quasi fons sensuum est et motus voluntarii, Nucha vero sicut fluuius magnus ab eo manans."] ¶ And þouȝ nucha be not kutt al þoruȝ saue hurt, it is greet perel þerof, for þe lymes bineþe schulen lese her meuynge, for þe nerues þat ben aboute þe boones of nucha ben kutt. & also þe rigge-boones ben kutt & herof cometh greet perel / And if þe braun þat sittiþ endelongis þe rigge in boþe sidis of þe rigge-boon & duriþ*. [duriþ. Lat. distenditur. As to the local sense, compare O.Fr. durer.] from þe heed adoun anoon to þe tail eende, & if ony of alle þese be kutt ouþer prickid, it is greet perel for þe spasme, for þe causis þat ben aforseid /

Þe curis herof ben lijk to þe curis þat ben aforseid of oþere woundis, saue it is necessarie for a cirurgian to knowe pronosticatiuis of þis [folio 93a] place, & also if a man be hurt in þat place, he mote haue for þe causis aforseid //

Of woundis of þe stomac / & intestinum & wombe, & anothamia /

I haue seid heretofore in what maner mery*. [mery, oesophagus. Arab. marijun, windpipe.] goiþ doun þoruȝ þe necke wiþinneforþ, and goiþ þoruȝ diafragma, & is maad fast with diafragma, & diafragma goiþ aboute þe mouþ of þe stomak. & þe stomak is schape in þis maner,*. [In the margin is a diagram of the shape of the stomach.] & in oon side he is gibbous, & in þe toþer side he is more playn. & þe stomac is maad of .ij. cloþis. & þat oon clooþ sitt wiþoute & þat oþer wiþinne, & þe clooþ þat sittiþ wiþinne is villosus & neruous, & þe clooþ þat is wiþoutforþ is fleischi / ¶ In þe ynner clooþ ben longe villis wherof comeþ drawynge, & þere ben villis ouerþwert, wherofPage  168 comeþ wiþholdyng / In þe clooþ þat is wiþoutforþ, þere ben longe villis, & þat makiþ expulcioun. Þe ynner clooþ is neruous, þat it mowe fele whanne it is ful; wiþoutforþ it is fleischi for to make him hoot & moist, þat he miȝte helpe for to make digestioun. Þat skyn þat is wiþinne þe stomak is norischid with moisture of mete [folio 93b] þat is resseyued into þe stomac / The skyn þat is wiþoute þe stomac is norischid of blood, þat comeþ fro þe lyuere in smale veynes & goiþ al aboute þe stomac. ¶ Also þere comeþ arterijs from þe herte to þe stomak & makiþ him to haue lijf, & of þese .ij. þingis, þat is to seie vena & arteria, gibbus*. [gibbus, mistake for ȝirbus. See Vicary, page 64, note 2; and page 86, note.] is maad þat gouerneþ þe stomac & þe guttis wiþ his fatnes, & makiþ hem hoot. ¶ In þe botme of þe stomak þere is a mouþ, and þat mouþ is more streit þan þat aboue. & þe firste gutt is maad fast to þe lower mouþ, & þis gutt is clepid duodenum.*. [duodenum. See Ibid. page 65, note 1.] Þis is þe skille whi he is clepid so, for he is of þe lengþe of xij. ynchis; & þanne þere ben .vj. guttis bineþe him; & þanne þis firste gutt is maad of .ij. cootis, as alle þe oþere guttis ben, but þe .ij. gutt is smal & folde togidere. Þe .iij. gutt is clepid ieiunum,*. [jejunum. See Vicary, page 65, note 2.] id est, fastynge, for he is euermore voide,*. [Avicenna, Lib. III., Fen. XVI., Tract. I., Cap. 1, ed. Ven. 1527, f. 248. "et nominatur hoc intestinum ieiunum, quum ipsum inuenitur secundum plurimum inanitum et vacuum."] & þat is for he is nyȝ þe galle & resseyueþ myche colre*. [colre. Lat. cholera. Choler, "Bilis."—Huloet.] for to avoide him, & þere goiþ to him manye veynes, wherbi he is voidid / Aftir him þere comeþ a gutt þat is clepid orobum*. [orobum. Lat. orbum. The Ileum is here meant.] [folio 94a] ouþer a sak, & it haþ but oon mouþ, & he resseyueþ alle þe fecis; & þere is fulfillid þe firste digestioun of þe guttis / Aftir þis gutt þer is a gutt þat is clepid colon, & lijþ ouerþwert þe wombe & resseyueþ feces / And aftir þis gutt comeþ langaon,*. [langaon. See Vicary, page 66, note 5. Lat. longanon, longao = the straight gut.] & is þe eende of alle; & he haþ .iiij. brawnys, & þerof he haþ vertu for to wiþholde þe fecis yn, & for to putte hem out whanne a man wole / Euery meuynge of þe guttis is kindely & eueri gutt of þese þat ben aforseid haþ diuers kynde // ¶ Þer ben manye maner causis whi þat guttis ben folde with nerues: þe firste enchesoun is þis, þat a man schulde not as soone as he hadde ete, anoon riȝt go to sege asPage  169 doiþ a beest. Þe .ij. cause is þat þe mete miȝte abide in þe stomak for to make digestion, & þat þat is not fulfillid in þe stomak is fulfillid in þe guttis. Þe .iij. cause is þis, þat it first abide in oon gutt / & þanne it is sent to anoþer & so forþ. & þanne for to holde alle þese þingis / þe stomak & þe guttis is ordeyned a skyn, þat is clepid þe siphac*. [siphac. See Vicary, page 62, note 4.]; & is a syngle skyn & is not [folio 94b] villous, & is engendrid bineþe as is diafragma is aboue, as it is aforeseid, & is maad fast at þe rigge bihinde, for to holde vp þe stomak & þe guttis / In þis partie bineþe þis þer ben engendrid of siphac ij. þingis þat ben clepid dindimi*. [dindimi, used elsewhere to signify the Testicles.] & goiþ adoun al aboute þe ballokis, & is clepid þat ynner skyn of þe ballokis; & þoruȝ þis dindimi goiþ arterijs & veynes to þe ballokis, & makiþ hem haue lijf & norischinge & kynde of sperme // ¶ Alle þese þingis þanne ben comprehendid in a skyn þat is fleischi & of lacertis maad, & is clepid mirac, & is clepid þe vttere wombe in whiche ben lacertis, for to helpe putte out þe fecis & wijnd & vrine /

Þerfore woundis þat ben maad in þe stomac ben perilous, & in þe guttis, for manie causis / Þe firste cause is þis, for her worchinge is necessarie to þe bodi, for þei ben þe firste instrument of digestioun, & her worchinge is so necessarie to þe bodi, þat it mai in no maner be susteyned, ne abide wiþoute hem / Þerfore if þere be ony woundis in þis place her worchinge [folio 95a] is lost, but if þe wounde be soudid anoon; & þat is ful hard & sumtyme inpossible for þei ben neruous, & þere is no fleisch on hem, & also for þei ben alwey meuynge, & principali whanne woundis ben maad in þe hindere partie of þe stomac ouþir in þe smale guttis / For if þe woundis falle in þe neþir partie of þe stomac þat is fleischi, ouþer in þe greete guttis bineþe, if þe leche be kunnynge, þe pacient mai lyue /

¶ If it bifalle þat a man be hurt in ony of þese placis þat ben aforseid in þe stomak ouþer in þe guttis, þe leche muste knowe wheþer þe substaunce of þe guttis or of þe stomak be prickid þoruȝ or no; þat þou miȝt knowe bi þe goyng out of þe fecis at þe wounde, & þanne þe wounde is iugid mortal. ¶ If a man be woundid in his stomak & þe wounde of þe wombe wiþoutforþ ne be not brood, þanne kutte it more & þanne sewe the wounde of þe stomak wiþ a nedele þat is iiij. squar & wiþ a sutil þreed, & þis þou schalt speciali, whanne þe wounde is in [folio 95b] a fleischi place of þe stomak, Page  170 for if þe wounde be aboue in a place of þe stomak þat is neruous, ne traueile þou not þere aboute þanne, for it is an idil / Whanne þou hast sewid þe wounde bineþe as it is aforseid, þanne springe þeron poudre consolidatif & soude þe wounde of þe stomak, & holde open þe wounde of þe skyn wiþoute, til þe wounde of þe stomak be hool // ¶ If it bifalle þat a man be hurt in þe greete guttis bineþe, so þat þe wounde be not to greet, þanne þou schalt sewe þe gutt, & þe eendis of þe þredis schulen hange out, & þe vtter wounde schal be holde open, til þe wounde of þe gutt be soudid ¶ If it so be þat þe wounde of his wombe wiþoutforþ be so brood þat þe guttis falle out, putte hem yn anoon while þei ben hote / If it be so þat þe guttis be colde, or þat þou come þerto, & þe wounde of þe wombe be to swolle, & þe guttis be chaungid wiþ þe eir, wherfore þe guttis wolen not in aȝen, þanne þou must sutilli make þe wounde of þe wombe a litil more, þat þe guttis [folio 96a] mowe liȝtly falle yn aȝen wiþoute greuaunce. Whanne þe guttis ben ynne, sewe mirac & siphac in þis maner togidere, so þat þei moun boþe be soudid togidere; for if mirac were soudid & not siphac, þanne aftir þe tyme þat þe wounde were soudid, þere wolde leue a crepature.*. [crepature, hernia.] Þerfore þou must sewe in þis maner / Take þat oon side of mirac & siphac togidere so þat þei be euene, & loke þat þi nedel be .iij. squar, & þanne make oon poynt þoruȝ hem ij. togidere, in þe same maner in þe toþer, & þus þou schalt make þeron as manie pointis as þou þenkist necessarie / And whanne þou hast sewid mirac & siphac togidere in a good maner, þanne knytte þe þredis togidere þat þei vnknytte not, as þou seest þat is to doing; & lete þe eendis of þe þredis hange out, & þanne springe vpon þe sewynge þe poudre consolidatif þat is aforseid, and holde open þe wounde wiþoutforþ til mirac & siphac be perfitli soudid, for in þis maner mirac & siphac moun be soudid bi þis cause: Siphac is neruous & haþ [folio 96b] no fleisch, & mirac is fleisch, & bi þe vertu of him siphac is soudid; & þanne do þe cure herof aftir as it is tofore // ¶ Summen seien þat þe smale guttis moun be sowdid in þis maner: make a pipe of eldre, & putt wiþinne þe gutt, & þanne soude þe gutt þer vpon. & I seie þat it is not sooþ, for þis þing, þe smale guttis wolen not soude, & to þe greete guttis þis queyntise is nouȝt; þerfore triste to þe maner þat is aforseid, & take kepe of þe perels þat ben forseid.

Page  171
Of woundis of þe lyuere & splen & reynes & þe bladdre, and anothamia*. [See Vicary's Anatomy, page 68.] /

The firste schapinge of þe lyuere is maad of þe .ij. spermes as ben þe oþere principal lymes, saue þe greetnes of þe lyuere is principali maad of blood & is in þe hardnes of fleisch. & þe substaunce þerof is fleischi, & it is in þe maner as it were blood runne, & chilus comuneþ fro þe stomac to þe lyuere for to ȝeue him norischynge, & þe lyuere is gibbous wiþoute, & wiþinne holow þat it miȝte be þe more closynge to þe stomac. & þe heete of þe [folio 97a] lyuere makiþ þe stomac to seþe as fier makiþ a furneis to seþe.*. ["for his heate is to the stomacke as the heate of the fyre is to the Potte or Cauldron that hangeth ouer it."—Vicary, p. 69.] ¶ The lyuere haþ addicioun, & ben diuers; for in summe ben .iiij. & in summe ben .v. & in summe ben .iij. Of sperme þe mater of þe lyuere wiþinne is gaderid. & þerof comeþ a greet veyne & is engendrid in sima

* sima, concavitas hepatis. Matth. Sylv., see Dufr. [gap: 1] , hollow, concave: [gap: 1] , the bottom of the liver. Poll. 2. 213, Galen. It is used opposite to [gap: 1] , convex, curved, in Galen ad Glauc. 2.—See Stephanus Thesaurus.

Sloane 2463, fol. 40: "Syma of þe lyuer is as it were þe palme oþer þe holwenesse of þe hond. The vtilite, whi þat it is of suche forme oþer schappe is because þat it schulde ben aplied oþer leyen to þe stomak as þe hond lieth to an appull, whan þe appull is in þe hond."

epatis, & is clepid þe ȝate of þe lyuere. & of þis veyne summen seien þat þere ben engendrid .viij. veynes, & summen seien þat þere ben mo; & þus veynes ben ȝatis riȝt as rootis of a tree.*. [Lat.: venæ quæ sunt ipsi portæ sicut radices arbori.] & þese veynes ben clepid miseraice / & summe of þese veynes ben maad fast wiþ þe botme of þe stomac, & wiþ a gutt þat is clepid duodeno, & summe wiþ þe smale guttis, & summe wiþ þe gutt þat is clepid ieiunum, & summe wiþ orobo ouþir wiþ þe sak //

¶ Þe lyuere is maad fast to þe riȝtside of þe stomac, & in þe liftside of þe stomac sitt þe splene, & is schape along, & is maad fast with o partie of þe stomac. & oon partie þerof is maad fast twoward þe rigge in þe liftside, & haþ .ij. poris, & þoruȝ þat oon pore he drawiþ malancolious blood of [folio 97b] þe lyuere, & clensiþ þe lyuere of malancolious superfluite, & þerof þe splene is norischid. & þere is anoþer pore þat goiþ to þe mouþ of þe stomac, & makiþ þe mouþ of þe stomac to haue appetite*. [De propr. rer. Trevisa, Lib. V., Cap. 41, Add. 27,944, fol. 57b: "& Constantyn seiþ þat þe melte is i-set in þe lift side, & þe schap þerof is euelong, and is somwhat holouȝ toward þe stomak & bunchinge toward þe ribbis. In þese tweye places he is i-bounde with certeyn smale cloþinge, & me seiþ þat þe melte haþ tweye veynes, by þe on þerof he drawiþ blak colera of þe blod to þe lyuour, & by þe oþir he sendiþ what sufficeþ to þe stomak to comforte þe appetite þerof."] //

Page  172Þe reynes ben set, þat oon in þe riȝtside & sittiþ hiȝere, & þat oon in þe liftside & sit lowere, & ben maad of hard fleisch, & ben sett in two sidis of þe rigge boon. Boþe þe reynes hauen .ij. veynes ouþir .ij. neckis, & þat oon is aboue, & þat oþere is bineþe. Þoruȝ þe necke aboue of þe reynes is drawe watri blood & comeþ from vena ramosa*. [vena ramosa, Vena Cava.]; & þis watri blood is vryne, & from þe reynes it goiþ to þe necke of þe bladdre þoruȝ a veyne þat is clepid kylym,*. [Lat.: per venam chylim quæ a quibusdam pori uritides dicitur = Meatus Urinarii = Ureter. Kylym, from [gap: 1] , juice. See also Vicary, p. 72, note 3.] & in þis maner þe vryne comeþ into þe bladdre /

Þe bladdre is maad of .ij. þinne skynnes, & boþe skynnes ben neruous, & þe necke of þe bladdre is fleischi. In men þe necke is long, for it passiþ þoruȝout þe ȝerde, & in wymmen þe necke of þe bladdre is schort, & is maad fast to the cunte.*. ['Hec vulva, cunte." Wright, Voc., p. 677. 32, xvth cent. O.Fr. cunne, Lat. cunnus, cunte is a diminutive form like cunetta of cuna.] / Þe necke of þe bladdre hath oon braun, & is in þe mouþ of þe bladdre [folio 98a] & þat makiþ a man holde his vryne whanne he wole, & putte cut his vryne whanne he wole, wiþ help of þe wombe þat pressiþ, & of lacertis // ¶ Of þe galle we makiþ noon anothamie, for al oure science makiþ noon mencioun of a wounde in þe galle /

¶ Woundis þat ben maad in þe lymes aforeseid ben euermore perilous / For alle þese lymes, ouþir þei ben principal lymes as is þe lyuere, ouþir þei serueþ principal lymes, wiþoute whiche lymes þe bodi ne mai not be susteyned / If þe lyuere be hurt in þe depe substaunce, þanne þe lyuere schal lese al hir worchinge, & al þe blood þerof wole be disturblid þat is matere of þe spirit, & in þis maner þe spirit of lijf is disturblid & þe foundement of alle hise vertues; saue if þe wounde of þe lyuere be but litil it may be soudid, so þat þe wounde be freisch & not oold hurt, forwhi a principal lyme mai not suffre longe sijknes // ¶ Þouȝ a man were hurt in þe splene, ȝitt he miȝte be wel curid, & þouȝ þere were a gobet þerof kutt awey, so þat it ne were not to myche and ouerþwert, [folio 98b] for þerof ofte tyme falliþ þe dropesie; ouþir if þe poris were kutt, it wolde afeble þe stomac. ¶ Woundis þat ben in þe reynes ben not curid,Page  173 for þei ben norischid wiþ watri blood, for þat is contrarious to soudinge / & for þe reynes ben alwey in meuynge, & also vryne þat alwei is bitynge goiþ þoruȝ þe reynes. ¶ Þe bladdre ne mai not be soudid if it be kutt, for it is a lyme þat is neruous & haþ no fleisch, & is alwei meuynge, & for he is alwei resceuynge vryne & also þe vryne fretiþ & þat lettiþ þe souding / For ypocras seiþ / If þe bladdre be kutt, or þe brayn, or þe herte, þe wounde is mortal. ¶ If a leche be sent aftir, for to come to a man þat is woundid in ony of þese forseid / if þe leche be a man of good loos & a kunnyng man, he schal, whanne he comeþ to þe pacient, & seeþ þe perel þerof, he schal telle þe perel of þe wounde to þe pacientis frendis, & he schal seie to þe man þat is hurt þat he schal ascape & fare weel; and first he schal make him haue hise riȝtis*. [Lat.: primo tamen ipsum faciat confiteri.] [folio 99a] of holy chirche, & lete him make his testament, or þat his vertu faile / þanne he schal bigynne wiþ his good worchinge, riȝt as he took no drede þerof / for ofte tyme kinde worchiþ, þat þat semeþ vnpossible to þe leche, & principali if he worche wel. Neþeles þouȝ þe leche se goode signys bi þe pacient, he schal alwei haue his owne pronosticacioun as it is aforseid, til þe man be al hool, if he schal ascape / for ofte tyme whanne þe pacient drawiþ toward þe deeþ, his passioun wole aswage; & also þe contrarie þerof is seen, þouȝ þe pacient haue greet peyne & þe signes of deeþ, ȝitt he mai ascape / & þerfore for þese perels þat ben aforseid, he mot be war of vndirtakynge & of biheest // ¶ If a leche be in straunge cuntre, he ne schal bi no maner wei take sich a cure. & also he schal forsake alle maner of curis þat ben harde to do, & also he schal forsake curis þat ben longe for to make ony perfeccioun þerof, & he mote be war þat faire biheste, ne veyn glorie, ne coueitise ne bigile him not /

[folio 99b] Of woundis of þe ȝerde & of ballokis, & of þe regioun of þe bladdre and anothamia.*. [Comp. Vicary's Anatomy, p. 81.]

God almyȝti þat alle þingis knewe tofore þe makyng of þe world ouþir of man, he knewe þat a man schulde be maad of moist substaunce, as of sperme, in which natural hete schal worche.*. [Compare Auicenna, Lib. III., Fen. XX., 1. 1., ed. Venet. 1527, fol. 279: "Sublimis deus creauit duos testiculos," etc.] & for to resseyue þe mater of sperme, it is necessarie þatPage  174 a man hauo ballokis / He made ballokis as it was necessarie, & ȝaf hem schap & complexioun for to engendre / & he ȝaf a man greet delite for to lie bi a womman, so þat a man schulde not haue abhominacioun þerof, saue a man schal do it with greet will & wiþ greet loue, so þat generacioun miȝte be multiplied wiþ greet delite*. [De propr. rer., Lib. V., Cap. 48, Add. 27,944, fol. 60b: "For as Constante seiþ, to covenable getynges & gendringe of bestis god haþ ordeyned & i-made couenable membres, in þe whiche he haþ i-sette þe cause & mater of generacioun, þe whiche may not come forþ in dede wiþoute affeccioun of loue. ¶ In þe membres genytal god haþ send such an appetite inseperable, þat eueriche beest schulde be comfortid to multeplie beestis of his owne kynde, and þat is i-doo by schewinge of god, lest ȝif þe doynge of generacioun were abhominable, generacioun of best were i-lost." This passage is taken from Constantinus Afric. De morb. cog. et. cur., Lib. VI., Cap. 1, ed. Basil, 1536, p. 122.] / ¶ Also god almiȝti schop in a man a ȝerde. & in þe bigynnynge þerof ben cartilaginis & ben maad fast to þe laste boon of þe rigboon, & is maad of nerues, veynes & arterys, & is sumwhat holow, þat he miȝte be fulfillid wiþ spirit. & in þe heed þerof is fleisch þat is felynge, & a skyn þat goiþ ouer & is clepid prepucium. & þe meuynge of þat skyn [folio 100a] & of þe fleisch tofore helpiþ for to putte out þe sperme / Þe risynge of a mannes ȝerde comeþ of a mannes herte, & witt of þe brayn, wilnynge, & greet desier; & watri humour comeþ of þe lyuer. & haþ .ij. open holis; & þoruȝ þat oon hole goiþ out vryne & comeþ fro þe bladdre, & þoruȝ þat oþir hole comeþ sperme and comeþ fro þe ballokis. & þese .ij. holis ben good for to knowe / And auicen seiþ: þat þere is þe .iij. hole, & þoruȝ þat hole passiþ a maner of superfluite þat a man feliþ not, as whanne he halsiþ a womman wiþ hise hondis; saue þis þridde hole is not knowen of a cirurgian*. [Avicenna l. c., "Et in virga sunt meatus tres, meatus vrinæ et meatus spermatis et meatus alguadi." Matth. Sylv.: "Alguedi est humor ille qui egreditur, cum aliquis tangit mulierem."] //

Þe .ij. ballokis ben maad of hard fleisch in þe maner as ben wommans brestis, & þat oon ballok of a man is grettere þan þe toþer & stronger, & to þe ballokis comeþ veynes & arterijs, & makiþ hem haue lijf & norischinge. & superfluite of good blood & clene comeþ þerto of alle þe lymes, & gaderiþ togidere in a mannes ballokis, & þere it bicomeþ whiȝt & turneþ into sperme, riȝt as blood bicomeþ [folio 100b] mylk in a wommans brestis / And þer ben maad fast wiþ þe ballokis .ij. vessels, & ben brode vpon þe ballokis, & narowe toward þe ȝerde, & ben clepid þe vessels of sperme, & ben clepid of auicennePage  175 barbachi,*. [barbachi, Arab. bárbah, 'conduit of water, canal of the urine.'] & of þese vessels comeþ sperme into þe ȝerde, & þoruȝ þe ȝerde is born into þe matris of wymmen / In þese .ij. vessels sperme is fulfillid, saue þe hete þerof comeþ of þe ballokis; & to þe ballokis as it is aforseid cometh veynes & arterijs, & goiþ þoruȝ dindimous, þat ben maad fast to þe siphac as it is aforseid //

¶ Þe maris in a womman is maad neruous & is schape as it were a ȝerde þat were turned aȝenheer.*. [Galen (ed. Kuehn, vol. IV., p. 635) has originated this curious comparison, which has been copied by the Arab. authors. Avic., Lib. III., Fen. XXI., Tract. I., Cap. 1, Ven. 1527, fol. 285b: "Matrix est quasi conversum instrumentum virorum."] & þe necke of þe maris is fleischi, & brawny, & felynge, & gendring, & in þe necke of þe maris ben veynes þat ben to-broke whanne a womman lesiþ hir maydenhode. & þe botme of þe maris is schape as it were þe case of a mannes ballokis / And þe maris haþ .ij. brode ballokis in þe necke, & wiþ þe ilke .ij. ballokis ben maad fast .ij. vessels of sperme, & ben more schort þan a mannes vessels of sperme / And of þese [folio 101a] vessels, a wommans sperme goiþ to þe botme of þe maris / And in þe tyme of conseyuynge þe wommans sperme [is] medlid wiþ a mannes / And þe maris of a womman haþ wiþinne .ij. grete concauitees / And þe maris haþ manie veynes, & þoruȝ þe ilke veynes, whanne a womman haþ conseyued, comeþ blood to*. [to, mistake for from. Lat.: per quas sanguis ei venit ab hepate.] þe lyuer for to norische þe child. And whanne a womman is not wiþ childe, þoruȝ þe same veynes cometh blood of þe veynes menstrue & is putt out, & in þis maner a womman is purgid of superfluite of blood; & it is maad fast bitwixe þe grete gutt & þe bladdre, & is hiȝere þan þe bladdre, & is maad fast to þe rigge wiþ ligaturis, & in tyme of child berynge þe ligaturis recchiþ, & aftir þat tyme*. [Some words are wanting. Lat.: partusque completo tempore constringatur.] *—— /

If þere be woundis in ony of alle þese placis, þei ben stronge perilous for her sutil complexioun, & for her nobilte of worchinge.

¶ If it so be þat a man be hurt in his ȝerde or ouerþwert in a litil quantite, þou schalt sewe þe wounde, & sprynge þeron poudre, & leie þerto defensiuis, & lete him blood, & diete him with þinne [folio 101b] mete, & cure him wiþ good diligence // ¶ If it so be þat a mannes ȝerde be kutt al off ouerþwert, þanne it is greet drede þerof / for þe veynes þat comeþ þerto & þe arterijs & manie nerues, for sumtyme þe pacient mai be deed, or þe blood mowe be staunchid / SauePage  176 in þis cas þou schalt take hede for to do awei þe akynge wiþ oile of rosis, anoynte him aboute þe ers & þe regioun of þe ȝerde, & brenne þe ȝerde wiþ an hoot irn for to constreyne þe flux of blood; for a cauterie streyneþ blood tofore alle þingis. ¶ Woundis þat ben in þe ballokis, þei roten hem anoon, & þouȝ a man be not in perel of deeþ þoruȝ þe hurtyng of hem, ȝitt his generacioun is lore / A wounde in þis place schal be curid in þe same maner as woundis in oþere place of þe bodi, & þe cure schal not be chaungid þerof // ¶ If it so be þat a womman be hurt in her marijs wiþ a swerd, ouþir wiþ a knyf, ouþer wiþ a dart, þe wounde is mortal // ¶ If it bifalle þat colon*. [Lat. Se si collo vulnus fleri accideret. Phillips. "Collum Uteri, the Neck of the Womb."] be hurt wiþ sum scharp þing ouþir wiþ hardnes of humouris, he may wel be curid þe while þe wounde is freisch, with putting [folio 102a] of vnguentum album rasis of ceruse distemprid wiþ ius of arnoglossa.*. [arnoglossum. Wr. Wü., p. 559. 27 (XIII. cent.) "Arnoglosa, i. plauntein," O.E. wegbrade, waybread.] & if it so be þat þe wounde of þis place be olde, þanne it is for to make a mundificatif þerto, wiþ castynge yn of gotis whay ouþir watir of barly //

Of woundis in þe haunche and of þe coxe of þe knee, and of boonis of þe feet and of anothomia.

Bonys of haunchis ben maad fast wiþ þe lattere boon of þe rigboon / & riȝt as þe rigboon susteyneþ alle þe boones aboue, so alle þe boones bineþe ben maad fast to him / Þese boones ben cartilaginous & sutil toward þe fore partie, & bineþe þei ben more greet; & eueri of hem haþ a box þat is clepid pixis haunche & vertebrum sit þeron.*. [Sloane 2463, fol. 42b: "þei ben cleped ylia other ossa yliorum, and in þe vtter partie of þe mydward of hem ben concauytes other holewnesse, þe whiche ben clepid boystes, in þe whiche þe endes of þe bones of the þiȝcs ben receyved inne."] & þat is þe eende of þe hipe boon. & wiþ this boon is maad fast þat boon þat goiþ ouerþwert vndir þe ars aboue þe ȝerde, & is clepid os pectinis. & as summen seien þere ben iiij. partis, saue in cirurgie it is seid al oon. & þe place of þe coniuncioun of þese boones is clepid þe scie.*. [scie, Med. Lat. scia, from [gap: 1] , it means the hip-joint. Wr. Wü, 610. 11 (XV. cent.), "Scia ance the whyrlebon."] & sumtyme þese boones goon out of þe ioynt, as þou schalt haue a perfit teching [folio 102b] herof in þe .iiij. tretis in þe chapiter of dislocacioun / Þis hipe boon, as it isPage  177 aforseid, is maad fast aboue wiþ ligaturis & pannyclis & nerues, & it is a greet boon & miche holow wiþinne, & is ful of marow; & it is greet, for it schulde be strong; & it is holow, for it schulde be liȝt. & þis boon is maad fast in þe knee, & þere þe boon of þe hipe & þe boon of þe leg ben ioyned togidere in a box as it is aforseid. & þese boones ben bounden togidere wiþ ligaturis & senewis, & vpon þe ioynt of þese boones & for to kepe þis ioynture from harm, is ioyned þeron a round boon & is clepid rotula, & of summen it is clepid þe yȝe of þe knee, & alle þese boones ben bounden togidere wiþ strong ligaturis// ¶ Vndir þe round boon of þe knee ben ordeyned .ij. boones in þe leg, & þat oon þerof is grettere & sittiþ tofore in þe leg, & þe toþer is smaller & sittiþ bihynde in þe leg. & in þe neþer partie þei ben maad fast wiþ þe boon of calcanei þat susteyneþ alle þe boones, & with alkarad,*. [alkarad, Lat. alchaab, from Arab. al kab, a die.] & þat is a boon þat fulfilliþ þe ioynture & is [folio 103a] ioyned wiþ þe boon þat is clepid nauicula / ¶ Racheta*. [Racheta, Lat. Rasceta, from Arab. rusgh, which means the carpus or the tarsus. The Rasceta pedis is not exactly our tarsus, as it comprises only the three Cuneiform bones and the Cuboid bone.] of þe foot is maad of iiij. boonis, & ben bounden togidere wiþ ligaturis. & wiþ þese boonys ben maad fast þe bonys of þe toos þat ben .xiiij., for eueri boon haþ .iij. boones, saue þe boon of þe grete too, & þat haþ but .ij. boones / to alle þese boones comeþ nerues fro þe riggeboones—& wiþ þese nerues, & with þese ligaturis, & wiþ symple fleisch þese boones ben maad fast togidere —& ȝeueþ to þese lymes meuynge & felynge. & þer ben greete brawnes in a mannes leggis & in hise hipis, & ben ful of grete veynes & arterijs & senewis, & ben departid into alle þe leggis & to þe feet / & summe of þese veynes comeþ fro a veyne of þe lyuer, þat is clepid vena ramosa as it is aforseid in armys. & þerfore þese placis ben swiþe perilous, whanne þei ben woundid, for þe perels þat ben aforseid. & þese veynes ben departid in þe foot, & .ij. þerof ben in þe holow of þe foot wiþoutforþ, & þat oon veyne þerof is clepid sciatica, & þat oþere is clepid renalis, [folio 103b] & þis is þus miche to seie: þat oon veyne serueþ for þe scie, & þat oþer for þe reynes / Þanne þer ben ij. oþer veynes in þe holow of þe foot withinne, & þat oon is clepid sophena, & þat oþer is clepid vena ventris, id est a veyne of þe wombe. ¶ Þe veyne þat is clepid renalis scheweth itsilf bitwixe þe lift too & þat oþer too next, & þe blood-letyng of þis veyne is good for þus manye þingis: for cancrena þat ben inPage  178 þe hipis & for a mormal*. [for a mormal, ad malum mortuum, a severe form of leprosy. See Prompt. Parv., p. 343.], & for varices & for vlcera þat ben in þe hipis ouþer in þe leggis.

Bi alle þese skillis þou myȝt wel se, þat woundis þat be maad in þese placis ouerþwert ben swiþe perilous for þe kutting of nerues & of cordis & braun, & of veynes & of arterijs, for alle þese þingis goiþ endelong þe leggis & þe hipis, & þerfore woundis þat ben maad ouerþwert in þis place ben swiþe perilous as it is aforseid // ¶ Woundis þat ben maad in þes placis þat ben curable, schulen be curid in þe same maner as it is aforseid in curis of armys & of hondis / Saue of o þing þou schalt take kepe, þat woundis þat ben maad iij. fyngris brede wiþinne þe knee, for þe [folio 104a] nobilte of þe place & for þe causis þat ben forseid, þe wounde is iugid mortal / Þerfor woundis þat ben in þese placis þat ben forseid & ben curable þou must do good diligence þerto, & be wel war of woundis þat ben mortal as it is aforseid //

¶ The techinge of þe .ij. tretis is fulfillid þoruȝ þe help of god, & now schal bigynne þe techinge of þe .iij. tretis & schal conteyne .xvij. chapitris /*. [Inserted by the translator; the number of the chapters is incorrect. Lat. Add. 26,106, f. 44b: "Incipit tractatus tertius, et erit de curis morborum, qui non sunt vulnera, qui possunt accidere diuersis membris a capite usque ad pedes, que veniunt ad curam cyrurgici, qui continet tres doctrinas et est capitulum primum doctrine prime, tractatus tertii de ornatu capillorum."]

Here bigynneþ þe þridde book.

Of þe engendryng of heeris //*. [A list of passages on the same subject from works of Lat. and Arab. authors is given by Adams, Paulus Aegineta, vol. I., p. 339 (for "Rhases ad Mansor, VI. 1.", ibid., read "Rhases ad Mansor, V. 1.").]

HEeris ben engendrid of greet fume & of viscous mater, & þe more hoot þat a man is, þe more heer he schal haue*. [De propr. rer. Add. 27.944, fol. 66 b.: "And here is i-bred and comeþ out of fumosite hoot & drie." Compare Vicary, p. 24.] / & þer falliþ manie amendementis of heeris.*. [Lat.: quibus multa accidunt corrigenda.] ¶ First we wolen speke for to make heer fair, & aftirward of oþere sijknessis þat falliþ in placis of heeris.

Page  179¶ If þou wolt make longe heeris, ouþer if þou wolt make heeris wexe long, dissolue a litil mustard in water of decoccioun of bletarum*. [bleta, Alphita, p. 22, "Beta major, uel bleta uel bletis, atriplex agrestis uel domestica."] & waische þerwith ofte, & þanne anoynte with comoun oile.

¶ If þou wolt make heeris ȝelow, þou schalt do in þis maner. ℞. mirre [ounce] iiij., lupinorum amarorum [dram] vj., [folio 104b] flos salicis, fecis vini combusti ana [dram] .iiij., grinde hem wel togidere & distempere hem wiþ lie maad of askis of vinis, & herwith anoynte þe heeris aftir þe tyme þat þei ben wel waissche wiþ þe forseid lye //

¶ If þou wolt make hem blac*. [blac, O.E. blâc, albus.] ℞ stercus irundinum, & enulam siccam, & orobum,*. [Lat.: orobum, qui appellatur in gallico uicia.] semen raphani & sulphurus, & florem capillaris*. [Lat. florum cappa.; capillaris is a mistake for capparis, the caper plant. See N. E. Dict. s. v. Caper 1.] succus, grinde alle þese wiþ a galle of a bole ouþer of an oxe & tempere hem wiþ vinegre, & herwith anoynte hise heeris, & first þou schalt fumie*. [fumie, Lat. suffumigare. Compare Macer. Engl. Translat., xvth cent., Sl. 2527, f. 251: "make therof a suffumygacyon."] hem wiþ sulphur, & þus þou schalt do ofte. & þou schalt anoynte him with oile of sambuci, þat is maad of whit flouris of ellern, & leid in oile riȝt as me makiþ oile of rosis.

¶ If þou wolt kepe þe eendis of þe heeris fro fretynge, kutte hem alle euene & ȝeue þe pacient good mete, & anoynte ofte his heed with oile & watir medlid togidere, & anoynte herwith ofte / & anoynte it with muscillage seminis lini & psillij*. [psillie, Wr. Wü., p. 559. 6 (XIII. cent.), "psilliun, i. lusesed." Cooper, "psyllion, the herb called fleawort."] //

¶ If þou wolt make heeris crisp ℞ farinam fenigreci, & mirre, & semen raphani gallarum, gummi arabici, calcis abluti, & wynde alle þese þingis & frote þe heeris, and þei [folio 105a] wolen bicome crisp.

¶ If þou wolt kepe heeris þat þei schulen not falle awei. ℞ ladani*. [Ladanum, Laudanum, Labdanum. "A gumme that runneth from the hearbe Lada, and is much used in Pomanders."—Cooper.] .[ounce] j, & resolue it in [ounce] iiij of oile of mirtilles & herwiþ anoynte þe rootis of þe heeris / ¶ If þou wolt saue heeris fro hoornes so þat þei bicome not whit, þanne it is necessarie for to kepe him fro al maner þingis þat engendriþ fleume, & fro greet studijnge,*. [fro greet studijnge, Lat. a fastidio. The correct explanation is given in De propr. rer. lib. VII. Cap. 44. Add. 27.944. fol. 91b: "And fastidium is vnskilful abhominacioun & wlatsomnes of mete & drinke and most greueþ þe vertu of fedinge and of norischinge, for as Isidir seiþ, fastidium is i-seide as it were makinge noye & disese, for a man þat haþ abhominacioun haþ noye and disese in þing þat anothir haþ solas in & lykinge."] & fro fisch þat is rotid, & fro roten wijn, & he mote oftePage  180 purge fleume with turbit, and vse strong wijn & a litil, & vse sutil sauce, & vse of þese þingis: ℞. mirabolanorum,*. [Mirobolans, a kind of Plums.—Phillips.] kebulorum indorum, emblicorum, & bellicorum*. [Chebuli, Emblici, and Bellirici are different kinds of Mirabolans. See Tommaseo Diz.] ana.,*. [Lat. ana partes equales.] & grinde hem alle with oile of almondis longe, & þanne tempere hem vp with wijn & hony, & eueri morowe he schal take þerof þe quantite of a note / And þow schalt die hise heeris if þei ben white, wiþ tincture þat ben forseid //

¶ If a man desiriþ for to haue blac heeris as doiþ greuis*. [Greeks.] & spaynardis, þanne make þis tincture. ℞ foliorum mirti, foliorum papaueris rubij, capilli, ciperi, spice, seminis bletarum, apii, ana [ounce] j., seþe hem in iiij lī of watir, til þei come to o pound, & þanne cole*. [cole, Lat. colo, strain through a sieve.] hem & do þerto lī. j. of oile of violet [folio 105b] & boile hem in a double vessel til al þe watir be waistid awey; þanne caste into þe oile [ounce][one half] of acacie, & make aischis of pyne applis, whanne þe kirnels ben taken out þerof, & medle hem alle togidere, & kepe þis oynement. & herwiþ anoynte heeris þat þou wolt make blake.

Of allopucia þat is namys of fisik þat signifieþ diuers passiouns /

Namys of phisice þat signifieþ diuers passiouns vndir oon name ofte tyme bigiliþ a leche, & bringiþ him into greet errour / For comounli al maner lesing of heer is clepid allopucia*. [De propr. rer. Add. 27,944, fol. 66 b.: "And if suche fumosite faileþ nouȝt, but is infect or i-lette by som oþir humore, þan failinge and lak of heer is nouȝt propirliche ballidenes, but a special yuel þat phisicians clepen allopiciam. ¶ By þat yuel þe nurtur of heer is corrupt & faileþ, & þe heer falleþ & þe ferþe partye of þe heed is bare, and þe furþer skyn of þe heed is þe foulere. ¶ Soche men faren as foxes, for þe heer of hem falliþ happiliche for inmoderat and passinge hete. ¶ Allopes in grew, vulpes in latyn, a fox in englische."]; saue for to seie þe soþe, allopucia is a maner spice*. [spice, Lat. species. Cathol. Angl., p. 355, "a Spyce; species." As to the pleonastic use of spice, compare: a maner kynde of sponges (leaf 109).] of lepre þat comeþ of rotid fleume / Saue in þis chapitre I wole speke of allopucia þat falliþ oonli in þe heed. Allopix in grew, is seid a fox in latin, for a fox in sum tyme of þe ȝeer his heer piliþ awei, & þerfore fallyng awei of heer is clepid allopucia / ¶ Tinea*. [De propr. rer., ibid., fol. 80: "Also þe heed is ofte disesid wiþ an famuler passioun, þat children hauen ofte, and by constantin þat yuel hatte squama, skalle, & we clepiþ þat yuel tynea, moþþe, for it fretiþ & gnaweþ þe ouer partie of þe skyn of þe heed as a moþþe fretiþ clooþ & cleueþ þerto wiþoute departinge & holdinge þe skyn wel faste."] is as miche to seie as aPage  181 reremous, for þe heeris of a reremous ben alwey aboute þe heed, & þerfore cirurgians makiþ difference bitwixe allopuciam & tineam, for þei [folio 106a] clepid tineam þere þat þere is corrupcioun in þe skyn wiþ harde crustis & quytture / Saue allopucia is whanne þe heeris falliþ awei wiþoute ony wise of þe skyn.*. [withoute ony wise of þe skyn, Lat. absque cutis vitio apparente; of viis of humouris, Lat. propter humorum malitiem.]

¶ Allopucia þat is wiþoute comeþ of þe skyn,*. [Mistranslated from the Lat. alopecia quæ sine cutis est vulnere.] & sumtyme it comeþ in þe eende of a siknes for defaute of norischinge of þe bodi þat schulde helpe to norische þe heeris, ouþir it comeþ, for þe poris openeþ to myche / In þis cas it is necessarie for to augmente norischinge of þe bodi wiþ good metis þat engendriþ good blood, & frote wel þe heeris of his heed wiþ þin hond & anoynte it wiþ oile of mirtillorum / If þis suffise not, frote wel þe heeris of his heed with þin hond til þe skyn of his heed bicome reed; & þan frote it wiþ ryndis of an oynoun til it bicome drie, & þanne þere wole arise þere vpon, as it were, bladdris, & þanne anoynte þe place wiþ grece of a maulard. & whanne þe heeris wexen aȝen, lete schaue hem ofte, for miche schauynge is good þerfore /

If it so be þat allopucia comeþ of vijs*. [See note 2.] of humouris, þat þou miȝt knowe bi þe teching [folio 106b] þat is aforseid in allopucia þat comeþ of long sijknes; for if it come of vijs of humouris, þanne vlcera wole be in þe skyn. Þan þou must loke of what humour it come, þat þou miȝt knowe bi disposicioun of al þe bodi & bi þe colour of þe place, as if þe pacient be fleischi & wel colourid, & if þe fleume of his mouþ be swete, & þe pustulis þat ben in his heed be reed, & if his vryne be þicke & reed, & if he be ȝong, & if he etiþ metis þat engendriþ miche blood, & if vlcera be in þe skyn, & if al þe skyn be reed & ful of quytture, alle þes ben signys of aboundaunce of blood. If it so be þat his bodi be leene, & þe colour of þe place be rufus ouþer ȝelow, & vlcer be drie, it is signe þat colre is þe cause / If his bodi be sumwhat whijt, & if he haþ smale veynis, & if he haue miche moisture in his mouþ, & if his vryne be whijt & þicke, & if he þirstiþ not, & if þe place be whijt & neische and miche moisture þeron wiþouten ony brennynge, it is a signe of fleume / If þe colour of his bodi be derk ouþer blac, & if he be leene, & if his vryne be pale & þinne, [folio 107a] & if he haþ greet appetit, & if his blood be blac, & if he vsiþ miche for to ete beef & caul, &Page  182 oþere þingis þat engendriþ malancolie, & if þe place of þe siknes be ledy & hard, þat is a signe of malancoli, saue þis passioun comeþ ful seelde of malancoli, but if it be of greet corrupcioun, & þanne it is worse þan ony oþer aforseid /

Whanne þou knowist of what humour it comeþ, first þou must auoide*. [avoide, Lat. evacuare. See N. E. Dict., avoid, 1.] þat humour, for þis is a general rule of .G., for as .G. seiþ / First, þou must do awei þe cause, & I woole teche þee to auoide þe matere with fewe medicyns þat ben approued & ben laxatiuis, profitable, & ben necessarie for a cirurgian for to knowe alle þe maner of purgaciouns, for ellis he schal neuere wel worche in sich maner causis / If it so be þat a man be ful of humouris, þou must first bigynne for to lete him blood, if he be strong & in age, þat is, & not to ȝong ne to oold. & þan lete him blood, ouþer garse him, & þan afterward purge him, saue it is bettere to purge him first, & þanne wiþinne a few daies lete him [folio 107b] blood / If it so be þat blood be oonli þe cause, þanne it suffisiþ ynow for to lete him blood / ¶ If it so be þat þou dissoluest þe water wiþ a laxatif, & if þou letist not him blood tofore ne aftirward, þanne þou art not sure; for ofte tyme þe medicyne laxatif wole engendre a feuer, & principali if it be hoot /

¶ Colre schal be purgid in þis maner / ℞ violarum [ounce] j., prunorum [ounce] j & [one half], sebesten .xv. in noumbre, iuiubas .xx., seþe hem in iij lī of water, til þei come to lī j, & cole hem, & resolue þeron cassia fistula*. [cassia fistula, see Alphita, p. 35, and Adams l. c., vol. III., p. 429. It is Cassia fistula L., the pudding-pipe tree.][ounce] j., thamarindorum, manne ana [ounce][one half]., & boile hem a litil togidere, & þan cole hem, & aneuen do þeron poudre of mirabolani citrini ȝ. j., & of rubarbe, & amorowe cole hem, saue chaufe it a litil first, & distempere it with [ounce][one half] of sugre rosarum, & lete him drynke it*. [The following prescription is omitted in the text, but written in a different hand at the bottom of lf. 107 bk.: pro colera ℞ cantaridarum, mane, medulle cassia fistule ana [ounce][one half], myrbol, eytri[ni] [dram] ij, boylle in lī [one half] watir, to the halfe put therto [ounce] j suger & [one half] ȝ, & drenk yt.] / ouþer wiþ þese pelottis*. [pelottis, Lat. pillis, Fr. pelote, a little ball. Phillips. "Pellota (in the Forest Law) the ball or round fleshy part of a Dog's Foot." Charta de Foresta, 1225: in Annales de Burton. Annales Monast. Luard, vol. I., p. 233: "Talis autem sit expeditatio [canum] per assisam comitatuum, quod tres ortilli abscidantur siue pelota de pede auteriori."] / ℞ aloes cicotrini*. [aloes cicotrini, Lat. sucotrini, for socotrini, so called from the island Socotra.] .ȝ j., mirabolani citrini, rosarum rubearum ana .ȝ [one half]., scamonie quintamPage  183 partem .ȝ. j., þat is to seie þe .v. part of ȝ., & make þerof pelottis with sirupo violaceo. & þis is good to ȝeue to a strong man / Also þese ben good pelottis for to purge clene colre / ℞ mirabolani citrini .dram j., scamonie cocte .[scruple][one half], masticis [folio 108a] grana iij., grinde hem & tempere hem vp wiþ ius of iouis barba,*. [iouis barba, med. L. for Sempervivum tectorum. Add. 15,236, fol. 4: "Iouis barba. semperuiua idem. G. Iubarbe A. siluegrene."] & make þerof pelottis & þis ius, but collige on ȝest.*. [zest, Lat. et sit dosis una. "Zest, a chip of orange ... it is also sometimes taken for a short afternoon sleep or Nap: as to go to one's zest."—Phillips. Zest (chip of orange), Fr. zeste, Lat. schistus—zest (nap), Esp. siesta, Lat. sextus.] ¶ Þis þou must wite þat whanne þou wolt purge colre, first þou muste make a preparatijf tofore with oxisacra*. [oxisacra—Oxysaccharum, a Composition of Sugar and Vinegar.—Phillips.] & wiþ metis þat ben colde & moist & wiþ reste.

¶ If þou wolt purge fleume þou schalt to þis medicyne þat Maister William of Salerne vside / ℞ turbit albi gummosi .ȝ j & [scruple] j, diaȝinȝiberos .ȝ ij., & medle hem togidere & make herof a gobet, & medle þerwiþ a litil of sirupe of rosis. ¶ It is good forto medle ȝinȝiberos wiþ turbit for þat wole comforte þe stomac & defie fleumatik humouris, & also it is good for to ete euery dai fastyng wiþouten ony medlynge of ony laxatif / ℞ ȝinȝiberis albi .ȝ j., liquericie rase .ȝ iij., gariofili cardamoni, nucis muscati, granorum paradisi .ȝ ij., ȝucare albissime .lī .ij., & make herof a letuarie not to hard soden; ouþir wiþ þese pelottis: pulueris pigre,*. [pigre [gap: 1] , sharp, bitter. Matth. Sylv.: "Pigra Gal. in dinamidiis .i. amara, quæ amaritudine sua morbos & humores expellunt."] turbit electi ana .ȝ x, pulpe coloquintide .ȝ iij & [scruple] j, grynde all þese & sarce hem,*. [sarce hem, Lat. cribellentur. Cathol. Angl., p. 318. "a Sarce, colum." Phillips. "Scarce or Sarce, a fine Hair Sieve." Lat. serica, Ital. sargia, Fr. sarge.] & tempere hem vp wiþ oile of almondis & make þerof pelottis, & herof þou myȝt [folio 108b] ȝeue at oonys [dram] ij. ¶ þe poudre of pigre þat goiþ to þese pelottis is good þouȝ it were bi it-silf.*. [be it-silf. The N. E. Dict. s. v. by 4, gives examples for the early occurrence of 'by oneself' = alone. The first reference for 'by itself' is quoted by Shaks.] & it is swiþe comoun, & Rasis & A. acorden þeron, & hali abbot & serapion*. [hali abbot & serapion are not named in the Latin text. Hali abbot, also called Hali þe abbot, is Ali the son of Abbas, a Persian physician (994), the author of 'al muluki' = the Royal. See Sprengel II., p. 412.] / ℞ rosarum rubearum, masticis, xilobalsami, spice, cassie lignie, aȝari ana,*. [Lat. ana partes equales.] aloes þat it be good, double to alle. ¶ If fleume be medlid wiþPage  184 colre, þanne do [þerto]*. [Wanting.] þe forseid pelottis of turbit, of scamonie .ȝ ij. & [one half], sticados arabici*. [stecados or stickadone, Cassidonie or French Lavender. Minsheu.—Stoechas d'Arabie. Pharmacopœa Gallica.] .ȝ .v, & þanne þou schalt do þerto turbit .ȝ .v—& it was aforseid .ȝ x in þe resceit tofore—& þese pelottis ben clepid cochium rasis, & þis is þe beste þing þat mai be for to purge dyuers humouris þat ben in þe heed / I ne knewe no medicyn laxatif þat is so good, þat is so profitable for to purge ij. humouris þat ben medlid togidere as þis medicyn is / For þere ben oþere medicyns as sure as þis, saue þei ben not so myȝty. Also þere ben oþere medicyns more miȝty, saue þei ben not so sure. ¶ Þou schalt purge malancoli wiþ þis liȝt medicyn þat is ofte ȝeue / ℞. epithimi .ȝ j., & boile it in lī j. of gotis whey, saue þou schalt boile it but a while, & lete hem stonde so al nyȝt, & a morowe chaufe [folio 109a] it a litil & cole it, & ȝeue it to drynke; ouþer make it wiþ a decoccioun of Epithimi Rasis ℞ mirabolanorum indorum .ȝ x, pollipodij [dram] .v, sene [dram] vij, turbit [dram] iij, sticados .ȝ x, seþe alle þes in iij lī of watir, til it come to j. lī., & þanne do þerto epithimi ȝ .x, & lete it boile a litil, & þan sette it adoun fro þe fier; & whanne it is cold cole it & do þerto sugre ro. [ounce] j., & ȝeue it to drynk in diluculo / If þou wolt make a medicyn þat is more strenger, ȝeue first bi iij. houris þese pelottis. ℞ aloes [dram] j., salis indi [dram] .[one half]., agarici .[scruple] ij., ellibori nigri þe .iiij. part of a ȝ., & make herof pelottis wiþ hony, ouþer make herof a sirup.

Whanne þou hast wel purgid þe mater, þanne þou must go to þe cure in þis maner / Loke if frotyngis and liȝt medicyns þat ben seid in þe firste bygynyng of þis chapiter suffise in allopucia þat ben not vlcera, saue oonli fallyng awei of heeris. If þe forseid medicyns wolen not serue, þan þou muste make stronger / ℞ spume maris, þat is a maner kynde of sponges,*. [See page 179, note 1.] saue it is more sutil & more whit, [dram] x. baurac*. [baurac, Arab. = nitrum.] .i. [folio 109b] nitrum, in þe stide herof we moun do þerto sal gemme, sulphuris, euforbij ana [dram] .ij., staphisagrie, cantaridarum ana .ȝ j, grynde alle þese togidere & make hem wiþ oile, & anoynte herwiþ his heed. ¶ If þou wolt worche more stronglich aboute þe place þat þe heeris ben pilid awei, & principaly if he be a riche man: ℞ olium de ben*. ["Ben or Behn, the Fruit of a Tree, like the Tamarisk, about the bigness of a Filberd, which the Perfumers bruise to get the Oil out of it, not so sweet smelling of it-self, but proper to receive any sort of Scent."—Philipps.] .[ounce] j., cantaridarum & kutte awei þePage  185 hediȝ þerof & þe wyngis ana .ȝ j., stampe a litil cantarides & leie hem in oile of violet,*. [in oile of violet, Lat. in oleo in fiala.] & sette þe viol*. [viol, Lat. fiala. See Cathol. Angl., p. 129, s. v. fialle.] vpon soft colis & lete hem boile, & putte in a smal sticke, and alwei meue hem & it wole bicome al into an oynement, & make it haue a sote smel wiþ musco, & herwiþ anoynte his heed; & þis wole make bladdris arise þeron, & it wole make heeris to growe. Saf þou must take hede, þat in medicyns þat ben cantarides ynne, þei wolen make a greet brennyng, and þat brennyng wole be yuel to take awei. & sumtyme it falliþ þat þoruȝ þat brennyng comeþ a feuer. First, þou schalt helpe þis caas*. [Lat.: Primo casu succurre cum unctione .... in secundo casu ponas egrum in balneo.] in þis maner: þou schalt anoynte þe place with vnguentum [folio 110a] album þat schal be seid in þe antidotarie /

¶ Vlcera þat ben in allopucia ouþer tinearum*. [Lat.: Vlcerosarum autem allopiciarum seu tinearum.] summe ben curable & summe ben incurable; if it be so þat þe substaunce of þe skyn be not to hard, þanne þou schalt traueile þereaboute. Also if þe skyn be hard & calose,*. [calose, Lat. callosus. The references in N. E. Dict. are later.] þanne it is seid incurable // ¶ If þere ben pustulis þat ben hote & ful of blood, & þe skyn be ful of humouris & neische, þanne it is good for to garce þat skyn, & þanne waische al his heed with þat blood hoot, & þanne hile*. [hile, O.E. helan.] his heed wiþ caule leuis. & þanne aftirward anoynte al his heed wiþ oile of notis ouþer of camomil hoot, til al þe scabbis þerof be wel tobroke. & þanne bigynne for to drie with þese driynge medicyns / ℞, argillam rubeam þat it be neische & clene wiþouten grauel & wiþouten stoonys, & distempere it with strong vinegre, & make it as it were an oynement, & þerwiþ anoynte his heed // ¶ Item, argillam partes ij., sulphuris viui, cineres corticis, cucurbite siccos*. [MS. siccage.] pulpe colloquintide ana partem j., distempere hem with vinegre [folio 110b] & anoynte herwiþ. Þis is good þing þerfore & drieþ swiþe vlcera þat ben hoot, & alle pustulas þat ben in þe heed & in þe face; þis drieþ & soudiþ // ¶ If þe matere be corrupt & swiþe hoot & brennynge, first þou schalt aswage þe heete wiþ vnguentum album rasis þat schal be seid in þe antidotarie, & anoynte þerwiþ al his heed, & þanne leie þerevpon a lynnen clooþ wet in þe iuys of stooncroppe,*. [stooncroppe, Wright W., 712. 35. "Hec vermicularis, stoncroppe." Lat.: crassula minor Add. 15,236, fol. 175 b.: "Cassula minor frigid. sicc. teste de soriz. stoncroppe."]Page  186 & lete þis lye þeron til al þe brennynge be aweie, & þanne aftir þis anoynte his heed wiþ oile of violet. & þanne hele his heed wiþ leuys of bletarum til al þe skyn bicome moist & neische & wiþoute brennyng, & þanne drie it vp & soude it wiþ þingis þat ben aforseid // ¶ Item, if tinea be*. [not, erroneously inserted. Lat. Item fit aliter cura tineæ novæ.] newe, þou schalt do þerto anoþer maner cure / ℞, abrotani agrestis,*. [abrotani agrestis; Wr. Wü., p. 544. 20, suþerwude. Add. 15,236, f. 14 bk.: "Abrotanum. gallice aueroyn. anglice suthernewode." See Alphita, p. 1.] fumiterre, lappacij acuti,*. [Add. 15,236, f. 17 bk.: "Lapacium acutum. anglice reddoke."] artemesie*. [Ibid., fol. 12: "Artemisia. A. mugwort."] ana .m. j. boile alle þese in oile til þei bicome al drie þeron, & wiþ þis oile anoynte his heed manye daies, & þanne sprynge þeron poudre of staphisagre & of elleboro; wiþ anoynting of þis oile þe matere schal be [folio 111a] taken out of þe skyn, & wiþ frotyng of þis poudre it schal be dried // ¶ If þe mater be fleumatik þat is in þe skyn, & if þere be*. [be, in margin.] myche corrupcioun þeron & if þe skyn be crusty,*. [crusty, Lat. crustosus.] þanne waische his heed wiþ a decoccioun of malowis in watir, & þanne anoynte his heed wiþ oile of camomille & oile of notis medlid togidere; & whanne it is anoyntid, hile his heed wiþ caule leuis, & þus þou schalt do manie daies til þe skyn be more scabbid*. [scabbid, Lat. ulceratus. See Cathol. Angl., p. 320.] þan it was. & þan frote it wel wiþ an oynoun til þe skyn bicome hoot & reed, & þan þou schalt waische his heed wiþ lye maad wiþ aschis of a vine, & þeron schulen be dissolued wijndrastis brent.*. [Lat.: in quo dissoluta sit fex vini combusta.] & whanne þou hast waische his heed herwiþ, þan þou schalt anoynte his heed wiþ þe oynement þat wole pile awei þe heeris / ℞, calcis vif .[ounce] iij., arsenec [ounce] j., aloes [dram] .iij., & make herof a poudre & tempere hem togidere wiþ seþing hoot water, & herwiþ take awei hise heeris, & þan waische his heed aȝen wiþ þe lye þat is aforseid til þe matere be wel dried / þan for to make þe heeris [folio 111b] wexe & for to regendre skyn & soude it, þou schalt anoynte þe place with an oynement þat is maad þus / Take aischis maad of a mannes heer [dram] j, fecis of oile, lynseed ana. [ounce] iiij, mirre [dram] j & [one half], staphisagre .ȝ .ij., euforbij .ȝ j., make þerof an oynement // ¶ If þe matere come of malancoli, þou must take hede to make þe matere neische and moist wiþ waisching of a decoccioun of violet & fumiterre in water, & anoynte it wiþ oile of violet til þe matere be resolued & þe skyn bicome neische, & þe pacient schal ete moistPage  187 metis, & þou schalt baþe him in swete watir, & þan þou must drie it vp wiþ medicyns þat drien þat ben aforseid /

Þis is a medicyn þat is approued of G. & is good for tineam & vlcera þat ben harde in þe heed, & for pustulis þat ben clepid saphati,*. [Saphati, Hebr. Sapahath.—Philipps. "Saphatum, a dry Seurf in the head."] & for impetiginem & morpheam,*. [morphea, a skin-disease. See Cathol. Angl., p. 243, s. v. Morfew.] & for fallyng awei of heeris, & for al maner scabbe. ℞, gallarum .ȝ iij., seminis secute ȝ .ij., baurac .ȝ j. & þe iiij part of [ȝ i],*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 46 b.: et quartam partem ius.] sulphuris vif [dram] ij. & [one half]., arsenec rubij, aristologie rotunde ana [scruple] ij, salis armoniaci, fulliginis, amigdalarum [folio 112a] amarum, colloquntide, eris vsti, venarum citrinarum, & in stide þerof þou miȝt take lumbricos terestres brent, litargirij, capparum foliorum, fice sicce,*. [fice sicce, Lat. fisti sicce. Halle Table, p. 87: "Fistakia so named bothe in Greeke and Latine, and vulgarly Fistici, are the frutes of a tree." Fisti-nut, from fistick-nut.] radices canne siccarum, flos eris, alumnis sicci, rosarum, mirre, aloes, olibani ana [dram][one half]., picis liquide, foliorum oliue, vellis vaccini, ana .ȝ j., grinde hem sutilly & tempere hem wiþ eysel, & sette hem in þe sunne in a vessel of glas, ouþer in a vessel of erþe glasid*. [glasid, vitreatus.] wiþinne, & meue hem wel in þe sunne, til it bicome al an oynement, & herwiþ anoynte his heed, til it be perfitly hool, saue þou muste take kepe of þingis þat ben aforseid þat þe humouris be purgid /

Of þe fallynge of heeris //

Caluiciem is a fallyng awey of a mannis heeris tofore, & is as*. [This paragraph is omitted in the printed editions of Lanfranc's Surgery and in Add. 26,106. It is preserved in Roy. MS. 12. C. XIV, fol. 32, where it forms part of cap. II, but with a separate heading. The translator took it for cap. III, but did not alter the following chapter-numbers.] miche to seie as ballid. & oon cause herof [is]*. [is, wanting.] kindely as whanne a man is oold for to be ballid, & oon þerof is vnkyndly, as whanne a mannis heeris falliþ awei for sijknes as it is aforseid & remedijs þerfore in þe nexte chapiter here tofore. & if þis cause come for elde þanne it is incurable // ¶ Also ballidnesse [folio 112b] comeþ of humouris rotid þat ben vndir þe skyn as it is in allopucia & tinea, & þe cure herof is bi avoidyng of humouris as it is aforseid.*. [De propr. rer., lib. V., cap. 66, Add. 27,944, fol. 67: "Ballidnes is priuacioun and defaute of heer, and comeþ of defaute of moist fumosite in þe formere partye of þe heed; so seiþ constantyn.... Ofte þe heer of men þat ofte seruen venus falliþ and brediþ ballidnes litil & litil.... And if a man is withoute hed-her, he is i-holde þe more vnhonest."] ¶ ÞePage  188 cause whi þat makiþ a man ballid ben þese / as whanne þe skyn recchiþ along, & if his bodi be drie & þinne & his skyn hoot, þan þou must do þis cure / Take olium mirtinum & olium de mastice ouþer olium ladani, & anointe þerwith his heed. & if þe tyme of þe ȝeer be coold, þou muste anointe him wiþ olium de spica // ¶ Whanne a mannes heeris falliþ awei so in vnkyndeli tyme, as þe while he is ȝong, þan make him a baþ & anoynte him wiþ camomille & wiþ bittir*. [MS. butir. MS. 12. C. XIV, fol. 32 bk.: cum amigdalis amaris.] almondis & wiþ oile maad þerof // If a man bicome ballid for cause þat his skyn is to neische, þese ben þe signys þerof as whanne a man haþ fewe heeris & sotil / þanne take olium mirtinum & olium masticis wiþ oilio laurino, & herwith anointe his heed, whanne hise heeris ben schauen awei // ¶ Item, take capilli veneris, ladani ana, grinde hem & medle hem with wijn & with olio mirtino / If a mannes heed be waischen [folio 113a] herwiþ, it wole make hise heeris longe & make hem sitte faste / Also take water þat bletis ben soden yn & a litil mustard, & þerwiþ waische hise heeris & after anointe him wiþ oile // ¶ Also to make heeris þat þe falle not / take leuys of mirte & sette hem in water til þe watir þerof bicome al troubly þan take [pound] .j of þe water & olium enfantini or of oile þat is vnripe & medle hem togidere. & þan seþe hem til þe water waaste awei, & þanne caste þerto canel & ladanum grounden & resolued in wijn, & make herof an oynement & anointe herwiþ þe rotis of þe heeris /

Of litil pustulis þat wexiþ in a mannes face or in children hedis /*. [Lat., Add. 26,106, fol. 47: "pustule parue que nascuntur in capite fronte et facie puerorum."]

Saphati ben litil pustule þat wexiþ in a mannes heed & in children forhedis & her face, & principali in wommens facis, & also in mennys facis þat ben moist, & makiþ sumtyme crustis / For to cure þis passioun, here þou schalt haue a good medicyn of .G. þat is aforseid of aischis of cucurbite & argilla // ¶ Children moun be holpen þerof if her norice absteyne hir fro salt metis & scharpe & fro strong wijn*. [Gul. de Salic., lib. I., cap. 2, Sl. 6, fol. 55 b.: "This seknesse is not bred but in children, when þei souken, and it ys clepid a crost, and it ys mad in hem in þe forhed and in þe hede.... The cure of it ys þat euery day þe place most be anointed with oyle of camomille hoot. And þe noryse absteine hyre fro flesses, and fro chese, and fro scharp metis."], & þe child schal be baþid in a decoccioun ofPage  189 camomile [folio 113b] & rosis & fenigreci, & þou schalt anointe þe place wiþ oile of camomille hoot // ¶ Furfurea ben a maner of squamis .i. schellis þat comeþ of brennyng þat is in þe skyn; if þei be frotid wel wiþ a manys nailis, þei wolen falle awei, & sumtyme þei ben liȝt & wolen falle awei wiþ þe heeris, whanne þei ben schaue & wiþ waischingis of hoot water / If þis suffise not þerfore, anoynte his heed with an oynement maad of farina ciceris & þe seed of malowe uisci temperid with vinegre / If it be not remeued herwiþ, anoynte him wiþ þis oynement // Take farine ciceris .[ounce] iij, farine fenigreci, sulphuris viui, nitri croci,*. [croci, for crossi.] sinapis ana .ȝ .iiij., tempere hem wiþ vinegre and watir /

Of clooþ*. [clooþ, translated from Pannus. Lat.: De pannis, cossis et gutta rosacea et de lentiginibus et cicatricibus vulnerum.] þat is clepid fraclis or goute roset.

Pannus is a superfluite þat falliþ in a wommans face, & comeþ ofte in childberyng, & also whanne hir menstrue is wiþholde, & is as it were a maner ledi*. [ledi, from "lead." Lat. lividus.] colour or purpur, & sumtyme it is medlid myche wiþ blak, & it comeþ alwei of malancolious matere. & þou schalt first purge þe matere with a decoccioun of epithimi & gotis whey, & þou schalt make þat [folio 114a] he leue metis þat engendriþ malancoly, & þanne take seed of raphani in a newe lynnen clooþ, bittir almoundis, mele of benis, seed of melonum & curcurbite, stampe hem alle togidere & tempere hem wiþ water & dissolue a litil safron & hony & make þerof an oynement, & herwiþ þou schalt anoynte hir face at euen late, & amorowe þou schalt waische hir face with a colature of bran // ¶ If it so be þat þis passioun be oold, þanne þow schalt make a stronger oynement wiþ þe same oynement, & do þerto eruca þe seed þerof, & argentum viuum slayn*. [slay, Lat. extinguere, precipitate. Comp. H. G. Niederschlag.] wiþ spotil, & pepir & mirre,*. [mirre, mistaken from Lat. nitro.] & tempere hem wiþ oximel, & sumtyme it is nede to sette vpon þe place watir lechis. & after þat anoynte it wiþ þe poudre of catapucie*. [catapucie. Add. 15,236, fol. 74 bk.: "Catapucia, semen spurge, catapuste, spurge sed." The original meaning "a medicinal preparation" is shown in Aelfr. Gloss.: "Catapodia, a swylfende drenc." Compare N. E. D. s. v. catapuce.] & staphisagre temperidPage  190 with hony // ¶ Also a medicyn of A. for þis passioun / Take argenti viui .ȝ j. gm amigdalarum [dram] ij. medle hem togidere & stampe hem til þou se noþing of þe quik siluer, & do þerto seed of melonis maad clene .ȝ iij., stampe alle þese togidere & anoynte herwiþ hir face aneue & amorowe; waische hir face wiþ watir [folio 114b] þat violet haþ leye þeron / Lentigines*. ["Lentigo, a Pimple, or Freckle; a small red Spot in the Face, or other Part, resembling a Lentil."—Phillips.] ben purgid wiþ a strong purgacioun & wiþ a strong medicyn þat ben forseid for pannum //

¶ Cossi*. [Gulielm. de Salic., lib. I., cap. 63, Sl. 277, fol. 12, mentions as skindiseases: þe ampte, þe teter and þe ryngworm. Dunglison identifies the ringworm with cossi, deriving it from Lat. cossis, or cossus, m., a worm that breeds in wood. The description given by Gul. de Sal. differs entirely from Lanfranc's description of cossi.] ben litil pustulis & harde þat ben engendrid in þe face, & principali aboute þe [nose],*. [nose, omitted in MS., but space left free. Dubium in margin refers to it. Lat. circa nasum.] & þei makiþ þe place reed, & þerfore þis medicyn is good. ℞, sulphuris viui .[ounce] j, & make it to sutil poudre, & leie it in a pound of watir of ro. in a glasen vessel, & stoppe wel the mouþ þerof, & hange it in þe sunne in þe monþe of Iulij & august bi xv. daies, & euery dai þou schalt meue þe vessel, & with þis watir þou schalt anoynte his face þere þat þe passioun is //

¶ Gutta rosacea,*. [De propr. rer., lib. VII., cap. 65, Add. 27,944, fol. 100 b.: "And nurphea is al in þe skynne, & lepra in þe fleische & in þe skynne; þis infcctioun is but litil diuers from infeccioun þat hatte gutta rosea, þat infectiþ þe face wiþ smale pymples, and comeþ of a gleymy & a MS. & bloody & colerik humours, þat ben bytwene felle and fleische." Sl. 563, fol. 17 b.: "þo rose goute." Gutta rosacea vel rosea, Rosy Drop or Whelk. (Dunglison.)] þat is a passioun þat turneþ þe skyn of a mannys face out of his propur colour & makiþ þe face reed. & þis passioun comeþ of humouris brent & abidiþ in þe skyn, & herfore is a good purgacioun þat purgiþ salt humouris. & þis is þe medicyn / ℞, litargiri, auripigmenti, sulphuris viui, viridis eris ana*. [The dose is omitted, so it is in Add. 16,106, fol. 47 b. Prints: unc. 1.] & poudre of litil meis*. [meis, "mice." Lat. pulveris parvorum suricum. meis is probably an error for miis.] brent, & of þis poudre half so miche as of alle þe oþere. & þis schal be poudrid wiþ .ij. partis of trifolij [folio 115a] & þe .iiij. part of swynys grese freisch, & make of alle þese an oynement. & on euen anoynte herwiþ his face, & amorowe waische his face wiþ a decoccioun of semina frigidorum*. [MS. fin.] & wiþ a litil campher, & þan make his face clene, & þan anoynte his face wiþ olio tartarino,

* The translator has omitted the prescription of oleum tartarinum, given in the Lat. Original. It is written by a later hand on the margin of lf. 114, bk.: "oylle off tarter. ℞, tarter off whyt wyn made in pouder temperd wt venygre as past, bynde yt in a clothe & put yt under embers, to yt be welle brent; þan put yt in a ston pot with an holle benethe. & þis ys oylle off tarter."

Two prescriptions, which are not in the Lat. Original, are added on the same place:

"aqua pro guta rosacha: ℞, lytargiri, argenty viui ana [ounce] iiij, acety alby li. i, boyll yt to conschounin an erthen veselle, let stande & clere & keep yt."

"℞. salt ar. [dram] i, saltpeter [dram] i, salt comun [dram] i, clere water [ounce] iiij, mixte togeder with ye sexte part off a [dram] off camffer, let colle, put thes ij waters togeder."

& al þePage  191 remenaunt herof þou schalt do of þis cure & fulfille wiþ medicyns as it is aforseid / ad pannum /

¶ Cicatrices vulnerum ben remeued wiþ litargirum nutricum, & is good for manie maner þingis, for it doiþ awei wennys, and it doiþ awei scharpnes of þe browis & gendriþ good fleisch in woundis & fretiþ awei wickid fleisch, & is maad in þis maner / Take litarge & grinde it sotilli in a morter & caste þerto a litil vinegre & þanne a litil oile of ro., & þus þou schalt do til it come to a perfit oynement /*. [The following prescription, translated from the Lat. Original, is written by a later hand on the margin of leaf 115: "Item gos gres & dow & diaculum, alle sycatryues it rectyfyes."]

Of icchinge & smertynge*. [smertyng, Lat. pruritus.—Prurigo, emertung, Wr. W., 114. 3.—emertung, is probably a mistake for smertung, to O.E. smeortan.] and scabbe.

Icchinge & scabbe comeþ of salt humouris, & a mannys kynde haþ abhominacioun þerof, & putteþ*. [MS. putte.] hem out of þe skyn,*. [De propr. rer., lib. VII., cap. 62, Add. 27,944, fol. 99: "Schabbe is corrupcioun of þe skynne, & comeþ of corrupt humours þat beþ bytwene felle and fleissche, & hurtiþ & greueþ & defouliþ þe body. For as Constantine seiþ, kynde puttiþ out euel humours to þe vttir parties of þe body to clense and to purge þe inner parties."] & þis falliþ ofte of salt metis & scharpe metis & of [folio 115b] wijn þat is strong; & it falliþ ofte to hem þat wakiþ & traueiliþ & vsiþ no baþing & weriþ no lynnen cloþis, & þis is oon of þe siknes þat is contagious, for o man mai take it of anoþer / Þis maner sijknesse comeþ sumtyme of blood, sumtyme of fleume, sumtyme of colre, sumtyme of malancolie / Also scabbe, sum is drie & summe is wet / If it be drie, it schal propirli be clepid icche / And if it be moist, it schal be clepid scabbe / To þe cure herof þou schalt avoide salt fleume, þou schalt defie þe matere wiþ þis sirup / ℞, abstinthij,Page  192 abrotani, cuscute, fumus terre, ana [drop] .j., & take xx. damascenes & xij. figis, & vj. datis, sene [ounce] j, thimi, epithimi .[ounce][one half]., seþe hem wel in lī iij of water & lī j. of vinegre til þei come to lī j. & dī. cole hem & do þerto iuys of fumi terre & sugur lī .j. & [one half], & make þerof a sirup & herwiþ defie þe matere / & þan þou schalt purge him wiþ þese pelottes, ℞, aloes optimi, cortices mirabolani, citrini, ana .[ounce] j stampe hem & tempere hem with iuys maad of fumi terre, til þei be þicke as it were hony, & lete it drie til þer mai be maad gobetis þerof & maad þerof pelottis, & herof þou schalt ȝeue þe [folio 116a] weiȝte of ij. ȝ. at oonys, & þis medicyne mai be rehersid ofte. ¶ Also blood leting is good þerfore, if oþere particlis acordiþ þerfore // ¶ Also gotis whey is good þerfore, in which be leid mirabolani wiþ sugre, & ofte take, for þat clensiþ miche, & is maad in þis maner / In lī .j of gotis whey leie [ounce] j. of mirabolani citrini powdrid an eue, on þe morowe heete hem & cole hem & do þerto [ounce] .j of sugre ro. // ¶ If it be drie scabbe, hoot watir is good for to baþe him ynne, in which is soden fumi terre & enula, lappacij acuti, & in þe baþ anoynte him with oile of ro. & iuys of ache & vinegre, & herwith his bodi schal be wel frotid in þe baþ ouþer in a stewe // ¶ Also an oyment þat rasis made for þe scabbe þat is drie / ℞ salis communis, salis gemme, ellebori, nigri costi, [dram] .j., picis liquide [ounce] vj., olium violarum & aceti, & herof make an oynement / & anoynte herwiþ in his stewe & frote him wel, & aftir lete him be þerinne by an hour, & aftir baþe him in a decoccioun of bran & lappacij acuti, enule campane*. [MS. compare.] & arthemisie // ¶ If þe scabbe be moist / þan make an oynement of rasis / ℞, argenti viui extincti, [folio 116b] & in þis maner þou schalt sle*. [sle = slay. See p. 189, Note 6.] it: leie it in a peuter disch & spete þeron, & frote it wiþ mannes heeris, & do þerto: whit litarge, elleborum nigrum, alumen*. [alumen, on margin.] vetus, oleandrum ana, grynde alle þese togidere & tempere hem with vinegre,

* The following passage omitted by the translator is written on the bottom of lf. 116, bk., by a later hand: "& olio communi miscantur de quo totum corpus unguatur in cero, mane intret stupyam et cum sudaueret ffricet corpus cum usne et aceto. vsne .i. mosse off the oke."

usne, Arab ouchna. See Littre-Devic.—"Usnea, a kind of green Moss which grows upon Humane Sculls that have been lying in the open Air for some years, and which is used in Physick."—Phillips.

& herwiþ al his bodi schal be anoyntid at euen, & at morowe he schal be stewid,*. [he schal be stewid, Lat. intret stupham. See Skeat, Etym. Dict., s. v. stew.] and whanne he swetiþ his bodi schal be frotid wiþ vinegre // ¶ AlsoPage  193 aȝen scabbe & icching, first lete þe pacient blood, & make him þis oynement / ℞, sulphuris viui & tm*. [MS. tm, tantum. This prescription is neither in the prints nor in Add. 26,106, but preserved in Roy. MS. 12 C XIV, fol. 33 b.] de sale & tartaro, grinde hem wel togidere til it bicome in þe maner of an oynement, & wiþ þis oynement anoynte þe pacient, & þis wole delyuere him fro icching // ¶ Also if þe pacient haue greet brennyng & greet icching, þanne anoynte al his bodi wiþ oile of ro. þat ben good, & lete him reste so .vij. daies // ¶ Also for þe same cause / ℞ succus affodillorum & distempere it wiþ whit hony & anoynte him herwith, whanne he goiþ out of his stewe; for þis oynement doiþ awey filþe of þe skyn and clensiþ myche /

Of morphue

* morphue. See p. 187, Note 2. N.E. morphew, Med. L. morphea, Fr. morphée, Ital. morfea, is probably the Latinized form of an Arab. past part. marfu, connected with marf, 'thin.' See Lane Lex., p. 1132.

The derivation given by Tommas: [gap: 1] , is unsatisfactory. Phillips: "Morphew, a kind of white Scurf upon the Body, from the French Word Mort-feu, i. e. dead Fire; because it looks like the white Sparks that fall from a Brand extinguished."

and impetigine

* De propr. rer., lib. VII., cap. 63, Add. 27,944, fol. 99: "And þis euel hatte impetigo, for it lettiþ and greueþ þe skyn and þe fleissch, namliche with tikelinge and icchinge. Also þis euel hatte serpigo, as it were a crepinge euel, for it crepiþ into þe skynne al aboute as it were a serpent oþir an addre, & infectiþ þe skynne and defouleþ it wiþ smale skales aftir cracchinge and clawinge."

Lib. VII., cap. 65, fol. 100: "Morphea is speckes in þe skynne, and comeþ of corrupcioun of mete and drinke, and what is lepre in þe fleische is morphea in þe skynne. Also som morphea is white & comeþ of fleume, & som is blak & comeþ of malencolia, & som is red & comeþ of colera oþir of blood."


[folio 117a] Now we han medycyns drawen of .ij. wellis & of manie maistris, þat is to wite: of Salerne, & of Costantyn, & Platearij, & of Iohannes de sancto Paulo & of oþere manie auctouris, as of Ipocras, Galien, & Serapion, & Isaac, & Iohanne[s] Mesue, Auicen / Hali þe abbot, & Rasis, & of oþere manie auctouris / Alle þese auctouris speciali ȝeue it us, saue þei acorden not in names / 5Forwhi impetigo, serpigo & morphea ben seid in salerne diuers names, for þat men of salerne clepen albam & arabes clepen impetigo morphea / & men of salerne clepen morpheam / men in arabie clepen it albarec /5*. [5—5 The passage is corrupt. Lat.: Nam serpigo, impetigo, morphea sumuntur aliter apud salernitanos aliter apud arabes. Quod enim salernitani vocant serpiginem, arabes vocant alunda. Et impetigo apud arabes est morphea, et apud salernitanos aliter et aliter apud nos. Quod autem Salernitani vocant morpheam, arabes vocant albaras.] & þerfore I wole in þis book teche þePage  194 difference of euery of hem, & after þat þe curis of hem / & I seie þat serpigo is a scharpnes of a mannes skyn, & it is clepid serpigo, for it passiþ fro place to place. Þou schalt cure it wiþ gumme of cheritrees distemperid wiþ vinegre, ouþer gumme of plumtre & anoynte wiþ buttir & turbentyne. & þis oynement is good þerfore / Take gres [folio 117b] of a doke clene purid, ysopi humide, olium ro., ȝelow wex, terbentyne, mussilaginis seminis citoniorum*. [Citonia = Cydonia, quince.] ana, make of alle þese an oynement, & anoynte him þerwith amorowe, & þanne waische him in watir þat þer haþ leie þeron semen melonum & violet. & be he ofte baþid wiþ sich swete water. & good swete mete is good for hem þat engendriþ good humouris //

¶ Impetigo is anoþer maner passioun, as whanne a mannys skyn chaungiþ in oþer colour þan it schulde, & propirli into whit colour & wiþouten ony harmyng of þe skyn. & þer is no þing þeron þat harmeþ a man, saue oonly þe colour of þe skyn chaungiþ oþir þan it schulde be //*. [Lat. Add. 16,106, fol. 48 bk.: et non peccat ibi nisi color.]

¶ Morphea is a passioun þat þe skyn is out of his propir colour & þe skyn is harmed þerbi. & morphea is a spice of lepre þat sitt in þe skyn; for riȝt as lepre sittiþ in þe fleisch, in þe same maner riȝt so morphea sittiþ in þe skyn.*. [Not in the Lat. Origin.]

¶ Albaras.*. [Albaras, Arab. al-baras, leprosy. Compare Avicenna, lib. 4, fen. 7, tract. 3, cap. 9, and ff.] Not oonly þe skyn, saue þe fleisch is harmed þerbi / Þis is þe difference of albaras & morphea / In morphea þe vertu of expulcion*. [MS. expulsif. Lat.: virtus expulsiua.] is strong / & þe mater [folio 118a] þerof is but litil, & þerfore it is al putt into þe skyn / In albaras þe vertu of expulcion is but feble & þe matere is corrupt, & þerfor it is boþe in þe fleisch & in þe skyn, & þer is but litil difference bitwixe albaras & lepre, saue albaras abidiþ alwei in oon place, & lepre goiþ into al þe bodi / In boþe þese causis it is nede for to avoide humouris þat ben in þe cause*. [humouris þat ben in þe cause. Lat.: Conveniunt in hoc quod omnis humoris indigent enacuatione peccantis. N. E. Dict. s. v. cause, q. b. gives references for to be in cause: to be to blame.—Littré Dict. (14th cent.) ils en sont en cause.—Dufr. gives several references for in causa esse: to be ill, from Causa, morbus.],Page  195 saue þat oon mote haue stronger medicyns þan þat oþer. ¶ Impetigo muste haue abstynence fro þingis þat engendriþ fleume, & he muste haue a purgacioun for to purge fleume / Anoynte þe place wiþ oile of whete þat is maad in þis maner / Take whete & leie bitwixe two platis of iren hoot / & presse hem togidere & þerof wole bicome oile // ¶ Also in anoþer maner / Take .ij. vessels of erþe, so þat þe mouþ of þe oon vessel go to þe mouþ of þe toþer vessel, & þat oon vessel schal stonde in þe erþe, & in þe vessel aboue þou schalt do þi whete, & þou schalt stoppe þe mouþ of þe vessel þat is aboue þat þe whete is ynne with a plate of bras ouþer of iren þat is bettere, [folio 118b] & þe plate schal be ful of smale holis. & þan þe mouþ of þis pott schal be ioyned to þe mouþ of þe pott þat is in þe erþe with good lute, þat þere mowe noon eir out þerof. & þan make a fier aboute þe pott þat is aboue þe erþe, & þere wole distille oile into þe pott þat is bineþe in þe erþe, & wiþ þis oile þou schalt anoynte þe place ofte, & frote harde. & if þis suffise not, þanne þou schalt sette vpon þe place watir lechis ofte, for to do awey þe fleumatik blood / If þis suffise not, leie þervpon a mundificatif of cantarides stampid wiþ whete, til þe place schyne*. [til þe place schyne, donec locus excorietur.], & þan cure it vp wiþ an oynment of ceruce / Frote him wiþ an oynement maad of armoniac & with þe sournes of citri, & nitro is good þerfore //

¶ Þe white morphu is curid wiþ purgacioun þat purgiþ roten fleume, & wiþ þis special medicyn / ℞, trifere minorum .ȝ .iiij., turbit, pulueris pigre .ȝ .ij., colloquintide .ȝ ij., make herof pelottis wiþ hony, & he schal take þerof .iij pelottis euery wike, & eueri dai bitwixe he schal take .ȝ ij. of trifere minorum, & he mote absteyne him fro metis þat engendriþ [folio 119a] fleume; & þe place shal be frotid in þe sunne wiþ an oynement of tapsia, & þe seed of raphani, rubie maioris / elleboro nigro & mustard, & distempere hem wiþ vinegre / Also froting wiþ squillis is good þerfore //

¶ Þe blac morphe is curid wiþ ofte purging of malancoli, wiþ gotis whei, & wiþ epithimo, & oþere medicyns þat purgiþ malancolie, þat be forseid in allopucia; & his dietyng schal be moist, & he schal absteyne him fro metis þat engendriþ malancolie, & he schal be baþid ofte in swete watir, & he schal be anoyntid & frotid as it is aforseid //

¶ Albaras þat is whit is curid wiþ þe same þingis & withPage  196 stronger medicyns þat ben aforseid in þe cure of þe white morphu, & miche castyng is good for hem, & þou schalt frote wel þe place with squillis in a stewe, & after þat sprynge þeron poudre maad of tapsia, & staphisagre, & þe wombis of cantarides, & seed of eruce, & tordis of a culuere, & þou schalt anoynte him wiþ blood of a blac serpent, for þat is bi propirte good þerfore /

Albaras þat is blak is incurable, for it is a particuler lepre, & but [folio 119b] if it be so þat it mowe be take awei wiþ alle rootis, it schal neuere be curid; saue þe colour of his skyn mai be amendid / ℞, aloxanti, þat is þe flour of þe wiþi,*. [Lat. aloxantum, quod est flos salis. The translator read salicis for salis , [gap: 1] , brine. Matth. Sylv.: "Alosantus i. flos salis et invenitur super petras nili fluminis."] mirram, feces of wijn brent, reed cley, & alyme, poudre alle þese, & herwiþ frote þe place til þe pacient fele prickyng & brennyng. Þis wole deye þe skyn for manie daies, & whanne þis failiþ reherse it aȝen.

// Of lepre and of þe domys of lepre*. [Lat. de lepra et indiciis leprosi The translator read iudiciis.] //

Lepra*. [Add. 27,944, fol. 99 b.: "Lepra meselrye is an universal corrupcioun of membres & of humours. " Four different kinds of Leprosy are distinguished, "1. the Élaphantia; 2. the Tiria or Serpentyna, and haþ þat name of an addre þat hatte tyrus, for as an addre leneth liȝtliche his skynne and is skaly, so he þat hath þis maner lepra is ofte i-strept and i-hulde, & ful of skales; 3. alopicia & vulpina foxissch; 4. leonina, it fretiþ as a lyon & destroyeþ all þe membres."] is a foul sijknes þat comeþ of malancolie corrupt, ouþir of humouris þat ben brouȝt to þe forme of malancolye*. [& inserted.] corrupt. & it goiþ into al þe bodi, riȝt as a cancre is in oon lyme of a mannes bodi / For whanne malancolie multiplieþ*. [multiplieþ, Lat. multiplicatur.—Multiplye, fructificare, multiplicare. Cathol. Angl., p. 246.], & a mannes guttis ben not strong for to putte it out, & þe weies bitwixe þe splene ben stoppid & þe poris of þe skyn closid, þan malancolious blood wole rote wiþinne, & rotiþ complexiouns of þe lymes. & þe bigynnying of þe mater myȝte be of blood ouþir of fleume, colre, ouþer of malancolie, neþeles whanne þe mater is fulfild [folio 120a] it is malancolie corrupt. & þis is oon of the syknessis þat ben contagious / ¶ In þis place I wole sette curis of lepre þat ben profitable for a cirurgian to kunne, & also curis þat comeþ ofte to a cirurgian handis /

Page  197Men þat ben leprous,*. [The symptoms of leprosy are similarly described by Avicenna, lib. IV., fen. 3, tract. 2, cap. 2.] in þe bigynnyng her heeris of her heed falliþ awei, & þe heeris of her browis, & þe heeris of her berd; & her forheed bicomeþ reed & as it were schynyng. ¶ Also in summe þe face wexiþ reed & swelliþ & is sumwhat ledi, & principali aboute [þe nose]*. [þe nose, wanting.] // ¶ Also her vois is rowȝ ouþer sumtyme it is wondirly scharp, & þe whit of her iȝen bicomeþ al derk, & þe heeris goon awei of her browis / Her noseþrillis bicomeþ smal, ouþer wondirly greet, & her noseþrillis ben streit for to drawe yn wijnd, & her nailis bicomeþ ledi / Also her breeþ wole stynke & her sotes / Also her pisce wole be streit*. [her pisce wole be streit, Lat. item accidit eis strictura pectoris.] & þei schulen haue greet snesyng / Also þei wilneþ myche to comne*. [comne for comune.] wiþ wommen / Also þei schulen be heuy, & if her skyn be in þe coold eir, it wole bicome as it were þe skyn of a gandir [folio 120b] þat þat hise feþeris weren pilid awey / Also þese ben priuy þingis: if þou prickist his leg bihynde, he ne schal not fele it / & if þou waisschist hise lymes in watir, anoon riȝt it wole drie yn // Also þese signes ben comoun: his yȝen wolen bicome rounde, & þer wolen wexe pustulis in his tunge, & her nailis wolen bicome greet, & þer wolen wexe scabbis abouteforþ. And þe fleisch þat schulde be bitwixe þe þombe & þe nexte fyngir þerto schal be wastid awey, & if þou prickist him in þe hele he schal not fele it, & if he be lete blood, her blood wole be scharpe & as it were ful of grauel. & if þou waischist her blood, in þe botme þerof wole leue as it were grauel. & þis sijknes aftir þe tyme þat it is confermed is incurable, saue in þe firste bigynnyng it mai be curid wel //

¶ Þe cure of lepre is not sett in þis book, for þis book is of cirurgie, saf þer ben in þis solempne medicyns & apreued for to kepe a man, þat þei schulen not wexe, & for to make it priuy, & cauterijs þerfore / For alle þese þingis falliþ for a cirurgian / Þis [folio 121a] þou schalt knowe: if þe siknes be strong, it is hard for to do ony medicyne þerto; fforwhi, if þe sijknes be strong, þanne he muste haue stronge medicyns, & þat were greet perel, & also þe medicyn muste be ofte rehersid.*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 49 b.: Scias quod in egritudinibus fortibus si fuerint cronice fortes non competunt medicine, nam licet propter egritudinis fortitudinem medicina sit nocciua tamen dari non debet, quia medicinam oportet sepius iterari.] Saue þou schalt chese a liȝt medicyn þatPage  198 wole falle for to purge þe humour liȝtli // A medicyn maad of gotis whey wiþ epithimo, þis medicyn is riȝt & good, for it purgiþ malancolie litil & litil, & also a man schal not be greued þerebi // Pelottis þat be maad of epithimo þat ben aforseid in þe tretijs of allopucia ben good herfore, for þin entent schal be oonly for to purge malancolie þat is corrupt, & amende his complexioun wiþ good dietyng. Blood letyng is not good þerfore, but if þe cauce come miche of blood / If his breeþ be streit, þanne it comeþ of þe veyne þat goiþ to þe herte / Sumtyme it is in þe veyne of þe nose*. [Incorrect translation. Add. 26,106, fol. 49 b: "Flebotomia namque non convenit nisi quum scis lepram esse valde sanguineam cum hanelitus strictura tunc fit de uena cordis et de duabus guides timendo suffocationem: alia fit de venis nasi propter palliandum faciei colorem."] / Þou schalt ȝeue to men þat ben drie lepre & comeþ myche of colre, þou schalt ȝeue him gotis whey ofte for to drynke, & [folio 121b] þou schalt, in as miche as þou miȝt, make his complexioun moist & baþe him in tempere baþ & lete him swete þerinne; & þan þou schalt anoynte him wiþ oile of violet & oile of cucurbita, & þou schalt ȝeue him good metis þat engendriþ good blood, & hese metis & hise drinkis schulen be in tempere heete, not to hoot ne to coold // ¶ Summen curiþ hem wiþ þe fleisch of a blac eddre*. [De propr. rer., ibid. fol. 100: "To hele oþir to hide lepra as plato seiþ, best is a rede adder wiþ a white wombe; ȝif þe venym is awaye & þe tail & þe heed i-smyte of, þanne þe body i-sode in leke, ȝif it is ofte i-take & i-ete; in þe same wise wyne in þe whiche it rotieþ, ȝif þe patient drinke ofte þerof, and þis helpiþ in many iueles, as he telleþ of a blind mannes wif þat wolde slee here housbonde, and ȝaf him an addre with garlek in stede of an ele, þat it myȝte slee hym, & he eet it, and aftir þat by moche swete he recouered & had his siȝt goode & clere." The flesh of vipers is commended by Galen for the treatment of elephantiasis. Lib. II., Simpl. de carne viperæ.] þat ben in drie lond & among stones, & þan þei kutten awey þe heed & þe tail of þe eddre & doiþ awei þe guttis wiþinne / & þan þei doon hem in*. [in, in margin.] a vessel of erþe wiþ a litil peper & galyngale & salt & vinegre & watir & oile, & so þei seþe þe eddre til al þe fleisch þerof be dissolued. Þanne þe broþ herof is ȝeuen to drynke, & þe fleisch for to ete til þe pacient haue scotomiam*. [scotomia, [gap: 1] , dizziness. Vigo Interpret.: "They shoulde saye Scotoma, and it is a disease, when darckenes ryseth before the eyes, and when al thinges seme to go rounde about."] & al his bodi to-swolle / Whanne his bodi is to-swolle & he haþ had scotomiam, þan leie him in a bed & lete him ligge; & if þere falle ony þing to him as syncopis, ouþer greet cooldnes of hise lymes wiþoutforþ, or if his herte quake, þan ȝeuePage  199 him tiriaca maior wiþ a litil musco ouþer hoot wijn // In þis maner al his [folio 122a] fleisch wole pile & alle hise heeris wolen falle awei & newe heeris wolen come vp aȝen / & þis medicyne schal be rehersid so ofte, & kepid wiþ dietyng til he be perfitli hool / Forwhi manie men moun be delyuerid of manye greet sijknessis, if her leche is kunnynge & diligent aboute hem, & bi necligence & defaute of help manie men ben perischid / Cauterijs herfore þou schalt fynde ynowe in þe chapiter of cauterijs, & oynementis þat makiþ clene & soudiþ, all þese þingis þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie.

¶ Of waastynge off membris and bicomen smal /

A Mannes lyme bicomeþ smal wiþ greet streynyng of ligaturis þat takiþ awei þe norisching of þe lyme, or of long akyng of ioynt þat enfebliþ al þe lyme / Þese þingis makiþ a mannes lymes to bicome smal // ¶ Also a mannes lymes bicomeþ greet oþer þan þei schulde be,*. [Lat. ingrossatur etiam membrum aliquod ultra debitum. Compare þe colour ... chaungiþ oþir þan it schulde be, p. 194, Note 3.] whanne veynes ben feble & matere falliþ þerto & þe vertu of souding failiþ, & in þis maner þe lyme swelliþ, & þe mater is fleumatik, & for defaute of heete it turneþ not into quitture [folio 122b] saue it abidiþ in þe lyme & swelliþ þe lyme /

¶ A lyme þat is bicome smal, in þis maner þou schalt make it greet: if þere be ony þing to take awei þerof as akynge ouþer ony strictture, ouþer ony byndyng, þan remeue awey þat first in þe manere as it schal be seid in þe chapiter of ioyntis. Whanne þe akynge is doon awei, þanne waische þe lyme wiþ a decoccioun of malowis & violet & rotis of bismalue in watir, saue his lyme schal be in þe water no lenger þan it bigynneþ for to bicome reed & sumwhat to swelle, & be war þat his lyme be not so longe in þe water til þat he swete, & þan drie his lyme wiþ a lynnen clooþ & frote it a litil wiþ þin hond, & þanne take a litil smal ȝerde & bete þe lyme þerwiþ til þou drawe blood þerto, & make a plastre þerto in þis maner. ℞, picis naualis, picis grece, resine albe ana, & melte alle þese in a panne. & whanne þei ben molten cole hem þoruȝ a clooþ into coold water, & þanne anoynte þin hondis with oile & þan take it vp of þe watir & tempere it togidere & make þerof gobetis & kepe hem for þin vss*. [vse.], herof þou schalt plane vpon [folio 123a] a leþer, & leie it to þe lyme þat is forseid, & so lete it ligge adai, & aneuenPage  200 drawe it awey, & so lete þe lyme be til amorowe, & þanne reherse þe waischinge þat is forseid & þe froting & þe beting. Þis wiþouten ony drede wole bringe [þe lyme] aȝen to his greetnes as it schulde be, but if þe lyme be out of ioynct & haue be longe tyme, þan it wole be hard, þan it is yuel to make þe lyme greet aȝen as it schulde. & þouȝ it mowe not be maad greet as it schulde be, neþeles bi þis maner it may be myche amendid //

¶ If a mannes lyme is gretter þan it schulde be, if þe cause þerof be of fleume þat þou miȝt knowe bi neischenes of þe lyme, for if þou þriste yn þi fyngir, þer wol leue a pitt þerafter, it may be brouȝt aȝen to greetnes þat it schulde be, if it be purgid ofte wiþ a medicyn þat is clepid trociscus de turbit þat is aforseid, & þe pacient schal kepe him fro alle metis þat engendriþ fleume, & he schal be war of greet replecioun of metis & drinkis, & þan þou schalt cure him wiþ medicyns þat schulen be seid in þe chapiter of apostemes of fleume / Take lye maad [folio 123b] of aischis of wijn or of an ook, & leie þeron a double lynnen clooþ & wete it wel, & þerwiþ folde þe lyme, & þan streyne þe lyme wiþ a boond, & euery dai þou schalt wete it .ij. siþis in þat lie & bynde so his lyme, & in þis maner his lyme schal drie. Ouþer in þis maner / Take sal nitre & distempere it wiþ watir, & þanne take a sponge þat it be so myche þat it mowe hile al þe lyme & þan lete þe sponge drie so þervpon, & þan wete þe sponge aȝen & leie it on þe lyme aȝen, & lete it drie aȝen & alwei bynde wel þe lyme; & þis þou must do manye siþis. Or take þe leues of lilie celestie & grynde hem wel and þanne leye it vpon þe lyme, & þanne bynde wel þe lyme, & in þis maner þe matere wole waaste awey & þe lyme wole bicome smal as it schulde / If it so be þat þis greetnes come of malancolious blood or of greet fleume, make him a purgacioun with gotis whey & epithimo, or anoþir competent medicyn. & first þou schalt make þe lyme neische wiþ oile of lilie, or wiþ oon of þe oynementis þat ben mollificatiuis þat [folio 124a] schulen be seid in þe antidotarie, þanne go to þe cure þat is forseid. Whanne þe swellyng of þe lyme is doon aweie, if it be in hond or in arme, þat falliþ ofte tyme, or in þe foot & in þe leggis & in þe knee, þanne þou schalt make bitwixe þe fyngris cauterijs þat ben clepid cauterium cultellare, as þou schalt fynde in þe chapitre of cauterijs // Þe greetnes of a mannes foot þou schalt cure as it schal be seid in elephancia as it is conteyned in his propre chapitre /

Page  201
Þe firste chapiter of engendering of humours & þe kindis of hem, & conteyneþ .xviij. chapiters /

Everi enpostym is engendrid of .iiij. humouris, ouþir of water, or of wijnd. & it is impossible for a cirurgian for to kune a cure, but if he knowe þe cause þerof, & þerfore me þouȝte þat it was necessarie for to make a propre chapitre of þe generacioun of humouris*. [De propr. rer., lib. IV., cap. 6, Add. 27,944, fol. 33: "Þise foure humores beþ i-bred in þis manere: whan mete is i-fonge in þe place of seeþinge, þat is þe stomak, first þe more sotil partie & fletinge þerof, þat phisicians clepiþ pthismaria, þat is i-drawe be certeyn veynes to þe lyuore, & þerby þe worchinge of kinde hete it is i-chaungid into þe foure humoures; þe bredinge of hem bigynneþ in þe lyuer, but it endiþ þere atte fulle."] & alle þe propurtees þerof, þat þe redere of þis book mai knowe þe causis of apostyms & þe curis þerof & metis & drinkis þat ben necessarie in þis cause for norisching & augmenting [folio 124b] of þe lymes & for to engendre natural heete / // Whanne þe mete falliþ into a mannes stomac & þou haddist anothamie þerof, þan in þe stomak þe mete is soden, & þan fro þe stomak it goiþ into þe guttis, & þerof þou haddist anothamiam, & þan þe mete goiþ anoon to þe gutt þat is clepid orobum or þe sak. Veynes þat ben clepid miseraice & þere ben manie maners þerof as it is forseid, & þei ben maad fast wiþ þe botme of þe stomac & wiþ þe gutt þat is clepid duodeno, & wiþ þe smal gutt, & wiþ þe gutt þat is clepid ieiunium as it is forseid, & wiþ þese veynes bigynneþ þe .ij. digestioun & beriþ a veyne þat is clepid kilus*. [The translator mistook kilus for the name of the Vein, perhaps in reference to the Vena cava, called Vena chillis by the translators of Arab. medical works, from [gap: 1] .] to þe lyuer, & þat veyne goiþ to þe stomac fro þe lyuer. & þe .iiij. humouris of iiij. substauncis ben engendrid in þis place of digestioun*. [Lat.: Ita in hepate ex chylo veniente a stomacho quatuor humorales substantiæ generantur.] / For þere is engendrid þere a maner spumous substaunce whanne þe digestioun failiþ heete; & þere engendriþ anoþer partie þat is sutil as it were wijn; & þe greet substaunce goiþ adoun & stynkiþ. If þere be engendrid greet fleume [folio 125a] & miche, þat is cause for it quenchiþ þe hete of þe stomac / Also in þe same placis is engendrid a subtil substaunce, & scharp hete worchiþ þeron & gaderiþ him hete & scharpnes, & þis is clepid collera rubea; & if humouris wexiþ to miche, it wole achaufe þe lyuer / & causis of engendring of colre ben hote metis & drinkis &Page  202 traueile & fastyng & stronge saucis // ¶ Also þer is a clene substaunce engendrid þat kyndeli hete worchiþ þeron, & þat is blood. & þe matere herof is good metis & drynkis þat ben swete // ¶ Also þer is engendrid anoþer substaunce þat is sumwhat stynkyng & is clepid malancoli & is engendrid in .ij. maners: oon maner is þis of greet hete þat is brennyng & of greet cooldnes þat wexiþ hard*. [of greet cooldness þat wexiþ hard. Lat. ex frigiditate ingrossante.]; & þe cause herof ben grete metis,*. [grete metis, Lat. cibi grossi.] & metis þat engendriþ malancoli / And þes iiij. humouris Sanguis, Colera, fleumtica & Malancolia, & euery of hem haþ diuers qualitees, for blood is hoot & moist, ffleume coold & moost, Colre hoot & drie, Malancoli coold & drie // ¶ Also of þese humouris [folio 125b] summe ben kindeli & summe ben vnkyndely, & þerfore in þis chapitre we wolen make mencioun of alle, ffor bi gendring of þese humouris enpostyms ben engendrid //

¶ Of fleume þere ben ij. kyndis, oon is natural & þe toþer innatural / Natural fleume is coold & moist & whit, & goiþ sumwhat to swetnes,*. [swetnes, a mistake for whitnes. Lat. ad paucam tendens albedinem. De propr. rer., lib. IV., cap. 9, ibid. fol. 35: "Kyndeliche fleume is coolde & moist, & white in colour, and fletinge in substaunce, a litwhat swete in sauour, oþir al werisch & vnsauoury."] of which lordschipe*. [of which lordshipe, Lat. de cuius dominio.] þer folowiþ a litil wilnyng for to comoun wiþ wymmen, & þe palesie, & [he is]*. [he is, wanting.] pesible, & loueþ wel for to haue reste*. [Ibid., fol. 35 bk.: "a verray fleumatik man is in þe body lustles, heuy & slowȝ, dul of wit & of þouȝt forȝetteful, neissche of fleissche and quauy, blooof colour, whitliche in face, ferdeful of herte, ful of spittinge snyuel & rokeinge, ful of slouthe & of slepinge, & of a litil appetite & of litil þurst."] / Saue þe moost part of fleume is in a mannes brayn, & in hise lungis, & in his stomac, & in hise guttis, & in hise ioynctes. And þe lordschip of fleume is in þe hynder part of a mannes heed, & in þe rigbonys. & fleume doiþ þre profitis, þe .j. is þis: sumtyme a mannes kynde failiþ blood, & þan kinde worchiþ vpon fleume & makiþ blood, & of oþere humouris þis mai not be do / Þe ij. profit of fleume is þis: for fleume goiþ wiþ blood for to norische diuers lymes / Þe .iij. profit of fleume is þis, þat it acoldiþ þe ioynctis & makiþ hem moist, for ellis in greet meuyng þei schulden wexe drie / Of fleume þat is innatural ben .iiij. maners [folio 126a] as: fleume dulce, fleuma acetosum, fleuma ponticum, fleuma salsum // ¶ ffleuma dulce is in .ij. maners. Þe firste manerPage  203 is þis: as whanne fleume is medlid wiþ blood, or as whanne hete worchiþ wiþ fleume to turne it into blood // ¶ ffleuma acetosum is seid in .ij. maners / as whanne ebullitiun*. [ebullitiun, Lat. ebullitio.] comeþ to fleume dulce & makiþ him to rote, & it [is] herto as it bifalliþ in oþere þingis þat ben swete, as to swete winis whanne sournes comeþ þeron it bicomeþ coold, & in þe same manere fleuma acetosum makiþ fleuma dulce coold // ¶ ffleuma salsum is moost drie of alle, & þis is whanne þer is ony part of colre medlid wiþ fleume, þan it is clepid fleuma salsum, for þe hete of þe colre makiþ it salt / ¶ ffleuma vitreum was liquide fleuma, & wiþ cooldnes it is congilid, or sum partie of malancolie is medlid & congiliþ it hard // ¶ Colre sum is natural & sum is innatural / Natural is liȝt & scharp & reed in colour &*. [MS. colour, erroneously inserted.] in substaunce, & þe more hoot þat it is þe more reednes it makiþ / Þanne vertues of colre ben þese / A colerik man schal haue hasti entendement & sotil [folio 126b] of witt, & hardi & hasti þouȝt, & hasti answere, & liȝtly meued to wraþþe*. [De propr. rer., lib. IV., cap. 10, Add. 27,944, fol. 36: "And so colerik men beþ generalliche wraþeful, hardy, vnmeke, liȝt, vnstable, inpetuous; in body long, sklendre & lene; in colour broun, in eer blak and crips, hard and stif; in touche hoot, in puls strong & swift."] / Of colre innatural ben .v. maners, as citrina, [vitellina]*. [vitellina, wanting.], adusta, prassina & eruginosa / Colera citrina is medlid wiþ subtil fleume / Colera vitellina*. [colera vitellina, called ȝellowȝ colera, in De propr. rer. ibid.] is medlid wiþ greet fleume / Colera adusta is in .ij. maners; oon is þis, þat it is to miche brent in*. [MS. & for in.] þe lyuer; þan wiþ þis brennyng þe subtil partie departiþ fro þe grete parties, & in þis maner it takiþ a spice of malancoly // ¶ In anoþer manere, partijs of malancoli þat ben brent, [ben]*. [ben, wanting.] medlid þerwiþ // ¶ And þer is iij. maner of colre adust, & is whanne his blood is adust id est brent as it schal be seid here after // ¶ Þer is anoþer maner of colre þat is clepid prassina,*. [De propr. rer., ibid. fol. 35 b.: "Þe þridde maner of colera hatte prassina, & is grene of colour and bittir scharp as an herbe þat hatte prassium, & marubium, & porrus in latyn."] þat is swiþe bittir // ¶ Eruginosa is lijk þe rust of copur, & þis maner of colre is miche freting & scharp, & G. seiþ þat þis maner colre is engendrid of hoot metis & scharpe as oynouns, garlek, mustard, & oþere mo // ¶ Of malancoli þer ben .ij. maners—as malancoli natural & malancoli innatural / Malancoly þat is naturalPage  204 haþ þese signis / Þe .j. is as it were fecis of blood,*. [De propr. rer., ibid. fol. 36: "Þe kyndeliche malencolie is coole and drye, þat is i-bred in blood as drastes in wyne."] [folio 127a] & her colour is as it were ledi & blac, & her bodi schal be leene & drie, & þei schulen haue good appetit for to ete, & þei schulen haue good mynde for to kepe þingis in her þouȝt, & þei schulen be dredeful & ful of enuye & gile & sorowe & coueitous / Malancolie innatural comeþ of humours brent & corrupt. Of euery of þese humours ben engendrid diuers maners of enpostyms / & euery maner postyme haþ diuers cure as it schal be seid here-after.

A general word of empostyms /

Apostyme haþ manie diuers names of diuers men, for lewid cirurgians*. [lewid cirurgians, Lat. rurales cyrurgici.] seien, þat þer is noon apostym but þat, þat makiþ quytture / Saue I seie, & alle auctouris seien þat eueri swellyng in a lyme, wheþir it be greet or smal, it schal be clepid apostym / For .A. seiþ: litil swellyngis schule be clepid litil apostyms, & grete swellyngis schulen be clepid grete apostyms / Þerfore apostym is seid swellyng in lymes, ouþir inflatioun*. [inflatioun, Lat. inflatio, O.Fr. inflacion. Vigo l. c. "Inflatus, Puffed vp, swellyng."] þat chaungiþ þe lyme oþer þan it schulde be; & þe mater herof comeþ of manie diuers þingis; ouþer it comeþ of humouris, or of watir, [folio 127b] or of wijnd / If it comeþ of humouris, þan it comeþ of blood, ouþer of fleume, or of colre, or of malancolie // Also enpostyms þat cometh of humours: summe comeþ of natural humours, & summe of innatural; & summe of sengle humours, & summe of humouris medlid togidere / And summe enpostyms cometh of causis wiþinneforþ, & summe of causis withoutforth / Þe causis wiþoutforþ is falling ouþer smiting, or of a wounde, or chaunging of eir / Of þe causis wiþinneforþ: as of wickidnes of humours, or to ful of humouris, or to ful of water, or of wijnd / or whanne a man is hurt wiþoutforþ: or wiþ greet hete þat brenneþ, or wiþ greet cooldnes of eir þat constreyneþ, or of greet drienes þat constreineþ, for alle þese causis humouris gaderiþ togidere & makiþ enpostyms // Also if a man falle vpon a stoon or vpon an hard þing, or if a man be smite wiþ a stoon or wiþ a staf, or þoruȝ prickyng of a venimous beest: alle þese þingis moun engendre venimous*. [a venimous, cancelled.] enpostyms / In þis maner þou [folio 128a] schalt knowePage  205 diuers enpostyms of what humouris þei comeþ / If superfluite of blood drawe to a lyme, as is clepid flegmon,*. [Halle. Table, p. 84. " [gap: 1] , id est inflammatio uel collectio, [gap: 1] hoc est a sanguine dicta, written moste commonly hither vnto (with muche rudenes) Flegmon, is properly a symple tumore (as Galen sayeth) and an affecte of the fleshie partes, comming of a greater fluxe of bloude then they nede or can naturally susteyne."] & þes ben þe signes þerof: þe place wole be reed for lijknes of blood, akynge for þe greet replecioun þerof, beting*. [beting, Lat. pulsatio. See N. E. Dict., s. v. beat, 13.] for þe greet depnes of mater, or for greet akynge / He may haue greuaunce of a feuer*. [De propr. rer., lib. VII., cap. 59, Add. 27,944, fol. 97 b.: "And somtyme it comeþ of ventosite & of wind, & hatte bubo; somtyme of a symple humour, as of blood, and hatte flegmon; þe tokenes þerof beþ: rede rednes comeþ of þe colour of blood, hardenesse comeþ of multitude of matiere & of hete þat wastiþ watry matiere, quappinge & lepinge of ventosite & fumosite, schuftynge & puttinge, sore ache of þestrecchinge of þe place; hete comeþ of hote matiere, & swellinge comeþ of multitude of matiere."] / If þe blood be þinne in substaunce & hoot in qualite, þan it makiþ herisipulam. & þis is þe signe þerof, þat in þe hiȝest place þerof, it wole be moost reed and hoot; & if þou leist þi fyngir þeron, & whanne þou remeuyst þi fyngir, þe skyn wole be whit þere þi fyngir was, & anoon it wole bicome reed aȝen, for þe mater þerof is subtil, & þe pacient haþ greet brennyng þerof & akynge // Blood in his owne substaunce is more gretter & makiþ more hete, & makiþ apostym, þat is clepid carbunculus / Þis enpostym comeþ to a man whanne he haþ haboundance of greet blood, & þerfor whanne he is replete of mete, he schulde baþe him or traueile him-silf, þat þe blood miȝte falle out, & for his greetnes & hardnes it mai not be [folio 128b] resolued with hete, & þanne it leueþ in þe skyn & makiþ apostym.*. [26,106, fol. 52 b.: hoc apostema fit cum homo habundat sanguine grosso, et balneatur post ciborum repletionem aut laborat, ita quod sanguis ad extrema movetur et propter suam grossitiem et duritiem non potest a calore resolui remanens in cuti facit apostema.] Þe signes herof ben þes: þe enpostym is hard for þe þiknes of blood, & þe colour þerof is swart reed for þe greet hete, & þe greet heete*. [heete, in margin.] herof makiþ a man sumtime to haue a feuer þerwiþ; & sumtyme it makiþ a man to haue sincopin,*. [Halle. Table, p. 122. "Syncope. [gap: 1] , id est animi deliquium, uel præseps uirium lapsus, that is the defecte of the mynde, or a sodeine slyding away of the strengthe of the body, and commonly called swoundynge."] & þis is speciali whanne þe matere is brent, & in þis maner þe matere þerof is turned into venym /

Page  206Natural colre makiþ herisipulam,*. [De propr. rer., ibid.: "herisipila, þat is holy fure per antifrasim, þat is contrarie spekinge."] & þe signe þerof is hardnes for þe greet drienes of colre. & þe heed of þe enpostym is schape as it were a pyne, for þe grece þat it haþ.*. [Lat. propter igneitatem ipsius.] & þe colour þerof is reed medlid wiþ ȝelow //

An enpostym þat comeþ of fleume, is clepid vdimia*. [vdimia [gap: 1] , tumour.—Vigo, Chirurgery. The Interpretation: "Undimia is a barbarouse terme, in greke it is called oedema, in latin tumor. For it is softe swellynge wythout payne."] or ȝima,*. [Zima. Sinonoma Barth, "Zima est apostema flancorum molle sine dolore." From [gap: 1] , that which is boiled, decoction. De propr. rer., ibid.: "In þe same manere aposteme comeþ of fleume, and hatte zimia oþur palus; for riȝt as in mures and in mareys is moche superfluyte of slyme & of wose, so in þis posteme is moche superfluyte; and if þou þurstist þy fyngre þer vppon, hit dyueþ inne, for þe rennynge matiere wiþdrawiþ & lettiþ þe vingre entre, & þanne in þe myddel is a putte as hit were þe bore of an hole; & whanne þe fingre is aweye, þe matiere comeþ aȝen & filliþ al þe place."] & is a neisch enpostym, & þe colour þerof is sumwhat whiȝt. & if þou pressist in þi fyngir, þer wole leue þere a pitt for þe gret neischenes; & whanne þi fyngir is aweie, it wole arise vp aȝen. Þis enpostym is wiþout akynge, saue it makiþ a greuaunce /

¶ Natural malancoli makiþ an hard enpostym, & is clepid Sclirosis.*. [Add. 16,106, fol. 53: apostema quod vocatur scliros ab aliis sephiros vel sclirosis. Halle. Table, p. 114. "Scirrhus [gap: 1] , id est durities, writen of old Sclirosis, is (as I gat her of Galen in diuers places) a tumore against nature, and an affecte of harde and thicke partes."] & þe signe þerof is hardnes, & þe colour þerof is as þe colour [folio 129a] of malancolie ledi or blac /

Enpostym þat comeþ of blood & watir medlid togidere. Þis is þe signe þerof: if þou settist þeron þi .ij. fyngris of þi .ij. hondis, & first pressist þat oon fyngir & þanne þat oþer, þou schalt fele þe watri mater remeue fro þat oon fyngir to þat oþer //

¶ Þese ben þe differencis of apostyms þat ben symple, þat comeþ of oon matere at oonis; & þese ensaumplis ben schewid tofor, for þou schalt þe bettir knowe enpostyms þat comeþ of double matere //

¶ Þer comeþ an empostym of blood & colre; & if þe more partie be of blood, þan þe enpostym schal be clepid flegmonides; & if þe more partie þerof be of colre, þanne he schal be clepid herisipilades. & þe signes herof þou schalt knowe bi þe signes ofPage  207 þe symple apostyms // ¶ Also blood & fleume natural [ben]*. [ben, wanting.] medlid togidere, & makiþ an enpostym þat is vdimia. & þe signe herof [is]*. [is, wanting.] þat þe heed of þis enpostym is reed, & þat oþere wole be whit*. [Incorrect translation. Add. 26,106, fol. 53: facit apostema quod videtur vdimia, nisi quia in superficie magis rubet.] / ¶ Also blood is medlid wiþ greet fleume & malancolie, & engendriþ glandulas & Scrophulas.*. [Halle. Table, p. 115. "Scrophula (so called by Auicenna, Guidone de Cauliaco, Bruno, Theodorico, Lanfranco, and others a Scropha, a pregnante soowe: because it or the lyke, is a disease common to hogs) is a harde Scirrhous tumore, in the glandules of the share or arme holes, but chiefly in the necke."] ¶ Colre medlid with fleume [folio 129b] makiþ fleume rennyng, & makiþ þat fleume goiþ wiþ him into ioynctis. & herof þou schalt haue a pleyner teching in þe chapitre of ioinctes. ¶ Also greet fleume is medlid with malancoli, & þerof comeþ glandula & Scrophule / Also malancolie & blood, colre & fleume ben medlid alle togidere & makiþ an enpostym þat is clepid antrax; & þe malice þerof is diuers after euery humour. Saue if blood & colre be feruent togidere & malancolie be malicious, þan þere falliþ manie harde þingis þerto, as quaking of þe herte, & sincopis, & out of hise wittis, & sumtyme deeþ. & þe signes herof ben greet hardnes of þe enpostym, & þe schap þerof as it were a pyn, & greet akynge, & sumtyme he schal not fele it. And þerfore .G. seiþ: hote apostyms, if þei be not felid, ben incurable. & veynes þat ben þeron wolen be of diuers colouris, & vpon þe enpostym þere wole be as it were a litil bladdre,*. [Compare Guilelm. de Salic., I. 59. Sl. 277, fol. 11: "In þe antrax .... þer been smale bladdres aboute þe copp of it, as þouȝ fier hadde touched þe place."] & þe colour þerof wole be as aischis, & it semeþ þat it is drawe ynward wiþ a þreed.*. [De propr. rer., lib. 7, cap. 59, Add. 27,944, fol. 93: "And also it semeþ þat hit is i-drawe to þe ground þerof wiþ a maner þrede, i-fastned to þe vttir partye of þe bladder in þe myddel." Not in Gulielm. de Salic.] & þis enpostym is seid contagious.

Of humouris þat ben [in] *. [in, wanting. Lat. De humoribus autem non naturalibus.]natural, þese þingis [folio 130a] folowiþ þerof / Of fleume þat is corrupt cometh Bocia & testudines / Of malancolie comeþ scrophule & glandule, as it is aforseid. & of alle þese þou schalt haue propre chapitris / Of colre þat is brent & of oþere humouris þat ben brent & corrupt þere comeþ manie pustulis, & summe þerof ben ful malicious after þe malice of þe matere / Herof comeþ ignis persicus, miliaris, formica, herpes, herpes estiomenus.Page  208 Ignis persicus is a signe*. [signe, probably mistaken for siknesse. Lat. ignis persicus est egritudo in qua sunt multe pustule.] þat þere ben manie pustule þeron & venymous water. & þe pustule ben reed al aboute & ȝelow, & occupieþ al þe lyme. & it is wiþ greet brennyng. & þis comeþ of colre brent and þinne / Miliaris haþ litil pustulis, & haþ not so greet brennyng, ne þe place þerof is not so reed. & þis comeþ ofte of fleume medlid wiþ a litil colre // ¶ fformica is a pustula þat is swiþe feruent, & haþ a cruste aboue, & it comeþ of colre brent. & þis is goynge & fretiþ þe lyme aboue, & it hath greet brennyng // ¶ Þe firste*. [Lat. Pruna similiter est pustula. The translator read: prima.—Phillips. "Pruna, a burning or live Coal; also a Carbuncle, Plague-sore, or fiery Botch."] is a pustula þat comeþ of malancolie & is blac or ledi, & it comeþ of þe venemous mater of malancoli / [folio 130b] Herpes estiomenus is as miche to seie as fretyng him-silf, & þis comeþ in manie maners / It comeþ in medlyng of colre þat is brent & malancolie innatural & brent & sutil. & whanne þis falliþ into a lyme, it fretiþ þe lyme for þe greet malice þat it haþ // ¶ Also þer is anoþer maner passioun þat haþ manie diuers names, for summen clepen it cancrum, & summen lupum. & men of fraunce clepen it malum nostre domine

* malum nostre domine; This name, given to Erisipelas, is due to the miraculous cures of this disease by intercession of the Holy Virgin. They are first reported by Hugo Farsitus, a canon of Saint Jean des Vignes, in Soissons. In his book, De Miraculis Maria Suessionensis, he relates the miracles, as seen by himself in the year 1128, and mentions several instances where women suffering from a severe skin-disease have been cured by the help of the Holy Virgin. Further account of a plague known under the name "mal des ardents" and of cures by the help of the Holy Virgin, is given by Gautier de Coincy. See G. d. C., ed. Foquet, p. 138.

The same disease is also called fuoco di Sant Antonio. See Tomm. Dict., Maladie S. Antoine (Godefr. Dict.). The Saints Germain, Main, Othoine and Verain, have likewise given their names to the erisipelas. Quinte Ess., 8. 23: "fire of St. Antony, a brennynge sijknes clepid þe fier of helle."

/ And lumbardis clepen it fier of seint antony, & summen clepen it herisipulam. Of alle þese diuers names is no charge of, saue þe signes of þis sijknes ben þese: freting & brennyng & blac colour & stynkynge, & þat riȝt foul stynkyng. & or þe skyn þerof be to-broke, it wole not stynke, saue þe place þerof wole be ledi. & if þou felist þe place wiþ þi fyngir, þou schalt fynde þe fleisch þerof al corrupt // ¶ Cancer is a postym þat is swiþe corrupt. & is in .ij. maners: as cancer vlceratus, & cancer þat is not vlceratus. ¶ A cankre þat is notPage  209 vlceratus is in .ij. maners: oon comeþ of malancolie rotid, & bigynneþ for to wexe in þe mychilnes of a fecche or of a pese. & þanne it [folio 131a] wole wexe alwei in a maner brennynge; & euere as þe matere wexiþ, so wole þe brennyng wexe forþ. & it wole haue veynes of diuers colour. & sum colour þerof wole be ledi, & sum wole be purpur, summe þerof wole be grene. & þan þis is ful of colerik matere corrupt. & it haþ greet akynge, & if þou pressist it with þi fyngir, þe malice þerof wole be miche more / Þis passioun comounly wole wexe in placis þat ben glandule / Þis maner enpostym comeþ ofte in a mannes þies & in a wommans brest & in oþere placis / Cancer vlceratus. Alle þe signes þerof ben tofore seid in his propre chapitre /

Now alle þe signes of enpostyms ben seid, go we to þe curis / Þou must take kepe, wheþer þe enpostym come of causis wiþoutforþ or wiþinne / If þe enpostym comeþ of causis wiþinneforþ, þanne þou must purge þe matere or þou leie þerto ony repercussijf or ony maturatif or ony resoluyng þing / forwhi a repercussijf*. [MS. repercussist.] mai not do awei al þe matere, þouȝ it sumwhat aswage þe akynge in þe firste bigynnyng / neþeles itt makiþ þe matere hard, & aftirward þe patient [folio 131b] schulde haue þe more penaunce / A resoluyng in an vnclene bodi drawiþ more matere þerto þan it resolueþ. ¶ A maturatif makiþ þe enpostym to wexe more, if his bodi be vnpurgid, & makiþ þe matere of þe enpostym feruent / In what maner þou schalt purge diuers maters, in þe chapitre of allopucia þou schalt fynde it, & in þe chapitre de doloribus iuncturarum, þat schal be seid here aftir / Þou schalt worche in enpostyms þat falliþ in a mannes bodi wiþoutforþ. If þou wost wel þat his bodi is replet, þis schal alwei be þin entencioun, for to drawe þe matere awei in þis maner: / If þe enpostym be in a mannes mouþ, þan þou schalt make him no gargarisme;*. [gargarisme, a gargle. Vigo, Chirurgery, Interpretation: "A gargarisme is when we cause water to bubble in our throtes, not sufferynge it to go downe."] & if it be in his ers, þan þou schalt make him no laxatif medicyn / & if it be in a wommans maris,*. [maris, Lat. matrix, O.Fr. marris. Sloane 2463, fol. 194 bk.: "The moder is a skyn, þat þe childe is enclosed in his moder-wombe. And manye of þe sekenesses that women hauen, comen of greuaunces of this moder, that we clepen þe marice."] þan þou schalt ȝeue hir no medicyn for to make menstrue; saue þou schalt alwei go to þe contrarie herof: as if enpostyms be in partijs aboue, þan þou schalt ȝeue catarticum / If þe enpostym be bineþe, þan ȝeuePage  210 him medicyns for to caste. ¶ Whanne þe matere is purgid, þan bigynne we curis of hoot enpostyms / Þou must [folio 132a] be war of repercussiuis in ten maners. ¶ Þe j. cause is þis, if his bodi be replet / as it is aforseid. ¶ Þe .ij. is, greet fume of humours & venymous. ¶ Þe .iij. is gretnes*. [gretnes, grossities.] of humours rotid. ¶ Þe .iiij. cause is, if apostym wexe in a noble lyme as in a mannes eere, or in a wommans tetis, or in þe rigge abouteforþ. ¶ Þe .v. cause is: if þe enpostym be in þe þrote, or nyȝ þe brayn, or in ony place nyȝ þe herte, or nyȝ ony lyme þat norischeth / ¶ Þe .vj. cause is in a child. ¶ Þe .vij. cause is, if it be in an oold man. ¶ Þe .viij. cause is if it be in a man þat risiþ vp of sijknes. ¶ Þe .ix. cause is if it be apostema creticum.*. [creticum, Lat. criticum.] ¶ Þe .x. cause is, if an enpostyme be in a noble membre, & be putt fro þat place to anoþer. ¶ In noon of þese .x. causis, þou schalt make noon repercussif in hote enpostyms as þou schalt fynde þe maner in þe antidotarie of repercussifs / ¶ To enpostyms of blood, þou miȝt do medicyns repercussifs & dissolutiuis sotilly, so þat þe firste bigynnyng*. [þe firste bigynnyng, determination of time denoted by accusative. Add. 10,440, fol. 20: "and be war, þat þe tyme of chaungynge of þis medycyn þou take it not awey with violence."] repercussifs ouercome þe mater of enpostym myche, & in þe stat*. [in þe stat, Lat. in statu. Add. 27,944, fol. 98: "whan þe posteme is in state."] of þe enpostym lasse, & in þe ende þerof þou schalt [folio 132b] vse clene resoluyng þingis / If þou miȝt not wiþ repercussiuis do awei þe enpostym ne resolue him, saue he bigynneþ to quytture, þan þou schalt do þerto medicyns maturatiuis, til it be wel quitturid. ¶ Of repercussiuis resolutiuis maturatiuis & þe manere of worching þerof þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie. ¶ Whanne þe enpostym is quitturid & sufficiently rotid, þis þou miȝt knowe whanne þe akynge is al aweie, & whanne þe matere is neische þerof, & þan opene þe enpostym, þat þou seest moost competent // Saue or þou opene ony enpostyms, þou must be war of þus manie þinges: ¶ Þe j. is, þou schalt opene noon enpostym or he be perfitli rotid, but if þe enpostym rotid ony oþir lyme, or þat he were nyȝ ony noble lyme, or nyȝ ony ioynct // In oþere causis þou schalt abide til he be perfitli rotid. & in þe kuttyng þou schalt loke where þe skyn is most þinne and moost hangyng, & þere þou schalt opene þe enpostym.*. [Lat.: facias apertionem ubi materia magis dependet, et ubi pellis est magis tenuis.] ¶ Þe .ij. entenciounPage  211 is þis, þat þou schalt be war, whanne þou openest [folio 133a] an enpostym, þat þou hurte no senewe, ne no veine ne noon arterie. ¶ Þe .iij. cause is, þat þou schalt not avoide al þe mater at oon tyme, & principali whanne þer is myche matere, & þe enpostym is greet // ¶ Þe .iiij. is þis, þou schalt alwei opene þe enpostym in endelong þe lyme & not ouerþwert. Whanne þou hast opened þe enpostym, þan þou schalt cure him vp*. [cure him vp. Compare Sloane 277, fol. 1 b.: "be it flesched vp wiþ powdres & oynementes incarnatifes."] as it is aforseid in þe cure of vlcus virulentum. Þan þou schalt fille þe wounde þerof with oold lynnen clooþ þat is whiȝt, anoon to .iij. daies [wiþ] mundificatiuis of ȝelkis of eiren & mele, aftir .iij. daies wiþ vnguentum apostolorum*. [Phillips. "Apostolorum Unguentum, a cleansing Ointment, so call'd, because it is made of twelue Drugs, according to the Number of the Apostles."] & oon of þe mundificatiuis þat schulen be seid in þe antidotarie, & wiþ regendring þingis & drijng þingis. ¶ A colerik enpostym comeþ late to rotyng, but if it be rotid wiþ ony mater leid wiþoutforþ; þou shalt cure þis enpostym in þe same maner as þou schalt enpostyms of blood, saue þis mote haue coldere medicyns / Carbunculis schulen be curid as antrax, & þe cure herof schal be seid herafter. [folio 133b] Vdimia schal not be smiten yn wiþ repercussiuis*. [Lat. vdimia proprie non repercutitur.] saue it schal be waastid awei in þe firste bigynnyng in þis maner. Þou schalt purge him with trocis*. [trocisce, Lat. trociscus. Sloane 277, fol. 1 b. (xvth cent.), "a trosce of þe trosces maad aȝens scrophules." Vigo 1. c. "Trochiscos in Greke is a lyttle whele. Amonge the apothecaries, it is a confection made of sondrye pouders and spices, by the meane of some lyquoure. In latine they call it Pastillum."] de turbit, or wiþ anoþer medicyn þat purgiþ fleume. Þan stewe*. [stewe, Lat. evapora.] þat lyme wiþ a decoccioun of absinthij, abrotane, sticados, & squinanti. & take aischis of a vyne or of an ook, & make þerof lie & wete þerinne lynnen cloþis & leie hem vpon þe place hoot, & binde hem streite þerto þat it hile al þe enpostym, & in þis maner þe matere þerof schal be drawen awei // If it so be þat þere be ony blood medlid þerwiþ, or if þer haþ be leid þerto ony maturatif so þat þe mater þerof be rotid, þan opene it. Whanne it is opened, it mote haue stronger mundificatiuis þan ony oþer for þe hardnes of þe quitture & þe greetnes þerof / Þis is a mollificatif þat rasis made & A. ℞. bdellij, galbani,*. ["Galbanum, a kind of strong scented Gum issuing out of a Plant call'd Fennel-Giant, which grows in Syria." Phillips.] opoponacPage  212 ana, & make hem neische with oile of lilie in a morter, & grinde hem wel togidere. & þan do þerto fenigrecum & lynseed as myche as alle þe oþere & medle hem wel togidere, & herof leie an enplastre vpon an hard enpostym wiþ þis oonly, or medle þerwiþ fatte [folio 134a] figis & leie þis enplastre þerto til it be resolued & maad neische / Þis medicyn makiþ an hard enpostym to bicome neische & resolueþ him wiþout ony swellyng / Þer ben oþere manye medicyns þat ben mollificatif & resoluyng þat þou schalt finde in þe antidotarie // A watri apostym schal be curid as vdimia, saue it schal haue drier medicyns, & þou schalt cure him in þe same maner as it is seid in þe chapitre, whanne a mannes lyme is to gret, for to make it smal // Ventosum apostema, þat is apostym þat is ful of wijnd. Þou schalt cure it wiþ medicyns þat consumeþ wijnd wiþinne & wiþoute / wiþinneforþ as of vsyng of comyn & carui, & he mote be war of growel*. [growel, Lat. legumina. See Prompt. Parv., "Growelle or grewelle, Ligumen."] & metis þat swelliþ; wiþoutforþ wiþ oilis þat consumeþ wijnd, or with þis oile, ℞. rue, cimini, seminis fenicli, anisi, carui, ameos*. [ameos. See N. E. Dict., s. v. ammeos.], apij, ana .[ounce][one half]., cold oile lī. [one half]., do alle þes in a viol of glas, & do þat glas in a vessel wiþ water, & make þe water seþe & kepe wel þe glas þeron þat it breke not, & wiþ þis oile anoynte þe place hoot / Item .℞. calcem and [folio 134b] distempere it wiþ swete wijn, & make þerof as it were an emplastre & leie þervpon / ℞. olii anetini*. [oleum anetinum, oil of Fennel.] .ȝ ij., cere. [ounce][one half]., ysope þat it be drie & poudrid. [ounce] j., & make herof a plastre. ¶ Herisipilades*. [Phillips. "Erysipelatodes, a Swelling like the former [Erysipelas], the Skin being of a darker Colour, and the Symptoms more gentle: a Bastard Erysipelas."] or flegmonides schulen be curid in þe same maner þat ben herisipulam & flegmon / Of glandulis & scrophulis, we wolen speke in her propre chapitre //

¶ Antrax schal be curid wiþ avoiding of noious matere, & wiþ þinges þat comfortiþ þe herte & þe vertu. Neþeles at þe firste bigynnyng her vertu failiþ, & summe þat ben late blood or purgid ben lost / Þerfore manie men ben agast for to lete hem blood or ȝeue hem ony medicyn laxatif / Ech mesel*. [ech mesel, Lat. ego vero. Compare selwylly, Prompt. Parv.] if þe pacient be strong, I wole lete him blood adai, & in þe same nyȝt I wole ȝeue him a medicyn laxatif // Saue herof þou schalt take kepe if he be feble, & his herte quake, & his pous falle, þan it is folie for to lete himPage  213 blood or ȝeue him ony medicyn laxatif, saue take þe cure oonly in goddis hand // ¶ I wole telle an ensample þat bifel in þe citee of mediolanensis þat it mowe be ensample to þee & lernyng / Þer was a man of xxx. wynter oold, [folio 135a] & an antrax come vpon him in þe riȝtside of his necke, & he was so greet woxe aboute his necke & his þrote, & he was so swollen, þat þere was but litil difference bitwixe þe gretnes of hise schuldris & his necke. & neþeles I fond his vertu strong. & I wiste what sijknes it was bi a bladdre þat satt þer vpon, & was in þe riȝtside of his necke, & þat was þe firste bigynnyng of his sijknes / & neþeles þer is manye lechis of greet name þat cowde not knowe þat passioun / Also I lete him blood in boþe his armis, & drowe out blood ynowȝ. & þo I dietide him as a man þat hadde a feuer agu. & amorowe I ȝaf þe colature of fruit of mirabolani citrini,*. [MS. inserts hinc, referring to another chapter.] þe which þou schalt fynde in þe chapitre of allopucia / Vpon þe enpostym þere þe bladdre was, I leide scabiose grounden wiþ grese. I foond neuere bettere medicyns in þis caas þan þese ben / For þe man was al dissolued of his sijknes of þe brennyng & of þe akynge, saue þe place þat was to-swoollen, was not þe lasse, & þe man was not þe more feblid for his laxatif, ne for no medicyn þat he hadde / & on þe morowe I lete him blood in his oon arm, [folio 135b] & ȝaue him a medicyn laxatif in lasse quantite þan I dide raþere, & þan þe swellynge aswagide miche, & in þe place þere þe bl[a]ddre was I fond a maner cruste as it were a þing þat were brent with fier & was of þe brede of iij. ynchis. & wiþinne a fewe daies þe cruste was arerid vp, & þe pacient felide no greet greuaunce. & in þe same place þere þe bladdre was, þere was a deep vlcus. & þoruȝ þe greet hole I siȝ þe þrote & þe gret veines, & I putte yn myn hond / & I ȝaf þe pacient good norisching metis, & I made hool vlcus wiþ mundificatiuis, til he was al hool bi þe help of god //

¶ Pustule þat comeþ of humours corrupt as ignis persicus*. [ignis persicus, Herpes zoster (Dunglison). Phillips: "a Gangrene, it is also taken for a Carbuncle or a fiery Plague Sore."] & miliaris,*. [De propr. rer., lib. VII., cap. 61, Add. 27,944: "amonge auctoures þis euel is i-clepid herpes milii oþer graunlesus, an euel ful of graynes. But swiche bleynes beþ litil and smale as greynes of mylie." Phillips: "Herpes Miliaris, or Pustularis, a sort of yellow Bladders or Wheals, like Millet-Seed, that seize the Skin, cause much itching, and turn to eating Ulcers."] &*. [MS. ¶ instead of &.] fformica*. [MS. ffornica. Vigo Interpret. "Formica is a little excrescence, or outgrowynge in the Skynne, somewhat brode aboute the botome, which when it is scratched causeth as it were the styngynge of an ante, or pismare, and therfore it is also called in greke myrmecia."] schal be purgid wiþ medicyns þat purgiþ colrePage  214 & malancolie. & þat same medicyn schal purge humours þat be brent, as fumus terre, cuscute, lappacium acutum, cene,*. [cene for sene.] absinthium & oþere mo / Also þou schalt voide þe matere wiþ medicyns þat comforten þe herte, & kepiþ þat þe venym ne smite not to þe herte; þan þou schalt cure þe place with þingis þat makiþ cold vpon þe place. & whanne vlcus is þeron þan it is no nede, saue drie it vp as it is aforseid in þe cure [folio 136a] of vlcera. Saue abouteforþ þou schalt leie colde þingis til þe cure be perfitli do / & þere come ony bifalling þerto,*. [Lat. si praua superveniunt accidentia...] þan alwei ȝeue him medicyns for to comforte þe herte, þat ben forseid in antrace // Sumtyme tofore alle þinges pruna*. [Lat.: Aliquando super omnia adiuvat prunam et formicam urere. The translator misunderstood pruna (name of the disease) for pruna (plums). Compare page 208, note 2.] ben good / And formicam þou schalt brenne / fforwhi a cauterie drawiþ out al þe matere þat is corrupt & waastiþ it awei.

¶ Herpes estiomenus*. [Vigo Interpret. "If the substaunce be grosse, and aygre it vlcereth the skynne vnto the fleshe, & is called herpes esthiomenos, that is eatynge or gnawynge herpes."] is curid after þe purgacioun of þe matere, þat þou schalt algatis take hede for to do / if his vertu be strong. & þou schalt algate aboute þe sijknes*. [Lat.: sed ponendo supra locum sanum iuxta ægritudinem defensiuum...] leie a defensif of bole & terra sigillata & oile of ro. & vinegre / Þis defensif, as seiþ .A., & I haue ofte preued it, þis defendiþ eueri lyme fro corrupcioun, & þis wole not suffre þat þe matere schal make noon vlceracioun ne no fretyng. & vpon þe place þat is corrupt & deed, þou schalt leie an hoot iren, & do awei alle þe partis þat ben corrupt. & þis þou myȝt do with a medicyne corosif, saue an hoot iren is bettere / Whanne þe rotid matere is aweie, þanne make clene þe place wiþ a mundificatif of iuys of ache, & do þerto a litil mirre. & whanne þe place is wel clensid, þan do þerto a medicin [folio 136b] for to regendre fleisch, & þanne drie it vp /

Of empostyms of þe heed //

Thowȝ we han maad a general tale of enpostyms, neþeles apostym in eueri lyme haþ diuers curis / Þerfore I wole make to eueryPage  215 enpostym a diuers chapiter // ¶ I seie þat in þe skyn of a mannes heed ben diuers enpostyms / If þere be*. [be, above line.] enpostym þerof sutil fleume, ful of fleume as it schal be seid heraftir in þe chapitre of bocium*. [This passage is corrupt. Lat.: Nam fiunt ibi apostemata a subtili phlegmate vel ab alia phlegmatis specie ut mucilaginosi et pulmosi et est sicut cancerosi bocii erit dictum.] / Þis maner sijknes is engendrid bitwene þe skyn & the fleisch, & it is su[m]what holowȝ, & ben clepid testudines for þe lijknes of a beest þat is clepid so, & ben engendrid of hard fleume, & ben, as it were, hard knottis þat were maad fast to þe scolle, as it were hornis / For I seie a man came to me, & he hadde in his heed vij. suche maner þingis in diuers placis, & summe þerof weren as longe & as scharp as it were a gotis horn or þe lenkþe of a mannes þombe, & þei weren greuous to þe man, & I hadde miche wondre þat þer were noon vlcera in þe skyn / Whanne I siȝ wel þat þei hadden her bigynnynge of þe scolle boon, I [folio 137a] wolde not entermete þerwith of þe cure, & I counseilide him þat he schulde putte him into no mannes cure for to cure him, for it þouȝte to me impossible.

¶ Þe curis of al þe enpostyms in þe heed, ben þese / If it be of neische matere or of rotid matere, þan þou schalt not take hede for to drie it wiþ mollificatiuis, þouȝ I seide so in enpostyms of fleume in þe general chapitre; for þat myȝte schende*. [schende. Lat.: quia sic posset cranium inficere liquida materia.] þe scolle wiþ liquid mater or corrupt matere. & if þe matere þerof is hard, make it neische wiþ maturatiuis, saue lete þou not it rotie to myche. & or it be rotid to miche, opene it in þe maner of a triangle þus; for þis empostym of þe heed for þe gretnes of þe skyn, and for it is ful of pooris, it mai not wel be clensid, but if þe woundis were so miche þat þe mundificatif myȝte come to þe botme. Whanne þe enpostym is kutt in þe forseid maner, þanne avoide þe mater & fille þe place al wiþ pecis wet in oil of rosis, & sugre molten þeron, & alym & leie þis in þe botme þerof til [folio 137b] þe place be wel maad clene. Aftirward wiþ vnguentum apostolorum & oþere þingis þat engendriþ fleisch, cure him as it is forseid in þe cure of vlcers þat ben olde // ¶ Nodus is curid wiþ kuttyng of þe skyn endelongis vpon þe place & drawe him out wiþ alle hise rotis. & if þer leueþ ony rote of him, þan leie þeron þe poudre of affadillorum, or of sumPage  216 liȝt corosif or vnguentum viride, þat þe rotis þerof mowe frete awei þerwiþ; & þan regendre & þan drie it vp // Watir þat is gaderid in children hedis,*. [Hydrocephalus and its cure is treated at some length by most of the ancient physicians. See Paul. Aegineta, ed. Adams, vol. II., p. 250. Our author's description is abridged from Gulielm. de Salic., lib. I., cap. 1.] ouþer it is wiþinne þe scolle or wiþoute þe scolle / If it be withynne þe scole, it semeþ to me so perilous, þat I wole bitake þe cure to god / If þe watir be withoutforþ, it mai be curid wiþ anointing of oile of camomille & solfre grounden togidere; & þanne make him .iij. cauterijs: oon a litil aboue þe forheed, & oon bihinde þe nolle in þe welle*. [welle, Lat. fontinella.] þerof, & oon aboue þe hindere celle. Þese cauterijs wiþ þe forseid anoyntingis drieþ & waastiþ þe matere of þe watir // ¶ Þe water þat comeþ in children hedis, is engendrid in þis manere / whanne [folio 138a] þe maris of a womman is watri, & þe child þat lijþ þerine lijþ foldyng adounward his heed vpon hise knees. & þan þe moisture falliþ adoun & fyndiþ a void place in þe childis heed & entriþ þerinne / & þis passion makiþ a child deed ofte, or he haue ony age for to be holpen /

/ Of enpostyms of þe rootis of a mannes eeris //

Apostyme þat comeþ in a mannes eere or in þe rotis of a mannis eeren. & þis comeþ sumtyme in die cretico, whanne þat a mannes kynde is not so miȝti for to putte out þe gretnes of þe mater bi sote ne bi noon oþer avoiding, & þan kynde worchiþ what it mai, & driueþ þe matere an hiȝ to þe heed & abidiþ in þe rotis of þe eeren, & þere it engendriþ apostym. & in þis place it is perilous, for it is so nyȝ þe heed & veynes & arterijs & neruys / Þis manere enpostym ofte sleeþ a man whanne þe matere comeþ violently // Þe matere of þis enpostym, ouþer it is colre, or blood, or fleume, or malancoli; & alle þe signes herof ben aforseid / Þe cure of [folio 138b] þis enpostym mai not bigynne with repercussiuis, saue it mote bigynne wiþ mitigatiuis, & with þingis þat puttiþ out þe matere / Waische þe place wiþ a decoccioun of camomille soden þerinne / & þanne aftir þat anoynte þe same place with oile of camomille, & þan wete wolle in þe same oile & leie þervpon, & bi no maner leue þou not þat þou leie in his eere oile of bittir almaundis, for it is a greet help // ¶ If þe mater be deep & it be hard for to drawe it out, þan it were good to sette vpon þe place a drie ventosePage  217 for to helpe to drawe out þe matere, & aftir resolue þe matere & leie þerto mitigatiuis for to do awei þe akynge / ¶ If þe matere wole not be resolued in þis maner, saue it bigynneþ to be quitture þeron, þan wiþ tempere maturatiuis þat ben not to hote, make þe enpostym quitture / Whanne þe place is wel rotid abide þou no brekyng of þe enpostym, saue opene þe place sotilly wiþ an instrument þat is competent þerto / & þou muste be wel war þat þou touche no veyne, ne noon arterie, ne no senewe, for þerof miȝt come [folio 139a] myche perel, for þere ben nerues in þe same place, if þei were kutt or prickid, þe pacient miȝte lese his vois for euere / & if þere were ony veyne kutt þerof, þer miȝt come greet perel þerof. & whanne þe place is opened, þan make þe place clene wiþ mundificatiuis, þat schulen be seid in þe antidotarie / & whanne þe place is perfitli clene, þanne make þe fleisch wexe & do þe cure perfitli / For bi yuel curyng in þis place miȝt engendre a festre, þat ofte tyme comeþ of an enpostym /

Apostyms of þe necke and of þe þrote /

Apostyms þat ben in þis place, or it is wiþoutforþ in þe senewis, or in þe braun, or it is wiþinneforþ bi þe place þat a mannes mete goiþ doun, or bi þe þrote, or it is bitwixe þe .ij. placis in a place þat is clepid ismon.*. [ismon. Sinonom. Barth., p. 26, "Ysinon est inter ysofagum et tracheam arteriam." Read Ysmon. From [gap: 1] , neck, narrow passage. See [gap: 1] in Stephanus Thesaur. De propr. rer., lib. V., cap. 24, Add. 27,944, fol. 49 bk.: "& it happiþ þat þis euel matere is somtyme al i-gedred wiþinne þe skynne þat departiþ þe weye of þe breeþ from þe weye of þe mete & drynke, þat hatte isophagus & bredeþ squynancye, þat sleeþ in on day."] & comounli þe enpostyms þat ben in þis place, comeþ of blood, or of fleume, & ful seelden it comeþ of colre, & more lattere of malancoli. Þe humours þat ben in þe cause,*. [See page 194, note 8.] þou schalt knowe bi signes aforseid / If þe matere be in þe braun of the necke wiþoutforþ, þat þou miȝt knowe [folio 139b] bi schewing of þe enpostym wiþoutforþ. & bi þese signes þou schalt knowe whanne þe enpostym is wiþoutforþ, if þer is no letting in ysophagus þere þe mete schulde go adoun, & if wijnd be not stoppid, þan þou miȝt wite wel þat þe enpostym is wiþoutforþ, & also bi þe schewing þat is outward / And if þe enpostym is wiþinne, þan þe pacient schal not swolowe adoun his mete, ne drawe wel his breeþ / If þe enpostym þat is wiþinne swelle greetly, his iȝen wolen swelle þerwiþ, & he schal not suffre his tunge in his mouþ, & he ne schalPage  218 not speke, & þer wole go out miche spume of his mouþ / Þanne summe lechis þat ben hardi wolen putte a smal tree in his þrote & breke þe enpostym, & in þat maner þe pacient mai be delyuered; saue þis maner worching is not sure, for in þis maner manie men dieþ, & þe deeþ comeþ not of þe sijknes, saue it is defaute in þe leche*. [it is defaute in þe leche, Lat. medico imputatur.] / Þis maner sijknes þat is so hid wiþinneforþ, it mai be helid wel in þe bigynnyng in þis maner*. [Much of our author's treatment is borrowed from Avicenna, Lib. III., Fen. 19, Cap. 11, ed. Ven. 1527, fol. 188.] / If þe enpostym be hoot, þou schalt lete him blood in þe veine þat is clepid basilica, & if þe patient haþ had þe [folio 140a] sijknes longe or þou come to him, þan þou schalt lete him blood in þe middil veyne of þe arm þat is clepid mediana, & he schal blede so longe til he swoune almoost, & principali if he be strong & ful of fleisch / In þe .ij. dai þou schalt lete him blood in þe veines vndir þe tunge / & loke þat þou do no þing aftir her counseil þat seien þat in þe firste bigynnyng þou schalt lete him blood in veines vndir þe tunge, & after þat in þe heed veine or in sum oþere place. For in þis manere leting blood, if his bodi were replet, he miȝt liȝtli be achekid// ¶ Whanne þou hast lete him blood as it is aforseid, þan make him a gargarisme wiþ a decoccioun of ro., sumac,*. [sumac, Fr. Sumac; Arab. Summāq. "Sumach or Sumack, a kind of rank-smelling Shrub that bears a black Berry, made use of by Curriers to dress their Leather." Phillips.] balaustiarum, lentium, & gallarum wiþ þe which be distemperid þerwiþ diameron,*. [diameron, [gap: 1] . Vigo Interpretation, "Diamoron, a confection made of mulberries."] or tordis of a sparow, or of an hen, or þe tord of an hound þat etiþ manie boonys & noon oþer mete,*. [By this kind of food the album græcum, the white dung of a dog is produced.] or a childis tord dried while it is soukyng. ¶ Also take an houndis tord þat etiþ oonly boonis & of hennis, satureye*. [satureye, savory. Wr. Wül. 609, 30 (xv), sauereye.] ana, & make þerof poudre & distempere it wiþ water & hony, & make þerof a gargarisme, & he schal drinke water of barley, & he schal no þing ete, saue a þing maad of wheete-bran [folio 140b] in þis maner*. [Lat.: nihilque comedat nisi candarusium factum de furfure in hunc modum. Matth. Sylv.: "Candaros vel candarusium—est ordeum cui non est cortex," from [gap: 1] , grain, groat.] / Take newe bran of whete & caste þeron hoot water & hele it & lete it stonde so an hour, & þanne grinde it in a morter wiþ a pestel & cole it, & þanne seþe it wiþ a litil salt & ȝeue it þePage  219 pacient / & do þeron penidis.*. [penidis, Vigo Interpr. "Penidie are made of the Apothecaries wyth suggre wrethen lyke ropes." Fr. penide; Lat. penidium, from [gap: 1] : spool on which the woof is wound.—Compare diapenidion in Piers the Plowman, ed. Skeat, 1886, II. p. 77, note.] & if he mai not swolowe it adoun, þanne sette a litil ventuse in þe welle of his necke*. [MS. tofore inserted but deleted.] with fier & þan he schal swolowe, & anoynte al his necke tofore & bihinde wiþ oile of camomille. & vpon þe anoyntyng leie wolle vnwaischen,*. [wolle vnwaischen, vn, in margin. Lat. lana succida. Lewis, Latin Dict., gives a reference from App. Apologia: recens lana tonsa succida appellata est.] & make a sutil plastre of a nest of irundinis, & is good for þe squinacie,*. [squinacie, Lat. squinatia, quinsy. See Cathol. Angl., p. 357, note.] & is maad in þis maner / Take a nest of irundinis & boile it longe in watir, & þanne cole it þoruȝ a seue þat þe grete gobetis moun be cast awei / Þan take þe rotis of lilie & seþe hem in oþer water & rotis of bismalue, & þe rote of brionie & leues of malue & bismalue, & violet, & peritorie.*. [peritorie, Lat. parietaria; wall-pellitory.] & whanne þei ben boilid, grinde hem wel, & medle hem wiþ water of irundinum þat is forseid, & do þerto leueyne & mele of fenigreci, & þan do þerto oile or grese, & make herof an enplastre / Þis enplastre is good to resolue enpostym & make it quitture, wheþer [folio 141a] it be wiþinne or wiþoute, & make it abrood upon a clooþ & leie it vpon hoot. & anointing is good wiþ oile of camomille medlid wiþ butter þat it be oold & not salt, & after þe anoyntyng leie þervpon wolle vnwaische // ¶

* The passage from lf. 141, l. 5 till lf. 141, bk., l.8 (p. 220. l. 15), is repeated in lf. 143, with some alterations. The corresponding words from the Latin are quoted to show the independent character of the two versions. l. 18, 19. If þe — — manere] It is good if þe enpostym be wiþinne or þe more partie be withynne, & if it mai not be resolued ne do awei wiþ repercussiuis, þan it is good to vse gargarisms, þat ben maturatifs, maad in þis maner. (Bonum est etiam si apostema fuerit interius, aut maior eius pars, cum tempus prolongatur quod non repercutitur nec resoluitur: vti maturatiuis gargarismatibus ut hoc.) 20, 21. seþe — — cole hem] putte hem in water & seþe hem in water (coque in aqua). 21. or] & medle þerwiþ. 21, 22. medled wiþ butter] & butter & wijn. þat makiþ — — enpostym] þis wole make enpostym þat is withynne in þe þrote maturatif (maturat omne intrinsecum apostema siue in gutture siue in stomacho siue in intestinis fuerit generatum).

1, 2. þe aswaging] cesing. and if] if. 2. schewe] be seen. 3, 4. be — — arterie] be wel war of veynes & arterijs. 4. whanne it is opened] þan. 5. and] om. 6, 8. wiþinneforþ — — galle] al wiþinne & wole not breke wiþ þe gargarism þat is aforseid of butter & figis & water & wijn, þan þou schalt breke him wiþ a medicyn þat haly þe abbot vside as wiþ a gargarism of gallarum. (Si fuerit intra, nec rumpatur: cum gargarismate prædicto de butyro, ficuum aqua et vino rumpatur cum ingenio subtili Haly ab. scilicet cum gargarismate stypticorum sicut decoctionis gallarum.) 9. & seþe — — þerof a gargarism] om. 10. wole breke] brekiþ þe. 11. þan þou schalt bringe out þe mater] drawe out þe quitture. 11, 12. & — butter] & a litil butter þerinne. 12. & make þerof] & herof he schal make. 12, 13. & lete him vse þis gargarism] om. matere be drawe out & þan] quitture be drawen awei after þat. 14. of liquorice — tamarisci] wiþ liquoris & thamarisci soden in watir.

If þe enpostym be wiþinne, it is good þat me leie þerto no repercussiuis, saue vse gargarismis maad in þis manere / ℞, ficus siccas, semen malue, semen lini, seþe þese in water & þan cole hem, & make þerof a gargarisme; or water of figis medlid wiþ butter, þat makiþ maturatif eueri maner enpostym.

Page  220Whanne þe enpostym is rotid; þat þou schalt knowe bi þe aswaging of þe akynge, & if þe enpostym schewe wiþoutforþ, þanne opene it wiþ an instrument, & be war þat þou hurte no senewe, ne no veine, ne noon arterie. & whanne it is opened, make it clene wiþ mundificatiuis þat schulen be seid in þe antidotarie / And if þe enpostym be wiþinneforþ, þan þou schalt not breke it wiþ þis gargarisme þat is aforseid, saue þou schalt make a gargarism þat haly vside / Take galle, acacie, psidiarum, balaustie, aluminis iamini*. [Sinonom. Barth., p. 1, "Alumen iamem, A. scissum, Alimen de pluma, idem."—Matth. Sylv. "Iamen est prouincia Iameni uel Aliamen."] & seþe hem in water & cole it & make [folio 141b] þerof a gargarism, for þis gargarism wole breke enpostym / Whanne þe enpostym is broke, þan þou schalt bringe out þe mater wiþ hoot water, & dissolue þerinne butter & oile of violets, & make þerof a gargarism, & lete him vse þis gargarism til al þe matere be drawe out, & þan after þat make him a gargarism of liquiricie,*. [liquiricie, lycoryce, Pr. Parv., p. 303. See lyquoris in 2nd version.] yreos & tamarisci / If þe matere be coold, þan þou muste vse hottere gargarism, & þan þou muste vse mundificatiuis þat per be þerinne mirre, sarcocolle,*. [Sarcocolla "Is the Gumme or liquore of a tree growyng in Persia." Halle. Table, p. 109.] þat schulen be seid in þe antidotarie in þe chapiter of mundificatiuis. ¶ It falliþ sumtyme þat for reume þat falliþ adoun of a mannis heed, þer wexiþ in þe rote of þe tunge a maner round þing in þe gretnes of an almaunde, & lettiþ a man þat he mai not wel drawe his breeþ ne ete his mete / & in þis maner þou schalt cure him as it is forseid wiþ þingis þat voidiþ þe matere & wiþ resoluynge þingis. ¶ I wole sette in þis place a cure þat bifel in þe citee of mediolanensis of a ladi þat was .L. wynter oold, & hadde a squinacie of fleume þat occupiede al hir necke tofore wiþinne & wiþoute,Page  221 [folio 142a] saue wiþoutforþ þe swelling was moost, & þe womman miȝte not speke, ne swolowe in no mete. & þis womman was vndir þe cure of a ȝong man pat was my scoler, and he cowde not wel fare þerwiþ, & þo he was in dispeir of hir lijf, I was sent after & foond hir in wickide staat,*. [in wickide staat, in statu pessimo.] for sche eet no mete in manye daies tofore, & sche durste not slepe for drede, lest sche schulde be achekid. Þan I tastide hir pous, & it was wondir feble, & I tastide þe place of þe enpostym, & I knewe wel þat sche schulde be raþere achekid þan þe enpostym wolde breke wiþoute or withynne, for þe matere was so greet / & þan I took a rasour, & lokide where þe matere was moost gaderid for to engendre quitture, & it was moost able vndir þe chyn, & I felide þe place wiþ myn hond & tastide it aboute þat I miȝte be war of nerues & arterijs, & þere I made a wounde, & þere I drowe out matere þat was corrupt, & it was foul stynkynge matere, & al miȝte I not avoide anoon. & þo þe pacient hadde bettere hir breeþ, & hir pous was confortid, [folio 142b] for þe lungis miȝte take yn eir, & þerwiþ þe herte was comfortid, & þan I ȝaf hir broþ, & þat ȝede out þoruȝ þe wounde þe moost part. Þo I studiede how I miȝte best do, & I lete make a pipe of siluir, and putte it in at hir mouþ & passide forþere þan þe wounde was, þat it miȝte fulfille þe place of þe þrote. & þan I leide al aboute hir necke mundificatiuis & maturatiuis for to quitture þe toþer deel of þe matere, & so I kepte it til þer come out of þe wounde a greet gobet of viscous matere & stynkyng, & was schape as it were a greet gutt. & þerinne þe firste matere was engendrid, & whanne þis was oute, þe stynking wente awei þerwiþ, & þe womman bigan to be stronger, & whanne þe wounde was maad clene I driede it vp & soudide it; & in þis maner þe pacient was maad hool. ¶ Whanne þou fyndist coold matere rotid in þe forseid placis, þou schalt not abide til þe enpostym breke him-silf, saue þou schalt opene it as it is aforseid / & if it be not rotid, þan make it more maturatif, & opene it as it is aforseid / And þis þou muste wite þat þou miȝte [folio 143a] not abide to longe wiþ þe openyng: for þe herte & þe spiritual lymes ne mowe not longe endure wiþouten eir.

Page  222
/ Of enpostym of subcilio /*. [Lat.: De apostemate sub titillico, id est sub ascellis. The translator made subcilio out of sub ascellis; titillicum, arm-pit, from titillo, tickle.]

This maner of enpostym haþ no nede of repercussiuis for causis þat ben aforseid, saue it is*. [is, above line.] greet nede þat he be avoidid wel wiþ purgaciouns / And if þe enpostym be hoot, þou schalt lete him blood in a veyne þat is clepid vena nigra,*. [Matth. Sylv.: "Nigra uena, purpurea, media communis." V. media = V. mediana.] or in þe veyne þat is clepid basilica in þe arm. & if þe matere be coold, þan avoide þe matere wiþ medicyns maad of turbit or sum oþer medicyn þat falliþ þerfore. & as myche as þou miȝt þou schalt take þerto wiþ medicyns þat haue not to greet drawyng / For if þou leiest þerto þingis þat ben to strong drawing, þan þe enpostym wole wexe þe more / Þerfore þou schalt anoynte him wiþ oile of camomille, & leie þervpon wolle vnwaischen. & his dieting schal be sotil. & if þis suffise not, þan leie vpon a maturatif / & whanne it is rotid þou schalt opene [folio 144a] it, & principali if it be of coold matere. Saue if*. [save if, Lat. hoc saluo, si esset ...] þere be glandule þeron, as it falliþ ofte, & it be not ouir al rotid, as in oon place hard anoþir place neische, þan þou schalt haue þis in certein, þat þis passioun schal be clepid bubo, & þe cure þerof is hard.*. [Lat.: tunc nullam habes viam tutam, quum tunc est bubo, cuius cura est difficilis.] For if þou drawist out þe matere þat is neische,*. [MS. inserts &.] þe matere þat is hard is yuel to defie. & ofte þer comeþ þerof sclirosis or a festre, & it wole make a man yuel disposid & feuerous, as G. seiþ.*. [Lat.: "totum corpus in mala tenet dispositione febris et doloris; tamquam qui ad suam salutem, si nisi unam habuerit viam, ut dicit Galienus velit nolit, per eam, etsi mala fuerit, pertransibit." A more accurate translation of this passage is given in Sl. 2463 (xv. cent.) in a treatise on Surgery compiled from various authors, in which several chapters of Lanfranc's work are embodied. Ib. fol. 110 b.: "And as Galyene scith, he that hath but oone weye to his hele allthouȝe þat weye be nat good, he muste holde hit wille he nylle he."] & þerfore aswage þe akynge & þan make rotyng wiþ maturatiuis; for þe matere þat is rotid wole helpe to rotie þe matere þat is hard. & whanne it is al neische þanne opene it / If it so be þat it breke bi it-silf or it be ful rotid, þan do þerto mundificatiuis, & vpon þe place þat is hard leie maturatiuis, & kepe wel þe place þat is open fro festrynge. Mundificatiuis & maturatiuis þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie pleynlier.

Page  223
An enpostyme of þe helpers /*. [Lat. De apostematibus adiutorii.]

This enpostym if it be hoot, þan lete him blood in þe arm aforȝens, & not in þe same side in þe veyne þat is clepid basilica, & þan þou muste surely leie þerto repercussiuis, [folio 144b] & if repercussiuis suffisen not, þan resolue it & leie maturatiuis þerto, & þan abide til it be perfitli*. [curid, erased.] quitturid, but if þe matere be so violent þat it were in poynt*. [in poynt, Lat.: nisi materia esset adeo violenta quod esset ad corruptionem membri parata. "And in such poynt the body bileueth." Wright, Popular Treatise, p. 140.—"Engelond & normandie. in god point he broȝte." Rob. of Glouc., 8868. Compare Fr. embonpoint.] to schende þe lyme, þan opene it & be wel war of the braun þat is in þat place / Manie men þat ben vnkunnyng & supposen þat place to be fer fro ony noble lyme,*. [MS. inserts &.] makiþ þeron a deep kuttyng, & supposiþ to haue gret worschip þerof; & manie idiotis wolen preise hem*. [silf, erased. Lat.: & inde laudantur ab aliquibus idiotis.] wel þerfore. & þan þe lacertis þerof ben hurt; & whanne þe lacertis ben soudid aȝen, þan þe lyme þat it seruede fore schal be contract, wherfore þe mannes arm mai be lost in sum partie or in al / Þerfore whanne þou wolt kutte þis enpostym, þou schalt but kutte abouteforþ in þe skyn, & not to depe bi no maner wei for drede of þe braun, & of senewis, & of veynes & arterijs, & whanne þe place is opened, þan leie þerto mundificatiuis. If þe openyng be nyȝ þe elbowe, & þouȝ þe enpostym be moost quitturid, þere be wel war þat þou opene not þe enpostym aboue þe elbowe .iij. fyngris brede, neiþer [folio 145a] wiþinne ne wiþoute. & also nyȝ þe poynt of þe elbowe it is perilous, for it is gret hap if it be euere soudid. & þouȝ it be soudid, þe mouynge of his arme schal be lost. If þer falle ony enpostym in þis place, & it come of greet matere so þat his bodi be replet, þan he mote haue greet avoidyng wiþ laxatiuis, & þan resolue þe matere, and worche as it is aforseid in þe general chapiter. In þe same maner þou schalt cure þe enpostym of his armis & of hise hondis.

¶ Panaricium*. [Vigo Interpret.: "Panaritium is an aposteme about the rootes of the nayles, and it is called in Greke Paronichia; in latyn reduuia." See Dufr. s. v. redubiæ.] is an enpostym þat is in þe heed of a mannes fyngir aboute þe nail / & is swiþe hoot, & greuous, & reed, & ful of fier, & sumtyme it makiþ a man to haue þe feuere, & sumtyme it fretiþ awei al þe poynt of a mannes fyngir / Þe firste cure of þis enpostym is, þat first þou schalt lete him blood, so þat alle þingisPage  224 falle þerfore as elde & strenkþe & custum. & þan þou schalt make him an enplastre of vinegre & opium, & vpon þe plastre þou schalt leie a lynnen clooþ wet in a decoccioun of psillij, or anoynte it wiþ an oynement þat is coold. & in*. [in, above line.] al maner þou schalt [folio 145b] take hede to do awei þe greet hete & saue his fyngir fro corrupcioun / If þe akinge & þe brennynge go not awei in þis maner, & it be in wei for to quitture,*. [in wei for to quitture, Lat. in via maturationis.] þan leie þervpon scabiose grounden wiþ grese & do þe cure þerto, as þou schalt fynde in þe cure of antrax & carbunculis. & enpostyms þat comeþ in ioynctis þou schalt fynde in her propre place of akynge of ioynctes /

Apostym wiþoutforþ aboute þe spaudis and þe gibbositees*. [Gibbositas, tumour. Dufr. Gloss.—"Gibbosity, a bunching or standing out of any part, especially of the Back."—Phillips.] //

Apostym þat comeþ aboute the spaudlis wiþoutforþ, leie þou noon repercussif þerto, saue it is better to drawe þe matere outward. First þou schalt purge him, for it is greet nede in þis place, & þan þou schalt leie þerto resoluinge þingis & maturatiuis; & whanne þe enpostym is rotid þou schalt not abide, to it breke it-silf,*. [Lat.: non expecta crepationem per se.] & principali in a coold cause, saue þou schalt opene þe enpostym & drawe out þe quitture, & þan þou schalt leie þerto mundificatiuis, & fulfille þe cure as it is aforseid / In þis place þou schalt take [folio 146a] hede þat ofte tyme whanne þe enpostym is quitturid & is not opened wiþoutforþ, þan it brekiþ inward bitwene þe .ij. ribbis, & whanne it is to-broke, þe pacient feliþ but litil greuaunce þerof, & þan þe quitture leueþ wiþinne, & in long tyme herof comeþ a festre. Þerfore þou schalt not abide til it breke it-silf outward, saue þou schalt opene it whanne it is quitturid, & þan leie þerto mundificatiuis & cure it vp, as it is aforseid in oþere enpostyms / ¶ If it so be þat þere engendre a festre þeron, or it be maad clene & entre inward, þan he mote vse waischingis þat ben mundificatif, & caste it in wiþ an instrument maad in þe maner of a clisterie. & if þe hole þerof be streit wiþoutforþ, þan þou schalt putt yn a tente of þe piþ of eldre, or of a sponge, or of malum terre,*. ["Malum terre, ciclamen, panis porcinus id. ge dilnote and erthenote." Alphita, p. 107. mal. t.=galluc. Wr. Wü., 133. 20.] orPage  225 brionie, or gencian, & putte into þe hole of þe festre. & þis wole make þe hole of þe festre to wexe more wide þan it was, þat þe ende of þe instrument mowe be putt þat schal be schape in þe maner of [folio 146b] a clisterie. & þanne þou schalt seþe hony & mirre in watir, so þat þer be .x. partis of water, & of hony .ij. partis, & of mirre .ij. partis, & if þou doist þerto ysope & sauge, it wole be þe bettir / Sumtyme it is good for to do wijn in þe stide of watir, & principali if þe place be wiþouten ony hete. & þis decoccioun þou schalt caste into þe festre wiþ an instrument as it is aforseid, & make þat þe pacient turne hidir & þidir, vpward & dounward, þat it mowe waische wel þe place þere þe quitture is. & þan make þe patient turne & ligge vpon þe hole of þe festre, & make him cowȝe þat al þe quitture mai goon out wiþ þe decoccioun. & whanne it is al oute, þan þou schalt make him a tent & anoynte it in oile þat þe wounde close not togidere. & þus þou schalt worche, til þou se þe waisching come out of þe festre withoute ony quitture. & whanne þe festre is al clene, þan þou schalt fulfille þe cure with oynementis þat wolen regendre fleisch & fulfille þe cure as it is aforseid / If it so be þat þe wei of þe festre þat goiþ in & out [folio 147a] be bicome hard & callous so þat it be a verri festre, þan þou muste hete an hoot yren þat it be as greet as þe hole of þe festre & brenne al þe hardnes þerof, & aftirward make þe cruste falle awei with buttir & oþere þingis, & þanne make it clene, & þan drie it & soude it.

¶ Also it bifalliþ þat children han grete bocchis in her brest, & þat comeþ of cowȝinge þat puttiþ out þe matere, & also it comeþ of greet wynd þat puttiþ out þe matere / Þe cure herof in þe firste bigynnyng is in þis maner for to aswage cowȝing, as almaundis grounden wiþ penidis & temperid with a decoccioun of fenel, & þis he schal vse / Also take swete almaundis .ij. partis, dragaganti,*. [Vigo Interpr.: "Dragagantum. Tragacantha is a brode. & a woddy rote appearyng about the earth, wher-oute manye lowe braunches sprynge, spreading themselues al about. There cleaueth to thys rote, a gummy liquour of a bright colour, & somwhat swete in tast, which they cal commenly dragagantum."] semen citoniorum*. [citonium = Cotonea malus, Cydonea, "Quince." Wr. Wü., 13, 19. "Citonium, goodaepel."] ana, oon parti, Iulip quod sufficit. & make herof a souping medicyn,*. [a souping medicyn, Lat. medicina sorbilis.] þat it be as þicke as hony. & whanne þe cowȝinge is aswagid, þan make him a baþ wiþ rotis of altea, &Page  226 leues of malue, & fenigrec, & lyne seed soden in watir, & þis schal be cast vpon þe enpostym wiþ a vessel holden an hiȝe þere from / Þanne aftirward þou schalt [folio 147b] dissolue þe matere & make it neische with medycyns þat ben forseid in hard enpostyms, & þan cure it vp as it is aforseid in þe enpostyms of wijnd. ¶ A greet boch þat comeþ of þe passioun of þe riggeboon, whanne þei ben of þe ioynct, is incurable whanne it is confermed /

Of an enpostym apperinge in þe mouþ of þe stomac /

Whanne þere schewiþ an enpostym in þe mouþ of þe stomac & aboute þe regioun of þe lyuer & of þe splene: þouȝ summen wollen take hede to þe contrarie, bi my general rule*. [rule, above line.] it is good & profitable to comforte þe place wiþ oile of mastic, & oile of spica, & oile of lilie, & wiþ cold enplastris of rosis, & of absinthio, squinanto, cipero, citonijs wiþ mele of barli & oþere þingis. & þou schalt be wel war of repercussiuis, whanne þe enpostym is nyȝ ony principal lyme, saue þou schalt leie þerto resoluyng & maturatif þingis. & loke þat þei be not medlid wiþ no þingis þat ben repercussif; for if þou leidist repercussiuis vpon þe stomak, or [folio 148a] þe lyuere, or þe splene, þei wolde be enfeblid þerwiþ, & to al þe accioun of þe bodi wolde be enpeirid; for þese lymes serueþ principaly for to norische al þe bodi / Þerfore þou schalt not vse in þis caas pure maturatiuis, ne pure repercussiuis, ne colde þingis / What schalt þou do in þis caas? Þou schalt avoide þe matere, & þou schalt comforte þe place with stiptikis, & tempere attractiuis, & do awei þe matere. & if þou miȝt not, þan resolue þe matere, for it is greet perel*. [perel, above line.] of þis enpostym, for it wole liȝtli turne in to selirosym, & þan it wole be hard to resolue, & aftirward it wole be cause of þe dropesie / Þerfore if þou seest*. [seest, in margin.] þat þe enpostym bicome hard, þan þou muste leie þerto mollificatiuis & wiþ comfortatiuis. & þou muste be in þis caas ful wijs. & whanne þe enpostym is maturid, þan opene it as it is aforseid, & leie þerto mundificatiuis & cure vp þe enpostym as it is aforseid.

// Of an enpostym þat comeþ in iguine .id est þe gryndis

Apostym comeþ often time in iguine for vlcera of þe ȝerde & of þe feet, for [folio 148b] þe place is discending adoun of humours to þatPage  227 place,*. [Lat.: Sæpe prouenit apostema in inguine propter vlcera virgæ et pedum: propterea quod locus est descensus humorum ad illa loca. The translator mistook "descensus" sb. for descensus part.] & þan it is not so greet drede*. [drede, above line.] þerof.*. [Compare Guiliel. de Salic. I. 42. Sl. 277, fol. 5 b.: "This seeknesse is cleped bubo or draguncell,or aposteme of þe grynde, & it is maad as oftest of cold matere whiche is cast out of þe lyuere to þoo places, & oþerwhile it is hoot. It is maad also, when a man is seek in his ȝerde for filþehede of wommen or of oþer cause."] Saf if his bodi be ful of wickid humours, þan it is greet drede þerof / þis matere þou muste resolue in þis maner. Take oile of camomille & anointe þerwiþ þe enpostym, & leie þervpon wolle vnwaische, & if it resolue not in þis maner, þan leie þerto maturatiuis, as it is aforseide. ¶ If þe matere be hoot, þan lete him blood in þe veyne þat is clepid sophena. & þou schalt sotille*. [sotille, Lat. attenuare. O.Fr. soutilier. Compare sotilen with the abstract meaning, "argue subtly."—Piers the Plowman, ed. Skeat, Gloss.] his dieting, & leie þerto resoluyng þingis þat ben not to strong, & þat þei drawe not to harde. & whanne þe cours of humours ceessiþ, þan leie þerto stronge resoluyng þingis. & in þis caas þis is good þerfore: lie of askis & of vryne, & wete þerinne stupis & leie vpon þe enpostym, for þis makiþ maturatif & waastiþ it sotilly & drieþ it / If þou myȝt not resolue it, þan leie þerto maturatiuis & opene it, & þan leie þerto mundificatiuis & hele it vp as it is aforseid /

Of an enpostym of þe haunche & of þe cox.

In þis place ofte tyme engendriþ an enpostym, & þou schalt fynde [folio 149a] þere þe curis þerof in þe chapitre of dolour of ioynctis; saue if þe enpostym be without þe haunche in þe hipe, or in þe leg, or in þe foot, þan þou schalt do þerto þe same cure þat is aforseid in þe enpostyms of þe arm. Saf herof þou schalt take kepe, þat oftetymes an enpostym gaderiþ in a mannes hipe al wiþinne in þe depnes of it, þat a leche schal not knowe it, but if he be þe more wijs / Þerfor ypo[cras] seiþ: in placis þere enpostym is, and þe quitture schewe not out, it is perilous / Þerfor þou muste taste it wiþ þi fyngris, & loke where it is moost maturid, & opene it, and drawe out þe quitture, þan leie þerto mundificatiuis, & þan fulfille þe cure as it is aforseid /

Page  228
Apostym of þe ȝerde & ballokis /

Riȝt as enpostyms comeþ in oþere lymes, riȝt so þei comen in a mannes ȝerde & in hise ballokis, of humours hoot or cold, as bi þese signes þou miȝt knowe. Sumtyme a mannes ȝerde swelliþ with wynd, þat þou miȝt knowe bi enpostyms of wynd þat ben aforseid. & it falliþ ofte to ȝonge children,*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 59 b.: accidit quibusdam iuvenibus calidis.] & also þis enpostym þou miȝt knowe [folio 149b] in þis maner, if þe place be hard & heuy & þer is no difference bitwixe þe colour herof & of þat oþer partie of his bodi.

¶ In an hoot enpostym of þe ȝerde or of þe ballokis, þou schalt lete him blood in a veyne þat is clepid basilica in þe same side, & in þe .ij. dai lete him blood in þe sophene / Also þou schalt forbede him wijn & fleisch & al maner swete metis þat engendriþ blood or colre. Þan þou schalt leie þerto medecyns to putt awei þe mater, þat ben maad in þis maner. ℞, cortices granatorum, rosas siccas, & lentes & seþe hem in water til þei dissolue, & þan grinde hem in a morter wiþ oile of roses & a litil vinegre, & make herof an enplastre & leie it þeron hoot / Also take succi portulace siluestris, & olium rosarum & a litil vinegre, & wete heryn a lynnen clooþ & leie it aboute þe ȝerde & hise ballokis / Whanne þe cours of þe mater ceessiþ, þan do þerto mele of barly & of benis, or distempere þese wiþ þe ȝelke of an ey & wiþ iuys of morel & oile of roses, & leie þeron. & whanne þe enpostym goiþ awey, þan leie þeron enplastre of mele of benis [folio 150a] & of fenigrec & camomille distemperid with gotis talow / If þis enpostym gadere quitture & vlcera, þan cure it as þou schalt fynde in þe chapitre of vlcers of þe ȝerde.

¶ A coold empostym þat is in þe ballokis schal be curid wiþ anoynting of þe matere wiþ medicyns or wiþ scharpe suppositorijs; for þis drawiþ þe mater fro þe ballokis / If it be so þat þe enpostym be woxen hard in þe ballokis, þan leie þerto þis enplastre þat I haue ofte preued / Take bran of whete & grinde it wel in a morter til it bicome al poudre, & þan distempere it wiþ oximel maad of .ij. partis of vinegre & oon partie of hony, & dissolue þerinne gum armoniac & make herof an enplastre & leie it on hoot, & þis schal be remeued ofte. Þis is auicens medicyns.

¶ If a mannes ȝerde be swollen wiþ wijnd & þe cause be hoot, þan lete him blood; if it be coold, þan leie þerto enplastris, & in þis caas among alle opere þingis þis is good / Take oile of roses iiij.Page  229 partis, of wex o part, melte hem togidere & þan waische hem in coold water til it bicome as it were a whit oynement, & herwiþ [folio 150b] anoynte þe place / If it be hoot, þan þou schalt make him caste, & þou schalt ȝeue him agnus castus,*. [Besides the names given in N. E. Dict., s. v. Agnus castus, there are: "Agnus castus, frutex est, i. bischopeswort." Sinon. Barth., p. 1. "A. c., toutsayne." Wr. Wü. p. 562, 24 (xvth cent.). "Chastlambe" in Maplet. A greene Forest, fol. 39. De Propr. Rer. (Add. MS. 27944, fol. 216a): "Agnus Castus is an herbe hoot and dryue and haþ vertu to kepe men & wommen chaste a plinius seiþ. ¶ Þerfore wommen of Rome vsede to bere wiþ hem þe fruyt of þis herbe in dyrige and service for dede men, whanne þey moste nedes lyve chaste for comyn honestee. ¶ Þis herbe is alway grene as dyascorides seiþ, and platearius also, and þe flour þerof is nameliche y-cleped agnus castus."] & seed of rue & comyn & anise & oþere þingis þat waastiþ wijnd, & make an enplaster of þese þingis þat distrieþ wijnd / ¶ An enplaster þat gilbert made for swellyng of a mannes ȝerde & it is mitigatif .℞, crummis of whit breed & grinde hem in a morter & tempere hem wiþ watir, & þan boile hem til þei bicome þicke, & do þerto a litil oile & a litil hony, & þan boile hem togidere & leie it vpon hoot // If a mannes ȝerde be swollen wiþ hete of liggyng bi a womman, þus þou schalt helpe him / Take leues of wiþi & seþe hem in water & baþe his ȝerde herynne & binde þerto þe leues // Also seþe lynseed & leues of malue & grynde hem togidere & make herof a plastre /

The cure of scrophularum & glandulum /*. [Sl. 2463, f. 97 (see p. 222, note 8): "Because þat þe cure of scrophules & glaundules, as who seith, is bothe oone, but þer is a difference be as moche as scrophules ben for þe more partie of malancolye ..."]

Cure of glandularum & scrophularum is almoost oon, saue herof is a difference / Scrophule comeþ þe moost part of malancoli & ben worse to dissolue. & glandule comeþ þe most part of fleume, & ben liȝter to resolue / In boþe causis it is [folio 151a] necessarie to purge þe matere. & þe medicyn laxatijf maad of turbit is good þerfore þat is aforseid in þe chapitre of allopucia, or in þis maner as .A. makiþ it / ℞ turbit zinzi,*. [MS. ZZ.] zucare .ȝ .ij, & ȝeue þis ofte, or trociscus de turbit maad wiþ diarubarbe, & þou must sotile his dietyng, & he schal not ete to miche, & he schal drinke no water, & he schal holde his heed an hiȝ, & he schal kepe him fro wepinge, & he schal not, whanne he is ful, slepe anoon þervpon, & þou schalt anoynte þe place with oile of camomille, & wiþ oile ofPage  230 lilie, & wiþ þis oile þat is apreued / ℞, radices electerij,*. [Lat. elaterium, [gap: 1] . Alphita, p. 53, "Elacterium succus eueurbite agrestis idem. sed electerides sunt cucumeres agrestes tam fructus eorum quam ipsa herba." Vigo Interpr.: "Elaterium is the iuice of a wild cocomber."] radices malue visci,*. [malua viscum = Althæa officinalis, marsh-mallow.] & kutte hem smal & leie hem in oold oile of oliuarum & do hem in a vessel of glas, & sette þis glas in a vessel of water, & make þe water to seþe, & be war þat þou saue þe glas fro breking. & wiþ þis oile anointe him, & þan leie þeron wolle vnwaische / And if þis suffise not, make him a plastre of gotis tordis & oximel, or quik lyme & swynys grese þat it be freisch / & oold,*. [Some words omitted. Lat.: cum axungia porcina, sine sale antiquo.] or þis medicyne / ℞ staphisacre, seminis-lini,*. [MS. staphisacre seminis. nitri.] farini orobi, resine [folio 151b] albe & make herwiþ an enplastre wiþ ole & vinegre / Also anoþer þat is swiþe good. Take radices lilij, & seminis lini, ana,*. [partes æquales om.] boile hem in wijn til þei dissolue, & þan do þerto of culuer tordis & make it a þicke plastre, & þou schalt putte þerto culuer toordis more or lesse as þou seest þat þe mater resolueþ more or lesse, as þou seest þat it nediþ. ¶ Also diaculon*. ["Diachylon, a Plaister made of the Mucilages or pappy Juice of certain Fruits, Seeds, and Roots, whose Office is to ripen and soften." Phillips.] rasis, & diaculon Iohannes Mesue þat schulen be seid in þe antidotarie, ben good for to resolue scrophulas / Whanne þou resoluest þe mater & sum þerof goiþ awei, & sum þerof leueþ hard, þan þou schalt do þerto sumtyme mollificatiuis & sumtyme resoluyng þingis //

¶ Glandule & scrophule ben parti of douce fleume or of blood; it is ful hard to make hem clene, for sum partie þerof wole leue hard & wole not bicome maturatif. Þou schalt [not]*. [not om. Lat.: Non ergo festines in earum apertura.] haste to opene hem saue þou schalt leue if þou miȝt, til it be al rotid, & þan open it & leie þerto mundificatiuis / & in þis place it is good to leie þerto vnguentum apostolorum & poudre of affodille & oþere liȝt corosiuis. & þou schalt in no maner leie þerto realgar,*. [realgar, Arab. See Skeat, Et. Dict. Alphita, p. 156, Realgar vel risalgar est uena terre." Vigo Interpret., "Realgar is made of brymstone, vnslaked lyme, and orpigmente. It kylleth rattes."] ne noon violent [folio 152a] þingis, & leie þeron a mundificatif in which be medlid rotis of lilie wel soden, for þis mundificatif makiþ clene & also quitturiþ þe remenaunt of þe matere / Þou must take greet diligence for to make clene glandulas & scrophulas, for þei ben ful hardPage  231 to make clene, & ofte þer engendriþ þerof festris / ¶ If þou desirist to cure glandulas & scrophulas wiþ kuttyng, loke wher glandula or scrophula be neische, & be war of veynes & senewis, & loke þat þer be no veine þere nyȝ. Þan take him vp wiþ þi lift hond & drawe him vp as hiȝe as þou miȝt & kutte þe skyn endelongis þe necke, & be war þou touche not þe clooþ þat he is folde þerinne, & þane score*. [score. Lat. discarnare.] him & drawe him out al hool with þe clooþ, & if þer leue ony þing þerof, caste þeron poudre of affodille or sum oþer liȝt corosif, & þanne regendre fleisch & soude it vp / If it so be þat glandula or scrophula be closid with veynes or wiþ arterijs, þan kutte him not in no maner, for þer miȝt come greet perel þerof.*. [Sl. 2463, fol. 98: "But if þe glandule or þe scrofule be intrikes with veynes, arteries oþer synewes, so þat þei cleue oþer be faste knytte to hem, for nothing þou schall nyȝe hem nother with Iren noþer with noone other corosyue medecyne."]

// Þe cure of þe cancre not vlcerid & his cure /

Causis & difference þou hast herd of a cankre [folio 152b] & in what maner þou schalt cure cancrum þat is not vlceratus / Rasis seiþ, & it is sooþ, & I haue seen ofte tyme, þat whanne ony mantouchiþ a cancre wiþ iren or wiþ ony medicyn corrosif, but if þei kutte him awey clene wiþ alle his rotis, ellis þei makiþ þat þe cancer is vlceratus / & for to make a cancre vlceratum, it ne falliþ for no goodnes, saue it makiþ þe patient haste þe fastere to his deeþ, & schortiþ his lijf & bringiþ him in turment // ¶ Þerfore if a cancre be in a place þat he mai be kutt awei wiþ alle hise rotis, whanne he is kutt awei, þan þou schalt brenne þe place wiþ an hoot iren or wiþ gold, & þan þou schalt fulfille þe cure as it is aforseid in þe chapitre of a cancre þat is vlceratus.*. [A different opinion is expressed in Sl. 2463, fol. 115: "The cure of þe canker is done in two maners. The tone cure is for to kutte away all þe membre þat þe canker is inne, with all þe syknesse; and þis is an yuell cure and may be done, but it is not plesaunt." Ibid., fol. 115 b.: "And yf þer be noon oþer remedie but for to cutte hit away with alle þe rotes, me thenkith hit is more honest to leue hit þanne to do hit."] ¶ If it so be þat þe cancre be perfit & greet, þan þou schalt touche him wiþ noon iren ne wiþ no medicyn corrosif, saue þou schalt kepe þe patient wiþ good dieting, & he schal ofte tymes haue medicyns for to purge malancolie wiþ gootis whey & with epithimo, & sumtyme lete him blood, & þou schalt anoynte þe place wiþ vnguentum rasisPage  232 de thutia, þat is [folio 153a] *. [In later hand at the bottom of the page: contra ffetorem cancri. ℞ pulueris corticis quercus ffarine sileginis ana succi appii mell ana succus & amp; mell inspissentur decoque super ynguem cum puluere ffarina. Item decoque puluerem corticis quersini in aqua et inde tepide laua canserem a ffetore paliando.]aforseid in cura cancri vlcerati. & þou schalt leie þeron colde leues, & alwei þis schal be þin entencioun, for to kepe þat þe cancre wexe not ne rotie not / I haue seen ful manye lechis þat hadden greet name in cirurgie þat founden cancris in men, and wexe not, & þe cancris were not vlcerati & miȝte ful long tyme haue lyued if he hadde be kept aftir my teching in þis book; saue vnkunnyng cirurgians weneþ þat in kutting of a cancre þei schulde finde quitture & ben disseyued, & so disseyuen hem-silf & also þe patient, & þan whanne þei han kutt þei fynde nouȝt saue fleisch corrupt wiþout quitture in þe maner of a sponge, wherfore þe lippis of þe wounde wole come aȝen worse þan þei were tofore & more stynking. & wiþ þe greet stynkinge þe spirit is schent, & makiþ þe patient þe raþere drawe toward þe deeþ / & if þe cancre were not vlceratus þe patient miȝte lyue longe þerwith.

Bocium þat comeþ of humours corrupt.

Bocium is a postym þat comeþ of humours, & principali it is engendrid of fleume corrupt / Sumtyme it comeþ of [folio 153b] hote enpostyms, as whanne þei ben rotid & not opened. & þouȝ þe subtil mater be drawen out, þat oþere part bicomeþ hard & leueþ þere longe tyme / & sumtyme a rume*. [rume, rheum, O.Fr. reume.] falliþ adoun of his heed into his necke & makiþ þe matere wexe more / Þis maner enpostym haþ manie diuers signes / Sum maner þerof is lijk as it were cley, & summe is lijk schellis. Summe is as it were chese, & summe is as it were drastis of oile, & so þis enpostym in his corrupcioun takiþ manie diuers colouris /

Þis enpostym schal be helid wiþ drawynge þingis & wastynge þat schulen be taken bi þe mouþ & leid to wiþoutforþ / Þou schalt ȝeue him bi þe mouþ a medicyn for to purge fleume, & þan þou schalt ȝeue him a medicyn for to waaste þe matere & is maad in þis maner / ℞ paruam plantam nucis a terra cum suis radicibus extirpatam id est take a litil plauntein of a note & take it vp of þe ground wiþ alle hise rotis, & grynde it wiþ greynes of peper, so þat if þer be of þe notis .[ounce] iiij., þan do þerto of peper [ounce] j, & þis þou schalt boilePage  233 in a quart of wyn [folio 154a] of paris til it come to þe half, & þanne cole it, & herof þe patient schal take euery dai [ounce] ij. // ¶ Enplastris þat wastiþ ben enplastris þat enpostyms of fleume be wastid þerwith / If þou desirist for to cure it wiþ kuttyng, þan þou must loke, wher þe matere þat is wiþinne be neische or hard. & wher it be among veynes & arterijs, þou schalt touche it wiþ noon iren in no maner / If it so be þat þe mater be neische & if þou miȝte kutte it for perels þat ben forseid, þan kutte it & drawe out þe mater, & leie þerto mundificatiuis, & alle þingis as it is aforseid in þe general chapitre / If þe mater be hard & þe enpostym be hangynge & be fro veynes & arterijs, þan kutte þe skyn endelongis aboue, & be war þat þou touche not þe bagge þat bocium sittiþ þeron & scarre*. [scarre. Lat. scarnare.] it al abouteforþ & drawe him out with al his skyn. & if þer leue þeron ony þing of his skyn, þan caste þeron poudre of affodille, & make it clene wiþ poudre of sum liȝt corrosif þerwiþ—vnguentum viride,*. [vnguentum viride. See Notes.] & þan regendre fleisch, & þan drie it vp as it is aforseid /

[folio 154b] Of þe akynge of ioynctis.

Now it is seid pleynlier of alle enpostyms, now speke we of passiouns þat comeþ in ioynctis. & þis passioun is myche lijk to enpostyms in causis & signes & curis, & also it diuersiþ miche fro oþere enpostyms / For þouȝ þe place be greet to-swollen, it comeþ but late or neuere to quitture. Swellynge & akynge of ioinctis, þis passioun is vnknowen to manie kunnyng lechis þat han greet name. Bi þe cause þat cirurgians ben clepid algate to þis manere passioun, þerfore I haue studied to make a general chapitre of passiouns of ioinctis. & I haue take miche þerof þe bokis of Rasis & of myn owne worching þat I haue proued. ¶ Þe causis þat makiþ akinge in ioynctis: or it comeþ of yuel complexioun of lymes, or it comeþ of hoot complexioun þat hetiþ, or it comeþ of coold complexioun þat cooldiþ / Drie ligaturis of ioynctis constreineþ & makiþ akynge,*. [Lat. sicca (complexio) ligamento junctarum astringendo dolorem aliquando generat.] & moistnes makiþ neuere akynge wiþouten oþer [folio 155a] mater / Mater þat makiþ akinge of ioyncts is ofte tyme haboundaunce of blood, & ofte tyme it is raw fleume, & moost principali colre or blood medlid with fleume / & it comeþ ful seelde of fleume, but if it be medlid wiþ ony oþer þing as colre / In whatPage  234 maner þou schalt knowe which humour be in þe cause of akynge of ioinctis, þou schalt finde in þe chapitre of allopucia & in þe general chapitre of enpostyms, if þou takist good kepe of þe signes of þe forseid chapitris, what humour is in cause of akynge of ioinctis / Saue þis þou muste take hede, þat ofte tyme raw fleumatik humouris makiþ akynge of ioinctis as it is forseid, & þan þe colour of þe lyme schal be but litil*. [A second litil deleted.] chaungid þerfore / & þan a leche but if he be þe more expert þeron mai be bigilid. & sumtyme a litil quantite of colre wole schewe vpon þe lyme, & þan þe leche wole leie þerto coolde þingis, & þan þe mater of fleume wole bicome hard, & so þe greuaunce wole be worse þan it was / Þerfore it is greet nede þat þe leche be kunnyng & knowe wel þe [folio 155b] mater of passiouns of ioyntis.

¶ Þe cure of akynge of ioinctis þat comeþ of yuel complexioun oonly, þou schalt remeue with þingis þat ben contrarie to þat complexoun:*. [Lat.. Cura doloris iuncturarum quæ ex mala complexione sola est, non est nisi cum contrariis complexionis malitiam removere.] as if þe mater be hoot, þan þou schalt remeue it with colde þingis, & if þe mater be coold, þan þou schalt remeue it wiþ hoot þingis, & if þe mater be of drienes, þan þou schalt remeue it wiþ moist þingis, & wiþ metis & drinkis þat makiþ fatt, & wiþ rest*. [MS. rost.] & wiþ gladnes; for as faste as his bodi bicomeþ fatt, he schal be hool of þat passioun / Þis passioun þat comeþ of humours, is curid with mitigacion of þe akynge, & I fynde diuers opiniouns þeron / & þerfore I wole schewe hem in þis chapiter / Auicen seiþ: þat whanne þou wolt worche in þis mater, þi principal entencioun schal be for to do awei þe akynge / And Rasis forbediþ þat þou schalt leie þerto no repercussiuis, ne noon resolutiuis but if þe mater be avoidid tofore / For to do awey þe akynge: saue avoide þe mater, or leie þerto a repercussif or a resolutif. & þan Rasis seiþ þat þou schalt avoide him, & auicen forbediþ [folio 156a] þat / In what maner schulen we worche þanne, whanne þou fyndist a man þat haþ greet akynge? / First þou schalt leie a plastre to þe lyme þat it be mitigatif or an oynement þat be mitigatif, & þe difference herof schal be aftir þat þe mater is // Also þou miȝt ȝeue him sumwhat bi þe mouþ for to aswage þe akynge. & þou schalt fynde greet plente in þis chapitre of defensiuis & mitagatiuis to defende þe mater / And whanne þe akynge is perfiȝtli swagid lete him bloodPage  235 if þe cause be of blood. & if it be of anoþer cause avoide it. & if þou letist him blood, þou schalt do it in a lyme aforȝens. & if þou wolt avoide þere matere, loke þat þou knowe þe cause / for þis is ful necessarie for a leche to kunne / Whanne þe mater is avoidid & þe akynge ceessid, þan þou schalt bigynne wiþ resoluynge medicyns þat ben forseid. ¶ Also in curis of akynge in ioyntis be wel war þat þou feble not his appetit, for þis sijknes comeþ moost of humours þat ben vndefied. & þerfore þou schalt in as miche as þou miȝt make him haue good appetite [folio 156b] & good digestioun / If þou fyndist oonly þe mater coold, þat makiþ ful seelde ony gret akynge, saue it makiþ þe lyme heuy. Þis þou schalt wite þat in a coold cause þat makiþ akinge in ioinctis, þouȝ it be hard to do awei, neþeles þou schalt ȝeue him no strong medicyn ne he schal not be purgid hastili as manie men weneþ, saue it schal be do wiþ a propre medicyn þat is sure. & it schal ofte be ȝeuen, so þat þou mai algate kepe his appetit, for þer is noon so strong medicyn þat mai avoide þe mater al at oonys / And if þou ȝeuest him a strong medicyn it wole afeble hise vertues. & þerfor þou must chese a liȝt medicyn þat mowe comforte þe stomac & þat it mowe be ȝeue ofte //

¶ Of akynge of ioyntis þou hast had general rulis; now we mote speke of curis here after. ¶ If þou be sent after to a man þat haþ arteticam,*. [artetica, arthritica, gout, Trevisa De propr. rer., Lib. VII, Cap. 56 (Add. MS. 27,944, fol. 96 b.). "Arthetica is ache and evel in fingres and tone wiþ swelling & sore ache / and whanne hit is in þe fyngres, hit hatte cyragra, and in þe toone hit hatte podagra, if hit is in þe whirlebones and ioyntes it hatte sciatica passio, and comeþ of colerik blood & of fleumatik humours, & comeþ most ofte of reumatik cause." The author of the Treatise on Surgery, preserved in Sl. 1736, mentions this disease as a hereditary one. Ibid. fol. 122 b.: "also yt ys often tymes sene þat þis arthetica passio gose by erytaunce as fro þe [fadyr] to the childur, and so forth to odyr."] þat is as myche to seie as a goute, first þou muste loke wher þe mater be hoot or coold, or wheþer he haue strong akynge or liȝt akynge / & if his akynge be strong, þan [folio 157a] leie þerto mitigatiuis / In oon maner þou schalt ȝeue him medicyns bi þe mouþ þat ben mitigatif for to take awey þe akynge, & enplastris þat ben mitigatif, & leie vpon þe place. ¶ A good medicyn þat schal be ȝeue bi þe mouþ: ℞, glandes & leie hem in vinegre adai & anyȝt, & after þat drie hem to þe sunne or in an ouene, & þan kepe it / & whanne þou wolt ȝeue it, grynde it & ȝeue þerof [dram] .j.; þis medicyn makiþ blood greet & remeueþ þer from / Also take lentesPage  236 excorticatas, semen coriandri, succum glandulum, hermodactulis*. ["Hermodactyla, crawanleac." Wr. Wü. 137, 3.—"Hermodactylus, a round-headed Root, brought from Syria, which is of an insipid Taste; and gently purges Phlegm." Phillips.] wiþ sugre & coold watir, saue herof þou must take kepe þat þese medicyns schulen not be ȝeue but in greet nede, & whanne þe akynge is so greet þat it mai not be take awei. & þei mai be moost sotilly ȝeue whanne þe mater is subtil & scharp / & if þe mater be greet & miche, þan þis medicyn schal not be ȝeue. ¶ If þe mater be coold & of greet akyng, þan take hermodactulis, thuris ana xx. partis, cucumeri partes .x, & ȝeue þerof [dram] .iij. vpon þe place / If þe matere be litil & scharp [folio 157b] & subtil / ℞, amigdalas, camphore ana, grinde hem & tempere hem wiþ watir of roses / Also anoþir in þe same kinde / ℞, mirre, panis albissimi & subtilissimi [ounce] j, opij [ounce][one half], grinde hem wel & tempere hem wiþ milk of a cow, & leie it þeron whanne it is greet nede / Item ℞, opij, cortices mandragorae ana .ȝ .v, grinde hem & tempere hem wiþ þe iuys of portulacae & oile of roses & a litil vynegre / Also an oynement for to ceesse þe akynge / ℞, olium rosarum [ounce] iiij, cere [ounce] j., melte þe oile & þe wex togidere & waische it with oile of roses, & þan do þerto citrini [ounce] j., opij [ounce][one half] / If þe mater be myche & be neiþer more in quantite þan in qualite, & þou wolt defende more þe cours of þe mater, þan do awei þe akynge.*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 63: Si uero materia fuerit multa et times plus de quantitate quam de qualitate, et uis plus prohibere materiæ cursum quam extinguere ...] ℞, cortices granatoris, sandali*. [sandali albi, The d in sandal is explained by influence of Arab. sandal (Devic). Matth. Sylvat. mentions three sorts of Sandal: album, ruffum et citrinum. See Alphita, p. 161. whit saunders and reed saunders are distinguished in Sloane MS. 2463, fol. 155 b (c. c. 1450).] albi, & rue,*. [rue for rubidi.] & roses, boli armenici, ferrugine,*. [Lat. foenugreci.] opij, confice cum succo mirtillorum vel foliorum salicis, or with a decocciun of hem in watir wiþ a litil oile of roses & vinegre & make herof an oynement. & whanne þe akynge is aswagid, þan dissolue þe mater of blood wiþ letyng blood. & þat suffisiþ as it is aforseid. ¶ Colre þou schalt dissolue in þis maner / ℞, mirabolanorum citrinorum .[ounce] vj., [folio 158a] grinde hem & leie hem al anyȝt in lī [one half] of sirup of viole, & [ounce] .iiij. of wijn of pomegarnates þat ben swete, amorowe boile hem alitil & do þerto ȝuccare [ounce][one half], hermodactylorum .ȝ [one half]., & ȝeue it him in þe mornyng. & if þou wolt make itt more coold, do þerto .ȝ .ij. of musilaginisPage  237 psillij or [dram] .j. ¶ Þis is a good electuarie þerfore .℞, citoniorum lī [one half]., & make hem to gobettis, & leie hem in vinegre adai & aniȝt / & þan wrynge hem & grinde hem smal, & do þerto scamonie þat it be good .ȝ .j, cardamomi, cubube .ȝ .iij, spice nardi .ȝ .j, rosis .ȝ .v, ȝuccare lī [one half], make herof a letuarie þat purgiþ wel colre & comfortiþ þe stomac. Þou schalt ȝeue herof .ȝ .ij. & þou miȝt scharpe it more if þou wolt with a litil hermodactylis. ¶ Þese ben good pelottis for þe same cause / ℞, aloes .ȝ .ij, hermodactylos .ȝ j, scamonie .ȝ [one half]. rosis .ȝ .j, make herof pelottis with sirupo violarum, & þou schalt ȝeue herof .ȝ .j. Whanne þe passioun bigynneþ to go awei with þese medicyns, þan þou schalt leie þerto plastris þat ben resoluynge: as of malue & bismalue, camomille, mellilotum, absinthium, peratorie, semen caulium, aneti, fenugreci, [folio 158b] semen lini, furfuris, & swynys grese, & gandris grese, & hennis grese, & oile of camfre, & olium aneti. & whanne þe cours of humours ceessiþ, þan þou schalt vse oonly resoluynge þingis & make þerof enplastris / Also to do awaye residue of þe akinge, þis is a good medicyn / ℞, olium camomille [ounce] .iiij, cere .[ounce] j., seminis aneti & caulium, florum camomille ana .ȝ .iij. & make herof an oynement / Also in anoþer maner / ℞, fenigreci, semen lini, aneti, & tempere hem with iuys of caulium. & herof þou must take kepe, þat as ofte as þou wolt vse clene resolutiuis, þou schalt algate waische þe lyme þat is to-swollen wiþ a decoccioun of malue & bismalue, & florum of camomille & melliloti, absinthii & oþere mo, & þe lyme schal be waische þerwiþ til it bicome reed, & þan þou schalt anoynte him / And þis þou schalt wite þat as meuyng & baþing greueþ þe passioun in þe firste bigynnyng, riȝt so þei ben in þe ende riȝt greet helping / For to stuwe & baþe doiþ awei þe laste part of þe mater & makiþ a mannys lymes haue her meuyng as þei schulde haue. & also it is good whanne þe patient goiþ out of [folio 159a] his stue, if hise ioinctis akiþ, þan frote hem wel wiþ salt grounde / If þe mater be coold þou schalt diȝte him wiþ diaȝinȝiberis þat is aforseid in allopucia. & þan þou schalt dissolue wiþ trocisco de turbit wiþ hermodactylis maad in þis maner / ℞, diaȝinȝiberis predicti [dram] j. & [one half], turbit electi .ȝ .j, hermodactulorum alborum solidorum [dram][one half], & viij greines of anise, & make þerof a gobet wiþ a litil hony. & þis schal be ȝeue in þe mornyng. & þerafter he schal drinke a litil wijn hoot & a litil water; or wiþ þese pelottis / ℞, hermodactylorum, saturionis*. [Saturion, iarus. See Alphita, p. 158.]Page  238 sene ana .ȝ .v, ierapigre*. ["Hiera Picra, a purging Electuary invented by Galen, and made of Aloes, Spikenard, Saffron, Mastick, Honey, &c.;" Phillips.] þat entriþ in pululas cochias .ȝ .x, pulpe coloquintide, centaurie. ana .ȝ .v, euforbij .ȝ. ij, turbit .ȝ [one half]., cassie,*. [MS. cassif.] sinapis, piperis, castorij ana .ȝ .j. & make herof pelottis with hony. & þou schalt ȝeue herof .ȝ j. at oonys, & þis medicyn schal be ȝeue manie tymes. & in daies bitwixe he schal take diaȝinȝiberum of oure makinge þat is forseid. & if it be in winter, þou schalt ȝeue him diatrion piperion*. [diatrion piperion, a medicine composed of three sorts of pepper.] or anoþer hoot eletuarie // ¶ Anoþer electuarie þat dissoluiþ akynge in ioyntis þat comeþ of raw mater. ℞, camedrios,*. ["Chamœdrys, the Herb Germander, or English Treacle." Phillips. Camedreos ance Teterwose. Wr. Wü. 569, 47 (xvth cent.).] centaurie minorum ana. [dram] .viij, aristologia longa. [folio 159b] gencian. ana. [dram] .vj, agarici .ȝ .ij, vtriusque spice ana .ȝ .j, make hem wiþ hony. Þou schalt ȝeue herof þe quantite of a note eerli & late. Men þat ben lene schulen not take þis medicyn // Whanne þe patient is purgid sufficiently, þan þou schalt vse enplastris for to leie to þe place / ℞, oold swynis grese þat it be freisch lī j., & medle þerwiþ quyk-lyme & make þerof a plastre & leie vpon þe place / Also take stercus caprinum & distempere it wiþ vinegre & hony ana, & leie it þeron / Also ℞, aristologia, radices yrios, elleborus, & piper, boile hem in oile & do þerto ȝelow wex & make þerof an oynement. ¶ Also diaquilon maad of litarge & oile & iuys of mustard seed. & if þou wolt haue mo remedies, go to þe book of Rasis, & þere þou schalt fynde in þe chapiter of ioyntis, medicyns ynowe þerfore. ¶ Also if þou desirist to comforte þe lyme & do awei þe coold mater wiþ repercussiuis, in þe laste chapiter of þis book þou schalt fynde repercussiuis & mollificatiuis ynowe //

/ Of sciatica passio*. [MS. passis.] /*. [De Propr. rerum, Lib. VII, Cap. 57 (Add. 27,944, fol. 96 b.): "Gutta sciatica is an yuel þat comeþ of humours þat falliþ doun into þe grete senewe þat is bytwene þe grete brawnes of þe hanche as constantyn seiþ. ¶ And comeþ ofte of gleymy humours i-gadred togedres in þe holouȝnes of þe ioyntes & of þe haunche / somtyme of blody humours i-medlid wiþ colera & alle þese beþ ofte cause of ache þe whiche ache strecchiþ into þe legges & anon to þe hele & also anon to þe litil [too]."]

Akynge of haunchis schal be curid wiþ avoidinge of þe mater id est laxatiuis, for repercussiuis ben not þerfore, for þe matere [folio 160a] is in þe depnes of þe lyme, &*. [The subject is: repercussivis.] ne mowe not come þerto. ResolutiuisPage  239 ben not þerfore, for þei mai not come to þe depnes of þe mater. & for þe mater is so greet, it schulde more drawe to þe place humouris þan dissolue. Saue þou must aswage þe akinge, & þou schalt do awei þe akynge with oile & hony & fatnes þat doiþ awei*. [awei, above line.] akinge. ¶ If þe mater come of blood, þan lete him blood in a veyne þat is clepid basilica in þe same side, & in þe secunde dai lete him blood in a veyne þat is clepid sciatica, & principaly if þe mater descende adoun wiþoutforþ toward þe foot, for þan it mai principaly be holpen / If þe mater come of fleuma, þan purge him wiþ pelottis of hermodactilorum / Saue herof þou schalt take kepe þat bifore his purgacioun bineþe forþ*. [bineþe forþ, Lat. per inferius. See N.E. Dict., s. v. beneath-forth.] he schal haue a vomet. For if þou make him a medicyn laxatif bineþeforþ & no vomet tofore, þan it wole drawe more þe mater toward þe place þan aweyward / Þerfor first þou schalt make him a vomet, & aftirward a medicyn laxatif / And þerfore medicyns laxatiuis summe ben propre for akynge of þe haunchis, as coloquintida, yrios, sarcocolla, [folio 160b] centaurea, agaricus, & infusioun of aloes. For infusioun of aloes wole make blood passe fro him at his sege, & þan þe akinge wole go awei & he schal be hool / & whanne he is perfitli maad clene wiþ medicyns laxatiuis, þan þou miȝt leie þerto enplastris maad in þis maner / ℞, nasturcij,*. [nasturtium, a kind of cress.] peretri,*. [peretrum, Lat. piretrum. Anthemis pyrethrum (Dunglison), "Piretrum . . pelestre."—Alphita, p. 145. "Pyrethrum, Bartram, wild or bastard Pellitory, an Herb the Root of which is very biting and hot."—Phillips.] capparis, grinde hem & tempere hem wiþ lie maad of askis of a fige tree, & make þerof a þicke enplaster as it were hony, & anointe þe place til it be ful of bladdris & þe bladdris ful of water, riȝt as þe place were brent wiþ fier. & þan anoynte þe place wiþ butter, & leie þeron caule leeues þat þe bladdris soude not togideris anoon; for þe lenger þat þei leueþ þeron, þe bettir it wole be. Eiþer anoynte þe place oonli with mel anacardi,*. ["Anacardus. Or after Ruellius anacardium: is the frute of a tre, growing in Sicilia, and Apulia, called vulgarly, Pediculus Elephantis. The iuyce wherof is called Mel Anacardi, which is a ruptory medicine."—Halle, Table, p. 10.] & þat makiþ bladdris. & what maner þou schalt make mel anacardi, þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie þat techiþ to make medicyns & cauterijs / Saue herof þou must take kepe þat þou schalt not vse þese medicyns þat makiþ cauterijs, but if his bodi be wel avoidid wiþ medicyns laxatiuis tofore; for if his bodi be [folio 161a] not purgid, it wole drawe more Page  240 mater to þe place þan aweyward. ¶ Also aȝens þe sciatica passio here þou schalt haue an experiment preued of Avicenna. Take gotis tordis & drie hem, & make hem to pouder, & distempere hem wiþ strong vinegre & made hoot, & make herof a plastre, & leie it vpon as hoot as þou maist suffre, & anoynte þerwiþ his haunche. ¶ Also a medicyn þat is forseid of camedrios & centaurea*. [centaurea, written above cauterie.] is good þerfore, for it wole drawe awei bi vryne / ¶ Item: cauterijs maad in þe nexte welle vnder þe place of þe akinge ben gode þerfor after þe tyme þat his bodi is maad clene with purgaciouns, & tofore þou schalt make him no cauterijs.

Of þe maner of dieting of hem þat han passions in ioinctes /

In what maner þou schalt diete men þat han passiouns in iointis. Þou schalt wite þat þer is no þing so greuous to þis passioun as is wyn, & it is principali forbede in an hoot cause, & so it schal be in a coold cause; for whanne it is take, it persiþ liȝtli to þe iointis, & makiþ wei to þe mater for to falle þerto / Saue if þe passion be coold, & þe patient mai not wel [folio 161b] defie his mete, þan þou schalt graunte him a litil wijn, & not to miche for þe causis þat ben forseid. ¶ In an hoot cause make him drinke þat is forseid in þe chapiter of dieting of woundis, or he schal vse vinum granatorum wiþ coold water. & þe pacient schal absteine him fro fleisch & fisch & vse lactucis, portulacis / & if he be gretli feble, þan þou schalt ȝeue him litil chikenys. & lete þou not him drinke wijn bi no maner if his passioun be hoot / & whoso haþ þe coold passioun herof, he schal holde him wel apaied*. [he schal holde him wel apaied, Lat. sit contentus. See N.E. Dict., s. v. apaid. O.Fr. apaier. Compare: je m'en tieng bien paiez. (Littré.)] for to ete oonys adai & not to miche. & lete him drinke ydromel wel soden / for if he mai suffre hungur & þirst he mai soone be hool. & he schal in no maner ete, but if he haue wil þerto.

¶ The firste teching of egritudines of yȝen, ouþer passioun & anothami /

Now wolen we make a tretice of passioun of lymes þat falliþ for no woundis, & curis þerof comeþ ofte to cirurgiansPage  241 handis*. [Lat.: Volentes tractare de passionibus membrorum particularium, que non sunt vulnera, quæ sæpe veniunt ad manus chirurgi ... incipiemus ab ægritudinibus oculorum.] / I wole bigynne of sijknes of yȝen & to speke of anathomiam þerwiþ þat was not forseid in þe .ij. book / Þou schalt fynde in summe bokis of auctoritees þat a mannes iȝen ben maad of .iij. humouris & of .vij. cootis. & in sum bokis [folio 162a] þou schalt fynde þat þe iȝen ben maad of .iij. cotis or of .iiij. or of .vij. or of .x., & alle þei seien sooþ. Saue þe .j. coote þat maketh þe schap of þe iȝe, ben but .iij. þat scheweth out in þe hole of þe iȝe, & þerfore me mai seie .vj. & also þre*. [The passage is corrupt, and the corresponding Latin phrase differs: Tunicæ tres quæ in oculi formatione tres præcedunt humores, in ordine causant ex ipsis tres alias, quare dici possunt sex et tres.] / And fro þe brain tofore comeþ .ij. bindingis þat ben not of nerues, saue þei ben of þe substaunce of brain, & þat oon comeþ out in þe riȝtside, & þat oþer in þe liftside, & ben schape as it were þe hedis of .ij. tetis, wherbi þe witt is take.*. [Lat.: quibus sensus comprehenditur odoratus.] & after þese .ij. comeþ out ij. nerues, & ben fast to þe iȝen, & ben schape in þis maner: {illustration}
Þan þat nerue þat wexiþ in þe riȝtside of þe brayn, whanne he goiþ out of þe scolle boon & entriþ into orbitam, þat is þe holow place þat þe yȝe sitt on, & goiþ to þe iȝe in þe liftside. & bi þes nerues comeþ þe spiritis of lijf & of siȝt to þe yȝen / Of þe substaunce of dura matris is engendrid rethina, þat is þe þinne skyn þat goiþ without þe iȝe, þat is clepid þe vilm of þe iȝe. And þis serueþ of greet seruice, & þis vilm was maad swiþe þinne þat it ne hurte not humouris, & þat it lette not þe meuynge of þe iȝe, and it [folio 162b] byndiþ in al þe iȝe, & it defendiþ þe iȝe fro harmynge of þe boon //*. [Lat.: Facta fuit ergo retina valde subtilis, ne læderet humores: et ne motum ipsorum in dilatatione comprimeret. Et facta fuit sclirotica: ut oculum totum cum cornea ligaret: et defenderet ab ossis oculi nocumento. The translator omits the description of the Anatomy of the eye. See Notes.]

¶ Þere comeþ manye sijknessis in þe iȝen, & summe comeþ of causis wiþoutforþ, & summe of causis wiþinneforþ / Wiþinneforþ: as of yuel complexiouns, or of yuel humours; wiþoutforþ: as of greet hete of þe eir, or of greet cooldnes of þe eir, or of poudre, or of fume, or of wynd / And þere ben oþere maner sijknes of þe iȝe, & þat ben seid contagious: as obtolmia & blere iȝed, & alle þese sijknessis comen to cirurgians handis. & obtolmia is clepid a whit welke or a reed poynt,*. [Lat.: ophthalmia, vlcus, albula, macula simplex, punctus, rubedo. The translator mistook this list of names of eye diseases for a definition of "ophthalmia." On the other hand he took the words "Dilatacio, Pulpe, Inuersatio, Palpebrarum" as names for four separate diseases.] & icchinge & scabbe, sebel, vngula, cataracta,Page  242 dilatacion pulpe,*. [pulpe, for pupillae.] inuersacion, palpebrarum, ordelus, grando, nodus, & pilus, fistula lacrimalis. ¶ Also þer ben oþere manere sijknessis of þe iȝen: as blind & hurtinge þat mowe not be curid /

It is forseid what þing is enpostym in þe general capitulo of enpostyms. & it is forseid þat euery þing þat gaderiþ humour togidere & makiþ swellynge,*. [On the bottom of the page: "contra obtalmia Recipe, the inner rynde off the ceritre, sethe yt in venyger, & hold a sponffulle in thy movthe lucke warme, so do oft in þe day."] [folio 163a] schal be clepid enpostym*. [Sl. 2463, fol. 84 b.: "As it is sayd of auctores in þe generall Chapiter of enpostumes, þat euery flowyng of humore þat swellith a member ouer his kyndely beyng is an enpostume, riȝt so obtalmia is cleped an enpostume of þe eye."] / In þe same maner obtalmia*. [obtalmia, med. Lat. form of [gap: 1] , inflammation of the eye.] is clepid enpostym of þe iȝe. & þere ben .iij. maners of obtalmia: as liȝt, & strenger, & alþer strong. Liȝt, as whanne a mannes iȝe bicomeþ reed & haþ brennynge þerinne & prickinge, & þer is no swellynge þeron. & þis mai come of a cause withoutforþ: as of hoot eir or of coold, or of smoke, or of poudre, or of wakinge, or of traueile. & þe cure herof is but liȝt; for þis sijknes mai be curid in þis maner. Take þe white of an ey & scume*. [scume, despumare. Prompt. Parv., p. 450. "scummyn lycurys, despumo."] it, & loke þat þere falle no filþe þeron, & leie it into his iȝe; for þis is þe best medicyn*. [Lat.: quod non dicitur vilipendi. quia est nobilior medicina. Sl. 2463, fol. 85: "and sette not liȝtly þerby, for it is þe nobelest medicyne."] among alle medicyns þat ben clepid colliries, for it wole make coold his iȝe & do awey þe akynge. & it abidiþ þe lenger in his iȝen, for it is viscous // ¶ If þe cause be cold,*. [MS. hoot. Lat si causa sit frigida. Sl. ibid.: "and yf þe cause be of colde."] þan þis cure suffisiþ: þanne lete him drynke a litil sutil wijn, & make him a fomentacioun of rosis & flouris of camomille, & fenigrec soden in water. & if þis suffise not, þan [folio 163b] þou muste lete him blood, & avoide awei þe humouris. & þou muste caste into his iȝe a whit collirium, & it is seid in oþere spicis of obtolmia.

¶ Obtolmia þat is strong. Þese ben þe signes þerof: greet reednes, & þe veynes of þe iȝen be ful replete, & þe corner of þe iȝe schal watri, & he schal haue greet akinge & pricking, & sumtyme þere comeþ in þe first bigynnyng vlcera þeron, as it werePage  243 white prickis or reed, & sumtyme þer ben noon sich pointis þeron þat a man mai se, saue al his iȝe is reed & to-swollen. & he schal haue greet akinge & pricking. & þouȝ þer be noon vlcera þeron, þe cure mai be do al in oon maner. ¶ If þe akynge be swiþe greet, þan aceesse þe akynge, & þan lete him blood in þe heed-veyne*. [vena cephalica.] þat sitt in þe arme & in þat same side þat akiþ. & if he haue passioun in boþe his iȝen, þan þou schalt lete him blood in boþe his armys. & þou schalt lete him blood þe quantite after his elde & after his strenkþe; or sette a ventuse vpon his schuldris, & þat is more better, for þe mater comeþ more [folio 164a] of blood þan of colre. & þat þou miȝt knowe bi þe signes of blood þat ben forseid // ¶ And if þe mater come of colre, þat þou miȝt knowe bi greet akinge & scharp, & litil swellinge. & þe mater wole be ȝelow aboute hise iȝen. & he schal haue but litil reednes. & þan þou schalt lete him blood in lasse*. [Lat. maiori.] quantite þan*. [MS. þat.] if þe mater come of blood. & blood leting is good in þis caas, for þe scharpnes of colre mai be take awei wiþ þe blood leting. & þan þou schalt purge him wiþ a decoccioun of fruitis with mirabolanis þat ben forseid in þe chapitre of allopucia. & if colre be medlid wiþ ony partie of gret mater, þat falliþ ofte tyme, þan þer is no medicyn so good as cochie Rasie. & first he schal do þingis þerto for to aceesse þe matere / ℞, a ȝelke of an eij, & as miche of oile of rosis, & as miche of iuys of verueine, & [scruple] j. of saffron, & [scruple] j. opij; medle þese togidere, & make þerof an enplastre, & leie it vpon a sotil lynnen clooþ, & leie it on þe iȝe. & in his iȝe leie collirium album with wommans milk*. [The use of woman's milk for an eye-salve is mentioned by Galenus De Compositione Medicamentorum, Lib. IV. Cap. 3.] þat noryschiþ a maide child; for .G. made þis medicyn*. [The translator has omitted the following prescription preserved in Sl. 2463, fol. 85 b.: and he cleped hit helpyng, for he, þat he made hit fore, was holpen by one leyng therto. ¶ Take iiij. ȝ. of ceruse sarsed, and distemper hit wit water on a marbull stone tenne dayes, and kepe hit euermore couered þat þer falle no pouder þerinne; thanne take .ij. ȝ. and an halfe of gomme arabik and putte hit in þe water, to þat hit be molten in þat water, and þanne cole hit and medele yt as well as þou may wit þi forsayd ceruse; and whane þis medecyne is made liche paste, adde therto these thynges sotilly poudered and sarsed twyes or thryes thoruȝ a sotyll lynnen clothe. Take amidum .iiij. ȝ. sarcocolle, safran, opium ana þe iiij. partie of a .ȝ. grynde hem all wel togeder longe tyme, and make smale pillules and reserue hem, to þat þou haue nede, and whanne yt ys nede dystempere one of hem with (fol. 86) womannes mylk and administer yt.] / Rasis made collirium album in þis maner, [folio 164b] & it is good þing, for I haue preued it ofte Page  244 tyme. Take ceruse waische .x. partis, sarcocolle greet .iij. partis, amidi .ij. partis, draganti*. [draganti, Lat. dragaganthi.] .j. parti, opij .j [one half] / Grinde alle þese togidere & tempere hem wiþ rein water, & make þerof pelottis as gret as it were a pese & kepe hem / & whanne þou wolt worche þerwiþ, tempere oon þerof wiþ wommans milk þat it be as þicke as it were must,*. [must, Lat. mustum.] & leie þerof in hise iȝen þre siþis in þe dai. Þis collirie aceessiþ þe akinge. & in sumtyme it curiþ obtolmiam in oon dai as I haue preued itt manie tymes. & whanne he haþ slepe, if hise iȝen cleue togidere, þan he schal waische hise iȝen wiþ water of rosis hoot, & þan leie in þe corner of his iȝe puluus citrinus, þat is maad in þis maner / ℞, sarcocolle x. partis, aloes, croci, licij ana partes .ij., mirre partem vnam, & make herof sotil poudre, & leie herof a litil in þe corner of his iȝe /

& whanne þe reednes & swellyng of his iȝe is aweie, he mote be war of his dieting, for he mai ete no fleisch ne drinke no wijn, saue he mote ete colature of bran wiþ almaunde milk. & whanne he lieþ in his bed his heed mote lie hiȝe, & he schal ligge [folio 165a] vpon þe hool side & not vpon þe soor side / & if boþe his iȝen ben soor, þan he mote diȝte him as sutilli as he may.*. [Sl. 2463, fol. 86: "and yef bothe eyen be sore he schal lye vpward, his hodes muste be wyde." Lat.: caputia vestium non sint stricta.] & he mote ofte tyme haue þe sauour of water coold, & þe sauour of wiþi & campher, & he mote lie in a derk hous þat he mowe se no liȝt. & whanne þe mater goiþ awei faste & his bodi [is]*. [is, omitted.] þan clene, þan sette him in a baþ of swete water, & lete him be þerin but a litil while*. [Sl. ibid.: "And yef it be plesaunt to hym lete hym abyde therinne, and lete hym foment his eyen and his heuede. And yf he wexe riȝt hoot in þe bathth, lete hym dwelle therin not passyng an houre, but þenne þe pacient schal be purged ayen. ¶ And in þe laste ende of þe obtalmia yt ys good to take hoot salt water, þat rosen haue be enfusyd inne, and lete hit droppe doune fro an hyȝe vpon þe hornes of his heued, þat yt mowe passe downe so by the eyen."] / If it be so þat þe akynge aswage not wiþ blood leting & colliries & laxatiuis, þan it is a signe þat þere is pustula woxe þerinne, & it is nede for to make it maturatif; for þe akinge wole not goon awei, til it be maad maturatif. & in þis caas baþinge is ful noious / For if akinge be go sumwhat awei, it wole come aȝen wiþ baþing; þerfore thou schalt attende for to make maturatif.*. [thou schalt attende for to make m., Lat.: ergo in tendas ad maturandum. Compare O.Fr. s'atendre à faire qu. ch.] & putte in his iȝe a colliriePage  245 of thus wiþ al*. [Lat.: cum coto, donec super cotum sanies apparebit. The translator read "toto." Sl. 2463, f. 86: "with cotoun, to þat þe quytture schewe vpon þe cottone."] togidere til þe quitture schauwie, for þan þe akinge wole aceesse / For whanne pustula is to-broke, & quitture is gaderid, þan þou schalt putt þeron a collirie of leed. & þan þou schalt fulfille alle þingis þat schulen be seid wiþ vlceribus / A collirie of thus þat is maturatif for [folio 165b] pustulis is maad in þis maner / ℞, thuris albi gummosi grossi, partes .x, antimonij, sarcocolle ana. partes .v, croci partes ij, & tempere hem wiþ muscilage of fenigrec; & make þerof pelottis, & kepe hem for þin vss. & whan þou hast nede herof, þan tempere a pelot with þe forseid licour, & make it moist & binde it vpon his iȝe, & lete þis ligge til þe akynge go awei; & putte in his iȝe colirium de plumbo, þat is maad in þis maner /℞, plumbi vsti, antimonij, ȝucare, eris vsti, gummi arabic, draganti ana partes .viij, opij partem [one half]., & make herof a sutil poudre, & þan tempere it wiþ reyn-watir & wiþ water of rosis, & make þerof pelottis. & whanne þou wolt vse hem, distempere oon þerof or tweyne wiþ water of rosis, & binde it vpon his iȝe; for þis collirie soudiþ & gendriþ fleisch / Aftir þe tyme þat it is soudid, if þere leue a litil ampulle,*. [ampulle, a tumour in the skin of the hands or the feet. See Tomm. Dict., s. v. ampolla. The Lat. has albula. Matth. Sylv.: "Albule id est macule oculi albe."] þan þou schalt cure it as þou schalt fynde in his propre place. ¶ ffleumatik mater makiþ ful seelden ony enpostym in þe iȝe, & malancolie myche latter; neþeles we wolen telle curis of hem. ¶ Signes of [folio 166a] fleum ben þese: greet swellynge & manie teeris, & litil reednes ouþer noon; & þe cure herof is to purge him wiþ cochijs or wiþ trocisco de turbit, saue cochie ben more better. & þou schalt putte in his eere muscilaginem*. [MS. & inserted.] fenigrec, & putte in his iȝe ȝelowe poudre þat is forseid. & vpon his iȝe þou schalt leie enplastre maad of aloe, mirra, acacia, & croco ana, & distempere hem wiþ mussilagine fenigreci. & in þis caas good wijn wole do him good, drunken in mesure / If it come of malancolie, þou schalt knowe bi blaknes of al þe bodi*. [Sl. 2463, fol. 87: "All þe body of þe pacient ys blakkyssh."] & leene, & bi drienes of hise iȝen, & ful litil reednes or noon in hise iȝen. & þe cure herof is for to purge wel malancolie, & baþing & fomentacion wiþ rosis & violet, & flouris of borage & buglossa. & þis þou schalt wite þat in euery maner of obtalmia, in þe ende þerof baþing ben good.

Page  246¶ If þat reednes of þe iȝe come of smytyng & akynge, & swellynge come þerwiþ, þan it is necessarie for to haue a ȝong culuer quyk, & lete hir blood in a veyne vndir hir wynge wiþ a nedle, & putte it in his iȝe as hoot as it comeþ fro þe culuer.*. [The use of blood taken from a vein under the wings of a dove is mentioned by Galen: De Simplicium Medicamentorum medicamentis, Lib. X., Cap. II. 3. Trevisa translation of Bart. de Propr., Lib. VII., Cap. 16, (Add. 27,944, fol. 84), "Also philosophres telleþ as Constant, seiþ þat þe blood i-drawe out of þe poynt of þe riȝt wynge of a culver, oþer of a swalowe. oþer of a lepwink, & i-doo in þe bygynnynge vppon þat mole, clensiþ hit miȝtyly / for þe blood of þese foules heteþ and dissolueþ strongliche."] Þis doiþ awei [folio 166b] þe akynge, & þe reednes & þe brennyng.

¶ Vlcera ben engendrid in a mannes iȝe. & þan þer comeþ greet akinge þerwiþ & abydynge, & þis mai not be doon awei wiþ collirium album, ne wiþ noon mitigatif / And þere ben vij. maner vlcera, & of alle we wolen telle her curis schortli & profitabli, of curis þat I am expert of*. [of curis þat I am expert of, Lat. curam quam sum expertus.] longe tyme. ¶ The signes of vlcera þat pustula comeþ þerof ben þese: grete akingis þat mai not be swagid wiþ collirium album, & þer wole in his iȝe appere a reed poynt or a corn. & if al his iȝe be reed, þan þe poynt or corn wole be more reed, & þat point wole make greet agreuaunce, & greet swellinge, & greet betyng, & manie teeris / It is greet nede in þis passioun for to sotille his dietyng, & do þerto þingis for to make mitigatif, as colirium album, & lete him blood, & do al þe cure as it is aforseid / If þou miȝt not defende þe mater wiþ alle þese remedies ne aswage þe akynge, or þer wexe a corn þeron or vlcus, & collirium de plumbo ne wole suffise for to soude vlcus, þan þou schalt leie þerto mitigatiuis for to do awei þe akynge. & do in his iȝe collirium [folio 167a] eliser,*. [MS. elifer, Lat. elesir, the form of Arab. eliksir as preserved in Ital. elisire. It means in its pharmacological sense an alcoholic liquor, in which aromatic substances are dissolved. Devic (Dict. Ét.) states, that the Arabic word is merely a transcription of Greek [gap: 1] , dry. Lanfranc gives a curious explanation of the word in the present passage, which has been omitted by the translator: collyrium elesir: quod est dicere penetrativum, quod egressum uveae prohibet. Sl. 2463, f. 87 b.: "colirium eleser þat is þe seyne persyng, þe whiche defendith þe egression of vuea."] for þat wole defende þat þe enpostym schal not wexe, þat is maad in þis maner / ℞, antimonij, emathitis,*. [emathites, hæmatites, bloodstone. Mentioned as a stiptic and an eyemedicine in Galen (ed. Kühn, vol. X., 330); in Bart. De Propr., Lib. XVI., Cap. 39 (Add. 27,944, fol. 199 b), "Emathites is a reed stoon .... & is good aȝeins þe flux of þe bladdre and to sore yhen."] ana partes .x., acacie partes .iij., aloes partem .j., grinde hem sotilly & tempere hem wiþ iuys ofPage  247 corigiole,*. ["Corrigiola. So called of the Apothecaries, and of the Frenche men Corrigiole, is oure common knottgrasse, called in Greke polygonon, in Latine Seminalis and Polygonum mas." Halle, Table, p. 29.] & make þerof polottis; & dissolue herof wiþ watir of rosis, & binde it faste to his iȝe. Þis collirium fasteneþ his iȝe, & makiþ þat þe enpostym may wexe no ferþere / ¶ Macula*. [macula as a name for an eye-disease is not used by the Latin authors. It occurs in Bart. de Propr. rer., and is translated by webbe, mole. See p. 248, note 3.] is a wem in a mannys iȝe, & summe be white þerof & sittiþ vpon þe siȝt of þe iȝe,*. [þe siȝt of þe iȝe, Lat. cornea. "The sight of the eye, that is, the hole of the skinne called Ragoides, out of which the vertue visible worketh his operation." Cooper. Compare O.E. sêo, f., O.H.G. seha, f., the black of the eye.] & summe bisidis þe siȝt. & þis comeþ of an oold obtalmiam. & herto principali is good collirium album of .G. þat is forseid. & þis collirie is good þerfore / ℞, aloes, croci. ana partes viij, eris vsti waischen, gummi arabici, opij, ana partes vj., mirre xij. partis, climie*. [climie. Matth. Sylv. "Klimia. Cadimia. alkimia Auicenna'. est fumus seu fuligo adherens superioribus fornacis in purificatione cuiusque metalli. sioria vero est fex descendens ad inferiora."] partes iiij., thurus partes .iij, grinde alle þese sotilly & tempere hem wiþ swete wijn, & make þerof pelottis, & kepe hem: & wiþ þis collirie I temperid collirium album. Galien & I haue curid wiþ þese .ij. colliries, & wiþ cauterijs, & kuttingis of veynes, manye men / & I curide þerwiþ a man þat was clepid sir Reynold Manesyn. & he hadde obtolmiam id est postym in his iȝe longe tyme tofore, [folio 167b] & þerof came manye wemmys in his iȝe; summe þerof weren white & summe þerof weren reed, & maden þat he miȝte not se, & anoþer man ledde him. & þouȝ þer were leid mete tofore him vpon þe boord, he miȝte not se þerof / & þo I lokide to him; & wiþinne a monþe he miȝt se to pleie at þe tabler.*. [tabler. Lat.: vide ipsum ludentem in vesperis ad tabulas cum taxillis. "Tabler, or table of pley or game." ., p. 485.] & I dide awei alle þe wemmys of his iȝen, so þat he miȝte se as wel as euere he dide tofore / & þere tofore he hadde manie oþere lechis, & leiden in his iȝen stronge collirijs, & algate his sijknes was more & more: & so his siȝt was binome him þre ȝeer. ¶ Collirium .G. is good for obtolmiam, as I haue apreued manie siþis; & it is good for vlcera þat ben newe & not olde, & for wemmis.

& sumtyme sich a maner pricke comeþ of smytynge, or of greet crijnge, or of blood as þoruȝ brekynge of a veyne, & makiþ a poynt in a mannes iȝe, & þerfore blood letynge is good. & do in his iȝePage  248 blood of a culuer, & waische his iȝen wiþ wommans milk warm, as it comeþ out of þe tete.*. [Trevisa l. c., Lib. VII., Cap. 17 (Add. 27,944, fol. 84 a), "Also it happiþ þat blood wooseþ out of veynes & of pipes & comeþ to þe yȝen, & veynes brekeþ or be i-hurt in þe kertil þat hatte coniunctivæ, & þan suche vnhiȝtnes of þe yȝe comeþ of blood þat comeþ so to þe yȝe. ¶ Culuir blood or turtil blood dissolveþ & departeþ þis blood þat is so i-ronne as constantinus seiþ, & so doþ womman melk wiþ ensens, & so doþ freisch chese i-medlid with hony wiþouten salt, if it be laide þerto."]

¶ Rubedo id est reednes, pruritus id est icchinge, sebel, scabies, [folio 168a] & vngula, goiþ al in oon cours.*. [Trevisa l. c., Lib. VII., Cap. 16, "De lippitudine albugine de panno siue de macula. Another evel of þe yȝen þat we clepiþ a webbe, & Constantinus clepiþ it albugo, & brediþ in þis manere. ¶ fferst a rewme renneþ to þe yȝen, & þerof comeþ an yvel þat hatte obtalmia, a schrewed blereynes & ache & aposteme; & if it is evel i-kept þerof leveþ a litil mole & infectioun, & longtyme turneþ & growiþ into a webbe & þicke, & occupieþ more place þan al þe blacke of þe iȝe. ¶ This webbe turneþ into clooþ by more þicnes & occupieþ more place, for it ocupieþ al þe blake of þe yȝe, & at þe last it turneþ into þe kynde of a naile of þe honde."] & oon herof is cause of anoþer / For of long reednes tofore comeþ icchinge, & sumtyme icchinge is cause of reednes, & of þese .ij. comeþ scabbe in þe iȝe liddis; & if it gadere togidere in þe corner of þe iȝe, þan it is clepid vngula / Þerfore þou must first cure hastily þe reednes & þe icchinge of his iȝen, lest þer come ony oþer sijknes þerof / Reednes may be curid wiþ þe white of an ey & with collirium album / Galien seiþ: icchinge may be curid wiþ whit wijn, in which be grounden aloes, & leid in his iȝe wiþ soft lynnen clooþ, & bounden þerto. ¶ Scabies is whanne þe iȝe liddis ben reed & to-swolle, & ful of reed pinplis. & þis passioun makiþ greet icchinge & brennynge, & manie teeris / Þe cure herof is þis: waische hise iȝen wiþ wijn in which be resolued grene coperose, þat is clepid vitriolum romanum.*. [Vitriolum Romanum. "The one growyng of it-selfe in the earth by concretion, and is vulgarly called Coppa rosa." Halle, Table, p. 139.] & if þis suffise not, þan þou schalt make collirium rubeum in þis maner / ℞, emathitis, vitrioli adusti ana partes tres, eris vsti partes duas, mirre, croci, ana partes x., piperis longi partem [one half]; tempere alle þes wiþ old [folio 168b] wijn, & make þerof pelottis, & kepe hem; and whanne þou wolt vse hem, distempere hem wiþ oold wijn, & do it in his iȝe / If þe mater be greet & strong, þan þou muste vse collirium viride, þat is maad in þis maner / ℞, floris eris partes tres, vitrioli vsti partes .vj., arsenici rubei, baurac, spume maris, ana partes .ij, armoniacum dissolued in iuys of rue; & grinde alle þe oþere sotilli, & medle hem þerwiþ also & make þerof pelottis, & dissolue oonPage  249 þerof in watir of rue distillid & leid in his iȝe // ¶ Sebel*. ["Sebel idem quod Serasif i. vene rubee que sunt in albo oculorum." Sinonima Serapionis, ed. Venet. 1497. Arab. Pers. zabēl, Dung, a dried gourd, basket. (Johnson.) Fr. sébile, basket.] is seid, whanne þe veynes þat ben ioyned togidere in þe iȝe,*. [Lat.: Sebel dicitur quando venæ conjunctivæ et corneæ, quæ sunt in earum superficie — — replentur sanguine. The translator mistook 'conjunctivæ' for 'conjunctæ.'] ben ful of blood & wexiþ greet, & sumtyme a clooþ þat is in a mannes iȝe. For to cure þis passioun collirium rubeum is good þerfore, or collirium viride þat ben forseid // ¶ Vngula sittiþ in þe corner of þe iȝe þat is next þe nose, & gooþ forþ vpon þe iȝe til it hile al þe iȝe; & sumtyme it comeþ of a superfluite of fleisch þat wexiþ in þe corner of a mannes iȝe, & wexiþ forþ abrood as it were a clooþ. & þer ben manie maners þerof, & oon is sotil & þinne, & goiþ ouer þe iȝe. & of sum men þat is clepid a clooþ, & þat oþer maner is more fleischi & þicke, & is clepid vngula / Þe cure [folio 169a] herof ben collirium viride & rubeum, þat ben forseid: & if þis suffisiþ not, þan it mote be kutt awey wiþ instrumentis as miche as me mai kutte awei þerof, & aftirward cure him with collirijs / In þe kuttinge of vngulam be war þat þou kutte not þe fleisch in þe corner of þe iȝe to depe; for if it were kutt to depe, his iȝe schulde watre, & be ful of teeris al þe while he lyueþ. ¶ Also in scabbe, sebel, & vngula, purgacioun is good, & blood leting; & þe patient schal absteyne him fro alle swete þingis & scharp, for al þese forseid passiouns comeþ of blood corrupt. ¶ Cateracta*. [Cataracta. The Latin authors used this word for 1. waterfall, 2. floodgate, sluice of a river (Scheller Dict.). In its pathological meaning, it is first found in Platearius, xiith cent. (Practica, Lib. II., Cap. VII., fol. 209 b, Lugd. 1525, quoted by Hirsch, Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenheilkunde, 1869, p. 284). The explanations vary according to the above-mentioned Latin significations. Lanfranc adopts the meaning 'gate.' Lat.: "et dicitur cataracta per similitudinem illius instrumenti, quod est apud molendina: quod quando eleuatur, currit aqua per canalem: quando deponitur nihil currit." Molendinum, "a mylle." Wr. Wü., Voc., 596, 27.] is water þat falliþ doun bitwixe þe .ij. skynnes of þe iȝe & abidiþ tofore þe place þat is clepid pupilla, þat is þe poynt of þe iȝe. & þan it defendiþ þat a man mai not se; & it is clepid cataracta, bi þe liknes of an instrument þat is a mille / & sumtyme þis passioun bigynneþ, & sumtyme it is confermed / Signes of þe bigynnynge ben þese / It semeþ to þe patient þat he seeþ briȝt þingis tofore him, & him þinkiþ þat oon þing is .ij. þingis or þre / & sumtyme it semeþ to him þat þing þat he seeþ to be ful of holis / & sumtyme þese þingis [folio 169b] mowe come of yuelPage  250 disposicioun of þe stomac, & þan it is not so greet drede þerof; for whanne þe stomac is curid, þese signes wolen go awei / In þis maner þou schalt wite wher it come of þe stomac or of þe iȝe / If þese signes comen whanne þe stomac is ful, & whanne he is fastynge & þei come not, it is a signe þat it comeþ of þe stomac / And if it is in hise iȝen contynuelli, þan it comeþ not of þe stomac, but it is sijknes of þe iȝen / ¶ Also purge him oones wiþ pululas cochias, & if it is neuer þe bettir, þan þou miȝt wite for certeyn þat þe passioun comeþ of þe stomac. And if þis passioun haþ longe durid in a man, & if þou miȝt no þing se in his iȝe, þan þou schalt wite for certeyn þat it is a bigynnyng of cataracta / Whanne cataracta is confermed, it schal not be hid to a mannes witt þat is vsid in þe craft. & in þis manere þou schalt knowe it: þou schalt se a maner colour vpon þe poynt of þe siȝt of þe iȝe, þat wole sumtyme be whit, & sumtyme in þe colour of askis, & sumtyme a litil grene: & þis stoppiþ al a mannes siȝt //

Þis maner siknes [folio 170a] schal be helid wiþ phisic or it be confermed. & whanne it is confermed, it mote be curid wiþ a mannes hand. Þe patient mote absteine him fro sopers*. [soper, cœna. See Skeat, Et. Dict., s. v. supper.] & fro al maner fatte potagis, & from al maner moiste fruitis, & fro al maner fruitis þat engendriþ moistnes / saue he schal vse hote þingis, & he schal ofte be purgid wiþ pillis cochie rasis, þat is þe beste þing laxatif þat mai be for iȝen, & þan make a collirie of gallis of beestis þat is maad in þis maner. ℞, fellis grue, fellis stelionis, fellis hirci, fellis anticipitris,*. [anticipiter, med. Lat. for accipiter. Dufr. Glass.] fellis aquile & perdicis, & alle þese gallis ben drie, & take herof .x. partijs, euforbie, colloquintide, ana. partem .j, grinde all þese & tempere hem wiþ þe iuys of fenigreci & make þerof pelottis. & whanne þou wolt worche þerwiþ, resolue oon þerof wiþ water of fenel distillid, & leie it in his iȝe twies on þe day ./ ¶ Anoþer liȝt medicyn þat is preued / Take askis of vynes & sarce hem & make þerof lie with good whit wijn, & lete it stonde in a glasen vessel, & lete it clarifie þerinne. & þis is a good collirie þerfore, for þe more cold þat cataracta is, þe bettir þis medicyn is þerfore / And if cataracta be [folio 170b] so confermed þat it stoppe al þe liȝt, þan it is incurable wiþ medicyns, & also þer ben manie oþere incurable. ¶ And if it so be þat he se not, þan make him close his iȝen togidere, & frote al softe vpon þe iȝe lid þat is soor; & if it be in boþe his iȝen, þan serue so boþe, & þan lete him opene hisPage  251 iȝen sodeinli anoon, & loke if þe poynt of þe iȝe bicome whit,*. [whit for wid, Lat.: vide si pupilla dilatatur.] & if it bicome not whit, þan it is of .ij. þingis; ouþer it is opilacioun of þe nerue, þat comeþ fro þe brain & is holow & defendiþ þe siȝt, or it is cataracta þat is greet & stoppiþ þe nerue, & stoppiþ þe weie of þe spirit þat it mai not come to þe poynt of þe siȝt þat is clepid pupilla / If þou frotist his iȝe as it is forseid, þan lete him do vp his iȝe hastili, & þou schalt se þan vpon his iȝe a whit þing as it were a peerle, þan þou miȝt sureli worche wiþ instrumentis of cirurgie*. [Lat.: quod cum videris manum ullatenus non apponas. This method of testing, whether a cataract is fit for operation or not, has already been proposed by Galen, as mentions Paulus de Aegina, Lib. VI., Cap. 21. We find the same in Hali Abbas, Lib. IX., Cap. 28, fol. 279, ed., Lugd. 1523. See Magnus H., Geschichte des grauen Staars. Leipzig, 1876.] / First þou schalt make þe pacient sitte vpon a stool tofore þee, & þou schalt sitte a litil hiȝer þan he, & his iȝe þat is hool þou schalt bynde faste þat he ne mowe no þing se þerwiþ, & þan þou schalt haue in þi mouþ a fewe braunchis [folio 171a] of fenel, & þou schalt breke hem a litil with þi teeþ, & þan þou schalt blowe in his iȝe .ij. siþis or iij. þat þe fume of þe fenel mowe entre into his iȝe / Þan þou schalt haue an instrument of siluir, schape in the maner of a nedle, and it schal sitte in a greet hafte þat þou mai þe bettir hold it wiþ þin hand, & þan þou schalt bigynne aforȝens þe lasse corner of þe iȝe, & þou schalt putte in þin instrument anoon to þe corn þat is in þe iȝe, & whanne þou seest þe point of þe instrument vndir þe corn,*. [corn, a mistake; the translator did not know the meaning of "cornea." Lat.: et impellas instrumentum usque ad corneam: quia tunc videbis illum. Cum autem instrumentum videbis sub cornea illum impellas vsque ad aquam quæ est coram pupilla.] þan lete þe point of þin instrument goon anoon to þe water þat is gaderid tofore þe iȝe / And whanne þou hast broken þe place þat þe water was ynne, þan presse it adounward, & drawe out al þe watir þerof clene,*. [& drawe out al þe watir þerof clene, an insertion of the translator. The operation which he describes is the dislocation of cataract by depression. A fuller and more accurate account of it is given by John Vigo, who begins his description with the following words: "And yf the cataractes cannot be healed, when they are confirmed, then we must turne to handy operation. And though we counseyled to leave it to ye tothdrawers, yet we wyl declare ye maner therof." Traheron, Vigo, fol. 136b.] & if þer come more watir þerto, þan þou must reherse þis werk aȝen. & if þer come no more watir þerto, þan þou schalt leie vpon his iȝe a plastre maad of þe ȝelke of an eij wiþ þe white, & bole leid vpon lynnen clooþ & binde vpon his iȝe, & lete þe patient be in a derk place, & he schal heere noPage  252 greet noise, & he schal not traueile wiþinne .viij. daies, & he mote be kept so þat he cowȝe not [folio 171b] & fro wraþþe / Sumtyme þe poynt of þe iȝe siȝt is stoppid wiþinneforþ, & þan he schal neuere be curid þerof; ouþer it wole be greet maistrie for to cure it. & if it mai be curid, þis is þe cure þerof: þou muste purge him with pigra rasis, & wiþ pululis cochijs þat rasis made, & þei muste be ofte ȝeue, & þou muste do in his iȝen drijnge collirijs & oþere driyng medicyns / Ouþer it mai come of causis withoutforþ as of smitynge & þat mai liȝtli be curid / First þe patient schal be lete blood, if age mai suffre it & oþere particlis þat be forseid, for blood letynge wole helpe for to avoide awei þe enpostym, & þan þou schalt make him an enplastre wiþ oon of þese medicyns, & it schal be bounden þerto softli / ℞, mele of beenis þat be sotil & grinde it wiþ wiþi leeues smal / Also take mele of beenys & flouris of camomille & þe rote of altea .ȝ. ij., & also biteine .[scruple] .j., absinthium .ȝ j. & seþe hem in water & make þerof an enplastre & lete þe patient reste, probatum est.

¶ Ordecilus is a litil swellinge, & is long & smal & comeþ to a child whanne it is bore, & þis passioun wole sitte in [folio 172a] his iȝe liddis / þe cure herof is for to lete hem blood & purge him of humours corrupt, & do þerto þis medicyn: medle aloes with licio*. ["Lycium. Is the Juice of a thorny tree, growing chiefly in Capadocia and Lycia, of three cubites heyght." Halle, Table, p. 63.] & make þerof a poudre / Also þou schalt anoynte him wiþ storax liquida & anointe him þerwiþ / ¶ Also resolue a litil opoponac in water, and make an enplastre þerof & leie vpon the place, & þe same þing doiþ diaquilon, & or þou leie ony plastre þervpon, þou schalt make a fomentacioun wiþ hoot water.

¶ Grando & nodus. Grando is as miche to seie as an hail stoon, & nodus is a knotte, & þus comeþ in þe iȝe liddis, & sumtyme it wole schewe wiþinneforþ, & sumtyme wiþoute. & whanne it schewiþ wiþoutforþ, opene it & leie þeron diaquilon & oþere þingis for to consume þe mater. & if þis suffise not, þou schalt take it wiþ þi .ij. fyngris & drawe it harde, & þan kutte þe skyn þeron & drawe him out, & þan þou shalt soude it wiþ þe white of an eij & oþere þingis þat ben soudinge //

¶ ffistula lacrimalis,*. [Sl. 2463, f. 90: "A ffystule in þe wyke of þe eye, hit comyth of concours of rennyng of humores to þe corner of þe eye besyde þe nose, & because of her multitude & gretnesse þey may nat passen out but abyden there & maken an emynence, as hit were a lupyne; & therfore of sume hit is cleped lupinus."] þat is as miche to seie as a feestre wiþPage  253 teeris / Þis comeþ in þe corner of þe iȝe next þe [folio 172b] nose, & engendriþ þere & makiþ a þing as greet as it were a pese. & if þese humours leeue þere longe þei wolen rotie & þei wolen make vlcus þere, & þer wole come manie teeris þerto, and þei mai not be maad drie, & þis mai leeue þere so longe þat þer wole engendre a feestre þerof. & but if þat feestre be curid while it is freisch, it wole rote þe boon, & þe lenger þat it wexiþ oold, þe worse it wole be for to cure. ¶ Þe firste bigynnynge of þis cure is for to avoide þe heed wiþ cochijs & wiþ pigra, þan do þeron þis collirium / ℞, aloes, thuris, sarcocolle, sanguinis draconis, balaustie, antimonij, aluminis, ana, floris eris a litil, as miche as wole be þe fourþe part of oon of þe forseid. & make of alle þes sotil poudre & distempere hem wiþ reyn water or wiþ water of roses, & caste it in þe corner of his iȝe, but þe place schal be maad drie first. & þan þou schalt do þerto oon of þe mundificatiuis þat schulen be seid in þe antidotarie, or þis medicyn þat is aproued / Take clene mirre .ȝ .ij. & make þerof poudre & make it þicke wiþ þe galle of a boole, þat it be as þicke as it were an oynement, [folio 173a] & leie it vpon lynnen clooþ & leie þis þervpon, for þis wole soude þe place & make it clene / ¶ If it so be þat it be not curid with þis medicyn, þanne it is a signe þat þe boon is rotid, & þan þou muste opene þe skyn & vnhile þe boon, & touche þe boon wiþ an hoot iren as fer as it is rotid / & þanne leie þervpon buttir or grese þat þe scar þer mowe falle awei, & þan þou muste reherse þe cauterie aȝen. & þanne leie þervpon buttir, & þus þou muste do til þe boon be clene, & þan leie þervpon oile of rosis hoot medlid wiþ ȝelke of an ey til al þe brennynge falle awey. & þan drie þe place with drijnge medicyns, & þan regendre fleisch & soude it, & þou schalt wite þat þer is noon so good maner medicyn as þis is / For if þou wolt leie þerto ony corosif water, þat wole brenne forþere þan it schulde / & also it were greet perel for þe iȝe & þerfore it is good for to worche as it is aforseid / *. [The end of this chapter, omitted by the translator, is given in Sl. 2463, fol. 90 b.: "¶ Also heseyth þat yf þe bone be schauen with Instrumentis þat all þe corupcion is seldome taken awaye, wherefore þe corupcion comyth ayen bycause of þe partie whiche leuyth behynde corupt. ¶ He seyth also þat alþouȝ the corupcion be taken away neuer so well, yet nature departith a litell follikell þerfro aforne þat þe flessch mowe be faste knyt other soudid to þe bone and what tyme þe bone is touchyd with an hoot Iryn, þanne all þat is corrupt disseuerith fro þat ys hoole, and þe complexion of þe place is tempered.]

Page  254
Of þe passioun of eeris.

As it is aforseid þat nerues comen fro þe brain to þe iȝen / in þe same maner nerues comen from þe brain & goiþ into þe eris & makiþ heerynge & ben instrumentis of witt. [folio 173b] Þe hoolis in a mannes eeris ben maad in a deep holowe boon, & it was bi þis skille þat it schulde vndirstonde sownynge, & þat þe sowne schulde not come into þe brayn anoon, but alitil & alitil bi degree, & also for þis skille þat þe coold eire ne þe hoot eire schulde not sodeinly entre yn; & þe wei þat goiþ into a mannes eere, ne goiþ not riȝt forþ, but hidir & þidir, for if þe weie were riȝtforþ, it wolde þe raþere be hurt of al maner þing / Þe eere was maad of cartilaginis þat is hardere þan fleisch & neischer þan boon, þat it miȝte be pliaunt. & if þei schulde be maad oonly of fleisch, þei schulde haue noon sustentacioun for to bere hem vp. & if þei hadden be maad oonly of hard boon, þei miȝten not haue be meued, & þerfore itt was moost nede þat þei weren cartilaginous: þat is as miche to seie as maad of gristle þat is neischer þan boon & hardere þan fleisch. To þis lyme þer comeþ manie sijknessis, & summe þerof falliþ for cirurgie as apostimes & vlcera, & summe falliþ to phisik as greet sownynge in þe eeris & sibillus, & [folio 174a] defaute of heeringe & deefnes.*. [MS. deesires.] Akynge of þe eeris sumtyme is an yuel, & sumtyme harme fallynge þerto / & þerfore it is mi purpos for to speke boþe of sirurge and of phisik in þis chapitre. ¶ Alle þe sijknessis of þe eeris moun be take in þis maner, as akynge of eeris. Ouþer it is apostym & without vlcera, or it is wiþ enpostym & vlcera; þan it is of yuel complexioun & hoot;*. [The translation is corrupt. Lat.: aut est sine apostemate vel ulcere aut cum apostemate et ulcere. Si sine apostemate et ulcere: tunc aut est propter malam complexionem calidam — — aut propter malam complexionem frigidam.] þat þou miȝt knowe bi scharp akynge & reednes of þe place. & þan þou schalt cure it wiþ castynge into þe eere oile of rosis, boylid hoot as he mai suffre, wiþ þe .iiij. part of vinegre / & if þe akynge go not awei in þis maner, þan þou schalt do þeron a litil of opium / And if it come of yuel complexioun þat it be coold, as coold wynd or of coold eire entrid þeron, þis þou miȝt knowe bi greet cooldnes in þe place, & þan þou schalt cure him wiþ þingis þat schal be cast into þe eere, watir of maiorana, or oile of lilie, þat þou schalt fynde þe composicioun in þe antidotarie. & in þis maner hoot oile schal be putt in his eere &Page  255 no coold þing, & þou schalt stuwe þe pacient [folio 174b] / Sumtyme it comeþ of sum þing þat falliþ in his eere as a worme or a corn or a stoon, or watir; þis þou schalt knowe bi þe tellinge of þe pacient; for if þer be ony þing wiþinne, me mai se it. If it so be þat þer be falle yn ony stoon, þan caste into his eere oile of rosis, or oile of almaundis, & if þer be falle yn ony corn, þan þou schalt do noon oile in his eere; for it wole make þe corn wexe greet. Make a litil instrument of tree or of sum oþer þing & wete it in terbentyn & putte it into his eere, & touche þerwiþ þe stoon, ouþir þe greyn, & þan it wole cleue þerto, & þan drawe it out / ¶ Also smite his eere wiþ þe pawme of þin hand, & bi hap it wole falle out þerwiþ / Also sette a ventuse wiþ fier vpon þe hoole of his eere, for þis sumtyme wole drawe out a corn ouþer a stoon.*. [The translator has omitted the case when water is in the ear. Sl. 2463, fol. 83 b.: "And yef be water enterid into þe ere, doo Galyenys experyment. ¶ Take a rodde of wilowe othyr a twigge of þe vyne and putte þe tone ende in þe patientis ere, & lappe wex aboute þe tother ende and sette hit on fyre, ffor by þe vertu of þe fyre þe water schal be clene dried vppe."] ¶ If þer entriþ ony worme into a mannes eere, þan fille his eere ful of flact watir,*. [flact watir. Lat. flaccidus. O.Fr. flaccide. N.E. flat water. Compare flaccid. Skeat, Et. Dict., and flaisch, p. 265, note 1, flasch, p. 266, note 3. O.Fr. flasque, Lat. flaccidus, another form of flaccidus.] & þan drie it / And if þis suffisiþ not, fille his eere ful of oile of almaundis þat ben bittir; & if þis suffisiþ not, þan do in his eere iuys of calamynte.

¶ If þe akynge come of humouris gaderid to apostym, þat þou [folio 175a] miȝt knowe bi greet akynge, & akynge of his pous,*. [Lat.: per fortem dolorem et pulsationem.] & bi þe swellynge of þe place, þan þou muste bigynne for to aswage þe akynge wiþ oile of rosis, & lete him blood in þe heed veyne in þe same side. If it so be þat he mai not be lete blood, for sum cause þat lettiþ, þan garse him vpon his schuldris, & putte in his eere oile of rosis wiþ a litil vinegre. If þee þinkiþ þat þe mater comeþ of colre, þat þou schalt knowe bi signes þat ben forseid, þan purge him wiþ a decoccioun of mirabolanorum / If þe mater be not aswagid, ne þe akinge do awei, þan bigynne for to leie mussillaginis of fenigrec & of lynseed, & rotis of altea, wiþ wommans milk, & do it flat*. [flat, Lat. tepidus. See above, note 3.] into his eere / & vpon þe eere leie an enplastre þat it hile al þe eere, maad of lynseed, & barli, & rotis of altea, & of lilie, & medle hem with gandris grese & grese of an hen. & þis cure þou schalt contynueli do, til þe quitture come out of his eere, & þePage  256 akynge aceesse.*. [accesse, O.Fr. acesser.] & þan þou schalt cure it riȝt as vlcera of þe eeris ben curid, þat schal be seid here aftir / Also if þe mater þat makiþ þe enpostym come [folio 175b] of cooldnes, & þat falliþ ful seelde, but if it come in an old man, & þat þou miȝt knowe bi þe akynge & bi þe cooldnes of þe place, þan þou schalt bigynne to avoide him wiþ pillulas cochie & wiþ a clisterie. & caste into his eere oile of lilies, & resolue in þe same oile [dram] .[one half]. euforbij ouþir .ȝ. j. de turbit, & anoynte al aboute his eeris wiþ þe forseid oile of lilies, & leie þer-vpon wolle vnwaischen, & make him a fumigacioun to his eere wiþ hoot water in which schal be soden maiorana & calamynte. & if þis suffisiþ not, leie þer-vpon an enplaster or an oynement, & of garleke, & rotis of lilie soden to-gidere & grounden wiþ butter, & do þerto leuayn, & do þerto oile of lilie or of camomille, & a litil vinegre, & make an enplastre and leie vpon his eere, for þis enplastre rotiþ coold mater & drawiþ it out, & if þou miȝt se ony place in þe eere þat quitture is gaderid on, þan it is good to opene þat place & drawe out þe quitture as it schal be seid heraftir. & þan þou schalt cure it riȝt as þou schalt cure vlcera þat schal be seid herafter.

Sumtyme akynge of eeris comeþ of gret [folio 176a] wynd & sound in þe eere, & noise & wynd þat comeþ of þe heed & falliþ into þe eeris.*. [Lat.: Fit etiam dolor auris propter grossam ventositatem ad aures de capite descendentem.] Þis þou miȝt knowe liȝtly, for wiþ þe akynge he schal haue a maner noise in his eeris & pipinge / & þe cure herof schal be avoiding of greet humours, & þou schalt caste into his eere oile of rue, & in þe same oile schal be dissolued a litil castor, & he mote kepe him fro al þing þat engendriþ wynd.

¶ Also akynge of þe eeris comeþ of vlcera þat ben wiþinne in þe hoole of þe eere, & sumtyme þei comen of an enpostym goinge tofore. & þe signes herof ben akynge & cours of quitture þat stynkiþ. & þe more stinking þat þe quitture is & þe more departid fro whit colour, þe worse it wole be to cure / ffirst þou schalt make clene his heed with cochijs & wiþ pigra, & þan þou muste do mundificatiuis to his eere & drijng þingis. & be war þat þou worche not as .G. seiþ þat summe worchiþ: þei leide þerto an oynement þat was good for woundis, & alwey þe patient hadde þe more penaunce,*. [penaunce, Lat. dolor; penaunce usually means "penitence."] & þe sijkenes woxe more & more / & þerfore .G. axiþ what is good [folio 176b] þerfore / And .G. seiþ: who þat seiþ þat it schal be curid wiþPage  257 drijnge þingis, he seiþ fals; for drijnge þingis constreineþ, & apostym is constreynyng / And summen han now newe rulis: þat wiþ contrarijs contrarie þingis schulen be curid / In þis maner þou schalt worche. Make poudre of mirre, & of aloe, & olibani, & sanguis draco ana, & take oon tent & wete it in hony, & folde þe tent in þe poudre, & putte þe tent in his eere anoon to þe botme / & if þe tent mai not come to þe botme þerof, þan dissolue þe forseid poudre wiþ watir & hony, & caste it yn / If it so be þat vlcus be swiþe cold, þan þou schalt cure him in þis maner / Take þe rust of iren, & grinde it smal, & leie it in an erþen vessel with vinegre, & boile hem togidere, til þe rust bicome drie. & þus þou muste do ofte tyme. & þan þou muste poudre it aȝen, & seþe it in vinegre aȝen til it bicome þicke as hony, & þan do þis in his eere, for þis wole hele vlcera, & þis wole drie þe moistnes þerof, & þis wole do awey þe akynge / And take hony .ȝ. .x., vinegre ȝ. viij., & boile hem liȝtly at þe fier til it be wel skymed,*. [skymed. Compare scume, p. 242, note 6.] & þan do þerto [dram] .ij. of vert de grece, and [folio 177a] medle hem wel togidere, & wete herynne a tent, & putte it in his eere, & þis is good for vlcera þat ben oold.

¶ If a man be deef, þan it comeþ of summe of þe forseid causis, & principali of longe akynge; also it comeþ of child bering, & þanne it is incurable / Also if it comeþ of humours þat stoppiþ nerues, & þe cure herof is for to purge him wiþ cochijs & pigra, & caste in his eere oile of bittir almaundis & oþere medicyns þat ben openynge. & oon þerof is þis / Take pulpe colloquintide .ȝ .j., castor, aristologia rotunda, succi absinthij ana ȝ. [one half], euforbij .[ounce]. j, costi grana .xv, & make herof smale pelottis, & dissolue oon herof wiþ oile of almaundis þat ben bittir, & do it in his eere; saue þou schalt make him a fumigacioun tofore wiþ a decoccioun of sanbuci, absinthij, sticados / Also take whit oile .ȝ .j., & grynde hony & oile togidere / If þe passioun comeþ of defaute of spiritis, þanne putte herof in his eere, & þanne he schal be baþid & haue reste, & vse metis þat engendriþ good blood, & he schal heere sotil voicis for to make him haue heerynge / & summe seien þat þe fatnes of grene [folio 177b] froggis, þat lyuen among trees;*. [Some words like is good are wanting.] take hem & seþe hem, & gadere þe fatnes of hem & caste in his eere, for þis haþ vertu for to make men heere. ¶ Also take a litil garlek & make it clene, & do þerto þe .iij. part of tartre, & grinde hem smal togidere, & boile hem in vinegre, & whanne it is coold þan coole it, & of þis vinegre leie hoot to his eere /

Page  258
Of þe passioun of þe nose & anothamia.

As we haue bifore seid þat þer ben .ij. hoolis in þe nose þat þe brayn is purgid þerbi of superfluite. & þe nose is not neruous, & þe nose is a propre instrument for to smelle. & þese .ij. hoolis in þe nose ben maad fast in þe scolle. & in þat place is ordeyned a þing þat is clepid colatorium,*. [os colatorium. I could not find this name in the ancient authors, but it occurs frequently in the Latin translations of the Arab authors. The idea that it is the function of the nose to purge the brain is an old one. Compare A. C. Celsus de Medicina Lib. IV. Cap. V., ed. Daremberg: "Destillat autem humor de capite interdum in nares, quod leve est, interdum in fauces, quod pejus est; interdum etiam in pulmonem, quod pessimum est." Avicenna mentions the "os colatorium" in connection with this theory in his Canon Lib. I. Fen. I. Doctr. V. Cap. 1., ed. Venetiis, 1527, fol. 9. "Ossa autem porosa facta fuerunt . . propter additionem necessitatis causa, rei alieuius, que necesse est ut in ea penetret sicut odor, qui cum aere attrahitur in osse, collatorio simili, et cerebri superfluitates, que per ipsum expelluntur." We find the same theory in the French name for a cold: "rhume de cerveau," and for the same reason "Hellebore" is called "brain-purging." N. E. Dict., s. v. brain.] & eir is gaderid þerinne þat makiþ vertu of smellynge. & þoruȝ þat place þe superfluitees of þe brayn ben pourgid, & þer is oon hoole þerof þat goiþ toward þe mouþ. & þe nose is maad of .ij. boones in þe maner of a triangle in þis maner. {illustration}
. þe scharpe eendis þat ben aboue ben ioynynge wiþ þe boones of þe iȝen. & þe boonys of þe nose þat ben bineþe ben cartilaginous for þe causis þat ben forseid.*. [Three leaves or four are wanting, and I insert the Latin text from the Editio Argellata Ven., 1546, f. 239, bk., and Add. 26,106, f. 71.]

*. [Latin Original.][In parte vero inferiori vnum quodque illorum duorum ossium habet quandam cartilaginem propter iuuamenta que sciuisti. In medio vero habet aliam cartillaginem, quæ nasum in duas partes diuidit, quæ durior et fortior est duabus aliis, quæ sunt in nasi fine. Iuuamentum vero illius medie cartilaginis est, ut si vni parti nasi nocumentum acciderit, pars alia totius suppleat iuuamentum. Duo autem ossa nasi coniunguntur ad inuicem: & fit nasi forma, quæ cum his quæ dicta sunt, plures habet vtilitates. Prima, vt sit tutamen & coopertorium superfluitatibus: quæ de cerebro diriuantur. Secunda, vt aerem recipiat, qui est ad receptionem odoratus necessarius mediator. Tertia, quod quamuis maior pars aeris que attrahitur vadat ad pulmonem: tamen aliqua eius pars per nasum tendit ad cerebrum. Foraminis autem quod est inter nasum & os, iuuamenta sunt tria. Primo vt cum os clauditur, possit aeris fieri attractio ad pulmonem.Page  259 Secundo, vt per illud cerebri anterior ventriculus expurgetur. Tertio, ad intercisionem adiuuet literarum, & voces melius explicandas: quoniam cum in loquendo sit necessarium vocem temperare: literas incidere: syllabas solidare: ad hoc saepe labia clauderentur & dentes: si non esset alia via, per quam posset aer superfluus exalare apud literarum incisionem totus conculcaretur aer, qui literarum incisionem & syllabarum prolationem sua multitudine impediret: & vocem etiam generatam non claram emitteret: facit ergo in verborum & vocis prolatione foramen hoc quod facit foramen fistulæ superius,*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 71 b., on margin: gallice flaute.] quod in vocum et tonorum modulationem remanet absolutum: quare voces & toni inde magis exeunt absoluti.*. [The whole preceding passage about the utilities of the nose, and especially the utility of the "nares posteriores," i. e. the communication between the nasal cavity and the pharynx, is taken from Avicenna, l. c. Cap. 4.]

In naso vel naribus plures concurrunt egritudines. Nam ibi fiunt pustulæ, vlcera, caro superflua, polypus, cancer, fluxus sanguinis, fetor, & olfactus priuatio.

Pustulæ fiunt vt plurimum ab adustis humoribus, et sunt cum punctura & ardore. Et cura est phlebotomia & corporis euacuatio, et iniectio albuminis oui cum oleo ros. in simul agitatis. Pustulis fractis, fiat vnctio cum vnguento albo Rasis.

Vlcera quoque si calida fuerint, curantur eodem modo. Si frigida, cum lauatione vini et mellis, & cum vnguento apostolorum, et cum vnguento viridi dicendorum.

Caro superflua remouetur cum instrumentis chirurgicis; si non potest tota cum instrumentis remoueri: remouetur residuum cum puluere asfodillorum & cum vnguento viridi, & apostolorum, & cunctis mundificantibus: & remotis superfluis cum unguentis solidantibus compleatur.

Polypus dicitur a polypo pisce: cuius malitiosa est astutia: quia quando vult piscibus saturari, ascendit saxum quod est in litore maris: & ipsi multum assimilatur, pisces fatigati videntes saxum, non aduertunt de polypo propter similitudinem: sed volentes quiescere, salliunt de mari: polypus illos absorbet: & in eius conuertit nutrimentum. Sic iste morbus cum naso magnam habet affinitatem: quoniam eius materia est catarrhosa frigida grossa descendens a capite: & in via propter eius grossitiem & tenacitatem hæret naso seu substantiæ nasi inuiscata: et humores capitis agitatione moti naturæ volentes descendere, & exire, materiam ibi recipiunt congregatam:Page  260 quæ humores illos in suam conuertit malam naturam: et ex ipsa quotidie augmentatur. Differentia vero est inter polypum & carnem superfluam: quoniam caro superflua, non habet profundam tenacitatem cum nasi substantia: nec cum ipso naso nimis assimilatur: immo potest de facili segregari: polypus vero firmiter adheret cum naso: & non sine violentia separatur. Quorum scilicet polyporum aliquis est curabilis: aliquis incurabilis. Curabilis est substantiæ mollis & tractabilis: nec nasum reddit durum: nec in colore nigrum seu fuscum: nec est multum supra circa cerebri confinia inuiscatus. Incurabilis vero nasum reddit durum, liuidum seu nigrum: & magnam profunditatem tenet, quam quanto magis videris maiori nigredine maiorique participari duritie, maioremque profunditatem occupare, tanto plus ab eo existima fugiendum: quoniam naturam tunc tenet cancri: quanto plus eum curare niteris tanto plus videbis eius malitiam augmentari.

Curabilis vero cura est secundum quod diximus in cura superfluæ carnis quæ ibi consurgit cum ablatione sive cum instrumentis & cum vnguentis mundificativis: & aliis quæ nouisti: præcedente semper corporis et capitis purgatione: sicut multoties est ostensum. Cauteria quoque secundum quod audies, multum valent ad polypi materiam consumendam. Eius vero quem incurabilem diximus, non assumas curam. Si tamen rogaris nimis, palliatiuam curam adhibe: sicut in cura cancri recolimus ostendisse.

De anatomia oris, & contentorum in ore, & passionibus doctrinæ tertiæ tractatus tertii
Cap. iiii.

Totam vero oris concauitatem interius circundat panniculus qui continuus est cum meri, & cum stomacho: quare accidit quod multæ res tangentes palatum prouocant vomitum. Ad oris concauitatem duæ perueniunt viæ: quarum anatomiam superius habuisti; in earum summitate est epiglottis: quæ est creata ad perficiendum vocem: et ut seruet aliquid de aere attracto ad anelitum. Hæc epiglottis ex tribus est composita cartilaginibus: vna est eminens ante & dicitur clypealis & a laicis dicitur guttur vel nodus gulæ: alia est posterius cum osse laudæ continua et uocatur nomen non habens.*. [Cartilago cricoidea.] Tertia vocatur cymbalaris siue cooperturalis:*. [Cartilagines arytænoideæ.] & continuatur cum nomen non habente: & cooperit clypealem: et ista cymbalaris mouetur per eius musculos: quare cum homo comedit, viam clauditPage  261 canne pulmonis: & viam aperit oesophagi. Cum autem homo loquitur, aperit viam canne pulmonis: & claudit viam oesophagi. Quare multoties accidit, quod si homo comedens dicere vellet aliquid ignoranter: quod aliquid viam intraret canne pulmonis: quare natura moueretur ad tussiendum: nec cessaret, donec quod cannam intrauerat, esset ad extra expulsum.] [folio 178a] til þat mete be out of his þrote, saue algate he schal couȝe til it be oute. & þan aboue þis instrument is vuula þat is þe palet*. [palet, palate. See Skeat, Et. Dict. The erroneous identification of uvula and palatum is not in the original.] of þe mouþ & helpiþ for to make soun / For þe wynd þat comeþ of þe lungis reboundiþ*. [rebound, O.Fr. rebondir. See later references in Skeat, Et. Dict.] aȝens þe palet & makiþ þe more soun. In þe holownes of þe mouþ is maad fast þe tunge, þat is maad of whit fleisch, & neische, & of nerues, & veynes, & of arterijs, as it is necessarie þerfore / And in þe þrote of þe tunge ben .ij. wellis þat spotil is gaderid þeron, & holdiþ alwei þe tunge moist / Also in a mannes mouþ ben .xxxij. teeþ, & þerof sittiþ .xvj. in þe cheke boon,*. [Lat.: XVI in utraque mandibula.] & summen han but .xxviij. / And for to hile a mannes teeþ ben ordeined lippis, & ben as it were þe dore of an hous, & helpiþ forto speke & to pronounce wordis / Now to alle þese lymes þat ben forseid: as þe palet of þe mouþ & a mannes tunge & þe teeþ & þe gomis & þe lippis, alle þei han diuers passiouns.

¶ Vuula sumtyme wiþ cours of humouris sumtime gaderiþ an enpostym, & sumtyme vuula wexiþ to long,*. [Lat.: Vuula namque propter humorum decursum aliquando apostematur aliquando solum elongatur.] & sumtyme apostym of þe [folio 178b] palet comeþ of hoot cause, þat þou schalt knowe bi þe reednes of þe place & bi brennyng; & þanne in þe cure herof þou schalt bigynne for to lete him blood in þe heed veyne, & purge colre wiþ a decoccioun of fretis.*. [fretis, fruit.] & herof þou schalt make him a gargarisme, & þerwiþ he schal ofte waische his mouþ: ℞, lentes, balaustias, psidias, gallas, rosas, sumac, & boile þese wiþ .ij. partis of water, & oon part of vinegre, & herof make a gargarisme / Also þou schalt leie to his palet poudre of rosis, & sandalis,*. [MS. inserts & rosis.] & balaustiarum & a litil of camphre / Þis is a good help þerfore whanne þe palet is woxe long wiþ hoot humouris. ¶ If þer come an enpostym of coold humouris, ouþer þat þe palet wexe long wiþ coold humouris, & þat þou miȝt knowe whanne þe place is not reed, & if þer bePage  262 miche spotil in his mouþ, first þou schalt purge him wiþ cochijs & pigra, & þan make him a gargarisme wiþ þis decoccioun: ℞, aceti partes duas, mellis partem vnam, boile hem togidere & do þerto poudre of mirtillorum*. [MS. over mirtillorum is written mirtelberys.] & þe seed of rosis & peletre*. [pelletre, Lat. pyrethrum. "Pyrethrum, Bartram, wild or bastard Pellitory, an Herb the Root of which is very biting and hot." Phillips. See Pelleter Cath. Angl. and Note ibid.] & ȝinȝibere, & þan make him poudre of pepir [folio 179a] & sal armoniac, & make herwith a fumigacioun wiþ enbotum.*. [enbotum, Lat. embotum. See Dufr.= infundibulum. Fr. embut, a surgical instrument, a funnel.] & if it be greet to-swolle, & þan þou muste make consumynge þingis as diameron & sappa michum*. [sappa michum, Lat. saramitum.] / If þe palet be recchid along, & if it be so long þat it lie vpon þe tunge, þan þou muste kutte awei as miche þerof as þee þinkiþ good, so þat it be nomore þan it schulde be; & be war þat þou kutte not to myche þerof, for þer miȝte come greet perel þerof: as his vois miȝte be apeirid þe while he lyuede, & contynuely couȝinge, & his lungis miȝte be þe worse þerfore & also his piys.*. [piys, Lat. pectus. O.Fr. pis.] & þerfore it is greet perel for to kutte a mannes palet.*. [Gulielmus de Saliceto, Lanfranc's teacher, uses a cautery instead of cutting. I give the quotation from an English translation, MS. Sloane 277, fol. 1 (beginning of 15th cent.): "Be þe grape cutt wiþ a brennynge yren keruynge, & be it putt in by a pipe to þe grape, þe mouþ holden open. Be þe grape receyued in þe hole of þe pipe. Whiche receyued, be putt in þere þe brennynge yren in þe pipe, & be þe grape cauteried."]

¶ The tunge suffriþ manie sijknessis as pustulas and swellynge & kuttynge, & ofte tyme a mannes tunge bicomeþ schorter þan it schulde be. And þer is anoþer passioun þat is clepid fili ranulam*. [Ranula, a tumor, which forms under the tongue. (Dunglison.) See Vegetius, De re veterin. 4, 5, 1. Gr. [gap: 1] . Fr. grenouillette.] & spasmum, & sumtyme a mannes tunge wexiþ to long.*. [The passage is corrupt. Lat.: Lingua quoque multas patitur ægritudines, pustulas, inflationem, scissuram, breviationem fili, ranulam, spasmum et relaxationem.] ¶ The curis of pustulis & vlcera schulen be seid heraftir / If þer come an enpostym or ony swellynge to a mannes tunge, & it come of hoot humours, þanne þou schalt bigynne þe cure þerof in þis [folio 179b] maner / ffirst lete him blood in þe heed veine, & þanne make him a decoccioun & a waisching as it is aforseid in apostym of þe palet: & he schal holde in his mouþ þe iuys of letuse. & in þe same maner þou schalt cure swellynge of a mannes tunge / If þer come apostym orPage  263 ony swellynge of coold humouris, þan purge him with pillulis þat be forseid of .G[aliens]. makinge. ¶ Ther was a man þat his tunge was so swolle þat it miȝte not be conteyned in his mouþ. & first I made him purgaciouns & waischingis, & þan I made him consumynge þingis; & in þis maner he was curid. ¶ Scissure is a passioun in a mannes tunge þat is as it were kutting. & þat schal be curid wiþ þe iuys of malue soden wiþ psillium & medlid wiþ sugre & sode, & herwiþ he schal waische his mouþ. & he schal drinke water of barli, & his mete schal be hoggis feet wel soden, & wiþ þe nerues of þe feet he schal frote wel his tunge. ¶ Also þer is a þreed*. [þreed, Lat. filum. Usually filetum. Fr. filet de la langue.] vndir sum mannes tunge þat he mai not put out his tunge as he schulde, & also it lettiþ him to speke. Þe cure herof is for to kutte þat þreed, [folio 180a] & þan brenne him. & it is better for to make an instrument of goold & brenne it þerwiþ, & kutte also wiþ þe same instrument / ¶ Also þer comeþ an enpostym vpon a mannes tunge of fleume*. [Lat.: Ranula quoque fit sub lingua. Sl. 2463, fol. 93: "Ranula is an emynence vnder þe tunge toward þe forther teth in maner of an enpostume, & whane þe tunge is lift vp þer schewith as it were a nother tunge vnder þe tunge."] & also of malancolie, saue of malancolie an enpostym comeþ but selden / Þese ben þe signes if it come of malancolie: þe place wole be ledi ouþir blak. & þan do þou no cure þerto / If it come of fleuma, þanne frote wel his tunge wiþ salt, til þe blood come out þerof. & if þis suffise not, þan frote it wel wiþ vitriol / If þe spasme come in a mannes tunge þat wole constryne þe tunge inward, þe cure herof is for to holde oile of anete in his mouþ & of camomille hoot as he mai suffre, & make an enplastre herof medlid wiþ hoot water, & leie it vpon his heed & vpon his nolle hoot / If his tunge bicome neische, þan þou muste purge him wiþ pillulis fetidis,*. [pillulæ fetidæ, pills composed from fetid things.] or with trocisco de turbit. & þan do þerto þis medicyn: ℞, grana vij. numero, recentis & lucidi euforbij,*. [Halle, Table, p. 35. 'Euphorbium, [gap: 1] , is the gum or teares of a tree called Euphorbia growinge in Lybia, found out (by the testimonye of Dioscorides) in ye time of Iuba: and was called by that name (as saith Ruellius) of his Phisicien."] & take vij. figis & pare awei þe ryndis þerof & grynde hem wel togidere, & do þerto as miche raw hony [folio 180b] & medle hem togidere, & make herof þe maner of a letuarie; & herof he schal take as miche as a bene, & leie it vndir his tunge, whanne he werePage  264 fastynge / Wiþ þis medicyn þe abbot of seint victor was maad hool; for he miȝte not speke, & herwiþ his speche come aȝen.*. [Lat.: cum hac medicina fuit restituta loquela dominæ abbatissæ sancti victoris ad ultimum, quæ propter linguæ mollificationem non poterat uerbum intelligibile bene loqui; dedi ei hanc medicinam, et cito locuta est expedite.]

¶ Akinge of teeþ: sumtyme it comeþ of vijs of þe teeþ,*. [of viis of þe teeþ, dentium vitio. viis is used synonymously with defaute. Sometimes both expressions are used. Sloane 277, f. 12 b.: "These seknesses be maad of vice or defaute of þe norischinge strengþe."] & sumtyme of þe gomis, & sumtyme it comeþ of vijs of þe stomac, & sumtyme it comeþ of hoot mete, & sumtyme of coold mete. & if it come of hoot mete, make him holde coold watir in his mouþ, & þat wole cure him anoon. & if it come of coold mete, þan he schal holde in his mouþ hoot oile. & if a mannes teeþ akiþ for sour þingis, þan he schal ete chese & portulacas, or he schal gnawe wiþ his teeþ hoot wex*. [This is evidently a way of filling the hole of a tooth.] / If it come of vicis of þe heed or of þe gomis, and þe cause come of hete, þat þou miȝt knowe bi reednes of þe place & bi þe hete þerof, & þan þou schalt lete him blood in þe heed veine, & þan þou schalt lete him blood in þe veine þat is vndir his tunge; & þan he schal holde in his mouþ oile of rosis, medlid wiþ watir, [folio 181a] ouþer coold watir & vinegre / If þe akynge be so greuous þat it mai not be take awei, þan aswage his akynge wiþ þis medicyn: ℞, seminis iusquiami albi*. [Halle, Table, 52. "Hyosciamus. Henbane is called in Greeke [gap: 1] ; in Latin: Hiosciamus, Apollinaris, Faba suilla et Altercum; of Apuleius: Symphoniaca; of others also Fabidum and Fabilonia, and of some Cassilago or Caniculata; of the Apothecaries Iusquiamus. Of Henbane there are three kyndes: the blacke, the yelowe and the whyte."] opij ana [scruple] .j, seminis apij [scruple] .j, grinde hem togidere & tempere hem wiþ vinegre, & make þerof pelottis in þe greetnes of a pece, & leie oon herof vpon þe tooþ, & þis wole do awei þe akinge þerof. & after þe fourþe dai lete him holde in his mouþ oile of rosis, in which is dissolued masticis. ¶ If þe akynge come of coold humouris, þat þou miȝt knowe if þe place be not reed ne to-swollen, þan purge him wiþ cochijs or wiþ pigra. & aftir þis he schal holde in his mouþ tiriacam diatesseron.*. [diatessaron, an electuary into the composition of which entered four medicines. "Among Farriers Diatessaron is taken for Horse-treacle; — —. Also an Electuary made of Gentian, Bay berries and Birth-wort, of each two Ounces, all beaten to a very fine Powder, and work'd in like manner with two Pounds of Honey in a Stone-mortar."—Phillips.] ¶ Also do þis medicyn in his eere in þe same parti þat akiþ / ℞, olium oliuarum .[ounce] ij., aceti .[ounce] j., coloquintidae, piperis ana .ȝ .j.,Page  265 & boile hem in a double vessel, & distille it in his eere flaisch*. [flaisch, tepidus. See p. 255, note 3.] / Sumtyme a mannes teeþ ben frete & ben holow, & þis comeþ of humours corrupt þat falliþ to þe teeþ. & in þis maner þou schalt cure it / ℞, olium .[ounce] j., sansuci*. ["Samsucus, maiorana," et cet. Alphita, p. 161.] sicci,*. [MS. succi.] seminis sicute ana [dram][one half]. boile hem togidere, & þan þou schalt haue [folio 181b] a cauterie wiþ .ij. pointis, & þou schalt haue þe schap herof heraftir, & þou schalt make þe same instrument hoot in þe fier, & þan putte it in þe forseid oile, & þan putte it in þe hole of his tooþ, & be war þat þou touche not his gomys wiþ þe iren ne his lippis: & þis medicyn þou muste reherse ofte tymes / Þis medicyn wole bringe water out of þe teeþ, & it wole do awei þe akynge. ¶ If þou desirist to drawe out ony mannes tooþ wiþouten iren: ℞, cortices radicum mori & piretrum ana, distempere hem wiþ vinegre & grinde hem wel togidere, & drie hem in þe sunne, & departe liȝtli þe tooþ & þe fleisch of þe gomis & leie of þe medicyn bitwixe þe tooþ & þe fleisch / Also lac titimalli*. [lac titimalli. [gap: 1] euforbia.] distemperid wiþ flour of amidum / Also make poudre of peletre & lete it lie in vinegre in þe somer tyme, & kepe it; þis makith neische, þat þe tooþ mowe be drawe out wiþouten ony iren / If a mannes teeþ ben blac, in þis maner þou schalt make hem whit / ℞, farinam ordei, sal ana, & leie hem in hony, & make þerof past & folde it in paper [folio 182a] or in lynnen clooþ, & brenne it in a furneis. & þan brenne schellis of eiren, & ciperi, aluminis ana partes duas, corticum citri siccorum, camfer ana partem vnam, make herof poudre, and frote þerwiþ his teeþ & hise gomis, & þis wole do awei þe blaknes of a mannes teeþ /

Of þe passioun in wommen brestis /

God almiȝti made in a womman tetis for þe norischinge of a child. & a wommans tetis ben maad of fleisch þat is glandulous, & of veines, & of arterijs, & of nerues, & ben but veines þat comen fro a wommans lyuere to hir tetis & þe maris, as it is seid here tofore, & in what maner blood turneþ into milk it is forseid.*. [Lat.: et ad ubera veniunt venæ concavæ a matrice, per quas, ut scivisti, pars sanguinis attrahitur menstrualis, et sicut chylus camellinus veniens a stomacho, cum a hepate recipitur, colorem recipit rubeum: sic sanguis a matrice veniens rubeus albescit. Compare Avicenna, Lib. IV., Fen. XII., Cap. 1, f. 209. "Nam epar rubificat chilum album et facit ipsum sanguinem. Et mamilla albificat sanguinem rubeum et facit ipsum lac."]Page  266

¶ In a wommans tetis comeþ manie passiouns / ffor, as Egidius seiþ, þat sumtyme þer comeþ þerto apostym of milk, & sumtyme vlcera / And comounly enpostyms comeþ of blood þat is drawe to þe tetis & mai not turne into milk, or if a womman haue to miche blood, & it comeþ of febilnes of vertu as it is aforseid in þe general chapitre of enpostyms. ¶ Þe cure of an hoot enpostym in þe tetis / ffirst þou [folio 182b] schalt lete hir blood in Basilica, or sette a ventuse vpon hir schuldris. & if þe cause come of retencioun of menstrue, þan þou schalt ȝeue hir medicyns for to bringe out þe menstrue, or þou schalt lete hir blood in þe sophene, & anointe þe place wiþ oile of rosis, & þe fourþe part of vinegre. & if þis suffise not, þan wete a lynnen clooþ in þe iuys of solatri,*. [Halle, Table, p. 119. "Solanum hortense, which doubtlesse Lanfranke meaneth by Solatrum, doth Galen also call Esculentum."] & whanne þou hast anoyntid þe place wiþ oile & vinegre, þan leie þis clooþ þervpon. & loke þat alle þingis þat þou leist þerto be flasch hoot;*. [flasch hoot, tepidus. See p. 255, note 3.] for þer schal no coold þing be leid þerto for þe place is neruous, for coold þing wolde greue it. If alle þese medicyns suffisen not, saue þe mater bigynneþ to drawe to quitture, þanne leie þerto maturatiuis. & if þou miȝt not do it awei wiþ repercussiuis ne wiþ resoluynge þingis, & þou ne miȝt not make it maturatif, þan it is drede lest þe womman bicome in a passioun þat is clepid Mania.*. [De propr. rer. lib. V. cap. 34. Add. 27,944, fol. 53 b.: "ypocras seiþ þat in wommen in þe whiche superfluyte of blood turned to þe pappis, it bodeþ madnes."] Þan hir heed mote be schaue, & ȝeue hir confortif þingis for hir heed, & ȝeue hir sotil dietynge, & sche schal drinke no wijn ne ete [folio 183a] no fleisch. & þou muste worche ful sotilli, ffor I say a womman þat hadde an enpostym in hir brest & come of blood, & so I tauȝte hir for to do*. [do, above line.] as it is aforseid, & þo þer come a lewid cirurgian & repreuede me, & he leide þervpon maturatiuis: & þe more þat he leide þervpon maturatiuis, þe more þe mater wexide greet & þe more brennynge. & þe same cirurgian wolde not heere my counseil / & þe wommans freendis took more hede to þe lewid cirurgian þan to me, & wiþinne .iij. daies Mania come to hir and was oute of hir witt, & so þe frenesie fil on hir / & þis pronosticacioun I seide in þe bigynnynge, but þei wolde not leue mi wordis*. [Lat.: mea tamen prognosticatio multum exaltata extitit.] / If it so be þat it make quitture, þan opene it & do out þe quitture, & þan leie þerto a mundificatif,Page  267 & be wel war þat þou putte þerinne no greet tent ne long, as manie foolis doon; for a wommans tetis ben ful of nerues, & if þe nerues were pressid wiþ ony tent, it wolde make gret akynge, & wolde lette þe cure þerof. ¶ Also þer ben manie foli lechis, whanne þei fynden [folio 183b] in a wommans tetis fleisch þat is glandelous, þan þei wene þat it be wickid fleisch, & ben þeraboute for to drawe it out, & þan þei schendiþ al þe substaunce of þe brest. Þou schalt worche wiseli & þou schalt remeue noon herof, for as it is aforseid, al þe fleisch of þe tetis is glandelous. & whanne þat is clensid wiþ mundificatiuis þan þou schalt regendre fleisch, & þan þou schalt drie it / If it be so, þat coold mater gadere to enpostym in a wommans brest, & þat comeþ ful selde, loke if þis mater come of fleume, & þan anoynte þe place wiþ oile of camomille, & oile of lilie, & oile of anete, & a litil vinegre medlid þerwiþ. & if it be ony nede first make hir a purgacioun, & if it resolue not, þan leie þerto maturatiuis, & þan do as it is aforseid / & if it so be þat þe mater turne to hardnes & blak or ledi, þan þou muste be war þat þou leie þerto no medicyns þat ben to hoot, for þer mai engendre a cancre þerof ful liȝtli. & if it be so, þan be þou not þeraboute for to make it maturatif, & do þou no cure þerto. & summen seien þat a womman mai be curid for [folio 184a] to kutte off al þe brest, & þat is al fals. Saue þou schalt kepe þe place wiþ vnguentum de tutia, & sche mote ofte be purgid, þat sche mowe lyue þe lenger. ¶ I-leue þe wordis þat I seie; þouȝ I haue curid manie men of diuers empostyms, I miȝte neuere cure a verri cancre, but it were in a fleischi place þere I miȝte kut al awei wiþouten ony hurtyng of senewis & of veines*. [There is no condition mentioned in the Latin original, under which the operation might be performed. Roy. 12. C. XIV. fol. 54 b.: de uero cancro nunquam curare potui, licet pluries cum meis uiribus laborauerim.] / & a wommans brest is ful of senewis & veynes & arterijs. ¶ Vlcera þat ben in a wommans tetis schulen be curid as it is aforseid in þe general chapitre, saue herof þou muste be war þat þis lyme may not suffre so harde corosiuis for þe greet tendirnes þerof, saue þou schalt do þerto medicyns þat ben mundificatif & driynge / It falliþ to summe wommen þat þe point of hir tete ne goiþ not out, but ben al hid in þe tete so þat a child mai not take it in his mouþ for to souke / In þis maner þou schalt helpe it / Take þe cuppe of an acurne, & þat is lyk to þe point of a wommans tete, & do þeron terbentyn or pich, & make it hoot & leie it vpon þe point of hir tete & binde [folio 184b] it þerto faste, & þis wole drawe out þe point of hir Page  268 tete. ¶ Also it bifalliþ to maidenes þat her tetis bicomeþ more þan þei schulde be bi resoun, & þou schalt helpe hem in þis maner / Take stonys þat me whettiþ knyues on, & frote þese .ij. stones togidere in vinegre longe, til þe vinegre bicome þicke þerof, & make it hoot & anoynte þer wiþ hir tetis, & þan binde hem / Þis medicyn defendiþ þat þei schulen not wexe, & make hem bicome litil til þei come to her owne propre schap. ¶ Also take comyn & make poudre þerof, & medle it wiþ hony & vinegre; and it worchiþ þe more strongli if þou medle þerwiþ bole armoniac & terra sigillata; grinde hem & tempere hem wiþ vinegre, & make a plastre þerof & lete it lie þeron .iij. daies, & þan þou schalt waische it wiþ coold water / And a womman be war herof þat sche haue no sich medicyn, if hir brest schal wexe ony more.*. [The translator has omitted the following passage: Caueat etiam illa quæ non vult suas ingrossare mamillas: ne illas tangat vel tangi permittat.] ¶ If þat milk be gaderid hard in a wommans brest for hete, þanne þou schalt anointe hir brest wiþ oile of rosis & vinegre, & þou schalt make an enplastre as [folio 185a] of solatri, portulace, for þese herbis han propirte for to dissolue. ¶ Þis is a plastre þat wole dissolue mylk þat is congelid hard, and it wole make þe mater of an enpostym maturatif / ℞, mice panis, farina ordei, fenigreci & seminis lini ana. [ounce] j, radicis malue visci & herbe veruce.*. [herbe veruce, Lat. herbæ erucæ. Brassica eruca L., white mustard. The translator mistook it for Verrucaria.] ana. [handful] .j.; seþe wel þese .ij. laste, & þan stampe hem wel alle togidere & tempere hem wiþ oile, & make þerof a plastre & leie it vpon flasch hoot /

ffor brekyng of þe siphac & of his laxyng.

Anothamia of þe siphac is aforseid / & sumtyme siphac is kutt, & sumtyme it recchiþ along, & sumtyme it to-brekiþ wiþ lepinge, & sumtyme for greet wepinge, & sumtyme for greet crijnge, & sumtyme for greet traueile. ¶ If siphac be recchid aboute þe nauele ouþer aboute þe heeris, þat þou myȝt knowe in þis maner: þe place wole be to-swolle an hiȝ as it were an enpostym. & whanne þou touchist it wiþ þi fyngir, it wole goon yn aȝen. & sumtyme it wole come aȝen, & it wole make noon gurgulacioun / Þe cure herof is but liȝt, & is wiþ a ligature & wiþ enplastre þat schal be seid in þe brekinge [folio 185b] of þe siphac. & if siphac be to-broke, þou miȝte knowe bi þe greet noise, whanne þou lest þin hond þervpon for to putte hem ynPage  269 aȝen.*. [The distinction made between a simple protrusion and a rupture of the siphac is, in fact, one between a less or more developed hernia. The "gurgling sound" has already been noticed by Avicenna Canon, Lib. III., Fen. 22, Tract. 1, Cap. 3.] ¶ Þe cure herof is hard in an oold man. Þan make him a braccal*. [braccal, Lat. brachale = cingulum coriaceum Dufr., from med. Lat. bracæ. See breeches, N. E. Dict. The use of the "brachale vel lumbare" is mentioned by Gulielm. de Salie, Chirurgia. Lib. I., Cap. 43. De crepatura in inguinibus. Engl. transl., Sl. 277, fol. 6 b. "Wiþoute euttynge moost children & oþere in whiche þe guttes comen not down to þe ballock codd, & whiche þat hadde but litel schewynge wiþ a lumbare or a bawdrike, & oure plastre & powdre manye in my tyme I curede þe lumbare or bawdrike oweþ to be maad of lynnen cloþ þrefold." Sl. 2463, fol. 123 b. says: "The cure without inscicion ... is don with a gyrdell made for þe rupture, þe whiehe a man may fynde to sylle."] id est a boond þat it be þe brede of .iiij. fyngris. & it mote be maad of lynnen clooþ maniefoold,*. [maniefoold, Lat.: multis duplicationibus facta.] & þou muste make a plate of iren, as brood as þe brekyng is, & þat mote be fooldid manie foold in þe forseid ligature, & it schal not be round, but plain. & þou muste ordeyne þerfore fastnyngis tofore & bihinde & in hise flankis, þat it mowe be holde algate in oon place, and þou schalt make an enplastre for to leie vpon þe same place vndir þe bindinge in þis maner / ℞, glutinum piscium vel carte .[ounce]. iiij, picis grece .[ounce]. .iiij, picis naualis armoniaci ana. [ounce] ij, kutte þese alle to smale gobetis, & do hem in [ounce]. ij. of vinegre, & [ounce] .iiij. of oile of masticis & lete hem lie þeron adai & anyȝt, & þan melte hem in a panne & cole hem. & heron medle poudre mastic & thus, & boli armoniaci, mummie, sanuinis, draconis, dragaganti, farine fenigreci ana [ounce][one half]. medle hem longe togidere / Ouþir take [folio 186a] scropholarie*. [scropholarie, scrophularia, water betony, medewort written above. See Wr. Wül. mêdwurt.] þe rynde þerof & grinde it wiþ grese, & make þerof an enplastre, & of þe same rotis make poudre, & ȝeue him þerof eueri dai .ȝ .j. & [one half]. wiþ wijn / Also ȝeue him euery dai .ȝ .j & [one half] of poudre maad of þe rotis of valarian temperid wiþ wijn. ¶ And if hise guttis falle adoun into his ballok leþir,*. [ballok leþir, testiculorum bursa.—Cath. Angl., p. 211. Ledyr; birsa. Sl. 2463, f. 123 b.: þe purs of þe ballokes.] þe cure þerof schal be seid in þe nexte chapitre //

Of hernia*. [MS. hernio.] of þe ballokis //

This siknes mai be seid in manie maners / In oon maner whanne a mannes bowels falliþ into his ballokis leþeris, & þan it is clepid hernia intestinalis / Or þer falliþ watir into þe same place asPage  270 it were a dropesie, & þan it is clepid hernia aquosa / Ouiþir þer comeþ wijnd into þe same place, & þan it is clepid hernia ventosa. And sumtyme þer wexiþ fleisch aboute & is greet, & þan it is clepid hernia carnosa / And sumtyme þer ben veynes þereaboute ful of malancolious blood & wele be gret as it were notis, & þan it is clepid hernia varicosa / The firste cause comeþ in þis maner: Dindimus, þat anathomia þerof is [folio 186b] forseid, wexiþ wide for sum moistnes þat falliþ þerto, so þat ȝirbus, ouþer þe bowels falliþ adoun in þe same place; and þis maner is ofte seen. Ouþer siphac is to-broke in þe flank wiþ oon of þe forseid causis in þe chapitre tofore / & þoruȝ þe same breking þe bowels falliþ adoun ouþir ȝirbus, & bitwixe dindimus & mirac þei fallen adoun into þe ballok leþeris. & þis maner falliþ ful selden. Þis laste maner is incurable wiþ ony medicyns, but wiþ kuttynge it mai be curid & sewid. & who þat vsiþ sich maner boondis aforseid, but if it be in children & in newe causis, it is al traueile in idil, & þe patient haþ greet penaunce þerwiþ wiþouten ony profit. ¶ The firste may be curid / & þe .ij. maner is ful hard for to cure, & þerfore it is ful necessarie for a cirurgian for to knowe alle þe maners herof & anathamiam as it is forseid lest he falle in errour. ¶ Þer ben manie men þat ben hardi for to entermete of þese curis þat knowen not þe maner of þe sijknes ne þe diffence þerof, & þerfore þei falliþ aldai in errour. & þe lasse good þat [folio 187a] þat þei kunne, þe raþere þei wole entermete of sich an hard cause. & þis cause is ful perilous / I haue seen manie wise men þat coude do þis cure ful wel, & ȝitt þei wolde not entermete þerof / Þerfore þou muste take consideracioun sotilli, where þe bowels falliþ adoun þoruȝ þe brekynge of siphac ouþir þoruȝ dindimum, & þat þou schalt knowe in þis maner: ¶ In þe firste caas þe bowels or ȝirbus falliþ doun sodeinli wiþ agreuaunce, & þan þou miȝt fele his bowels or ȝirbum in þe botme of þe ballok leþir, & þan þer is but oon skyn to-broke, & þat is mirac. & whanne þou wolt putte yn þe bowels aȝen, þou miȝt fele in what place þei goon in. & whanne hise bowels ben ynne, þan lete þe patient stonde vp, & hise bowels wolen falle out sodeinli aȝen, & þan þou miȝt fele in what place þei comeþ out / In þe .ij. caas ȝirbus or þe bowels, or boþe comen adoun alitil & alitil, & makiþ miche gurgulacioun, & þe wei þat þei comeþ out is algate sumwhat greet in dindimo, & þat wole not be put yn whanne þe bowels ben putt yn, saue [folio 187b] wiþ greet penaunce & in longe tyme. & whanne þe bowels falliþ þoruȝ dindimum, he makiþ þe ballok leþir neuere þe lengere, & þis is a goodPage  271 knowinge: whanne þou hast take kepe of alle þese priuitees, þan þou miȝt wite wherof þe cause is. ¶ Whanne þe bowels falliþ adoun þoruȝ a fissure, id est þoruȝ a brekynge, þan þou schalt not traueile forto worche wiþ plastris & wiþ boondis þat ben forseid, but if it be in children & in causis þat ben newe. & if þe brekynge be but litil, þan þou miȝt make .v. cauterijs vpon þe skyn wiþoutforþ, so þat þe cauterie perse mirac, for þat wole make an hard drowing vpon þe brekinge / & it wole not suffre þat þe bowels schulen not falle adoun þoruȝ þat place, so þat þe brekinge be but litil. If it so be þat þe bowels falle adoun þoruȝ dindimum, þan men haueþ diuers curis. Summen leien a corosif vpon þe ers wiþ dindimum, a medicyn corosif, til þe skyn wiþout be frete, til þou mai se dindimum, & þan aftirward he fretiþ dindimum; & summen drawiþ awei a mannes ballokis, and [folio 188a] summen drawiþ not awei, but bi þe wei of þe corosif þe ballokis wolen rotie afterward / ¶ Also summen maken punctual cauterijs in þe maner of a cros vpon dindimum, & þan aftirward heliþ it vp / Summen kutten þe hiȝer skyn wiþ a cauterie,*. [wiþ a cauterie, error for wiþout cauterie. Lat.: Alii sine cauterio superficialem cutem incidunt.] & þei streyneþ dindimum, & þei bindiþ it wiþ spago*. [wiþ spago, cum spago; med. Lat. spacus, thread. See Diez. s. v. spago.] / Sum worchith in anoþir maner: first, þei kuttiþ þe skyn aboue, & þan þei makiþ cauterium aboue vpon dindimum in summe partie, & in sum parti þei leeueþ hool. & þis maner is lasse worse þan þe toþer þat ben forseid / Summen ficchiþ .ij. nedlis in dindimum wiþ double þreed & crossiþ þe nedlis togidere, & þan þei takiþ þe þredis & leiþ þervpon martencium,*. [martencium, Lat. martentinum. Name of a cautery?] til al þe skyn þat was take wiþ þe nedelis be rerid an hiȝ. & oþer men han diuers werkis þat I hadde not certeyn, for alle maners þat I heere þerof ben disseyuable / For sumtyme whanne a man haþ miche traueilid þoruȝ, þing þat he haþ do brekiþ aȝen, & þan it wole be worse þan it was raþer. & among alle þe maners þat ben, þat is worst þat is doon wiþ medicyn caustica, for medicyns caustica for þe grete venym & malice [folio 188b] þat it haþ, makiþ greet akynge, & is cause to make an enpostym in dindimo, and þoruȝ þe agreuaunce þat dindimo haþ, siphac mai be agreued & diafragma. & fro diafragma it mai go*. [go, above line.] to þe brayn, þat is þe welle of alle nerues, & so þe man mai falle in a spasme, & þan he is but deed. ¶ O þou wrecchid leche, þat for a litil moneyPage  272 puttist a mannes lijf in perel of deeþ / for þe lawe seiþ, it is better þan ony gold or siluer, for þou for a litil money makist him in perel of deeþ / For a man mai lyue vn-to þe tyme of his ende for þis passioun. & þerfore I wole counseile to kutte no man / Saue bi my counseil þei schulen make a ligature as it is aforseid in þe brede of .iiij. fyngris of lynnen clooþ or of sendel,*. [sendel, Lat. sindon, [gap: 1] , a fine Indian cloth, muslin; sendel, O.Fr. cendal is derived from sindon. See Diez, s. v. zendale. See sendalle, sendylle, in Cath. Angl., p. 329, and note ibid.] as I haue tauȝt hertofore. & make þat enplastre þat is forseid, & teche him good regimen & good dietynge / & þouȝ he be not curid wiþ þis medicyn he schal lyue neuere adai þe lenger, ne þe lasse while þerfore / ¶ I say .ij. men þat hadden þe passioun, & þat oon was .lx. winter oold, & his bowels fel out as it is for seid, & it was ful hard*. [hard, in margin.] to bringe hem in [folio 189a] aȝen, & I made him sich a boond as it is aforseid & a plastre, & tauȝte in what maner he schulde diete him-silf. & I seide to him if he louede his owne lijf he schulde go to no man to kutte him. & he was glad of my counseil, & he bar þe forseid bond & þe enplastre .ij. ȝeer contynueli, dai & nyȝt, & wiþinne þat tyme he was hool, & ȝitt I wiste not wher he schulde be hool or no / & þat oþir man was .xl. wintre oold, & þer fel so greet plente out at his bowels, þat þei miȝte not be putt in aȝen, til þe pacient were sett in a baþ. & þo I putte hem in aȝen / & I toolde of þe perel of kuttynge, & he bad me make sich a boond, & I made him oon & þe enplastre þat is forseid. & I tauȝte him how he schulde kepe him-silf, and how he schulde diete him-silf. & wiþinne a litil tyme he come to me, & seide þat he was almost hool, & þat he wolde were his boond no lenger. & þo I repreuede him, & seide þat he schulde not be hool, but if he weride it lenger / In þis maner þou schalt teche him for to kepe him-silf: he schal algate were his boond & his plastre, saue if he haue greet penaunce [folio 189b] þerwiþ whanne he goiþ to his bed aneuen he mai vndo it / And he schal in*. [in, above line.] no maner ete no growel ne raw fruit, ne no mete þat makiþ inflacioun / And he schal drinke no newe wijn, & he schal ete no greet saule,*. [Lat.: ne comedant ad plenam saturitatem. saule, O.Fr. saoulée, from saoul, Lat. satullus.] and whanne he haþ ete þan he schal reste him-silf. & he schal not arise, but if his ligature be faste bounden, & he schal not lepe, & he schal not crie ne renne, & he lepe vpon an hors softli. & whanne he sittiþ atPage  273 priuy he schal not streyne him-silf to harde, & he schal ete no mete þat wole make him costif. & if he wole ony þing traueile, he schal do it þe while he is fastynge. & if he wole holde alle þes preceptis he mai be hool / & þis medicyne is certeyn, for he schal herfore lyue neuere þe lasse while.

¶ If hernia be watri, þis is þe signe þerof, þat his ballok wole be heuy & schynynge, & if þou pressist it wiþ þi fyngir þou schalt fele watrynes þeron / ffirst þou must loke wher it be litil or myche*. [Some words are wanting. Lat.: quæ si sit parua, sufficit tibi medicamen consumens.] — — & þan medicyns þat ben consumynge & driynge suffisiþ / Þerfore þat þou schalt fynde here aftir in þe chapitre of þe droþesie. ¶ If the [folio 190a] mater be greet, þan avoide awei þe mater wiþ kuttynge & wiþ cauterijs. But if þou make cauterijs, þe watir wole come aȝen þerto, & þe cauterijs wolen lette þat þer schal no more mater come þerto. ¶ If þe mater be of wynd: þat þou myȝt knowe bi inflacioun þat is not ledi colour*. [Lat.: Ventosa cognoscitur per tumorem non lucentem.] & bi felynge wiþ þi fyngris, if þou felist no watrines þeron, ne heuynes; þe cure herof is with electuari maad of greynes of lauri & oþere þingis þat schulen be said in þe chapitre of þe dropesi in tympanido.*. [Lat.: in hydropisi tympanite. See p. 282.] ¶ If it be superfluite of fleisch, þat þou miȝte wite wiþ þi fyngris, it wole be hard,*. [Lat.: Signum hernie carnose est ... quod sentis, cum tangis, testiculos dura carne circumvolutos.] þe cure herof mai not be do, but if þou kutte þe skyn þat is wiþoute & drawe out þe mater, & þan soude it, & if it be in þe oon part hard & callous, & in þat oþer part neische, þan it is better þat þou sette noon hand þeron, & principali if it be blac & ledi. ¶ Varicosa schal be curid wiþ gotis whey, & with epithimo, & wiþ purgaciouns of malancolious blood, & þan leie þerto þingis þat ben wastynge /

¶ Of a stoon in þe bladdre & reynis / *. [Compare Celsus Medicina, lib. VII., cap. 26. The later authors followed more or less closely.]

Astoon in a man is engendrid of plente of [folio 190b] grete humouris wiþinne a man, as we moun se an ensample wiþoutforþ of oþere þingis, in þe maner þat men brennen tilis in a furneis. Þei maken first þe tilis of strong cley þat is viscous, & whanne þei han schape it as þei wolen, þan þei leie it in þe sunne to drie / & þan þei doon hem in a furneis wiþ fier. & þe stronger fier þat þePage  274 tilis han, þe stronger þei wolen be, & riȝt so in a mannes bodi, whanne a man haþ miche viscous matere in his bodi & mai not be putt out for febilnes of expulcioun, & þan scharp hete specialy in þe reines falliþ to þat mater & makith it hard, & in þis maner engendriþ þe stoon in þe reynes. ¶ Also in children a stoon engendriþ in her bladdre; for þe reynes of a child ben not so hote as a mannes / In þis maner þou schalt knowe wher þe stoon be in a mannes bladdre or in his reynes*. [Barth. De propr. Trevisa, lib. VII., cap. 54, indicates another symptom. Add. MS. 27, 944. fol. 96. "And if þe ston is in þe reynes hit is i-knowe by slepinge of þe fote and in þe ioyntes of þe lift side, and if it is in þe bladder þe ache is in þe schare and þe twist bitwene þe genetras and þe hole at þe rigge bones ende."] / If þe grauel of his vrine be whit: þan þe stoon is in þe bladdre / And if þe grauel be reed, þan it is in his reynes*. [The translator omits the passage about the causes of stone in general, about the stone in the reins and its treatment. The following sentence, þat I haue aforseid, refers to this omitted part. The author says that he will speak about the causes and treatment of the stone in the reins, although it does not properly belong to surgery. Lat.: Ego vero, licet liber iste meus de cirurgia dicatur, et ad instrumentum cyrurgicum de lapide renum tractare non pertineat, tamen quoniam multum assimilatur in causis et curis, quamvis dissimiletur in signis et curis. Et quum ad curas lapidum renum multotiens sum vocatus, propter gratiam scholarium modum quo usus sum in utriusque lapidis curatione, causas, signa, et differentias ponere non postponam.] / ¶ Summen þat ben hardi wolen asaie for to cure a man wiþ kuttynge þat haþ þe stoon in his reynes; for þei knowiþ [folio 191a] not þe perel of woundis þat falliþ in þe reynes þat I haue aforseid, & þan þei doiþ no more saue bringe þe pacient to his deeþ. ¶ Now I wole teche in what maner a man schal kepe him þat is disposid to haue þe stoon, he schal ete no metis þat ben viscous ne to scharpe, & tofore alle þingis hard chese gaderiþ viscous mater & hard. & he schal ete no beef, ne no fleisch of a goos, ne no grete briddis þat swymmeþ in þe water, & he schal ete no fleisch of an hert, & he schal ete no swete breed,*. [Lat.: a pane azymo. [gap: 1] , unleavened.] & al maner mete þat is maad of swete past, & he schal ete no whete soden, & he schal ete no maner þing þat is maad of milk saue þe whey, & he schal drinke no coold watir, & he schal ete no fruitis þat ben of greet substaunce, as applis, peris, & he schal drinke no newe wijn, ne no wijn of greet substaunce, & he schal ete no þingis þat is to myche salt, & he schal absteyne him fro alle þingis þat engendriþ scharpe humouris & grete, & he schal not ete to greet sauly*. [Compare p. 272, note 6.] / In þis maner he schal diete him-silf, he schal ete breed þat is wel leueyned / &Page  275 his breed wole be þe [folio 191b] bettir for him if it be medlid wiþ poudre maad of fenel-seed & persil, & he schal drinke sutil wijn & cleer, medlid wiþ fair cleer water / And if his reynes & his bowels weren hote, þan he mai drinke coold water þat be fair & clene, & he mai ete fleisch of capouns & hennes & chikenes, & partrichis, & of alle oþere maner of briddis þat mouen in feeldis, & of hem þat woneþ in watir he schal not ete. & he mai ete pork & motoun & principali of beestis þat ben gildid, & he mai ete fleisch of .iij. daies poudringe,*. [fleisch of iii daies poudringe. Lat.: porcos trium dierum salitos. Compare Liber Cure Coc., p. 6. To powder befe within a nyȝt.] & he mai ete feel,*. [feel, vitulus. O.Fr. veel.] & he mai ete eiren þat ben neische soden; fisch þat haþ no schellis & þe substaunce of him be greet & hard, he schal not ete þerof / Alle maner fisch þat haþ manie schellis, is better þan he þat haþ no schellis / And of erbis: he schal ete fenel, ache, persil, sperge, attriplicem,*. [Attriplex, Chenopodium vulvaria. Alphita, p. 16. "Attriplex agrestis, crissolocanna idem ang. mielde." O.E. melde, Leechd. III. Gloss. Compare Germ. Molten, Milten. Dessen.] spinochia & boraginem, erucam, melones, cucumeris, & he schal be war þat he ete no substaunce of caul, & he schal ete no mustard / And he mai ete þese maner fruits: almaundis, auellanes, figis, notis, vuas bene maturas. & he schal not*. [not, above line.] traueile to miche [folio 192a] aftir mete, & he schal bere noon heuy birþuns, ne he schal not be girt to streite, & he schal not slepe vpon his reynes. & if his reynes ben to hote, þan he schal anoynte hem wiþ oile of rosis, medlid wiþ vinegre, & he schal anointe his reynes wiþ a lynnen clooþ wet in iuys of colde erbis, & he schal absteyne him fro wommen, & he schal touche no womman to make him haue appetit þerto / for greet medlynge wiþ wymmen wiþ greet traueile achaufit a mannes reynes & consumeþ her natural moistnes / Who so euere vsiþ þis regimen, he schal haue no drede of engendringe of þe stoon / Who so vsiþ þis regimen*. [Lat. Qui vero tali non utitur regimine.] & is disposid for to haue þe stoon, with medicyns he schal do it awei or it be confermed. He schal vse sirupis duretikis*. [Traheron translation of Vigon's Chirurgery. Interpret.: "Diuretike. Diuretyke prouokynge vrine, or that hath vertue to prouoke vrine."]: as oximel diureticum & squilliticum,*. [Traheron, ibid. "Squylliticke vinaygre is made with the rootes of the greate oynion, called sqylla, or Scylla dryed, and with vynaygre."] or he schal vse a sirup þat auicen made / ℞, aquæ lī. x, aceti lī. [one half], medle hem togidere & boile hem wiþ [ounce]. iij of rotis of ache, & rotis of fenel [ounce]. iij, and fenel-seed &Page  276 ache ana [ounce]. j, seþe hem alle togidere til þe .iij. part be consumed awei, & þan cole hem & do þerto lī. x of sugre, & þan clarifie it & seþe it [folio 192b] & kepe it for þin vss // The vss of þis sirip wole suffise for to do it awei; but if þe mater be þe more greet, & þan þou miȝt do þerto if þou wolt oximel squilliticum, or þou miȝt ordeine þe sirip wiþ modicis*. [MS. modiu's.] erbis diureticis. ¶ Þer is no þing so good for to purge mater of þe reines as is castynge / for whi castinge curiþ vlcera of þe reynes / In þe somer þou schalt make him oonys in þe moneþe sich a maner of vomet / Take þe seed of raphani & make it clene & kutte it ouerþwert in rollis, & lete þis lie in þe forseid sirup .[ounce] iiij. adai & anyȝt / & þan lete þe pacient ete diuers metis, as chese, oynouns, salt fisch & þingis þat mai make him drinke wel; & lete him drinke diuers wynes, saue the while he is fastinge, lete him ete 3 notis of þe forseid rollis of raphani þat lay in þe forseid sirup, & whanne he hath ete his saule & drunke, þan binde vpon his iȝen neische lynet or flex, & streyne þou not it to harde but meneli. & þan take watir in which has been soden anetum til it bicome reed, & take þerof lī .j., & medle it wiþ þe sirup þat radix raphani lay þerinne, & make him [folio 193a] drinke vp al togidere, & þan he schal caste vp al his mete & al his drink, & manye wickede humours þerwiþ. & þan make him gadere out þe foul mater of his nose, & waische his mouþ & his teeþ; þis medicyn wole do awei þe mater of þe stoon & purge wel his reynes, þis is þe best medicyn þat mai be, for to kepe a man fro þe stoon.

¶ If þe man be not hool in þis maner, saue þe stoon is confermed fast, þan þe cure þerof mai be in .ij. maners: þat oon is for to aswage þe akynge, & þat oþer is for to breke þe stoon & putte him out // Whanne a man haþ greet akynge in his reynes & in his bladdre, & þou wotist wel it ben signes of þe stoon, first þou schalt make him a clisterie wiþ a decoccioun of herbis þat ben mollificatif & duretik: as malua, violae, bismalue, fenigreci, paritaria, apij, fenicli, petrosilij scolopendrie, spergi, brusci,*. [brusci, Ruscus aculeatus, wild myrtle.] sauine, ebuli, sambuci. & if it be in winter do þerto calamentum, pulegium, origanum, semen fenicli, apij, petrosilij, carui, aneti, leuistici,*. [Alphita, p. 98: "Leuisticus, keisim idem angl. loueache."] dauci, milij solis,*. [MS. solus. Alphita, p. 117, "Milium solis, granum solis, cauda pecorina idem. ge. et ae. gromel." Phillips: "Milium solis, the Herb Gromwell."] eruce, quatuor semina frigidorum, & impone mel, [folio 193b] sal, oleum camomille,Page  277 & scharpe it wiþ benedicta,*. [benedicta. Lat. cum benedicta Nicolai.] and make þerof a clisterie, & þe pacient schal holde it wiþinne him longe tyme, & after þis clisterie do him in to a particular baþ, & lete him sitte þeron anoon to þe nauele, & in his baþ schulen be soden leeues of malue, peritorie, viole, senacion, scutella panici pistati & cortice mundati; þis maner baþ as I haue ofte preued, it aswaged akinge / & whanne he goiþ out of his baþ, make an enplastre of mele, oile & watir, as þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie in þe co. of maturatiuis, & leie vpon þe place þere þe passioun is / If þou knowist wel þat þe stoon falliþ adoun of þe reynes toward þe bladdre bi þe weie of þe vrine, sette þan vndir þe place þere it akiþ,*. [MS. makiþ. Lat. sub loco doloris.] sichiam*. [sichiam. Lat. syciam G. [gap: 1] , the common cucumber. "A figuræ vel formæ similitudine Cucurbitæ vel cucurbitulæ medicis dicuntur vascula illa, quæ cuti cum flamma affigi solent, cum vel sine scarificatione." Castelli, Lex. medicum.] wiþ fier wiþout ony kuttynge, for þis wole drawe adoun þe stoon. & as þe stoon discendiþ adoun to sichiam to sette it lower til he come anoon to þe bladdre, & þan al þe akynge wole go awei. ¶ Tofore alle þingis fildonium*. [fildonium. Lat. philonium romanum. Matth. Sylv.: "Filonium i. nouus amicus & est confectio quedam sic uocata." Galen, ed. Kuehn, vol. xvii. B. 331, [gap: 1] . An electuary with Opium, so called from Philo of Tharsus.] is good, þat þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie of auicen, for þat is a sure medicyn in þis caas. ¶ Anoþer medicyn þat auicen made, & I haue preued it, and it [folio 194a] doiþ awei akynge þat is in vlceribus renum. ℞, seminis iusquiami albi .ȝ. [one half], opij, grana .iiij, seminum citruli, lactuce, portulace, ana .ȝ. j., medle al togidere & ȝeue herof .ȝ. ij. wiþ sugre. ¶ And þis þou muste wite þat þou schalt ȝeue þe pacient no þing for to make him pisse whan his akinge is strong, & whanne his vrine is stoppid; for þat wole make þe more akinge / It is perel of þis passioun, for þe akynge is so greet sumtyme þat þe pacient haþ þe spasme þerwiþ & is deed þerwiþ, saue þou schalt do awei his akynge wiþ baþinge & enplastris & anoyntyngis, & þane aftirward þou schalt make him medicyns for to breke þe stoon & putte him out wiþ þe vryne / ℞, cretani marini,*. [Crithmum maritimum, L.] scolopendrie, capillis veneris, spice celtice, ana .[ounce]. ij., radix fenicli, apij, petrosilij, spergi, brusci, cicore, graminis, filipendule, genciane, saxifrage, squille, asse, ana .[ounce] j., iiijor semina frigidorum, seminum fenicli, apij, coriandri, scariole,*. [Sin. Barth.: "Scariola, lactucella, lactuca agrestis idem, an. sowe-thistel."] granorum iuniperi, nucleumPage  278 cerasorum, milij solis, ana .[ounce][one half]. fiat sirupus cum duabus partibus ȝucari, & tercia mellis squillitici, & it schal be take wiþ a decoccioun of tribulorum & cicerum rubeorum, þis eletuarie is [folio 194b] of auicen makynge / ℞, cineris vitris, caulis, cineris leporis combusti, cineris scorpionis, cineris testi oui,*. [testi oui. Lat. testæ oui.] lapidis spongie, lapidis iudaici, sanguinis hirci sicci, gummi nucis acori, ana .ȝ. j. seminis petrosilij, dauci, pulegij, gummi arabici, seminis albi piperis ana .ȝ. j., auri .ȝ .iiij., balsami .ȝ. [one half]., muscati .ȝ. j., make alle þese wiþ good hony þat it be whit & clene, & þou schalt ȝeue .ȝ. iiij. þerof, & .iij. tymes in þe woke. ¶ Also a good medicyn for þe stoon þat is comen to a mannes reynes & in his bladdre / Take a litil hare þat bledde neuere blood, & do him in an erþen vessel*. [Lat.: pone ipsum vinum in olla terrea.] wel glasid wiþinne wiþ a couercle of þe same mater, & stoppe it faste, þat þer mowe come out þerof no fume, wiþ good lute or wiþ past, & sette þis vessel in a furneis til þe hare be bicome al aischis, & þan grinde it & kepe it, & ȝeue him þerof .ȝ. j. whanne he goiþ out of his baþinge þat is forseid, wiþ a decoccioun of tribulorum, & hony. I have preued þat þis medicyn is good, & also þou miȝt medle wiþ þis poudre, triacle / And þis schal be þin entencioun for to ȝeue him medicyns þat ben not strong for to breke þe stoon, as saxifrage & cantarides [folio 195a] & oþere strong medicyns þat piliþ þe reynes. & if þe pacient haue drie reynes & he be leene of bodi, þan in þis caas .ȝ. j. of Rasis makynge is good / ℞, semina melonum mundatorum .ȝ. xxx, seminis citruli, seminis portulace, seminis cucurbite, seminis papaueris albi ana .ȝ. iij, seminis iusquiami albe .ȝ. ij., ȝucari pondus omnium,*. [Lat. ad pondus omnium.] saue I do þerto þe double weiȝte of sugre /

If þe stoon be in his bladdre, þan þou schalt worche in þis maner / First þou schalt take kepe wher he haue stranguria. Þat þou miȝt wite if he makiþ watir droppynli & a litil at oonys, & haþ greet penaunce in his bladdre. Þan þe stoon is in þe necke of þe bladdre; þan þou schalt make him a clisterie mollificatif þat þou mowe avoide his bowels, & þan þou schalt frote his noseþrillis with watir,*. [Lat.: faciendo egrum leuare nates. The translator read: lauare nares.] & þou schalt presse liȝtly þe place of his ars þereaboute þat þou supposist þat þe stoon sittiþ. & if he remeue not in þis maner, þan þou schalt putte in siryngam liȝtli in þe condijt of his ȝerde til he come to þe stoon. & if þou myȝt not putte it awei in þis maner,Page  279 þan putte þi fyngir in [folio 195b] his ers, & þere þou schalt fele þe stoon, & helpe wiþ þi fyngir for to putte it awey. Whanne þe stoon is remeued, þan þe pacient mai make watir, þan his akinge wole ceesse, & þan þou schalt go to þe cure. First þou schalt make him a clisterie of duritikis / in which schulen be medicyns þat haue propriete for to breke þe stoon, & þan sette þe pacient in a baþ þat is forseid. & a litil tofore or he go out of his baþ, ȝeue him of þe poudre of þe hare þat is forseid. & whanne he comeþ out of þe baþ, leie þis enplastre vpon þe place þat is clepid pectinis.*. [Lat.: supra locum pectinis. Os pectinis, the share-bone.] ℞, foliorum nasturcij aquatici,*. [Nasturtium aquaticum, watercress.] & foliorum apij .ana. [handful] j, & grinde hem wel wiþ grese. & whanne þei ben medlid togidere in þe morter, þan hete hem a litil ouer þe fier & leie it vpon, & eueri dai in þre daies contynuely þou schalt sette him in þe forseid baþ, & leie vpon þe forseid plastre, & ȝeue him of þe forseid poudre. Þis cure is good & I haue preued it //

If alle þese medicyns availiþ not, þan þou muste drawe out þe stoon wiþ kuttynge or þe patient falle into etikis.*. [etikis, Lat.: antequam æger incurrat hecticam. O.Fr. étique. Med. Lat. Ethica uel Ethica febris. Dufr.] & if þou wolt drawe [folio 196a] out a stoon of þe bladdre wiþ kuttynge, þan þou muste apparaile*. [apparaile. See N. E. Dict., s. v. apparel, v. 1., to make ready, prepare.] alle þingis þat ben necessarie for þee: as sirupis & ligaturis, & þan þou schalt binde his hipis & his leggis faste, þat he mowe not meue, for to lette þee whanne þou wolt kutte him. & þanne þou schalt anoynte þi longist fyngir of þi lift hond & þi þombe wiþ oile, & þou schalt putte hem in þe pacientis ers, saue first þou schalt avoide him wiþ a clisterie mollificatif, & þou schalt sette*. [sette, above line.] þi riȝt hond vpon his ers, and grope softli, where þe stoon be, & putte him to þe hedis of þi fyngris. & whanne þou myȝt take þe stoon wiþ þi .ij. fyngris, þan þou schalt putte him to þe necke of þe bladdre toward þe ballokis as myche as þou myȝt. & þan þou schalt fele þe hardnes of þe stoon bitwixe his ers, & þe ballokis þat is in þe necke of þe bladdre. þan þou schalt wiþ þi riȝt hond take a rasour, & kutte faste by þe þreed þat goiþ bitwixe þe ers & þe ballokis endelongis, saue þou schalt take þe stoon wiþ þi .ij. fyngris þat þe stoon mowe come out. & þanne ioyne wel þe lippis of [folio 196b] þe wounde togidere, þan þou schalt sewe [not]*. [not, wanting. Lat.: et labia vulneris optime conjungas non solum in superficie.] oonly þe skyn aboue, but þouPage  280 schalt sewe al þe depnes of þe wounde togidere, & þan þou schalt springe þeron poudre þat is aforseid to woundis. & þan þou schalt binde it with boondis & lynt til þe wounde be perfitli hool / In þis caas þou muste take kepe of manye þingis / First þou muste take kepe of þe age of þe pacient, for children þat ben xiiij. wintir oold ben moost able for þis cure,*. [De propr. rer. Add. 27,944, fol. 96: "& somtyme þey schal be take to surgerye and namelich children and þan ȝongelinge. For in elde keruynge is perilous, for aftir fourty ȝere þis euel is incurable as it is i-said in amphor.:aftir fourti ȝere he þat haþ þe ston is nouȝt i-saued."] for her lymes ben tendir ynowȝ, & in þat elde þei ben strong ynowȝ for to be maad hool, & her complexioun is hoot & moist. Ȝonge children & olde men ben not able to be kutt, for in þe kuttynge of hem enpostyms wolen engendre hastili, & þat wole lette þe vrine & make more akynge, & so þei miȝten falle in-to þe spasme, & so wiþ þe spasme þei miȝt be deed / Summen seien þat olde men ben able to be kutt, for her blood is miche laskid*. [Celsus Lib. VII. Cap. 26, ed. Daremberg, p. 307: "As neque omni tempore, neque in omni ætate, neque in omni vitio id experiendum est: sed solo vere; in eo corpore, quod jam novem annos, nondum quatuordecim excessit."] & her hete, & þerfore þei ben not able to take an enpostym; þerfore þei ben moost able to be kutt of þe stoon / Summen seien þat her lymes ben to drie & her vertues ben to feble / [folio 197a] & þerfore þei ben not able to be kutt, & herwiþ I acorde / Þese .ij. þingis: engendrynge of an enpostym, & if þe place þat is kutt wole not soude, þese .ij. bringiþ perel of deeþ / Also þou muste take kepe of þe schap of þe stoon, & what quantite þat he be, for if þe stoon be .ij. forkid*. [ij forkid, diffurcatus.] or cornerid, or so greet þat he may not be brouȝt into þe necke of þe bladdre, þan þou schalt in no maner kutte him, but if þou miȝt first wiþ þin hond breke þe stoon. & þan if þou miȝt not bringe it out at oonys, þan in diuers tymes þou schalt gadere him out.*. [Lat.: "pluribus vicibus educatur."] ¶ And if þe stoon be so greet þat he mai not be brouȝt into þe necke of þe bladdre, þan þou schalt in no maner kutte him, forwhi he mai not be brouȝt out, but if þou woldist kutte þe substaunce of þe bladdre & þat were mortal; but þou schalt put him to þe botme of þe bladdre wiþ instrumentis, & teche þe patient for to kepe him in þat maner þat þe stoon falle not into þe necke of þe bladdre / Also if he be so sutil þat he mai not be felid wiþ þin hond, þan þou schalt not kutte him neiþer. & if þe patient mai be hool in ony [folio 197b] maner, [n]or kutt wiþouten passioun, itPage  281 is better þat*. [MS. þan.] he be nouȝt kutt þan he be kutt.*. [& if þe patient ... þan he be kutt, an insertion.] for men þat ben so kutt schulen neuere gete children, but if it be þe more hap*. [Lat.: "Considera quoque quod sæpe per loci nominati incisionem generatio prohibetur."]; & also it is perilous for to kutte / & þerfore I rede þee take þat wynnynge*. [þat wynnynge, Lat.: sed aliis cupidis chirurgis dimitte illa lucrari. Cath. Angl., p. 420, "Wynninge, Emolimentum, lucrum."] to oþere cirurgians. ¶ Ful ofte tyme men leie me to scorn, for I wolde not entermete me of sich curis, & seide þat I lefte siche maner curis, for I coude not do it, & þe same þei seide of men þat weren filme broke,*. [of men þat weren filme broke, Lat. de ruptorum incisura.] & of men þat weren in þe dropesie. & I lefte þe curis þerof for perels þat miȝte folowe / ffor if a kunnynge man entermetid him of sich a cure, & if þer fil ony yuele happis to þe patient, þan wolen vnkunnynge lechis seie þat þei han do þat cure ful ofte, & so he mai be brouȝt into an yuel looss þerbi; for blame & for perels I wolde not vse kuttyngis / Þese ben yuele happis þat falliþ to a man þat is kutt: as greet akynge vndir þe nauele, & hise lymes bicomith coold, & atach of þe feuere,*. [atach of þe feuere, attack of fever. See later references in N. E. Dict., s. v. attach, sb.] & greet akinge in þe place þat was kutt, alle þese signes ben signes of deeþ / Good signes herof ben þese: strenkþe of vrine, & þat he mowe go to priuy wel [folio 198a] & þat he haue good appetit to mete. ¶ Sumtyme it falliþ bi strenkþe, þe stoon is putt into þe ȝerde. & þat I say [in] a man, þat his vryne was stoppid .v. daies in þe same maner, & I drowe him out wiþ instrumentis wiþouten ony kuttynge. & if þe stoon sitte in þe canel of þe ȝerde, & þou maist not bringe him out wiþ þi fyngris, þan þou schalt binde his ȝerde bihinde þe stoon, þat þe stoon mowe not go into þe bladdre aȝen. & þan grope þe stoon softli wiþ þi .ij. fyngris, & kutte endelongis, as it is aforseid, a litil hole, as miche as þou miȝt drawe out þe stoon, & þane cure þe wounde as it is aforseid /*. [The translator has omitted one chapter: De clauso hermaphrodito & additione panniculi mulieris doctrinæ tertiæ, tractatus tertii, Cap. IX.]

ffor to drawe out watir of men þat han þe dropesie /*. [The four kinds of dropsy are mentioned in De propr. rerum, Lib. VII., Cap. 52, Add. 27,944, fol. 94 b.: "Þe firste dropesye hatte leucofleuma, and comeþ of distemperaunce of coldenesse and drinesse, & haþ þat name of white fleume for leucos is white. ¶ Þe secounde hatte yposarca oþir anasarca, and comeþ of distemperaunce of coolde and of drynes. The þridde hatte aschites and comeþ of distemperaunce of hete & moisture. Þe ferþe hatte tympanytes & comeþ of distemperaunce of hete & drinesse."]

Thouȝ þis book be maad oonli of cirurgie, ȝitt it is myn entencioun to speke of þe dropesie, & principaly þat ben wrouȝtPage  282 wiþ mannes hond. ¶ I seie þat þe dropesie is a sijknes compound in which superflue mater þat is coold swelliþ þe body / Men of salerne seiden þat þere weren .iiij. maner spicis of dropesie, & iiij. maner dropesies. But auctours of arabie acorden alle at [folio 198b] oonys,*. [acorden alle at oonys, Lat. in una conveniunt. Comp. Reliqu. Antiqu. I. 233, accorde in one. (N. E. Dict., s. v. accord v. 5.)] & seien sooþ þat þer ben but .iij. maner dropesies,*. [Lanfranc follows Avicenna, Lib. III, Fen. 14, Tract. 4, Cap. 4, ed. Ven. 1527, fol. 238 b.] & þat oon comeþ of rawe blood, of raw fleume medlid wiþ blood, & is bore into al þe bodi, & swelliþ al þe bodi, & is clepid yposarca. Þat oþer is of mater of ȝelowȝ water & falliþ into þe holownes of þe wombe, & is clepid aschites / Þe .iij. is engendrid of greet wynd resolued of coold mater, & falliþ into þe holownes of þe wombe, & is clepid tympanites / Of þis ydropesie summen iugiþ liȝtli, & seien þat yposarca comeþ of coold alwei, & tympanites comeþ sumtyme of wynd & of hete, but moost comounli of cooldnes / Aschites comith moost of hete, & ful selden of cooldnes / but for to seie þe soþe, alle þe spicis ben medlid with coold mater, & þerfore he seiþ sooþ þat clepiþ eueri ydropesie coold mater,*. [Lat.: omnem egritudinem ydropicam appellant materialem frigidam.] for euery spice of þe dropesie mai come of hete or of cooldnes goynge tofore. ¶ Þer is no þing þat defendiþ, þat whanne þe lyuere is hoot out of hir propir hete, or if al þe bodi is distemp[er]id in hete, as in feueris, þe patient mai so miche be feblid þerwiþ, þat it may engendre coold mater & fleumatik / Ful ofte I haue had þis caas / [folio 199a] Þerfore auctouris seien þat þe dropesie comith of þe febilnes of þe lyuere / þerfore men of salerne seien þat it comeþ of defaute of digestioun of þe lyuere. & it comeþ of takinge of yuele metis & drinkis, & of febilnes of oþere lymes, as of þe stomak, & of þe reynes, & of þe maris, & of þe lungis, & of diafragma. & whanne þese lymes ben enfeblid, þan þe lyuere enfebliþ // Therfore it is necessarie for a leche to wite*. [to wite, above line.] wher it comeþ of causis goinge tofore hoot or coold / And summe lechis halden hem paid for to haue a siȝt of þe vrine, & iugiþ þe dropesie hoot & coold bi þe siȝt of þe vryne / for if þe vrine be reed, þei wolen iuge þat þe cause is hoot, & in þis maner þei benPage  283 disseyued / ¶ Forwhi, in what maner so þe lyuere be enfeblid of coold cause or of hoot, it wole make his vrine reed / For sumtyme a man mai not ȝeue a discrecioun*. [ȝeue a discrecioun, discernere.] of blood fro vrine, for a litil blood colourid miche vrine, riȝt as a litil saffron colouriþ miche water / Þerfor of what cause so it be þat his lyuere be enfeblid, his vrine mai schewe reed. ¶ Also þe signes of yposarcha & aschites & tympanite ben open ynowȝ. [folio 199b] In þis maner þou schalt knowe hem / In yposarcha al þe bodi swelliþ, as his face, & his armis, & his riggeboon, & his necke, & alle his lymes, so þat in what partie of his bodi þat þou pressist þi fyngir þere wole be a pitt. & whanne þe fyngir is aweie it wole arise aȝen / & it is a greet maistrie for to knowe wheþer yposarcha come of coold cause tofore goynge or of hoot cause / If it comeþ of coold goinge tofore, þan his iȝen wolen be discolourid as it were þe colour of askis, or pale*. [Lat.: coniunctiva oculi est valde discolorata, cinericia vel pallida.] / If it come of hete goinge tofore, þan his iȝen wolen be ȝelowȝ or sumwhat reed / & þou muste wite, wheþer he had a feuere tofore or haue þe feuere fortis þerwiþ / or if he hadde þere tofore an hoot enpostym þerwiþ, ouþer he haue enpostym þerwiþ / Þese ben þe propre signes of aschites, þat his face, & his necke, & his brest, & his armis bicomith smal, & his vois schal bicome smal, & his wombe schal oonli swelle. & sumtyme in þe firste bigynnyng his feet & his leggis wolen swelle in þe firste bigynnynge, for þe greet strenkþe of þe mater þat makiþ it falle adoun. & if þou [folio 200a] smite his*. [MS. his, twice.] wombe, he wole sowne as it were a touȝt leþer ful of wynd*. [Lat.: auditur quasi sonus vtris de corio vino pleni.] / Þese ben þe propre signes of tympanites: his wombe & þe regioun of his stomac schulen oonly be to-swolle, & alle his oþere lymes, boþe his feet, & his leggis, & his necke, & his armis wolen bicome smal, & if þou smitist him vpon his wombe, it wole soune as it were a tympan / & in þis passioun þer is lasse agreuaunce þan in aschite & more swellynge. & if þou pressist his wombe, þou schalt fynde it streite as it were a corde. & þou schal fele no meuyng of water, whanne þe pacient turneþ him from o side to anoþer / Curis herof þou schalt fynde ynowe in bokis of phisik / For I nyle telle but fewe medicyns þerfore, I haue longe tyme vsid.

¶ Whanne þou wolt ordeine regimen on yposarcha, ȝeue himPage  284 trociscus de lactea*. [lactea, Lat. lacta. "Lacca, a red transparent Substance made as some say, by winged Arts; as Hony by Bees, and gather'd from a Tree of that Name, in Bengala, Malabar &.c. Also a kind of red Gum issuing from certain Trees in Arabia, of which the best Sealing hard Wax is made; often us'd in Painting and Varnishing." Phillips.] cum apoȝimate*. [Apozima. "Apozeme, a Physical Decoction, a Diet-Drink made of several Roots, Woods, Barks, Herbs, Drugs, Flowers, Seeds, &.c., boil'd together." Phillips.] de radicibus fro þe firste dai to þe .iiij., & ȝeue him pelottis de agarico. & whanne þe swellinge bigynneþ to go awey, if it be in somer, þan þou schalt hele al his bodi in hoot grauel þere þe sunne mai ȝeue greet hete, or lete him sitte vpon an hiȝ hil þere þe [folio 200b] sunne schineþ hoot, þat he mai swete wel, & þat his bodi mai wexe hoot wiþoute & wiþinne. & if it be in winter, putte him in a drie stewe, so þat þe watir come not niȝ him. Þus þou schalt make apoȝima of rotis / ℞, corticis fenicli, apij, [ana drac.]*. [MS. &.] .x., seminum [apii] squinantum, ameos, ana. [dram] .v., rosarum rubiarum, spicenarde ana .ȝ .iij, seþe hem in lī .ij. of watir til þei come to lī .j., cole hem & kepe þe colature. & if þou doist þerinne a litil hony it wole be þe better / Trocisci de lacte ben maad in þis maner / ℞, rubarbe, lacte, ana [drac iii.], seminis apij, spice, ameos, amigdalum amarum, masticis, squinante, seminis iunip[er]i, costi amari,*. [Two kinds of costus are mentioned in Alphita, p. 46: c. indicus, and c. arabicus.] rubee succi, eupatorij,*. [eupatorium. Add. 15,236, fol. 3 b. (cc. 1300), "Eupatorium. saluia agrestis idem. G. eupatorie. A. wyldesage. i. hyndehale."] aristologiæ rotundæ, gencian ana .ȝ. [one half], make herof gobetis, þe weiȝte of [dram] .j., & he schal take oon þerof wiþ .[ounce] iiij. of þe forseid pelottis de agarico / ℞, agarici .ȝ .x., succi eupatorij, rubarbarum, aristologia rotundæ ana ȝ .ij, ȝucare albe .ȝ .v, & make herof pelottis. & þou schalt ȝeue herof .ȝ .ij.

If þou seest þat þe cause þat ȝede tofore þis passioun was hoot, & he make litil vrine & reed, & if his vertu be feble of þe hete, & þou hast dispeir of him,*. [þou hast dispeir of him, Lat. de tali ægri salute desperes. Comp. þou schalt neuere þe lattere be in despeir of cauteriis. Lat. nec propter hoc desperes, p. 311, note 3.] & if he haue þe feuere þerwiþ, it is so [folio 201a] myche þe worse // If his vrine schewe þat þe cause is coold, & if þe patient be strong ynowȝ, loke if his wombe be hard. & þan make him vse sirup acetose maad wiþ seedis & sugre, & ȝeue him þe pelottis of rubarbe þat ben maad in þis maner / ℞, rubarberi, succi eupatorij, seminis endiuie ana. ȝ. iij, agarici ȝ. v., make þerofPage  285 pelettis wiþ þe iuys of endiue. Þou schalt ȝeue him herof at oonys. .ȝ .ij, & euery wike þou schalt ȝeue it oonys / If it so be þat he be feble, & if he mai not take so miche, þan in þe place of þese pelottis he schal take gobetis þat ben maad in þis maner / ℞, seminis endiuie [dram] .x, esule,*. ["Esula, quedam species est titimalli, gallice yesele." Alphita, p. 50.] succi eupatorij, agarici, ana. [dram] .ij, & .[scruple] .j, rosarum, seminis citrulorum, ana [dram] .ij, & make herof .x. gobettis wiþ a decoccion of fenel in water: ȝeue him oon þerof wiþ sirupo acetoso de seminibus. Enplastre*. [enplastre, Lat. venter enplastretur. O.Fr. emplastrer. Sl. 277, fol. 1: "be þe place emplastred wiþ a plastre maad þus." Comp. plasteren, Prompt. Parv.] his wombe wiþ enplastre maad wiþ .ij. partis of oxis dounge, & oon part of gotis dounge, boli armoniaci, sulphuris, & salis, & distempere hem wiþ strong vinegre /

Þis is þe cure of tympaniti þat is ful selde curid / & specialy whanne it is entrid into diafragma & is confermed þere / ffirst þou [folio 201b] schalt make him electuari de baccis lauri, & þou schalt make him suppositorijs for to distrie*. [distrie, Lat. dissoluere, destroy.] wynd, & he schal suffre hungir as miche as he mai, & he schal absteyne him fro þingis þat engendriþ wijnd, & þou schalt frote his wombe ofte wiþ a scharp clooþ / Electuari de baccis lauri / ℞, foliorum rute .ȝ .x., ameos, seminum,*. [Lat.: cimini.] nigille,*. [nigilla. Add. 15,236, fol. 10, "Nigella i. lollium. G. neel. A. cokel," fennel flower.] leuistici,*. [Ibid., fol. 4 b., "Leuisticum. G. luuache," lovage. See E. P. N., p. 43, luvestiche, luvesche.] petrocilij macedonici,*. [Alphita, p. 108, "macedonia vel macedonicum, petrocillinum idem, g e . alisandre, a e . stamerche."] origani,*. [Add. 15,236, fol. 5 b., "Origanum. G. Origane. i. pulegium. A. puliol reale." See Alphita, p. 150. "Pulegium. gallire puliol, a e . Brotheruurt."] carui, amigdalarum amarum, piperis longi, mentastri,*. [Ibid., fol. 7 b., "Sisimbrium. mentastrum. G. mentastre. A. hors. minte."] dauci, acori, baccarum lauri, castore ana .ȝ .iij., serapini .ȝ .iiij., appoponac .ȝ .iij., make herof a lectuarie wiþ .iij. so miche of hony, þis electuarie wiþ consumeþ. ¶ Þus þou schalt make suppositorijs for to distrie wijnd / ℞, ciminum, foliorum rute viridis*. [Ibid., fol. 7, "Ruta bissara. puganum vel pucanum. hermola idem. G. Rue. A. smalrede."] ana. [handful] .j., radicis brionie, radicis mali terre, radicis rafani ana .ȝ .ij., sal nitri .ȝ .j., & make herof suppositorijs wiþ hony. ¶ Whanne þou knowist wel þat þe dropesie is of hoot cause, þan þou schalt not forgete to helpe þe side þat is hoot; & also if þe mater be coold, þou schalt helpe him wiþ hote þingis.Page  286 ¶ Þis þing is necessarie for to ȝeue a man þat haþ þe hote dropesie, a decoccion of solatrum & endiue; & in þat watir he [folio 202a] schal seþe chikenys for to ete, & first he schal drinke sirupum acetosum wiþ seedis / And I wole telle þee a cure, þat I curide in my tyme .ij. men þat weren in aschite of hoot cause, þat it mowe be ensaumple to þee / I made hem a sirupe of platearie*. [Matthæus Platearius belonged to the school of Salerno about the middle of the 12th century. He wrote: "Liber de simplici medicina," commonly called "Circa instans."] in þis maner / ℞, succi scariole [pound] .ij., succi apij & petrosilij, ana. [pound] .j., & boile hem wiþ .[ounce] iiij. of esule, masticis, seminis fenicli, apij, ana. [ounce]. [one half], seþe hem in watir til þei come to .li .ij., & þan cole hem & do þerto .li .j. ȝucare, & boile hem til þei be perfit. & whanne þow doist adoun fro þe fier, do þerto rubarbe .[ounce][one half]., & lete it boile a litil, & þan kepe it for þin vss. & þou schalt ȝeue it him in þe morowe wiþ a decoccion of fenel seed, .ij. in þe wike. & þou schalt enplastre al his wombe, saue þe regioun of his lyuere, wiþ þe forseid plastris & dounge & vinegre. & vpon his lyuere leie an enplastre maad of .[ounce] .ij. of barli mele, & rosis, & sandalis albi & rubei ana. [ounce][one half], camphore .ȝ .ij., & distempere hem wiþ water of rosis & wiþ vinegre. & if he haue not þe feuere, þan ȝeue him gotis milk fasting. And whan þe patient bicomeþ smal in his wombe, þan sette him in a baþ, þat be soden þerinne sulphur [folio 202b] & salt, & he schal be þerinne but a litil while. ¶ Herof þou muste be war: whanne water is dried in a man wiþ drijnge wiþ medicyns, þan his lymes leeueþ swiþe drie; wherfore þei falliþ in etik & dien. Þerfore þou muste in alle þes þingis be wel war /

Þe cure þat is wiþ iren falliþ oonli in aschite, þat manie men doon hardili, & takiþ no kepe of þe particuleris þerof, for þei knowen not þe science, for þei doon al oon maner to ȝonge & to olde, to stronge & to feble; þei kuttiþ þe skyn vnder þe nauel, & alle men þat þei kutten ouþer þe mooste weren perischid / Saue þou schalt take kepe of kunnynge, & worche bi resoun / for þow schalt take kepe wher he be strong or no; & if he be not strong, þou schalt do no cure to him. ¶ Also þou schalt do no cure to olde men þat ben to-broke, for þou schalt not leeue þe strenkþe of an oold man, for it is impossible for to fynde an oold man strong, whanne þe dropesie is confermed on him / If it so be þat he be ȝong & strong, þan þow schalt haue good trust for to helpe him. ¶ Thanne þou muste enquere sotilly wher [folio 203a] þe principal vijs be ofPage  287 þe lyuere, for þan þou muste kutte him in þe splene side / And if it so be þat þe splene be þe principal of þe dropesie, þan þe kuttynge muste be in þe riȝtside. And if þe cause come of lymes aboue, as of þe stomac or of diafragma, þan þou muste kutte him vpon pecten. & if it be in a womman, & come of þe vijs of þe maris, þan þou schalt kutte hir aboue þe nauele. Whanne þou knowist in what place þou schalt kutte þe pacient, þan þou schalt opene þe place of þe pacient, & þou schalt presse his wombe adounward as miche as þou miȝt, & make him ete a litil of breed tostid*. [breed tostid, Lat. panem tostum. Prompt. Parv.] vpon coolis, & wet in wijn; & þan lete him sitte tofore þee bitwene a strong mannes armys, þat mai holde him faste, þat he mowe not meue in þe tyme whanne þou wolt worche. And þan þou schalt take þe skyn þat is clepid mirac, wiþ þi lifthond in þe place þere þou wolt make þi kuttynge, & þat skyn þou schalt peerse endelongis wiþ an instrument þat is competent þerfore / And be wel war þat þou touche not siphac in no maner; and [folio 203b] whanne þou hast kutt þe skyn aboue & mirac, þan opene þe place þat þou mowe se siphac. & þan þou schalt peerse a litil hole in siphac & sette þerto a canel,*. [canel, Lat. cannula. See N. E. Dict., s. v. canal 1.] & drawe out þerof as miche watir as þou seest good for to saue his vertu / & þan drawe out þe canel, & lete þe skyn þat is clepid mirac goon ouer þe openynge of siphac, for þat wole suffre no þing to go out / In þe morowe opene þe same skyn aȝen þat was kutt first, & putte in þe canel, & kepe his vertu as miche as þou miȝt. & þus þou schalt do til þou haue drawe out þe watir; saue þou schalt not drawe out al, for þou schalt consume it afterward with propre medicyns / Herof þou schalt take kepe in þe tyme, þe whilis þou drawist out þe water, as it is forseid: þe patient schal ete good metis, & drinke good drinkis & swete, þat mowe engendre in him good spirits & good blood: as good broþis maad of hennys & of capouns. & diȝt wiþ swete þingis, for eueri avoidinge laskiþ miche þe spiritis; & whanne þe spiritis falliþ, þan a mannes vertues failen /

[folio 204a] Of ficus, & cancre, & vlcer in mannes*. [MS. manner.] ȝerde /

Ficus is a maner wexynge þat arisiþ vpon a mannes ȝerde tofore. & sumtyme it wole be neische, whanne it is engendrid of fleume / & whanne it is engendrid of malancolie, it wole be hard;Page  288 [& if it rotie, it wole turne into a cancre. ¶ A cancre comeþ in a mannes ȝerde, riȝt as in oþere lymes of a man,] & vlcera comeþ of hote pustulis þat comeþ þeron, & aftirward þei brekeþ it.*. [Lat.: que postea crepantur.] Ouþer þei comeþ of scharpe humouris, þat makiþ vlcera in þe same place; ouþir it mai come of a womman þat a man, þat hadde þe same passioun,*. [MS. inserts þat.] hadde leie by hir tofore*. [Lat.: Ulcera veniunt .... ex commixtione cum feda muliere, que cum egro talem habente morbum de novo coierat. Hæser, III, p. 230, gives a list of references, showing the early knowledge of venereal diseases in the mediæval ages. The earliest quotation is from Richardus Anglicus, Micrologus MS., xiith cent.: "Ulcerantur utraque, virga scilicet et testiculi, tempore menstruorum, ex coitu ex salsis humoribus et acutis et incensis, quod satis ex colore cutis et pustularum vel saniei, et ex pruritu et punctura et ardore perpenditur." Richardus gives the same preventative, which is mentioned by Lanfranc: "Ablutio cum aqua frigida et continua abstersio — — et maxime si post ablutionem cum frigida aqua fiat roratio loci abluti cum aceto."] /

Þis is þe cure of ficus þat comith of fleume: þou schalt binde him wiþ a þreed, ouþer kutte him al awei; & þan þou schalt soude it as it is aforseid in oþere placis / If it come of malancolie, it mai be curid or þat it rotie, wiþ tempere mollificatiuis, as it is forseid in þe cure of sclirosis in þe general chapitre of enpostyms: þat whanne he is maad neische, þan þou schalt take him awei wiþ alle his rootis / saue it is more sure take awei it wiþ [folio 204b] an hoot iren, & þan leie þervpon butter, & ȝitt þou muste touche him wiþ an hoot iren aȝen; & þan leie buttir þervpon. & þus þou schalt do oftetyme litil & litil til it be al wastid awei / If it be a cancre, it wole not be curid but if it be kutt awei wiþ alle his rotis. And þer is no wei so sure to take him awei as fier / Alle þe rotis of him musten be brent awei, & þan leie þervpon a mundificatif of apium, & aftir þis þou muste leie þerto drijnge þingis / & in þis place þou schalt not forȝete to leie a defensif vpon þe place þat is hool, for þis defensif schal defende þe place þat is hool fro swellynge. ¶ Vlcera þat comeþ in a mannes ȝerde: as whanne þe skyn þat is tofore in a mannes ȝerde bicomith greet, & þis mai not be curid but if þat greetnes be doon awei. & þis medicyn is good þerfore / Take whit wijn, & of verte grece .ȝ .j, auripigment .ȝ .ij; grinde þes .ij. sotilli, & leie hem in þe whit wijn, & meue hem ofte, & kepe hem for þin vss. & þe more cold*. [MS. cold. Lat.: quanto plus antiquatur tanto melius.] þat þis medicyn is, þe better it wole be. & þan þou schalt wete a lynnen clooþ in þis medicyn, [folio 205a] & leie vpon þe ȝerde / For þis þing wole soude woundis & defende þatPage  289 þer mai wexe no cancre / If it so be þat a mannes ȝerde be skynned, & be noon oþer passioun þeron saue þat, þan þou schalt leie þervpon vnguentum album, ouþer leie þervpon a lynnen clooþ wet in watir of rosis. Also poudre maad of cucurbita & aloes is good þerfore / If a man wole saue þis lyme algate fro corrupcioun, whanne he haþ leien bi a womman, & he haue ony suspecioun of vnclennes, þan he schal waische his ȝerde wiþ coold water medlid with vinegre /

Of Emeroidis & fistule in þe ers /

Emoroides ben veines þat endiþ in a mannes ers & ben .v.*. [De propr. rer., Lib. VII., cap. 54. Add. 27,944, fol. 95 b.: "Emorydis ben fyve veynes þat streccheþ oute at þe ers, of þe whiche veynes comeþ diuers passiouns and euelis, as boluynge & swellinge, withholdinge and flux."] Þese veines sumtyme openeþ & sumtyme þei ben enpostymed. Whanne þe blood þat is in þe same veines falliþ adoun & mai not out, þan it engendriþ apostym. & if þe blood is gret & fleumatik, þan it wole engendre ficus, & if þat blood be greet & colerik, þan it wole engendre moralem.*. [moralis, a mulberry form of tumour.] And if þe blood be greet & malancolius, þan it wole engen[dre] condilomata / Sumtyme þer comeþ þerto [folio 205b] so manie diuers humouris, & makiþ diuers enpostyms in þe same maner as it falliþ in oþere lymes, & ofte tyme of þis enpostym comeþ a festre, but if it be þe bettir holpe; þe blood þat comeþ to a mannes ers bi veynes þat ben clepid emoroides is grettere blood þan ony blood of his bodi / & if it so be þat a man haue þe flux of blood of þe emoroidis, þou schalt not stoppe it, but it blede so myche þat it make þe pacient feble, saue þou schalt kepe him wiþ good regimen, & he schal vse no metis ne drinkis þat engendrith scharp blood & greet // For bi þe flux of blood a mannes bodi mai be kept from malancolious blood, & it wole kepe a man fro lepre & fro mania, & fro al sijknes þat comeþ of malancolie / Also if a man is woned to haue hem & þei be stoppid, þan þou muste ȝeue him medicyns for to bringe hem out / And if it so be þat a man haue so greet flux of hem þat his lyuere be enfeblid þerwiþ, þan he myȝte falle in a dropesi þer þoruȝ, for to miche flux of blood mai be cause of a dropesie / Þerfore if þou [folio 206a] seest þat þe flux be to greet, þan þou schalt constreine blood wiþ medicyns þat ben constrictif, & þou schalt fynde medicyns þerfore in þe ende of þis chapitre / Wexingis þat ben clepid emeroidis, summe þei falliþPage  290 wiþoute þe hole of a mannes ers, & summe wiþinne / Also summe wexiþ in þe for side of þe ers, & summe in þe hyndir side. Sumtyme it wexiþ in þe forside toward þe rote of þe ballokis, & þan þei makiþ greet akinge / for sumtyme þei letten þat a man mai not make vrine. If it be ficus, þat þou miȝt knowe, for it wole be wiþoute hete*. [Lat.: sine colore. The translator read "calore."] & neische, & þe cure herof is but liȝt. Þou schalt take a strong þreed & knitte þere aboute, & euery dai þou schalt streine it more & more, til he falle awei, & þan wiþ driyng medicyns þou schalt drie it vp. ¶ Moralis makiþ greet akinge & haþ manie smalle swellingis as it were mora celsi, & þe colour þerof wole be reed & sumdel*. [sumdel, altered in a different coloured ink from sumdei.] purpur, & but þis haue help for to acese þe akinge, it wole engendre an enpostym. Þe cure herof is to lete him blood in þe veyne þat is clepid [folio 206b] basilica & sophena al in oon dai,*. [Lat.: cura est flebotomia basilice lateris eiusdem in uno die, in alio de saphena eiusdem lateris.] & in þe same side þat þe passioun drawiþ mooste þerto. If he is wont to haue þe same passioun, þan make him haue þe same flux of blood. & if he is not wont to haue it, þan þou schalt ȝeue him no medicyns for to make him haue þat flux, & þan þou schalt acese þe akynge wiþ þis medicyn, & is good for thenasmon*. [Vigo, Traheron Interpret.: "Tenesmos is whan a man hathe greate prouocation to the seege, but can do nothynge. It commeth of tissein, whych signifieth to stretche."] & for alle þe passiouns of þe ers / ℞, thuris, mirre, licij, croci, ana partem .j, opij partes duas, grinde hem & medle hem with ȝelke of an eij & wiþ þe iuys of psillij, & ole of roses, & make þerof an oynement / & if þe akynge be wiþinne in his ers, þanne anointe a tent & putte into his ers, & if it be wiþoutforþ, þan leie vpon lynnen clooþ & leie it vpon þe place. ¶ Also a medicyn of Haly þe abbot / ℞, ceruse .ȝ. v., litarge .ȝ. iij., iusquiami albi .ȝ. ij., masticis, grynde hem & tempere hem wiþ þe ȝelke of an ey & oile of violet & make herof an oynement. & þis oynement is good whanne þe akinge is wiþ an enpostym, for þis wole resolue & make it maturatif, & doiþ awey þe [folio 207a] akinge / ℞, foliorum malue, florum camomille, Melliloti*. [Add. 15236, fol. 5: "Mellilotum. Corona regia. idem. G. mellilote. A. hunisoke vel redclaure."] ana .@. j., fenigreci, seminis lini ana .ȝ. iij., lenticularum excorticarum .ȝ. x., seþe alle þes in water til þei resolue & þe water consume awei, & þan putte hem in a morter & grinde hem wel, & þan do þerto .ij. ȝelkis of eiren & oile of violet,Page  291 & make herof an oynement. ¶ If it so be þat in þis place of þe forseid þingis come an enpostym & gadere to quitture, þou schalt not abide til it breke him-silf, for þan it wole make a greet hole ynward toward þe guttis. Þerfore þou schalt opene it hastili, or it wexe to miche ynward / If þe place of þe emeroide make no greet akynge ne noon enpostym, & if þou wolt drie hem & waste hem, þan þou miȝt worche in .ij. maners, do þerto mel anacardi & vnguentum ruptorium,*. [vnguentum ruptorium. Vigo Interpret.: "Ruptorie: that, that hath strengthe to breake."] or touche hem wiþ an hoot iren þat is bettere / If he be a delicat man or a feble, drie hem with fumygaciouns maad of pulpa coloquintida & seed of mirtillorum, & þe leeues & þe ryndis of capparis, mirra, nux cipressi, & gallis, & make him a decoccoun of þese þingis in water [folio 207b] &*. [At the bottom of the page, in later hand: contra emeroides vell bubo vell tenassmoun: ℞ mer [dram] ij, olibani, ameos ana [dram] j, oppij [dram][one half], gosium gres et [?], ffiat decoctio cum mell vell cum pestello ellido et nido, fformetur suppositorum.] lete him sitte þeron, for alle þese þingis maketh þe emeroidis blak & makiþ hem falle awey / I nolde neuere leie in þat place corosif medicyn /

If þer be greetnes of veynes ful of blood wiþout ony enpostym, & þe patient haue gret akynge þerwiþ, & principaly if he was wont to haue þe flux of emeroidis wiþ blood, & he hadde it not longe tyme tofore, þan þou schalt ȝeue him medicyns to haue þe flux of blood, & þat þou schalt do in þis maner anoon, wiþ þe iuys of a strong oynoun, or wiþ ius of lekis, ouþer if þou makist suppositorijs of hem & frotist þerwiþ þe place, & þis wole opene þe veynys of þe emeroidis / Also þe rotis of maluis wet in þe gall of a bole / Also take hony .ij. partis, & vert de grece oon part, & medle hem togidere, & herwiþ anointe a suppositorie maad of lynnen clooþ & putte it yn / If it so be þat þe patient blede to miche & he bicomeþ feble þerwiþ, þan helpe him with trociscus de carabe*. [Matth. Sylv.: "Caraba i. Karabe. Electrum." Fr. carabé Arab. Kahrabà Devic Dict. Amber.] þat ben gode for to restreine flux of blood of emeroides. & it is good for to restreyne menstrues. ℞, carabe, gummi nucis, balaustie, lacte, succi barbe yrcine*. [Alphita, p. 20: "Barba yrsina ... a e buckestonge."] [folio 208a] ana .ȝ. v., thuris .ȝ. ij., opij .ȝ. iij., make herof gobettis wiþ muscillagine psillij, & make euery dai a gobet þe weiȝte of .ȝ. ij., & þou schalt ȝeue oon þerof wiþ sirupo stiptico, & þou schalt make fumigaciouns of driynge þingis: as gallis, balaustie, psidiorum & oþere mo þat ben forseid / ℞, nuces cipressi,Page  292 cupularum glandulum, corticas granatorum, kutte hem a litil & seþe hem in good wijn. & wiþ þis wijn waische þe place an euen & a morowe / Also a fumigacioun maad of tapsi barbasti*. [Alphita, p. 182: "Tapsus barbatus—ge. molayne, an. catesteyl, uel feldwrt."] is good þerfore /

It falliþ ofte tyme þat after þe flux of þe emeroidis, ouþer if enpostym be to longe maturatif in þat same place vnopened, þan it falliþ ofte tyme þat þe grete bowel*. [intestinum, inserted in later hand.] is peersid. & sumtyme it makiþ a greet hole*. [callid ffestula testium, inserted in later hand.] in þe same place, & þoruȝ þat hole comeþ out wijnd & sumtyme egestioun,*. ["Egestion, a casting forth, avoiding: In the Art of Physick, the discharging of Meat digested through the Pylorus, or lower Mouth of the Stomach, into the rest of the Entrails." Phillips.] & þis hole is cleped a festre of þe ers.*. [ffestula, inserted in later hand.] Of þis cure manye men ben hardi & knowen not þe perels þerof, & makiþ þe same medicyns in þis place for a festre as þei doon in oþere placis / But þou schalt take good [folio 208b] hede of þis maner enfestre; þou schalt asaie if þe hole of þe festre go to hiȝe þat it touche þe þlace of þe lacertis of þe ers, þan þe festre is incurable, & þan a man schal not holde his egestioun, þat it nyle go out alwei / Also þou muste loke wher þere go out miche quitture ouþir litil of þe hole of þe festre, or wheþir þe quitture þerof be whit or reed / Also þou muste take kepe wher he haue greet penaunce þerof or no / And aftir alle þese diuers þingis, þou muste diuerseli worche. For as it is aforseid, first þou muste acese þe akynge & þe swellynge, þan þou schalt asaie wher þe festre go to þe lacertis; þat þou schalt knowe in þis maner / Putte þi fyngir as fer as it wole go, into his ers, & þan putte a pliaunt tent in þe feestre. & loke in what place þe tent mette wiþ þi fyngir, & þan say þat þe patient streyne his ers, & þan þou miȝt wite wheþer þe festre go aboue þe braun or no. If þe festre go aboue þe braun, þan þe patient schal lete go out wijnd & egestioun at þe hole of þe festre. [folio 209a] Þan þou schalt in no maner touche þe festre wiþ no medicyn corosif ne wiþ noon hoot iren; but þou schalt teche him for to vse a waisching wiþ water & hony & mirre, & wiþ sum mundificatif, and in þis maner he schal kepe him þat þe malice of þe festre wexe nomore. ¶ O mi briþeren, manye lewid lechis haue I seen þat coude on ruptorie, & þei supposide þerbi for to cure cancris & festris, & al maner crepaturis,Page  293 & þei supposiþ bi þis maner ruptorie*. [MS. rurptorie.] for to surmounte Galien in worchinge / And men þat han þis opinioun, in þe mo errouris þat þei falliþ, þe more wrooþ þei wolen be, & þe more þei wolliþ vse her ruptorijs / And þerfore þis mai be ensaumple to þee: if a man haue no drinke but eysel, and haþ indignacioun for to fecche ony oþer but halt him þerto, & ȝeueþ þerof to men þat ben aþirst. & if þe drinke agreue hem, & þei speke ony þing þerof, he wole be wrooþ þerfore, & he nyle noon oþer drinke fecche, but algate ȝeueþ hem of þe same til her spirituals bicome drie / And if þe same [folio 209b] man hadde wijn ynowȝ & knew wel þe vertu þerof, he wolde ȝeue no man eysel for to drinke nomore / Þerfore þou schalt vse medicyns þat ben appreued, & do awei al medicyns þat ben false, & holde þee apaid of þe medicyns þat ben aforseid /*. [The translator omits a short passage about "Fissure of the Anus."]

Of þe cancre*. [cancre, a mistake. Lat. De cancrenis. Med. Lat. cancrenum, cancrena, is derived from Lat. canceroma, cancroma, canchrema, and has very early been confounded with Lat. gangræna, [gap: 1] . Vigo. Interpret. "Cancrena. Gangrena is when some parte of the body thorow great inflammation dieth, but is not yet perfitly dead; when it is perfectlye dead, and wythout felyng: it is called sphacelos in greke, whyche they have turned to ascachillos, sideratio in latine. Some saye, that Gangrena is whan a membre is apte to putrefye. Ascachillos, when it is putrified, but hath not all partes of putrefaction. Esthiomenas, when a membre hath al degrees of putrefaction."] and þe mormole /

Cancrene ben rounde vlceris þat falliþ in a mannes leggis, & malum mortuum also, & þei falliþ boþe in oon place, þerfore I wole make difference þerof / ¶ Cancrene ben round vlcera & ben foule & comeþ of dedinge of þe skyn,*. [of dedinge of þe skyn. Lat.: de cutis mortificatione.] for þe natural spiritis comen not þerto, & þerfore þe place is corrupt / & if þe corrupcioun go anoon to þe boon, þan it schal not be clepid cancrenum, but it schal be clepid aschachiles.*. [aschachiles, the Arab. corruption of [gap: 1] . Fr. sphacile.] & if þe corrupcioun ocupie al þe lyme, þan it schal be clepid herpes estiomenus, þat is as miche to seie as etyng him-silf. ¶ Þe signes of cancrenarum ben blac vlcera, & þe fleisch þerof wole be foule & of ledi colour, & þe lippis þerof wolen be gret, & þe fleisch þat is in þe middil [folio 210a] of vlcera wole be corrupt. & it be miche lijk to a cancre þat is vlceratus, but þis is þe difference þerof þat a cancre comeþ of corrupcioun ofPage  294 malancolie, & þis comeþ of lesynge of þe spiritis of lijf / Also þe lippis of þe cancre ben more reuersid and more grene, & a cancre fretiþ more / And þerfore þis passioun is clepid of summen a deed cancre /

Þe cure of þis passioun is in þis maner / first þou schalt avoide his bodi of malancolie, & þouȝ it be not his principal cause as it is of a cancre / ȝitt þe mater þat falliþ to þe place is greet / Þerfore it is good for to clense his blood of malancolie; for it is good þing in vlcera þat ben olde, & principali whanne þei ben in parties bineþeforþ / & whanne he is clensid, þan lete him blood in þe veyne þat is bitwixe þe leeste too of his foot & þe too next þerto, in þe same leg þat þe passioun is on. & vpon þe place þou schalt caste pouder of affodillorum, ouþer remeue awei al þe deed fleisch / If þou wolt worche more surely & bettere, make him a cauterie, þat [folio 210b] it be myche & long as þe place is þat [is] corrupt, & wiþ an hoot iren make a cros vpon þe middil of þe passioun as depe as þe deed fleisch is. & þan þou schalt leie þeron a plastre maad of whete mele & iuys of ache, & þan cure it vp as þou doist oþere vlcera, as it is forseid / And in þis caas þou schalt not forȝete in no maner for to leie aboute þe place a defensif of bole & terra sigillata; for þat wole suffre no wickide mater to renne to þe place, & it defendiþ þe hool place fro corrupcioun. ¶ Malum mortuum is a maner scabbe, & comeþ of grete humouris brent, & falliþ to þe place. & sum part þerof leueþ in a mannys flank, & engendriþ glandulas & swelliþ / Þe cure herof is to avoide his bodi of greet humouris, þat ben brent; & lete him blood in basilica, in þe same side; & lete him blood in þe foot, as it is forseid / & þou muste dissolue glandulus, as it is forseid in þe chapitre of glandulus & scrophulis; & þan þou muste anointe þe place wiþ drijnge medicyns. Þou [folio 211a] schalt anointe al þe place with psilatro,*. [Sinon. Barth., p. 35: "Psilotrum, depilatorium idem."] til al þe heeris falle awei wiþouten ony violence / Take þe grete titimalle & þe smale, & boile hem in vinegre & in oile, & do þerto a litil sope, & make þerof þe maner of an oynement; & wiþ þis oynement þou schalt anointe þe place harde aȝen þe fier / ℞, olei aceti ana. [dram] .ij., sapponis mollis & sapponis duri ana. [ounce] j.; medle hem togidere, & do þerto iuys mali terre ouþer brionie .[ounce] .ij.; boile hem alle togidere, & anointe þe place þerwiþ, & þou schalt fynde oynementis in þe antidotarie þat ben gode in þis caas //

Page  295
Of varices, þat ben veynes, and elephancia.*. [Lanfranc follows the description given by Avicenna, Lib. III, Fen. 22, Tract. 1, Cap. 15, ed. Ven. 1527. Avicenna's list of the occupations that are predisposing to this illness reminds us of the fact that he was a courtier himself. Ibid.: "Et plurimum quidem accidunt cursoribus, & viatoribus, & onera portantibus & coram regibus astantibus."]

Uarices ben clepid veynes, þat ben grete, & grene, & purpur, & sittiþ aboute a mannes leggis. and þei comen of greet malancolious*. [MS. humour, deleted.] blood, þat falliþ adoun. & also it comeþ of grete metis & of greet traueile, or it may come of greet fleume; & it wole make a mannes feet & his leggis al grete, & sumtyme his feet also*. [Incorrect translation. Lat.: "Elephantia dicitur quædam carnis augmentatio, in qua crus vltra mensuram debitam augmentatur cum pede toto, et fit ex grosso fleumate vel ex grossa melancolia non corrupta."] // Þe [folio 211b] cure of varicium is in þis maner: þou schalt purge him wiþ gotis whey & wiþ epithimo, for þis purgacioun is propre in þis caas, or purge him wiþ pelottis of epithimi. & lete him blood in þe veyne þat is clepid basilica, of þe arme in þe same side, & also in his foot. & he schal absteyne him fro metis þat engendriþ malancolie / Þis passioun þow myȝt cure in þese maners*. [Lat.: Locus autem tribus curatur modis.] / Þis is þe first maner: loke in his hamme, vnder his knee. Þere þou schalt se a greet veine; & alle þe grete veynes, þat ben bineþe in his leg, comeþ out þerof. Þan þou schalt take vp þe same veyne wiþ a nedele. & loke þat þou peerse not þe veyne, & knytte hir wiþ a þreed. & þe brede of þi fyngir aboue þat place, putte yn þi nedele aȝen, vndir þe veyne as þou hast do heretofore, & knitte in þe same maner wiþ a þreed; & þan þou schalt kutte þe skyn ouer þe veyne endelongis; & þan take vp þe veyne & kutte hir bitwixe þe .ij. bindingis, & þan þe ende of þe veyne þat is aboue schal be brent wiþ an hoot iren, & þe neþir side [folio 212a] of þe veyne schalt be vnknit. & presse out þe blood bineþeforþ of þe veyne, as myche as þou myȝt. & þanne þe remenaunt þou schalt drawe wiþ medicyns þat ben consumynge. & þe fleisch þere þou madist þi wounde, þou schalt touche wiþ an hoot iren also; & þan þou schalt leie to þe place mundificatiuis, & þan soude as it is aforseid.*. [This mode of operation is the same as has been described by Paulus Ægineta, Lib. VI, 82, ed. Fr. Adams 1844, 2nd vol., p. 406, and by Avicenna l. c., Cap. 18.] ¶ Also anoþer maner cure: lete him blood oonli in þe same veyne, & take out of þe blood as miche as þou miȝt, & purge him ofte, & make himPage  296 enplastris aboute his leggis wiþ drijnge þingis, & diete him as it is aforseid. ¶ Þe .iij. maner is þis: þou schalt go to no perfit cure þerof, but þou schalt lete þat blood falle adoun, & þan a fewe tymes in þe ȝeer þou schalt purge him; & þou schalt laske his greet blood wiþ blood-letyngis, þat ben forseid, & leie enplastris vpon þe place þat ben drijnge. & þus þou schalt do til al þe swellynge be goon awey / & þis laste medicyn is þe beste for hem þat haue had þis passioun longe, & for hem þat ben olde / For if þou kutte a veyne in hem, [folio 212b] þan þer wole engendre manie sijknessis aboue, & make þe pacient deed þe raþere / For I siȝ men þat her veynes weren so kutt þat weren algate sijk aftirward, & wiþinne a litil time aftir þat þei diede. ¶ Elephancia*. [The disease which Lanfranc describes is the Elephantiasis Arabum, commonly known as Barbadoes leg, quite different from the Elephantiasis of the Greeks, a general term for severe leprosy.] is incurable whanne it is confermed; but bifore þat it is confermed, it mai be curid for to purge þe humouris þat ben in þe cause wiþ blood-leting, þat ben aforseid. & he schal absteine him fro grete metis, þat engendriþ greet humouris; & þan he schal not go ne ride, but if his leg & his foot be bounden wiþ a boond faste, & speciali in þe ioynct / But first þou schalt anoynte his leggis wiþ epithimo maad of acacia, mirra, aloe, ipoquistidos,*. [Sinon. Barth., p. 25: "Ipoquistidos est succus fungi qui nascitur ad pedem rosæ caninæ." [gap: 1] , a parasitic plant which grows on the roots of the [gap: 1] , Cytinus hypocistis. (= Holly Rose, Gerard, p. 1281.)] & alym with vinegre. & whanne þe swellynge bigynneþ to goon awei, þan make him a stuwe, & lete his leggis be þerinne longe; & be it maad of askis of vines & caul-seed, sticados arabici, lupinorum, mirre, stercus caprini, fenigreci. Also anointe him, & binde him, as it is forseid. & in þis maner I haue curid men, þat ne weren not confermed þeron //

Of wertis in handis and in feet /

[folio 213a] Porri*. ["Porrus, a Leak, also a kind of Wart." Phillips.] ben engendrid of fleume þat is greet, & ben white; veruce*. ["Verruca, (Lat.) a Wart, a little hard brawny Swelling, which breaks out of the Skin, and breeds in any part of the Body." Ibid.] comeþ of malancolie, & ben blake, & han mo rotis / Scissure*. ["Scissure, a Cut or Cleft, a Rent or Chap." Ibid.] comeþ of malancolie brent, & makiþ as it were kuttyngis;Page  297 & if þei comeþ of cooldnes, þan þei schulen be clepid muge.*. [Matth. Syluat.: "Perniones vel rasulæ, sunt excoriationes quæ fiunt in nimio frigore in calcaneis, quæ Mugæ vulgariter dicuntur," probably allied to mucus, mungere, [gap: 1] .] ¶ Þe cure of porrorum is for to clense his bodi wiþ trocisco de turbit, & þan frote þe place wiþ medicyns þat ben consumptif; & frote hem wiþ poudre maad of a gotis toord, & tempere wiþ þe iuys of mirti & wiþ þe ryndis of capparis / Veruce schulen be curid wiþ a purgacioun maad of epithimi & gotis whey, & wiþ summe oþere medicyn þat is proprid for malancolie, & þan þou schalt vse stronge oynementis / as vnguentum ruptorium, ouþer mel anacardi or sum oþir corrosif, ouþer in þis maner is better / garse it al aboutforþ & binde it wiþ a strong þreed, & streine wel þe þred & drawe him awei wiþ þe þreed, & þanne touche þe rotis of him wiþ a cauterie punctual. ¶ Scissure. It is nede in þis passioun for to purge his bodi of humouris þat ben brent, & make [folio 213b] him a baþ of swete water. & þan þou schalt waische his lymes wiþ a decoccioun of bismalue in watir, & a litil oile þerwiþ; & lete him vse metis þat makiþ moist & engendrid good blood, & þan anoynte him wiþ þis oynement / ℞, olium rosarum, cere citrine, adipis anatis colatus, Isopi humide,*. [isopus humida. Sloane 2463, fol. 159 bk.: "The fyfte, whiche is nother propurly oynement nor enplastre, but atwixe two, & is cleped ysopus humida. Take wolle that is bytwixe the thyes and the iowes of schepe, as moche as þou wilt, and put as moche water thervpon as may covere hit, and lete hit stonde so aday and anyȝt, and þanne boile hit with a lente fyre, and lete hit wexe cold, and coile hit; and thanne boile hit eftesones in a tymed panne with a liȝt fyre, and thanne lete hit wexe cold, and coile hit: butt loke thou stere hit euermore with a spature of tre till þat it be thikke as oynement."] muscillagine seminis citoniorum, amilum, draganti, ana, make herof an oynement / ¶ Muge schulen be curid wiþ oilis & oynementis / ffirst þou schalt aswage þe akinge wiþ oile, & þan leie þerto a mundificatif þat schal be seid in þe antidotarie, & þan soude it wiþ mirre / If þou seest it at þe first bigynnyng, þan make an enplastre of armoniaco, for þat wole resolue þe enpostym. & þou schalt make þat he vse [not]*. [not, wanting. Lat.: iube ne calciamenta portet stricta.] streit schoon, & he schal anoynte his feet, & principali hise heelis wiþ þis oynement / ℞, olium de lilie [ounce] .vj., cere [ounce][one half]., resine [ounce] ij., armoniaci [ounce] j., farine fenigreci [ounce] .[one half]., thuris, masticis, ana [dram] .ij., & make herof an oynement /*. [Gulielm. de Saliceto, Chirurgia, Lib. I, Cap. 57. Sloane 277, fol. 19: "For cold in wynter þe leche may haue two consideraciouns to þe heelynge of swiche maner seknesses: oon of partie of defense þat it come not, & another of þe partie of remevynge of þe seknesse i-made. By þe reson of defence that it come not, leue þe patient wiþ all his witt streit schoynge, & haue he dowble schoos & large, & anoynte he euery nyȝt þe heele with an oynement þus maad."]

Page  298
Of blood-letyng //

Blood-letyng is a craft for to-laske a mannes blood þat is in his veynes / [folio 213*a] And þis þou schalt wel wite, þat it falliþ for oure craft, þouȝ we for pride take it to barbouris & to wommen; & blood-letynge falliþ principali for cirurgians / O lord, whi is it so greet difference bitwixe a cirurgian & a phisician, but for philosophoris bitoken þe craft into lewid mennes hondis / or as manie men haue dedignacioun for to worche wiþ her hondis / & ȝitt mani men weneþ þat it is inpossible þat oon man to kunne boþe þe craftis*. [Lat.: "aut quum operari ut dicunt quidam cum manibus dedignantur, aut, quod magis credo, quum operationis modum quod apud scientiam est necessarium non nouerunt; et hæc abusio tantum valuit propter antiquam dissuetudinem, quod apud quosdam de vulgo credatur impossibile, quod unus hoc possit scire magisterium utriusque."] / But þou schalt knowe wel þis, þat he is no good phisician þat can no þing in cirurgie / And also þe contrarie þerof: a man mai be no good cyrurgian, but if he knowe phisik. ¶ Blood-letynge is vsid bi cause for to kepe a mannes bodi hool, & to remeue awei sijknessis fro a mannes bodi / But þus manye þingis þou muste take kepe in blood-leting: tyme, & hour, & eir, & disposicioun of þe sike man / & þou muste take kepe þat þou lete no man blood but if he mowe endure itt // ¶ First a man schal be lete blood for to kepe him-silf,*. [Lat. pro sanitate conseruanda.] & principali hem þat etiþ good fleisch [folio 213*b] & drinkiþ good wijn, & etiþ metis for to engendre myche blood, & traueiliþ but litil, & principali þe while a man is ȝong, & also in eelde if he be myche vsid þerto / Also þou schalt lete hem blood þat ben wont to haue akynge in her ioyntis, ouþer a feuere þat is clepid sinocha*. [Lanfranc, Chirurgia Parva, Cap. X, Add. MS. 10,440, fol. 25a (xvth cent.): "blood þerfore, ȝif it ouer haboundeþ vpon al þe body, & it is hett with hete enflammynge or brennynge þe herte, & is corrupt, & neþeles it is not roten, þerof is maad a feuere clepid synocha continua. And ȝif he is roten, þenne is maad þerof a feuere clepid synochus continuus.] or þe squinacie, ouþer pleureses / Alle þese, tofore þe tyme þat þei ben woned to haue her passioun, þou schalt lete hem blood or her passioun come, þat it mowe go awey þerwiþ: & þis maner is clepid preuisiuus. ¶ Þe iij. maner: whanne a man haþ greet akynge inPage  299 his heed wiþouten*. [The Latin editions of Lanfranc read: "Tertio cum dolor fortis adest capitis siue febres fortes squinantes pleuresos," ed. Ven. 1498, fol. 201 bk., Ven. 1546, fol. 249, but Add. MS. 26,106 (xivth cent.), fol. 88, shows the correct reading, which corresponds with the translation: "Tercio cum dolor fortis adest capitis sine febre, cum fortes squinantes, pleureses."] a feuere, or a squinantes plureses, periplumonia, apostema calida, & eueri sijknes þat comeþ of to miche blood. In alle þese causis þou schalt lete him blood; & þis maner is clepid curantes.*. [Lat. curatiuus.] ¶ Now I wole telle alle maners in what maner a man schal be leten blood / ffirst, who schal lete þee blood / Þe .ij, whanne it is necessarie for to be lete blood / Þe .iij., in whiche veynes a man schal be leten blood for diuers passiouns, & in what maner þe veyne schal be kut. ¶ A man þat schal be letere blood schal be ȝong, [folio 214a] & he schal be no child, ne noon oold man, ne he schal not quake, & he schal haue a good scharp siȝt; & loke þat he kunne knowe veines, & þat he kunne knowe hem from arterijs; & he schal haue manie diuers tool*. [tool, a survival of the O.E. tôl, N.A. plur.] for to lete blood þerwiþ, & þei schulen be clene and cleer, & not rusti; & summe of his tool schulen be longe, & summe schorte, for to peerse aftir þat þe veyne is greet þerto / Also children schulen not be lete blood, but if it were greet nede, & he were so replet of blood þat he schulde be achekid þerwiþ; þat þou miȝt knowe bi þe streitnes of his breeþ & fulnes of his veynes, & bi reednes of his face. Þan it is necessarie þat he be leten blood; but it is ful greet drede for to lete a child blood, þerfore I wyle ȝeue no counseil þerto. & if it so be þat he be in perel of deeþ, þan lete him blood / Now þou art war of þis perel, do as þou seest þat it is to do; & þou schalt warne þe childis fadir & his modir of þe perels þat ben aforseid, & saue þee fro blame. ¶ Also olde men schulen not be lete blood, & ȝitt summe olde men ben strenger of vertu þan summe ȝonge [folio 214b] men; & þan þou schalt take hede to þe rule in þis maner: þat þou schalt not lete hem blood whanne þei arisiþ out of her sijknes / ¶ Also wommen wiþ childe schulen not be lete blood, & speciali not in þe .iij. firste moneþis, ne in þe laste monþe / Also ȝonge men þat ben white & pale, & haueþ fewe heeris in her browis, & haueþ smale veynes & priui, ne ben not couenable to be lete blood; ne men þat han manie humours & litil blood, for blood þat is in hem is tresour. ¶ Ffrensch men doon hem-silf miche harme in þis caas; whanne þei ben ful of coold humours & corrupt þei letiþ hem-silf blood, & þan þei seen her blood corrupt &Page  300 foul, & þan þei supposen þat þei han wel doon þat þei haue lete out þat blood, & þe barbour wole seie þat he mote hastili be lete blood aȝen / It were wel better to him þat he hadde kept his blood, & þat þe corrupt humours hadde be voidid awei in oþer maner / ¶ Blood-letynge is not good for a man at þe firste bigynnynge of cataracta, ne noon ventuse is not good for him / but in causis as it is forseid, blood-letyng is good // And [folio 215a] if a man etiþ miche fleisch & drinkiþ miche wijn, for þis wole engendre miche blood / And þan but if a man lete him blood, þan þere wole engendre diuers sijknes þerof, & ofte tyme sodeyn deeþ / Also men þat haue þe goute of blood, he schal be lete blood tofore þe tyme þat he supposiþ to haue his passioun; for ofte tyme þis wole take awey his akynge. & in alle sijknessis þat comeþ principali of blood, it is good for hem to be lete blood / Also men þat haueþ synocham, blood-letynge is ful necessarie to hem, til þei swowne. & þis wole do awei þe feuere, or it waastiþ so miche þe mater; & þan he muste be holpen wiþ oþere medicyns, þat þou schalt fynde in bokis of phisik*. [& þan he muste be holpen—bokis of phisik, inserted. Lat.: "aut omnino phlebotomia febrem tollit, aut adeo materiam minuit, quod in putridam de cetero non mutatur."] / If he be not lete blood, þan þe blood þat is in him wole boile vpward to þe brest, & gadere togidere in the brest, þat þe pacient schal be ful nyȝ stoppid.*. [Lat. quod patiens suffocatur.] & sumtyme a veine wole breke in þe piyse or in þe lungis, & þan þat veine mai not be streyned ne stoppid, & þan þe patient schal die þeron. ¶ In þis chapitre it is myn entencioun forto speke oonly of openynge of veines [folio 215b] þat ben in us,*. [Lat. quæ sunt in usu.] & what vertu þer is þerinne. In boþe armis of a man þer ben .iij. veines þat ben in us for to be lete blood þeron / Þe .i. is clepid cephalica, & is þe hiȝeste veine of þe arme, & sitt next þe elbowe*. [Lat. prima cefalica que in duobus minuitur locis prope cubiti plicaturam aliquantulum supra.]; & þis veine mote be kut large, & not to depe / If þat veine be kut streit, þan ofte tyme it makiþ an enpostym / & also þou muste be wel war þat þou touche no synewis / For þe same cause þou miȝt lete a man blood vpon þe hond, bitwixe his þombe & þe nexte fyngir þerto // Basilica sittiþ adoun aforȝens þe elbowe, vndir þe arme, & þis veine sittiþ ful nyȝ þe gret arterie: & þerfore a man mote be wel war þat he touche not þe arterie veyne. & for þe perel of þe arterie it is good for to lete him blood bitwixe þe litil fyngir & þe fynger next þerto. & þis blood-letynge is good forPage  301 alle þe placis vndir þe brest, & for þe lyuere. ¶ Of þis veine þat is clepid Basilica, & of þe veine þat is c[l]epid Cephalica, comeþ a veine þat is clepid Mediana / And whanne a man is lete blood in þis veyne, it is perel of ij. grete synewis þat liggiþ in boþe sidis [folio 216a] of þe veyne. And whanne þou þinkist to avoide al a mannes bodi, þan þou schalt lete him blood in þis veine, & principali for þe herte & for þe brest. ¶ In Basilica, in þe riȝt hond, þou schalt lete a man blood for passioun of þe lyuere, & in þe lift hond for passioun of þe splene,*. [Regimen sanitatis Salerni, transl. by T. Paynell (1530), fol. h. iiii.: "Saluatella is þat veyne betwene þe myddell fynger and the rynge fynger, more declynynge to the myddell fynger. Hit begynneth of Basilica. This veyne is opened in the ryghte hande for opilation of þe lyuer, and in the lefte hande for opilation of the splene. There is no reason why it shuld be so, as Auicen saythe, but experyence: whiche Galen founde by a dreame, as he saythe. He had one in cure, whose lyuer and splene were stopte, and he dreamed that he dyd let him blud of this veine, and so he dyd, and cured the pacient."] & in þe liftside of þe forheed*. [MS. inserts for.] it is good to lete blood for akynge of þe heed,*. [Lat. in capite flebotomatur vena frontis propter capitis egritudines.] & principali whanne sijknes is confermed in a mannes heed. & þis I apreuede misilf / for sumtyme it doiþ awei þe frenesi. & I siȝ a womman þat hadde akynge in hir heed, þat it miȝte not be take awei, & I lete hir blood in hir hond as it is forseid & purgide hir, & þe veine in hir forheed þat was gretter þan ony oþer veine in hir bodi; & I openede þat veine, & anoon riȝt sche was hool / But whanne þou wolt lete a man blood in þat place, þou schalt streyne þe necke & kutte þe veine endelongis; & þis blood-letynge is good for tynea, þat is in a mannes heed, & for Saphati.*. [MS. sanaci. The editions of Lanfranc read saphati, Add. MS. 26,106, fol. 89: saffira. Matth. Sylv.: "Saphiros, Sephiros idest apostema durum cui non associatur sensus." Vigo Interpr.: "Sephiros is an arabike word, and it is called in Greke scirros, in latyne durities, that is hardenes."] & for demigrania þou schalt lete blood in þe templis of his heed. & þe same blood-letynge is good for passion [folio 216b] of a mannes iȝen / I hadde a ȝong man in my kepinge þat hadde demigrayn*. [demigrayn, Lat. emigranea. See Skeat, Et. Dict., s. v. megrim.] of hoot cause, & I purgide him ofte & lete him blood, and I knytte þe arterie þat was in þe same side of his heed, & þo he was cured for euermore / Also letynge blood in þe veynes bihinde hise eeris is good for þe dimigrayn & for tineam / Also letynge blood in þe tunge is good for þe squinacie, & for enpostyms, þat ben as it were almaundis, & for brancis;*. [brancus, med. Lat. Dufr., a throat-disease. Isid., Lib. 4, Cap. 7: "branchos est præfocatio faucium a frigido humore." The editions of Lanfr. read: brachiis.] but hePage  302 schal be lete blood tofore in þe heed-veyne. & it is good for þe iȝen, & it is good for icchinge & for pustulis in þe nose, & for scotomia þat comeþ of blood / Sumtyme a man is lete blood in veynes in þe necke, þat ben clepid gwide,*. [Lat. vene guidegi.] for drede of suffocacioun*. [Phillips: "Suffocation, a suffocating, stifling, etc., a Stoppage."] of blood; & sumtyme in leprous men, þat schulen be lete blood in her lippis bineþe.*. [This statement is due to a wrong interpunctuation in the Latin original. Add. 26,106: "Aliquando flebotomantur uene guidegi colli cum suffocatio ex sanguinis timetur multitudine. & aliquando in quibusdam leprosis uene quæ sunt in labiis inferioribus interioribus minuantur propter acola calidum in ore — —." A full stop ought to be between leprosis and uene. Compare Liber Rasis ad Almans, Tract. VII, Cap. 21, ed. Ven. 1506, fol. 32 bk.: "Sed due vene que dicuntur guidegi sunt flebotomande, cum anhelitus in lepre principio maxime angustatur." "Vene itidem, que in labiis sunt inciduntur cum in aliquo multiplicantur alcola et ulcera in ore et gingivis."] & þis is good for hote enpostyms in þe mouþ, & for hote passiouns of þe gommys. ¶ In a mannes foot ben .iij., þat ben profitable to be lete blood for manie passiouns / And þer is oon veyne in a mannes hamme vndir his knee, þat is good to be lete [folio 217a] blood for passiouns of þe maris, & for to bringe out menstrue: & it avoidiþ al þe bodi. ¶ Also þer is anoþer veine, þat sittiþ bitwixe þe holowe of þe foot wiþinneforþ, & is clepid Sophena; & in þis veyne wommen ben leten blood for passiouns of þe maris, & men ben lete blood in þe veine of þe same place for enpostyms of þe ballokis. ¶ Þe veine þat serueþ for þe scie, is wiþoute bitwixe þe heele & þe holowe of þe foot wiþoutforþ, & blood-letynge in þis veine is good for scia[ti]cam passionem, as it is aforseid in þe cure of sciatica. ¶ Herof þou schalt take kepe. If þou þinkist for to lete a man blood in .ij. diuers times, & not al at oonys, þan þou schalt do in þis maner; & in þis caas, whanne þou wolt lete a man miche blood, and ne darist not do it al at oonys; þan whanne þou letist him blood, þou schalt make þe inscicioun of þe veine þe more long, þat it soude not hastili; & þan þou schalt binde his arme, & smite þe place þere þou wolt lete him blood wiþ þi fyngir, & make him blede more, as myche as þou seest þat good is / [folio 217b] ¶ Also whanne þou wolt wiþ blood-letyng make þe mater go to þe place aforȝens; whanne þou hast lete out þe .iij. part off blood þat he schal blede, þan þou schalt sette þi fingir vpon þe wounde, & make him stonde vp & remeue*. [remeue him-silf has the sense of M.E. remuen, O.F. remuer, to move, stir.] him-silf, & lete him sitte adoun, & do awei þi fyngir & lete him blede more. & þus þou schalt do .iij.Page  303 siþis or .iiij., for in þis maner þe blood drawiþ more to þe partie aforȝens, & þe vertu of þe pacient schal þe better be kept. ¶ Also if a man is wont to swowne in blood-letynge ouþer falle doun, þan lete him lie & be lete blood / Also or he be lete blood, lete him ete a schiuer of breed toostid & leid in wijn of granatorum. ¶ Alle maner veynes in blood-letinge schulen be kutt endelongis / And whanne þou wolt lete a man blood in þe partijs aboue þe necke, þan þou muste binde þe veine,*. [Lat. opus collum stringi donec appereant.] til þe veyne arise þat þou wolt lete him blood on / And whanne þou wolt lete a man blood in his arme, þan þou muste binde his arme þe brede of foure fyngris aboue þe place; & þou muste [folio 218a] be wel war þat þou streyne not to faste, as manie men doon / Manie men binden so faste a mannes arm, þat he main not fele his arm / Veynes of a mannes feet & in his hondis, if þou wolt lete a man blood þeron, þan þou muste sette hem in hoot water, & lete hem achaufe þeron an hour; & þan þou muste binde his foot ouþir his hond aboue þe ioinct wiþ a boond, & algate his foot or his hond mote be in þe watir as longe as he schal blede /

Of kuttyngis and bledyngis //

Siccia is sett sumtyme for kuttynge & sumtime wiþoute kuttynge, and sumtyme wiþ kuttinge.*. [Add. 26106, fol. 89, bk.: "Siccia aliquando ponitur sine incisione aliquando cum incisione." The printed editions omit this passage.] Wiþout kutting as vpon a mannes wombe or wommans / ffor akynge þat comeþ of wijnd, & it is good for to waste wijnd / Also it is sett vpon þe wei of þe stoon þat falliþ adoun of þe reynes, & þan it schal be sett a litil bineþe þe akynge þat it mowe drawe þe stoon lower & lower til it come to þe hole of þe bladdre / Also it is sett vndir a wommans tetis for to restreyne þe blood of þe nose & of þe maris / Also it is sett vpon þe region [folio 218b] of þe wombe for fallinge of þe maris, þat is clepid dislocacioun of þe maris: as if the maris falle adoun in þe riȝtside, þan it schal be sett in þe liftside / And if þe maris falle in þe liftside, þan it schal be sett in þe riȝtside / Also it is sett vndir a mannes eere for to drawe out a greyne or a stoon of þe eere þat is falle yn / Also it is sett vndir a mannes ers to drawe out þe emeroidis þat sittiþ hid fer yn / And it schal be sett in eueri place þere þou wolt make a greet attraccioun / Also it is good for to be sett vpon þe bitynge of a wood hound, & vpon þe biting of a venymous beest.

Page  304It schal be sett þeron wiþ scarificacioun, also in causis þere þou lettist for to drawe blood for febilnes, or for elde, or in children; & hem after .iiij. ȝeer oold we moun garcie, whanne blood leting is forboden hem, & speciali whanne we purposen for to drawe awei mater þat is vndir þe skyn / Also we moun garse a man bihinde in þe nol of þe heed — —*. [Some words are wanting. Lat.: propter grauedinem capitis.] & for greuaunce of þe iȝen, & vpon þe .ij. corneris of þe heed for tinea & for pustules þat ben in þe heed vnder [folio 219a] a mannes chyn, for wennys of þe face & for vlcera þat ben in þe mouþ & in þe lippis & for akynge of þe teeþ / Also if it be sett bytwixe þe .ij. schuldris for swownynge & for quakinge of þe herte, & for hem þat han to miche blood in þat place. Þis maner letynge blood avoidid a mannes bodi miche & makiþ him feble*. [The sentence to which this statement refers is omitted. Lat.: "Que vero in poplitis plicatura valent ad egritudines renum, et matricis, testiculorum et omnium membrorum nutritiuorum ex sanguine."] /

Also watir lechis*. [Rhasis, Continens, Lib. XV. Cap. 6, ed. Brix, 1486, fol. CC. 3, bk., gives an interesting description of different kinds of leeches: "Sanguisugarum vna est venenosa, que est nigra vehementer ad modum antimonii, habens caput magnum & squamas ad modum piscium quorundam & habens medium viride, etiam alia, super quam sunt pili, habet magnum caput et colorem diuersum ad modum iris, in cuius colore sunt linee ad modum lazuli: que quotiens mordet, inde accidet apostema cum sincopi, febre, ebrietate, et laxitudine articulorum; tamen bona ipsarum est, que assimilatur colori aque in qua erit viriditas, habent super se duas lineas ad modum arsenici; sed blonde rotonde & ad colores epatis apte, que veloces sunt ad attrahendum sanguinem subtilem & que assimilantur caude muris, habentes odorem horribilem & similes locuste parvule et tenui & habentes ventrem ruffum cum nigrore & dorsum viride, sunt meliores; sed peiores erunt in aqua mala valde stabili, in qua sunt ranule multe, tamen bone sunt in aqua bona & optima." This account is copied by Avicenna, Lib. I., Fen. 4, Cap. 22, ed. Ven. 1527, fol. 62, bk. He differs in one point: "illas elige, que in aquis colliguntur, in quibus morantur rane. Neque attendas illud quod quidam dicunt, quod si sunt in aquis vbi morantur raue, sunt male."] drawiþ more blood þan þese / In þis maner þou schalt knowe whiche ben gode watir lechis & whiche ben nouȝt. Þei þat han blac colour medlid wiþ diuers colouris, & þei þat haueþ grete hedis & ben in foule stynkynge watris & han miche spume on hem ben nouȝt / And in þis maner þou schalt knowe whiche ben gode: þei þat han reed wombis & litil reed rewis in þe rigge medlid wiþ grene, & whanne þei haueþ litil hedis & smale tailis, & whanne þei ben in good watir þat ben manie froggis yn. & or þou sette hem vpon a man, þei schulen be kept al adai fastynge. & þan þou schalt ȝeue him a litil scharp blood for to ete, & þan þou schalt waische hem wiþ cleer water; & þan vpon þe [folio 219b] place þat he schal bePage  305 sett, þe place schal be wel frotid tofore, þat it bicome reed, & þan sette þervpon a ventuse for to drawe þerto blood. & þan anoynte þe same place wiþ blood, & þan sette þervpon þe watir leche. & whanne he is ful & þou wolt do him awei, blowe vpon þe place baurac, ouþer askis maad of paper. & whanne he is falle awei, þan sette þervpon a ventuse aȝen to drawe more blood to þe plase. & þan sette þervpon anoþer watir leche, if þere gaderiþ þerto miche mater. & þis maner is good for al maner blood þat is rotid, for it draweth it out /

Of cauterium or brennyng of large & streite.*. [The translator misunderstood the meaning of the Latin, "large et stricte," in the following passage: Cauterium dicitur duobus modis, large & stricte.]

Cauterium is seid in ij. maners, þat is to seie large & streit. & cauterium is seid propurli a brennynge wiþ gold or wiþ sum oþer instrument þat is hoot, ouþer wiþ watir or wiþ oile, ouþer wiþ medicyn caustica, ouþer wiþ herbis / And þer ben manie medicyns for to make cauterijs, whiche þou schalt fynde pleynlier in þe antidotarie / A cauterie is clepid streit,*. [See the preceding note.] whanne it is maad wiþ an hoot yren, wiþ gold, or wiþ siluir // Cauterijs þat [folio 220a] ben maad wiþ medicyns þat han vertu for to brenne / Þer is seid a cauterie po[tentia]le whanne it is not hoot in felinge / & þat cauterie preuailiþ wiþouten brennynge as herbis / Þer is anoþer maner cauterie: actual, for so miche as it brenneþ in dede / Of þis cauterie auicen*. [Lanfranc mentions Avicenna, who has a short chapter about cauterization, Lib. I., Fen. 4, Cap. 29; yet he chiefly follows Gulielmus de Salic., Lib. V., Cap. I., but with many additions and alterations.] spekiþ & seiþ, þat it is a medicyn, miche helpinge for to defende, þat mater schal not departe into al þe lyme; & it wole comforte þe lyme, & bringe it into good complexioun aȝen, & it wole dissolue mater þat is corrupt, & it wole streyne flux of blood. & auicen seiþ, þat a cauterie is oon of þe beste pointis of cirurgie / for þingis þat mowe not be fulfillid in long tyme, wiþ cauterie þei ben fulfillid / As it is seid phisicians leueþ þis craft to cirurgians. & þerfore it is greet wondir if þer be ony good cirurgian founde, for þei ben alle lewid men. & if a lewid man schal worche with cauterijs, þan he knowiþ not þe difference bitwixe a cauterie þat is clepid actuel & potencial. & also þei knowe not in what place of a mannes bodi þei schulen make hem. & þis is so repreued þat it is almoost out [folio 220b] of vss / Also summen maken cauterijs in vnclene bodies þat ben ful replet ofPage  306 yuele humours, & þan cauterijs wolen do litil profit to passiouns þat ben forseid, but þer wole falle þerto so manie humouris, & make þe place of þe cauterie to swelle, & liȝtly engendre a cancre. & þan men þat ben vnkunnynge ben agast herof & ben not hardi for to make no mo cauterijs. & if þe patient hadde be purgid of grete humours tofore, þan it wolde not haue fare so. ¶ And summen vsen cantarides for to make cauterijs þerwiþ, & leggen it vpon men þat han hote complexioun & drie; & þis is contrarious & falliþ greet agreuaunce þerof, & þan þei seien þat cauterijs ne ben nouȝt worþ / But auicen seiþ, þat a cauterie is good tofore alle medicyns for to waaste & consume mater / if þe cauterie be sett in place þere it schulde be, but if the mater be so miche þat þe cauterie mai not consume it, as þou miȝt se an ensample herof: þat fier ouercomeþ alle þingis / but if þou doist a litil fier among miche wet wode, þer wole come smoke þerof. & the fier [folio 221a] mai not ouercome to waaste þe wode, for water þat is in þe wode is more þan þe fier / In þe same maner it fariþ of a cauterie þat is in a mannes bodi, if he be ful of humouris, þanne þe cauterie mai not worche. & þerfor þou schalt purge him wiþ laxatiuis tofore þe cauterie as it is aforseid / Also þou schalt make no cauterijs in a man þat is ful of gode humours as of blood, for þan oonli blood-letyng suffisiþ / but if þe patient be strong & þe mater on him be coold & moist, þan a cauterie is good for to driue awei þe mater. & a man schal not bere a cauterie, but .ij. moneþis ouþer .iij. at þe mooste. ¶ Now I wole telle þee a good rule / If þou fyndist in a mannes body a lyme in wei of corrupcioun*. [Lat.: si membrum invenis in via corruptionis.]: as herisipula, or herpes estiomenus, ouþer formica, or in yuel disposicioun of a wounde þat bigynneþ to encancre,*. [encancre, med. Lat. incancrire; Dufr., Ital. incancherare.] & for al oþer corrupcioun, þan sette a cauterie in þe nexte welle to þe place, for þe cauterie wole defende þe place fro corrupcioun. ¶ Now speke we of particlis of cauterijs þat falliþ in diuers placis of a mannes bodi, & wiþ diuers instrumentis þei schulen [folio 221b] be maad, whiche þou schalt se portraied*. [The figures are omitted.] tofore þe, & her signis forþwiþ. ¶ Þe .i. instrument þat is comoun & moost in vss, is clepid nodulum,*. [Lat. anodulum, adnodulum.] & is an instrument maad in þis maner / Take a brood plate of iren & make þeron an hole, & leie þat plate þere þou wolt make þi cauterie. & þan þou muste haue an iren maad long & smal & maad hoot, & putte it in þat hole of þe plate / þis plate wole saue þe place þat þePage  307 cauterie schal be nomore but as þou wolt / & þat iren þat þou schalt make þi cauterie þerwiþ, schal haue a litil round knap tofore. & þat iren schal be maad hoot til it bicome reed / & þerwiþ þou schalt make þi cauterie, & whanne þou doist awei þin iren, þere wole be vlcus. & þan þou schalt leie þeron butter or oold grese, or grese stampid wiþ caul-leues, & þat is þe best of alle, & leie it þerto, til þe cruste falle awei þat þe hoot iren made. & þan þou schalt do þerto a litil pelot maad of lynnen clooþ round & hard. & þat pelot schal be anoyntid wiþ oile, & vpon þe place leie a caulleef, or an yue-leef, or a vine-leef, & in þis [folio 222a] maner þou schalt holde it open as longe as þou wolt. ¶ The .ij. cauterie is clepid round, & haþ no knap at þe ende, but it is schape long, & whanne þou makist þi cauterie, þou muste be war þat þou touche no nerues ne veynes. & þis instrument schal be maad in þis maner, þat it make a cauterie in boþe endis, after þat þou desirist, greet or smal. ¶ The .iij cauterie is clepid punctuale, & is ful necessarie whanne þou wolt make a streit cauterie. & is maad in þis maner. ¶ The .iiij. is clepid radiale, & is smal & scharp, & is good for children, & is maad in þis maner*. [The description of the Cauterium radiale is an insertion of the translator. Lat.: "tertium cauterium punctuale, seu radiale, & est necessarium ubi valde strictum uolueris facere cauterium, & est sic factum." Gulielm. de Sal. Sloane 277, fol. 45, bk.: "þe fifþe is clepyd cauterium minutum, or radiale or viduale þat is a comoun instrument to children."] / ¶ The .v. cauterie is maad in þis maner, & is swiþe comoun & is clepid calcellare.*. [Add. 26106, fol. 98, bk.: "cutellare," printed ed. "cultellare."] & þis wole make a long brennyng as ouerþwert þe heed, & whanne þou wolt make vlcera long þat ben rounde, þan þou schalt worche wiþ þis cauterie. ¶ The .vj. is clepid subtile, & is good for festris þat sittiþ in þe corner of a mannes iȝe, & it is good for yuel fleisch þat growiþ in a mannes iȝe, & is maad in þis maner / þis sotille [folio 222b] cauterie schal be maad hoot & putt in a canel in þis maner // The .vj.*. [The translator, forgetting that he counted the "radiale" as a separate cautery, follows again the numbers of the original.] is clepid dactilare, for it is schape as it were þe stoon of a date. & herwiþ þou schalt make cauterijs in þe haunche. & þere schal be an instrument schape as a table, & schal be leid to þe haunche in þis maner, & haþ .vj. arisyngis þeron as haþ a stoon of a date.*. [Lat.: et habet v. eminentias sicut ossa dactilorum factas.] & oon þerof is in þe myddil, & .ij. aboue, & .j. bineþe, & oon in boþe sidis in þis maner / Whanne þis instrument is hoot, it schal be putt vpon a mannes haunche, & a table bitwixe maad of iren. & þis table schal be coold, & þer schulen be .vj. holisPage  308 þeron, schape after þe cauterie þat haþ .vj. arisingis out as it is aforseid. And þou schalt make .v. cauterijs vpon a mannes haunche, & .ij. þerof schulen be aboue þe ioynct, & .ij. bi þe sidis, & oon vpon þe ioynct, & .j. tofore þe ioynct. ¶ Þe vij. is clepid triangulare, & þerwiþ þer mai be maad .iij. at oonys. & þis cauterie is good for þe haunche also, & is maad in þis maner / ¶ The .viij. cauterie is clepid actuale,*. [actuale, a mistake for acuale.] for sumtyme it is maad wiþ a nedle, & it is good [folio 223a] for to make cauterijs þerwiþ in þe browis, & is maad sutil as a nedele. ¶ The .ix. cauterie is clepid linguale, & it is schape as it were a tunge of a litil brid in þis maner. & it is good for to make cauterijs vpon a mannes browis / ¶ The .x. cauterie is clepid ceton,*. [ceton, med. Lat. seto, sedo; Fr. séton; Ital. settone, "seton." Add. 26,106, and the printed ed. read: dicitur ad sectionem.] & is maad triangulis holowid.*. [Lat.: fit cum tenaculis perforatis.] & in þe hole þerof þere may entre a scharp instrument þat haþ a fenestre*. [fenestre, Lat. fenestra; "la fenestre de la cannule," Paré; see Littré Dict.] as it were a nedele, & it schal be holde with coold tenaclis, also þe place þat þou wolt make þi cauterie on. Þou schalt take vp þe skyn wiþ tenaclis, & putt in þin hoot iren þoruȝ þe hole of þe tenaclis, & brenne þe skyn. Þan þou schalt make a corde of wollen ȝerne & wete it in blood, & drawe it þoruȝ þe holis, & þan þou schalt knytte þe .ij. endis togidere, & in þis maner þou schalt holde it open as longe as þou wolt. Þis is a comoun cauterie, & þis cauterie mai be maad in þe mouþ of þe stomac, & vpon þe lyuere & þe splene, & vpon þe ballocke-leþeris / Now þou knowist alle þin instrumentis, for to make cauterijs with, & her names / Now telle we in what maner & in what place þou schalt make hem / In oold heed-akynge, [folio 223b] whanne purgaciouns & laxatiuis & gargarismis & snesyngis*. [snesyngis, Lat. sternutationes.] & clisterijs & oþere maner of avoidynge, & wiþ enplastris & wiþ anoyntyng, whanne þe akynge of a mannes heed wole not go awei wiþ alle þese, ne þe epilencie,*. [epilencie, O.Fr. epilence. Plinius: epilenticus. See Dufr. Matth. Sylv.: Epilensia .i. morbus caducus.] ne noon passioun þat comeþ of þe heed, ne passiouns of þe iȝen, & passiouns of þe eeren, & of þe noseþrillis, & oold couȝe, & flux of þe wombe þat comeþ of þe reume. ¶ For alle þese passiouns þou schalt make cauterie þat is clepid cultellare in þe welle of þe heed*. [Lat. in capitis fontinella. Phillips: "Fontanella, or Fonticulus, a little Well, or Spring: In Surgery, an Issue, or little Ulcer, made in sound parts of the Body, to let out bad Humours, and to Cure, or prevent Diseases. In Anatomy, the mould or root of the Nose." It was further a name for the place where these ulcers were produced, especially for a place between the sutures of the skull. Compare Sowd. of Babyl. 2951: [he smote hir] ouer the founte throughoute the brayn.]Page  309 bihinde. & first schaue awei þe heeris, þere þou wolt make þi cauterie as it is aforseid with an hoot iren, & herof þou schalt be ware þat þou lete not þat iren be þere to longe, but þou schalt hastili make it, & hastily do awei þe iren, & þan þou schalt do awei þe cruste þerof wiþ butter, or wiþ oold grese, or wiþ leeues of caul, as it is aforseid. ¶ Þis cauterie schal be holde open wiþ litil pelottis as it is forseid as longe as þou wolt, til þe patient be hool / But or þou make þi cauterie, þou muste be wel ware, as it is aforseid, þat þin iren lie not to longe, [folio 224a] but hastili take it awei, for if it were þere longe his brayn myȝte be harmed þerbi. ¶ Wiþ þis cauterie I helide a womman þat hadde passiouns in hir heed manie diuers, & I miȝte not make hir hool with no purgaciouns, ne wiþ noon anoyntingis, & wiþ þis cauterie I made hir al hool. ¶ Also þou muste make a round cauterie & touche oonly þe skyn þerwiþ, & do þerto seto. Þis cauterie is good for passiouns of þe iȝen, & for epilenciam, & for oþere sijknessis of þe heed; but þis cauterie is not so good as þat oþer tofore. ¶ Also þou miȝt make a cauterie in a mannes necke bytwixe þe boonys & þe skyn aboueforþ*. [Lat.: cutem superficialiter tangendo.]; þis cauterie is good for þe spasme. ¶ Also whanne a man is woundid in þe heed, þis cauterie is good for drede of þe spasme; for herwiþ þe mater schal be consumed, þat nerues ben redi for to take.*. [Lat.: nam materia per hoc consumitur, per quam neruorum inbibitio expectatur.] ¶ Also in þe welle vnder þe eeris & bihinde þe eeris þou schalt make cauterijs for passiouns of iȝen and for akynge of þe teeþ. ¶ Superfluite of fleisch þat is vpon a mannes browis, þou schalt do awei wiþ a cauterie þat is clepid lingual, [folio 224b] schape as it were a tunge of a brid. & þou schalt make þerwiþ cauterijs vpon his browis, but þou muste be war þat þou touche not þe natural substaunce of þe browis. & þou schalt make cauterijs þervpon with cauterium punctuale, & for to do awei superfluite of fleisch þat is in þe corner of a mannes iȝe. ¶ Superfluite of fleisch þat is in a mannes nose, it mai be remeued awei wiþ cauterium acutum ouþer punctuale, for to touche þerwiþ þe fleisch a litil & a litil til al þe superfluite be take awei. & if þis superfluite be fast þeron & be fer yn, þan þou muste vse a sutil cauterie, & putte it in þe nose-þrilPage  310 þoruȝ þe canel, þat þe hete ne mowe not harme þe substaunce of þe nose, but oonly brenne þe superfluite of þe fleisch. ¶ Also þou schalt make a round cauterie vndir a mannes chyn. & þis cauterie is good for wennys þat ben in þe skyn of his face, & for þe place,*. [place for ? Lat.: saphati et pustulas.] & for þe palet, & for sijknes in a mannes mouþ, & in þe gomys, & in þe teeþ. ¶ Also þou miȝt make .ij. cauterijs in boþe a mannes armys, wiþoutforþ þe arme, in þe welle þat is vpon þe grete braun a litil [folio 225a] bineþe þe schuldre. & þis cauterie is good for sijknes þat ben in þe partie bihinde of a mannes brayn as for þe litarge,*. [litarge, lethargy. Compare Leechd. I., p. 200: "wiþ þa adle ðe man litargum hateð, þat ys on ure geþeode ofergytulnys cweden."] & also it purgiþ wel þe nerues of þe necke / Also þou miȝt make anoþer in þe welle vndir þe grete braun, and is good for þe brayn wiþinneforþ as for scotomia & vertigine, & for water þat falliþ adoun fro a mannes heed to hise iȝen, & it is good for al passiouns of a mannes iȝen / Also þou schalt make a cauterie cultellaria*. [Lat.: "Fiunt cauteria cutellaria superficialia inter digitum et digitum in cyragra. De propr. rer. Lib. VII., Cap. 29, Trevisa, Add. 27,944, fol. 87 a: "Difficulte & hardnesse of breþinge hat asma & comeþ of double cause of drynes þat streyneþ þe lungen."] bitwene a mannes fyngris / And þese cauterijs ben gode for passiouns ciragra / Also þou schalt make cauterijs in þe brest wiþ a round cauterie, and is good for asma*. [asma, med. Lat. asma, [gap: 1] .] / Also þou miȝt make a cauterie toward þe forke of þe brest aboue for disma*. [disma, Add. 26106, fol. 89, bk.: "propter disimiam." Dufr., "dyspnia, [gap: 1] ." Simon. Barth., p. 18: "Disma est species asmatis, sed disma fit ex siccitate, asma ex humiditate."] / Also þou miȝt sumtyme make cauterijs in þe brest, þat ben clepid cultellaria, bitwixe þe ribbis, & þese cauterijs been good for empima,*. [empima, Lat. empimia. Simon. Barth., p. 19: "Empima, i. sputum saniosum ex pulmonis infeccione proveniens." De propr. rer. Lib. VII., Cap. 30, Add. 27,944, fol. 87a: "empima is a passioun, whan me spetiþ quittir."] id est apostyme wiþinne / Also þou miȝt make cauterijs punctualia in þe rigboon for gret akinge þat a man haþ in þat place / Also þou miȝt make cauterijs wiþ a round instrument vpon þe regioun of þe stomak, for long febilnes þat a man haþ had in his stomak / Also þou miȝt [folio 225b] make cauterijs vnder þe nauele & vppon þe lyuere & vpon þe splene, ffor colicam passionem & for þe sijknes of þe lyuere & vpon þe splene & for dropesie. And alle þese cauterijs wolen be maad best wiþ seton / Also þou miȝt make .ij. cauterijs in þe haunchis as it is aforseid / Also þouPage  311 miȝt make .ij. cauterijs vndir þe knee, for þe akynge of þe knees & of þe ballokis & of þe maris. Also þou miȝt make .ij. cauterijs vndir þe kne, wiþoutforþ for remedie of al þe bodi, for it avoideþ wel alle partijs of a mannes bodi / & I haue seen manie men þat han maad cauterijs in þat place, or his bodi were purgid, & humouris fel so myche þerto þat his leggis & his hipis to-swollen al greet. & if he hadde be purgid tofore, he schulde not haue fare so. & aboue þe ancle ben maad cauterijs for sijknes of þe ballokis. & also it is good for wommen / Also bitwixe þe toos ben maad cauterijs for þe potagre*. [potagre, Lat. podagra. Hamp. 2984: "for sleuthe als þe potagre and þe gout." De propr. rer., Trevisa, Add. 27,944, fol. 96, bk.: "Arthetica is ache and evel in fingres and tone wiþ swellinge & sore ache, and whanne hit is in þe fyngres hit hatte cyragra, and in þe toone hit hatte podagra."] / Also if þou purgist a man or a womman wiþ medicyns laxatiuis, & þan makist a cauterie as it is aforseid. & if þe passioun go not awei at þis oon doinge, þan þou schalt neuere þe lattere [not]*. [not, omitted. Lat.: nec propter hoc desperes.] be in dispeir of cauterijs,*. [See p. 284, note 7.] but þou schalt bigynne to purge [folio 226a] him aȝen & make him a cauterie aȝen. & if it so be þat he be miche feblid herwiþ, þan þou schalt restore aȝen wiþ gode metis & drinkis þat engendriþ good humours. & whanne he is restorid aȝen, þan þou schalt bigynne & purge him aȝen, & þan make hise cauterijs aȝen, & in þis maner þou schalt worche wiþ þi cauterijs. ¶ ffor manie men makiþ oon cauterie or .ij, & if þei seen þat it profitiþ not, þan þei leeueþ of & worchiþ nomore. & manie men contynuede þeron til þe pacient be brouȝt al doun & liȝtli deed / & in þis maner ne schulde not a leche worche / ffor G. seiþ: it is a feble leche, þat can not helpe þat is able to be holpen. & defaute herof is þis: þat manie lechis ȝeueþ medicyns, & ne makiþ no space to bringe þe patient into good staat aȝen*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 93: si plus dant, non interponunt spacium nutriendi.] / Alle þese rulis þat G. seiþ þou schalt attende in þis maner: if þe patient be maad feble wiþ medicyns laxatiuis & wiþ cauterijs, þan þou cesse of þi medicyns & ȝeue him comfortatif metis & drinkis for to releue him aȝen, & þan þou miȝt worche wiþ þi medicyns aȝen. & þus þou miȝt do perfitly þe cure / And heron manie men erriþ þat ben holden ful kunnyng / [folio 226b] & þerfore I haue sett it in þis place þat it mowe be ensaumple to þee / Also þou schalt make a cauterie vpon rotid fleisch, til þou haue take awei al þe corrupcioun þerof. & in þis caas we mowen vse hoot feruent oile for to springe vpon þe corrupcioun,Page  312 so þat it ne touche noon hool*. [MS. hoot, Lat.: quod loca sana ulterius non attingat.] place, & þis maner is ful good to take awei corrupcioun of fleisch, & it is bettir þan medicina caustica / Whanne þou wolt worche with medicyns caustica, þan do as it schal be seid in þe antidotarie of þis book /

Of þe cure of brennyng wiþ fier ouþer with hoot watir or with oile.

A Mannes lymes ben brent wiþ fier, watir, ouþir wiþ oile / In þis caas þis is þe firste entencioun: or þe place bigynne to bladdre,*. [bladdre, vesicari.] þou muste haue medicyns þat ben colde / And if it so be þat þe place be vlceratus, & þou were not at þe firste bigynnyng, or if þe brennyng be so miche þat þou miȝt not defende, þat vlcera ne come not þeron, & þan þou must haue medicyns þat ben lasse coold, & medicyns þat ben clepid stiptica not fretynge / Þese ben symple medicyns [folio 227a] in þe firste caas / Take marbil stoon & grinden smal, & alle þe sandalis,*. [Lat. omnes sandali.] & solatrum, & watir of rosis, & watir of cucurbita, & water of virga pastoris, & of alle þese þingis make a þing for to leie þeron / Also oile of rosis, & þe ȝelke of an ey ben good þerfore / Also bole armoniac temperid wiþ vinegre is good þerfore. And it muste ofte be remeued & ofte leid to aȝen, for þe cooldnes of ofte remeuyng schal defende it fro bladdring / Naturel medicyns þat ben gode in þe secunde caas: / But vnguentum de calx maad in þis maner / ℞, calcis viue bene cocte þat ben maad of an hard stoon, and waische it wiþ coold watir til it lete al his scharpnes, & þan wiþ oile of rosis & wex make an oynement / Also vnguentum album Rasis þat is maad in þe antidotarie is good þerfore / I nyle for þis cure sette no mo medycyns. Þoruȝ þe grace of god almiȝty þe þridde tretis is fulfillid //

Here endiþ þe þridde book,

and bigynneþ þe fourþe book // Of brekyng of boonis,*. [MS. bookis.] & sumtyme of brusyng of boonys, and a general techyng for alle //*. [Lat. heading: "Explicit tractatus tertius huis libri. Incipit quartus, qui est de algebra, et continet duas summas. Summa prima tractatus quarti septem continet capitula. Capitulum primum summæ primæ tractatus quarti, de fractura ossium sermo generalis." The translator has kept the heading of the first chapter, but left out the chapter itself. His first chapter, which has no heading, is Lanfranc's second one: Capitulum secundum summe prime de fractura ossium faciei.]

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[folio 227b] A Mannes nose is sumtyme to-broken,*. [Compare: Paul. Ægin., Book VI., Sect. xci., ed. Adams, vol. II., p. 443, and Avicenna, Lib. IV., Fen. v., Tract 3, Cap. 3, ed. Venet. 1527, fol. 365 b.] & sumtyme pressid adoun. & if he be hastili holpen his nose mai be restorid aȝen, & if it be longe or he haue ony help, þanne he schal be maymed for euermore*. [Gul. de Sal., Sloane 277, fol. 34: "Thow schalt wite þat þe boon of þe nose is oþerwhile depressyd & oþerwhile broken, & ȝif soþely it be depressyd, þat is to sey born down or broken withoute wounde, anoon in þe firste visitacion, be þe seknesse restoryd, whil it is newe, for ȝif it were hard, ouþer þer schal dwelle euermore snattydnesse or euel schapp." snattydness, translates med. Lat. simitas [gap: 1] , snubbiness.] / If þou comest at þe firste bigynnyng þou schalt do in þis maner / putte yn þe fingir of þe lifthand anoon to þe brekyng, þi leeste fyngir or what fyngir wole best yn, & wiþ þi riȝthond presse vpon þe brekyng, & arere vpward wiþ þi fyngir withinneforþ, & presse wiþ þin hond wiþoutforþ & bringe it as it schulde be. Þan make a strong tent & so longe þat he mowe passe aboue þe brekyng, & þan þis tent schal be diȝt wiþ a litil wex hoot & a litil sotil poudre of mastik & sandal, & schape þerof in þe maner of a candel, & þan putte it into his nose, wiþoutforþ leie of consolidatiuis þat schulen be seid in þe antidotarie, & abouteforþ þou schalt leie a defensif, & þou schalt binde his nose wiþ boondis,*. [MS. broondis.] & leie sutil lynnen clooþ in boþe sidis of his nose as [folio 228a] it is aforseid in þe chapiter of woundis in a mannes face / If þou miȝt not putte yn þi fyngir in his noseþrel, þan make a tent of tre & hile it wiþ lynnen clooþ þat it be oold & neissche, & þan anointe þis tent wiþ oile of rosis, & putte þis in his noseþrel in stide of þi fyngir, & þerwiþ arere vp his nose wiþinneforþ,*. [Gul. de Sal. Sloane 277, fol. 34: "And ȝif þou may not do þat wiþ þi fynger, putte in þe hole of þe nose on þe hurt syde a softe rownd sticke maad euene & semely, & anoynted with oyle of rosis ... and þou maist also lappe þilke sticke in a clene lynen clout & anoynte þe clout wiþ þe same oile, & þanne þe sticke schal be þe more tretable."] & wiþ þin hond wiþoutforþ make his nose euene til þe boon be brouȝt in his propre place þat is to-broke. ¶ Of his dietyng, & blood-letyng, & ventusis, & clisterijs, ouþer suppositorijs, do as þou seest þat it is to do, & as it is aforseid.

¶ If a manes cheke-boon*. [Avic. Lib. IV., Fen. v. Tr. 3, Cap. 2, ibid.: "Si frangitur mandibula dextra, tunc intromitte indicem, et medium manus sinistre in os infirmi, et cet." Gul. de Sal. Lib. III., Cap. 2. Sl. 277. fol. 34 b: "ȝif soþely þe boon of þe vppere chawel or of þe neþere were maadwithoute wounde, putte þi ryȝt hond in þe mouþ of þe seeke."] in þe liftside be to-broke, þan puttePage  314 yn þi strongist fyngris of þi lifthond tweyne & bringe þe boon into his propre place aȝen, & presse wiþ þi riȝthond wiþoutforþ; & if þe cheke-boon be to-broke in þe riȝtside, þanne putte yn .ij. fyngris of þi riȝthond, and bringe þe boon to his propre place aȝen, as it is aforseid. & whanne þe boon is brouȝt as it schulde be, þat þou miȝt knowe if his teeþ sittiþ euene as þei schulde do, & þan binde hise teeþ wiþ a strong þreed wexid [folio 228b] & bounden bitwixe his teeþ, & leie þervpon oon of þe consolidatiuis & binde him in þe same maner, þat þe boond be maad fast bihindeforþ in his necke. & þan it schal be turned aȝen to his forheed, & þou schalt binde him wiþ þi boond manyfoold, þat þe boon þat is to-broke mowe be holde in his propre place / And þe patient schal ete no metis but þingis þat he may soupe / For if he chewide, it wolde make þe boon falle out of his place aȝen, & in .xx. daies þis boon mai be restorid aȝen //

ffor brekyng of þe forke of þe þrote and of þe brest //*. [Lanfranc divides the fourth book into two "doctrines," the one dealing with fractures, the other with dislocations. The scribe of the present translation omits this division and the first chapter of each doctrine. He also puts the chapter on dislocation of the jaw-bone, which was originally the 2nd chapter of the 2nd doctrine immediately after the chapter on fracture of the jaw-bone, still retaining the heading of the 3rd chapter of the first doctrine: "ffor brekyng of þe forke of þe þrote and of þe brest." The two tables of contents show the same order as the original.]

The cheke-boon aboue meueþ not, & þat is for .iij. causis: oon is þat þe cheke-boon bineþe is more liȝt & more able þerfore, Þe .ij. cause is þis: þe cheke-boon is niȝ noble lymes, & if þe cheke-boon aboue meuede, þe noble lymes miȝten be enpeirid þerbi. Þe .iij. cause is þis: if þe cheke-boon aboue meuede, þere nolde be noon strong coniunccioun bitwene hem / Þerfore þe cheke-boon aboue is fast maad to þe boonys of þe heed, as it is aforseid in anothomiam. ¶ The cheke-boon bineþe is maad of .ij. boonys ioyned [folio 229a] togidere in þe chyn. & þis boon is maad fast with þe cheke-boon aboue wiþ ligaturis þat ben stronge & recching & wiþ lacertis, & maketh þe cheke-boon meue whanne a man wole, for summe þerof comeþ adoun fro þe boonys of þe heed, & ben ioyned wiþ partijs of nerues of þe heed, & of nuche, & closiþ togidere þe cheke-boon. [Summe comeþ*. [Summe comeþ, wanting. Lat. Add. 26106, fol. 96 bk.: "alii veniunt ab inferius versus pectus." The prints differ.]] bineþe aforȝens þe brest, and ben medlid wiþ nerues of nuche & openeþ þe cheke-boon, & summe comeþ fro þe sidis, &Page  315 meueþ þe cheke-boon round, whanne a man couwid.*. [Lat.: in masticando.] & þis cheke-boon bineþe mai be brouȝt of þe ioynct fro þe cheke-boon aboue in .ij. maners: ouþer it goiþ of þe ioynct bihindeward, & þan þe teeþ þat ben in þe cheke-boon bineþe goiþ wiþinne þe teeþ of þe cheke-boon aboue. & þan he may not opene his mouþ, & it goiþ out of þe ioynct forward, & þan þe teeþ þat ben in þe cheke-boon bineþe goiþ forþere out þan þe teeþ aboue. & he mai not close his mouþ togidere*. [Gul. de Sal. Lib. III., Cap. 18. Sl. 277, fol. 42 b: "The tokenes of þe dislocation inward ben þat þe mouþ leueþ opene, & þat þe teþ of þe neþere chawel goon tofore þe teþ of þe vppere chawl. ¶ The tokenes of þe dislocacioun owtward ben þat þe mouth is schut & in no manere may be openyd, & þe seeke may not chewe & þe teþ drawe vp toward þe palett, & þer schewiþ in þe vttere party in þe place of þe dislocacion an opene outberynge out of mesure, & þe speche is bynomen hym."] / These signys ben certeyn whanne þe boon is out of his ioynct / It is greet nede for to helpe a man hastily in þis caas; for if þe [folio 229b] cheke-boon be out of ioincte longe, þere ben manie nerues & lacertis & arterijs & veines aboute þat place, & for þis cause it wexiþ hard anoon. & þis place wole soone take enpostym for divers humours þat wolen falle þerto. & if þer falle an enpostym in þis place, þan, for þe brayn is so niȝ, þer comeþ a frenesie þerof & ofte tyme dieþ / & þerfore if he be hastili holpen, þe boon wole liȝtly into þe ioinct aȝen. & þerfore þat ioinct haþ liȝt meuynge / ffor eueri ioinct þat haþ hard meuynge, & he be out of þe ioinct, it wole be hard for to bringe yn aȝen / If it so be þat þe cheke-boon be out of ioinnct hindeward, þan þou schalt take þe boon first wiþ þi .ij. hondis, & lete a man holde his heed & drawe þe boon forþward.*. [Gul. de Sal. Sl. 277, fol. 42 b: "The dislocacion knowe, wheþer it be to þe innere party or þe vttere, a wyse leche oweþ to putte his þumbes wiþinne þe mouþ of þe seeke, & festene hem vpon þe wange-teþ of þe neþere iowe of þe seeke, & wiþ þe oþere four fyngeres he schal take þe iowe dislocate fro þe vttere, & þat tyme he schal haue a mynystre, which schal holde fast þe heuyd of þe seeke."] & if it so be þat his mouþ be closid togidere, þan þou schalt opene his mouþ wiþ þin hond or with sum oþer instrument, & þan take faste þe boon & drawe it to his place aȝen. & in þis maner þou schalt knowe whanne it is in his propre place aȝen, if his teeþ sitten euene, & if he may opene his mouþ / ¶ If þou miȝt not bringe þe boon to his propre place in þis maner, þan þou muste take a strong boond, & sette it vndir his chyn, þere þou [folio 230a] settist þi fyngris, & anoþer man mote drawe þe boond strongly & euene, & wiþ a wagge þou muste opene his mouþ. In þis manerPage  316 þou openynge his mouþ, & he drawing wiþ þe boond as it is aforseid, al at oonys wiþouten drede þe boon wole come into his ioynet.*. [Add. 26106, fol.97: ita quod tu aperiendo et minister trahendo vna hora locum suum intrat, quia sic sine dubio restaurabis.] ¶ If it be out of þe ioinct forward, þan þou schalt sette a strong boond vpon his chin, þat it hile al þe chin, & lete a man stonde bihinde him & halde þe boond in hise hondis, & he schal sette his knees vpon his schuldris, & he schal drawe þe boon to him wel & euenly. & þou schalt putte a wegge in his mouþ, & whanne he drawiþ þe boon þou schalt opene his mouþ wiþ þe wegge al at oon tyme, & in þis maner þ boon schal falle into his ioinct. Whanne þe boon is ynne, þan binde it faste wiþ a ligature & with enplastre, & lete him haue souping metis, & he schal chewe no mete til þe place be al fast / ¶ If it so be þat þou were not at þe first bigynnyng, & þe place is enpostymed, & he haue þe feuere & akynge of his heed, þan schaue his heed & anoynte it wiþ oile of rosis & a litil vinegre medlid þerwiþ. & þou schalt [folio 230b] anoynte his heed with sum mollificatif, or wiþ dokis grese or wiþ hennys. & þou schalt worche as miche as þou miȝt for to acesse þe enpostym, & for to cure þe feuere, & for to comforte his heed, þat þe frenesie ne come not to him / Whanne þe feuere & þe frenesie & þe enpostym be remeued awei, þan cure him as it is aforseid //

ffor brekyng of þe forke of þe þrote and of þe brest //*. [Paul. Ægin., Book VI., 93, ed. Adams, vol. ii. p. 447. Avicenna, Lib. IV., Fen. 5, Tract 3, Cap. 4, ed. Ven. 1527, p. 365 b.]

THe forke of þe þrote is clepid of summen patena, & of summen cathena.*. [patena, cathena, names for the furcula, as it seems peculiar to Lanfranc. The furcula, taken to be one bone, comprises the sternal bone and the clavicles. "Catena," chain, is synonymous with "clavicula;" and patena, med. Lat. = plate, is a proper denomination of the sternal bone.] Sumtyme it is to-broke & nouþer part of þe boon ne is not ypressid yn, & þan þe cure þerof is liȝt ynow. But if þat oon ende of þe boon be pressid adoun vndir þat oþer, þan it is ful hard for to bringe it yn aȝen. Whanne nouþer partie is pressid adoun, þan it is noon oþer nede for to haue no medicyn but stupis wet in white of eiren; & leie it vpon þe brekynge of þe boon, & binde wel þe place wiþ ligaturis; & his arme of þe same side mote be hongid to his necke, & in his arme-pitt þou schalt leie a bal of lynnen clooþ. & þou muste binde his arme þat he mowe not meue his arm [folio 231a] toward þe forke of þe brest, & in þis maner he motePage  317 be kept til þe boon be al hool. ¶ If it so be þat oon ende of þe boon be pressid adoun, þan a man mote drawe his oon arme, & anoþer man his oþere arme, & þou schalt wiþ þin hondis drawe þe boon to his propre place. Þan þou muste haue a medicyne consolidatif, & wete þerinne a lynnen clooþ, & hile al þe brekyng of þe boon þerwiþ, & leie þervpon faldellas*. [faldella, med. Lat., diminutive of falda, thread.] wiþ white of an ey, & þan binde him as it is aforseid, and his arme to his necke, & in þis maner he schal be kept til he be hool.

¶ Of brekyng of rigboonys /*. [Lat. de fractura spondilium et costarum.]

RIgge boonys for her schortnes & for her strongnes ne ben not to-broke, but if it be wiþ greet smytyng, & sumtyme þei ben brusid, & þat makiþ greet akynge. Also þer falliþ manie perels of þe boonys of þe necke if þei ben hurt, lest nucha be hirt also, & þan it is perel of þe brayn as it is aforsed / If þou seest yuel signes in þat caas, go awei þerfro. & if þou seest noon yuele signys, þan anointe þe place wiþ oile of rosis hoot & leie þervpon wolle, and þanne [folio 231b] terbentine medlid wiþ a litil mastic, & þis medicyne þou schalt vse til þe place be al hool /

¶ The noumbre of a mannes ribbis is aforeseid in þe anothamie / A mannes ribbis ben to-broke sumtyme wiþ smytyng or wiþ fallyng / Also þei moun be plied inward & not to-broke. ¶ In þis maner þou schalt knowe wheþir a mannes rib be to-broke or no / Sette þi fyngris vpon þe place & grope softli & presse a litil vp & doun, & if his rib be to-broke, þou schalt heere hym sownie,*. [Gul. de Sal. lib. III., Cap. 5. Sl. 277, fol. 36: "Ȝif it happe þe rybbis to be broken in oo place or in two þat þou schalt wite by touchynge, for þei þat of þristynge down of þe hond vpon þe place or places, þou schalt heere a sown & with þat þe seeke schal suffre penaunce or lettynge of breþ, & principally þe tyme of drawynge of wynd." The sound, "crepitus," produced by pressure of the hand on the injured place, as a test whether a rib is fractured, is already mentioned in Paul. Ægin., Book VI., 96, ed. Adams, vol. ii., p. 452.] & he schal haue couȝinge & akinge in his side. ¶ It is ful hard for to restore a rib þat is to-broke, for sumtyme þat oon parti plieþ inward, & þan it is hard for to bringe him into his propre place aȝen / And summen seien þat þe pacient schulde ete metis to swelle him þat engendriþ wijnd, & wole make þe rib goon into his propre place aȝen. & summen seien þat me schulde sette a ventuse, & wiþPage  318 þe drawing þerof þe rib wole rise vp aȝen into his propre place / But I suppose þis wole more make agreuaunce þan helpe þe patient / ffor þe .j. wole engendre an hoot enpostyme [folio 232a] / The .ij. it wole drawe to þe place manie humours / If þou wolt take þis cure, þou schalt do in þis maner: / ffirst þou schalt lete him blood in þe side aforȝens in þe veyne þat is clepid basilica, & þan in þe same, & þan anoynte þin hond wiþ terbentine. & loke if þou miȝt take vp þe rib þat is pressid adoun. & þin oþer hond þou schalt sette vpon þe place þat is not pressid adoun. & wiþ þin hond þat is anoyntid arere vp his rib. & loke þat þe .ij. endis of þe ribbis þat is to-broke come euene togidere, & þan make þe patient to couȝe, for þis þe beste maner for to bringe him yn*. [Gul. de Sal. Sl. 277, fol. 36: "make hym eft cowȝe sadly, & vpon þe place þrist down or broken, þou schalt putte a gret ventuse wiþout cuttynge."] / If þou dredist nouȝt greet replecioun of his bodi, þou miȝt opene a ventuse whanne þe rib is ioyned. & þan þou schalt binde wiþ a boond, & vndir þe boond þou schalt leie lynnet or sum oþer neische þing. & þou schalt binde him in sich a maner þat þe rib þat is to-broke ne mowe not remoue ne falle adoun aȝen. & þe patient schal vse liȝt mete as pultes de caudarisio,*. [Sim. de Janua: "Caudarusium, Spelta, genus frumenti, quod quidam allicam dicunt, quidam Caudarusium."] de amido, de tritico, wiþ penides, & he schal drinke swete wijn temperatli, & þou muste defende [folio 232b] him fro wraþþe & fro crijnge, & fro alle þingis þat wolen make a man to couȝe. ¶ If it so be þat þe akynge aceese not, & þou ne miȝt not bringe his rib as he schulde be, & if he haþ greet cowȝynge & acces of þe feuere,*. [acces of þe feuere, Lat. si febris accideret.] whanne þou hast lete him blood, þan þou muste kutte þe skyn aforȝens þe rib þat is to-broke, & vnhile þe same rib of al his fleisch, & þan wiþ instrumentis & wiþ þin hond þou muste drawe vp þe rib, & bringe him in his place as he schulde be. & þan þou schalt cure þe wounde as it is aforseid / // His dietynge schal be as of pluretici til þe feuere & al þe passiouns ben goon awei //

Of brekyng of þe helpers of þe rigboon.

Adiutorium is to-broken ful ofte ouerþwert wiþ breking / Þe nere þat it be þe ioynct, þe more perilous it is, & þe worse for to cure / In þis place I wole telle þee in what maner þou schalt knowe a brekyng, & in what maner þou schalt restore it aȝen, þatPage  319 it mowe be an ensample to þee in þe breking,*. [MS. has a full-stop between breking and if. Lat.: ut sit tibi exemplum in ruptura brachii, crurium et coxarum.] if a mannes arme & his leggis & his hipe-boon ben broken / In þis maner þou schalt knowe: / Lete a man holde his arme [folio 233a] wiþ .ij. hondis faste bi þe schuldre, & he mot holde him in þat maner þat he mowe nott meue him-silf; & þou schalt stonde tofore him, & take his arme faste bi þe elbowe, & meue his arme hidir & þidir liȝtli til þou heere sownynge of þe boon, & whanne þou knowist þe place þat it is to-broke.*. [Lat.: et cum tactu locum fracture cognoueris manifeste. Gul. de Sal., Sl. 277, fol. 37: "When þe adiutorie, or þe boon fro þe elbowe to þe schuldre is broken, it schal be knowe to þe touchynge in þis: The leche schal drawe þe hurt place wiþ boþe his hondes, & putte þat oon hond vpon þe place hurt, & þat oþer wiþinne. ¶ And haue he a mynystre, whiche schal bere vp togidere þe elbowe wiþ þe arm. And þanne þe leche, meuynge softely his handis, schal heere þe sown of þe broken boon, or he schal feele þe disseuerynge of þe parties of þe broken boon."] & þis maner asaiyng is good whanne þe brekynge is so priuy þat no partie of þe boon goiþ in no side out / Whanne þou knowist where þe breking is, or þou bigynne ony þing for to worche þeron, make redi alle þi necessarijs þat ben gode for þe bindyng. ¶ First þou schalt make stupis þat ben euene, & wete hem in hoot water in winter, & in coold water in somer, & þan wrynge out þi stupis þerof & diȝte oile of rosis & a defensif of bole, & ij. longe boondis þat þei be .iiij. fyngris brood, & lynnen clooþ þat mowe go aboute al his arme, & a strong corde; & þe corde wole be þe better if it be playn, & not round. & þou muste diȝte smale ȝerdis of drie tree, þat be strong & sotil. & whanne þou hast diȝt alle þese þingis redi, þan sette þe boon in his place as liȝtli — — —*. [Some words are wanting. Lat.: quantumcumque potes leuius operando.] with þin hond wiþouten greuaunce. & þan take [folio 233b] oold soft lynnen clooþ, & wete it in oile of rosis, and wijnde it aboute his arme. & vpon þis leie a clooþ wiþ medicyns consolidatif, þat schal be seid in þe antidotarie for brekynge of boonys; & þerfore þese .ij. lynnen cloþis moten be large for to hile al þe brekyng / And þou muste haue cloutis in .ij. sidis of þe place þat is to-broke, & þervpon þou muste leie faldellam in boþe sidis euene, & wet in gleire of an ey. & alle þese þingis þou schalt binde wiþ þi boond, þat schal be þe brede of .iiij. fyngris, & long þat he mowe goon aboute manifoold. & sewe þe foldyng of þe boond þat he mowe not vndo / Vpon þis ligature þou schalt leie faldellam maad of stupis, & he schal oonly be wet in water & leid vpon. & hervponPage  320 þou schalt leie þi splentis*. [MS. spletis.]; & wiþ a corde þat be brood, & not round, þei schulen be bounden þervpon. & þou schalt streyne middilly,*. [middilly, mediocriter.] & not to faste / Herof þou muste be war, þat streynyng þat is in þis place & in oþere placis ne schulen not be so harde þat þe place bicome blak, ne þat he mowe fele his lyme / Ther ben summen þat streynen so faste a manys lyme, þat þe spirit of meuynge, [folio 234a] ne þe spirit of lijf mai not come þerto. & þan þei seeþ þat þe place is to-swolle, & askiþ of þe patient wher he haue miche akynge. & þei supposen to do awei þe akynge wiþ þe greet binding, & in þis maner þe lyme wole rotie, & in þis maner þe patient mai falle into a feuer & þe spasme, & manye men dieþ þeron / But þou schalt worche in þis maner / Whanne þou seest þis caas, vnbinde þe lyme, & as miche as þou miȝt do awei þe swellyng & þe akynge. Aboue þe brekyng towardis the schuldre leie a defensif of bole // If þer come noon akynge ne swellynge, þan þou schalt lete it sitte so boounde .x. daies in winter, & .vij. daies in somer / & þan vnbinde it softly þat þe lyme ne meue not / & loke þat þe boon sitte wel; & þan binde it al togidere aȝen as þow didist first. Whanne þe boon is wel soudid, þan þou schalt take stupis & wete hem in good wijn hoot,*. [Lat.: in bono vino calido.] & leie þervpon. ¶ Whanne it is soudid, if þer leeue ony þing of hardnes in þe same place, þan do it awei aftir þe teching þat þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie /

Sumtyme þe boonys of a mannys arme ben to-broke [folio 234b] boþe, & sumtyme þat oþer. & whanne þei ben boþe broken, it is þe more worse / If it so be þat þer be to-broke but oon boon, þan it is no nede for to do but astellas,*. [Lat.: non est tibi necessarium astellas ponere.] for þe boon þat is hool wole saue þe ligature wel ynowȝ / The boonys of a mannes fyngris ben sumtyme to-broke, þan þou schalt sette euene þe boon, & binde him wiþ astelles þat ben wel maad þerfore. & þouȝ þe fyngir ne be but a litil lyme, ȝitt þou muste haue good kunnyng & good witt for to diȝte it wel / Dietyng in alle brekyng of boonys schal be first sotil, & aftirward more greet, as it is aforseid //

Of breking of þe boon of þe coxe.

Whanne þe boon of þe coxe is to-broke or ony boon of þe foot, þan þou schalt worche in al maner þingis as it is aforseid in þe chapitre of adiutorie & of þe fyngris / But þis þouPage  321 muste adde more þerto, þat whanne þou hast brouȝt yn þe boon of þe leg, þan þou muste make an instrument, þat is clepid albium ouþer coutelle; & it schal be schape in þe maner of a cros.

* Lat.: in albiolo seu coutella que sit ad modum cruris formata. The translator read "crucis."

albiola, (alueolus) um. "ventre, panier, benne, flancs d'un navire."—Dufr.

coutella. [gap: 1] , anything hollow, the cup of a joint, especially of the hip-joint. It.: cotila. Tomm.

Paul. Ægin., Book VI, Sect. 106, ed. Adams, vol. 2, p. 470, describes the way of arranging a fractured leg by means of "a canal either of wood or earthenware." Adams l. c. gives references from Hippocrates, Celsus and Galen, for the use of these machines.

& þeron his leg mote be sett, so þat his leg mowe [folio 235a] bowe to no side / Also it is necessarie þat þe patient ligge also stille as he mai wiþouten remeuyng, til þe boon be fast // But þou muste be wel war herof whanne þat a mannes leg is to-broke, ouþer his hipe, þou muste be war in þe soudyng, þat oon leg be not schorter þan þe oþer / But þou schalt mesure hem algate boþe lich long, & in þe same mesure kepe hem /

Of þe cure whanne a man is smiten in þe rigbon or ribbis.

It bifalliþ sumtyme þat a man is smyten or a man falliþ, & þan tendre boonys as þe cheke-boon & ribbis, & [in] children boonys of her arme & of her leggis, for þe tendirnes of þes lymes, þei wolen folde & not breke / In þis maner þou schalt bringe hem aȝen / In þis maner anoynte þin hond wiþ terbentyne, & take þat boon & presse it as it is forseid in þe brekyng of a boon.*. [Lat.: Si maxilla fuerit, manum seu digitos in os pone, premens ad extra sicut diximus in fractura, manum aliam termentina uel pice illinitam suauiter ab extra preme et citius eleua.] & if it be a rib, þan þou schalt presse him vpward, as it is foreseid. & if it be in þe arme ouþer þe leg, þan þou muste make ligaturis þerfore & instrument of tree, þat be euene, & þerto his arme ouþer his leg schal be bounden & pressid, for to make him euene. & or þou do þus, þou schalt make a [folio 235b] vomentacioun of camomille, malue, & bismalue, fenigreci, seminis lini soden in water; & þan anoynte him wiþ oile of lilie, or wiþ gandris grese, or hen-grese, & þan presse his arme as it is aforseid. Also þou miȝt vse þis medicyn, þat is aproued ofte tyme / leie a plate of yuer*. [O.Fr. yvoyre.] in þat side þat þe boon is aplied, &Page  322 þe vertu of þe yuer wole drawe þe boon as it schulde be, & bringe þe boon into his propre plite /

Of þe greuousnes of þe rigboon whanne he is out of ioyncte /

Dislocacioun of þe rigboonys is a greuous sijknes. It is aforseid in anathomia how manie boonys ben in þe necke & in þe rig. & it is aforseid in what maner / The firste boon in a mannes necke is bounden with manye feble ligaturis, & þe ligaturis þerof ben recching*. [Lat.: hec ligatura fuit magis aliis laxa.] & feble, þat þei ne schulde lette þe meuynge of þe heed / Þe boonys þat ben in a mannes necke beþ more feble þan ony oþer rigboonys, & þerfore þei goiþ liȝtly out of þe ioynte, & it is ful greet drede þerof / If þe hiȝeste boon of þe necke be oute of þe ioynct, it is clepid decollacio, & it sleeþ a man anoon; for þat oþer boon þerof pressiþ yn & stoppiþ a mannes [folio 236a] breeþ anoon, & in þis maner it sleeþ a man anoon / And if þe ioynct þat is bitwixe þe vij. boon & þe .viij. be out of ioyncte, þan it wole stoppe þe weie of his mete, and it wole lette þe weie of a mannes breeþ also / And if ony boon of þe rigboon þat is bineþe þe .viij. boon be out of ioyncte, but if he be þe raþere holpen, he schal lese his meuyng for euermore*. [Gul. de Sal., cap. 19. Sl. 277, fol. 42 b.: "And of þe spondiles of þe brest, for lettynge brouȝt in in þe lacertis & muscules kyndely & wilfully meuynge þe brest, þe lunge is lettid in his meuynge, & þer falliþ hasty wynd & litel, & vtterlyche deþ. Of þe dislocacion of þe oþere spondiles, þat ben 4, þer falleþ anoþor greuaunce in þe reynes & þe bladdre, & akþe in þoo membris, & peyne of pyssynge or lettynge of þe weyes of þe vryne, & aposteme in þe place, & feuere, & deþ."] / And þerfore it is necessarie as faste þat a mannes rigboon is out of þe ioynct, þat it be brouȝt yn aȝen anoon, & principali þe firste boon of þe necke, for disiunccioun of þat boon wole sle a man anoon, as it is forseid / If þou be in þe place, take þe patient bi þe heeris, & sette þi feet vpon his schuldris, & so þou schalt drawe vpward wiþ þin hondis, & presse adoun wiþ þi feet, & bringe þe boon into his ioynct aȝen / Whanne þe .vij. rigboon*. [rig, in margin.] is out of his ioynct fro þe .viij. rigboon, itt mai ful litil tyme lenger abide. & if it so be þat þis boon be pressid swiþe ynward, it wole sle a man hastily, & it wole ful late be curid / If it so be þat it mai be curid, þer is noon oþer cure þeron, but presse adoun his schuldris [folio 236b] & drawe vp þe heed, as it is aforseid / If it so be þat ony of þese boonys be out of þe ioynct outward, þat falliþ fulPage  323 seelde, þan sette þe boonys euene, & drawe his heed & presse adoun hise schuldris / If it so be þat ony rigboon bineþe þe .viij. boon of þe necke be out of ioyncte, if þe boon go ynward, it nile take no cure til it sle him / And if it ne be not al out of þe ioyncte, but it pressiþ nucha, alle þe lymes bineþe schulen lese her meuynge / If it so be þat þe boon be out of þe ioyncte & go outward, it is incurable, for he schal be euermore gibbosis, id est broken-riggid. Þis is þe cure þerof, if it mai be curid / Arere vp þe boon & presse it*. [MS. pressid.] als so miche as þou miȝt, wiþ þin hond, ouþer presse it yn with a playn tree, & studie þou in þi witt as miche as þou miȝt for to presse it in aȝen; & leie þervpon oon of þe consolidatiuis, & binde it faste / If it so be þat þere leeue ony hardnes after þe tyme þat þe place is soudid, þan make an enplastre of mollificatiuis þerto, þat þou schalt fynde in þe antidotarie; & anoynte him wiþ oynementis, þat þou schalt fynde [folio 237a] in þe same place in þe chapiter of mollificatiuis/ /

Of þe schuldre out of his place.*. [Compare Paul. Ægin., Book VI, Sect. 114, ed. Adams, vol. II, p. 485.]

A Mannes schuldre mai go out of þe ioynct in .iij. maners / Oon maner is þis, whanne þe heed of þe boon of adiutorie, þat is þe poynt of þe schuldre, falliþ adoun vndir þe arme-pitt; & sumtyme he goiþ of þe ioynct forþward, but þat falliþ ful selden / The .iij.: he goiþ out of þe ioynct vpward; & bakward he ne mai not out of þe ioynct, for þe schuldre boon holdiþ itt faste in.*. [Gul. de Sal., Sl. 277, fol. 43 b.: "For þe ofteste þe heued of þe adiutorie is dislocate in þe schuldre toward þe place þat is called titillicum to þe for-party, & to þe hynder party anentis þe spawde-boon, it is dislocate in no maner."] ¶ The .j. maner þou miȝt liȝtliche knowe bi touching & bi siȝt, & þou schalt fele þe boon in his arme-pitt, & þan þere wole be a greet pitt aboue. ¶ If he be out of the ioynct forþward, þan his arme wole sitte bacward, & tofore þou schalt se a greet pitt / ¶ If he be out of þe ioynct vpward, þat þou schalt knowe in þis maner: his elbowe ne mai not be drawe along fro his body. & if þou wolt drawe him along, þou schalt fynde an obstacle / The .j. maner if it be a child, þan þou schalt take his arme wiþ þi lifthond, & sette þi riȝthond vndir his [folio 237b] arme-pitt, & drawe his arme wiþ þi lifthond, & presse þe boon into his ioynct wiþ þi riȝthond; & in þis maner þou schalt bringe in þe boon of a child wel ynow. ¶ If it be a michePage  324 man, lete him ligge adoun streiȝt, & take a round bal of tree, & folde him wiþ a clooþ, & leie it vnder his arme-pitt, & binde him þere faste, & take his hond & drawe it adounward, ouþer lete anoþer man drawe it adounward, & helpe þou wiþ þin hond for to bring yn þe boon, so þat þou schalt presse, & þe man drawe al in oon tyme / If it ne mai not be doon in þis maner, þan ordeine a long perche, & make it fast in .ij. wallis of þe hous, ouþer .ij. postis of þe hous; & in þe middil of þe perche make a pitt, & in þe same pitt leie þe forseid bal, & þe hiȝnes of þis perche schal be hiȝer þan a man is long, & þan sette vndir his feet a stool. & loke þat þe same bal sitte vndir his arme, & lete a strong man holde doun his arme and his hond, & take awei þe stool vndir his feet, & in þis maner þe boon wole come into his ioynct / ¶ If it be out of þe ioynct forþward, þan take a strong towail, & leie him vndir his arme, & lete þe oon ende go forþ bihinde his rigge, [folio 238a] & þat oþer ende forþ bi his brest, & lete a strong man holde þe .ij. endis of þe towail, & þan binde his arme wiþ anoþer boond aboue þe elbowe; & take it anoþer strong man, & lete þese .ij. men holde & drawe al at oonys; þan þou schalt with þi .ij. hondis, whanne þei drawiþ, presse þe boon into his ioynct / Whanne þe boon is in his ioynct, þan þei schulen leeue her drawyng softly. ¶ In þe same maner, whanne he is oute of ioyncte vpward, he schal be bounden, & oon man schal drawe him abacward wiþ þe towal, & þat oþer man schal drawe his arme adounward, & þou schalt helpe for to presse yn þe boon wiþ þin hondis. & whanne þe boon is in his ioynct, þan wete a pece of lynnen clooþ in oile of rosis, & þan þervpon leie a medicyne consolidatif, & þan leie þervpon faldellas wet in gleire of eiren, & binde him faste with boondis þat his arme ne mowe not out of þe ioynct aȝen, & so he schal be bounden .x. daies. And if þer come ony enpostym or icching, þan þou muste vnbinde him aȝen, & do awei þe icching ouþer þe enpostym, and binde it aȝen as it is forseid. ¶ If it so be þat [folio 238b] þou ne were not at þe firste bigynnyng, þan þou muste make þe patient a baþ of malue & bismalue, fenigrec, lynseed. & whanne he is wel baþid in þis baþ, þan anoynte him wiþ an oynement laxatif. & in þis maner he muste be baþid manie daies til þe place be wel moistid; & þan bringe þe boon into his ioynct, as it is forseid. ¶ If it so be þat þou come at þe firste bigynnyng, whanne a boon is out of þe ioynct, þan þou schalt not baþe þe lyme in hoot water in no maner.

Page  325¶ A mannes arme wole out of þe ioynct liȝtlich at þe elbowe,*. [The Original says just the contrary: difficile dislocatur, et ita difficile restauratur. The translator further leaves out a passage similar to the following one, quoted from the Engl. translation of Gul. de Salic.: "The dislocacioun or restorynge of þis place is ryȝt dredeful, for þe makynge of it. For whi, þer ben smale boones & havynge schapp of a rolle or polyne, to drawe with water of wellis, whiche sumtyme, ouþer wiþ difficulte, or in no manere ben restorid."] & liȝtly it wole be brouȝt into his ioynct aȝen / But he mai be out of þe ioynct in .ij. maners, as forþward & hindeward, & boþe haueþ diuers cure / In þis maner þou schalt do whanne he is out of þe ioynct forþward: sette stupis in þe folding of his arme,*. [Lat.: in curvatura vbi brachium plicari solebat.] & þan binde a boond þervpon, & lete a man drawe þat boond bakward — —,*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 98: "& fac quod minister trahat stupham seu bindam ad posteriora firmiter et suaviter: et tu manum quam errexeras, plica violenter: vt oppositum tangat pluries humerum: quoniam tunc sine dubio est reducta. Si vero fuerit ad posteriora, fac quod fortis minister teneat adiutorium. et. cet."] & þan lete a strong man holde adiutorium, lest his schuldre go out of þe ioynct. & þan anoynte þin hond wiþ oile of rosis, & lete þe ij. men drawe al at oon tyme, & þan presse yn þe boon into his ioynct wiþ þi .ij. [folio 239a] hondis, & þan hange an heuy peis at his hond. & if þer leeueþ ony greet þing, lete it be til anoþer tyme. & þan anoynte þin hond & presse it in aȝen, & þan þou schalt binde him with boondis & faldellis, & oile of rosis & consolidatiuis, as it is aforseid / But of þis caas þou muste be war: but if his arme be brouȝt into þe ioinct hastili, þere wole engendre in þe place an hoot enpostym, & þan aftirward it wole be ful hard to bringe it into his ioynct aȝen.

¶ Rasceta, þat is þe ioynct of þe hand / as it is forseid in anathamia, is conteyned of manie boonys & of manie recchinge ligaturis,*. [Lat.: multis ossibus composita et ligamentis pluribus tamen laxis coniuncta.] as it was necessarie for þe grete meuyng of þe hond. Þis place wole liȝtly out of þe ioinct, & liȝtli it wole come yn aȝen. ¶ But if a mannes hond be out of þe ioyncte longe, þe place wole enpostym, & þan it wole be hard for to bringe it in aȝen. ¶ In þe firste bigynnyng take his arme wiþ þi lifthond, & sette þe boon into þe ioynct as it is aforeseid, & binde it in al maners as it is aforseid in oþere ioinctis. ¶ Also if a mannes fyngir be out of ioyncte, it is but liȝt for to putte it [folio 239b] in aȝen / In þe same maner þou schalt binde a mannes fyngir as it is aforseid in oþere placis / Ther benPage  326 manie men þat whanne a mannis lyme is out of ioynct, þei wolen sette þe lyme in hoot water, & seien þat it wole þe better come into his ioinct aȝen / But þou schalt wite þis, þat hoot watir in þe firste bigynnyng makiþ þe lyme recche, & febliþ it & drawiþ þerto manye humours / & þerfore þou ne schalt do in þis maner, but þou schalt comforte þe lyme wiþ oile of rosis, & sette him into his ioinct anoon, & defende as miche as þou miȝt, þat þere come noon enpostym þerto / But if it so be, þat þou ne come not at þe firste bigynnyng, & þe place bicome hard, þan make him a fomentacioun wiþ a decoccioun of þingis þat makiþ moist & resolueþ as it is aforseid /

Of the haunche out of his place.*. [Compare Paul. Ægin., Book VI., Sect. 118, l. c., p. 498. Avicenna, Lib. IV., Fen. 5, Tract 1, Cap. 24.]

Al þe coniunccioun of þe haunche is tofore seid in þe chapitre of anathamia. And þis place mai go out of þe ioinct in .iiij. maners: as ynward & outward, forþward & bacward; & sumtyme it comeþ of causis wiþinneforþ, & sumtyme of causis withoutforþ / [folio 240a] Of causis wiþinneforþ: as humours of longe tyme haue falle þerto, as it is aforseid in þe chapitre of dolour of ioinctis / Ther is in þis place a greet box, & conteineþ a greet place, þat beriþ al þe bodi, & it is a place þat takith miche moisture & greet superfluite of humouris, & whanne þer falliþ manie superfluitees to þat place, & þe pacient is not purgid þerof, & traueiliþ, þan humours rotiþ in þat place, & þe ligaturis recchiþ along, & in þis maner vertebrum goiþ out of his ioinct / And þis caas in diuers men haþ diuers causis / ffor summen haueþ a box in her haunche swiþe holowe, & þat wole not fulliȝtliche out of þe ioinct / And summen ne haueþ not so holowe boxis, & þan if þe place be ful of yuele humours, þan þe boon wole liȝtliche out of þe ioincte, & it wole liȝtli into þe ioinct aȝen, & þan it wole liȝtly out aȝen. ¶ Of causis wiþoutforþ, as of wrastyng or of smityng or of sum oþer þing þat makiþ vertebrum goon out of þe ioynct wiþ violence. ¶ This is þe signe whanne it is out of ioyncte ynward: whanne þou myȝt fele þe poynt of þe boon in his flank, & his feet [folio 240b] & his knee turned outward, & þe pacient schal not opene his leg ne his hipe // If it goiþ out of þe ioynct forþward, þan his leg wole wexe miche schorter, & he schal not bringe his hele to grounde, but oonly his toos. ¶ IfPage  327 it be out of þe ioynct bacward, þan his hele wole wexe long, & his toos schorte, & he schal bringe no þing of his foot to grou[n]de, but his hele //

Ther ben manie maners of diuers menys for to bringe boonys into her ioynct aȝen, but among alle I holde þis maner þe beste for þis place: take a long schete þat be not brood, & do bitwixe þe patient leggis, & lete þat oon ende go bifore his brest, & þat oþer bihinde his rig, & make þe .ij. endis fast to a post, & þe patient schal ligge vpon a plain place, & þou schalt binde al his hipe aboue his knee, & þan þe leg softly adounward, & to alle þese boondis make faste a corde, & lete þe moost fastenyng be in þe hipe aboue þe knee, & þan lete oon strong man or ij. drawe þe corde euenlich & harde withoute ony pluching.*. [Lat.: non duetu violenti nec tractu.] & þan þou schalt wiþ þin hondis putte þe boon into his ioyncte. & whanne þe [folio 241a] boon is ynne, þan bidde hem lete go þe corde softli aȝen, & leie hise feet euene togidere. for if hise feet wollen ligge euene togidere, it is a certein signe þat þe boon is in his ioynct. & if hise feet wolen not sitte euene in þe ioynct, it is a signe þat þe boon is not in his ioynct / whanne þe boon is in his ioinct, binde faste his hipe, & lete þe patient ligge stille til he be al restorid / In alle curis of dislocacioun þou hast pleiner teching.*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 99: In omnibus aliis curam consequentibus est in precedentibus bene doctus.]

¶ Dislocacioun of þis place þat comeþ of causis wiþinneforþ, it is ful hard for to bringe it in aȝen. & þouȝ þe boon be brouȝt in aȝen, wiþ a litil cause it wole goon out aȝen. & þerfore þer is no cure þerof, but avoide his bodi, & make him cauterijs as it is aforseid in þe chapitre of cauterijs.

¶ A mannys knee is sumtyme out of ioyncte, & sumtyme þe round boon þat is þervpon goiþ out of his place / Signys whanne a mannes knee is out of ioyncte ben open ynowȝ. & if þe round boon be out of his place, þou miȝte liȝtlich knowe it. ¶ In þis maner þou schalt bringe a mannes knee into his ioynct aȝen / Lete a strong man holde faste his hipe, and [folio 241b] anoþer man his leg. & þou schalt wiþ þin hondis presse faste þe boon into his propre place. & if þe place be enpostymed, first þou muste do awei þe enpostym, & þan bringe þe knee into his place aȝen. ¶ If þe round boon be out of his place, sette þe boon into his place, & þan binde faste wiþ boondis, & þan binde his leg faste vp to his hipe bi an hour, & þanPage  328 vnbinde his leg fro his hipe, & þan binde faste þe round boon þat it ne moue not fro his propre place, & in þat maner lete it sitte, for it wole bicome fast anoon.

¶ If þe ioynct of a mannes foot be out of ioyncte or his toos, þou schalt do þe cure in þe same maner as it is aforseid in þe hond & in þe fyngris.*. [MS. repeats this sentence.] ¶ Þoruȝ þe help of god wiþout which is no þing fulfillid, þe .iiij. tretis is fulfillid. ¶ Now I wole bigynne þe .v. tretis þat schal be clepid þe antidotarie of this book. //

In þe fifþe tretis clepid þe antidotarie of þis book, I þinke to [folio 242a] putte medicyns boþe symple & compound / þat falliþ for cirurgie & beþ necessarie þerfore / But I ne mai not sette alle, for þer is no man þat can telle alle þe noumbre of medicyns but oonli god / Neþeles I wole sette medicyns in þis antidotarie þat I haue longe vsid, & I lernede hem of wise doctouris & of philosophoris, & alle þei ben aproued /

Here bigynneþ þe tretise of repercussiuis //

Repercussiuis bifalliþ for hoot apostymes, & principal whanne it bigynneþ in a noble lyme: as in þe herte, ouþir in þe brayn, ouþir in þe heed, ouþir in þe lyuere, þe splen & þe stomac, reynes, ballokis, & in þe bladdre // It schal alwei be þin entencioun for to putte awei greuous mater fro a noble lyme into anoþer place. ¶ Whanne þou wolt worche wiþ repercussiuis, þou muste take hede to .x. condiciouns þat ben sett in þe iij. tretis in þe general chapitre of enpostyms / ¶ Repercussif is seid in .ij. maners: as large & streit*. [large & streit. See p. 305, note 1.] / large is seid: as eueri medicyne maad of coold herbis for to aquenche hoot [folio 242b] causis. Streit is seid, whanne it putt awei þe mater & is not swiþe coold // Of repercussiuis þere ben manie degrees of cooldnes / Ther ben summe so coold, þat a man mai not fele his lyme, & þan it is clepid stupefactiua*. [Vigon transl. Traheron Interpr.: "Stupefactyve. That, that hathe strengthe to astonie, and take awaye felynge."] / & þis þou schalt vse whanne þer is þing þat greueþ more þan þe mater. ¶ Whanne þou ne dredist not hoot qualite oonli, but þou dredist þe mater, þan þou schalt vse medicyns þat ben coold & drie, þat þei mowe tempere þe complexioun of þe lyme, & wiþ þe vertu of stiptica þei wolen comforte þe lyme,*. [Lat.: et sua stipticitate uirtutem membri confortent.] & þese ben propirli clepid repercussiuis / Whanne þou hast entencioun oonly for to makePage  329 coold, þan it is no force þouȝ þi medicyn be not stiptica / But whanne þou wolt make ony repercussiuis, it is necessarie þat þei be coold & drie. ¶ Medicyns þat ben coold & repercussiuis, summe ben simple & summe ben compound / Of simple medicyns, summe ben of herbis, & summe ben of trees, & summe ben leeues, & summe ben rotis, & summe ben seedis, & summe ben flouris, & summe ben greynes*. [The translator misunderstood the Lat. genera mineralium.] of minerals, & summe ben watris, & summe ben oilis. And summe þerof I wole sette in þese bokis þat ben [folio 243a] greetli in vss toward us / And þere ben medicyns coold & moist þat þou miȝt vse for to atempere þe complexioun of lymes þat ben distemp[er]id in hete & drienes. ¶ Malua, capillus*. [MS. capillis.] veneris, psillium, portulaca, atriplex. Mercurialis,*. [Add. 15,236, fol. 4 b.: "Linochites, mercurialis, idem. G. mercuria, A. smerewourth." Compare Alphita, p. 116: "linozostis g e . mercurie. a e . scandany."] Rapa, cucurbita, Melones, Citruli,*. [Phillips, "Citrull, a sort of Cucumber or Pumpkin of a Citron-Colour."] Semen malue, seminis iiijor. frigidorum, Semper viua, lactuca ortulana.*. [Halle, Table, p. 57: "Lactuca satiua, or Hortensis, þat is gardin letuce."] ¶ Iusquiamus, Mandragora, Papauere, argentum viuum, f. & h. in iiij.*. [frigidum et humidum in quarto gradu.] ¶ Oilis coold & moist: Oleum violacium, Oleum nenupharinum,*. [nenupharinum, Arab. Pers. nītufar, nīnūfar (Littré). NymphÆa alba. Add. 15,236, fol. 5 b.: "Nenufar .i. flos vngule, caballine aquatice A. waterlilye." Compare Alphita, p. 124; Barth. Sinon., p. 31.] Oleum de lilijs albis, Oleum mirtinum. Istis*. [MS. istius.] medicinis potest vti quum intendis infrigidare sine expulcione ut dictum est // þese medicyns þou miȝtist vse whanne þou entendist for to make coold wiþouten expulcioun of þe mater as it is forseid. ¶ Medicyns þat ben symple coold & drie, þat ben clepid verry repercussiuis ben þese / Solatrum, crassula maior & minor,*. [Add. 15,236, lf. 11: "Crassula maior G. crassegeline vel orpine. Crassula minor .G. terce de soris .A. stoncrop."] virga pastoris / vmbilicus veneris, cicorea, Endiua, Gramen, Epatica,*. [Add. 15,236. Cf. 3 b.: Epatica .G. coper .A. liuerwort." Ibid. lf. 11: "Epatica .G. epatik vel coper .A. liurewort."] Ipoquistidos, veruene, Semper viua, Corigiola,*. [Add. 15,236, lf. 3 b.: Corigiola. Centinodia. lingua passerina. G. Coriogiole." Halle, Table, p. 29: "Corrigiola. So called of the Apothe-caries, and of the Frenche men Corrigiole, is oure common Knottgrasse, called in Greke polygonon, in Latine Seminalis and Polygonum mas."] Sanguinaria, Edera, Acetosa, Scariola, plantago maior & minor, Nenuphar. De granisPage  330 seminibus, fructibus. Ordeum, Silligo*. [Silligo, a kind of very white wheat.]; auena. [folio 243b] Spica,*. [MS. Spata, Spleta. Lat.: Add. 26,106, fol. 109, "spaca"; ed. 1498, fol, 207, "spica." The preceding words show that spica is the correct reading.] Lollium, ffabe, Mirtilli, Berberis, Sumac, Pira, Poma, Sorbe, mespila, Castanea, Glandes, Galle, Maiorana, Mora matura, vua acerba, Capreoli, vitis.*. [Capreoli vitis, the tendrils of vine.] ¶ De floribus folijs & corticibus / Balaustie cortices, Cortices mali granata, Cortices arborum stipticorum*. [MS. stipticoris.]; Rosa, Nenufar, fflos spine, ffolia pirorum, pomorum, sorborum, rubij, & spine. ¶ ffolia / Salicis, Populi, Tremuli, Papiri, Canne.*. [MS. panne.] ¶ De linis. omnes sandali. ¶ De mineralibus & lutis / Saphirus, Bolus armenicus, Marmor, Alabaustrum,*. [med. Lat. alabaustrum.] Cathinia, Litargirum, munda*. [Lat.: murga uel merda.] ferri, Ematistes, Corallus, antimonium. ¶ De lutis. Terra sigillata, Argilla, lutum*. [MS. litum.] omne, cimolea,*. [cimolea, a kind of earth, so called after Cimolus, an island in the Cretan sea, where it is found.] Camfora, Cerusa. De gummis. Gumma pruni,*. [MS. Summa pruna.] cerase, amigdale, Acacia, opium. De olijs. Oleum rosarum, & eueri oile þat is maad of coold þingis & drie, of flouris, leeues, & ryndis þerof / Also watir of rosis, & water þat is maad of alle þingis þat ben coold & drie, and distillid*. [Lat.: omnis aqua ex rebus siccis et frigidis distillata.] / If þou be sent after into a cuntre, þere ben noon apotecarijs, þan if þou canst make þese medicyns þat ben forseid & medicyns þat schulen be seid heraftir, þan þou miȝt fulfille þi purpos*. [Lat.: de quo tuum poteris propositum adimplere.] & do þi cure. Þou miȝt make [folio 244a] of þese þingis: oynementis, epithima, cathaplasmata, emplastra, enbrocaciouns, pultes, encatismata. Of þese names manie men takith oon for anoþer, & þerfore I wole telle þe diuersite of alle. ¶ vnguentum is maad of .iiij. [dram] of oile & [dram][one half]. of wex in winter, & [dram] j. in somer, & [dram] j. of þingis þat þin oynement schal serue þerfore.*. [et .i. pulueris rerum puluerizandarum, que ponuntur in unguento.] and oynementis schulen be algatis colid. ¶ Epithima is þis, whanne þingis ben sotilli poudrid & temperid wiþ water of roses, ouþer wiþ vinegre, ouþer iuys of ony herbe, so þat it be temperid in þe þiknes of hony & leid vpon þe place, & hilid wiþ lynnen clooþ, ouþer wiþ leþer, þis is clepid epithimum. ¶ Cataplasma is, whanne herbis ben grounde & soden ouþer raw, & al þe substaunce of þe herbe þerwiþ & medlid wiþ mele & grese, & it ne schal not be hard ne neische, but in þe meene, & it schal be leidPage  331 flasch hoot vpon þe lyme. ¶ Emplastrum is seide, whanne manie diuers þingis, as poudris and gummis & fatnessis, wex, talow, & oile ben soden togidere til þei bicome hard, & maad in gobetis & kept. & þan it schal be maad abrood vpon leþir, & leid vpon þe place þat þou wolt [folio 244b] haue it: as diaculon, apostolicon,*. [See p. 125, note 3.] oxirocroceum,*. [oxirocroceum. Lat. oxiracroceum. Matth. Sylv.: "oxirocroceum, i. emplastrum compositum ex aceto et croco."] & oþere manie. ¶ Pultes*. [pultes, Lat. plur. of puls, tis. This plur. form used as sing.: Add. 10,440, fol. 23: "be þer soþen a þinne pultes or gruel of barly." Compare the plur. form pultesses, Gasc. Steel Glas 997 (Skeat, Et. Dict.). For poultice, see Ital. pultaceo.] & cathaplasma ben al oon, but propirli pultes ben clepid, whanne þer is mele, watir, & oile wiþouten herbis, & it schal be clepid cataplasma, whanne herbis ben medlid þerwiþ. ¶ Embroca[tio] is seid, whanne a mannes lyme is putt in hoot watir, wiþouten ony decoccioun of herbis þeron, & þat hoot watir schal be cast vpon þe lyme from an hiȝ, & so it schal be do longe, & þis is clepid embrocare.*. [embroche, Traheron Vigo Interpret.: "Embroche commeth of embrocho, whyche signifyeth to raine. And it is an embrocation, when we drop downe liquour from a hyer place, vpon some parte of the bodye, and vpon the head." See p. 339, note 1.] ¶ Encatisma is seid in .ij. maners: sumtyme it is seid for a clisterie, & sumtyme for a particuler [baþ],6 anoon to þe nauele & non aboue þe nauel /

¶ Medicyns þat ben compound togidere: Whanne þou entendist for to make a lyme coold, & not putte awei þe mater, þou schalt take iuys of herbis þat ben coold þre partis, olei rosis oon part, of vinegre half a part, & medle hem togidere. If þat þou wolt þat it worche more strongely, þan do þerto argillam rubeam / til it be as þicke as it were epithima, & leie it to þe place. & herof þou must take kepe, þou schalt vse þingis þat ben able for a mannes complexioun / In þis maner if þou leist coold þingis to a place, *. [Lat.: dicitur enim clistere, aliquando dicitur particularis balneatio.] [folio 245a] & ne hast not þi purpos þerof, þan þou schalt leeue þe coold medicyns, & make medicyns þat ben competent to þe same complexioun / for sum medicyne is for peter þat is not good for poul, for þe diuersite of complexioun. & al þis teching þou miȝt fynde generalich in þe tretis of enpostyms. / ffor if peter be of complexioun hoot & moist, & poulis complexioun be coold & drie, oon repercussioun wole not serue hem boþe in oon point. & for þis cause þou muste diuerse þi medicyns; for þis is al dai preued bi experiment as þou miȝt se ofte tyme, þat crassula maior is a good repercussif for coold mater,Page  332 & vmbilicus veneris is coold in þe same degre, & ȝitt it is not so good repercussif for þe same mater /

This is a good medicyn repercussif þere þat þer is miche discracia hoot & litil mater / ℞, sandali albi, spodij, acacie, ana .ȝ. ij, camphore .ȝ. j., opij .ȝ. [one half], distempere hem wiþ þe iuys of a coold herbe, & oile of violet, & a litil vinegre / Item anoþer. ℞, ossa sicca & combusta, cerusam,*. [MS. ceresaris. Add. 15,236, lf. 3: "Cerusa. flos plumbi id. G. blonc plome A. wyt lede."] amidum, ana .ȝ. ij., tempere hem as it is forseid / Item anoþer þat is comoun þat is recordid in manie placis. ℞, boli armenici .[ounce] j., olei ros. [ounce] iij., aceti .[ounce] j., þat is þat [folio 245b] defensif þat is aforeseid in manie placis for to kepe a lyme fro corrupcion. ¶ Also enplastris & epithima, þat ben forseid in doloribus iuncturarum of hoot cause ben good. Þerfore ioyne hem wiþ þese. ¶ Herof þou muste be war, þat whanne þou leist repercussiuis to a place, þere þat þer is miche mater, & if þe place bicome ledi, þan þou schalt contynue nomore wiþ pure coold þingis; but do þerto iuys of coriandre grene & barli mele, for þis makiþ coold & resolueþ. ¶ If þer be no ledi colour but þe mater is greet, & nyle not be doon awei wiþ repercussiuis, whanne þe flux of humours is acesid, þan biginne for to medle þerwiþ resolutiuis; ȝitt þou schalt contynue wiþ repercussiuis þere þat þer is greet akynge / an ensaumple hereof / If þe akinge be in a mannes knee, þan þou schalt first leie medicyns vpon þe knee, & þan aftirward þou schalt not leie it riȝt vpon his knee, but a litil aboue his knee, þat þe ende of þe medicyn mowe touche þe firste parti of þe akynge.

¶ Coold mater as it is aforseid, ne schal not be putt awei wiþ repercussiuis, but wiþ medicyns þat ben hoot and [folio 246a] drie in tempere, þat þei mowe wiþ her heete chaunge þe coold complexioun, & wiþ her dreines comforte þe vertu of þe lyme, & defende þat þer come no more mater to þe lyme, & if þe mater be litil, putte it awei, & if þou ne wolt not putte it awei, defende þe place þat þer falle nomore mater þerto*. [Lat.: "materia ne ad membrum veniat prohibetur et etiam plerumque repellitur si sit pauca, sed etsi non omnino repellitur tamen locum ita deffendit, quod tanta non potest in ipso materia congregari."] / And alle þese ben hote wiþ a maner bittirnes: as absinthium, squinantum, abrotanum, polium, sticados, centaurea maior & minor,*. [Add. 15,236, lf. 3: "Centaurea. fol terre idem .G. centore .A. cristes laddir." ? In Britten and Holland's English Plant-names Centaury is at p. 96. E. P. N., p. 37: "eorð-gealle." These names refer to Centaurea minor, see Alphita, p. 37. Centaurea maior = narca vel gentiana. Ibid.] aristologia longa & rotunda, mauribium,*. [mauribium, Corp. Gl. M. 43: "Marubium. biowryt vel hune." Wr. Wü. 136, 12 (XII. cent.), "harhune." Add. 15,236, lf. 5: Marubium prassium idem. G. marole. A. horehune. vel horehound."]Page  333 mirta, mastix, lupini, oleum de masticis, & de absinthio / Herof þou shalt take kepe: manie men seien, & it wole liȝtly be leeued of lewid men, & þat is yuel þing for to leie a repercussif to ony mater for to driue it awei, but it is bettir to drawe out þe mater wiþ enplastris, & if þer comeþ out þerof miche quitture, þei seien þat a mannes bodi is wel purgid þerwiþ, & schal be longe þe holer þerfore / And if þe mater be doon awei wiþ repercussiuis & þe enpostym be defendid, þan if þe same man be sijk aftirward, þan men wolen seie þat it was defaute in þe leche, for if þe enpostym hadde be maad maturatif [folio 246b] & þe quitture drawe out, þan þe man hadde be hool, & alle þese opiniouns ben false / And þou schalt wite þis certeynli: if þou takist kepe of þe .x. consideraciouns þat ben forseid in enpostyms, & principali whanne his body is maad clene wiþ laxatiuis þat ben competent þerfore / It is bettir to putte awei þe mater wiþ comfortyng of þe lyme, þan lete þe mater conferme / for if þou kepist wel þe condiciouns þat ben aforseid, the mater mai be putt awei, & þe man schal not be peirid //

Of þe maner of resolutiuis.

Whanne oon strong, or*. [MS. of.] manye feble of .x. causis lettiþ repercussiuis, ouþir whanne þou hast a repercussif, & þou ne miȝt not putte awei þe mater, þan þou muste leie þerto resolutiuis. & as it is aforseid of repercussiuis, in þe same maner I seie of resolutiuis: whanne a man haþ akynge ouþir greet swellynge, þou schalt leie þerto no resolutiuis, or þou haue maad him a competent purgacioun. ¶ fforwhi, as it is aforseid, enpostym ouþer greet akynge comeþ of causis wiþinneforþ, þan it mote [folio 247a] nedis come of repleccioun of þe bodi. & þan if þou leist þerto resolutiuis, þat wolde drawe to þe place more mater / for þer is no resolutif, þat ne it is hoot / & eueri þing þat is hoot, is attractif / What schal we do in þis caas? ¶ ffirst þou schalt lete him blood, ouþir make him a medicyn laxatif, ouþir boþe two, as þou seest þat it wole spede / And þan þou schalt bigynne for to resolue wiþ medicyns resolutiuis þat been hoot & sotil*. [Some passages are omitted, in which Lanfranc quotes from his "Chirurgia parva."] // This is þe difference bitwixe resolutiuis & maturatiuis: ¶ Resolutiuis haueþ tempere hete wiþ sotilnes & openynge.*. [Lat. cum subtilitate aperitiua.]Page  334 ¶ Maturatiuis haueþ tempere hete wiþ viscosite / Þerfore it falliþ ofte tyme, þat whanne þou leist resolutiuis vpon miche mater & greet, it makiþ þe mater sotil & hoot, & þan þe kindely hete wiþinne is comfortid wiþ þe hete wiþoutforþ, & it bifalliþ ofte tyme, þat medicyns resolutiuis in þis caas makiþ þe mater maturatif / Also if þou leist medicyn maturatif vpon litil mater & sotil it hetiþ þe mater, & þe natural hete wiþinne is comfortid þerwiþ, & so þe heete multiplieþ, & in þis maner þe heete [folio 247b] mai be resolued. ¶ The maner of resoluing: Make a decoccioun of herbis of whiche þow wolt make þi medicyn, & kepe þe watir þat þe herbis ben soden yn, & wiþ þe same watir þou schalt waische þe lyme, til it bicome reed, & þan leie þervpon þe medicyn resolutif. ¶ Herof þou muste be war, þat ofte tyme a medycyn resolutif resolueþ þe sotil mater, & þat þat is greet, bicomeþ hard, & þan þe more þat þou art aboute to resolue, þe more it wole bicome hard / þerfore þou muste be bisi in þis caas & leie þerto mollificatiuis, & þan þou schalt go to resolutiuis, & in þis maner þou schalt worche it til it be al resolued. ¶ Of medicyns resolutiuis, summe ben simple: as, camomilla, Mellilotum, paritaria, malua siluestris & alia,*. [The Prints read "siue alba." Add. 26,106, siue alba corrected to alia. The correct reading is either alta or altea. Add. 15,236, lf. 5: "Malua viscus. bismalua. Altea idem. G. Wymauve A. mersmauve." Alphita, p. 110: "Malva silvestris, malva viscus, altea ... alta malva idem."] volibilis,*. [MS. volibilis. Alphita, p. 192: "Volubilis, corrigiola idem, arbores parvas et herbas ligat. gall. [corrigi]ole, angl. berebinde."] fumus terre, caulis, anetum, vrtica, enula, borago, sambucus, kebulus, valeriana, & alle herbis þat ben hoot in tempere,*. [Lat. temperate calida.] wiþ sotilnes. ¶ De seminibus / Semina caulium, aneti, vrtice, malue. Semina diuretica: cantabrum,*. [cantabrum, bran. Add. 15,236, lf. 3: "Cantabrum .i. grossum furfur tritici vel frumenti .G. la grose brene."] omne,*. [Lat.: omne amilum de ordeo.] farina ordei, orobi, & fabe / Pinguede porci & anseri, anatis, galline, aquile. ¶ De gummis / [folio 248a] Mastix, olibanum, opoponac, asa fetida, mirra, serapinum, armonicum, bdellium, galbanum, & alle maner sotil gummis: lapdanum, ysopus humida, terbentina, cera, swetynge of bestis, & buttir. ¶ Medicyns resolutif & compound of þe forseid, simple þou schalt fynde in þe nexte chapitre here tofore / Þis is an oile resoluinge / & makiþ hoot & aceessiþ akynge / ℞, florum camomille recencium, fenigreci seminis ana .[ounce] ij., leie hem in xx .[ounce] j. of oile of oliue in a glasen vessel, & lete it stonde to þe sunne .xl. daies in somer, & þan kepe it forPage  335 þin vss. If þou haddist nede herof & if it*. [if it, above line.] were in winter, þan take þe flouris of camomille dried & fenigrec & oile, as it is aforseid, & sette þis glasen vessel in a caudroun ful of watir, & make fier vndir, & loke þat þe water ne boile not, & so it schal stonde al a dai in hoot water / & whanne it is coold cole it, & kepe þe oile for þin vss / And in þis maner þou miȝt make oile of rosis, if þou hast nede, & oile of absinthium, & of rue, & of oþer mo þat þou hast nede of // Anoþer oile þat is resolutif / ℞, olei antiqui .lī. j., seminis aneti nouiter in vmbra siccati .[ounce] j., putte him in a viol fourti daies to þe sunne, ouþer sette it in hoot water [folio 248b] as it is aforseid. ¶ Anoþer oile þat is resoluyng and makiþ hoot & accessiþ akynge, & is good for to achaufe a mannys reynes & a wommans maris, & it is clepid olium de lilio compositum / ℞, olij antiqui .[ounce]. xx., florum liliorum alborum, & kutte awei þerof al þat is ȝelowe, cassilaginis,*. [Add. 15,236, lf. 3: "Cassilago, Iusquiamus idem G. geliner A. henebel. vel heneban." The Lat. has Cassio lignea, see Alphita, p. 35.] costi, masticis, carpobalsami ana .[ounce] i.,*. [carpobalsamum, "balsames bloed." Wr. Wü., 199, 41 (X cent.).] cinamoni ana .[ounce][one half]., putte alle þese in a glasen vessel, & lete hem stonde in þe schadowe al a moneþe, & þan do awey þe lilie flouris of þe oile, & kepe þe oile for þin vss. ¶ Anoþer oile þat is clepid olium mastice, & is swiþe resolutif, & is good for febilnes of þe stomac, & it is good for akynge of a mannes stomac / ℞, olium oliuarum mediocriter maturarum .lī. ij., masticis .[ounce]. vj., boile hem togidere in a double vessel, til þe mastix & þe oile be dissolued, & kepe it for þin vss. ¶ This þou muste knowe, þat whanne þou wolt make þat, þat schal be repercussif & coold & comfortyng for þe lyme, þan þou schalt chese oile þat is not to ripe, as for to make olium rosis, olium mirtinum, & oþere mo. If þou wolt make oile þat schal be resoluyng, ouþer persyng, þan þou schalt chese oile þat is ripe / And in þis maner þou schalt [folio 249a] knowe, wheþer þe oile be ripe or no. Oile þat is not ripe, wole be grene, & þat is ripe wole be whit, & þat þat is in þe meene, wole be meene colour bitwixe þe two. ¶ Oynementis þat ben resolutif ben maad in þis maner: of iiij .[ounce] of*. [MS. of twice.] oile of camomille ouþer of sum oþer oile & [ounce] j. of wex in somer, & [ounce][one half]. in winter, & [ounce] j. of poudre of seedis of aneti, caulium, flouris of camomille. ¶ Ysopus humida is a good oynement resolutif, & is maad in þis maner: / Take of þe smal wolle þat is bitwixe þe schepis leggis, & take þerof a good quantite, & take as miche water,Page  336 & lete þe wolle ligge in þe watir adai & anyȝt, & þan boile hem a litil wiþ lent fier, & þan cole hem, & whanne þei ben coold, wrynge hem þoruȝ a clooþ, & do þe water þerof into a leden vessel, & boile it wiþ lent fier, & algate meeue it wiþ a spature til it bicome þicke as it were an oynement. ¶ Of enplastris þe beste þat is diaculon Rasis þat resolueþ scrophulas & glandulas, & makiþ carbunculis maturatif & is swiþe comoun / ℞, olij antiqui de oliuis maturis vncias quinque, litargiri .[ounce] j., & þou schalt poudre þe litarge in a morter & do þerto [folio 249b] þin oile & medle hem togidere, & þan do hem in a vessel & boile hem togidere, & meeue hem algatis wiþ a spature, & do þerto de muscillagine seminis lini, fenigreci, ana .[ounce] ij, & muscillaginnem malue visci .[ounce] j, & þan boile hem til þei bicome þicke, & make þerof gobetis & kepe hem to þin vss, & if þou wolt worche þerwiþ, take þerof as miche as þou wolt, & plane it vpon leþer or vpon lynnen clooþ, & leie vpon þe place. ¶ Diaculon Iohannis Mesue is better þan þis / & worchiþ more strongli. Þat þou schalt finde in paruo compendio. ¶ Also anoþer plastre þat is resolutif / ℞, maluarum siluestrum, paritarie, flouris of camomille, Melliloti ana @. j., boile hem in watir til þei be wel soden, & þan stampe hem, & take of þe same watir .iij. partis, & of sum oile þat is resolutif oon parti, seminis caulium, aneti partem [one half]., furfuris, farine ordei, ana partem j., boile hem alle togidere & make þerof as it were pultes, & þan do þerto of þe herbis þat ben soden as miche as of al þe remenaunt, & leie it vpon þe place þat þou wolt, sumdel hoot as it is aforseid, & seke medicins resolutiuis [folio 250a] þat ben in paruo compendio, & do it to, & þan þou miȝt haue medicyns resolutiuis ynowe /

Of þe tretis of þe foure maturatiuis.

Whanne þou hast resolued mani daies ouþer leid þerto repercussiuis, & ne is nouȝt worth, saue þe mater wole bicome maturatif, þan if his bodi be avoidid as it is aforseid, þan [begynne]*. [Lat.: "Quando pluribus resoluisti diebus aut forte repercussisti, nec valet, sed materia desiderat maturari, tunc premissis evacuationibus necessariis vel possibilibus, incipe maturare."] for to leie þerto maturatiuis / Eueri medicyn þat is maturatif is hoot in tempere wiþ a maner viscosite þat wole not suffre þe vapour to goon out, but it holdiþ him wiþinne til it be maturid; & ben þese: Malua viscus, branca vrcina, radix brionie, radix lappaciiPage  337 acuti,*. [MS. lappa acuta.] baucie*. [baucia. Alphita, p. 21: "pastinaca, angl. widleskirwit."] Radix, farine frumenti, semen lini, fenigreci, ficus sicce, & alle þat ben forseid in þe nexte chapitre tofore, if þat þei beþ medlid herwiþ. ¶ This is a good maturatif compound of manie þingis þat makiþ hoot mater maturatif. ℞, foliorum malue nigre, id est comoun malue pinguis seu ortolane, brance vrcine, radix brioni, radicis malue visci ana. [handful] .j., seþe hem alle in watir & stampe hem, & þan do þerto malua visci, & þan take of þe same watir a pound [folio 250b] & freisch grese .[ounce] ij., & sotil mele of whete .[ounce] iij., & sotil mele of lynseed & of fenigrec ana .[ounce] j. & [one half]., medle hem togidere & boile hem perfiȝtli, & make þerof cataplasma, & þan do þerto of þe foreseid herbis & rootis wel grounde, & medle hem togidere, & loke þat þei be not to þicke / for it schal be algate þin entencioun, þat cataplasma, þat schal be resolutif or maturatif or mundificatif, ne schal not be hard; for if it be hard, it wole make akynge to þe lyme, & þan it wole anoie more þan profite. ¶ Item, if þou dredist woodnes of mater, þan þou ne schalt do þerto no fenigrec; for it is swiþe hoot, & þerwiþ þe mater wole be as it were a feuere.*. [Lat.: et cito per illum inflammatur materia.] & þerfore I counseile þee þat þou do no fenigrec þerto / If þou dredist, þat þe mater is swiþe hoot / if þer be wiþ þat mater ony gretnes or ony coold mater, þan make of þe forseid cataplasma .ij. partis, fermenti de frumento*. [MS. fermento.] partem j., & medle hem togidere. & Isaac seiþ: þat þis is good for mater þat is medlid wiþ hoot cause & coold cause togidere. ¶ Also a good maturatif / Take hony & butter ana, & medle hem with mele til þei be as þicke as it were pultes. [folio 251a] ¶ Item embrocaciouns in resoluciouns & maturacioun, & is good for akynge of woundis of concussioun in þe heed / concussioun is as miche to seie as smiten wiþ a staf / ℞, olij [ounce] ij., cere albe [ounce] j., cimini, rute, arthemesie ana. [ounce][one half]., absinthi, paritarie, brance vrcine, ana [ounce] ij., grinde wel þe herbis & þe grese togidere in a morter, & þan do þerto poudre of comyn, & oile, & medle hem wel togidere. ¶ Also pultes þat wole make an enpostym maturatif: ℞, foliorum malue, bismalue, paritorie, volubilis maioris, iusquiami ana [ounce] ij., seþe hem in a litil watir, & þan presse hem & staumpe hem wel, & þan medle hem wiþ [ounce] iij of þe same watir þat þei weren soden ynne, & medle þerwiþ [ounce] j. of grese, þat it be cold, & barli mele þat suffisiþ / In þis maner þou schalt make a cooldPage  338 mater maturatif / ℞, cepe unum*. [MS. vinum. Add. 26,106, fol. 103 b.: "cepe unum album."] album, item de capitibus allij, & sette hem vndir askis, & distempere hem wiþ þe .iij. part of buttir, & do þerto mele of fenigrek, & of lynseed, & make þerof an enplastre. & do þerto .ij. ȝelkis of eiren soden hard, & [ounce] j. off malui visci preparati, & [ounce] ij. of fermenti. ¶ Also a maturatif of greet mater & coold & hard. ℞, bdellij, serapini ana [ounce] j. & [one half], & dissolue hem in vinegre / [folio 251b] & stampe hem wel, & do þerto .[ounce] j. of terbentyne, & dissolue hem to þe fier / But loke þat it ne boile not, & do þerto oile of lilie .[ounce] ij., & make it þicke wiþ sutil mele of lupinis, & of fenigrec / Item [ounce][one half]. of olibani, & fenigrec maad to poudre sotili poudrid, & medle hem wiþ .lī. [one half] of hony; þis wole be a good maturatif for coold causis. ¶ Also vnguentum tetrafarmacum,*. [MS. cetrafaroȝatum.] & it is clepid of Auicenne basilicon,*. [Phillips: "Basilicon, a Royal Ointment or Plaister, otherwise called Tetrapharmacon, because it is made up of four Ingredients, viz., Pitch, Rosin, Wax, and Oil."] & þus manie men preisiþ þis medicyn. Galen, Auicen, Serapion, Iohannes Mesue, & Haly þe abbot; & it makiþ enpostyms maturatif, & it is good for woundis, & for vlcera þat ben bicome hard / ℞, cere, resine, picis, cepi vaccini,*. [Lat.: sepi vaccini.] ana, & olij quod suffisiþ / Summen in stide of cepum, þei putten buttir, & summen in winter þei doon þerto oon parti of bdellium, & summen taken oonli ceram, picem, & rasinam ana, & olium; & þis is basilicon minus. ¶ Also a good maturatif for antracem / & is good for to make a wickid enpostym maturatif, as I haue aforseid in his place / ℞, ficus siccas bene pingues, numero .vj., vue passe*. [vue passe, dried grapes, i. e. raisins.] de corinthio .[ounce] j., duas spicas allij mundatas, piperis grana .xij., salis nitri .ȝ .ij., stampe alle þese & do þerto oold oile [ounce] ij., aceti [folio 252a] [ounce] j., fermenti acerimi as miche as is þe half of alle togidere. ¶ Also a maturatif for antracem / but if he be swiþe hard & malicious, an enplastre maad of hony is good þerfore & of oile of violet. ¶ Also for to make antracem & carbunculum maturatif / ℞, fermenti acris, lactis mulieris, mellis, vitellorum ouorum ana, medle hem togidere. If þou wolt worche more strongeli, do þerto galbanum dissolued as myche as þe haluendel of oon. & if þou wolt make it more strong, for to make it maturatif, & for to make it breke, þan do þerto culueris doung & of hennis ana, as miche as wole be .iiij. part of oon, as it is aforseid / baurac,Page  339 vj. part of oon & [one half].; þese .iij. maturatiuis suffisiþ þee / ¶ Also þis is a rule þat is ful profitable for þee / whanne þou wolt leie ony maturatif to a place: first þou schalt make embrocam*. [Lat.: prius locum embrocas. Matth. Sylv.: "Embroca id est infusio quam nos dicimus fomentum & embrocatio id est infusio sed quando ab alto infunditur." See p. 331, note 5.] to þe lyme wiþ a decoccioun of herbis maturatiuis, soden in watir, & wiþ þat hoot watir þou schalt baþe þe lyme til þe lyme bicome reed, & þan leie þeron a plastre of maturatiuis þat ben forseid oon þerof, for þou hast sufficiently ynowe, & loke þat þe enplastre be not to hard, [folio 252b] & as hoot as he mai suffre it þou schalt leie it þerto / ¶ Thou hast herd sufficientli of maturatiuis, ynow it is nede to speke of mundificatiuis. For whanne an hard matir is maad maturatif, it is nede for to leie þerto mundificatiuis as it is forseid in þe worchinge of enpostyms /

¶ Of þe tretis of mundificatiuis /

Mundificatum is as miche to seie as clensyng, & doiþ awei hore. & eueri þing þat doiþ awei hore in woundis & superfluite, may be seid a mundificatif / A mundificatif may be seid in .ij. maners / As a medicyn þat is taken bi þe mouþ, ouþer þat is putt in bineþe wiþ a clisterie, ouþer wiþ a pessarie*. [Traheron, Vigo. Interpret.: "Pessarie. Pessus is woll tossed, and made rounde after the fassyon of a fynger wherewith medicines are receyued and conueyed into the matrice."] for to make clene a mannes lymes wiþinne. & of þis kinde ben sirupis maad of seedis þat makiþ clene a mannes lymes, & weies of þe vrine / And þer ben summe medicyns þat makiþ clene a mannes blood as cassia fistula, manna,*. [MS. manci.] tamarindi; & al medicyns laxatiuis mowen be clepid mundificatiuis, & herof is not entencioun in þis caas / ¶ Anoþir. I wole speke of medicyns mundificatif in cirurgie.*. [Lat.: Alio modo loquimur de medicina mundificatiua in cyrurgia.] & þat is propirli seid a medicyn, þat doiþ awei greet superfluite ouþer gret greuance [folio 253a] of quitture, ouþer remeueþ*. [MS. remeued.] awei harde crustis in woundis, ouþir in vlceribus, & makiþ clene woundis & vlcera of þat superfluite / ffor as it is seid in anoþer place: In eueri wounde þat is holow, þat is as miche to seie as whanne it haþ lost substaunce of fleisch þeron, þan bi skille*. [Lat. necessario.] þer schulde be engendrid þeron .ij. superfluites, þat oon schal be greet, & þat oþer schal be sotil. & þese wollen lette þe souding of a wounde, & þei wolenPage  340 lette þat þe fleisch mai not wexe. ¶ Þan medicyn mundificatif remeueþ greet superfluite. Of driynge medicyns, we wolen speke in þe chapitre next / This maner medicyn schal go bifore regeneracioun & consolidacioun, of whiche we wolliþ speke herafter; þouȝ aggregatiua or conglutinatiua come sumtyme for to soude wiþouten þat, þat þis medicyns ne goiþ not tofore, as whanne woundis ben sewid & ben maad hool wiþouten regeneracioun of quitture. Þis medicyn makiþ clene, & drieþ sumwhat, as water & hony whanne vlcera virulenta beþ waischen þerwiþ, ouþir woundis in which agendriþ miche quitture; & sumtyme it is more strong, as whanne þer beþ medlid þerwiþ poudris corosiuis þat han litil [folio 253b] vertu of corosiuis, & helpiþ for to make clene, & whanne corosiuis ben seid for to take awey yuel fleisch þat ne mai not be taken awei with medicyns /

Therfore I wole sette medicyns bi rule, & first I wole speke of medicyns þat ben simple / ffor as me seiþ .x. siþis rehersid liketh a man.*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 104: "et quum medicine simplices raro ponuntur ad mundificandum, ideo ponam medicamina composita per ordinem, denumerando medicinas simplices, non curando, quoniam decies repetita placebunt."] ¶ Thou schalt wite þis þat woundis þat ben freisch, þer it is no nede for to engendre quitture whanne þer is noon concussioun, neiþer of nerues, ne of boon, ne prickynge, ne þer is noon akynge þerwiþ / þan it is no nede for to leie þerto mundificatiuis, but oonli consolidatiuis / But whanne a wou[n]de is chaungid wiþ þe eir or enpostymed, or greet akynge, þan þou muste leie þerto maturatiuis; & whanne þe akynge & þe oþere accidentis ben awei, þan þou schalt bigynne for to leie þerto mundificatiuis as it is aforseid in his chapitre / This is a coold mundificatif for to make clene woundis þat ben freisch in which is good quitture. ℞, mellis rosati colati .[ounce]. iij., farine subtillissime ordei .[ounce] j., & do þerto a litil water, & seþe hem softli þat þei ne brenne not, & algate þou schalt [folio 254a] meue it wiþ a spature, & þan make it abrood vpon a clooþ, & leie it vpon þe wounde / This makiþ clene & comfortiþ / If it so be þat a wounde be in nerues placis, þan it is good for to do þerto a litil terbentyn waischen, whanne it is doon adoun fro þe fier / for terbentyn schal not boile, whanne itt schal be putt into enplastris, for it wole lese his worching in þe boilyng. ¶ Anoþir mundificatif þat makiþ clene duram matrem whanne a man is hurt in þe heed, & whanne dura mater is bicome blac / ℞, mellis rosati colati [ounce] j., olij [ounce][one half]., medle hem togidere. ¶ Anoþer mundificatifPage  341 þat makiþ woundis maturatif þat ben to-swolle & ben not to brennyng hoot, but sumwhat toward cooldnes / ℞, mellis rosati colati .lī. [one half]., farine fenigreci .[ounce] ij., farine ordei .[ounce] j. ¶ Anoþer mundificatif for vlcera þat beþ newe in enpostyms / Take ȝelkis of eiren rawe, & medle þerwiþ whete mele as miche as wole suffise; þis wole make clene & do awei þe akynge, & make þe place coold / ¶ Also anoþer mundificatif þat wole make maturatif þerwiþ, & is good whanne a man wole [folio 254b] kutte an enpostym tofore his tyme. & it is a propre medicyn for to make clene antrasem & carbunculo & alle maner pustulis þat ben venymous aftir þe tyme þat þei ben opened, & it is good for to make clene, vlcera þat ben oold / ℞ mellis albi boni .lī. [one half]., farine subtilissime tritici .[ounce] iij, medle hem togidere in a panne. & whanne þei ben wel medlid, þan do þerto iuys of apium .[ounce] vij., & þan medle hem wel togidere vpon lent fier, & boile hem til þei bicome as it were pultes. & þan do hem adoun of þe fier & stire hem wel, & kepe hem for þin vss / If it so be þat þou dredist of a cancre or of a festre in vlceribus þat ben oold, & if þou wolt make a mundificatif þerfore, þan in þe stide of apium do absinthium, & it wole be good. ¶ Anoþer mundificatif in vlceribus þat ben rotid, & whanne þer engendriþ þervpon greet rotyng / ℞, mellis lī .j., farine siliginis .[ounce] iiij., farine fenigreci, orobi, lupinorum, mirre, ana [ounce] j., succi absinthij lī .j., medle hem alle togidere, & poudre þingis þat schulen be poudrid, & boile hem sotilli til þei be perfiȝtli boilid; & whanne þou doist hem adoun of þe fier, þan do þerto of terbentyn .[ounce] iiij., [folio 255a] & medle hem wel togidere / Alle þese mundificatiuis schulen be maad abrood vpon a clooþ of lynnen, & leid vpon vlcus for to make it clene aftir þe tyme þat þei beþ waische, as it is aforseid in þe chapitre de vlceribus / ¶ A poudre þat is mundificatif of crustis & greet fleisch þat is engendrid in oold vlceribus, & wiþoute greet violence of fretyng / ℞, succi affodillorum .[ounce] vj., calcis viue .[ounce] ij., auripigmenti .[ounce] j., medle hem togidere, & sette hem in þe sunne in þe moneþe of august, & on nyȝtis do it out of þe eir, & in þis maner þou schalt do til it be drie, & make herof gobetis, & þan drie hem in þe schadowe. & þou schalt kepe hem in a vessel of tree in a place þat be not to drie, ne to moist. & whanne þou hast nede þerto, grinde oon þerof, & leie it vpon þe place. ¶ Also a good mundificatif for vlcera is vnguentum viride, þat is maad of oon part of vert de grece, & .ij. partis of hony, medlid wel togidere. ¶ Also a good oynement for to make clene, vlcera þat ben hori, & festri, & polipum, & wickidPage  342 vlcera, & is clepid vnguentum veneris, ouþer vnguentum apostolorum. & it is good for to remeue awei fleisch in vlceris / [folio 255b] ℞, cere albe, rasine albe, armoniaci ana .ȝ. xiiij., bdellij, astrologie, olibani gummosi ana .ȝ. vj., galbani, mirre ana .ȝ. iiij., litargiri .ȝ. viij., opoponac, floris eris ana. ȝ. iij.; þe gummys schulen be maad neische in vinegre, & dissolued wiþ fier þat be lent, & þan do þerto wex dissolued wiþ lī. ij. of oile in somer, & iiij. in winter. & whanne þei ben molten, do þerto þi poudris, & make þerof an oynement. ¶ Anoþer oynement clensiþ wel nerues & drawiþ out þe quitture, & it is clepid mundificatiuum rasina*. [Lat.: mundificatiuum de rasina.] / ℞, rasine, mellis, terbentyn ana .lī. [one half]., mirre, sarcocolle, farine fenigreci, seminis lini ana [ounce] j., dissolue þe rosyn, hony & wex togidere, & þan do þerto þi poudris, & make þerof pultes. ¶ Also we moten vse medicyns þat ben more strong, & ben clepid medicine cauteriȝantes, for to make clene vlcera þat ben yuel in neruous place. & þe teching herof þou schalt fynde in þe chapitre de medicinis facientibus opus cauterij.

Of medicyns regeneratiuis & consolidatiuis.

It þinkiþ bi þe maner of speche þat þe medicyns þat ben seid in þis chapitre ben al oon, but þer is miche difference bitwixe / ffor [folio 256a] of summen alle þei ben clepid consolidatiuis. But aggregatiue & consolidatiue ben al oon / And regeneratiue, & incarnatiue, & facientes carnem nasci, ben oon to seie; & þer is greet difference bitwixe hem þat ben forseid & þese / And sigillatiuis, & cicatriȝatiuis, & consolidatiuis ben al oon; neþeles alle þese names ben not propirli take of alle auctouris / But oon herof is taken for anoþer ofte tyme / But for to seie þe soþe, a medicyn þat is clepid aggregatum or conglutinatum, & A. in diuers placis taketh diuersli þese names of medicyns: & I suppose þat it were for defaute of men þat translatid þe science / But for to seie þe soþe, aggregatiua or consolidatiua is a drie medicyne, & haþ gummosite in him; & whanne it is leid to þe lyme, it wole resolue wiþ his drienes. It drieþ vp superfluite of moistnes þat is bitwixe þe lippis of a wounde, wiþ a litil ligature or sewing it soudiþ togidere.*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 105: "superfluam siccat humiditatem que inter duo vulneris labia, per medicum ligatura sola vel sutura conducta, reperitur."] & A. clepiþ þis incarnatiuam, & summen clepen it consolidatiuam, & ben þese / Sanguis draconis, calx, thus masculinumPage  343 folia pirorum, pomorum, porri, lilij cortices, palme,*. [MS. pullme.] arnaglossa, caulis, folia cipressi, folia vitis [folio 256b] albe, nux recens, folia acetose, puluis molendini, ordeum vstum, flos sorbe, lac acetosum, & oþere manie þat ben vnknowen for us / Sumtyme men maden grete woundis & leiden þervpon manie herbis, & weren hool in þe same dai; & þei camen for to take of þe same herbis, & ne miȝten noon fynde þat wolde do so more / A good medicyn for þis entencioun: ℞, frankencense partem vnam, sanguis draconis partes duas, calcis viue partes tres, & make herof poudre; & leie ynowȝ vpon þe .ij. lippis of þe wounde þat is sewid togidere, as it is aforseid in þe chapitre of woundis. ¶ Anoþer poudre þat is good for þis entencioun; but in placis þat is myche fleisch aweie, it is nede for to leie þerto þingis to regendre fleisch, þat we wolliþ speke þerof soone heraftir. ℞, olibani lucidi, aloes, sanguis draconis ana, make þerof poudre. ¶ Anoþer comoun for to streyne blood, & for to soude woundis: ℞, sarcocolle partes duas, sanguis draconis, balaustie ana partem vnum,*. [sic.] olibani lucidi partem [one half], & make herof poudre.

¶ Medicyns forto regendre fleisch haueþ propriete forto congile blood, þat comeþ to þe place wiþ tempere drienes, & makiþ þerof [folio 257a] fleisch, & makiþ clene superfluite þat wexiþ þeron. & þis is in diuers maner / ffor whi, if a lyme be woundid in þat maner þat it be nede for to regendre fleisch þeron, & þe place is drie, & þer is miche quitture in þe wounde, þan it is nede þat þou haue swiþe drijng medicyns. ¶ If þat he haue litil quitture & his bodi be moist, — — alle þese techingis þou hast had tofore.*. [Lat.: si vero pauca fuerit sanies, & membrum & corpus fuerint humida, medicina tunc indiges minus sicca, sicut superius habuisti.] ¶ Medicyns þat ben liȝt þat þou schalt vse þere, þat þer is litil quitture yn moist bodies: ℞, thus minutum, mastix, farina ordei, fenigreci. And þese beþ sumwhat more drier: aristologie, yreos, & orobum, aloes, mirra, pix greca, farina fabarum; & more strong þat þou schalt vse in bodies: astrologia, yreos, farina lupinorum, dragantum adustum, vitriolum adustum; for if it be brent it wole be þe lasse bityng, & his drienes ne schal not be alaskid. ¶ For .vij. causis diuers þingis ben brent: Summe ben brent, for sum vertu in hem schulde wexe / And summe þat þe malice þerof schulde goon awei: as mirabolani, þat haueþ vertu of laxatif, & virtutem stipticam, for whanne it is brent his vertu laxatif is maad lasse; & his vertu þat is clepid stiptica, is neuer þe lasse, but it is þe more. In þe samePage  344 maner [folio 257b] vitriolum lesiþ his scharpnes, & his drienes is not lost / The .ij. is þis, þat his greet substaunce mowe be maad sutil, as cancri id est crabbis þat ben brent / The .iij. cause is þis, þat it mowe gadere scharpnes, as stoonys, oistris, & schellis of eiren, þat ben brent þat me mai make lyme of hem / The .iiij. is, þat it mowe be aparailid for to be grounden, as seta sericum*. [Lat.: sicut seta aut sericum.] / & among alle medicyns þat ben for þe herte þat mowe be grounde, ben þe beste as gold & siluir*. [Add. 26,106, fol. 105, bk.: quod inter medicinas cordiales fit, quod assatur ut teri possit, et aurum & argentum, que decoquuntur cum sulphure ...] / In þis maner þou schalt diȝte hem for to grinde / Seþe hem in sulfur in leed, þat þei mowe þe bettir be grounde / The .v. cause is þis, þat þe wickidnes þerof mowe be take awei: as of scorpiouns þat ben brent, þat we mowe vse hem in medicyns, þat ben for þe stoon. The .vj. cause is þis, þat his vertu mowe be maad þe more, as squillis whanne þei ben brent, her vertu wole be þe more / The .vij. cause is þis, þat his vertu mowe be take fro him: as psillium, whanne it is brent / his vertu wole be þe lasse // In what maner þou schalt go fro medicyn to medicyn, þou hast it pleynerli ynowȝ in þe first tretis, [folio 258a] boþe simple medicyns & also compound / þe whiche þou miȝt vse as þou seest best to done / If þou wolt regendre fleisch in a deep put þat vlcus is, take poudre of thuris, whanne vlcus is*. [is, above line.] maad clene, & fille ful þe hole þerof, for it wole engendre fleisch wel. ¶ In þes vertues, & it is moost competent to consolidatif medicyns.*. [Lat.; Et nota quod de thure tria sunt, sive cortex, & illud est siccius omnibus, & convenit plus in consolidatiuis medicinis facientibus pellem & cicatrizantibus, quas ita habebis.] & his gummosite þat is clepid thus masculinum ouþer olibanum, & þat is best for medicyns þat is conglutinatif, þat ben forseid in þe bigynnyng of þis chapitre. & þe poudre of him, whanne it is maad smal & falliþ adoun of a sarce, is clepid minutum thuris, & þat is best to regendre fleisch.

Bi þis maner distinccioun þou schalt gadere þe difference of þre medicyns þat ben in þis chapitre, & of summen þei ben clepid alle [consolidatiues]. ¶ The .j. þerof þat is seid conglutinatif, þat makiþ þe lippis of a wounde soude togidere / The .ij. it drieþ & makiþ clene, & helpiþ blood for to turne into fleisch / The .iij. it drieþ wiþ vertu þat is clepid stiptica, þat makiþ hard fleisch to arise in þe stide of skyn. ¶ This is a good medicyn for to regendre fleisch, þat is clepid litargirum nutritum, þat is norischid [folio 258b] as it isPage  345 aforseid in þe chapitre de vlceribus. ¶ Anoþer poudre þat engendriþ fleisch / Take thuris minute, masticis, fenigreci ana, fiat puluis. Þis poudre regendriþ fleisch wel & drawiþ, & nyle not suffre þat vlcus schal stynke, but it makiþ for to haue a good sauour. ¶ Also an oynement þat is good for to regendre fleisch / ℞, litargiri nutriti [ounce] .ij, puluis thuris, sarcocolle, galbani, colofonie,*. [colofonie, see Alphita, p. 42.] ana [dram] .j, medle hem alle togidere, & make þerof an oynement. ¶ Anoþer poudre, ℞, radicem malui visci, þat summen clepen*. [clepen, above line.] sanaticlam,*. [sanaticla. See Wr. Wül., 554, 8: "Saniculum, i. sanicle, i. wudemerch." Minsheu quotes the following proverb: "Celuy qui sanicle a, de Mire affaire il n'a. Et qui a du bugle & du sanicle, fait au chirurgien la nique. He that hath Sanicle, respects not the Poticarie, and he that hath Sanicle and Cumfrie, makes a iest of the Surgeon."] & sumen clepiþ it vngaria; & waische it & drie it in a furneis in sich maner þat þou ne brenne it not. & þan grinde it & make þerof poudre, & leie þerof a good quantite in vlceribus þat ben holow / for off his owne propriete it engendriþ fleisch, boþe bi him-silf & also whanne it is medlid wiþ oþere þingis / Also take of þe forseid poudre [ounce] .j, of thus þat be smal [ounce][one half], vernicis,*. [Halle, Table, p. 134: "Out of the Iuniper tree sweateth certeine teares, in the spring tyme chiefly and therefore called Vernix, quasi Vernus ros."] aloes, sarcocolle, masticis, fenigreci ana [dram] .ij, medle hem wiþ þe þingis aforseid, & þou miȝt make þerof an oynement wiþ oile & wex; & do [ounce] j. of þe poudre in [ounce] .iiij. of oile, & [ounce][one half]. of wex. [folio 259a] And þis þou schalt knowe, þat þere þou puttist poudris, þou schalt putte none oynementis for to regendre fleisch / But whanne poudre ne mai not come þerto to þe botme þerof, þan þou muste leie þeron oynementis, for þe moisture of þe oile makiþ þe poudre peerse to þe botme. ¶ Also þis oynement is good, for it drawiþ out quitture / ℞, olij lī. [one half], resine [ounce] .j, cere [ounce] .[one half], minute thuris, fenigreci ana [ounce] .[one half], make herof an oynement & cole it. ¶ Also anoþer oynement þat is good for þis entencioun. ℞, consolide maioris & minoris, cinoglosse, pilocelle,*. [Lat. pilosella. See Wr. Wül., p. 556, 18.] plantaginis maioris & minoris, ana. [handful] .j, vermes terrestres longos, qui dicuntur lumbrici, lī. [one half]; kutte alle þes smale,*. [MS. þesmale.] & leie hem in lī. j & [one half]. of oile of oliue, & lete hem ligge þere .viij. daies, & þan boile hem a litil & þan cole hem, & do þerto schepis talow maad clene id est molten & colid, picis naualis lī. [one half], picis grece [ounce] .iiij, armoniaci, galbanum, opoponaci, terbentine, masticis communis minuti, ana [ounce]. [one half]. In þis manerPage  346 þou schalt make hem: Take armoniaci, galbanum, opoponaci, & dissolue hem in vinegre, & aftirward dissolue [folio 259b] hem in caȝiola.*. [Matth. Sylv.: "Cazola est quoddam vas." See Ital. cazzuola. Tomm. Dict.] & whanne þei ben dissolued, do þerto oile, wex & pich, & þan do þerto alle þe oþere þat ben maad to poudre, & þan cole hem & kepe hem for þin vss. ¶ If þou leist þis oynement in þe botme of a wounde, it wole drawe out þe quitture & aswage þe akynge, & it wole make clene & regendre fleisch in vlcera. ¶ This þou muste knowe, þat þouȝ I sette proporcioun of poudris, & oile, & wex, neþeles þou schalt proporcioun þi þingis more or lasse as þou seest þat þou hast nede þerto. ¶ If a wounde haue miche quitture, & be in a drie place, þan þou schalt do þerto þe more poudre, & þe lasse oile & wex / If it so be þat a wounde be in a moist place, þan þou schalt do þerto þe lasse of þe poudre, & more of þe oile & of þe wex, as it is aforseid. ¶ Medicina consolidatiua, cicatriȝatiua, & sigillatiua ben al oon; & þat ben medicyns þat drieþ þe moisture of a wounde, & makiþ a rynde aboue vpon þe fleisch, & makiþ a strong keueryng for*. [MS. fro.] to defende þe fleisch fro harm / And A. seiþ, þat in vlcera þat is holow, þat þere [folio 260a] ne schal neuere be no skyn engendrid þeron, for þe skyn in a man is engendrid of þe spermis of þe fadir & of þe modir / And alle þe partijs of a man þat ben engendrid oonli of sperme, & þei be kutt awei, þei schulen neuere wexe aȝen / And alle þese þingis in a man ben engendrid oonli of sperme, as a mannes skyn, & boonys & senewis; & þerfor & þer be ony gobet kutt awei of þese, þei ne mowe neuere be regendrid aȝen, as .A. seiþ, & it is sooþ / But in þis caas medicynes mowe helpe for to engendre hard fleisch aboue, & schal be in þe place of skyn, vpon which place nyle neuer wexe here afterward*. [Lat.: "medicina ista namque adiuuat, vt naseatur caro calosa dura, que est loco cutis, super quam non nascitur pilus."] / ¶ Simple medicyns þat ben in þis caas makyng skyn vpon a soor þat is clene / Cortices arboris, pini, cortices thuris, centaurea combusta, ossa combusta, abrotanum combustum, balaustie, galle, cipressi, psidie, cucurma, rubea maioris combusta, lumbrici terestris adusti, cathinia argenti & auri, alumen sissum, folia fici, stercus canis comedentis ossa siccatum,*. [MS. sucatum.] aristologia longa & rotunda combuste, es vstum lauatum, & ius medicina*. [Lat.: "et omnis (abbr. oīs) medicina, que fit in duabus actiuis propter temperamentum."] / [folio 260b] Sumtyme we medlide medicynsPage  347 conglutiuas wiþ a fewe corrosiuis, þat schulen be seid in þe nexte chapitre here aftir / But for to medle medicyns in þis maner, þer mote be miche kunnynge for to proporcioune hem, & summe þerof þou muste haue bi experience, & summe of þe knowing of þe mannes complexioun, boþe of his bodi & also of his lyme / Of þe forseid simple medicyns þou miȝt vse hem in powdre, & if þou wolt þou miȝt make oynementis of hem, as it is aforseid / But þe oile þat þou wolt make þese oynementis wiþ, schal algate be stipticum, as oleum rosaceum & mirtinum. ¶ A good composicioun þat þou schalt vse in somer in woundis & in vlceribus þat ben hote, & in euery place þere þe skyn is aweie in a mannes bodi, of riding, eiþir of pustulis, or of fier, or off hoot watir, & it is clepid vnguentum Rasis, þat is maad in þis maner: ℞, olij ro. [ounce] iiij, cere [ounce][one half], in þese regiouns þat ben hoot &*. [MS. om. &.] in somer [ounce] .ij, & aftir þe regioun þou schalt do þerto dyuers quantite of wex, ceruse [ounce] .j, camphore [dram] .j, þe whitis of ij. eggis. Þou schalt make it in þis maner / ffirst þou schalt grinde .ij almaundis [folio 261a] blaunchid & stampid in a morter, & þan do out þe almaundis þat ben to-broke of þe morter, & make clene þe morter; & þan leie þeron camphore, & grinde it smal; & þan do þerto ceruse, & grinde it smal; & þan do þerto oile, & grinde hem wel togidere wiþ þe pestel. & whanne it is almoost coold, þan do þerto .ij. whitis of eiren, & meue hem wiþ a sclise longe, for þe more þat þei ben stirid togidere þe bettir it wole be / Summen doon þerto ceruse wiþ þe forseid quantite of oile & wex, and camphore & whitis of eiren [dram] .v, litargiri [dram] .iij. & þis is a good consolidatif, but it makiþ coold. & if þou wolt do þerto litarge, do more or lasse as þou seest þat it is to done // ¶ This is a good poudre for þis entencioun / ℞, aloes, balaustiarum, cathinie argenti, eris vsti triti,*. [MS. certis.] & lauati partes equales; make herof sutil poudre, & herof leie vpon þe place þere þou wolt haue þe skyn. ¶ Anoþer poudre þat is more strong þan þis / ℞, aloes, cucurmie, vermium terestrium combustorum, balaustiarum, mirre, gallarum. ¶ A good oynement / ℞, fecem argenti [dram] .xxx, merdam ferri, cymolie ana [dram] .vij [folio 261b] & [one half], cathinie argenti, ceruse, litargiri, plumbi vsti ana [dram] .v, argille rubie [dram] .x; medle hem alle wiþ oile of ro., & make an oynement, & it is clepid vnguentum de palma. ¶ Also anoþer þat G. made, þat wole soude vlcera þat ben oold & yuel for to hele / ℞, adipis porci antiqui sine sale id est freisch swynys grese molten, & colid þoruȝ a clooþ / olij lī. j & [one half],Page  348 litargiri lī. [one half], calamenti*. [calamentum, a mistake for calcantum. Phillips: "Calcanth a Chymical word, being the same as Vitriol."][ounce] .iiij; make it in þis maner: grinde litargirum & calamentum in a morter, & do þerto a litil & a litil of oile & grese, molten togidere / ¶ Also: ℞, spatulam id est quæ fit de palma viridi, & þe middil þerof aboue kutt smal to gobetis, & do it in þi medicyn, & wiþ þe half of þe oþere medicyns medle þis medicyn; þis is good for to regendre & soude togidere. ¶ Anoþir medicyn þat is good for to regendre fleisch & make clene & soude, & is clepid medicamen Iohannis Mesue, þat is maad in þis maner / ℞, pistatiue & resine,*. [Lat.: rasure vel pistature.] panni albi vetusti [ounce] .j, opoponacum [ounce] .ij, vini, mellis, olij ro. vel mirtini [ounce] .x, litargiri, aloes, sarcocolle, mirre, ana [ounce] .[one half], make herof an oynement; þis wole regendre & hele woundis þat ben [folio 262a] wickid & yuel for to hele, & þis medicyn is as good as þat, þat is sett in þe chapitre de vlceribus virulentis; þis makiþ clene, & drieþ & regendriþ fleisch, þerfore ioyne þat & þis togidere. ¶ Also an oynement þat Maister william someris*. [I cannot find a physician of this name. Perhaps it is Gulielmo Corvi, author of the Tractica, who was a friend of Lanfranc. Hæser I., p. 710.] made / ℞, rasinam albam & liquefactam in vino acerimo, & cole þe wijn & þe rosyn togidere into coold watir, & anoynte þin hondis, & tempere it wel in þin hondis, & kepe it, & if it be in somer do þerto half so miche of whit wex; make þis abrood vpon a lynnen clooþ, & leie it vpon þe wounde, & þis wole drie wel. ¶ Item: ℞, olij ro. [ounce] .iij, rasine [ounce] .ij, cere [ounce] j, nucis cipreissi, cucurmie ana [ounce] .j, make herof a gobet & kepe it; þis is more worþ þan apostolicon Nicholai. ¶ The maner of worching of þese medicyns, þat of summen ben clepid consolidatiuis, schal be do in þis maner / The firste dai þat a wounde is maad, & þou hast brouȝt þe lippis of þe wounde togidere with sewinge ouþir wiþ sum oþer maner, þan leie þerto of þe firste medicyn, þat is clepid conglutinatif, vpon þe place þat is sewid, & leie þerof ynowȝ; & þan þervpon leie a lynnen clooþ [folio 262b] wet in whitis of eiren, & þan leie þerto defensiuis & oþere necessarijs til þe lippis of þe wounde be soudid togidere faste. ¶ The .ij. medicyn, þat is clepid regeneratiuum, þat schal be leid in vlceribus & in depe woundis, for to regendre fleisch. ¶ At þe laste þou schalt leie consolidatiuis, or þe fleisch wexe to hiȝe; & but if þou do þus, þou muste leie corosiuis for to frete awei þat fleisch þat is woxe to hiȝe, & þat is double traueile & also vnkunnyng of þe leche. ¶ Thou muste knowe welPage  349 where & whanne þou schalt vse þese medicyns, & in þis maner þou schalt folowe þe riȝt rule of medicyns, & þan þi medicyns woliþ worche as þei schulde /

¶ Of medicyns cauteratiuis & corrosiuis /

Corosiuis & cauteriȝatiuis we vsiþ in cirurgie in manie causis, & of corosiuis summe ben feble, & summe ben strong, & summe beþ more stronger / These ben feble, hermodactilis, aristologia, brionia, gencina,*. [Lat.: gentiana.] vitriolum adustum, & þese haueþ moost vertu in moist bodies. ¶ More strong ben þes: vitriolum not combustum, tapsia, pees milui,*. [MS. vulpi. Pes milui "crow-foot."] [folio 263a] apium rampnum,*. [Alphita, p. 11: "Apium ranarum siue apium rampnum crescit in pratis ..." See rampinus, uncus.—Dufr.] cortex viticelle*. [Wr. Wül., 138, 28: "Viticella, wiþwinde."] / And þese ben more strong: flos eris, viride eris, es vstum, arsenicum, sulphur. ¶ Also þese ben more strong: calx viua maad of stoonis, & of schellis of eiren & oistris, & strong lye, & arsenicum sublimatum, & watir maad of þese þingis; & of þese medicyns þou miȝt make medicyns boþe simple & compound, whiche þou miȝt vse whanne þou wolt take awei deed fleisch, more strong & lasse strong as þou seest þat it is nede þerto. ¶ Of medicins þat ben compound I wole telle þee a fewe, for of simple medicyns þou miȝt compound manie. ¶ A poudre þat wiþouten ony greuaunce & liȝtli fretiþ awei deed fleisch / ℞, viride eris, hermodactulorum, aristologia rotunda, make þerof poudre & kepe it in a drie place, & whanne þou wolt do awei deed fleisch / Take lynet eiþer lynnen clooþ, & wete it with þi spotil & leie it in þe poudre, & turne it vp & doun, & leie it vpon þe place. ¶ Thou schalt attende superfluite of fleisch*. [fleisch in margin.] in .ij. maners / In oon maner superfluite of fleisch as of clene fleisch þat wexiþ tofore aboue a wounde, & þis is [folio 263b] clepid superfluite of good fleisch / In an oþer maner we clepiþ superfluite of fleisch þat is medlid wiþ quitture, & is liquide, & þis comeþ in defaute of þe leche, whanne he leiþ regeneratiuis to a wounde ouþir to ony þing til it be perfitli clene, so þat þe newe fleisch & þe quitture wexiþ forþwiþ / In þe firste cause is noon nede of oþer medicyn, but a simple corosif*. [MS. corosiþ.] þat fretiþ wiþouten violence awei þe fleisch þat is woxen to hiȝ aboue þe wounde. ¶ In þe .ij. cause it is necessarie for to haue a medicyn corosif & clensynge as it isPage  350 aforseid in þe chapitre off mundificatiuis. ¶ Anoþir good poudre þat remeueþ awei superfluite of fleisch & rotid fleisch & crustons*. [crustons, O.Fr. crouston.] / ℞, calcis viue [ounce]. ij, arsenici [ounce]. ij., succi affodillorum radicis [ounce]. vj., medle hem togidere & make þerof gobetis & kepe hem & drie hem in schadowe & kepe hem in a drie place, for in a moist place it wole rotie anoon. & whanne þou hast nede for to vse ony herof, þan make þerof poudre & leie it vpon þe place. ¶ Also an oynement þat is clepid vnguentum viride & is a liȝt corrosif, & makiþ [folio 264a] superfluite of rotid fleisch & is maad in þis maner. ℞, mellis partes .ij., viride eris partem vnam, & medle hem togidere. ¶ Also anoþer vnguentum viride þat makiþ clene & regendriþ good fleisch in vlceribus þat ben olde, & fretiþ awei wickid fleisch wiþouten violence / ℞, celidoyne radicis, alleluya,*. [Sin. Bart., p. 10: "Alleluia. i. wodesour."] folia centrum*. [Alphita, p. 38: "Centrum galli gallitricum ... nux muscata." Wild Sage, Cancerweed.] galli, leuistici agrestis, scabiose, ana @. j., grynde wel alle þese herbis togidere wiþ .lī. j. of schepis talowe & .lī. j. of oile, medle hem togidere, & lete hem ligge .x. daies & rotie, & þan do hem to seþing on þe fier til þe herbis falle to þe botme, & þan cole hem, & do þerto wex, terbentyne, ana [ounce]. ij., colofonie [ounce]. j., masticis, olibani, ana [ounce]. [one half]., viridis eris [ounce]. j. þat schal be do in in þe ende of þe boilyng, & medle hem wel togidere, & make þerof an oynement. ¶ If þou wolt make a stronger medicyn for to slee a festre & a cancre / ℞, vitri albi combusti, sulphuris viui, viridis eris, galle, attramenti, vitriole viridis, ana [ounce][one half]., auripigmenti foliati ȝ. ij., make herof poudre, & distempere hem wiþ strong vinegre & lacte anabulle*. [Matth. Sylv.: "Anabulla est species titimalli." Compare Alphita, p. 9.] til it be as þicke as it were hony, & sette it to þe sunne [folio 264b] in somer, & lete it drie. & if it be in wintir þou miȝt drie it wiþ lent fier, and whanne it is drie poudre it aȝen, & tempere wiþ þe forseid licour, & þan drie it aȝen, & þus þou schalt do .iij. siþis ouþir .iiij. & þan make poudre þerof & kepe it in a drie place. ¶ Anoþer poudre þat drieþ a cancre & a festre, & remeueþ superfluite of fleisch / ℞, radices brionie [ounce]. v., tapcie, laureole, esule, ana [ounce]. ij., ciclaminis, yreos, aristolochie, longe & rotunde, hermodactulorum, affodillorum radicis .ȝ j., & herbarum celidonie, leuistice agrestis, buglosse, summitates oliuarum, & mirte ana [ounce]. j., tempere þe herbis & þe rotis in vinegre bi .iiij. daies, & þan seþe hem & cole hem, & take þat licour þat comeþ þerof, & seþe it & caste þeron quik lymePage  351 poudrid sotilli lī. j., & medle hem wel togidere, & at þe laste do þerto auripigmenti [ounce]. iij., & medle hem wel togidere, & make þerof gobetis & kepe hem in a drie place, & whanne þou hast nede þerto, grynde oon þerof, & leie þe poudre þerof vpon þe place þat þou wolt haue frete. ¶ Anoþir poudre of þe same kynde. ℞, arsenici rubri & citrini, calcis viue, aluminis*. [Halle Table, p. 9. Alumen de pluma = Alumen Liquidum.] de pluma, gallarum nouarum ana, grynde hem with vinegre [folio 265a] & medle hem & drie hem, & kepe hem as it is aforseid / ¶ A strong medicyn þat is as strong as oni fier, & vnquenta ruptoria þat mortifieþ quyk fleisch & etiþ it, & oon herof is riȝtt strong & is a poudre maad bi sublimacioun. ℞, limature ferri, vitrioli viridis, alumen iamini, antymonij ana [ounce]., ij. salis armoniaci, arsenici citrini, sulphuris viui

* a caret is placed here and this added later, but does not follow on:—

fflos eris ana j

calsis viue G

argenti viu. j. [in margin.]

extincti cum saliua, & tempere hem wiþ vinegre, ouþir wiþ watir, ouþir wiþ strong lye, & þe lie wole be þe bettir if it be maad wiþ bene scelis, & þan drie it & putte it in alutel*. [Castelli: "Aludel vel Alutel vocatur Vitrum sublimatorium." Arab. al-outhal (Devic. Dict.). A vessel used in sublimation.] & sublime it / This is þe maner of sublimacioun / loke þou haue a strong vessel maad of glas þat it mowe dure in þe fier, ouþir a vessel of erþe wel glasid wiþinne, & loke þat þe couercle þerof & þe bodi be wel closyng, & do þerin þi poudre, & lute it wiþ good lute, & sette it in a furneis & make liȝt fier half adai, & þan do out thi fier, & whanne it is coold opene it, & þat, þat leeueþ in þe botme of þe vessel caste it out, & þat, þat cleueþ faste to þe couercle aboue, take it & kepe it, & if þou wolt worche þerwiþ þou muste worche ful quentliche, for it wole [folio 265b] brenne as strongli as fier, & wole make impressioun in depnes þan fier. Þis poudre wole corrumpe & brenne þe place þat it is leid vpon, & þe same doiþ realgar sublimed, & if þow wolt ouercome þe wickidnes of it, make poudre of it & distempere it wiþ þe iuys of lactuce & plaunteyn til it be in þickenesse of hony, & þan drie it, & þus þou schalt do manye tymes / & in þis maner þou schalt take awei greet malice, & it wole worche neuer þe worse. ¶ Also an oynement ruptorie for to breke fleisch þat is hool & maketh blak & brenneþ it, & wole make it falle awei, & þan þer wole leeue þere vlcus. Manie men vsiþ þis in diuers maner, for to opene an enpostym, & for to do awei superfluite of fleisch. ℞, quik lyme as miche as þou wolt, & resolue it inPage  352 strong lie þat is aforseid, and make þerof þe maner of an oynement, & whanne it is maad, al freisch leie it þerto, for þe more freisch þat it is þe bettir it is / In þis maner þou schalt make þe lie / ffille a vessel ful of askis of bene scelis, & þe .iij. part of quik lyme, & poudre hem alle togidere & leie hem in [folio 266a] a vessel & presse hem þat þei bicome fast togidere, & make a put in þe middil aboue, in þe same put caste hoot watir seþing, & þis vessel schal be holowe þat þe lie mowe passe þoruȝ. & vndir þis vessel sette anoþir vessel for to resseyue þe lie. ¶ Also anoþir good ruptorie / ℞, calcis viue, partem vnam, arsenici, partem [one half]., poudre hem & medle hem wiþ sope & hony, & summen doiþ þerto lī .[one half]. of tartre / Also mel anacardi is swiþe strong for to make vlcera. & if it be do to oþere medicyns it worchiþ þe more strongli / In þis maner þou schalt do / whanne þou ne miȝt fynde mel anacardi, þan grinde anacardos greet & leie hem in vinegre adai & anyȝt, & þan boile hem wel, & þan presse out þe licour þerof, & þat, þat goiþ out þerof is a medicyn þat wole make vlcera. / Ouþir take anacardos & seþe hem in hoot tenaclis þat smiþis vsen, & streyne hem, & þer wole distille þerof hony. ¶ Also take þe wombis of cantarides & grinde hem wiþ leueyne & leie hem in what place þou wolt & it wole make vlcera / But herof þou muste be war þat in what place þou settist cantarides þer [folio 266b] wole come greet brennynge of vrine, & sumtyme it makiþ so greet brennyng þat a mannes vrine is stoppid þerwiþ. & þe cure þerof is þis / Seþe malue, paritorie, violet, watircressen in watir, & lete þe patient sitte þeron anoon to þe nauele, & herwiþ þe akyng schal be taken awei, & also he schal make vrine liȝtlich / & herof þou schalt take hede, þat in what place of a mannes bodi þou makist a cauterie, anoon þeraftir þou schalt leie a mitigatif þat schal make þe cruste falle awei þat was brent, & þou ne schalt in no maner take awei þe cruste wiþ violence, but þou schalt leie þerto a mitigatif, & lete þe cruste falle awei liȝtli. ¶ Medicyns þat wolen make þe cruste falle awei, & do awei þe aking, ben þese: ȝelkis of eiren wiþ oile of rosis, þat is þe beste of alle medicyns / Also, take þe leeues & grinde wiþ grese, ouþer wiþ buttir & leie þervpon / Also grese ouþir buttir is good þerfore. ¶ Also pultes maad of mele, oile & watir, ben good þerfore & aceessiþ wel þe akynge & makiþ þe crustis falle. ¶ Also wiþ þe cauterie of an hoot iren þou miȝt *. [MS. do awei, twice, the second one marked for erasure.] [folio 267a] do awei deed fleisch, ouþir wiþ oon of þe medicyns þat ben forseid. ¶ Also if þou woltPage  353 vse medicyns for to make cauterijs, þou muste take kepe of þis caas / In feble men & in a litil cause þou muste vse feble medicyns, & þou muste be war þat þou brenne no nerue ne no greet veyne ne noon arterie wiþ þi cauterie, ne wiþ þi medicyns þat makiþ cauterijs. ¶ Also in a strong man & in a boistous man, þou miȝt worche at oonys þat þou muste worche at manye tymes in a feble man / ffor in euery medicyns þat a leche doiþ he schal take kepe of the strenkþe & of þe vertu of þe pacient //

Of mollificatif medicyns or softenyng.

We vsiþ þese medicyns þat ben .iiij. in eueri cause.*. [Lat.: Mollificatiuis vtimur medicinis in quatuor casibus.] Oon cause is þis, whanne þe mater þat þou wolt resolue is swiþe hard, for þan oonli wiþ resolutiuis as it is aforseid þe sotil mater wole resolue, & þat oþir part wole bicome hard, & þan þou muste make mollificatiuis. ¶ The .ij. cause is þis, whanne ony lyme is to-broke ouþir out of þe ioyncte, þouȝ it be broȝt [folio 267b] yn aȝen, þe place wole be hard, & þe patient mai not meue þerwiþ, þan þou muste do*. [do, above line.] þerto mollificatiuis til þe lyme be bettere as it is aforseid. ¶ The .iij. cause is þis, whanne ony lyme þat haþ ben out of ioynct longe tyme, þan þou muste make þingis forto make þe place moist aȝen, þat þe boon mowe come into his ioynt aȝen. ¶ The .iiij. cause is, whanne a lyme is corrupt & is yuel ioyned, & makiþ al þe lyme foul, as whanne a boon is to-broken & is not ioyned, þan þou muste breke þe boon aȝen, & bringe it into his propre place as it schulde be / In alle þese causis we mote vse medicyns þat ben mollificatiuis, as ben þese: camomille, mellilotum, fenigreci, semen lini, & almaner fatnes, & marowe, & manie gummis, & euery medicyn þat is hoot & moist wole make a lyme mollificatif / A good composicioun for þe firste cause / Take oold oile .iiij. partis, wex partem .j., & make þerof an oynement, and anoynte þerwiþ a lyme þat þou wolt resolue þe mater þat is þeron / ffor it wole make þe mater mollificatif, & make þe poris [folio 268a] open to resolucioun // Anoþer þat is more strong / ℞, radicis malua visci [ounce] .j., & kutte it to smale gobetis, & putte hem in a morter wiþ [ounce] .iiij. of oile of lilie. & þou schalt sett þis vessel of glas in hoot boilyng watir, & þere it schal stonde til þe iuys of þe herbe be consumed. Wiþ þis oile þou schalt anoynte þe place, & leie þervpon lanam succidam id est wolle vnwaischen. & þisPage  354 þou schalt wite, þat whanne þou wolt make þese oynementis, first þou shalt make a fomentacioun wiþ hoot watir til þe place bicome reed. & if þe place be swithe hard, þan take a stoon þat is clepid lapis molaris, & make him hoot in þe fier, ouþir a greet gobet of iren, & do it in strong vinegre. & þe place of a mannes lyme þat is hard, holde ouer þe fume þat comeþ out of þe vinegre, & þan anoynte him aftirward / Þis is þe maner for to make a lyme mollificatif, & þer ben .iij. maners.*. [Lat.: modus autem mollificandi membra in 2o, 3o & 4o casu est unus.] Þe .j. maner is þis: þou schalt make a decoccioun of flouris of camomille, mellilote, fenigrec, semen lini, & rootis of malua visci, soden in water. & þou schalt [folio 268b] make a fomentacioun to þe lyme in þis watir longe tyme, & frote þe lyme softli. & þan anoynte þe lyme wiþ oon of þese oynementis / ℞, auxungie porci antique sine sale [ounce] .iij, pinguedinis anseris, anatis & galline ana [ounce] .j., melte hem alle togidere & cole hem, & do þerto [ounce]. j. of wex. Þis wole make mollificatif, & restore moistnes. & if þou wolt make it for to be good for drienes of a mannes brest, & good for men þat ben etik, do þerto [ounce] .j of clene dragaganti, & þan it wole be a good oynement restoratif. ¶ Anoþir oynement. ℞, adipis porci antique sine sale [ounce] .iiij., fecis olij de semine lini, bdellij ana [ounce] .ij., storacis, calamite, galbani, oppopanacis, armoniaci, ana [ounce] .j. putte þe gummys in wijn for to tempere, & whanne þei ben temperid, putte hem in a morter, & stampe hem wel, melte þe remenaunt, & do hem togidere, & medle hem togidere. ¶ Also an oynement mollificatif & comfortiþ / ℞, auxungie porci [ounce] .iij., pinguedinis anseris, anatis, galline, ana [ounce] .j. olis communis antiqui [ounce] .iiij. farine fenigreci, seminis lini, ana [ounce] .j., bdellij, oppoponacis, masticis, thuris [ounce] .[one half]., tempere þe gummis [folio 269a] in wijn, & þan aftirward medle hem wiþ grese, wex, & oile, & melte hem alle togidere & cole hem. & of þese þingis þat schulen be grounde make poudre þerof, & medle it þerwiþ & kepe it for þin vss. & whanne þou hast maad a stuwe as it is aforseid ouþir a fomentacioun, þan anoynte him bi þe fier, & þis is clepid vnguentum Rasis. & I it haue ofte preued euermore goddis grace goinge tofore wiþout which grace is no þing fulendid ne no sijknes do awei / But eueri good ende & eueri good dede al it comeþ of þe miȝt of god / And þe help of god I bad in þe firste bigynnyng of þe book / ffor of goddis grace I am þat I am, & goddis grace was neuere voide in me / And þe ende of þis book was fulfillid þe noumbre of ȝeeris from goddis beyng .M.CC. nonagesimo sexto. & god of his swete grace ne wernede me not to makePage  355 an ende of þis book. & ful ofte I haue bede goddis grace þerto / wherfore god haþ grauntid, & god for his blessid name blesse þis book & alle werkis þat ben wrouȝt in his name / [folio 269b] And god for his miche grace lete hem wel worche þat takiþ þis werk on honde, & bringe errouris out of her herte, & bringe hem & us to a good ende / To þe worschip of his blessid name & profit of his seruauntis, & me to forȝeuenes of my synnes, god it graunte et imperat per omnia secula seculorum AmeN.

Here endiþ þe book of lankfrank.*. [In red ink, but nearly erased.]
Page  357

[folio 270a] Here bigynneþ a table of þe chapitris of þe book of lankfrank

The firste book conteyneþ .xv. chapitris /

  • The .i. co. is maad of alle vniuersal woundis & vlcers [p. 31]
  • The .ij. co. is of woundis maad in þe fleisch / [p. 33]
  • The .iij. co. is of woundis maad in senewis / [p. 39]
  • The .iiij. co. is of woundis maad in boonys / [p. 47]
  • The .v. co. is of woundis maad with strokis or kutting / [p. 50]
  • The .vj. co. is of woundis with postyms, & yuel discrasiam / [p. 54]
  • The .vij. co. of woundis maad of arauyschyng hound, or oþir venymous beest / [p. 59]
  • The .viij. co. is of curis of woundis which folowiþ brekyng of boonys / [p. 62]
  • The .ix. co. is of flux of blood of woundis / [p. 64]
  • The .x. co. is of dietyng of woundid men / [p. 72]
  • The .xj. co. is of vlceris / [p. 77]
  • The .xij. co. is of fistulis / [p. 89]
  • The .xiij. co. is of cancris / [p. 92]
  • The .xiiij. co. is of causis & lettyngis of sowdynge of woundis & vlceris / [p. 97]
  • The .xv. co. is of spasmus aboue comynge on woundis // [p. 99]

The .ij. book conteyneþ vndir o summe .x. co.

  • The .i. co. is of woundis of þe heed, & his anothamia / [p. 106]
  • [folio 270b] The .ij. co. of curis of woundis in þe face & of membris þat ben conteyned in hem / [p. 141]
  • The .iij. co. is of woundis in þe necke, and of anothamia [p. 145]
  • The .iiij. co. is of woundis of þe splet boonys of þe arme & of þe hondis, & anothami / [p. 155]
  • The .v. co. is of woundis in thoracis & membris conteyned in hem / [p. 161]
  • Page  358The .vj. co. is of curis of woundis of þe spine ouþir spondilium. [p. 166]
  • The .vij. co. is of woundis of þe stomac & entrailis & wombe, & anothamia / [p. 167]
  • The .viij. co. is of woundis of þe lyuere, splen, reynes, & þe bladdre & anothamie / [p. 171]
  • The .ix. co. is of woundis of þe ȝerde and placis aboute it [p. 173]
  • The .x. co. is of woundis of þe haunche & grynde & feet, & anothamie / [p. 176]

The .iij. book conteyneþ .viij. chapitris /

  • The .i. co. is of makyng of fair heer / [p. 178]
  • The ij. co. is of lesynge of heer, or calowȝnes or allopucie [p. 180]
  • [folio 271a] The .iij. co is of smale puschis and scalis and crustis / [p. 188]
  • The .iiij. co. is of clooþ and fraclis, & gowte roset & ȝolowisch / [p. 189]
  • The .v. co. is of smirtyng, scabbe, & icche / [p. 191]
  • The .vj. co. is of þe morphu & impetigine / [p. 193]
  • The vij. co. is of lepre & of domys of lepre / [p. 196]
  • The .viij. co. is of smelnes of membris & leene / [p. 199]

The .iij bok þe ij doctrinis, þat is of enpostyms, & conteyneþ .xviij. chapitris.

  • The .i. co. is of generacioun of humours and her kyndis / [p. 201]
  • The .ij. co. is of enpostyms & of sermouns þerof / [p. 204]
  • The .iij. co. is of enpostyms in þe heed, & of gaderynge in þe hedis of children / [p. 214]
  • The .iiij. co. is of enpostyms of rotis of þe eeris [p. 216]
  • The .v. co. is of enpostyms of þe necke, and of þe þrote / [p. 217]
  • The .vj. co. is of enpostym subtitilico / [p. 222]
  • The .vij. co. is of enpostym of þe helpers aboute þe spondilia / [p. 223]
  • The .viij. co. folowiþ of þe same tofore / [p. 224]
  • The .ix. co. of enpostym appering in þe mouþ of þe stomak / [p. 226]
  • The .x. co. is of an enpostym in i[n]guine .i.*. [= i. e.] grindis. [p. 226]
  • The .xj. co. is of enpostyme of þe haunche & ¶ of þe core / [p. 227]
  • The .xij. co. is of enpostym of þe ȝerde & ballok / [p. 228]
  • [folio 271b] The .xiij. co. is of scrophulis & glandulis / [p. 229]
  • Page  359The .xiiij. co. is of þe cure of þe cancre non vlcerat / [p. 231]
  • The .xv. co. is of Boos / [p. 232]
  • The .xvj. co. is of akyng of ioynctis. [p. 233]
  • The .xvij. co. is of akynge of haunchis / [p. 238]
  • The .xviij. co. is of dieting of men þatt han ache in ioynctis / [p. 240]

The .iij. boke and the .iij. doctrin, and conteyneþ xix. chapitris //

  • The .i. co. is of egrenes of yȝen / [p. 240]
  • The .ii. co. is of egrenes of eeris / [p. 254]
  • The .iij. is of disese of þe nose / [p. 258]
  • The .iiij. co. is of disese of þe mouþ / [p. 260]
  • The .v. co. is of disese of þe brest, and off swellyng and greetnes / 1and coagulasion off milke.1*. [1—1 added in different hand.] [p. 265]
  • The .vj. co. is of ruptorie of þe siphac, and releuynge aȝen / [p. 268]
  • The .vij. co. is of hernia of þe ballokis / [p. 269]
  • The .viij. co. is of þe stoon in þe bladdre / [p. 273]
  • The .ix. co. is of an yuel þat is clepid hermofrodito*. [This chapter is omitted; see note 8 on p. 281.]
  • The .x. co. is of watri dropesies. [p. 281]
  • The .xj. co. is of cancer & vlcers in þe ȝerde / [p. 287]
  • The .xij. co. is of emoroidis & fistula in ano. [p. 289]
  • The xiij. co. is of cancrene & mormals / [p. 293]
  • [folio 272a] The .xiiij. co. is of vngribus and stykynge in handis and feet. ¶ Elephancia / [p. 295]
  • The .xv. co. is of wertis in handis & feet / [p. 296]
  • The .xvj. co. is of blood letyng / [p. 298]
  • The .xvij. is of kutting & bleding, & water lechis [p. 303]
  • The .xviij. is of cauterie large & of streite / [p. 305]

The .iiij. book schal be algebra, & conteyneþ ij. doctrines /

The firste doctrine of þe .iiij. book conteyneþ .viij. chapitris //

  • The .i. co. is of brekyng of boonis, or o. word ¶ for al / [p. 312]
  • The .ij. co. is of breking of þe face / [p. 314]
  • The .iij. co. is of brekyng of þe forkid boon of þe brest / [p. 316]
  • The .iiij. co. is of brekyng of boonys off þe spaudis // [p. 317]
  • The .v. co. is of brekynge of þe adiutorie / [p. 318]
  • Page  360The vj. co. is of brekyng of boonys þat is clepid coxe // [p. 320]
  • The .vii. co. is of brusyng or brekyng of tendir boonys wiþ þe .viij. chapitre / [p. 321 & 322]

The secunde doctrine of þe fourþe book, & conteyneþ .v. chapitris //

  • [folio 272b] The first co. is of failyng of place, word for al /
  • The .ij. co. is of failyng of place of þe chekeboon /
  • Tho .iij. co. is of lacking of place of þe spaude /*. [These three chapters are left out.]
  • The .iiij. co. is of goyng out of þe ioynct of þe schuldre / [p. 323]
  • The .v. co. is of þe coniunccioun of þe goyng out of þe haunche / [p. 326]

The antidotarie is þe .v. book, and conteyneþ seuene chapitris //

  • The .i. co. is of repercussiuis & þe maner þerof / [p. 328]
  • The .ij. co. is of þe maner of resolutif medicins / [p. 333]
  • The .iij. co. is of þe iiij. maturatiuis & þe maner þerof / [p. 336]
  • The .iiij. co. is of mundificatiuis & þe maner þerof // [p. 339]
  • The .v. co. is of regeneratiuis & consolidatiuis // [p. 342]
  • The .vj. co. is of corrosiuis & cauterisatiuis // [p. 349]
  • The .vij. co. is of mollificatiuis or softenyng medicyns // [p. 353]
Page  1

[SCIENCE OF CIRURGIE.] Addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 12,056.

[folio 31a] Assit Principio Sancta Maria meo


Þe ffirste tretys of surgerie halt with inne hym generall Rulys & Canons, & hath þre techynges. þe ffurste techynge of þe furste tretys haþ þre Chapyttles. Cap. j. of þe furste techynge of the firste tretys of dyffiniciones & of partyes þat beþ suggettys to surgerye. Cap ij. is of qualite, fforme & Maners of a Surgien.

¶ Cap. iij. ys of Intencioun of a Surgien. Þe secunde techynge of þe ffyrste tretys ys O summe & on Chapitell of a notamye, þat is to sugge þe knowlechynge of þe forme, & þe complexion, & þe helpynges of alle þe synwes, veyne, grustlys, brawnys, guttys, bleddre, lyuere, Mylte, & alle oþere senglere lymes, & of þe engendrynge of þe child in þe modire wombe. The þridde techynge of þe firste tretys hath xv. Chapytells. Cap. j. on of þe þridde techynge, of þe þridde tretys, ys a comyn worde of woundes & olde woundes.

  • Page  2¶ Cap. ij. off helynge of a wounde y-makyde in flesch.
  • ¶ Cap. iij. off helynge of a wonde y-makyde in þe synwe.
  • ¶. Cap. iiij. of a wounde in þe bon.
  • ¶. Cap. v. of a wounde y-makyd with smytinge.
  • ¶. Cap vj. of a wounde to bolled & out of kynde, to hote oþere to colde
  • ¶. Cap. vij. of a wounde of a wod hound, oþere a venymouse beste.
  • ¶. Cap. viij. of a wounde þat is out of Ioynte & to-broken.
  • ¶. Cap ix. of to myche fflux of blod of wounde.
  • ¶. Cap. x. of dyotynge of men þat beþ y-woundyde.
  • ¶. Cap. xj. of olde woundes
  • ¶. Cap. xij. off a ffestre
  • ¶. Cap. xiij. of a cancre y-woundyd
  • ¶. Cap. xiiij off causes þat lettyde helynge of woundes & olde woundes
  • ¶. Cap. xv. of crampe þat comyth to wounde

¶. Þe secunde tretis is of particulers woundes of alle lymes of office from þe hed to þe [folio 31b] ffot, & techynge þe Anotamye of alle lymes from þe hed to þe fote, þat happyde to be woundyde; & þou haddistPage  3 to forn þe Anotamye of veynes & synwes, & oþere smale lymes, & so whanne þis tretys is fully endyde þou hast anotamye of alle lymes of thy body. And þis tretys under summe conteynde x. Chapyttles.

  • ¶. Cap. j. of þe secunde tretys is of woundys of þe hed, and hys Anotamye.
  • ¶. Cap. ij. is of woundes of þe face, & anotamye of þe same vysage.
  • ¶. Cap. iij. of Anotamie of þe nekke, and of þe woundes of þe same.
  • ¶ Cap. iiij. of woundys of schuldre. Armys & hondys, & Anotamie of þe same.
  • ¶ Cap. v. of woundes of þe brest, and lymes þat beth wiþ ynne the brest, & Anotamye of þe same.
  • ¶. Cap. vj. of woundes of þe ruggebone & of whirele bonys of þe rugge, & Anotamye of þe same.
  • ¶. Cap. vij. of woundes off the wesand þat goth to the stomak, & of þe stomak, & þe guttes, & þe wombe, & Anotamie of the same.
  • ¶. Cap. viij. of woundes of þe lyffere & the splene.
  • ¶. Cap ix. of woundes of þe ȝerde, þat ys thyn pyntel, & Anotamie.Page  4
  • ¶. Cap. x. of woundes of the hanche, thyes, ffet, and Anotamye.

¶ Þe þridde tretis is of cures of oþere seknesse, þat beþ noȝt woundes þat mowen falle to dyuers lymes from þe hed to þe fote, þat comyn to be helyde off a surgien, & haþ þre techynges: þe furste techynge of þe þridde tretys hath viij Chapyttles:

  • ¶ Cap. j of the furste techynge of þe þridde tretys ys off Ornamentys of heer. p. 178
  • ¶ Cap. ij ys of ffallynge off heer & of scabbe. p. 180
  • ¶ Cap. iij of whelkys in þe vysage, & scalys and crustlys p. 188 [folio 32a]
  • ¶ Cap. iiij of Morfu, ffrakles, 1Goute, rosed of þe vysage, & Cicatrices of woundes p. 189
  • ¶ Cap. v of ȝycchynge & scabbe p. 191
  • ¶ Cap. vi of drye scabbe & wete scabbe p. 193
  • ¶ Cap. vii of lepre, & of knowlechynge of leprys Man p. 196
  • ¶ Cap. viii of fastnynge a lene lyme, & to lenen a fat lyme p. 199
  • ¶ þe secunde techynge of þe þridde tretys is of apostemes, & hath xvij Chapittles
  • ¶ Cap. j of þe secunde techynge of þe þridde techynge, of generaciones of humour & here lyknesse p. 201
  • ¶ Cap. ij of vniuersel word of enpostemes p. 204
  • ¶ Cap. iij of enposteme of the hed & watire congregated in children hedys. p. 214
  • ¶ Cap. iiij of emposteme undire þe rote of þe ere. p. 216
  • ¶ Cap. v of aposteme of þe nekke & þe þrote. p. 217
  • ¶ Cap. vj of Aposteme undire þe Arme hole. p. 222
  • ¶ Cap. vii of Aposteme þat comeþ in the arme from þe schuldre to þe Elbowe. p. 223
  • ¶ Cap. viij off Aposteme þat comyth on þe sydes. p. 224
  • ¶ [Cap.] ix of Aposteme þat comeþ aboute þe Mouth of þe stomak. p. 226
  • ¶ Cap. x of apostem that comyth in þe grynde p. 226
  • ¶ Cap. xj of aposteme þat comyth in þe hanche & þe thyes. p. 227
  • ¶ Cap. xij of Aposteme off þe pyntel & þe ballokes p. 228
  • ¶ Cap. xiii of scrofules & glandeles, þat buþ Curnellys þat comyth in þe fflessch p. 229
  • ¶ Cap. xiiij of Cancre þat is nouȝt to-broke, & is cure p. 231
  • ¶ Cap. xv of bocche þat hongyth as swynes babbe undire here nekkys p. 232
  • ¶ Cap. xvj of Akþe of Ioyntes p. 233Page  5
  • ¶ The þridde techynge of þe þridde tretys haþ xviij Chapittles
  • ¶ Cap. I of seknesse of eyȝen, & Anotamye of þe same p. 240
  • ¶ Cap. ij of seknesse of þe eren p. 254
  • ¶ Cap. iij of seknesse of þe nose p. 258
  • ¶ Cap. iiij of seknesse of þe mouth p. 260
  • ¶ Cap. v of seknesse of a wommans tetys. to grete, to fatte, 1oþere to lene. p. 265 [folio 32b]
  • ¶ Cap. vi of ciphac þat is to-broke, oþere that is to lose p. 268
  • ¶ Cap. vij of brokyn ballok p. 269
  • ¶ Cap. viij of stone in þe bleddre p. 273
  • ¶ Cap. ix of hermofrodite, þat is to seye, þat hath þe schappe of Man & womman, & oþere of wommen þat haþ scyne withynne here schape / þat sche ne may nouȝt conseywe þe seed of man
  • ¶ Cap. x of water of men þat beþ in þe dropsye p. 281
  • ¶ Cap. xj of fycus, þat is, a waxynge up on þe hed of þe ȝerde cancre fleynge, bocche in þe pyntel & olde wounde. p. 287
  • ¶ Cap. xij of emeroydes, festre & rogadyes, þat beþ slyttes in þe Erse p. 289
  • ¶ [Cap.] xiij of cancrefis & malo mortuo, þat buþ olde sores & olde scabbys on þe schyne. p. 293
  • ¶ Cap. xiiij of veynes þat buþ to grete in þe legges, & of þe leggys þat buþ to grete out off kynde of flesch p. 295
  • ¶ Cap. xv of wryncles, & chynes of handes, & kybis on þe ffete, & wertys, & oþer schyn lyke flessch p. 296
  • ¶ Cap. xvj of helpynges þat buþ in blod letynge p. 298
  • ¶ Cap. xvij of helpys þat buþ in brennynge with yren oþere with gold p. 305
  • ¶ Cap. xviij of helpe þat is with brennynge of fyre, hote watyr & oyle p. 312

¶ Þe iiij tretys is of wrenchyngis of lymes, & haþ tweye techynges, oþere tweye summes.

  • ¶ þe firste techynge of þe furþe tretys haþ vij Chapyttles
  • ¶ Chap j of broken bonys an vniuersel word [missing]
  • ¶ Cap. ij of bonys þat buþ broken of þe face p. 313
  • ¶ Cap. iij of bonys þat buþ broken of þe breste p. 316
  • ¶ Cap. iiij of bonys þat buþ brokyn of þe rybbes, & þe rugge bon. p. 317
  • ¶ Cap. v of Armys þat buþ broken p. 318
  • ¶ Cap. vi of bonys þat buþ bende withouten brekynge p. 321
  • ¶ Þe 2Secunde techynge off þe ffurþe Tretys haþ v Chapytells [folio 33a]
  • ¶ þe firste chapyttle of þe secunde techynge a comyn word off wrenchynges out of Ioynte [missing]
  • ¶ Cap. ij of dislocacioun of þe cheke bon. p. 314
  • ¶ Cap. iij of dislocacioun of þe rugge bon. p. 322
  • ¶ Cap. iiij of dislocacioun of þe schuldre & about þe schuldre p. 323
  • ¶ Cap. v of dislocacioun of þe þyȝe bon & withynne p. 326Page  6
  • ¶ The ffyþe tretys is Antidotarie, & hath withynne hym vij chapitells
  • ¶ Cap. j of castynge abache, & þe manere how þou schalt caste abacch p. 328
  • ¶ Cap. ij of resolueres & manere of vndoynge & makynge nessche p. 333
  • ¶ Cap. iij of Maturatiuis, þat buþ Ripers p. 336
  • ¶ Cap. iiij of Mundificatiuis, þat beþ clanseres p. 339
  • ¶ Cap. v of glutinatiuis & consolidatiuis, þat buþ closeres & consouderes, & þe difference of hem p. 342
  • ¶ Cap. vj of hem þat maken nessche hardnesse p. 353
  • ¶ Cap. vij of Cauterisinge, that is to sugge brennynge, & opnynge þe extremites p. 349

Page  7

[SCIENCE OF CIRURGIE.] Addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 12,056.

Now the Chapitelles of þis bok buþ y-ordeynde, y wyl fulfylle my purpos, pursuynge every chapytell by ordere, & confermynge my wordys after þe Autorite of myn Autores, & wiþ experyment þat y haue longe tyme y-vsyde with help of god.

Al thynge þat we wolde knowe, by on of þre maneres we mowe knowe, oþere by hys name ore by hys worchynge, oþere by hys verrey beynge schewynge propirte of hym selff. In þis þre manere we mowe knowe surgerie by expownynge of hys name; ffor syrugie cometh of syros, þat ys a word of grewȝ, & in englyssche syros ys an hand, & gyros grewȝ, þat ys worchynge an Englyssche; for þe ende & þe prophyte of surgerye ys* of hand wyrchynge. Of þe Name of a thynge Galyen seyth: he þat wyl knowe* soþfastnesse of a thynge, besye hym noȝt to knowe þe name [folio 33b] of a thynge, bute þe worchynge & þe Effecte of þe same thynge; where fore he þat wyl knowe surgerie ys, he mote vndirstonde, þat yt is a medycineal sciense, whyche techiþ vs to worche with handes in Mannes body, inPage  8 kuttynge ore opnynge þo partyes þat ben hol, & in helynge þo that ben tobroken oþere kutte, as þey were to fore, oþere ellys as nyȝ as a Man may, and al so in doynge aweye þat ys to myche above þe schyn: as wertys, oþere wennys, oþer flesch to hyȝh.

¶ The secunde Chapitell of þe ffurste Tretys is of þe qualites, maners and cunnynge of a surgien.

Nedfful ys þat a surgien be of a Complexioun wel proporcyonede, & þat is complexioun be temperat. Rasys seiþ, whose face ys nouȝt semlye, ys inpossible to hauen gode maners; *& Auicenne: euyle maners* beþ folwynge þe lyknesse of an yuele complexioun. A surgien moste han handys wel schape, longe smale ffyngres, and hys body nought quakynge, & alle hys lymes able to fulfyllen gode werkynges of hys soule. He most ben of sotyl wytt, ffor alle þynge þat longyth to surgerye may nought wiþ lettres ben wryten. He moste stodyen in alle þe partyes of naturell ffylosophye & in logyk, þat he mowe vndirstonde scriptures; in gramere, þat he speke congrulyche; in art, þat techyth hym to preven ys proposiciones with gode resoun; in retoryk, þat techith hym to speke semlyche; be he non glotoun, non spowsbrekere, ne Envyous, ne no nygarde; be he trewe, vmbelyche [folio 34a] & plesynglyche bere he hym-self to hys pacientis; speke he non Rybaudye in þe seke mannys house, ne in þe sekePage  9 Mannes house gif non counseyle bote he be y-askyde, ne speke he with non womman in no*. [no above the line.] folye in þe seke Mannes howse, ne chyde nought with þe seke Man ne with none of hys meyne; but curteslye speke to þe syke man, & in alle manere syknesse behote hym hele, þowȝ þou be of hym dyspeyred; but neuere þe lattere seye to hys frendys, þe cas as yt stant. Loue he non harde curys, & entyremete he nought of þo þat beþ in dyspeyre. Pore men helpe he be hys myght, & of ryche men aske he gode rewarde. Preyse he nought hymselff with hys owne mouth, ne blame he nought scharplye oþere lechys; loue he alle lechys & Clerkys, & by hys myght make he non leche hys enmye. So cloþe he hym with vertues, þat of hym mowe a-rysen gode fame & name, & þis techyth Etyk. So lerne he ffysik, þat he mowe with gode rulys hys Surgerye deffende, & þat techith ffysik. Naþeles yt ys necessarye a surgien to knowe alle þe partyes in eche sengle partye of a medycine, ffor ȝif a surgien knowe noȝt þe sciens of Elementis, whiche þat buþ furst Meverys of naturel þynges & of dyuerse lymes, he may noȝt knowe sciense of coniunctiounes, þat ys to seye, medlynges & complexiouns þat beþ necessarye to hys crafte. A surgien most knowe þat alle bodyes þat ben medlyde, þat ben vndire þe cercle of þe Mone, ben engendrydPage  10 of foure symple bodyes, here lyknesse eche in oþere medlyng; þat ys to sugge, fyr & eyre, erþe & water. Þese elementys, ffor þe outemast ende & outemast contraryousite of here qualites, weren fer drawen from bodily lyffe; but whanne here [folio 34b] qualytes, þat is to sugge manere of beyinge, comyn in to medlynge, so þat þe leste partye of þat on entre in to þe leste partye of þat oþere partye, medlynge brekyth here contrariosite, & þere of comme a newe forme & a newe complexioun of þe medlynge of here substaunce. Al so þe medlynge of þe qualitees & þe quantites ys fer drawyn from þe contraryousite of þe same elementes, & so complexioun is nyȝh brought to a mene, & so þat þat ys medlyde ys more able to resseyuen þe noble forme of lyff, þe whiche noblete aboffe alle bodyes y-medlyde ys y-founden in Mannys spiryt. But for þat þe qualites, þat with þo bodyes of Elementes comyth in to Medlynge—& yt ys vnpossible to departe þo qualites from bodyes—ben foure: hot, colde, moyst, & drye, & complexiouns ben by ham, yt ys necessarie to fynden in bodyes þat ben medlyde, foure complexiouns; Complexioun ys noþynge ellys but a manere qualite medlyde in worchynge, & suffrynge of contrariose qualites þat buþ founden in Elementis, so þat þe leste partye of eche elemente entre in to þe leste partye of þe oþere partye. And for þat þilke foure complexiouns: hot, colde,Page  11 moiste & drye, sumtyme ben y-componyd, þat ys to sugge medlyde, þere comen of hem VIII, as hote & drye, hote & moist, colde & drye, colde & moiste; ffoure of þese ben symple, & foure ben componyd. And for þilke VIII sumtyme ben with mater, sumtyme withoute mater, þere ben XVI; & for þilke XVI, after sum consideracioun mowe ben naturell to sum Man, [folio 35a] & to sum man vn naturell, þere mowe ben XXXII. Nevere þe lattere amonge alle þe complexiouns þat man may fynden, þat is componyd of dyuerse qualites, þere nys non so temperat as ys mannes complexioun; havynge rewarde to mannes complexioun, alle oþere þynge ys* clepyde colde, hote, moyste, oþere drye. Whanne þat a mete, oþere a medycine, hath y-suffryde kendlye hete þat ys in Man, & hetyth hym noȝt & colyth hym nauȝt, ne dryeþ hym noȝt, ne moysted hym noȝt, so þat mannes complexioun may noȝt conseyven wheþer yt colde hym, ore hete, dryȝe, oþere moyste, yt is clepyde temperat; & þilke thynge we sigge is hot in þe firste degre, þat ys y-hatte of kendlye hete, þat ys in oure bodyes & hetyth oure bodyes withouten grevaunce, & þilke we siggen be hote in þe secunde degre, whiche þat ys y-hette of oure kendlye hete, so hetyth oure body, þat he ne myȝte hete vs namore withouten greuaunce; hot in þe þridde degre:Page  12 þilke we sigge to be hot in þe þridde degre, whiche þat ys y-hatte of kendlye hete, bryngeþ to oure bodye sencyble greuaunce; hot in þe fourþ degre: and þilke in þe fourþ gre þat is y-hat of kendly hete, dystroyeþ þe body opynlyche; & in þis same manere ȝe may knowe degrees þat ben colde, & y may preve in þis manere þat yt is necessarye a surgyne to knowe complexiouns of bodyes, lymes, & of medycynes. ¶ Take two men þat ben off one age, & lete hem ben y-woundyde with a swerd oþere a knyffe twarte offere þe arme, in one oure & in [folio 35b] one place. One of þo men ys of an hote complexioun & a moyste, þe oþere of a colde & a drye; þe comyne siggynge of lewyde men ys, þat þey scholde boþe by helyde aftere o manere. But resonable surgye wel y-proved, techith vs þat þey ne schulle noȝt boþe ben y-helyde aftere on manere; for he þat haþ an hot complexioun & a moyst, may lyȝtliche haue an hote enposteme, þat ys an hote swellynge, & þat may be cause of an*. [an above the line.] hote ffevyre. What schaltou þanne do? Þou moste loke wheþer he haue y-bled myche blod at hys wounde, & þenne it ys wel, ellys lete hym blod of þe contraryose arme, oþere ellys* on þe fot on þe same syde; ȝif strengþe & age acorde, oþere ventuse hym on þe tweye buttokkys; gif þat he be feble, ȝif he may noȝt go to sege onys a day, helpe hym þeretoPage  13 oþere wit clysterye, oþere with suppositorye; & brynge þou þe partyes of þe wounde to-gedire, oþere with sowynge, oþere wiþ plumaciolus—þat beþ smale pelewys—oþere with byndynge, ȝif þat sowynge be noȝt necessarie. And þenne worche aboute þe wounde, as it ys tolde aftere in þe boke; but aboue þe wounde leye a Medycine defensiue, of bol Armonyac, oyle of rosys, & a litel vynegre, so þat þe medycine touche þe sydes of þe woundes, þat humours mowe noȝt hauen here cours to renne to þe wounde. And we forbyde hym wyn, Milke, & eyren, & fysch, þat engendrith myche blod; but he schal ete for his Mete gruell y-made of ote Mele, oþere barly mele with Almaundes, & generaliche he schal vsen a streyt [folio 36a] doynge, tyl þou be sykere þat he schal haue non enposteme. And ȝif þat we cunne dyffenden hym from a ffevyre & aposteme, þe science of hys complexioun techyth vs þat he may of hys seknesse sone be hol. ¶ Þe oþere of þe colde complexioun ne schal noȝt be leten blod ne ventusyde, ffor blod scholde be kepte in hem as for tresoure; forbyde hym neiþere wyn ne flesch; for þe stomak þat ys so feble, ne myȝte nouȝt engendre necessarie mater of blod þat longyth to þe wounde; ne we dredyth noȝt in hym þe ffevyre, for his complexioun ys noȝt able to resceyuen þe ffevyre. We mowePage  14 fynden a Medycine made in o manere þat wirchith dyuerse effectis, & he be y-leyde to dyuerse complexiouns. Grene vytreole, & he be done to a Man of dryȝe complexioun, engendrith flessch; & ȝif þou leggen hym on a moyste complexioun, he greuyth noȝt onlyche, but coroduþ yt. And naþeles vitreole haþ but one manere wyrchinge, þouȝ he wirche dyuerslyche in dyuerse complexiouns, ryȝte as þe wirchynge of þe sonne ys dyuerse—noȝt for þe sonne, but for þe wyrchynge of dyuerse bodyes in whom he wyrchyth. Vitreole dryeþ wonderlyche muche, & in dryȝe bodyes he fyndeþ þe smale lymes myghty to ageyne stonden hys strengþe. Wherefore he may nought but drye þe superffluites þat he fynte in þe*. [wound, cancelled because blotted after in þe and re-written.] wounde; & whenne þo ben y-dreyede, kynde engendryth fflesch. In moyste bodyes, ffor þat þe smale lymes beþ feble, & mowe noȝt withstande þe strengthe off þe vytreole, þe flesch meltyth vndire yt, & so be þe vitreole þe flesch rotyth; & þat þat ys seyde of dyuerse complexiouns, ys y-seyde of dyverse lymes. Galyen: ȝif þat tweye woundes [folio 36b] ben evyne i quyter, & þe on be in a dryȝe lyme, & þe oþere in a moyste lyme, þat þat is in þe dryore lyme nediþ þe dryore medycine. And ȝif þat two lymes ben y-wounded þat ben lyche inPage  15 complexioun, & þat on haþ myche quyter and þe oþere lyte, he þat haþ myche quyter nedyth to haven þe dryere medycine. Iohannes damacenus: Medycines & enplastres scholde ben acordynge to þe lymes þat þey ben y-leyde on. Galienus: a kendlye thynge schal be kepte with þynge þat ys kendlye þere to; and þat þat is aȝeyne kynde schal be done away with þynge þat is contrarye þere to. Ȝif þat a surgien knowith noȝt complexiouns of lymes & of bodyes, he schal noȝt kunne to chaungen hys medycines aftere þat kynde askeþ. A surgien moste knowe generacioun of humours, ȝif he wolde knowen þe sciense & þe helynge of Apostemys, as yt schal ben declared in þe tretys of apostemes; he moste knowyn þe dyuersite, & þe profytes, & þe offices of lymes, þat he mowe knowen what lymes han grete wyrchynge in mannys body, & whiche ben of grete felynge, & whiche mowe bere a stronge Medycine; & þe vertues of lymes he moste knowe, þat he se whanne þat þe worchynge of enye vertue fayleþ in enye lyme, þat he mowe helpe þe vertue in þe same lyme faylinge. And ȝif he haue þe science of knowynge of vertues, þe sciense of spiritus ne schull noȝt ben y-hud from hym. Alle þese þynges before seyde beþ natureles, & þey beþ techynge of medycine speculatyff. Also he moste han knowynge of thynges þat beþ noȝt natureles, þat he kunne chesen gode eyre to hym þat is y-woundyde,Page  16 oþere ellys haþ a bocche. Woundes mowe noȝt ben y-dryȝed in a [folio 37a] moyste eyre & a vaporose, but þey þat ben y-woundyde most bene y-chaungyde from þat moyste eyre to a swote cler eyre & a dryȝe. In wyntere he moste kepe hym from colde, ffor noþinge grevyth so myche bonys & synwes þat buþ y-woundyde as colde. And in somere he moste han a temperable eyre; hit ys necessarye þat he kunne dyoten hys pacient, as y schal tellen in þe same Chapytell of dyotynge. Also he moste ordeyne moffynge & reste, as yt nedeþ to þe same syke man; ffor ȝif þat he be woundyde in þe hed, oþere haue eny puncture off enye synwe, it ys necessarye þat he reste: dwelle he in styllenesse, & haue an euene bed & a softe, leste he suffren enye trauaylle of hys lemys; but ȝif þat olde woundes, wiþouten akynge, weren in hys Armes, hit were gode to hym þat ys seke to walken on hys fete, & bere hys arme y-bounden to hys nekke; & ȝif þat þe wounde be in hys schynys & in hys ffete, hit were gode þat he leyȝe & trauellyde with hys handes. Also a surgien, in alle þat he myghte, he moste atempre a syke Mannes slepynge, ffor to myche slepynge engendreþ superffluyte, & feblyth his vertues, & coldyth & losyth alle hys bodye; to myche wakynge dyssolfiþ & consumeþ hys spirites, & makyth scharpe hys humores,Page  17 & hit bryngeþ vnkyndly drowþe to woundes, & ys cause of akynge; also he moste kunne evacuen hym þat ys ful of euele humores, & fulfylle hym þat ys wastyde, þat he brynge seke men to gode temperaunce; ellys a wounde may noȝt ben helyd; entempre he þe hert of hym þat ys seke, ffor to gret wratthe makyþ þe spirites renne to myche to þe wounde, & þat ys cause of swellynge; [folio 37b] to grete drede, oþere vntryst of helpe of hys wounde holdiþ spyrites withynne hys body, þat mater may nouȝt come to hele þe wounde. Þese sixe thynges ben y-clepyde vnnaturell, whiche techith a Man speculatyff of leche craft. He mot knowen þe seknesse, as olde wounde, festre, cancre, & alle oþere sores, þat he traveylle noȝt in deveyne, & brynge þe seke man to hys deþ: ffor eche dyverse sore nedith dyverse helpynges. He mote knowe þe cause of þe wounde; ffor a wounde þat is mad with a swerd oþere a knyff mote oþere weys ben helyde þen he þat is y-makyde with ston, oþere with fallynge, & a wounde þat is byten with an hounde schal oþere weys ben helyde þen he þat ys y-byten with a wod hound, as þou schalt fynde tolde in þe boke hereaftere. And he mot knowe þe Accidentes þat buþ aboute a wounde, ffor the wounde schal nevere hele tyl þe Accidentes ben remevyde awey. Accidentis ys a þynge þat falliþ to þe wounde outPage  18 of kynde, as hete, colde, drowþe oþere to gret moistnesse, crampe, & oþere þynges aȝeyne kynde. A surgien mot ordeyne dyetynge in dyverse manere, as it is tolde in þe Chapitell of dyetynge. Whenne þat it is nedful, he mote ȝyve dyverse drynkes. Galien: laxativis & vomytes buþ necessarie to hem þat han olde, rotyde, stynkynde woundes; ffor whanne þat þe body is purgyde from evyle humours, þe wykkednesse of þe matere renneþ from þe wounde, & so þe wounde is sonnere y-helyde. He þat byholdeþ alle þe partyes of a medycine, he may wel se [folio 38a] that it is necessarie a surgyne to knowen ffysyk and oþere dyverse science, as hit is tolde tofore in þis boke.

¶ The þridde Chapitele of þe furste techynge is of Intencioun off a Surgyne.

Alle þe entencioun of surgerye, how dyverse þat it be, yt is on *of þre maneres: þe ffurste ys undoynge þat þat is hol; secunde ys helpynge of þat þat is tobroke; þe þridde ys remevynge of þat þat is to myche, so þat it be do with hande crafte; ffor alle þe entencioun of a surgien ys vndire one of þis þre entensiouns, oþere ellys vndire one of hem. A surgyne vndoþ þat þat ys hol, whanne he letyth blod ore garsyth oþere brenneþ, oþere setteþ on waterlechys,Page  19 ffor þis ys a surgyns craft, þawȝ we for oure pride have y-lefte yt to laborers & to wommen, for Galien & Rasys dyden it wiþ here handes as here bokys tellyþ. And we vndoþ þat þat is hol, whenne þat we kutteþ þe veynes þat ben in þe templys & þe forhed, & makyth cauterisaciones from þe seknesse of þe eyȝen, & whenne þat we maken Cauteries in þe hed & in dyverse places of þe body as y schal telle in þe chapitell of Cauterysynge. Þe secunde entencioun ys to hele þat þat is tobroke as: woundes, olde woundes, ffestres, Cancres, and in bringynge to here place Ioyntes þat bene oute, & in helynge bonys þat ben tobroken. Þe þridde entencioun is to remevyn þat þat ys to myche as scurffyls of þe hed & þe nekke, & oþere partyes of þe body, & Cataractis þat ys a water þat comyth bytwene þe whyte of þe eyȝe & þe Appul. Sebel þat beþ veynes þat buþ in þe whyte of þe eyȝe, & beþ ful of blod. Vngula, [folio 38b] þat ys a thynge þat bygynneþ by þe nese & goth overe þe eyȝe, tyl he keffere alle þe eyȝe & knottes þat ben in þe eyȝe, & oþere seknesse of þe eyȝe, & in doynge awey polippes þat is flesch þat growiþ with ynne þe nese, wertys & wennys, fficus þat is a superffluyte þat growiþ vp on þe skyn off þe pyntellys hed withouten, emeraudes & a schynPage  20 þat enclosyth a wommans prive membre, þe sixte fynger of þe hand, and manye superfluytes þat beth nought semlye to mannys body.

¶ The ffurste Chapitell of þe secunde tretys ys an universel word off smale lymes, & here helpynges of generacioun of enbrion þat is child in þe moder wombe.

Galien seith þat it ys necessarie a Surgien to knowe Anotomye, ne leffe henoȝt þat iche brode ligament þat ys a schyn, & iche rounde ligament to ben a synwe, & so be hys opynioun he myȝte fallen in erroure. Þerefore i þynke to ordeyne a Chapitell of þe kynde & of þe fforme & þe helpynge of alle smale lymes. Avycene seith, knowlechynge of a þynge þat haþ cause may noȝt be knowe but by hys cause, þerefore we mote knowe þe cause membrorum consimilium: þat ys to sigge smale lymes. Y wyl telle þe generacioun of embrion, þat ys to sigge, how a childe ys bygete in þe modire wombe. Galien and Avycene tellen þat of boþe þe spermes of Man & womman—wirchynge & sofferynge togedires, so þat iche of hem wirche in oþere & suffren in oþere—embrion ys bygete. But þe worchynge of Mannes kynde is more myȝtyere, & wommans [folio 39a] kyndePage  21 ys more ffeblere. Ffor ryȝt as þe rendelys of chese haþ hym by weye of worchynge, & þe Mylk be weye off suffrynge, so to þe generacioun of embrion, Mannes sperme*. [MS. spernes.] hath hym be weye of worchynge, & wommans sperme*. [MS. spernes.] be weye of suffrynge, & ryȝt as þe rendles & þe mylk makyth a*. [Above line.] chese, so boþe þe spermes*. [MS. spernes.] of man & womman makyþ þe generacioun of embrion. Þowȝ þat alle þe smale lymes of a childe be y-geten of boþe two spermes,*. [MS. spernes.] naþeles to cloþe hem with fflesch & with fatnesse comeþ to hem menstrewe blod. Þe marys of a womman haþ an able complexioun to conseyven, & of here kynde sche castyth þe spermes to þe deppeste place off here, and of here nature sche closyth hire mouth þat þere myȝte nouȝt entre þe poynt of an nedle. And þenne þe formal virtue whiche þat almyghty god haþ ȝeuen to the marys, ordeyneþ & deff[e]ndeþ every party of þese spermes in here kynde, tyl þat þe childe ben ybore. Understande þat þe flesch & þe fatnesse ys y-mad of menstrewe blod, the bonys & þe grustlys, ligamentes, synwes, cordes, Arteries, veynes, pannycles, þat buþ smale cloþes & þe schyn buþ engendred of boþe þe spermes, as Avicene & oþere Autores tellyn. Ȝif þat enye of þe lymes þat buþ engendrede off the spermes be don away, *he may nevere verrelyche ben restoride, ffor þe matere ofPage  22 hym ys þe sperme of þe fadire & þe modere. But þe flesch whose matere ys blod þat is al day engendred in vs may wel & verreliche be restoryde. Þese smale lymes han dyverse formes, complexioun, & helpynges after the dyversite of þe proportiouns of þe mater whiche þat þey ben [folio 39b] mad of; ffor þowȝ þat alle the lymes be mad of on matere y-medlyde, naþeles in eche of þe smale lymes þere is a dyverse proposicioun*. [read "proporcioun."] of matere, for the whiche matere þey taken dyverse forme & dyverse helpe. Almyghty god gevyth to effrye þynge of hys forme after þat hys matere *proporcioned deservyt.

Þe bon is furst of consimile membris þat is on off smale lymes, þe whiche ys colde & drye, & he haþ dyverse formes in mannes bodye, for he helpiþ dyversliche; þe cause why þere ben many dyverse bonys in mannys body is,*. [is above line.] ffor sum tyme it ys nede to meffyn o lyme without an oþere, & þat were inpossible, ȝif in alle þe body were but on hol bon. An oþere cause is why þere ys many bonys; for sum diffenden þe principal lymes from harme, as þe brayn scolle þe brayn of þe hed; somme ben ffundamentys, as þe bonys of þe rugge, & of þe schynes, & of þe Armes. Some ben as armure, as additamentys, þat ben in þe syde of þe rugge bon, & somme fulfylle þe holwenesse of somme Iunttes, as þe handys & þePage  23 fete, & somme þere ben þat þe roundnesse of on bon myȝte entre in to þe holwenesse of þe oþere bon & naþeles scholde noȝt lakken hys meffynge, as þe schulder bonys, & the hepe bonys. Þou maiste fynde hou many bonys þere ben in þe secunde tretys where schal be tolde plenerliche—þe Anotamye of consimile membrys of alle [folio 40a] þe body, from þe hed to þe fot. A grustyll ys cold & drye, & is nesschere þenne a bon, & hardere þanne þe flesch, & in þe flesch hath vi helpynges. ¶ Helpynge þe grustel. The ffurste þat þere scholde be a Mene, bytwene þe vtter ende of þe hard bon, & þe nessch flesch. ¶ Þe secunde, þat þe harde scholde noȝt hurt þe nessche, namlyche, in þe tyme of comprission, & in þe tyme of smytynge. ¶ The þridde, þat þe ende of þe bonys, whiche þat ben in þe Iunttes scholde han a softere confricatioun in here Iunttes. ¶ Þe iiij, þat he scholde fulfille þe office of þe bon, to susteyne a brawne meffynge, a membre þat haþ non bon, as þe overe lyd of þe eyȝe. ¶ Þe v. for his necessarie a grustyll to be*. [noȝt above line.] in a place þat ys noȝt ful hard, as þe þrote bolle; ffor þe ende of þe þrote bolle ys grustlye. ¶ Þe vi. for it is necessarie some lymes to han a sustentacioun & a plicacioun, þat is a foldynge, to be streynde & drawen abrod, as þe nese þrylles & þe grustle of þe ere.

Page  24Ligamente is colde & drye, & goþ out of þe bonys, & haþ þe forme of a ȝenewe, & he may be bowyde, but he feliþ noȝt, & he haþ iiij helpynges. Þe fyrste ys þat he knytte on bon with an oþere. It is necessarie þat o bon be knytte with an oþere, þat manye bonys myȝte make on body as on bon, & nevere þe later eche membre myȝte meffyn by hym-selfe, & þere fore þe ligamente was bowable & insensible; for ȝif þat yt had y-be sensible, þey myȝte nouȝt have susteynde the travaylle & þe meffynge of þe Iunttys; and ȝif þat he hadde be inflexible as a bon, of whom þat he comyþ of, [folio 40b] on lyme myȝte noȝt han meffyde withouten an oþere. Þe secunde help ys, þat he ys joynede with ȝenewys to make cordys & brawne. Þe þridde helpynge ys, þat he scholde ben a restynge place to summe senewys. Þe fourþe, þat be hym þe membris þat ben withynne þe body scholde ben tyede, whiche þat nedyþ hongynge.

A corde ys colde & drye, & he comyth from þe brayn oþere fro þe nuca, þat ys þe marye of þe rugge bonys. ¶ From þe brayn comeþ vij peire cordys, & þey buþ y-clepyde sensible ȝenewys, from þe nuca þere comyth xxx peire cordys, and on by hym selffen & þey buþ mevable; & alle þe cordys þat comyth of þe brayn, & þe nucaPage  25 habbeþ boþe felynge & meffynge. & þe cordys ben whyte, bowable, stronge, & towȝ; & of here kynde þey brynge meffynge & felynge to lymes. & for þat hit is longe to devydeþ alle þe partyes of ȝenewes; *in þe secunde tretys y schal ordeyne Anotamye of ȝenewes & here place,* as þey ligge; in þe whiche place þou moste be ware, whenne þou schalt kutte oþere brenne, whenne þat we schulle ordeyne Anotamye of official membris & of here woundes. Official membre ys to sigge: a ffynger, a Ioynt, an hand, oþere a fote *ore oþire lymes of ofyce.

Arteries beþ hote, noȝt for here owne kynde, but for þe hote blod & lyf þat goþ in ham from þe herte. Of here kynde þey ben colde & drye, & þey han tweye cloþes, outsepte on þat goth to þe longes. Þe innore cote [folio 41a] is grettere & strengere, þat he mowe withholde a Mevable matere & an hote. & here bygynnynge is of þe lyfte syde of þe herte. & þere bygynneþ tweye Arteries, on goþ to þe longe & haþ bot on cote & sprat in þe same longe, & þere endyth & bryngeþ blod to þe longe, by whom he ys y-norysschyde, & spirit of lyf, & þat he myȝte brynge from þe longe eire*. [MS. eiþere.] to þe herte, for to entempren þe fumose hete of þe same herte. & þis Arterie ys clepydePage  26 venalis, & yt is a manere veyne, ffor as myche as he may haue but o cote, & þerefore he is þe more obedient to be drawen abrod þorwe out alle þe longes & also þat þe blod þat norysschith þe longe myȝte liȝtlokere swete out of þis arterie. Þe oþere Artery, þat comyth out of þe lefte syde of þe herte, haþ two cotys, because þat on myȝt noȝt ageyne stonde þe strengþe of þe spirites, and also þat þat is wiþynne þe Arterye is ful derwarde & nediþ gret kepynge. Þere ben þre helpynges of þe Arteries: on is þat colde eyre by hem myȝte be drawe & y-brouȝt to þe herte, whenne þe arterye is drawe abrod; þe secunde ys pat þe fumosite myȝt be caste out, whenne sche is constreynyde; þe þridde ys þat þe spirite of lyf myȝte be broȝt by hem to alle þe body. Þese Arteries beþ devydyde many weyes, whose divisiones Man may noȝt conseyve by hys wyt, ne þey ne beþ noȝt dredful to surgiens crafte; but whenne þou schalt drede þe arterye i schal tellen þe in here places.

Veynes by cause of here bodyes beþ y-demyde colde & drye; but for þe blod þat is withynne hem þey beþ y-demyde hote, & alle þe veynes han here [folio 41b] bygynnynge of þe lyffere, in þe whiche lyffere two veynes han pryncipal begynnynge. On veyne bygynneþ of þe holwe syde of þe lyvere, & ys y-clepyde Porta, þat ys a ȝatte, & here ofyce is to drawe chilum from þe stomake & þe guttes by mene of þePage  27 veynes miscraykus; þilke chylum spredeþ þorwe al þe lyffere by mene of veynes Capillares. Chilum ys þe licoure of mete & of þe drynke, whenne yt goþ out of þe stomake & þe guttes. Veynes miserayke beþ smale veynes, þat comyth out of þe veyne þat is y-clepyde porta, & clevyth on þe stomake & þe gottys. Veynes capillarys þat beþ veynes, as yt were herys of a Mannes hed.

¶ After hem comyth pannyceles, þat ys to sigge, a smal cloth, þat ys mad of sotyll þredys of synwis veynes & arteries, where fore þey ben colde & dryȝe & sensible, & þey han þre helpynges. Þe firste is þat they mowe bynden manye þynges in on forme, as þe pannicle of þe hed bynde vii bonys; þe secunde Iuvament is þat þey hongen & bynden somme membrys with oþere, as þe reyns to þe rugge & þe marys to þe rugge bon; þe þrydde helpynge ys þat some membrys þat beþ insensible by here kynde, by þe pannycles þat wreyeþ hem ffeliþ by accydent, as þe longes, þe lyffere, & þe splene, & þe reynes; þese lymes by here kynde haþ non felynge, but what þat þey felyn it ys by Accident of þe pannycle þat wreyeþ hem.

Þe flesch is noȝt hot, but yt is moist, & haþ þre manere lyknesse; on ys symple flesch, & hys helpynge ys to fulfylle þe voyde placysPage  28 of smale lymes, to bryngen hem to a gode schappe, & þat iche harde lyme [folio 42a] ne scholde nouȝt hurten oþere with confricacioun togedire. An oþere manere flesch ys þat is glandelose, þat ys as hyt were achcharnes, & hys Iuvamente is þat he turnyth vmydites to here hete: as þe glandelose flesch of wommans brestys, whyche þat turnyth þe blod þat ys drawe from þe marys into þe mylk, þe glandelose flesch of þe ballokes, þat turnyth þe blod into sperme, & þe glandelose flesch off the chekys þat engendreþ spotel. Þe þridde manere of flesch ys a flesch þat is in brawnys, þat ys y-clepede a brawny flesch, ffor he ys medlyde wiþ sotyl þredys of cordys, as y schal tellyn aftere, whose helpynge schal be tolde in þe Anotamye of þe brawne.

At þe laste is þe schyn, þat is temperat in al here qualite, & is y-mad of smale þredys of veynes, synwes, & Arteries, þat makeþ hym sensible, and geveþ hym lyf and norisschynge, þat he be governoure of alle þe body. & þe skyn ys y-mad temperat, for he scholde knowe hot, colde, moyste & drye, softe & hard, scharpe & smeþe; & ȝif þe skyn were as sensible as a ȝenewe, a man myȝte noȝt dwellen in colde eyre, ne in hote eyre; ne þe skyn of þe fyngres endys, whiche þat ys more temperat þenne eny oþere skyn of þe body, ne scholdePage  29 noȝt ben a gode demere in knowynge hot, cold, hard oþere scharpe, softe oþere nessche.

¶ Brawnys þowȝ þey ben mad of matere y-medlyde, nevere þe latere þey beþ y-reknyde amonge membrys consimiles, for þey comen to þe makynge off Membrys-officiales. Brawne ys y-mad of fflesch, [folio 42b] ȝenewe, & ligamente, & þey ben Instrument off voluntarie mevynge. Þe ȝenewe þat comyth from þe brayn & þe nuca, & goþ forþ to meve the lymes, ys y-medlyde with a ligamente, & whenne þe ȝenewe & þe ligamente beþ medlyde togedyre, yt ys clepyde a corde, & the corde ys y-made for þre skylles: þe ffurste for a symple senewe ys to sensible, & þe ȝenewe by hym-self ne myȝte noȝt suffren to grete travaylle & mevynge, but þe felawschipe of þe ligamente, þat ys insensible, lutliþ þe felynge of þe synwe, and bryngeþ hym to a profitable temperaunce. Þe ȝenewe hadde tweyne oþere defautes: nesschenesse & litylnesse, but þo tweyne defautes, þe medlynge of þe ligament ffulfilleþ; for the neschenesse ys entempred & y-strengthyde, and þe lytelnesse ys y-made more. The nesschenesse comyth of þe brayn, ffor it ys nessche; and þe lytelnesse comeþ of þe Nuca, for it ys lytel. Þat þat is mad of þis nerff & þis ligamente ys clepyde a corde, whiche þat meviþ þe lymes to wyl of þe soule,Page  30 whenne þat it is schortid oþere y-drawe, aftere þat þe lyme bowyth to þis corde. ffor þere ys Asosyed a symple *fflesch forto maken a brawne for þre proffytes: þe furste profyt, þat boþe in drawynge & wiþdrawynge of þe corde, the flesch scholde be as a pylwe, vp on whom he myȝte reste; þe secunde cause, þat þe flesch þat is nessche & moyst schulde kepen þe corde, þat [folio 43a] sche dreyȝede noȝt in here mevynge; þe þridde, þat þe makynge of lymes were þe more schap-lokore. Þe brawne is made bowynge, as a bowe þat ys y-bent; & for þat kynde wolde kepe þys compositioun, he clothyde þe brawne wyþ a pannycle. Þe corde whenne he entrith in to þat brawne, ys departyde in to many smale þredys, & þey ben clepyde vylles, þat ys to sugge, wrabbynges. & þese villes bene of þre maners, in lengþe—by whom vertue þat draweþ haþ myȝt, in brede—by whom vertu þat castyth out haþ myȝt, in twart ofere—by whom vertu *þat wiþhalt haþ myȝt; & at þe ende of þe brawne þilke þredys beþ gadride to gedre to maken a corde, after þat it is necessarie, many cordys oþere brawnys to ben engendride. & official membrys ben y-mad of þese consimile membrys, whiche þat beþ instrument to resonable sowle. And in þe secunde tretys y wyl tellen þe anotamye of lymes of ofice.

Page  31
The ffurste Chapitle of þe þridde techynge is of difference of woundes & olde woundes & off generall cures.

¶ We schulle vndirstonde þat wounde, olde wounde, ffestre, cancre y-wondyde, a bon out of loynt, a bon tobroken, Aposteme, alle þese ben y-clepyde vndoynge of þat þat ys hol, & alle þese seknesse & manye oþere as wel mowe fallen to consimile membrys. as to oficial membris. Vulnus is a newe wounde. Vlcus ys an olde rotyde wounde. I schall [folio 43b] tellen in here place þe dyfference of festre & cancre & apostemys. Plage comynliche ys y-taken of an olde wonde; and ofte tyme we fynden, þat an olde wounde ys y-clepyde Vulnus, as Ipocres seiþ: Vulnera Annua necesse est in eis os tabefieri & cicatrices concavas fieri. ¶ That is to sugge, it ys ned, þat þe bon in an olde wounde to be rotyd, & þe Cicatrices to be holwe. Cicatrice ys þe place of þe skyn above the wounde, whenne þat yt is hol. Some wounde buþ symple & some ben componyde. In tweye manere he ys clepyde a symple wounde. On manere, for he haþ noȝt leste of flesch; an oþere maner, for he haþ non oþere seknesse with hym, ne is noȝt distempride. A wounde componed ys y-clepyde contrarye to hym þat is symple. But boþe symple & also componydPage  32 some tyme is in þe flesch oþere in þe synwe oþer in bon, oþere in veyne, oþere in arterie. Also þese wondes han dyverse causes. Some comen from wiþynne of þe malice, oþere of to gret multytude of humores; *forto gret multitude of humores oþere while tobrekyth þe membre, þat wiþholdiþ & woundiþ hym cold matere streyneþ, drye matere kutteþ, moistnesse withouten matere makeþ no wounde, but selden with matere, but he drawiþ þe lyme to brode. And also þe cause wiþout may be dyverse, oþerwhyle with a swerd, ore with a þynge þat kutteþ alonge, oþerwhile with a knyff, oþere a spere, oþere an arwe þat [folio 44a] prykeþ, & somme ben made wiþ a stafe, oþere with a ston, oþere with fallynge, & somme ben mad with bytinge of an hound, oþere of a wod hounde; & alle þese ben dyverse, after þe dyverste of here cause; & also þe manere of helynge ys dyverse. Alle þe entensioun of helynge of woundes, ys forto sowdyn & to helyn, & to restoren þat þat is departyde, whiche þat may noȝt overe al be don. Ffor ȝif þat membres of offyce ben kutte of, þey mowe nevere ben restoryd; ne non of þe consimile membres may be restoryde, & he be don awey: as bonys, pellicules, grustles, ligamentis & schyn. Ffor þe cause of here generacioun is þe sperme of þe ffadire & þe modere, as y tolde tofore; but in place of thynge þat is lore, kynde restoryth þat þat is most convenient to þat place; but the flesch may be restoryd, by cause þat þe blod ys engendredPage  33 al day in vs, & þe blod ys þe matere of flesch; & somme suggen þat veynes, synwes, & arteries myȝte nouȝt be restoryde as þey were tofore; but þey mowe be restoryd as bonys buþ. But Galien & Avycene, & I þat am expert here suggynge, suggen þat þey mowe be restoryde with verrey consolidacioun, whanne þat here kuttynge ys lytell, & whenne þat þe synwys þat buþ newe kutte beþ so wyde aȝeyne; but þey mowe noȝt be consouded, whanne þat here kuttynge ys gret & myche; & resoun grauntyth yt. Synwys by kynde buþ nessche and viscose; & þerefore þey mowe ben consouded. Þe veynes & þe arteries mowe be consouded by resoun of þe blod þat ys in hem. I þynke to ordeynen eche Chapitell [folio 44b] be hym selven, aftere þe dyversite of lymes & of placys, whyche þat þey buþ y-made yn; & y wyl begynne at a symple wounde y-mad in flesch.

¶ þe secunde Chapitell off þe thridde techynge off the ffurst tretis is of cure of a wounde y-mad in fflesch.

Now we willen treten of a wounde y-makyd in fflesch. We wylle begynne at a symple wounde, y-mad wiþ knyff oþere wiþ swerd ore spere, oþere with arwe, oþere with enye oþere thyngePage  34 semblable to hem. Bynde togedyre þilke wounde with a band þat close þe wounde to gedire, & kepe þe wounde from swellynge, with þe whyte of an eyȝe y-leyde aboue þe wounde, & lete þat wounde ben in reste, & þere nedyth none oþere cure, namlye, whanne þe wounde ys withouten akynge; but and þere be in wounde gret akynge, þanne þere is a tokne þat þere ys a synwe prikyde vndire þe wounde, oþere a pannicle þat ys betwene þe flesch & þe bon, & þanne þere ys al an oþere cure, as y schal telle in þe chapitell of the puncture of a synwe. And y haue helyd a man þat was *sefenty ȝere olde, þat was y-smyten wiþ a spere þorwe þe flesch of þe buttoke by þe lengþe of a fote *& more, but þilke wonde touchyde non synwe; & þat y wiste sykerliche, for he had non akynge; y helde the wounde opyn al a day, with a lyte smal tente & a schert þat y myȝte wyte, ȝif þat he scholde ake on þe morwe & I comaundyde hym to reste, and on þe morwe y fonde non inflacion ne akynge, & þenne y caste aweye þe tente & lete þe wounde closen, & so y comaundide hym to reste, & wiþynne þe þridde day he was al hol. And ȝif þat a wounde were mad wiþ a swerd, oþere wiþ eny þynge þat [folio 45a] kutteþ in lengþe, a man most loke ȝif þe wounde be so litel þat he nede non sowynge, & þenne brynge þe parties of þe wounde togedyre, þat it may wel ben y-joynede, & leye above þe wounde a poudere y-mad of on partye of ffranke-Ensence,Page  35 & of two partyes of sancdragoun & of þre parties of quykelyme, & lete noȝt þe poudre entre wiþynne þe wounde but above, for þere schal noþynge entre withynne þe wounde, & kepe þe parties of þe wounde þat buþ brouȝt togedire with a plumacyole þre corneled y-made of hurdes oþere towȝ in þis manere {illustration}
on be þe sydes of þe wounde, so þat boþe þilke plumacioles holde þe wounde þus y-closyde {illustration}
& joynde togedire, as yt was joyned ere þenne yt was ykutte; & bynde þe wounde togedire abouen þe plumacioles, with a rolle þat goth twartoffere after þis lettere XX, & take a lynnen cloth & wete hym in two parties of whyte of an eyȝe, & in on partie of oyle of roses i-bete togedire, vndire þe plumacioles abofe þe wounde, þat ys y-browȝt togedyre, forto kepe þe poudre, & do noȝt awey þe medycine tyl foure dayes ben ago, but ȝif þat þe wounde ake, oþere ellys be to-swollyn; & þenne bynde þe wonde as yt was toforne, with þe whyte of þe eyȝe, oyle, poudre, & plumacioles. But ȝif þe wounde were so myche, þat þe byndynge wolde noȝt suffice, oþere were kutte twart offere þe lyme, so þat þe partyes of þe lyme myȝt noȝt wel be browȝt togedire, þanne sowe þe wounde on þis manere: joyne þe lippes of þe wounde togedire, & ware þat non oyle *ne dust, ne noþynge ellys þat lattyd consolidacioun, falle bytwenePage  36 þe lippes of þe wounde, & haue an nedle [folio 45b] þre kornerde, whose eyȝe scholde be holyde on boþe sydes, so þat þe *. [þridde cancelled before þrede.]þrede þat is in þe nedle may ligge in þe holwe place, & þilke schal be twynede, & withoute knotte & ywaxide, & þe lippes of þe wounde schulle ben sowyde togedyre, & þe þrede schal be knette with two knottes in þe firste place; in þe secunde place with on knotte, & so make as manye punctis as yt is necessarie, & eche puncte schal be from oþere by þe brede of a lytel ffyngere, & streyne þe wounde wiþ knettynge, & þe sowynge of þe lippes of þe wounde togedire þat he ake sumwhat, but noȝt to myche, & ȝif þat þere nede mo punctis to be þere þen two, efire more þere schal be odde punctys, as þre, fyfe, oþere seuene; & þe on puncte schal be fyrst from þe on ende of þe wonde by þe *. [sp. cancelled before brede.]brede of a litel fyngire, & þe oþere puncte schal be at þe oþere ende of þe wounde, & þe þridde puncte schal be in þe myddul of þe wounde; & ȝif it be nede to haue mo punctis, þou schalt begynnen at þe myddel puncte, & make as manye punctes on boþe þe sydes, as yt ys nede, tyl þou come to boþe endys; ffor by þis manere of sowynge neiþere partye schal be crokyde, & so þe place may fairere ben restoryde. And eueremore take hede, *ȝif þe wounde be noȝt depe, þy sowynge schal be nouȝt depe. And ȝif þy wounde be depe þy sowynge schal be depe, þat alle þe parties of þe wounde mowePage  37 be joyned togedire. Ffor ȝif þe wounde were depe, & þy sowynge were noȝt depe, nedys þere moste ben in þe depþe of þe wounde a gret holwenesse, to þe whiche holwenesse blod & quyter scholde be cast; & þilke quyter & blod scholde lette þe [folio 46a] helynge of þe wounde. And þe poudre þat ys seyde in þe same chapytell schal be leyde aboue þe same sowynge, & þou schalt kepen þe sowynge & þe parties of þe wounde, þat buþ brouȝt togedyre, with plumacioles þre cornelyd & with alle oþere þynges þat beþ in þis chapytel forseyde. And ȝif þat a wounde haue be to longe in þe eyre opyne, whiche þat ys cause of quyter þat latteþ consolidacioun, þenne we moste clense þe wounde with*. [MS. þat.] þis mundificatyff, þat is mad of floure, of whete & hony & watyre oþere mel rosate, & colat þat ys y-clansed from þe roses, & of barly mele. Of þese mundyficatyfes þou schalt han a ful techynge in þe laste tretys. But ȝif þe wounde be y-componed, a leche moste han as manye intensiones as þere ben accidentys to þe wonde. Y sette ensaumple: y suppose þat a wounde be componed with holwenesse & lesynge of fflesch & of skyn, & þere be myche quyter & al so þere be a posteme & þere be grete akynge, al this ys clepyde a wounde componyde. Þanne we schulle noȝt only take hede to consolidacioun of þilke wounde, þat is to sigge helynge, but firste wePage  38 schul aswagen akþe & aposteme, as yt schal be tolde in þe chapitle of aposteme & of akynge; aftirwarde we schullen clanse þe quyter, & aftere þat regenere fflesch, & at þe laste brynge ouere a Cicatrice. In alle þe werkynges of medicine, where þat akþe ys, ffirste we schulle aswagen akynge; ffor abouen alle oþere þynge stronge akynge, ouere comeþ myȝte of vertu & strengþe, & also resoun tellyth; membrys þat han akþe, þilke akþe ys cause of drawynge from oþere places to þe membre þat akeþ*. [MS. akþe.] þe worste þynge of þe humoures. Avicene seyth humours beþ drawen to [folio 46b] lymes þat aken for two causes: On cause, for kynde *& Spiritus and humoures rennyth þedyre; þe secunde cause, for akþe feblyth þe lyme, & humours *& spiritis renne to þe feble lymme. Þe swellynge schal ere ben y-helyde þen þe wounde. Galien & Avycene tellen þat alle þynge þat consoudeþ þe wounde, grefyþ þe wounde, ȝif þat þere be aposteme with þe wounde, & þe quyter schal ben y-clansyde, ere þenne þou legge enye generatyff to holwe woundys. Avicenne tellyth a cause, why þat yvele flesch growith in a wounde, ȝif þat a leche wolde besy hym with a medycin regeneratyff to engendre flesch in a wounde, ere þanne þe quytire were clansede. And whenne þat þe wounde ys clensyde, þenne we schulle fulfyllen þilke holwnesse withPage  39 flesch, ere þanne þat wounde ben y-helyde; leste þat þere dwellen an holwnesse vndire þe wounde whenne þat he ys helyde, in whom þat quyter scholde be engendryde, þe whiche eche day scholde augmente þilke holwnesse, & so we moste ben constreynede to opyne an oþere tyme þat, þat was helyde tofore. Þou mayste fynden aftere in þe chapytell of woundys of synwes how þou schalt aswagen akþe, and in the sixte Chapitell of þis techynge þou schalt fynde þe cure of a wounde, þat hath a swellynge, and ys out of kynde dystempryde, and þou schalt have in þe chapitle of olde woundys; how thou schalt clense, quytyre, and regendre flessch //

[folio 47a] Cap. iii. of the þridde techynge of the ffurst tretis is of helynge of a wounde y-makyde in synwe.

Almiȝtie god hath ȝife to synwe gret felynge, & ȝif þat he be hurt he suffrede grete akynge. Galien: a synwe that is more felynge þen anoþere *lyme yt is nessessarie þat he have gretter akynge. Vndirstonde þat a wounde þat is y-makyde in a synwe, may nouȝt ben wiþouten akynge. The woundes þat beþ y-makyde in synwe, oþer þey ben in lengthe oþere þey beþ in brede. Þo woundes þat beþ y-mad in lengthe of þe synwe beþ lasse perylous,Page  40 & þo þat beþ in brede of þe synwe beþ more perilous. Oþere whyle a synwe ys y-kut al atwo, & þenne þilke lyme to whom þilke synwe serfede, lesiþ þe menynge & þe felynge þat þilke synwe brouȝt to hym from þe brayn. Oþere while þulke synwe is nouȝt y-kut a two, but he is y prikyde, and þenne it is perel lest þe crampe come for to gret akþe. For akþe entrith in to þe part of þe synwe þat is y-kut oþer priked, & by þe party of þe synwe þat is hol akþe is brouȝt to þe brayn, & so crampe may comen to þe wounde by on of þre weyes, þat is to gret akþe colde oþer rotynge. Of þese þre oþere ellys of on by hym self, may come a drawynge togedre of a synwe þat is a cause of a crampe; & þat þat is seyde of wounde of a symple synwe, oft-tymes may fallyn in a wounde of a corde & a brawn, & namlyche of a corde þat is in þe bygynninge of a brawn. Þe woundes þat ben in þese þre consimel membris, þat is *to sigge, synwe, corde, & brawn, habben on drede in course of þe crampe, & also on drede of lesynge, felynge, & menynge, & þerfor be war in þe cure of a wounde i-makyde in synwe, wheþer þat þere be a prikynge, oþere þat þe synwe be y-kut twartofere, oþer ellys be y-kut only by his lengthe. Ȝif only he be y-prikyde þe wonde of þe skyn is hol, & þenne it is clepyde a blynde puncture, oþer þe wounde is opene & it is clepide an opene prikynge. In a blyndePage  41 prikyne hit is necessarie to opyn þe skyn, & afterwarde held in to þe hole, as [folio 47b] hot as he may suffren, oyle of roses swote smyllynge, þat is y-made of oyle de olyffe, þat is nouȝt rype tyl þe wounde be al ful. & aboue þe wounde leye whyte terbentyne y-drawe abrod betwene tweye cloutes, & anoynt al þe membris about þe wounde wiþ hote oyle of rosys, y-made þikke wiþ bol Armonyak, & after þat leye a lynne cloth y-hat aboue, & after þat a gode quantyte of towȝ y-tosyd, & bynde þe lyme*. [MS. lynne.] softlyche wiþout streyninge; & ȝif þe akþe wiþ þis medycine wolde nouȝt cese, remeffe & chaunge þis same medycine oft tymes in þe day & in þe nyȝt, & ȝif þe prikynge be in þe fot, anoynte þe grynde wiþ hote comyn oyle, & vndire þe Arme holys & in þe nekputte, ȝif þat þe prikynge be in þe hande. For þys vncture ratefieþ & efenyþ þo placys by whom akþe goth to þe brayn, & it lattiþ drawynge togedre of þe synwe, & þowȝ þat þou sest nouȝt akþe, sese in some men, as hastly as þou woldyst, nevere þe later chaunge nouȝt þy medycine, for þere may be no bettere medycine. But ȝif þat akþe dure ouere longe yt is nouȝt efel to putte a lutyl opin to þe oyle of rosys and þe bol armoniak, þat þou leydest aboute þe wounde. Þe seke man most reste, & byPage  42 no weye he scholde nouȝt be wroþ, hys bed most be made softe euene & smeþe þat he myȝte haue rest. Whanne þat þe akþe aswagyth & þe wounde gyueth sum qyter, þan þe syke man ys saf from al manere peryle, but ȝif he do enye newe error. Of þis wounde ypocras spekiþ: In vulneribus malis & fortibus sanie non aparente malum, þat is to seye: in evyle woundys & stronge woundes, ȝif no quyter apere, hit is yuele. Stronge woundes ben y-clepyde woundys þat sore aken. Iuel woundes beþ þo, to whom scharpe humores rennyth & beþ nouȝt obedyent to kyndlie hete to ben turnyde into quyter & þerefore ypocras seyde, þat whanne þat akynge sesyth & quyter aperith, yt is a tokne of hele. Þe þridde signe a man moste [folio 48a] knowe in þis place, þat lewyde men seyne akynge & swellynge in a lyme y-woundyde, leggen þereto a maner potage y-mad of erbys & swynes grese, water, & floure of whete, corupyn þe lyme, & þilke corupcioun is cause of þe crampe; for Galyen seiþ þat a synwe is mad of a moiste matere & a cold, & he rotyth of hete & moistnesse. Also sum men forto aswage þe akþe of a synwe þat is y-prikyde, putteþ þe lyme in to hote water,* oþer ellys caste it on þe lyme hot water,*. [hot water, insertion.] þe whiche water is most grefes to þe synwe. Galyen: hote water þowȝ it aswage akþe, to thePage  43 prikynge of a synwe ys most greuest; colde also gefyth sore þe synwes as wel in somere as in wyntere. Ypocras in þe ferthe partye of his Amphorismes: colde is bytinge and grefes to woundys; and also in þe chapitell nexte folwynge, bot it be in a crampe wiþ out wounde. Galyen seiþ in þe ende of his comente: colde is most grefest, to a synwe lyme þat is y-woundyde & ys toswolle, namly, & he haue þe crampe. Hit sewiþ þenne þat an hote medycine & a drye is most accordynge to synwes þat beþ y-woundyde; bot nouȝt to hot a medycine, leste þat he make þe lyme toswellyn; & drye nouȝt wiþ stipticite, lest he close þe pores of þe schyn. Galyen seiþ: it is yuel to close þe pores of a lyme þat is y-prikyde. Þe medicyne þenne most ben hote & drye, wiþ subtilite as terbentyne to moiste bodyes; & to drye bodyes, he most be medlyde wiþ a lytel eufforbium. Asa fetida is best medycine, ȝif þou make of hym emplaster, serapinum, & þe feces of wax, & þe fylthes of vesselis of been, alle þey ben gode to a synwe, þat is prikyde, wheþer þou put iche be hymself oþer opyn hem; & þou schalt fynden a ful techynge of þese medycines in þe Antitodarie of þis boke. Þou schalt nouȝt closenPage  44 a wounde, where þat þe prikynge of a synwe is, ere þan þe synwe be perfitlye clansyde & helyd, & ere þou be sykere þat þe place schal nouȝt swelle. Galyen tellyth of a man wiþ a poyntel in þe pawme of þe hand, to whom come one of [folio 48b] Tesilies clerkys, þe whiche toke hede to helyn alle woundis generalyche, & he leyde to þilke prikynge a consoudynge oygnement þat was more acordynge to a wounde y-makede in fflesch, & he leyde þereto a maturatyff plastre, where fore al þe hand rotyd, & he fel into a crampe, & so he dyede ere þe vii dayes were passyde; & ȝif þat þilke leche hadde y-made þilke wounde braddere, & þenne & hadde y-helde in þe wounde hote oyle of rosys, and þenne hadde abyde quyter wiþ hote medycines sotyl & dreying, & noȝt wiþ moiste medycines, þilke man ne scholde nouȝt haue ben ded. Ȝif þat a synwe hadde ben kut twart ouer al atwo þenne, þawȝ þat tedericus & summe oþere sigge þe contrarye, hit is good þat þou sewe togedre þe hedys of þe synwys þat beþ y-kutte, wiþ þe sowynge of þe skyn & abouen þilke maner of sewynge, þe first day leye oyle of roses, in þe whiche oylePage  45 Maddokkys, þat beþ wormys of þe erthe, haue ben boyllede; and caste aboute þe wounde þe poudre þat kepyth þe sowynge a day oþer two afterward, & kepe þe sowynge wiþ plumacioles þre kernellyde & wiþ*. [wiþ above line.] byndynge, & kepe þe lyme from swellynge, ffor by swyche a manere sowynge of þe synwe þou maiste consoude þe synwe ageyn, for þe lym scholde haue lost in party oþer in al the meuynge, þat was y-browȝt to hym from þe brayn, for by þilke synwe þat lyme may rekeueren hys felynge, & so þe restorynge of þe brayn may be more schaplokere & fastere. Ne þou ne schalt noȝt drede of þe akynge þat scholde be made of þe prekynge of þe nelde, for þe akþe schal be don awey by one leggynge to oþere tweyne of þilke oyle; ne swyche manere akþe may noȝt make þe crampe, for þe synwe ys al kutte atwo. Ne no man *make an obiectioun wiþ galyens wordys, þat we scholde be ware in ioyninge þe partyes of a wounde togedre, [folio 49a] þat non here ne oyle ne scholde noȝt entre wiþynne þe lippes 4of a wounde, þat beþ y-brouȝt togedre.* To þilke obiectioun we answeren, þat þe stipticite of þe roses & þe oyle þat was nouȝt ripe, & þe glutinosyte of þe wormys of þe erthe remywen þe akþe of þe synwes, & al þe harme þat scholde comen of þilke sewynge. Ȝif þat a synwe were woundede in lengþe he may be wel & lyȝtlyche y-soudyde togedire, wiþPage  46 ioynynge of þe lippys & wiþ sowynge & wiþ kepynge of þe lym, þat he scholde*. [scholde, error for swelle, or it belongs to: scalle, scalde, scalled, scab. See W. Wright, and Cathol. Angl.] noȝt. Understande here in þis place, þat þere is no þynge more worschipful to a leche ne more profytable to a seke man, þenne to kepe a lyme y-woundyde from swellynge, & naþeles it is hard to kepe synwys þat beþ woundyde from swellynge. Naþeles a leche here schal take hede aftere þe techynge þat schal be geuen to hym in hys chapytell of þe cure of a wounde, whanne þat þere ys wiþ hym a swellynge. Ȝif a wounde were chaungyd of þe eyre and mad quyter, þat þe sowynge were tobroke, & þe punctis weren vndo, þenne make a medycine mundyficatyff, & leye hym abrod on a lynne cloth, & leye it aboue þe wounde, & put a lytel smal tent in þe one ende of þe wounde þat is most declynynge; & þilke tent schal touche non synwe, ne make non akþe, vndire þat þat þilke wounde be wel dryede. A mundificatyff medycine of synwes y-woundyde ys y-made in þis manere: ℞. mel rosat colat [ounce] iii smal floure of barly [ounce], & medle hem togedre & boyle hem slyȝly þat þey brenne noȝt, & remywe hem from þe fyre & bete hem togedre longe wiþ a spator, & þenne put þere to [ounce]. of whyte terbentyne, & ȝif þou maiste fynde no whyte terbentynePage  47 wassche it wyth colde watyre, tyl it be whyt; & whenne þat by þis medycine þe wounde is almost drye, þenne put in þe same medycine a lite smal poudre of franke ensence, mastike, & sank dragoun, & medle hem to gedre, & leye aboue þe wounde tyl it be al hol; & whanne þat it is hol manye dayes aftere, leye flax in gode stronge hot wyn, tyl yt be al hol perfitlyche. & ȝif þat þere leue enye hardnesse [folio 49b] in mevynge, aftere þat it is hol, þenne þou schalt vse the techynge þat schal be geuen to þe in þe laste tretys, þat schal be antitodarye in þe chapitle of medycine, molyficatyffes; þere þou schalt fynde þe manere how þou schalt helpyn beste lymes, þat beþ y-helyde & mowe noȝt ryȝt wel meffen.

The furþe techynge of þe firste tretys is of helynge of a wounde y-makyde in bon.

Whenne þat woundes beþ so depe þat only þe flesch is nouȝt y-woundyde, but þe bon þat is vndire þe flesch & þe synwe, þenne a man most byholde wheþere þat þe bon be kut al atwo, as ofte tymes yt may happen in þe bon of þe thyȝ & þe schynebonys, & þe bonys of þe Arme, & þenne þylke wounde is ful perylouse; and namlye, ȝif þe bon of þe thyȝ ore þe bon of þe arme, from þe schuldre to þe elbowe, be y-kutte al atwo, so þat þe marye gon out. But ofte tymesPage  48 on bon of þe schyne, oþere in bon of þe Arme, ys ykutt al atwo twartofere, & naþeles afterward may be restoryde; oþer a bon ys nouȝt ykut al atwo, but sum of his substaunce ys done aweye, and þilke substaunce oþere he ys don al aweye, oþere he hongyth to gedre. A general rule ys in cure of woundes in whom bonys ben woundyde, þat neuere by a leche flesch shal be y-sowdyd aboue þe bon, but first þe bon plenerlyche be repeyrede; ffor þe bon may neuere with verrey consolidacyoun ben consouded, for his matere was þe sperne of þe fadire & þe modire, but in somme children for þe nyȝte of tyme þat þey were sperme (sic); but þere schal be mad a manere restorynge in plas of þe bon þat was broken oþere lost. þat men clepen porrus sarcoydes oþere ellys caro poroydes, & þat manere thynge þat is restoryd is hardere þe flesch & nesschere þen þe bon; & ȝif þat þilke mater þat is restoryde by neye*. [MS. neþe.] as hard as yt were a bon, yt is clept porus sarcoydes; & ȝif þat þilke mater be nouȝt harde, but sumwhat [folio 50a] nessche, yt is clepyde caro poroydes; ȝif þat a nesch fflesch & a moist were noȝt regenered vpon bonys þat ben set togedre, a man scholde noȝt han his purpos to helyn & to consoude þe wounde. Loke þenne wheþere þe bon be kutte a-twoPage  49 al togedre twartofere, þat þou brynge togedre, & bynde the partyes of þe wounde as yt schal be tolde in þe eyȝte chapytell folwynge, where þou schalt han hou a wonde schal ben helyde þat is out of joynt, y-kutte atwo & tobroke. & ȝif þat a bon be noȝt kutte atwo al togedre twartofere, loke ȝif enye pece of þe bon dwelle sadlyche to þe on partye of þe hole bon, & þenne ȝif þou myȝte brynge þilke pece to þe place þat he was yn tofore with þrustynge don þilke pece with sum Instrumentis acordynge þereto, & sowde þilke pece wiþ þe hole bon with þe poudre, þat y schal tellyn afterwarde; for so þe schap of the lyme may dwelle fairere & strengere. & ȝif þat þilke pece haue no fastnesse to þe hole bon, do þat pece awey, & þenne regenere in þe place of þe bon þat was lost a repairment. Ffor þowȝ þat ypocras & Galyen tellyn þat it ys necessarie aftere þe quantite of a bon þat is lost, an holwe cicatrice to be alwey, naþeles wiþ þis poudre þe generacioun of þese pores may be mendyde noȝt a lytel, but ryȝt myche. Þis is þe poudre: Take ffrank ensence, Mastyke, Mirre, dragagantum gu. arabyke ana. [ounce]. ij., flour of ffenngreke, [ounce], [one half], cast þis poudre a gode quantite vpon þe defaute of the bon þat was lost, tyl þat þou haue a plenere repeyrment *& a restauracioun. Þenne & noȝt ere brynge ouere fflesch ouere þe repeyrment with *generatyffes, mundificatyfes,Page  50 & consolidatyfes, aftere þe techynge that þou haddyst toforn. Undirstonde þat alle þynge þat ys seyde of bonys in þis chapitle, ys of alle þe bonys of þe body saff þe hed; & of þe bonys off the hed y schal make a chapytle by hym-selff.

Þe ffye Chapitle of þe þridde techynge of þe furst tretis is of woundis [folio 50b] that beth y-mad with smytinge.

The woundys þat beþ mad wiþ brosynge, as wiþ smytynge of a staf, oþere ston, oþer fallynge, oþere wiþ smytynge of an hors, oþer wiþ enye thynge semblable to hem, habbith gret differens from woundis þat beþ y-made wiþ kuttynge: as wiþ swerde, knyf, ore arwe prikynge, & in oþere manere þey schulle ben helyde. For þowȝ þat verreye consolidacioun be þe first & þe princypal Intencioun of helynge of a wounde, to þis chapitle it acordyth noȝt, ffor in smytinge, þe flesch & þe veynes, synwes & arteries ben y-brusyde; for in þe ynnere part of þe lyme þe bon aȝeyne stonde, & on þe vtter part þe þynge þat smyteth & kutteþ noȝt, wherefore it is necessarie, ȝif þat þere scholde ben a wounde, þat alle þe smale lymes þat beþ bytwene þe bon & þe þynge þat smyteth, scholde be brusyde; &Page  51 oþerwhyle þe flesch & þe oþere consimele membris beþ brusyde witout wounde, wherefore þe cures of boþe y wyl ordeyne in this chapytle. Ȝif þat a leche wolde enforce hym to Iune to gedire with consolidatyfes þe wounde þat is mad wiþ smytinge, nedys*. [MS. nedyth.] quyter & corupcioun by þilke consolidatyff, most be vndire þe wounde; þe whiche quyter scholde corumpe þylke lyme & brynge hym to putrefactioun, but ȝif þe kynde were so myȝtye, þat he myȝte eftesonys opyne þylke wounde, þat was consouded by a sorye leche, oþere þat a gode leche come & knewe þilke dispocisioun, & couþe helpe wiþ propre cure to rettefien þe corupcioun off þilke lyme. What schaltou þanne do? Þou most loke wheþere that þe body be ful of yuell humores, oþer be clene; ȝif þat he be ful, lete hym blod, ȝif alle partikelere þynges acorden: as vertu, Age, complexioun & consuetude; & þese þynges þou most alweye taken in þy mynde, þowȝ alweye þey ben nouȝt y-nempnyde, & namlye vertue; & he be nouȝt stronge & alle oþere þynges acorden, þou schalt nouȝt leten blod, bot þou [folio 51a] maiste ventosen, ȝif þat it be necessarie, oþer ellys lose *þe wombe ȝif þat he be costyff; & ȝif þat he be feble, & the brosure were in þe ouere party of þe body, voyde þe feces of hysPage  52 wombe by clisterye. & ȝif þou wilt lete blod, þou shalt lete blod on þe contrarye party of þe veyne, bryngynge norysschynge to þe lyme þat was hurt; & þilke veyne þou schalt y-knowe, ȝif þat þou knowist plenerlyche Anotamye, þat y haue tauȝte þe in þis same boke. & whenne þat þe body ys y-clansyde, ȝif þat þe brosure be wiþout þe wounde, anoynt þe membre þat is y-brusyde, whiche þat begynneþ to han a postum, wiþ hote oyle of roses, & cast aboue a poudre y-mad of þe sed of mirtylles & bynde it softlye, for ofte tymes it nedyth non oþer cure. For þis medycyne fastnyth þe place, & defendyth hym from putrefacioun, & þowȝ þis medycine mowe noȝt letten alle þe mater from rotynge, naþeles yt deffendyth myche of þe same matere fro rotynge; & ȝif þat al þe matere may nouȝt be defendyde fro putrefactioun, but sum partye þereof putrefieþ, opene þe place & exclude þe quyter, & clanse al þe place. & his cure schal be seyde in þe tretys of apostomes & of exitures. But ȝif þat þe brosure were wiþ a wounde, anoynte about þe wonde oþere ellys þe place þat is y-brusyde, wiþ þe forseyd oyle of roses, & caste aboue þe forseyde poudre of mirtillyes, for þis medycine fastnyth þe place, ne yt ne letteþ noȝt corupcioun to spredyn, oþere to be drawe abrod, & it castith to þe wounde þe corupt mater, þatPage  53 is in þe place þat is brusyde. Wiþynne þe wounde leye þe ȝolke of an eye with oyle of roses, with stupes oþere ellys wiþ lynte; & leye aboue þe wounde a potage y-made off foure partyes of water & o partye of oyle d'Olyve & floure off Whete þat suffyseþ to þe medycine, & leye þis medycine to þe wounde, tyl þat þe akþe be aswagyde & tyl þat þe quyter be engendryde; afterwarde clanse þe wounde, aftere þe clensynge regenere, & at þe laste cicatryce, & þou schalt haue a ful techynge in þe Antiodarie of mundificatyfes, maturatyfes, & ȝicatrisatifes. [folio 51b] But ȝif þat þe membre þat was y-brusyde ys ful of synwes, as þe honde oþer þe fot, þou schalt noȝt chaunge þy cure ȝif þat þere be no wounde; but þawȝ þat þere be a brusure in a synwy membre y-woundyde, ne leye noȝt þere þe potage forseyd, but only hote oyle of roses, & aboue þe oyle poudre of mirtilles, & aboue þe wounde leye terbentyne iwassche & drawe abrod betwene tweye cloþes lynnen. & make enplastre of pych, hony & bene flour, & leye aboute a lym ful of synwes: as þe fot oþere þe hand, & specialyche whenne þat þe flux of humours seseþ. & þawȝ þat þi cure be drawe along, ne go noȝt awey fro þis cure; & whenne þat al þe akþe ys y-sesyd, & alle þe swellynge ys aswagyde, forto clanse þe wounde, vse þe medycine of mel rosat colat withPage  54 barly mele, y-sayd in the wounde of synwes. Þis cure ys aprefyde by galyen, & y haue preffyde þis medycine ofte tymes.

¶ The sixte Chapitle of þe þridde techynge is of Woundes þat han enpostemes, & beþ dystempryde.

A wounde þat hath aposteme oþer an yuel discrasie—þat is to sigge, out of kynde distempride, oþere to hote oþere to cold, he may noȝt ben helyd, ne schal nouȝt ben heled, but first þe posteme be aswagyde, & þe yuele discrasie be amendide. & as y haue seyde, in an oþere place, yt is profitable to þe syke man, & worschipful to þe leche, ȝif þat he mowe dyffende þe lymes þat beþ woundyde fro eny postemys, & fro an euyll discrasie. For þenne a leche schal kepe þe canon of galyen, þat is on of foure canones; on is to kepyn lymes in here owne kendlye complexioun. For woundys mowe noȝt ellys ben y-helyd, but ȝif þey ben brouȝt first to here owne kynde, & þe wounde may be kepte from aposteme & an yuell discrasie, ȝif þat þe leche be kunnynge & do hys deffere, & þe syke man be obedyent to þe leche. Þe leche mot loke [folio 52a] ȝif þat þere haue go blod ynowȝ out of þe wounde; & ȝif þat the wounde haue noȝt bled blod ynowȝ, þe pacyent most ben lete blod, oþere ellys benPage  55 ventusyde, takynge rewarde to alle partikelere þynges tofore seyde, & ordeyne hym a couenable dyotynge, as schal be tolde in þe Chapitell of dyotynge; & leye a defens aboute þe wounde: [ounce] j of bol Armonyake, distemperid wiþ oyle of rosys & a lytel vynegre, to þe þiknesse of hony; & ȝif þat þe tyme of þe ȝere were hot, put to þis medycine þe jus of sum colde erbe: as morel, nyȝtschode, penywort, virge pastoris, oþere sum oþer colde erbe; & bynde noȝt þe lyme to harde, ne lete noȝt þe lyme hongyn; but ȝif it be þe arme, honge him aboute þe nekke; & ȝif it be þe fot oþer þe schyne, lete hym ligge; & ȝif þat þe lyme akþe, aswage þe akþe wiþ anoyntynge of hote oyle of roses. Ffor as Galyen seyth: þere is noþynge more grefes, þan ys akynge & declynacioun of a lyme, for þese two makiþ sone an hote swellynge, the whiche is to þe ffeuyre as a welle, & to þe body as an Ovyn. Þe woundyde man most absteynen hym, aftere þat þe chapitell of dyetynge techith; & boþe þe syke man & þe leche, & alle þat ben aboute þe syke, mote absteynen hem from fleschlye knowlachynge of a womman, ne a womman *in tyme of menstrewe, ne loke noȝt on þe syke man; & onys in þe day þe syke man schal schyte, & ȝif he may noȝt schyte kendly onys in þe day,Page  56 after þe quantyte of mete þat he haþ takyn, make hym a clistry, oþer a suppositorye onys iche day. & ȝif þou maiste noȝt with alle þese þynges defendyn þe lyme from aposteme, yt is an yuele signe, for þe lyme ys feble, & þe humores ben wykkede; þen begynne to maturen þe swellynge, with potage y-made off flour, oyle & water, oþer ellys with þis maturatyff: ℞ malwe leuys, leffys of vyolett, & þe rote of holy hokke; seþe hem [folio 52b] wel in water, & þanne stampe hem, & take a pounde off þe water þat þey be sodyn yn, & of comyn oyle [ounce] iij, of whete flour [ounce] iij, of flour of lynsed .[ounce]. j, of flore vynegreke [ounce][one half], of erbys i-stamped [pound].*. [MS. lj][one half]; & boylle alle þese togedire, in a pan ouere þe fyre, & stire yt wel wiþ a spator; & þis maturatyff leye on a lynne cloth, & leye on þe posteme, tyl þat yt be maturyd; & whanne þat þe posteme is matured, make þe quyter, ȝif þou maist, ben y-cast to þe wounde; & ȝif it may noȝt ben y-cast to þe wounde, opyne þe place þat ys most lowest þere, as þe quyter may best gone out; & þan helyn þe wounde, as y schal tellyn, in þe þridde chapytell of Apostemys. Take hede alweye to þis techynge, þat ȝif a posteme were for þe prikynge of a synwe, ne leye noȝt þereto þis potage maturatyff, but wyt þe vncture of oyle of roses & of oþer þynge, as yt is seyde in þe woundys of synwys. Þou schaltPage  57 y-knowe þe euyll dyscrasie of a wounde, ȝif þat þou sest the schyn þat is aboute þe wounde to reed, & to hot in felynge, þenne þe wounde is discrasyede in hete, namly ȝif þat þere come out of þe wounde a sotyll qyter & a red; & þilke discrasye þou schalt helpen with coldynge þe lyme aboute þe wounde, with oyle of roses, & with vnguentum album—rasis of ceruse—whyche þou schalt fynde in þe Antodarie, & wiþ ius of oþere colde erbys. & þou schalt knowe a colde discrasye by þe whitnesse oþer þe wannesse of þe place, & whanne þe place ys colde in touchynge, & whanne þat þe quyter is thykke; the whiche discrasye þou schalt remeffen, by þe vncture of hote oyles, as oyle of cost, oyle lauryne, oyle of enforbium, & so oþer hote oyles. A moiste discrasie þou schalt knowe by þe nesschenesse of þe place, & by þe Abundaunce of whit lyquyde rotnesse, þe whiche þou schalt helpyn with defficatyffes: as with wasschynge of wyn & honye togedres, in [folio 53a] þe whiche buþ y-sode balaustye, gallys, & þe ryndes off poume garnettys, oþer alle oþer some by hem-selffen. Þe drye dyscrasye þou schalt knowe by þe smalnesse of þe lyme, & þe smalnesse of þe lippes of þe woundes & litel quyter, ȝif þat the quyter be þenne; þe whiche discrasye þouPage  58 schalt helpen wiþ castynge on of hote water, tyl þat þe lyme wexe rede, & with an oyntynge of moiste grecys, as hennys, gosys & dokys, & þe marye bon of a Calff, & with plentefoste of gode mete, þat norysschyth, as þe brothys of flesch, & temperat wyn, & rere eyren, & smale fyssches, & oþere gode þynges, & with reste and with softnesse of alle þe body & of þe lyme þat is y-hurte; & alwey to þis techynge take hede, þat as sone as a membre ys y-broȝt to his kendlye dysposicioun, anon aȝeyne stonde with contraryouse medycine, & turne aȝeyne to þe pryncipal cure of þe wounde. But þynke noȝt to helyn þe wounde, as longe as þe wounde ys apostomyde, oþere ellys haþ an yuele discrasye, but first remywe þilke discrasye ere þan þou hele þe wounde. For whenne þat tweye þynges þat scholde ben y-helyde, buþ togedres, & þe on of hem mowe noȝt ben y-helyde withouten helynge of þe oþer, ffirst we schulle helyn hym, þat may noȝt be helyde withouten helynge of þe oþere, as þe posteme oþer þe dyscrasye; & þus Avycene techith in þe last chapitell of þe first bokys. Ne nevere þe latere ne forȝete noȝt þy pryncipal cure, þat whanne the accidentes ben asesyde, turne aȝeyne to þe princypale cure.Page  59

¶ The vij Chapitelle of þe þridde techynge is off a wounde y-made of a wod hounde, oþere of eny oþere venymouse bestys.

Whenne þat an hounde hath byten a man, ffirste loke ȝif þat þe hounde be wod; & ȝif þat þe hounde be noȝt wood, hele þe wounde as þou dost oþere comyn woundys; & ȝif þat þe hounde were wood, þou schalt y-knowe yt by certeyne causes, & by disposiciouns. [folio 53b] Ffor a wod hounde fleyth mete, & ffleyth watere, & oþerwhyle he dyeth whenne þat he seþ water; & he rennyth hydirwarde & þedirwarde, as a dronken man, wiþ opyn mouþ & hys taylle bytwene his leggys, hys tunge hongyth out, he wolde byte alle men, ne he ne knowyth nouȝt þo men þat ben his housholde, he berkyth noȝt; & ȝif þat he oþerewhyle berke, hys voys ys ful hors, & oþere houndys flen from hym & berkyn vpon hym. Also þou schalt y-knowe by dysposicioun of þe same wounde, for ȝif þat þou wetyst a crumme bred in þe blod of þe wounde & geuyste yt to an oþer hounde to etyn, he wyl noȝt etyn yt, & ȝif þe hounde etyþ yt he wyll deyen; oþere ellys take a note & stampe yt, & leye on þe wounde al nyȝt, & on þe morwe ȝif yt to an henne, sche wyl noȝt etyn hyt; & ȝif sche etyth yt sche wyl deyen. & anone as þou wost þe hounde ysPage  60 wod, sette a gret ventuse aboue þe wounde & drawe out myche blod out of þe wounde, & afterwarde drawe abrod þe wounde; & abouen alle oþere thynge brennynge of hote eyren to þe depþe of þe wounde ys most proffytable, & aftere leye aboue þe wounde attractyfes, to drawe out þe venym. Some of þese attractifes beþ symple, & some beþ componyd. Symple ben: þe lyffere of þe same wod hounde þat bote þe man, garlyke y-stampyde, salt fyssch, asschys of vyne, Opopanac ys wondirful, þe leuys of a Gourde, & þe rote of ffynegreke, þe gele of fyssches, & amptes y-stampyde. Þese medycynes ben componyde: vryne of a ȝonge man, with nytre oþer myntes, i-stampyde with salt & distempred with vynegre, & y-mad in emplastre. An oþere medicyne componyd: ℞ floris eris & salt ana ten parties, & þe fat of a calff twelf partyes, & make a plastre. An oþere: take schepys talwȝ & buttre, & make emplastre. Þis wounde schal ben y-holde opyne at þe leste fourty dayes; al þis schal be do about þe place. [folio 54a] In an oþere manere regimen vndirstande, þat þe man þat is y-bete ne schal nouȝt be lete blod in the bygynnynge, lest þe venym be drawe abrod by oþere lymes. Ne þou ne schalt ȝif hym non laxatyff, lest yt drawe þe venym to þe entraylles withynne; but þou schalt setten on þe place a strongePage  61 ventuse, as yt is seyde tofore, þat he mowe drawe myche of þe blode. & whenne þat þre dayes ben passyde, yt is nouȝt yuele to leten blod, & to purge with a lyȝt purgacioun, þat purgith þe malyncolye, as with decoccioun of Epytemum, with gotys wheyȝ; & norissche hym with dyetynge, þat fattyth hym & make glad & bliþe; & wassche hys hed with decoccioun of water, þat þe fet & þe hed of a weþire ben y-sodyn yn. Ne lete hym nouȝt þrustyn, ne suffren hungyre ne trauell, & so ȝif þat god wyl, þou maiste kepen hym from peryle. & euery day to a moneþ ende, he schal taken oþere symple medycynes, oþer componed. *Symple buþ: Asa ffetida. Asa dulsis, polm,*. [polium, Paley.] terra sigillata, Wermot, Kockull,*. [Kockull, Nigella. See Prompt. Parv., p. 86.] mirre & gencyane. Medycynes componed gode: *℞ þe assches of crabbys y-brent in an Offyn .iiij partyes, of ffrankensens vij partyes, make a poudre; þe pacient schal take iche day of þis poudre [dram] .ij wiþ wyn. An oþer: ℞ þe poudre of crabbys y-brende vj partyes, of gencyane iij. parties, terre sigillate one partie, make poudre. Ȝif þat þou were noȝt at þe bygynnynge, & he bygynneth to haue yuele Accidentes, as yuele þouȝtes, schrewyde metynge in his slepe, & þat he be wroth & grucche & wot noȝt why, & ȝif men aske hym enye þynge he ȝeuyth no gode answere þere to, & ffleyþ lyȝt, & he hath alle oþere signes of malencolye, þanne ȝif to hym a medycine y-madePage  62 of cantarydes. Take olde grete kantarydes & do aweye þe hed & þe wynges ȝ. ij., lentys I-clansed ȝ. j., saferen, spikenard, clowys, canell ana ȝ. [one half].—in oþere bokys—ipone hem wel & make of hem smale ballys þat weyȝen j. penye wyȝt; & ȝif a ball at þre tymes, at iche tyme þe wyȝt of vij cornys of whete, tyl þat he pysse blod, for þenne he schal be saff. Ffor whenne þou art sykere, hele þe [folio 54b] wounde after þat fourty dayes ben passyde, in þe same maner. Ȝif þat a wounde were mad of þe bytinge of an eddre, oþere of eny oþere venymouse beste, þe leche schal take hede to drawe abrode þe wounde & setten abouen a ventuse & drawe out myche blod, & yt is myche worþ to enviroun þe place abouten þat is y-betyn wiþ brome y-stampyde. Ffor ȝif þat þe prikynge be in þe fot oþere in þe hande, ȝif þou enviroun þe arme oþere þe legge with brome, yt latteþ þe venym to gone vpwarde; & ȝif hym þe medycines y-wryten aboue, & also tryacle, & lete þe wounde be opyne, tyl al þe venym be escludyde.

The viij. Chapytelle of þe þridde techynge of the ffirste tretys is of a wounde y-made in a joynt & is dislocat.

Whenne þat a wounde is in a lyme & þe bon of þe same lyme ys tobroken atwo & is dislocat—þat is to sigge, out of joynt,Page  63 þanne it is gode þat þou putte in þe wounde, whanne þe blod is y-staunchyde, & also aboue þe wounde, þe ȝolke of an eyȝe, with oyle of roses, & anoynt alle þe lyme aboute þe wounde, wiþ two partyes of oyle of rosys, & wiþ half on party of vynegre, y-made þikke with bol Armonyake, tyl þat þe quyture be engendered,*. [MS. engenderes.] & þou be sykere þat none Aposteme schall come. Ne take none hede to brynge togedere þe parties of þe bon þat is tobroken oþere dislocat, tyl viij daies ben go in þe wyntire, & fyff in the somere; for þenne yt schal make quytere, & be sykere from swellynge; & þenne brynge togedire þe brekynge oþere þe dysynncture aftere þe techynge þat schal be seyde in þe Chapytell of Algebra. & ȝif þat þe brekynge oþere þe dyslocacioun nedyþ splyntes, make þat þe splyntes & þe byndynge faylen aboue þe wounde; & þat þou maiste do, ȝif þat þou kyttest þe splyntes & þe byndinge aboue þe wounde with a knyf oþere a rasoure, & in drawynge abrod þe hole of þe bonde aboue þe wounde [folio 55a] wiþ a nedle, so þat þou maiste by þilke hole euery day chaungen þe medycine of þe wounde withouten chaungynge of þe bonde, þat þou madest firste aboute þe bonys þat were broke oþere dislocat. Þe whiche bonde þou schalt nouȝt remeffen, tyl þe tyme þat schal be tolde in hys place; bote you schalt bynde aboue þilkePage  64 bonde a newe bonde, þe whyche þou schalt remeffe, as often as þou chaungiste thy wounde. & whanne þou art sykere from empostomynge & þou haue sette togedire þe bonys þat were sette togedire & dislocat, þenne leye vpon þe wonde by þe hole þat þou madyst in þe band a mundifycatyff of mel rosat colat, & of barlye mele, tyl þe wonde be clansyde; & leye on þilke mundyficatyff þredys of olde clene whyte lynne cloþ, tyl þat þe wounde be ful clansyde; afterward regenere fflesch, & aftereward consoude wiþ regeneratyfes & consolidatyfes, whiche þat schullen ben seyde in þe ende of þe boke.

The ix Chapitle of þe þridde techynge is of fflux blod off a wounde.

Þere beþ two manere causes þat makyth blod to bleden out of mannes body; þat on cause is clepyde cause conjuncte, & þat oþer cause antecedent. Þe encheson of cause conjuncte ys openynge of þe mouþes of þe veynes & þe Arteries, oþer ellys whanne þat the veynes beþ kut atwo, oþer ellys corosion of þe bodyes of þe same veynes & arteries, oþer ellys to gret feblenesse, oþere to gret losnesse. & þere beþ manye enchesouns & causes antecedente: as to mychePage  65 fulnesse of blod, oþer ellys to myche Acuyte of blod & also manye oþere causes; and þere beþ oþere causes þat beþ clepyd causes prymytiff; as smytinge þat wondiþ, to gret lepynge, cryinge, wraþþe, chydinge, & so many*. [MS. may.] oþer & iche of þese causes tofore seyde haþ hys manere helynge by hym-selfen in fesyke medecynal. Bot it ys noȝt þe entencyoun of þis boke, to tretyn but of blod, þat blediþ of wounde, þat is y-mad wiþ wounde, the [folio 55b] whiche may be restreynde by crafte of surgerye. In flux of blod, that comyth of a wounde, þe leche most loke þe disposicioun, þe Abytude, Age, vertu & complexioun of hym þat is y-woundyde; & ȝif þat þese acorden, & he be myȝtye in vertue, he schal blede myche blod at hys wounde, þowȝ þat þe leche be clepyde at þe bygynninge, bot ȝif it so be þat he feble ouere gretlyche. & ȝif nede constreyne þe leche to staunche þe blode, he most loke ȝif þat þe blod go out of þe Veynes capyllares, þat beþ smale veynes as herys of mannys hed; & þanne only þe whyte of an eyȝe, y-leyde aboue wiþ towȝ of flex suffiseþ, whenne þat þe parties of þe wounde beþ brouȝt togedire; & ȝif þou cast aboue þe poudre of lyme, tofore seyde in the chapytell of sowynge of woundes, yt schal be þe betyre; for þe poudre wiþstreyneþ þe blod & consoudeþ þe partyes of þe wounde, togedire.Page  66 & ȝif þe blod come from gret Veynes, he may noȝt so sumtyme be constreynde, but it nediþ a strengere medycyne & also a more cautele; & ȝif þat þe blod go out of an arterye, þou schalt y-knowe yt be constructioun & dilatacioun, of þe same arterye—þat is to sigge, þat þe blod goþ out with lepynge, & oþer whyle with wiþdrawynge, & þenne sette þy fyngere vpon þe mouþ of þe gret veyne, oþere ellys þe Artarye, & holde þy fyngere þere on by a grete oure; for þenne by hap sum grete drope of blod may be congelyde togedre, & þereby vertu may be myche y-comfortyde. Afterewarde leye plentyfullyche of þis medycine vpon þe *. [wounde, cancelled before veyne.]Veyne oþere þe arterye þat is kut atwo. ℞ ffrancencens, whyȝt gommous & fat ȝ. ii., Aloes ȝ. i., make poudre & distempre with þe whyȝt of an eyȝe as þykke as hony; after take herys of an hare smale & kutte, medle al þis þynge togedire, & þere ys no medycine so gode as þis medycine is, in streyninge of blod & consoudynge þe Veyne. Bot whanne þat þou comyst to chaunge þe medycine of þy wonde, do noȝt awey þe medycine wiþ strengþe, but [folio 56a] leye aboue of þe same medycine moist, to nessche þe firste medycine, þat yt myȝte fallyne awey by yt-selff. Naþeles yt is possible, þat a medycine caustyke, þat ys to sigge a medycinePage  67 þat brennyth, sennore staunchyth blod, þenne þis medicine of encense; & þou schalt haue gret plente of medycine caustyke in þe antitodarye, but we beþ nouȝt sykere þat þe blod of þe Veyne, oþere þe arterye an oþer tyme wyl gon out, whanne þat þe serche of þylke caustyke medycine ys remywed awey. But þy medycine of ensence, with þe herys of an hare, noȝt only staunchiþ þe blod, but also consoudeþ þe Veyne, & þe Arterye, as y haue preuyde yt ofte tymes. And forto ȝif Autorite, I sette an saumple, þat come sum tyme to myn handys: A childe of þre ȝere olde, hadde a lyte knyf in hys hande, & he fel on þat knyf, & þe poynt of þe knyf, in þe fore partye of þe þrote, persyde þe Veyne organys; ne þere ne couþe no man yt staunche, & þanne y was y-clepyde & y come to þe child in gret haste, & he hadde almoste loste hys syght; for hys eyȝen in hys hed were turnyde vp so doun, & þe blode come out of þe wounde, whyte as wheyȝe, ne he ne hadde no pous, & þenne y leyde my fyngere on þe hed of þe veyne, & y helde faste þat noþynge myȝte go out, & so y helde þe veyne by a grete houre, & þe vertue of hys body þat was almost lost quyknede aȝeyne, & þe pous bygan to apere ffeblyche as yt were a smal þreed. Þanne yPage  68 sente to þe spysers schoppe, þat was a grete weye from me, ne y ne remywede noȝt awey my fyngere from þe place tyl þat þe messagere come aȝeyne, & þe childe þenne bygan to opene hys eyȝen; and þanne y ordeynde þilke medycine to be mad, & plentyffuliche y leyde it abouen þe wounde, and y bonde þe wounde with plumaceoles & with stupes y-leyde in whyȝt of an eyȝe, & with a bande y bonde yt streytlye, & y comaundede hem to gyuen hym crommys of brede, y-leyde in water; and on þe morwene y come aȝeyne, & þenne y fonde þe childe y-cunffortede & neuere þe latere y wolde nouȝt vndo þe medycine; þe ffadire [folio 56b] preyde me wiþ grete instaunce to se þe wounde, but y wolde nouȝt; & so y lete yt be, tyl foure dayes were passyd, withouten remeffynge & naþeles y vysitede hym every day; in þe fourþe day y vndyde þe bande, & þe medycine was drye aboue þe wounde, so þat y myȝte noȝt haue remywede hyt withouten grete Vyolence. & þenne y leyde aboue þe whyte of an eyȝe, with a lytel oyle of roses, & so y lafte yt by on day. On þe morwen y turnyde aȝeyne, & þenne y remeffyde awey þe medycine withouten Vyolence, & þenne y fonde þe wounde & þe Veyne al hol. And of þis helynge þe fadire & alle his neyȝhboures hadden gret wondire. And ȝif þat with þis medicyne þou maiste noȝt soude þe Arterye, ne þe Veyne, ne þou ne maiste noȝt constreyne þe blod for sum oþere Impedement,Page  69 þan þou moste oþere bynde þe Veyne, oþere drawyne here out of here place, & wynde þe hed of þe Veyne oþer Arterye, oþer þou most brenne here wiþ hote yren, & maken on here hed a grete croste & a depe. An oþere exaumple: þere was a childe of xv ȝere olde, þat smot hym-self with a smal knyff, & þilke knyff persyde on Veyn of þe Arme, & prikyde a Veyne þat lay vndire þilke synwe. & for þe prikynge of þilke synwe he hadde grete akynge, & blod ran to þe wounde & noȝt aȝeynestondynge medycines þe blod ran out at þe wounde. Kolde medycines weren profitable to bledynge of wounde, and colde medycines beþ greffes to prikynge of synwes; for þey stoppyn þat lyme & þat ys contraryus aȝeyns þe synwys; and þenne y demyde necessarye to drawe out alle þe Veyne out of here place & to bynde here & to helpen þilke synwe with oyle of roses. But þe modire of þilke childe sende for a lewyde leche, whyche þat reprevyde fouliche my doom, & he behyȝte to helyn safflyche þe childe. He dwellyde on þe cure, & y went my weye. Þe whyche leche toke hede to hym be ten dayes, þat neiþere þe akynge sesyde ne þe blod was noȝt y-staunchyde, & so þe syke man was [folio 57a] nyȝh ded. And at þe laste y was clepyde & y wolde noȝt come to þe pacient. But þenne a ffysisyen þat was frende to þe man of þe pacyent, blamyde þe modire & here frendys, þat þey hadde lefte my consayllePage  70 for þe byhestys of þylke ydyote; & þilke ffysisyens proposyde, aftere þat he had herde my counseylle, þat þere was non oþere wey þat myȝte saue þe syke man from þe deþ, & þenne he askyde a surgyne, wheþere he couþe don as y hadde seyde byfore; & he seyde þat he couþe so don, & so he dyde. He kutte þe skyn aboue þe Veyne, & twynede þe veyne in his handys, & bonde þe ende of þe Veyne wiþ a þrede, & afterwarde he hylde on þe synwe hote oyle of rosys, & so by þis counseyle he was restoryde aȝeyne to hele. But ho so þat wolde aske how þat he myȝte so manye dayes be kepyde from þe crampe, for þat he suffryde so grete akþe, I answere & sigge: þat þe cause was, for he bledde at þe wounde eche day, so þat þe synwe ne myȝte noȝt be to myche replet oþere fulfyllede of blode. Alle þese thynges y haue tolde, þat he þat redyth hem may þe wyslocor in semblable causes wyrchen. And ȝif be þis medycyne he myȝte noȝt sykerliche be restreynede, þat fallyth ryȝte selden, þenne me moste brenne þe hed of þe Veyne oþere of þe synwe wiþ hote yren, þat þilke hote yren myȝte maken an harde croste. And be war þat þou touche noȝt þe lippes of þe wounde, ne þe synwe, ne non oþere thynge, bot only þe veyn with hote yren. And ȝif al þis crafte wolde noȝt helpyn me, men most drawen out þe Veyne, &Page  71 flene þe flesch aboue here & wynde þe Veyne sadlyche & bynde here hed with þyn handys. And sum tyme yt happyth, þat an Arterye is y-broke oþere y-kutte, & þe flesch þat is abouen ys hol & noȝt to-broke ne y-kutte, oþere ellys þe flessch þat is aboue þe Arterye ys y-helyde & noȝt þe Arterye, & vndire þilke flessch þere is a swellynge of blode [folio 57b] that is y-clepyde Aporisma oþere matere Sanguis & þere of þe pacient hath grete drede, lest þat þe skyn tobreke & þe blod gone out, þe whiche blod is hard to restreyne. Of þis manere seknesse spekyth Galyen, & seiþ þat a seruaunt of swyche a dysposisioun was y-helyde of a lewyde man, þat tauȝte hym þat he scholde legge snowȝ vpon þat seknesse, wherfore a man may vndirstande, þat to swyche empostemys colde medicynes & drye beth necessarye.

Page  72
¶ The x Chapitle of þe þridde techynge of þe firste tretys is of men that beth y-woundyde.

Many men discorden of dietynge of men þat ben woundyde, for sum men ȝeuen to alle men þat ben woundyde, wheþer þat it be in þe hed oþer in enye oþere place, gode wyn & stronge flesch of capouns & of hennys; and þey affermen þat by swyche a manere weye seke woundyde men sonnere ben y-helyde, ffor þey siggen þat watyre putrefyeþ lymes, þat beþ woundyde, & engendrith Apostemys & corumpyth & feblyth complexiouns, & makyth many harmys. Sum oþere men gouernen alle manere of syke men þat beþ woundyde with brede & water & Applys y-sodyn, tyl x dayes ben passyde, & ȝif þat god wyl ende þis bok, yt schal be remeffynge awey Errores, & declarynge & opnynge Dowtous. Y sigge, þat boþe þese sectes erryn in here opyniouns, ffor þey taken hede onlyche to here experymentys, noȝt considerynge resoun of þe complexioun of hym þat is y-woundyde. The firste secte of þese *seyth þat some men, onlye etynge bred & watere, in so myche ben y-feblyde, þat blode & matere in here bodyes may noȝt be restoryde; þe whiche were suffisauntPage  73 to hele with here woundys, bot þey ben so feble þat þey dyȝen, oþere ellys þey langoren longe tyme; ne þe lyme may noȝt resseyuen resonable vertue, as he scholde; & þese manere of men ben of a colde complexioun & a drye, & here bodyes weryn feble.—*The secunde secte seyth þat some þat dronken [folio 58a] wyn & etyn flesch hadde in þe membre þat was y-woundyde a gret enposteme & a ffeuyre— and þo beþ ȝonge men þat beþ of an hot complexioun & a moyst— wherefore þey comaundyde to alle oþere manere complexiouns, þat þey scholde noȝt drynken no wyn, ne eten non flesch. Þe vnderstandynge of boþe þese sectes nys noȝt comendable and þerefore y folwynge þe doctryne of rasys, Avence, galien, & of oþer doctoris, & also experymentis, þat y haue longe y-preuyde, sigge þat it is nedefull in þe bygynnynge þat a woundyde man Absteyne hym from wyn & namlye ȝif þat þe wounde be in þe hed, oþere in eny partye of a synwe. For þere nys noþynge þat so sone smyteþ with grevaunce þe hed oþere þe synwe as wyn; for he ys sone conuertyde of kendlye hete, and for he ys so sotyll, he persyth swiþe into þe synwes & he assendyth sone into þe hed, bryngynge with hym humores and spirites. Yt trublyth a mannys wyt, & wyn greuyff alle men that haþ a feble hed; & þere fore in alle manere woundysPage  74 of þe hed & off synwes, he schal be forebode in þe bygynnynge, & namlye to þo þat han hot complexiouns & moiste, into þe tyme þat þe cure be ful endyde; & to þo þat beþ of colde complexioun, whenne þre dayes ben passyde, þou maiste ȝeuen to drynke a smal temperat wyn, & afterewarde a lyte strengore; aftere þat þou art sykere, þat þere schal noȝt comen to þe membre non Aposteme., But his drynke schal be watyre of barlyche oþere watire þat crommes of brede ben sodyn yn, wiþ oþere colde watyr & namlye in sommere, & to þo þat beþ woundyde drynke watyre, oþere ellys wiþ tenþe partye of wyn of pome garnettys, oþere ellys wyth sixte partye of wyn agreste þat is smal broske wyn, oþere ellys þis is a perfyte drynke to wondys of þe hed & of synwys: Take a potell of watyr & of barlyche y-meynde [ounce]. iij, juiube, sebesten, ana .ȝ [one half], of drye prunes of damacynes [dram] .j., sucre of rosis [ounce] ij, sethe hem to þre partyes ben consumed, & þenne lete hym drynken yt. Sothlye þis drynke ys alteratyff: þat ys to sigge chaungynge, ne hyt ne swellyth noȝt. & yt latteþ fumosites to arysen to þe brayn. [folio 58b] Of metePage  75 y sigge: þat to hym þat is of an hot & moiste complexioun, be non manere weye ne scholde noȝt be ȝeffen flesch, ffysch, Mylke, eyren, ne no manere conuertyble mete, bot ȝif þey weryn ouere come with to gret febylnesse; but he moste holde hym content with Iuse of barlyche, oþere ellys of otys wiþ almaunde mylke; out take wounde of þe hed, where y ne Apreue noȝt Almaundys, ne non oþere vaporose frutys, as notys oþer walnottys oþer Avelanes, for þey hauen a manere fumose proprete greuynge þe hed; he may etyn Amidun, betes, letuse & bred y-wassche wiþ succre, ȝif þat he were feble. And ȝif þat myȝte noȝt Abstynen hym from flesch, ȝif hym flesch of smale chyknes, & of smale briddys: as larkys & oþere sengle briddys, & kyddes & lambres, & kalffes I-saveryde with agresta, oþer with wyn of pom garnett; & þis dyetynge he schall vse, tyl he be sykere from swellynge, & þat þou schalt y-knowe, whenne þat Akynge, swellynge & extencioun of þe lyme ben secyde & þe wounde is almost consouded. Ȝif þat it was a wounde þat was sowyde oþere brouȝt togedyre with byndynge, in whom quyter was noȝt engendryde, and ȝif þat it was a wounde y-mad wyth smytinge—oþere ellys y-chaungyde with þe eyre, in whom yt is nedfull engendrynge of quyter, þenne yt is sykere þat yt schal nouȝtPage  76 enposteme, whenne þat he makyþ quyter plentyouuslyche; & whenne þat þe lyme ys wel dysposyde & noȝt toswolle, ne y-drawen abrode. & ys wiþouten akynge, & þanne chaunge a lytel & a lytel hys dyetynge, tyl þat þou come to hys dyetynge, þat he was wont to vse tofore. And ȝif þat þe pacient were of a colde complexioun & a drye & þat he hadde by nature oþere by costeme a feble stomak, [folio 59a] þanne yt were necessarye to ȝeuen hym at þe bygynnynge flesch a lytel y-saueryde with swote spysorye: as kanell gyngeffre & oþere semblable to hem & to ȝeuen hym in þe bygynninge Julep—þat is a syripe y-mad only of watyre & of sucre—& aftere þre dayes ben passyde, wyn, and boþe in þe on complexioun & in þe oþere complexioun. Ȝif þat a bon were y-broke, wiþ a wonde ore wiþouten a wounde, aboute þe ende of þe cure, þat is to sigge, whenne þou art sykere from a posteme & swellynge, yt is gode to ȝif norysschande mete, þat it myȝte make a gode & a stronge repayrment of þe bone þat was tobroke: as with ffurmente y-sode, & potage of floure wel y-sode, & with þe extremetes of bestys, as fette & swynes groynes & oxe wombys wel y-soden, & with swiche oþere þynges by whom a gode ligamente & a stronge may wel be engendrede. Where fore yt is necessarie to a surgyne to knowe in hys dyetynge, vertues of complexiouns, Ages, regeouns consuetudes & þe tymes of þe ȝere, þatPage  77 he mowe chaungen his dyetynge, aftere þat dyverse condycioun askyth*. Ne he ne schal noȝt aftere on manere of counseylle proceden in hys dyetynge.

¶ The xi. Chapitle of þe þridde techynge of þe firste tretys is of olde woundes.

¶ Olde woundes ben mad of kuttynge oþer of openynge of a posteme, oþere ellys of a wounde þat is noȝt helyde in his tyme, oþer ellys of sum manere fleynge oþer of brennynge, oþer of to grete hete, oþer of to grete drovþe, oþer to gret colde constreynynge, oþere of to grete Abundaunce of moist mater corumpynge. For euery olde wounde, hauynge rotenesse oþere virus þat is þenne venemy quyter, oþer eny oþer þynge þenne gode quyter nys noȝt y-clepyde wounde, but is y-clepyde vlous þat is an olde wounde. And of þis Vlcus, Rouland & Rogerine, & þe most partye of men þat ben now, clepyde it festre, oþer cancre. But it is neiþere festre ne cancre, but festre & cankre habbe dyfference from þis. [folio 59b] Vlcus, as a propre þynge hath dyfference, from a þynge, þat is comyn; for euerye festre & euerye cankere, þat is y-woundyde, ys y-clepyde Vlcus, but yt ne syweth noȝt þat euerye Vlcus, ys clepyde cankre oþere festre, as y schalPage  78 tellen opynlyche in euerye chapytell be hym-self. Auesene seyth þat þere ben sixe manere of þese Vlcus, for sum ben Venemy, sum hory, some depe, some cauernouse oþere y-hud, sum corosyff, sum rotyne, some Ambulatyff—þat is spredynge abrode, & some hard to consouden. Of þese manerys tofore seyde, some hath acordynge with festres in toknes & in fourmes: as Venemy & holwy, & sum han acordynge with cancre: as spredynge abrode & fretynge hym self. And naþeles þey habbe difference as yt is conteynede in þe chapytelles of cancre y-woundyde & of festre. & alle þese tofore seyde habbith difference from a wounde, for in a wounde þere ys whyte quyter & euene in al his partyes & hol & noȝt departyde, —& withouten stynke. Þis manere of quyter is engendrede, of godnesse of kendlye hete & is perfitlye deffyede. But vemyn, rottenesse, & croste, & alle oþere superfluyte of olde woundes ben engendred of a straunge vnkendlye hete. A venemy Vlcus is, in whom habundeþ venym sotyl & liquydy. Ȝif þat yt be red oþere ȝolwe, oþere a partye redyssche, & scharpe bytynge þe lyme, hit synifieþ lordschipe of straunge hete. An hory olde wounde ys y-clepyd, þat haþ sum grete crostes, oþere ellys sum grete awrotyngePage  79 proud flesch to hyȝe. A depe Vlcus is þat þat haþ a gret depnesse & an holwe, & peraunter crokynge. A wrotynge vlcus is þat of hys malyce wroteþ, bycause þat þe blod þat is sent to hym, is to scharpe. Galien: scharpe blod noȝt onlyche cordyth noȝt *flesch in woundes, but also hol flesch. A rotyde vlcus is stynkynge, habbynge a straunge hete in his grounde, & out of hym passith out a stynkynge smel oþere smoke, as þere doþ [folio 60a] out of flesch þat is y-rotyde. A walkynge Vlcus is þat walkeþ hyderwarde & þedirwarde & naþeles he profundeþ noȝt depe into þe grounde. An Vlcus þat is hard to helyn, is he þat for his yuele proprete, þat is sende to hym fro al þe body, latteþ hym to hele. & forto helyn euery manere of þese hulkes, þere ben manye dyverse rulys. Þe firste rule ys þat þey mowe noȝt ben helyde, but þe superfluytes þat ben in hem ben dryed. Þe secunde rule ys þat ȝif þat þe body oþere membre be out of hys naturell complexioun, ere þan þou þynke to hele þilke Vlcus, þou moste bryngen aȝeyne to hys duePage  80 complexioun distempride*. [At the margin.] þilke body oþer membre. Þe þridde rule ys, þat ȝif þat þe lyfere oþere splene ben y-greuyde, as yt happyth ofte tymes in olde woundes, þou most retyfien hem. The fourth rule ys: þat þe qualites & quantytes of humours scholde be tempride with blodletynge, & purgatiouns & with gode governaylle; and ȝif þat þe eyre be yuel, þe syke man schal be chaungyde into gode eire. And whanne þat þe leche haþ tofore seye alle þese þynges, þenne he may go to hys cure. & ȝif þat þe Vlcus be Virulente, þat is to sigge Venemy, loke ȝif þat þe Venym þat goþ out be redyssch oþere ȝolwe, & ȝif þat the lyme haue enye manere hete; & þenne wassche it wiþ water þat rosys & barlyche Alum & balaustia & lentilis with honye symple oþere componed ben sodyn In. And lete þis watere percen to þe depthe of þe wounde. And ȝif þe Virus be withouten hete & þe membre haue non hete, wassche it with water oþere wyþ wyn, þat Mirre, wermot, horhowne, sauge, pympirnel, honye symple oþer componed ben sodyn In. Clanse þe wounde perfitlye & engendre flesch & afterwarde consoud it with þis propre oygnement, þat in olde foule venemy woundys oþer Vlcus engendrethPage  81 flesch, clansyth & helyth as Auecene & Rases wytnessith, litargium nutritum. ℞ litarge as myche as þou wylt & stampe it & put it in a mortere & [folio 60b] putte wiþ hym gode oyle of roses & vynegre, now þe on now þe oþere, alweye steryinge, tyl it be perfitlyche augmentyd & come to þe fourme of an oygnement. & þis oygnement—litargirum nutritum—þat is to sigge litarge y-noryssched, þat is profitable in many casis. Afterwarde take of þilke litarge viij partyes, & of alym, & of balaustie oþere ellys, in þe stede of balaustye, wormys of þe erþe y-brend, brend bras, brent led, gallys, sanke dragoun, cathimie, Argenti ana as mychel as ys .xij partyes of alle þe oygnement, and medle al togedre, & make an Oygnement. Þis oygnement schal be leyde withynne þe woundes & aboue þe wounde, for yt dryeth þe wounde, & engendrith gode flesch & consoud. Take hede to þis rule, þat in helynge of alle olde woundes, aftere þat þey ben clansyde, aboue þe oygnement yt is gode of one a lynnen cloþ, forto dystende abrode on of þe mundyficatyfes of hony whiche þat schulle be tolde in þe antitodarye. And leye aboue aboute þilke vlcus, & specialiche from þe ouere partye, fro whom humores flotyn, a*. [MS. &.] defensif of bol Armonyake & terraPage  82 sigillata þat is mad on þys manere: ℞ bol armoneake [ounce] j terre sigillate [dram][one half]., oyle of rosis & vynegre, þat suffyseþ, now do in þe on, now þe oþer, tyl þe oygnement be ful mad & lyquyde ynowȝ; so þat of þe oyle of roses be duble as myche as of þe vynegre. Þis diffensiff defendiþ a membre fro corupcioun, & also Vlcus þat he sprede noȝt abrode. An hory wonde ys y-helyde, in remeffynge awey þe croste oþere þe fylthe þat is in hym with poudre of affodylles schal be sayde in þe ende, oþere with sum oþere mundificatyfes; afterwarde consoude yt with consolydatyfes. A depe wounde ys y-helyde in castynge in to þe [folio 61a] depþe of þe wounde with an instrument y-mad to þe lyknesse of a clisteyre, any of þe wasschynges þat beþ seyde in þe Venemy wounde aboue, after þat þe disposisioun of þe membre askeþ of hete oþer of cold. And aftere þat he is y-clansyde, in castynge in water oþere in wyn þat mastyke oþere frankensence ys y-soden yn, & in leggynge without, on of þe mundificatyfes of hony, þat schal be sayde aftere. & also it is gode to ordeyne þe lyme, so þat þe mouth of þe wounde honge dunwarde, & streyne þi ligature at þe grounde of þy wounde & bynde it looslye at þe mouþ of þe wounde. And also yt were gode, ȝif þat it myȝte be, þat þere were made a newe wounde in þe place þat is most hongynge þat þePage  83 rotnesse & þe quytere myȝte þe betyre gone out, for so þilke Vlcus myȝte sunnere be helyde. A ffretynge vlcus ys y-helyde, in leggynge specialiche aboute hym colde þynges, whiche þat obtunden oþer castyn bach þe scharpnesse of þe same Vlcus, & also in amendynge with metys & with drynkes the scharpnesse of þe same blod, & in purgynge þe rede colore & with anoyntynge wiþ colde oygnementes & consolidatifes, & þereto is myche worþ vnguentum album Rasis, þat schal be told in þe antitodarye. A stynkynge wounde ys y-helyde in remevynge awey þe stenche & þe rottenesse, & þerto ys myche worth a wasschynge of ydromel þat is hony & water y-sode togidre wiþ mirre, & a mundyficatiff y-mad with Ius of wermot & barly mele & hony & mirre, þat is made on þis manere: take jus of wermot .[ounce]. iiij, of hony [ounce] iij, of barly mele .ȝ. ij, off mirre [ounce] .j., compone hem togedire, & fulle þe wounde, wiþynne forth wiþ lynete of lynnen cloþ. & ȝif þat wormys ben engendride in þe wounde, sle hem wiþ jus of calamynte, oþere with þe juse of þe leuys of pechys, oþere ellys persicarie, oþer with decoccion [folio 61b] of ellebre. And whanne þat a perfyte mundyficacioun is mad engendre flesch & consoude, as yt is seyde tofore. A walkynge Vlcus ys y-helyde with flebotomye & ffarmasye þat is laxatyfes purgynge þe colere &Page  84 brende humoures, & in leggynge aboute a defensif of bol & terra sigillata þat is seide tofore in þe same Chapytle, & with on of þe colde mundyficatyfes & sum tyme men most cauterise þe Vlcus aboue with an instrument of gold. for þilke manere of brennynge rectefieþ wel þe membre. Þe cause why þat sum Vlcus is hard to consoude is, for an yuel disposicion ys y-hydde in þe bodye, & þerefore it nedyth to retyfien þe membre & þe body as y haue seide to-fore. And ȝif þe cause be opene, on oþere manye, do aweye þilke causes oþer ellys þo manye causes, ere þanne þou go to þe pryncipal cure. Þese ben þe causes þat lettyn consoudynge of olde woundes, an yuele disposisioun of alle þe body: as dropsye, oþer ellys an iuele disposisioun of þe lyuere: as ȝif þat he be to feble, as to hot oþere to colde, to moiste oþere to drye, with mater ore withouten matere, as wiþ to grete hardnesse; oþere ellys þe spleen is to feble to purge þe malancolyent blod; oþere ellys to myche blod, oþere ellys to acute blod; oþere ellys þe veynes beþ to ful of blod, þat goþ doun to þe Vlcus; oþer ellys curnellys þat glandeles, þat beþ kurnellys þat beþ in þe grynde, þat sendiþ doun matere to þe Vlcus þat is in þe thyȝes & þe legges, oþer ellys þe lippes of þe Vlcus beþ to grete & hard, oþere ellys to myche flesch, oþer ellys mysordeyninge ofPage  85 dyetynge, oþer ellys an vncouenable medycine to þilke membre, oþer ellis þe lyme þat ys y-hurt haþ an yuele discrasie, oþere ellys þilke Vlcus is an yuele place—as in þe ende of þe elbowe, oþere ellys þe Vlcus ys al rounde, oþere ellys þe bon þat is vndire [folio 62a] þe vlcus is corupte. Alle þese tofore seide letteþ Vlcus to by helyde, wherefore yt nediþ þe, to take kepe to alle þese thynges tofore seyde, & to amendyn alle þe body, & namlye þe lymes þat habbiþ principalte in mannes body, & kepe alle þe lymes þat beþ in here naturell disposisioun wiþ þynges þat beþ acordynge to here naturel disposisioun, & ȝif þey ben discrasyede, remywe þilke discrasye with þat, þat is contrarye to þilke discrasye. Also tempre þe qualyte & þe quantyte of þe blod, & streyne þe veynes ȝif þat þey brynge þedire blod. Oþer ellys ȝif it is possible, lete þe blod aweye. Vndo glandeles, þat beþ kurnell þat sendeþ þedire mater, & remywe ded flesch, smale lippes of þe woundes þat beþ grete, & kytte hem awey, ȝif þou maiste do non oþere weys; amende his dyetynge, & brynge aȝeyne þe roundnesse of þilke Vlcus in to a longe fourme, aftere þe lengþe of þe membre, wiþ a knyf hot brennynge, but ȝif þat a synwe oþere a Veyne latte. And þou schalt remywe þe bon, þat is corupe on þis manere: unwrey al þe bon, in kuttynge awey al þe flesch,*—þe bon þat is corupte with an yren, oþer wiþ a medicyne þat schal be seyde in þe laste ende of þis boke. Oþer ellys it isPage  86 bettere to don it awey with hot yren & whanne þat þe bon þat is corupte is vnkeueryde, schaue yt noȝt as many men don, but touche harde þilke bon with hot yren & afterewarde helde on þilke bon hot oyle of rosys, & leye on one of þe mundyficatyfes þat beþ in þe antitodarye, whiche þat wylle remywe þe rotyde bon withoute violence. Ffor vndirstond wel, þawȝ þat þou clanse þe rotyde bon with schavynge oþere wiþ vylinge with vyolence, neuere þe latere kynde wyl afterwarde don aweye a schelle of þilke same bon, noȝt aȝenstondynge þy schauynge & þy raspynge; wherefore in remefynge þilke bon, þou multiplyest þy trauell, & þou makyste no mundificatioun to þe folle; & þerof may come ofte tymes, an yuele festre. And inconuenient medycine ys amendyde, in consyderynge þe complexioun [folio 62b] of alle þe bodye, & þe complexioun of þe lyme, & þe gree of þe medycine; for ȝif þat þe membre be drye as þe erys, noseþrylles & alle bony & grestly lemes, & þey han grete putrede & roteschippe, þenne þou nedyste a ful drye medycyne; & ȝif þat þe body oþere þe membre be naturellyche moist, ȝif þat he haue a lyte putrede oþere roteschippe, þanne thou nedyste a medycine þat ys lyte dryinge. And ȝif þat the body oþere þe lymes ben mene betwene fatnesse and lenesse—þat nys neiþere to fatte ne to lene, þenne þou nedyst a medycine þat is in kynde, mesurablyche dryinge.Page  87 And ȝif þat two membrys ben in complexioun i-lyche euene, & þe on haue myche quyter & þe oþere lyte quyter, he þat haþ þe more quyter nedyth þe dreyere medycine,*——afterwarde it nediþ by mesure þat þou kepe naturel þynge, with þynge þat is acordynge to þe same nature, and also to remeffe with mesurable contraryouste þynge þat is aȝeyns kynde. But þe quantite of medicynes þat scholde*. [MS. þat scholde, twice.] be leyde to þe sore, as Galien witnesseþ, ne may noȝt with lettres ben wryten. Neuer þe latere it suffisith, þat a man defye þe medycine, aftere þe complexioun may bere; ffor kynde þat is wondirfull fulfylleþ þynge þat is absent & þat þat is to myche castyth aweye, but ȝif þat it be to myche aȝeyne kynde; & þanne kynde most nedys faylen in his kendlye wirchynge. A medycine mundyficatyff & exsiccatif þat is necessarie in eche olde holwe, vlcere,*—may be knowe by þis manere: ȝif þat þe medycine make þenne quyter & blody & make þe wounde holwere þan he scholde be, þenne ys þe medycine to acute; & ȝif þe quyter be þikke & towȝ, þenne ys þe medycine to lythye; and also an oþere*. [medycine, cancelled before signe.] signe þatPage  88 þy medycine is to scharpe, þat þe place about þe wounde ys to grene, blake, red oþere to ȝelwe & þe syke man felyþ to grete hete [folio 63a] & brennynge, & also þe Venym of þe wounde multiplyeth, and whanne þe vnkunnynge leche seþ þese Accidentes tofore seyde, he ordeyneþ a dryere medycine; & so eche day þe wounde apeirith. And þe signe þat þe medycine is of feble dreyinge is þat þe quyter & þe rotnesse, þat goþ out þere of, ys gret in substaunce, ponderose & vneuene, wan oþer pale; þe membre is colde whyte oþer wan, oþer clere in coloure, oþer softe, & þe syke man felyth colde in his membre, & whenne þat þou knowist þese þynges in þe firste cas, make noȝt þy medycine so drye. In þe secunde cas make þy medycine more drye, & so chaunge þy wirkynge, as condyciouns of kynde askyth, boþe of body & of membre, as wel symple as componede medycines. He þat knowiþ noȝt þese kanones wel*—schal helen olde woundes; wherefore manye lechys brynge lyȝte woundes wiþ here iuele wirchynge, into þe worste olde woundes, þe whiche mowe noȝt aftere be helyde by a gode leche. Þese ben lyȝte medycines, whiche þat drye olde wondys þat neden a lytel dryȝinge; mastyke, ffrankensence, barlymele. Þese medicynes beþ sumwhat dreyere: yreos. Aristologia. Orobum þat is wilde Tare, lupines, þe rotenessePage  89 oþer þe dryȝe poudre of trees. Þese medycines ben strengere: balaustie, prosidye, rose, notys off Cipresse et. cet. And þese*. [MS. þese, twice.] ben lyȝte mundificatyfes in cure,*. [in cure, a scribal mistake from sugre.] hony, watire of barlye, gotyswheyȝ, water of þe see, water of brymston þat clansith & hetyþ, water of Alym þat clansyth & coldyth. Þou schalt haue grete plente of enplastres, mundificatyfes, and oygnementys componede in þe antitodarye of þis ilke booke.

¶ Cap. xii of þe þridde techynge of þe firste tretis is of a*. [of a, above line.] festre.

ffestre*. [MS. ffirste.] is a depe olde wounde and*. [in, cancelled; and, above line.] þe mouth is streyt of hym & þe grounde is brod, & he haþ wiþ ynne hym a callose hardnesse alle aboute, as yt were a gose penne oþer ellys a kane, & a ffestre haþ [folio 63b] diffence from a depe Vlcus & a cauernose; for a depe Vlcus & a Cauernose, of whom yt ys tolde in þe chapitle toforeseyde, þowȝ þat þey acorden togedire in depnesse & in streytnesse of þe mouþ, þe Vlcus haþ noȝt wiþyn hym a callose hardnesse, wherefore a festre may noȝt be clensyde with wasschynges, with þe whiche a*. [a, above line.] cavernose Vlcus may be clansyde, but it is necessarye, aftere þatPage  90 þou hast y-wasschyde yt, to remeffyn þilke callose hardnesse with a cauterye, oþere wiþ a medycine cauterysynge þat ys brennynge, þe whiche cauterye oþer brennynge scholde make þe depþe of þe Vlcus holwere þanne he was. Wherefore it is necessarie to a surgiene to knowe þe difference of þis scyence, þat he mowe conne hele boþe þe Vlcus & þe festre with medycines different þat longyth to hem boþe. And ȝif þat a festre be in þe flesch, oþer ellys bytwene synwe & synwe, so þat þe Substaunce of þe synwe be noȝt corupte ne þe bon, yt nys non nede to take non oþere medycine but egremoyne, & stampe hym wiþ salt, as þou woldest maken sause, & drawe out þe jus of þilke egremoyne, & do yt into þe hole of þe festre with a penne, & leye þe substaunce of þe same erbe þere-vpon, tyl he haue slaw*. [At the end of the line. One letter wanting.] alle þilke festre & y-clansyde yt; & þat þou schalt knowen by þe rednesse & sadnesse of flesch þat is withynne þe festre al aboute, & aftirwarde haue þis surype off honye, with þe whiche þou schalt wassche þe festre, þat ys now Vlcus componed, in þis manere:*. [Confection of syrup mellyne, in margin.] ℞ water [pound] .j., of vynegre [pound]. [one half], of hony despumed [ounce] iiij, off leuys of olyue-tre, y-bounde togedre with a þrede, [dram] .j., of [folio 64a] sagytelle [ounce] .j., boylle al þis to þe perfytnesse of a sirupe, & let ytPage  91 coldyn & do aweye þe leffys of þe olyfe, & kepe alle þe remnaunt of þe surype with þe leffys of sagytelle, & wassche þe Vlcus þa