Massachusetts Militia orderly book  1805-1811
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After the revolution, the United States army consisted primarily of local militias. State and local governments maintained volunteer armies to put down insurrections and protect the country from foreign enemies. As tensions grew between the United States and Britain before the War of 1812, particularly after the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair of 1807, the federal government became concerned about the lack of a centralized military. Fearing the expansion of presidential power, Congress passed the Insurrection Act, which limited the military powers of the executive branch. Though the President could request militia quotas from each state, state governors held authority over the state militias.

Captain Daniel Badger commanded the militia from Boston’s 5th district and Samuel Howe was clerk for this company. Other members of Badger’s family, including Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Badger and Joseph Badger, were also involved with the Boston military.