Manuscripts Division
William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan

Finding aid for
Francis W. Edmonds Papers, 1780-1917

Finding aid created by
Susan Swasta, September 1995

Summary Information
Title: Francis W. Edmonds papers
Creator: Edmonds, Francis William, 1806-1863
Inclusive dates: 1780-1917
Bulk dates: 1825-1863
Extent: 189 items (1 linear feet)
Abstract:
The Francis Edmonds papers document the art and business world of the early 19th century and the interrelationship between business and the arts. The correspondence reveals both the practical and aesthetic concerns of artists, and the interest of business men in art as a symbol of personal and national "culture."
Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu


Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

1992. M-2865.1.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

Copyright:

Copyright status is unknown.

Preferred Citation:

Francis W. Edmonds Papers, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Biography

Francis Edmonds divided his life between the art and banking worlds and came to be well-known and respected in both. As his dual career developed, ties were formed between these two seemingly disparate arenas, as artist colleagues and New York art associations benefited from his business skills, and friends from the business world were inspired to become patrons of the arts. Although Edmonds at times expressed regret that the necessity of earning a living kept him from devoting his life to art, he applied himself to banking with an energy and ambition that would not have seemed possible if there had not been a genuine interest there, as well. He was a complex man who managed to make the most of his varied talents.

The seventh child of Samuel Edmonds and Lydia Worth Edmonds, Francis was born in Hudson, New York on November 23, 1806. His father, a store-keeper, served in the state assembly and as county sheriff, then became Paymaster-General of the New York State Militia during and after the war of 1812. The boy showed a precocious talent for drawing and devoted all his leisure time to it, improvising on art supplies and technique. Visitors to the household were impressed with his work and took him on sketching trips to the Catskills and Niagara Falls. His parents gave some thought to apprenticing young Francis to an engraver, but the fee was too high, and he went to work on a farm after school ended. In 1823 Edmonds' uncle Gorham Worth, cashier of the Trademen's Bank in New York City, offered him a position as under clerk. Except for a brief period in the insurance business, he worked in banking for the next 32 years.

For some time Edmonds had no time for drawing and painting, but in 1826 began to attend night classes at the newly established National Academy of Design (N.A.D.). His work was well-received and he began to make contacts in the New York art world, doing paid work for engravers. In 1830 Edmonds moved back to Hudson for a position as cashier at the Hudson River Bank. Here he married Martha Norman and became father of two children, then moved his family to New York City, where he became cashier for the Leather Manufacturers Bank. Once again Edmonds did professional engraving for bank note companies while working as a banker. His painting, however, had suffered from the lay-off of his busy years in Hudson. Between the demands of job and family Edmonds managed lessons with artist William Page, whose sense of color he admired. Encouraged by the results of his renewed efforts, he prepared a small painting, "Sammy the Tailor," for the 1836 N.A.D. exhibit -- but insecurity led him to enter the work under an assumed name. Much to his surprise it was a hit, and Edmonds' painting career revived. Each succeeding year he produced two or three works for exhibit, and in 1840 was named a full member of the Academy (he had been an associate member since 1829).

Meanwhile, life became even more complicated. In 1839 Edmonds changed jobs for a challenging position as cashier of the troubled Mechanics' Bank, became treasurer of the Apollo Association (a society for the popular promotion of art), and in 1840 served on a committee which untangled the affairs of the Manhattan Bank. In January of 1840 his wife died of consumption. By fall he had suffered a nervous breakdown, and at the advice of doctors left for an extended vacation in Europe. It turned out to be the experience of a lifetime. Traveling in Italy, France and England with artist friends Asher Durand, John Kensett, Thomas Rossiter, and John Casilear, Edmonds finally had the opportunity to devote himself to the study and practice of art. He visited public and private collections, sketched and painted from nature and models, copied from works of the old masters, visited artists' studios, and for seven months immersed himself in sightseeing and in the European art scene.

Returning to New York, Edmonds remarried, to Dorothea Lord, in fall of 1841. During the next fifteen years he became a senior member of both the art and banking worlds, forming new connections and extending personal influence in both. He served as director of several companies and lobbied for banking legislation in Albany while continuing in his position at Mechanics' Bank. With other banking leaders he established the New York Clearing House, a central agency for the settling of daily bank balances. In 1854 Edmonds was appointed New York City Chamberlain, a position which permitted his bank to use city funds in making loans without having to pay interest on the deposits.

Continuing to work for the promotion of art, he became a director of the American Art-Union, recast from the Apollo Association. Along with Samuel F.B. Morse and Asher Durand he served as executive of the N.A.D., which expanded its activities and ambitions. With a group of fellow New York artists he founded the Artists' Sketch Club as a spin-off of a larger group which also included authors and patrons of the arts in its membership. This organization led to the formation of the Century Club. With his friend Jonathan Sturges, merchant and artistic patron, Edmonds helped to establish the New-York Gallery of the Arts and exhibited paintings there. At the behest of publishers, he also wrote for newspapers and periodicals on art and art exhibitions, and at some point in his life produced an autobiography (unpublished) with many details of the early New York art scene.

Amid all this activity, and with a growing family, Edmonds continued producing 2 to 3 paintings a year. These were exhibited at Apollo and N.A.D. shows and one, The Image Pedlar, was shown at the Royal Academy in London through the efforts of Edmonds's friend George Putnam. In 1850 his painting The New Scholar was engraved and distributed to members of the Art-Union as a premium. That same year Edmonds moved his family to nearby Bronxville, N.Y., where he had constructed an elaborate Gothic cottage, "Crow's Nest."

In 1855 Edmonds' carefully arranged world collapsed. His banking and business activities had become so complex that the boundaries between personal and professional interests blurred. In the mid-nineteenth century banking world accounting methods were loose, the making of loans often a quasi-personal matter rather than a rigidly defined institutional one. In taking advantage of this kind of situation, Edmonds was apparently no different from other bankers of his time, and thought nothing of it. But he had the misfortune to get into a personal conflict with the bank president, and waiting in the wings was an assistant cashier who aspired to become cashier. Edmonds was charged with embezzlement and newspapers printed the accusation. Whether or not the charges could be substantiated, the publicity ruined his career, and he resigned his position, although continuing as a director of the bank.

After a brief withdrawal from professional life, Edmonds took up an old activity which had combined his business and artistic talents, the engraving of bank notes. With Alfred Jones and James Smillie he formed the Bank Note Engraving Company in 1857. The next year the American Bank Note Company began to absorb most of its competition, and the three men sold out under favorable terms. Edmonds became director and secretary of the larger company and contributed original drawings for engravings. This turned out to be the last stop in his professional career. All the while he continued painting and exhibiting. The American Art-Union had dissolved due to legal problems in 1852, but Edmonds' association with the N.A.D. continued until 1860, when he and Asher Durand withdrew from active involvement after becoming frustrated by internal politics. By this time a group of New York artists had organized the Artists' Fund Society and held exhibitions of their work, so Edmonds continued to have a regular public showing of his paintings. He died in Bronxville on February 7, 1863, probably of heart failure.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The Francis Edmonds papers are about evenly divided between the banking and art scene. The collection is valuable in depicting the interrelationship between business and the arts in mid-nineteenth century New York, where a small group of men dominated art promotion and patronage. Edmonds, a man with one foot in both worlds, naturally occupied a prominent position, and his correspondence reveals both the practical and aesthetic concerns of artists, and the interest of business men in art as a symbol of personal and national "culture."

There are 70 different correspondents represented in this small collection, so its story must be pieced together from multiple fragments. Luckily, there are two published biographies of Edmonds which help to make sense of this scattered correspondence by placing it in context. Roughly, the letters can be divided into those from artists, those from business contacts, and those to or from family members. Their subject matter, however, is not so neatly separated -- and that is what makes the Edmonds Papers so interesting, for bankers talk of art in addition to business, artists of finances as well as aesthetics, and Edmonds may have been the only man to whom these combined interests were communicated.

The largest set of correspondence consists of letters from Francis Edmonds to elder brother John Worth Edmonds, who became prominent as a judge, politician, and writer on spiritualism. Letters written between 1823 and 1829 show the young man to have been much inclined toward personal improvement, and to have looked upon his elder brother as a worthy critic and role model. He self-consciously uses their correspondence as a means to improve his writing style and intellectual development, and mentions writing projects he is at work on. An 1829 letter refers to progress in art work: "About my neighborhood I am getting to be a little known as a painter however I am not at all intoxicated with success as yet."

Edmonds' letters to his brother reveal little of marriage or home life, but are good barometers of his psychological state and his views on life. Clearly he had no illusions about the business and political world, commenting in a March 31, 1829 letter that the Edmonds family had been "to [sic] kind in this world, too much trusting to the good will of mankind and they have suffered for their generosity. It is time we changed their nature's [sic]. ... if two hands are offered you spit in the worst & shake the best." Perhaps this attitude sustained him later on when he lost his prominent banking position, for he comments to his brother in October 1856 that "the sensitive feeling which has so influenced my conduct in going into the world is rapidly wearing away," which he knew would happen with time. In August, 1859, he writes that he is unhappy with his new position at the American Bank Note Company, and has to take the "bile" of those who are jealous and competitive of one another. It appears that he may have had an opportunity to regain his old bank job, but writes to John in 1861 that he has no interest in it, as his old boss would feel threatened by him.

Letters to Edmonds from John Gourlie, Charles Leupp, Jonathan Sturges, and Fanning Tucker, primarily dating from the 1840's, depict the interest in art held by some in the business world. These men, all of whom knew Edmonds in a business setting, also associated with him in societies for the promotion of art, bought and commented upon his paintings and those of other artists, and looked to him for advice when acquiring art for themselves. Many of the letters discuss both banking and art. A particularly interesting one, from Gourlie on June 15, 1841, criticizes artists' refusal to be business-like. Commenting upon rivalry between the Apollo Association and the N.A.D., he remarks that artists "are a queer set. ... So sensitive and at the same time so blind to their own interests." He believes popularization of art, as the Apollo does with its subscriptions for pictures or engravings, is the key to supporting artists, for "[a]ssociations in this country are what the aristocracy is in Europe." Gourlie asserts that rivalry between the Academy and Apollo is a good thing, for "rivalry is the life of all business and pictures may be made business matters as well as cotton or cocoa.!"

Yet correspondence to Edmonds from fellow-artists show them to have been aware that their work was a commodity. An 1841 January 30 letter from Daniel Huntington to Edmonds in Paris comments on hard times in New York, remarking that the arts are now "stagnant," as "[t]he mass of painters are I believe lasily waiting with hands in empty pockets for the revival of Commerce & the increase of orders for portraits." Huntington has sold a sketch he began in Rome of "one of those ragged and flea-inhabited beggar boys" for $100, and sold two heads painted at Florence for $150 each. He must be concerned with what will sell well "in these starving times." Artists Joseph Adams, Thomas Cole, and John Kensett also write of both art and money. They seem to have used Edmonds as a combination personal banker and agent, asking him to sell paintings for them, choose and execute stock transactions, or make loans with paintings offered as collateral. Because of his contacts he was also able to secure artists commissions, contracting with Cole for a painting, employing Asher Durand to copy a picture for engraving, hiring engravers to work from paintings to prepare Apollo Association and Art-Union premium offerings.

The artists' letters are highly interesting for their gossip and commentary on the art scene, both in New York and abroad. They describe work in progress, discuss the merits of major exhibitions, comment on the activities of the N.A.D., and chronicle the life of the expatriate artist as he moves from place to place in season, sending work home for display and (hopefully) sale, scrambling for funds to finance work abroad. It seems to have been a small and convivial "old boys' network" who worked and traveled together and critiqued each other's painting. Edmonds enjoyed seven months of the artist's life in 1840-41, and perhaps this cemented his position as an insider with other artists.

In two important letters of 1840 November 7 and 1842 December 14 Thomas Cole agrees to do a painting of Mt. Etna on commission and describes the finished product. He explains the location and elements of the picture in detail, noting that he may be accused of having "scattered the flowers with too profuse a hand. This is not possible. Sicily is truly the land of flowers..." He hopes the picture "will come to the lot of some one whom we would choose," or that "some good New Yorker will purchase it. I myself will give a hundred dollars & the View of Lake Schroon in Mr. Ridner's room for it." In April 1843 John Kensett writes extensively of the Paris art scene, describing specific works he has seen and including a small pencil sketch of one by Jules Louis Coignet.

Also of particular interest are three 1844 London letters from publisher and bookseller George Putnam, who worked to raise awareness of American art abroad. One solicits articles on American art from Edmonds, assuring him that despite prejudice there are many in England who would be interested in "a little information about American doings in some other arts than the art of raising the wind." In December, reporting on the disappointing reaction of a major critic to three American paintings Edmonds sent for display, he ruefully remarks that the criticism typified English ignorance of America. Putnam was advised to "'tell them to paint some American subject (!) Something of the Indian life.' He was rather incredulous when I suggested that Indians were as great a novelty, nearly, in New York as in London." Still, he wrote, hundreds had viewed and appreciated the paintings, so they had served a good purpose.

One letter in the collection involves neither art nor banking, but Civil War service in Virginia. It is from an old friend of Edmonds, William Fenton, who went to war along with his two sons and served as a colonel in the 8th Michigan regiment. Fenton describes a massive camp along the Rappahannock in detail and indignantly decries the "slaughter" at Fredericksburg as "almost unjustifiable," and due to "old fogeyism" in military strategy. "What was good strategy in the time of Napoleon may not be now." He criticizes political meddling in war and the advancement of "pets." Fenton encourages Edmonds to visit camp, for "[s]uch sights will never again be seen on this continent."

Besides correspondence, news clippings, some later genealogical material, and a draft excerpt from Edmonds' autobiography (ca.1860), the collection includes several pencil sketches by the artist. Eight rough but skillful sketches on small scraps of paper feature indoor and outdoor scenes of people and animals. One is water-colored. There is also a large preliminary study of Edmonds painting "The Bashful Cousin". It is not identified as such, and background scene and details differ from the finished version, but the two main characters are clearly recognizable.

Subject Terms

    Subjects:
    • American Bank Note Company.
    • Apollo Association.
    • Art--Exhibitions.
    • Art--Societies, etc.
    • Art criticism.
    • Artists--New York (City)
    • Artists--United States.
    • Banks and banking--New York (City)
    • Banks and banking--United States.
    • Journalism.
    • Letter-writing.
    • National Academy of Design.
    • New York and Harlem Railroad.
    • New York (State)--Politics and government.
    • Painting--United States.
    Genre Terms:
    • Sketches.
    Contents List
    Container / Location Title
     
    Francis W. Edmonds papers,  1780-1917 [series]
    Box   1  
     1780-1843
    Box   2  
     1844-1917
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Bibliography

    Clark, Henry Nichols Blake. Francis W. Edmonds. American Master in the Dutch Tradition (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988)

    Mann, Maybelle. Francis William Edmonds. Mammon and Art (N.Y.: Garland Publishing Co., 1977)

    Related Materials

    Hill, Marilynn Wood Francis W. Edmonds: artist, banker & gentleman farmer (Bronxville, N.Y.: Bronxville Historical Conservancy, 2001)

    Edmonds, Francis William.Unpublished autobiography . Microfilm copy in Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution

    Edmonds, Francis William. Papers. Columbia County Historical Society, Kinderhook, N.Y.

    Partial Subject Index
    Agriculture--United States
    • 1792 October 20
    Ambition
    • 1826 May 20
    American Art-Union
    • 1847 July 13
    • 1852 December 13
    • 1884, n.d.
    American Bank Note Company
    • 1858 August 26
    • 1859 August 10
    • 1860 May 3
    • 1863 February 13, 24
    Apollo Association
    • 1840 December 22, 29
    • 1841 January 28, 30
    • 1841 February 7, 9
    • 1842 February 19
    • 1843 February 21
    Architects--New York (City)
    • 1860 November 13
    Architecture
    • 1827 July 18
    Architecture--New York (City)
    • 1860 November 13
    Art
    • 1841 January 30
    • 1845 September 30
    Art, American
    • 1844 June 7
    • 1844 December 14
    Art--Commissioning--New York (City)
    • 1847 July 13
    Art--Exhibitions
    • 1841 May 25
    • 1841 June 15
    • 1844 June 7
    • 1844 August 17
    • 1844 December 14
    • 1845 March 2
    • 1852 June 13
    Art--Exhibitions--France--Paris
    • 1843 April 3
    Art--France
    • 1841 February 28
    Art-New York--Albany
    • 1852 December 16
    Art--New York (City)
    • 1840 January 30
    • 1841 January 4, 28, 30
    • 1884, n.d.
    Art--Societies, etc.
    • 1840 December 22, 29
    • 1841 February 7, 9
    • 1843 February 21
    • 1845 December 15
    • 1847 July 13
    Art--Study and teaching--New York (City)
    • 1846
    • [ca. 1860]
    Art--United States
    • 1841 February 9
    Art--United States--Foreign public opinion, British
    • 1844 June 7
    • 1844 August 17
    • 1844 December 14
    • 1845 March 2
    Art criticism
    • 1841 May 25
    • 1841 June 15
    • 1842 November 15
    • 1844 June 7
    • 1844 December 14
    • 1852 June 13
    Art patronage
    • 1852 December 16
    Art Union
    • 1844 June 7
    • 1844 December 14
    Artists
    • 1841 January 4
    • 1852 December 6
    • 1884, n.d.
    Artists, Expatriate--Europe
    • 1845 March 2
    Artists, Expatriate--France--Paris
    • 1841 February 28
    • 1841 June 18
    • 1843 April 3, 11
    Artists, Expatriate--England--London
    • 1852 June 13
    Artists--New York (City)
    • 1840 January 30
    • 1840 December 23
    • 1841 January 30
    • 1841 February 9
    • [1841] April 7
    • [ca 1860]
    Artists--Societies and clubs
    • 1847 July 2
    Artists--United States
    • 1829 January 22
    • 1841 February 28
    • 1841 June 18
    • 1842 February 19
    • 1843 April 3, 11
    • 1845 March 2
    • 1852 June 13
    Artists--United States--Biography
    • 1850 December 11
    • [ca 1860]
    Baltimore--Description
    • 1827 July 18
    Bank failures
    • 1841 February 7, 9
    Bank failures--New York (City)
    • 1857 September 29
    Bank failures--New York--Hudson
    • [1829] April 18
    Bank notes
    • 1858 August 26
    Bank stocks--New York (State)
    • 1832 October 15, 22
    Bankers--New York (City)
    • 1841 January 4
    Banks and banking
    • 1848 January 11
    Banks and banking--New York (City)
    • 1823 October 29
    • 1829 January 22
    • 1836 March 3
    • [1836] May 20, 29
    • 1839 May 28
    • 1840 April 13
    • 1840 December 22, 24, 29
    • 1841 February 9
    • 1841 March 29
    • 1841 May 25
    • 1841 June 15
    • 1843 February 21
    • 1857 September 29
    • 1858 April 14
    • 1884, n.d.
    Banks and banking--New York (State)
    • [1829] April 18
    • 1832 October 15, 22
    • 1840 November 30
    Banks and banking--United States
    • 1840 January 15, 30
    • 1840 December 23
    • 1841 January 8, 25, 28, 30
    • 1841 February 7
    • 1841 June 15
    Baptismal certificates--New York (State)
    • 1858 June 26
    Beggars--Ireland
    • 1852 September 16
    Begging--New York (City)
    • 1847 November 27
    Bereavement
    • 1841 March 29
    • 1841 June 19
    Betrothal
    • 1829 March 21
    Bills of exchange
    • 1840 December 1
    Broadway Insurance Company
    • 1863 February 16
    Brothers
    • 1827 February 19
    Brothers and sisters
    • 1826 September 24
    Business
    • 1858 August 26
    Business enterprises
    • 1859 March 24
    Business--New York (State)
    • 1859 August 10
    • 1860 May 3
    Business--United States
    • 1841 April 24
    • 1841 June 19
    Camps (Military)--Virginia
    • 1862 December 31
    Cholera--New England
    • 1832 July 27, 30
    Commercial crimes
    • 1857 July 11
    Contracts
    • 1859 March 24
    Creation (Literary, artistic, etc.)
    • 1826 June 21
    Credit ratings
    • 1895 January 10
    • 1897 August 26
    • 1897 September 7, 16
    Criticism
    • 1826 June 7
    • 1827 April 5
    • 1829 January 1
    De Mill, Benjamin--Portraits
    • 1850 October 2
    Death
    • 1841 March 29
    • 1841 June 19
    • 1856 April 28
    Death--Poetry
    • 1826 May 20
    Dividends
    • 1845 September 30
    Dower
    • 1826 April 5
    Drawing
    • [ca 1842]
    Drawings
    • 1843 April 3
    Drinking songs
    • n.d.
    Edmonds family
    • 1897 June 27
    • 1897 July 4
    • 1897 August 31
    • 1917 June 28
    Egypt--Description and travel
    • 1853 January 7, 29
    • 1853 March 6
    England--Description and travel
    • 1852 September 16
    • n.d.
    Engraving
    • 1858 August 26
    Engravings
    • n.d.
    Engraving--United States
    • 1842 February 19
    Estates (Law)--New York (State)
    • 1826 April 5
    Fairs--Ireland--Donnybrook
    • 1852 September 16
    Falmouth (England)--Description
    • n.d.
    Figure drawing
    • n.d.
    • [ca 1842]
    Foot--Wounds and injuries
    • 1829 January 1
    Fourth of July
    • 1827 June 17
    France--Politics and government--1852-1870
    • 1852 December 6
    Fredericksburg, Battle of, 1862
    • 1862 December 31
    Friendship
    • 1858 December 10
    • 1863 March 8
    Fruit--Michigan
    • 1846 June 29
    Gaius Marius--Portraits
    • 1842 February 19
    General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New York
    • 1850 October 2
    Genius
    • 1826 June 21
    • 1826 August 9
    • 1826 September 7
    • 1827 February 19
    Genre painting--United States
    • 1842 November 15
    • [ca 1842]
    • 1846
    Greenhouses--France--Paris
    • [ca. 1840]
    Harrison, William Henry, 1773-1841--Death
    • [1841] April 7
    Hudson Bee
    • 1807 June 6
    Hudson (N.Y.)--Politics and government
    • 1840 December 23
    • 1841 January 18
    Hudson (N.Y.)--Society and customs
    • 1841 January 18
    Hudson River school of landscape painting
    • 1840 November 7
    • 1842 December 14
    Hunting--Switzerland
    • 1843 April 11
    Invitation cards
    • [1841 January 11, 14]
    Ireland--Description and travel
    • 1852 September 16
    Ireland--Economic conditions
    • 1852 September 16
    Jardin du Roi (Paris, France)
    • [ca. 1840]
    Journalism
    • 1826 September 7
    • 1827 August 19
    • 1829 January 1
    • 1846 February 14
    • [1846] July 6
    Journalism--New York (City)
    • 1841 January 30
    Kidneys--Diseases
    • 1856 December 6
    Landscape painting
    • 1843 April 11
    • 1852 June 13
    Lawyers
    • 1829 March 21
    Leather Manufacturers' Bank
    • 1832 October 15, 22
    • 1841 May 25
    Letter-writing
    • 1826 June 7
    • 1826 September 24
    • 1827 February 19
    • 1827 April 5
    • 1841 May 25
    Literature
    • 1826 June 7
    Loans
    • 1848 January 11
    Lobbying--New York (State)
    • 1843 April 5
    Manhattan Bank
    • 1840 April 13
    Mannequins (Figures)
    • 1841 June 1
    Manufacturers and Merchants Bank
    • 1863 February 11
    Marriage
    • ca. 1829
    Mechanics' Bank
    • 1841 February 7
    • 1861 October 18
    Melancholy
    • 1856 December 6
    Men--Conduct of life
    • 1829 March 31
    Men--Recreation
    • 1855 April
    Men--Societies and clubs
    • 1847 July 2
    Metal-work
    • 1855 July 5
    Michigan--Description and travel
    • 1846 June 29
    Money--Massachusetts
    • 1780
    Morale
    • 1862 December 31
    Mount Vernon (Va.: Estate)
    • 1827 August 19
    Mourning customs
    • 1863 February 9, 11, 13, 16, 19, 24
    • 1863 March 8
    Murder--New York (City)
    • 1841 January 4
    Musée du Louvre
    • 1841 February 28
    • 1841 June 18
    Museum d'histoire naturelle
    • [ca. 1840]
    Nantucket (Mass.)
    • 1832 July 30
    Narrative painting
    • 1843 April 11
    National Academy of Design
    • 1840 November 7
    • 1841 January 30
    • 1841 February 7, 9, 28
    • 1841 May 25
    • 1841 June 15
    • 1845 May 7
    • 1846
    • 1860 November 13
    • 1863 February 9
    • [ca 1860]
    National banks (United States)
    • 1841 January 8
    • 1841 February 7
    • 1841 May 25
    New England--Description and travel
    • 1832 July 30
    New York American
    • 1829 January 1
    New York and Erie Railroad
    • 1843 October 19
    New York and Harlem Railroad
    • 1856 December 6
    • 1863 February 19
    • 1863 December 31
    • 1863 January 1
    New York Central Railroad
    • 1856 October 21
    New York Clearing House
    • 1857 November 13
    • 1858 April 14
    New York Knickerbocker
    • 1841 January 30
    New York Mirror
    • [1846] July 6
    New York (City)--Politics and government
    • 1823 October 29
    • 1829 January 22
    • 1855 August 14
    New York (State). Senate
    • 1843 April
    New York (State)--Politics and government
    • 1829 March 31
    • 1836 March 3
    • [1836] May 20
    • 1843 April
    • 1843 October 19
    • 1860 August 25
    Newspapers--New York--Hudson
    • 1807 June 6
    Occupations
    • 1829 January 22
    Painters--New York (State)
    • 1840 November 7
    Painters--United States
    • 1842 December 14
    Painting
    • 1842 February 19
    • [ca 1842]
    Painting, American
    • 1827 February 19
    Painting--France--Paris
    • 1843 April 3
    Painting-- Portraits
    • 1850 October 2
    Painting--Prices
    • 1843 April 11
    Painting--Reproductions
    • 1843 April 11
    Painting--United States
    • 1842 November 15
    • 1842 December 14
    • 1844 August 17
    • 1846
    Paintings
    • 1852 December 6
    Paintings--New York (City)
    • 1884, n.d.
    Paintings--Prices
    • [1842 November]
    • 1845 March 2
    • 1852 December 13, 16
    Paris (France)--Description
    • 1841 February 28
    Patriotism--Michigan
    • 1861 May 2
    Pencil drawing
    • n.d.
    • [ca 1842]
    Peninsular Campaign, 1862
    • 1862 December 31
    Penzance (England)--Description
    • n.d.
    Philadelphia--Description
    • 1827 July 18
    Philosophy
    • 1826 June 21
    Politicians--New York
    • 1840 December 23
    Politics, Practical
    • 1829 March 31
    Preraphaelitism
    • 1852 June 13
    Promissory notes
    • 1844 March 15
    Quarantine--New England
    • 1832 July 30
    Railroads--Management--New York (State)
    • 1857 July 11
    Railroads--Passes
    • 1863 December 31
    • 1863 January 1
    Reproduction
    • 1842 February 19
    Royal Academy of Art--Exhibitions
    • 1845 March 2
    • 1852 June 13
    Sculptors
    • 1841 January 28
    Sculpture
    • 1852 June 13
    • 1855 July 5
    Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616-- Criticism and interpretation
    • 1827 April 5
    Sheep--United States
    • 1792 October 20
    Sketch Club
    • 1843 February 21
    • 1847 July 2
    Smallpox--New York--Hudson
    • 1832 December 17
    Soldiers--Death
    • [1898]
    Songs
    • n.d.
    Saint Paul's Church
    • 1863 February 16, 19
    Stocks
    • 1852 June 13
    • 1856 October 21
    Success
    • 1829 March 21
    • 1829 March 31
    Syria--Description and travel
    • 1853 March 6
    Taxation--Michigan
    • 1846 June 29
    Telegraph
    • 1845 May 7
    Trustees
    • 1860 May 3
    United States. Army--Appointments and retirements--Photographs
    • n.d.
    United States. Army--Barracks and quarters
    • 1862 December 31
    United States. Army--Michigan Infantry Regiment, 8th
    • 1862 December 31
    United States. Army--Recruiting, enlistment, etc.
    • 1861 May 2
    United States. Congress-- Appropriations and expenditures
    • [1836] May 29
    United States--Economic conditions--Foreign public
    • 1852 June 13
    United States--Foreign public opinion, British
    • 1844 June 7
    United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865
    • 1861 May 2
    United States--History--War of 1898
    • [1898]
    United States--Officials and employees--Selection and appointment
    • 1838 August
    United States--Politics and government
    • 1841 April 24
    • 1841 June 19
    United States--Politics and government--1837-1841
    • 1840 January 15
    Wales--Description and travel
    • 1852 September 16
    Wall Street
    • 1841 March 29
    • 1857 September 29
    Wealth
    • 1829 March 31
    Wives--Conduct of life
    • ca. 1829
    Women in art
    • n.d.
    Young men--Conduct of life
    • 1829 January 22
    Youths' writings
    • 1826 May 20