The Histoire Abregée de la Conquête du Canada is a contemporary account of the events between 1753 and 1760 describing Britain's annexation of Canada to its territorial possessions in America. The narrative moves chronologically and focuses on the year 1759, when French Quebec fell to the English. In 1753, the Canadian, English, and American governments were in conflict over trade along the Ohio River. In 1755 the French routed the army of General Braddock, who died in battle, and by 1757 had control over all vital marine passages to Canada from the Ohio Valley and Western New York. The British lost an attack on the French fort at Niagara but took Crown Point under the leadership of Colonel William Johnson. Chalon relates the movements of Generals Amherst, John Prideaux, Montcalm, and Wolfe and describes the ships, frigates, troops, and munitions for both sides, while giving a full account of the important engagements throughout the war. General James Wolfe, who successfully led British troops to victory over Quebec, receives a particularly heroic description from Chalon. The author next describes the harsh winter of 1760, the French attempt to re-take the city, and the British victory at Montreal under General Amherst, completing the conquest of Canada.
The volume ends with two transcriptions. The first is the thirty-four Articles of the Capitulation of Montreal, which concerns the transfer of military control from the French to the English. Of interest are Article 30, which provides for the protection of Indians, and Article 33, which declared that blacks having the status of slaves were to remain so, in the hands of their French masters. Second is The Fourth Article of the Peace Treaty of 1763, which guaranteed religious tolerance of French Canadian Catholics and the liberty of those subjects now under English rule.
Throughout the narrative, Chalon discusses the roles that the "Indian Nations" played in the conflict as both instigators of conflicts and, at times, as pawns of the two European powers.