Cadwallader Colden (February 7, 1688-September 28, 1776) was born in Ireland of Scottish parents. He received a degree from the University of Edinburgh and studied medicine in London. He immigrated to Philadelphia in 1710, moved to New York in 1718, and became surveyor general of the colony in 1720. He served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1760 to 1762, and worked as a physician, farmer, surveyor, scientist, and botanist.
Cadwallader's daughter, Jane Colden (March 27, 1724-March 10, 1766), is recognized as the first female botanist working in America. Born in New York City as the fifth child of Cadwallader Colden and Alice Christy Colden, Jane was educated at home and learned the Linnaean system of taxonomy from her father, a correspondent of Swedish botanist and physician Carl Linnaeus.
John Frederic Gronovius (February 10, 1686-July 10, 1762), was a Dutch botanist. John was the grandson of Johann Friedrich Gronovius, a classical scholar.
Albrecht von Haller (October 16, 1708-1777) was a scientist who contributed significantly to developments in medicine, physiology, botany, pharmacology, theology, literature, editing, biography, and geography. He was born in Berne and studied at the University of Tubingen.