William L. Clements Library
University of Michigan
Finding aid for
Finding aid created by
Samuel Finley, Field Notes for Bouquet's Expedition, 1764, 1846-1849
Philip Heslip, May 2010
Samuel Finley, Field Notes for Bouquet's Expedition
The Samuel Finley, Field Notes for Bouquet's Expedition (60 pages) contains detailed descriptions of the topography of Bouquet's route though Pennsylvania and Ohio during his march against the Ohio Indians (October 2-25, 1864). Finley, a field engineer, recorded minute descriptions of physical and environmental features of the landscape, such as the direction and speed of rivers and streams, characteristics of the terrain, soil, and timber quality, and tree and undergrowth density.
The material is in English
William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu
Access and Use
1980. M-1897 .
The collection is open for research.
Copyright status is unknown
Cataloging funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the "We the People" project.
Samuel Finley, Field Notes for Bouquet's Expedition, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan
Samuel Finley was a British army surveyor in America who surveyed much of Pennsylvania. He accompanied Henry Bouquet on his 1764 expedition against the Indians of central Ohio. Though little is known about Finley's early life, he and many members of his family likely emigrated from Armagh County in Northern Ireland, and settled in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, in 1734. In 1761, Finley became an assistant to Colonel (later General) John Armstrong, was next commissioned lieutenant in Captain William Piper's company, and by 1763 was a part of Lieutenant Colonel Asher Clayton's Second Battalion.
In September 1764, Bouquet appointed Captain Samuel Finley of the 2nd Pennsylvania Battalion and Ensign Thomas Hutchins of the 60th Royal American Regiment to be assistants to the chief engineer during his campaign. They accompanied Bouquet and his regiments of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland volunteers, under orders from Commander-in-Chief Major General Thomas Gage, from Carlisle, Pennsylvania, along the Tuscarawas and Muskingum rivers, into central Ohio. There they negotiated the return of over 300 white captives from the Indians and signed a peace treaty between English settlers and a number of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio tribes. Along the way, Hutchinson created numerous maps of the area and Finley kept detailed field notes of the journey.
After the expedition, Finley continued to practice surveying throughout Pennsylvania. He laid out many town plots and invested in several land ventures himself. During the Revolutionary War, Finley served as quartermaster in Colonel Samuel Culbertson's battalion of Pennsylvania militia, and fought in Philadelphia, Trenton, and Princeton (1776-1777).
Collection Scope and Content Note
The Samuel Finley, Field Notes for Bouquet's Expedition (60 pages) contains detailed descriptions of the topography of Bouquet's route though Pennsylvania and Ohio during his march against the Ohio Indians (October 2-25, 1764). Finley, a field engineer, recorded minute descriptions of physical and environmental features of the landscape, such as the direction and speed of rivers and streams, characteristics of the terrain, soil and timber quality, and tree and undergrowth density. Finley recorded these notes to serve as permanent records of the journey that the army could use for future map-making.
The volume begins: "The following Courses & Distances are the Roads that the Honourable Col. Henry Bouquet Marches the Army under His Honours, Command To wards the Lower Shannees Towns Down the Ohio River." He began to survey and measure the road on October 2, and kept distance totals for each page of notes. He also totaled the distance from the last camp and from Fort Pitt each morning (written under the date). He numbered each change of course and added 1-2 sentence remarks for each entry. The group traveled along numerous rivers, including the Allegheny River, Big Beaver River, Monongahela River, Muskingum River, and the Walhonding River (then called White Woman's Creek).
In addition to the survey, the volume also contains a short (incomplete) narrative of John Palmer's escape from the Indians on October 6, 1764 (page 76). Also, an unknown person later recorded payroll notes and food accounts on empty pages of the journal. These records, written on the inside of the front and back covers and on pages 50-51 and pages 73-76 (the 20 pages between these two sections were ripped out), are dated between 1846 and 1849. The entries include records of payments for wheat, oats, corn, rye, and hogs, and concern Michele Kruck, Michele Fogle, Cyrus Hower, and M. Marshall.
- Allegheny River (Pa. and N.Y.)
- Beaver River (Pa.)
- Bouquet, Henry, 1719-1765.
- Bouquet's Expedition, 1764.
- Forbes, John, 1710-1759.
- Gage, Thomas, 1721-1787.
- Great Britain. Army--Colonial forces--America.
- Great Britain. Army--Military Life--History--18th century.
- Indian Captivities.
- Indians of North America--Government relations.
- Johnson, William, Sir, 1715-1774.
- Mingo Indians.
- Monongahela River (W. Va. and Pa.)
- Monongahela River Valley (W. Va. and Pa.)
- Muskingum River (Ohio)
- Neville Island (Pa.)
- Northwest, Old.
- Ohio--History--To 1787.
- Ohio River Valley--Description and travel.
- Pennsylvania--History--Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775.
- Shawnee Indians.
- Tuscarawas River (Ohio)
- Tuscarawas River Valley (Ohio)
- United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763--Campaigns.
- Walhonding River (Ohio)
- Wyandot Indians.
- Yellow Creek (Ohio)
Additional Descriptive Data
- The Jeffery Amherst papers: 10 letters to and from Bouquet.
Bouquet’s Expedition against the Indians (orderly books), 2 volumes.
- The Thomas Gage papers: 44 letters to and from Bouquet.
- The Lyttelton papers: 2 letters concerning Bouquet.
For maps of Pennsylvania and Ohio from this time period, search Mirlyn for the subject "Hutchins, Thomas, 1730-1789." Hutchins was another surveyor on the Bouquet Expedition. Below are two maps of note:
Bouquet, H. & Hutchins, T. [Plans of camps, tactical disposition, and line of march of Colonel Henry Bouquet's army].
Hutchins, Thomas, and Bernard Ratzer.Plan of the Indian Countrys Through Which the Troops Marchd In 1764 Under the Command of Col. Henry Bouquet. 1765.
Gates, David. "Bouquet, Henry (1719--1765)"Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online ed, 2008.
The Clements holds a published and annotated version of the journal:
Williams, Edward G. A survey of Bouquet's road, 1764: Samuel Finley's field notes. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania. (1983, 1984). Vol. 66 (April, July, October 1983), pp. 129-168, 237-269, 347-367; Vol. 67 (January, April 1984), pp. 33-63, 133-152.