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Andrew J. Duncan journal and orderly book (1861; 1864-1865)

James S. Schoff Civil War Collection
Collection processed and finding aid created by Rob Cox, 1992
Manuscripts Division, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan

Summary Information

Title: Andrew J. Duncan journal and orderly book
Creator: Duncan, Andrew J., 1836-1912
Inclusive dates: 1861; 1864-1865
Extent: 157 pages (2 items)
Duncan's journal is a brief account of the earliest operations of the 23rd Ohio Infantry while serving in West Virginia in 1861. The orderly book contains copies of orders issued in 1864 and 1865 from the Headquarters of the Army of West Virginia and the Army of Shenandoah, including some signed by William McKinley.
Language: The material is in English
Repository: William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
909 S. University Ave.
The University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
Phone: 734-764-2347
Web Site: www.clements.umich.edu

Access and Use

Acquisition Information

Donated by James S. Schoff, 1983. M-2117.

Access Restrictions

The collection is open for research.


Copyright status is unknown.

Preferred Citation

Andrew J. Duncan Journal and Orderly Book, James S. Schoff Civil War Collection, William L. Clements Library, The University of Michigan


Duncan, Andrew J., 1836-1912

Rank : Pvt.

Regiment : 23rd Ohio Infantry Regiment. Co. E (1861-1866)

Service : 1861 June 10-1866 January 18

In June, 1861, Andrew Jackson Duncan of Poland, Ohio, enlisted in Company E of the 23rd Ohio (the Poland Guards), a regiment most often remembered for having two future presidents on its rosters, Rutheford B. Hayes and William McKinley. Duncan, in fact, married Sarah McKinley, William's sister. Despite the apparently impressive pedigree of the regiment, Duncan's unusually frank journal highlights not only the brutality of warfare and the polarized atmosphere, but also the indiscipline, insubordination, and inadequate training of troops rushed into the service.

The 23rd Ohio mustered in at Camp Chase early in June, 1861, and was sent to western Virginia on July 25th to assist Rosencrans' Army of Occupation. Arriving shortly after the Battle of Rich Mountain, the 23rd was involved in maintaining order in the still-contested area from Buckhannon in the north to Carnifex Ferry in the south. Like much of the new state, the area was divided in sympathy, with soldiers receiving food and information from pro-Union civilians, while at the same time being spied upon and, occasionally, shot at by secessionists. During the late summer, 1861, the 23rd was involved mainly in occupation, and operations against guerillas and pro-Confederate civilians, though the Confederate forces in the area were very much active.

Duncan's journal suggests that at this stage of the war, at least, Ohio regiments were not exemplars of military discipline. Even while still at Camp Chase, the enlisted men of the 23rd displayed a particular truculence in refusing to accept government-issued muskets, considering them to be inadequate. Only after being cajoled, threatened, and finally allowed to prove for themselves that the weapons were indeed up to the task, did the soldiers finally relent. Once in western Virginia discipline problems continued; soldiers were caught illegally selling government goods (pp. 66-68), and refused orders from a Captain while on march (pp. 44-47). The Captain, urging his men not to lag, threatened to shoot stragglers, but, as Duncan wrote, "if he had resorted to this power, he would have been riddled through himself in two minutes." In another incident, a soldier from the 12th Ohio, drunk at his post, was shot after he threatened the men arresting him, while at the same time "two [others] are also in the jail for a most heinous offense and for which I think probably they will loose their lives" (p. 72).

The Ohio soldiers were a rough lot, according to Duncan, in training and in behavior. When Rosencrans was in camp, one officer inadvertently placed a guard at the telegraph office, not knowing better where to post him, while on another occasion, 23 enlisted men were brought before a court martial at once for sleeping on duty, one of whom was to be selected and put before a firing squad. In the field, the men helped themselves freely to the goods of civilians, and, on one occasion, beat and threatened to kill a suspected guerilla in an effort to extract information from him. "Big John Riphel," another suspected guerilla, was summarily executed by members of the 10th Ohio, supposedly while trying to escape, and the Captain overseeing the prisoners did his best to hush up the incident.

The 23rd Ohio was engaged in a small skirmish at Bulltown on August 17th, and took part in the fierce fight at Carnifex Ferry on September 10th. In the latter engagement, members of the 13th and 28th Ohio, mistaking each other for Confederates, began firing well before the scheduled attack. As a result, 20 were wounded.

Collection Scope and Content Note

Duncan's journal is a very well written, unfortunately brief account of the earliest operations of the 23rd Ohio, from its mustering in at Camp Chase through the first two months of its service in West Virginia. Even though the passages are generally short, they provide an excellent idea of the difficulties of operating in the mountainous country, and of the problems of poor training and discipline. There is a good second-hand description of the Battle of Rich Mountain, as well as two descriptions of the battlefield a month after the fact, and a long and detailed account of the Battle of Carnifex Ferry. As good as the battle descriptions, though, are his descriptions of the aftermath of Carnifex Ferry, particularly his powerful, grisly description of the expressions on the faces of corpses littering the battlefield.

The orderly book contains 35 routine carbon copies of orders issued late in the war from Headquarters of the Army of West Virginia and the Army of Shenandoah. The book was apparently originally William McKinley's, and many of the orders from Shenandoah are signed by him. Two orders are of some interest: one (in triplicate) dated April 27th, 1865, noting the capture of John Wilkes Booth, and the other, dated April 29th, reporting the surrender of Johnston's army to Sherman.

Duncan included four pencil sketches in his diary, 1) a rough sketch of a "Virginia secesh," 2) a view of Glenville, West Virginia, and sketches of the battlefields at 3) Rich Mountain and 4) Carnifex Ferry indicating troop placements, etc.

Subject Terms

  • Booth, John Wilkes, 1838-1865.
  • Bulltown, Battle of, Bulltown, W. Va., 1863 .
  • Carnifex Ferry, Battle of, W. Va., 1861.
  • Confederate States of America. Army of Tennessee.
  • Friendly fire (Military science)
  • Insubordination.
  • McKinley, William, 1843-1901.
  • Military discipline.
  • Rich Mountain, Battle of, W. Va., 1861.
  • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • United States. Army--Officers.
  • United States. Army. Ohio Infantry Regiment, 10th (1861-1864)
  • West Virginia--Description and travel.
  • West Virginia--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Underground movements--Confederate States of America.
Subjects - Visual Materials:
  • Battlefields.
  • Glenville (W. Va.)
Genre Terms:
  • Drawings.
  • Journals (accounts)
  • Orderly books.

Contents List

Container / Location Title
Box   8, Schoff Civil War Diaries and Journals  
Andrew J. Duncan journal,  1861 June 6-September 22 [series]
Andrew J. Duncan orderly book,  1864 October 26-1865 May 13 [series]

Additional Descriptive Data

Partial Subject Index

Amicicide (Military Science)
  • 54-55, 71-72, 88
Battle casualties.
  • 89-91
Booth, John Wilkes, 1838-1865.
  • Orderly book
Bulltown (W.Va.), Skirmish near, 1861.
  • 36-39
  • 30-31
Carnifex Ferry (W.Va.) Battlefield.
  • 89-91
Carnifex Ferry (W.Va.) Battlefield--Drawing.
  • 118
Carnifex Ferry, Battle of, 1861.
  • 81-88
Civilians--West Virginia--Civil War, 1861-1865.
  • 23-24, 40-41, 61-62
Columbus (Ohio)--Description.
  • 4
Confederate States of America. Army of Tennessee--Surrender, 1865.
  • Orderly book
  • 40-42
Courts martial and courts of inquiry.
  • 76-77
  • 89-91
Drumming out.
  • 67
Enemy property.
  • 95, 98
  • 96
Executions and executioners.
  • 28-30, 96
  • 11-16
Fremont, John C. (John Charles), 1813-1880.
  • 13
Glenville (W.Va.)--Drawing.
  • 1
Guerillas--West Virginia.
  • 26-30, 69-70
  • 8, 9
  • 78-79
  • 11-16, 44-47
Interrogation of prisoners of war.
  • 70
  • 116
Marches--West Virginia.
  • 20-22, 44-45, 57-59, 61-65
McKinley, William, 1843-1901.
  • 10, 94, 95
Military discipline.
  • 71-72, 96, 101
Pencil sketches.
  • 1, 2, 118, 120
Prisoners of War--Confederate States of America.
  • 69-70
Rich Mountain (W.Va.) Battlefield.
  • 19
Rich Mountain (W.Va.) Battlefield--Drawing.
  • 120
Rich Mountain (W.Va.)--Description.
  • 51-52
Rich Mountain, Battle of, 1861.
  • 52-56
Rosencrans, William Starke, 1819-1898.
  • 101
Secessionists--West Virginia--Drawing.
  • 2
Self-inflicted wounds.
  • 6
  • 71-72
  • 99
Summerville (W.Va.), Skirmish near, 1861.
  • loose sheet inside journal
Sutton (W.Va.)--Description.
  • 24-25
  • 72-73
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Casualties (Statistics, etc.)
  • 91-92
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865--Desertions.
  • 3
United States. Army--Corrupt practices.
  • 66-68
United States. Army--Officers.
  • 44-45, 73-74
United States. Army--Ohio Infantry Regiment, 10th.
  • 25-27, 84-85
  • 99
War wounds.
  • 37-38
West Virginia--Description and travel.
  • 18, 20, 49-51, 80-81