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58 A GUIDE TO JAPANESE REFERENCE AND RESEARCH MATERIALS 242. Amanokawa e_ ) f1 (The Milky Way) A magazine for the haiku. Begun in July, 1918, at Fukuoka under the leadership of Yoshioka Zenjid6 as a magazine belonging to the same lineage as Hototogisu. However, when the Shink5 haiku undo or Newly Rising haiku movement received its start in the early Showa era, Zenjido adopted the most radical innovations and Amanokawa published haiku that disregarded both the traditional references to the four seasons and the seventeen-syllable form. Suspended in 1943, it was restarted in July, 1947. After the war it advocated the free rhythms of a colloquial style. At present suspended. Shiba Fukio, Yokoyama Hakko, and Shinowara H6saku made their debuts in Amanokawa. 243. Aozora *! (The blue sky) A coterie magazine begun in January, 1925, and discontinued in June, 1927. The member writers included Kajii Motojir6, Iijima Tadashi, Tonomura Shigeru, Kitagawa Fuyuhiko, and Miyoshi Tatsuji. Kajii's "Remon i ~{ (Lemon)" and "Shiro no aru machi nite O e 4 3 tT,1- Z (In a castle town)," were published in the January and February, 1925, issues, respectively. 244. Araragi 7 7 7 " (named from a kind of yew tree) After Ashibi. a, the organ of the Negishi Tankakai X j *e k A (Negishi Tanka Society), ceased publication in January, 1908, it was not till December of the same year that its successor, Araragi, made its appearance under the editorship of Ito Sachio. At that time naturalism was the dominant literary fashion, and Araragi was often overwhelmed by it. But it gradually established its characteristic flavor through the poems of such men as Shimagi Akahiko and Sait6 Mokichi. After Ito's death in 1913, Shimagi, with the cooperation of Sait5 and Koizumi Chikashi, took charge of the editing. Among the poets publishing in Araragi were Nagatsuka Takashi, Oka Fumoto, and Shaku Ch6oku. By 1917 and 1918, it became the vehicle for the principal poetic current in Japan. Its contributors tried to penetrate objectively into each subject matter; utilizing the style of the Man'yoshu X, -t _, they tried to express themselves in concrete terms. After Shimagi's death in 1926, Saito became the editor. His successor in 1930 was Tsuchiya Bummei. Opposed first by the proletarian school and then by the romantic-symbolist group led by Kitahara Hakushu and writing for Tama 1? A, a journal named after an area lying outside of T5kyo, it nevertheless maintained its predominant position. During World War II it followed the nationalistic tide, but afterwards tried to face up to the realities of postwar life and thought. It was after World War II that Kondo Yoshimi and other poets of the younger generation came into the limelight through the pages of Araragi. 245. Asahi hyoron At ~ I - (The Asahi review) A monthly magazine published from March, 1946, through 1950 by Asahi Shimbunsha. Earlier political reviews had dealt mainly with political personalities. In order to remedy this defect, Asahi hyoron added critiques on the economic and cultural scene. It also became much more interested in reexamining the history of Japan. Among the major pieces of fiction are "Shi no kurohata (The black flag of death)," by Eguchi Kan; "Hanjfishin (A half animal god)," by Funayama Kaoru; and "Sannen Netar6 (Tar6, a three year sleeper)," by Kinoshita Junji. Hasegawa Nyozekan and Yamakawa Hitoshi were among the contributors of the non-fictional pieces. 246. Asahi shimbun #0 Ue - f (The Asahi news) Begun on January 25, 1879, in Osaka. With the establishment of its sister newspaper, the Tokyo Asahi shimbun Q, 4 ] 9 X m (Toky6 Asahi news), on July 10, 1888, its name was changed to Osaka Asahi shimbun A rt 4 0 a a (Osaka Asahi news). The two newspapers became independent of each other in 1895 but were rejoined in 1919, with the Toky5 Asahi becoming the branch paper. During the ShOwa era the two papers printed many serial novels. Enjoying wide reputations were: "Nami (The waves)," by Yamamoto Yuzo, 1928; "Ikeru ningy6 (A living doll), " by Kataoka Teppei, 1928; "Yuri Hatae (Yuri Hatae [personal name])," by Kishida Kunio, 1929-1930; "Asakusa kurenaidan (The crimson group at Asakusa)," by Kawabata Yasunari, 1929; "Rangiku monogatari (A tale of some chaotic chrysanthemums)," by Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, 1930; "Sh5hai (Victory or defeat)," by Kikuchi Kan, 1931; "Onna no issho (The life of a woman)," by Yamamoto Yuzo, 1932-1933; "Ginza hatch6 (The eight blocks of the Ginza)," by Takeda Rintar6, 1934; "Miyamoto Musashi (Miyamoto Musashi [personal name])," by Yoshikawa Eiji, 1935-1939; "Bokut6 kidan (A strange story east of the [Sumida] river)," by Nagai Kafu, 1937; "Danryui (A warm current)," by Kishida Kunio, 1938; "Kaigun (The Navy)," by Shishi Bunroku, 1942; "Aoi sammyaku (A blue mountain range)," by Ishizaka Y6jir6, 1947; "Hana no sugao (The sober face of a flower)," by Funabashi Seiichi, 1948-1949; "Jiyi gakko (The school for freedom)," by Shishi Bunroku, 1950; "Meshi (Boiled rice)," by Hayashi Fumiko, 1951; and "Hana hiraku (The flowers bloom)," by It6 Sei, 1953. 247. Bessatsu bungei shunju ' 'J e A - itC (Extra issues of Bungei shunju) Begun in February, 1946, and still continued. At first irregular, afterwards published once every two months, then irregularly again. The editorship passed in turn from Nagai Tatsuo to Suzuki Mitsugu, Tokuda Masahiko, Tagawa Hiroichi, and Ozeki Sakae. Published by the Bungei Shunju Shinsha. Supplementary to the general magazine Bungei shunju, this publication is devoted principally to literature. Among the more remarkable works printed in it are "Doku (Poison)," by Funabashi Seiichi, February, 1946; "Yoru no ie (A home at night)," by Shimomura Chiaki, April, 1947; "Ueno (Ueno [place name])," by Mur6 Saisei, April, 1947; "Akai jimbaori (A red coat of arms)," by Kinoshita Junji, February, 1947; "Yuki no Ivu (Eve in the