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Notes

    1. Barry W. Cull, “Reading Revolutions: Online Digital Text and Implications for Reading in Academe,” First Monday 16, no. 6 (2011), accessed July 29, 2013, http://​firstmonday​.org/​ojs/​index​.php/​fm/​article/​view/​3340/​2985.

    2. See David M. Durant and Tony Horava, “The Future of Reading and Academic Libraries,” portal: Libraries and the Academy 15, no. 1 (2015): 5–­27; and David M. Durant, “Resistance Is Not Futile: Why Print Collections Still Matter in the Digital Age,” Against the Grain 27, no. 3 (2015): 26–­28.

    3. Maryanne Wolf and Mirit Barzillai, “The Importance of Deep Reading,” Educational Leadership 66, no. 6 (2009), accessed July 29, 2013, http://​ase​.tufts​.edu/​crlr/​documents/​2009EL​-ImportanceDeepReading​.pdf.

    4. Christopher Rowe, “The New Library of Babel?,” First Monday 18, no. 2 (2013), accessed July 29, 2013, http://​firstmonday​.org/​htbin/​cgiwrap/​bin/​ojs/​index​.php/​fm/​article/​view/​3237/​3416.

    5. N. Katherine Hayles, “How We Read: Close, Hyper, Machine,” ADE Bulletin 150 (2010), accessed August 24, 2015, http://​nkhayles​.com/​how​_we​_read​.html.

    6. Ibid.

    7. Wolf and Barzillai, “The Importance of Deep Reading.”

    8. Ibid.

    9. For a good overview, see Kevin Kelly, “Reading in a Whole New Way,” Smithsonian Magazine, July–­August 2010, accessed July 30, 2013, http://​www​.smithsonianmag​.com/​specialsections/​40th​-anniversary/​Reading​-in​-a​-Whole​-New​-Way​.html.

    10. Sven Birkerts, The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age (New York: Faber & Faber, 2006), 154.

    11. Nicholas Carr, “Is Google Making Us Stupid?,” The Atlantic, July–­August 2008, accessed August 27, 2015, http://​www​.theatlantic​.com/​magazine/​archive/​2008/​07/​is​-google​-making​-us​-stupid/​306868/.

    12. Ibid.

    13. Ibid.

    14. Ibid.

    15. Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: Norton, 2010).

    16. Ibid., 118.

    17. Gary W. Small, Teena D. Moody, Prabha Siddarth, and Susan Y. Bookheimer, “Your Brain on Google: Patterns of Cerebral Activation during Internet Searching,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 17, no. 2 (2009): 116–­26, accessed July 29, 2013, doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181953a02.

    18. See Carr, The Shallows, 120–­26.

    19. Jakob Nielsen, “F-Shaped Pattern for Reading Web Content,” Jakob Nielsen’s Alertbox, April 17, 2006, accessed July 29, 2013, http://​www​.nngroup​.com/​articles/​f​-shaped​-pattern​-reading​-web​-content/.

    20. Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future (London: University College, 2008): 10, accessed July 28, 2013, http://​www​.educause​.edu/​library/​resources/​information​-behaviour​-researcher​-future.

    21. Wolf and Barzillai, “The Importance of Deep Reading.”

    22. Hayles, “How We Read.”

    23. Ferris Jabr, “The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens,” Scientific American, April 11, 2013, accessed August 28, 2015, http://​www​.scientificamerican​.com/​article/​reading​-paper​-screens/.

    24. Naomi S. Baron, Words Onscreen: The Fate of Reading in a Digital World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 39.

    25. Ibid., 88.

    26. Michael S. Rosenwald, “Serious Reading Takes a Hit from Online Scanning and Skimming, Researchers Say,” Washington Post, April 6, 2014, accessed August 29, 2015, http://​www​.washingtonpost​.com/​local/​serious​-reading​-takes​-a​-hit​-from​-online​-scanning​-and​-skimming​-researchers​-say/​2014/​04/​06/​088028d2​-b5d2​-11e3​-b899​-20667de76985​_story​.html.

    27. Ibid.

    28. Susan Greenfield, Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains (New York: Random House, 2015), 233.

    29. Maryanne Wolf, “Our ‘Deep Reading’ Brain: Its Digital Evolution Poses Questions,” Nieman Reports, Summer 2010, accessed August 28, 2015, http://​niemanreports​.org/​articles/​our​-deep​-reading​-brain​-its​-digital​-evolution​-poses​-questions/.

    30. Baron, Words Onscreen, 39.

    31. Ibid.

    32. Diane Wachtell, “Books Aren’t Crucial, but Long-­Form Texts Are,” The Chronicle Review, September 26, 2010, accessed August 29, 2015, http://​chronicle​.com/​article/​Books​-Arent​-Crucial​-but/​124569/.

    33. Ibid.

    34. Nick Bilton, I Live in the Future & Here’s How It Works (New York: Crown Business, 2010), 48.

    35. Ibid., 136.

    36. Ibid.

    37. Clive Thompson, “Reading War and Peace on My iPhone,” Book Riot, 2015, accessed August 29, 2015, http://​bookriot​.com/​quarterly/​bkr07/.

    38. John Jones, “Book Lacks Digital Reading Details,” DML Central, July 20, 2015, accessed August 29, 2015, http://​dmlcentral​.net/​book​-lacks​-digital​-reading​-details/.

    39. Alan Jacobs, The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 82.

    40. Ibid.

    41. George Stachokas. After the Book: Information Services for the 21st Century (London: Chandos Publishing, 2014), 16.

    42. Mathew Ingram, “No, E-book Sales Are Not Falling, despite What Publishers Say,” Fortune, September 24, 2015, accessed December 16, 2015, http://​fortune​.com/​2015/​09/​24/​ebook​-sales/.

    43. Quoted in Rachel Nuwer, “Are Paper Books Really Disappearing?,” BBC, January 25, 2016, accessed February 9, 2017, http://​www​.bbc​.com/​future/​story/​20160124​-are​-paper​-books​-really​-disappearing.

    44. Ibid.

    45. Marc Prensky, “In the 21st-­Century University, Let’s Ban (Paper) Books,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 13, 2011, accessed December 16, 2015, http://​chronicle​.com/​article/​In​-the​-21st​-Century/​129744/.

    46. Christine Rosen, “People of the Screen,” The New Atlantis, Fall 2008, accessed August 7, 2017, http://​www​.thenewatlantis​.com/​publications/​people​-of​-the​-screen.

    47. For example, see Clay Shirky, Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age (New York: Penguin, 2010).

    48. Quoted in Nicholas Carr, “Containers and Their Contents,” Rough Type (blog), January 3, 2013, accessed July 30, 2013, http://​www​.roughtype​.com/​?p​=​2315.

    49. Kelly, “Reading in a Whole New Way.”

    50. Quoted in Nuwer, “Are Paper Books Really Disappearing?”

    51. Kevin Kelly, “Scan This Book!,” New York Times Magazine, May 14, 2006, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​www​.nytimes​.com/​2006/​05/​14/​magazine/​14publishing​.html.

    52. Nicholas Carr, “The Remains of the Book,” Rough Type (blog), September 30, 2011, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​www​.roughtype​.com/​archives/​2011/​09/​the​_seethrough​_1​.php.

    53. Jeff Staiger, “How E-books Are Used: A Literature Review of the E-book Studies Conducted from 2006 to 2011,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 51, no. 4 (2012): 361, accessed July 29, 2013, doi:10.5860/rusq.51n4.355.

    54. Jakob Nielsen, “iPad and Kindle Reading Speeds,” Jakob Nielsen’s Alertbox, July 2, 2010, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​www​.nngroup​.com/​articles/​ipad​-and​-kindle​-reading​-speeds/.

    55. F. Kretzschmar, D. Pleimling, J. Hosemann, S. Füssel, I. Bornkessel-­Schlesewsky, and M. Schlesewsky, “Subjective Impressions Do Not Mirror Online Reading Effort: Concurrent EEG-­Eyetracking Evidence from the Reading of Books and Digital Media,” PLoS ONE 8, no. 2 (2013): e56178, accessed August 30, 2015, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056178.

    56. Ibid.

    57. Ibid.

    58. Sara J. Margolin, Casey Driscoll, Michael J. Toland, and Jennifer Little Kegler, “E-readers, Computer Screens, or Paper: Does Reading Comprehension Change across Media Platforms?,” Applied Cognitive Psychology 27 (2013): 512–­19.

    59. Anne Mangen, Bente R. Walgermo, and Kolbjørn Brønnick, “Reading Linear Texts on Paper versus Computer Screen: Effects on Reading Comprehension,” International Journal of Educational Research 58 (2013): 61–­68, doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2012.12.002.

    60. Alison Flood, “Readers Absorb Less on Kindles than on Paper, Study Finds,” The Guardian, August 19, 2014, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.theguardian​.com/​books/​2014/​aug/​19/​readers​-absorb​-less​-kindles​-paper​-study​-plot​-ereader​-digitisation.

    61. Ibid.

    62. Hayles, “How We Read.”

    63. Jeremy Greenfield, “Ebooks Will Make Us Dumber, or They Won’t,” Forbes, August 20, 2014, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.forbes​.com/​sites/​jeremygreenfield/​2014/​08/​20/​will​-ebooks​-make​-us​-dumber/.

    64. Kathryn Zickuhr and Lee Rainie, “E-reading Rises as Device Ownership Jumps,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, January 16, 2014, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.pewinternet​.org/​2014/​01/​16/​e​-reading​-rises​-as​-device​-ownership​-jumps/.

    65. Ibid.

    66. Claire Cain Miller and Julie Bosman, “E-books Outsell Print Books at Amazon,” New York Times, May 19, 2011, accessed July 28, 2013, http://​www​.nytimes​.com/​2011/​05/​20/​technology/​20amazon​.html.

    67. “E-book Sales Are up 43%, but That’s Still a ‘Slowdown,’” USA Today, May 16, 2013, accessed July 28, 2013, http://​www​.usatoday​.com/​story/​life/​books/​2013/​05/​15/​e​-book​-sales/​2159117/.

    68. Rick Anderson, “Print on the Margins: Circulation Trends in Major Research Libraries,” Library Journal, June 2, 2011, accessed March 31, 2015, http://​lj​.libraryjournal​.com/​2011/​06/​academic​-libraries/​print​-on​-the​-margins​-circulation​-trends​-in​-major​-research​-libraries/.

    69. Alexandra Alter, “The Plot Twist: E-book Sales Slip, and Print Is Far from Dead,” New York Times, September 22, 2015, accessed December 16, 2015, http://​www​.nytimes​.com/​2015/​09/​23/​business/​media/​the​-plot​-twist​-e​-book​-sales​-slip​-and​-print​-is​-far​-from​-dead​.html.

    70. Ibid.

    71. Jeremy Greenfield, “Study: Ebook Growth Stagnating in 2013,” Digital Book World, October 30, 2013, accessed March 31, 2015, http://​www​.digitalbookworld​.com/​2013/​study​-ebook​-growth​-stagnating​-in​-2013/. Cited by Nicholas Carr, “Peak Ebook?,” Rough Type (blog), November 7, 2013, accessed March 31, 2015, http://​www​.roughtype​.com/​?p​=​3966.

    72. “Children’s and Young Adult Hardback Books up 95.2% in July 2016 vs. July 2015,” Association of American Publishers, December 20, 2016, accessed February 13, 2017, http://​newsroom​.publishers​.org/​childrens​-and​-young​-adult​-hardback​-books​-up​-952​-in​-july​-2016​-vs​-july​-2015/.

    73. Ingram, “E-book Sales.”

    74. Kate Stoltzfus, “Do ‘Digital Natives’ Prefer Paper Books to E-books?,” Education Week, November 8, 2016, accessed February 13, 2017, http://​www​.edweek​.org/​ew/​articles/​2016/​11/​09/​do​-digital​-natives​-prefer​-paper​-books​-to​.html.

    75. Andrew Richard Albanese, “Print or Digital, It’s Reading That Matters,” Publishers Weekly, September 16, 2016, accessed February 12, 2017, http://www.publishersweekly.com/​pw/​by​-topic/​digital/​content​-and​-e​-books/​article/​71500​-print​-digital​-and​-what​-really​-matters​.html.

    76. Alter, “The Plot Twist.”

    77. Padraig Belton and Matthew Wall, “Did Technology Kill the Book or Give It New Life?,” BBC, August 14, 2015, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.bbc​.com/​news/​business​-33717596.

    78. Quoted in Alison Flood, “Ebook Sales Falling for the First Time, Finds New Report,” The Guardian, February 3, 2016, accessed February 12, 2017, https://​www​.theguardian​.com/​books/​2016/​feb/​03/​ebook​-sales​-falling​-for​-the​-first​-time​-finds​-new​-report.

    79. Ibid.

    80. Alter, “The Plot Twist.”

    81. Monica Anderson, “Technology Device Ownership: 2015,” Pew Research Center, October 29, 2015, accessed December 18, 2015, http://​www​.pewinternet​.org/​2015/​10/​29/​technology​-device​-ownership​-2015/.

    82. Andrew Perrin, “Book Reading 2016,” Pew Research Center, September 1, 2016, accessed February 11, 2017, http://​www​.pewinternet​.org/​2016/​09/​01/​book​-reading​-2016/.

    83. Todd Wasserman, “Why E-readers Are the Next iPods,” Mashable, June 27, 2014, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​mashable​.com/​2014/​06/​27/​e​-readers​-next​-ipods/​?utm​_cid​=​mash​-com​-Tw​-main​-link.

    84. Jennifer Maloney, “The Rise of Phone Reading,” Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2015, accessed February 12, 2017, https://​www​.wsj​.com/​articles/​the​-rise​-of​-phone​-reading​-1439398395.

    85. Ibid.

    86. Ibid.

    87. Andrew Albanese, “Frankfurt Book Fair 2016: PW Talks to Pew Research Center’s Lee Rainie about Reading in the Digital Age,” Publishers Weekly, October 21, 2016, accessed February 12, 2017, http://​www​.publishersweekly​.com/​pw/​by​-topic/​international/​Frankfurt​-Book​-Fair/​article/​71787​-frankfurt​-book​-fair​-2016​-pw​-talks​-to​-pew​-research​-center​-s​-lee​-rainie​-about​-reading​-in​-the​-ditgital​-age​.html.

    88. Jordan Selburn, “Ebook Readers: Device to Go the Way of Dinosaurs?,” IHS iSuppli, December 10, 2012, accessed December 18, 2015, https://​technology​.ihs​.com/​417568/​ebook​-readers​-device​-to​-go​-the​-way​-of​-dinosaurs. Cited by Nicholas Carr, “E-reading after the E-reader,” Rough Type (blog), December 30, 2012, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​www​.roughtype​.com/​?p​=​2245.

    89. Perrin, “Book Reading 2016.”

    90. Quoted in Albanese, “Frankfurt Book Fair 2016.”

    91. “New Research Reveals Unexpected Positive Outlook for the Printed Book, Due to Love of the Medium,” Ricoh Americas Corporation, December 9, 2013, accessed December 18, 2015, https://​www​.ricoh​-usa​.com/​news/​news​_release​.aspx​?prid​=​1164​&​alnv​=​pr.

    92. Ibid.

    93. Michael S. Rosenwald, “Why Digital Natives Prefer Reading in Print. Yes, You Read That Right,” Washington Post, February 22, 2015, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.washingtonpost​.com/​local/​why​-digital​-natives​-prefer​-reading​-in​-print​-yes​-you​-read​-that​-right/​2015/​02/​22/​8596ca86​-b871​-11e4​-9423​-f3d0a1ec335c​_story​.html.

    94. Chan Li, Felicia Poe, Michele Potter, Brian Quigley, and Jacqueline Willis, “UC Libraries Academic E-book Usage Survey: Springer E-book Pilot Project,” University of California Libraries (May 2011), 12, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​www​.cdlib​.org/​services/​uxdesign/​docs/​2011/​academic​_ebook​_usage​_survey​.pdf. Cited by Nicholas Carr, “Another Study Points to Advantages of Printed Textbooks,” Rough Type (blog), June 27, 2011, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​www​.roughtype​.com/​?p​=​1496.

    95. Ibid.

    96. Li, Poe, Potter, Quigley, and Willis, “UC Libraries,” 11.

    97. Beth Jacoby, e-mail to COLLDV-­L mailing list, November 17, 2012, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​serials​.infomotions​.com/​colldv​-l/​archive/​2012/​201211/​0221​.html.

    98. Staiger, “How E-books Are Used,” 362.

    99. Baron, Words Onscreen, 85.

    100. Perrin, “Book Reading 2016.”

    101. Jim Milliot, “As E-book Sales Decline, Digital Fatigue Grows,” Publishers Weekly, June 17, 2016, accessed February 13, 2017, http://​www​.publishersweekly​.com/​pw/​by​-topic/​digital/​retailing/​article/​70696​-as​-e​-book​-sales​-decline​-digital​-fatigue​-grows​.html.

    102. Ibid.

    103. Stoltzfus, “Do ‘Digital Natives’ Prefer Paper Books?”

    104. Staiger, “How E-books Are Used,” 362.

    105. Quoted in Alter, “The Plot Twist.”

    106. Nick Bilton, “The Allure of the Print Book,” Bits (blog), New York Times, December 2, 2013, accessed March 27, 2015, http://​bits​.blogs​.nytimes​.com/​2013/​12/​02/​the​-print​-book​-here​-to​-stay​-at​-least​-for​-now/.

    107. Clay Shirky, “Why I Just Asked My Students to Put Their Laptops Away,” Medium, September 8, 2014, accessed August 31, 2015, https://​medium​.com/​@cshirky/​why​-i​-just​-asked​-my​-students​-to​-put​-their​-laptops​-away​-7f5f7c50f368.

    108. Julie Bosman and Matt Richtel, “Finding Your Book Interrupted . . . by the Tablet You Read It On,” New York Times, March 4, 2012, accessed July 31, 2013, http://​www​.nytimes​.com/​2012/​03/​05/​business/​media/​e​-books​-on​-tablets​-fight​-digital​-distractions​.html?​_r​=​1​&​hp.

    109. Michael Sacasas, “Borg Complex: A Primer,” The Frailest Thing, March 1, 2013, accessed March 1, 2015, http://​thefrailestthing​.com/​2013/​03/​01/​borg​-complex​-a​-primer/.

    110. Quoted in Eric Weiner, “Technology of Books Has Changed, but Bookstores Are Hanging in There,” NPR, May 28, 2015, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.npr​.org/​2015/​05/​28/​408787099/​the​-technology​-of​-books​-has​-changed​-but​-bookstores​-are​-hanging​-in.

    111. Ibid.

    112. Jeanne Whalen, “Read Slowly to Benefit Your Brain and Cut Stress,” Wall Street Journal, September 16, 2014, accessed August 7, 2017, https://​www​.wsj​.com/​articles/​read​-slowly​-to​-benefit​-your​-brain​-and​-cut​-stress​-1410823086.

    113. Maura Kelly, “A Slow-­Books Manifesto,” The Atlantic, March 26, 2012, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.theatlantic​.com/​entertainment/​archive/​2012/​03/​a​-slow​-books​-manifesto/​254884/.

    114. Whalen, “Read Slowly.”

    115. Quoted in Albanese, “Frankfurt Book Fair 2016.”

    116. Carr, The Shallows, 118.

    117. Wendy Griswold, Regionalism and the Reading Class (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 66.

    118. Christopher Ingraham, “The Long, Steady Decline of Literary Reading,” Wonkblog (blog), Washington Post, September 7, 2016, accessed February 13, 2017, https://​www​.washingtonpost​.com/​news/​wonk/​wp/​2016/​09/​07/​the​-long​-steady​-decline​-of​-literary​-reading/.

    119. Quoted in Albanese, “Frankfurt Book Fair 2016.”

    120. Rosenwald, “Serious Reading Takes a Hit.”

    121. Maria Konnikova, “Being a Better Online Reader,” The New Yorker, July 16, 2014, accessed August 31, 2015, http://​www​.newyorker​.com/​science/​maria​-konnikova/​being​-a​-better​-online​-reader.

    122. Ibid.