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Introduction

Misunderstandings are rife regarding what exactly peer review is and the purpose it is intended to serve. There are many variations of peer review, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. While peer review continues to evolve alongside the scholarly publishing and academic community it serves, it is clear that the large majority of researchers continue to believe the review system is a linchpin of scientific communication. In this short book, we will provide an overview of the history of peer review, types of peer review, challenges to the system, and possible future developments.