Stanley Schachter Papers: 1945-1998
Summary Information
Title: Stanley Schachter Papers
Creator: Schachter, Stanley, 1922-
Inclusive dates: 1945-1998
Extent: 5 linear feet
Abstract:
Social psychologist, Columbia University professor of psychology, affiliated with the Research Center for Group Dynamics; collection includes publications and professional papers.
Call number: 9958 Aa 2
Language: The materials are in English.
Repository: Bentley Historical Library
1150 Beal Ave.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2113
Phone: 734-764-3482
Fax: 734-936-1333
e-mail: bentley.ref@umich.edu
Home Page: http://www.bentley.umich.edu/
Finding aid prepared by: Crystal Zeh

Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

The papers were received from Sophia Schachter on December 11, 1998 (Donor no. 8794)

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research.

To protect fragile audiovisual recordings (such as audio cassettes, film reels, and VHS tapes), the Bentley Historical Library has a policy of converting them to digital formats by a professional vendor whenever a researcher requests access. For more information, please see: http://bentley.umich.edu/research/duplication/.

Copyright:

Donor(s) have not transferred any applicable copyright to the Regents of the University of Michigan. Patrons are responsible for determining the appropriate use or reuse of materials.

Preferred Citation:

item, folder title, box no., Stanley Schachter Papers, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan


Biography

Described by his colleagues as a "brilliant experimentalist" in the field of social psychology, Dr. Stanley Schachter was not only known for his many important and influential contributions to social psychology, but to the entire field of psychology. Throughout his career, he maintained wide-ranging professional interests in areas such as: smoking and obesity, decision-making in the stock market, affiliation theory, and the effects of deviating from group decisions. The New York Times lauded him as "Psychologist of the Mundane." Indeed, Schachter had a knack for conducting imaginative studies of otherwise basic human behavior and a self-professed talent for interpreting data. He is perhaps most widely recognized for his proposal that emotional experience is a combination of a psychological state and a cognitive interpretation of that state.

Dr. Schachter was born in Flushing, New York to Jewish immigrant parents of eastern European origin on April 15, 1922. He was first introduced to social psychology at Yale University where he obtained his bachelor's and master's degrees. In his autobiography, published as part of A History of Psychology in Autobiography, he notes his good fortune at arriving at Yale during World War II, when most of the psychology department faculty and graduate students were involved elsewhere with wartime research. As a result, the young Schachter was admitted to graduate seminars and allowed to participate in the few research efforts that continued during the war years. These privileges cemented his interest in social psychology and paved the way for his successful career.

After completing his masters degree he left Yale to begin his doctorate in 1946 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). While there, he worked under the auspices of the Research Center for Group Dynamics. When the Center's founding faculty member died, MIT refused to continue funding the Center and Schachter and his fellow graduate students spent a year in search of a university to house the research center. The University of Michigan was one of those interested institutions and according to Schachter, it "apparently made the best, or perhaps the only, offer, and we all moved, kit and kaboodle (whatever they are) to Ann Arbor." He arrived at the University of Michigan in 1949 and left one year later, doctorate in hand, to accept an assistant professorship at the University of Minnesota. It was there that Dr. Schachter finished his pivotal book The Psychology of Affiliation. He submitted it to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Social Psychological competition, and won first prize and lifelong recognition as a prominent scholar. Universities began to woo him as a result of his newfound fame. He taught at the University of Amsterdam and Stanford University before joining Columbia University's psychology faculty in 1961. He became the Robert Johnston Niven Professor of Social Psychology in 1966 and retired from Columbia in 1992.

In addition to the AAAS prize, Dr. Schachter won many awards during his career, including the James McKeen Cattell Award, and awards from the American Psychological Association and the Society for Experimental Social Psychology. He was elected to the American Academy for the Arts and Sciences in 1976. Dr. Schachter died on June 7, 1997.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The papers of Dr. Stanley Schachter are divided into four series: Publications and papers, Research Correspondence and Notes, Journals and other professional activities, and Biographical/personal.

The papers were first arranged by Dr. Schachter's wife, Sophia Schachter, before arriving at the Bentley Historical Library. Included in some folders are lists compiled by Mrs. Schachter detailing their contents. In some cases, she has also included a brief history of who worked with Dr. Schachter on certain projects.

Subject Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the finding aid database and catalog of The Bentley Historical Library/University of Michigan. Researchers desiring additional information about related topics should search the catalog using these headings.


  • Social psychology.
  • Photographs.
  • Schachter, Stanley, 1922-1997.
  • Columbia University -- Faculty.
  • Schachter, Stanley, 1922-1997.
Contents List
Request materials for use in the Bentley Library
Container / Location Title
 
Publications and Papers 1945-1994 [series]

Publications and Papers is comprised solely of books and papers compiled from Dr. Schachter's research which spanned a vast number of interests and years. From 1945 to 1994, Dr. Schachter published on such topics as the psychology of stock market trends, obesity, and smoking. This series is arranged chronologically.

Box   1  
"Night Vision Trainer," 1945
Box   1  
"Effect of Inter-Sensory Stimulation on Dark Adaptation and Night Vision," 1949
Box   1  
"Methodology of Studying Rumor Transmission," 1950
Box   1  
Social Pressures in Informal Groups 1950
Box   1  
"Theory and Experiment in Social Communication," 1950
Box   1  
"Deviation, Rejection, and Communication," 1951
Box   1  
"Experimental Study on Cohesiveness and Productivity," 1951
Box   1  
"On Group Cohesiveness," 1952
Box   1  
"Cross National Research: A Case Study," 1954
Box   1  
"Interpretative and Methodological Problems of Replicated Research," 1954
Box   1  
"Cross Cultural Experiments on Threat and Rejection," 1954
Box   1  
"Cross-Cultural Experimental Research: Methodological Problems and Factual Finding in an International Study in Group Behavior," 1954
Box   1  
"Field Experiment on Rumor Transmission," 1955
Box   1  
Article on Group Dynamics. American People's Encyclopedia 1956
Box   1  
When Prophecy Fails 1956
Box   1  
The Psychology of Affiliation 1959
Box   1  
"Emotional Disruption and Industrial Productivity," 1961
Box   1  
"Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State," 1962
Box   1  
"Epinephrine, Chlorpromazine, and Amusement," 1962
Box   1  
"Adrenaline and Avoidance Learning," 1962
Box   1  
"Birth Order, Eminence, and Higher Education," 1963
Box   1  
"Interaction of Cognitive and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State," 1964
Box   1  
"Birth Order and Sociometric Choice," 1964
Box   1  
"Crime, Cognition, and the Autonomic Nervous System," 1964
Box   1  
"Cognitive Manipulation of Pain," 1966
Box   1  
"Cognitive Effects on Bodily Functioning: Studies of Obesity and Eating," 1967
Box   1  
"Obesity and Eating," 1968
Box   1  
"Effects of Fear, Food Deprivation, and Obesity on Eating," 1968
Box   1  
"Manipulated Time and Eating Behavior," 1968
Box   1  
"Yom Kippur, Air France, Dormitory Food, and the Eating Behavior of Obese and Normal Persons," 1968
Box   1  
"Discussion of Dr. Bruch's paper," 1970
Box   1  
"Assumption of Identity and Peripheralist-centralist Controversies in
Box   1  
"Motivation and Emotion," 1970
Box   1  
"Eat, Eat," 1971
Box   1  
Emotion, Obesity, and Crime 1971
Box   1  
"Some Extraordinary Facts about Obese Humans and Rats," 1971
Box   1  
"Nesbitt's Paradox," 1973
Box   1  
"Appetite Regulation in Obese Subjects," 1974
Box   1  
Obese Humans and Rats 1974
Box   1  
"Cognition and Peripheralist-centralist Controversies in Motivation and Emotion," 1975
Box   1  
"Effects of Cue Prominence and Palatability on the Drinking Behavior of Obese and Normal Humans," 1975
Box   1  
"Studies of the Interaction of Psychological and Pharmacological Determinants of Smoking," 1978
Box   1  
"Pharmacological and Psychological Determinants of Cigarette Smoking," 1978
Box   1  
"Second Thoughts on Biological and Psychological Explanations of Behavior," 1978
Box   1  
"Sin and Error in Science," 1978
Box   1  
"Comments on the Maslach and Marshall-Zimbardo experiments 1979
Box   1  
"Regulation, Withdrawal, and Nicotine Addiction," 1979
Box   1  
"Urinary pH and the Psychology of Nicotine Addiction," 1980
Box   1  
"Non-psychological Explanations of Behavior," 1980
Box   1  
"Self-Treatment of Smoking and Obesity," 1981
Box   1  
"Don't Sell Habit-Breakers Short: Recidivism and Self-Cure of Smoking and Obesity," 1982
Box   1  
"Was the South Sea Bubble a Random Walk?," 1985
Box   1  
"Random and Non-Random Walks on the New York Stock Exchange," 1985
Box   1  
"Some Causes and Consequences of Dependence and Independence in the Stock Market," 1985
Box   1  
"Aggregate Variables in Psychology and Economics Dependence and the Stock Market," 1987
Box   1  
A Distinctive Approach to Psychological Research: The Influence of Stanley Schachter 1987
Box   1  
"Effects of Trend and of Profit or Loss on the Tendency to Sell Stock," 1987
Box   1  
Extending Psychological Frontiers: Selected Works of Leon Festinger 1989
Box   1  
"Reply to Cohen et al.," 1990
Box   1  
"Filled Pauses and Gestures: It's not coincidence," 1991
Box   1  
"Speech, Disfluency, and the Structure of Knowledge," 1991
Box   1  
"Cocaine Decreases self-control in rats," 1992
Box   1  
"Vocabularies of Academia," 1994
Box   1  
"Leon Festinger, A Biographical Memoir," 1994
 
Research Correspondence and Notes 1951-1993 [series]

Research Correspondence and Notes contains notes Dr. Schachter kept regarding his research, surveys and questionnaires developed for research purposes, correspondence between colleagues, friends, and publishers about his work, and manuscript drafts. Also included are a handful of unpublished articles.

Box   2  
"Deviation, Rejection, and Communication," 1951
Box   2  
"Experimental Study of Human Behavior," 1951
Box   2  
"On Group Cohesiveness," 1952
Box   2  
"Cross-Cultural Experimentation on Threat and Rejection," 1954
Box   2  
"Field Experiment on Rumor Transmission," 1955
 
Psychology of Affiliation
Box   2  
Correspondence with publisher 1959-1963
Box   2  
Reviews 1959
Box   2  
Outline undated
Box   2  
Miscellaneous correspondence 1958-1960
 
"Emotional Disruption and Industrial Productivity"
Box   2  
1958-1959
Box   2  
1960
Box   2  
Prisoner isolation interviews 1958
Box   2  
Stillwater, Minnesota prison study 1961
Box   2  
"Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State," 1962 (2 folders)
Box   2  
"Epinephrine, Chlorpromazine, and Amusement," 1962
Box   2  
Bordentown, Minnesota prison experiment 1962
Box   2  
Anxiety and affliliative motive experiment undated
Box   2  
Anxiety, time-perception experiment undated
Box   2  
"Birth Order, Eminence, and Higher Education," 1963
Box   2  
"Birth Order and Sociometric Choice," 1963
Box   2  
Miscellaneous Birth Order Correspondence 1959-1969 (scattered)
Box   2  
"Social Pressures on Informal Groups," 1963-1964
Box   2  
"Crime, Cognition, and the Autonomic Nervous System," 1964
Box   2  
"Interaction of Cognitive and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State," 1964
Box   2  
"Cognitive Manipulation of Pain," 1966
Box   2  
"Cognitive Effects on Bodily Functioning: Studies of Obesity and Eating," 1967
Box   2  
"Taste Deprivation and Weight Determination," 1967
Box   2  
"Yom Kippur, Air France, and Dormitory Food," 1967
Box   2  
"Effects of Fear, Food Deprivation, and Obesity on Eating," 1968
Box   2  
"Manipulated Time and Eating Behavior," 1968
Box   3  
"Obesity and Eating," 1968
Box   3  
"Cognition and Peripheralist-Centralist Controversies in Motivation and Emotion," 1969
Box   3  
"Emotion, Obesity, and Crime," 1970-1971
Box   3  
"Eat, Eat," 1971
Box   3  
"Some Extraordinary Facts about Obese Humans," 1971
Box   3  
"Appetite Regulation in Obese Subjects," 1972
Box   3  
"Nesbitt's Paradox," 1973
Box   3  
Obese Humans and Rats 1974 (3 folders)
Box   3  
"Studies in the Interaction of Psychological and Pharmacological Determinants of Smoking," 1975-1977 (2 folders)
Box   3  
"Some Replies to Schnur," 1977
Box   3  
"Urinary pH and the Psychology of Nicotine Addiction," 1977
Box   3  
"Pharmacological and Psychological Determinants of Smoking," 1978
Box   3  
"Regulation, Withdrawal, and Nicotine Addiction," 1978
Box   3  
"Second Thoughts on Biological and Psychological Explanations of Behavior," 1978
Box   3  
Maslach, Marshall-Zimbardo experiment, comments 1979
Box   3  
"Self-Treatment of Smoking and Obesity," 1980
Box   3  
"Don't Sell Habit-Breakers Short: Recidivism and the Self-Cure of Smoking and Obesity," 1982
Box   3  
Stock market articles 1982
Box   3  
Zeitgeist data notes 1983
Box   3  
"Stock market correspondence 1983-1986
Box   3  
"Aggregate Variables in Psychology and Economics," 1984
Box   3  
"Studies of Dependent and Interdependent Markets," 1985
Box   4  
"Effects of Trend and of Profit or Loss on the Tendency to Sell Stock," 1986-1987
Box   4  
Filled Pauses and Gestures, notes 1987-1989
Box   4  
Extending Psychological Frontiers: Selected Works of Leon Festinger, preface 1988
Box   4  
"A Reply to Cohen, Lichtenstein et al.," 1989
Box   4  
Leon Festinger, biographical memoir 1990
Box   4  
"Speech Disfluency and the Structure of Knowledge," 1990
Box   4  
"Vocabularies of Academia," 1993
 
Journals and other Professional Activities [series]

Journals and other Professional Activities contains correspondence with publishers, article reviews, the activities of various committees Dr. Schachter was involved with, transcripts from taped meetings. and several lectures he delivered to colleagues.

Box   4  
Teaching methods of Sociometry 1951, 1953
 
Cross-National Program of the Organization for Comparative Social Research
Box   4  
1952-1953 (3 folders)
Box   4  
Correspondence 1951-1952
Box   4  
Correspondence 1952-1953
Box   4  
Review of articles for Sociometry 1955-1960
Box   4  
"Group Dynamics," encyclopedia summary 1957
Box   4  
New York City prison study, proposed 1963-1964
Box   4  
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, correspondence 1963-1971
Box   4  
"Social Cohesion," encyclopedia entry 1964
 
Social psychology series, correspondence
Box   4  
1965-1966
Box   4  
1966-1967
Box   4  
1968-1972
 
Social Science Research Council Committee (SSRCC) on Biological Bases of Social Behavior
Box   5  
1967-1970 (2 folders)
Box   5  
1971-1973 (2 folders)
Box   5  
1974-1979
Box   5  
Final Report 1979
Box   5  
Philip Morris Company, correspondence 1970-1973
Box   5  
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, correspondence 1972-1975
Box   5  
Proposed conference on smoking, correspondence 1973
Box   5  
"Methodology: The Psychologist and the Experiment, movie script 1974
Box   5  
Guggenheim fellowship application (withdrawn) 1974-1975
Box   5  
"Nicotine as Addicting Agent: Comments on Dr. Russell's paper," 1977
Box   5  
"Springtime, Suicide, and Wills," unpublished paper 1978
Box   5  
Transcript from MIT Research Center for Group Dynamics reunion 1978
Box   5  
This Week's Citation Classic 1979
Box   5  
Banality and the Stock Market, lecture 1981
Box   5  
Sloan grant proposals 1981, 1986, 1989
Box   5  
More on recidivism 1982
Box   5  
State of Psychology, conference report 1982
Box   5  
"Curbing Coronaries by Press Conference, unpublished paper 1984
Box   5  
Cognition and Emotion Panel, report 1987-1989
Box   5  
Unpublished articles with Rose and Zetterberg undated
 
Biographical/Personal [series]

Awards and honors, several interviews, correspondence about his appointment at Columbia University, fond letters from former students, obituaries, and two informal portraits make up the Biographical/Personal series.

Box   5  
Awards and honors
Box   5  
Columbia University appointment, correspondence 1960-1961
Box   5  
Curriculum vitae
Box   5  
Miscellaneous biographical
 
Miscellaneous correspondence
Box   5  
1944-1954
Box   5  
1960-1990 (scattered)
Box   5  
New Scientist, interview 1975
Box   5  
The Making of Social Psychology, interview 1980
Box   5  
Obituaries 1997-1998
Box   5  
Photographs- Informal portraits of Schachter
Box   5  
Student correspondence 1968-1996 (scattered)
Additional Descriptive Data
Related Material

The papers of Leon Festinger, a prominent social psychologist at the University of Michigan, and a contemporary of Schachter's, are also preserved at the Bentley Historical Library. These two collections provide an comparative overview of the field of social psychology from 1950 to 1980.