Historical files of the American Expeditionary Force, North Russia: 1918-1919
Summary Information
Title: Historical files of the American Expeditionary Force, North Russia
Creator: United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces, North Russia.
Inclusive dates: 1918-1919
Extent: 2 microfilms (positive)
Abstract:
Microfilm of reports, studies, memorandums and other records from the Records of the American Expeditionary Forces (World War I), 1917-23, record group 120 in the National Archives.
Call number: 89348 Ca Microcopy
Language: The material is in English
Repository: Bentley Historical Library
1150 Beal Ave.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2113
Phone: 734-764-3482
Fax: 734-936-1333
e-mail: bentley.ref@umich.edu
Home Page: http://www.bentley.umich.edu/
Finding aid created by National Archives and Records Service, 1973. The introductory remarks were written by Patrick Garabedian and Timothy K. Nenninger.

Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

Purchased from the National Archives and Records Service in 1989.

Access Restrictions:

The collection is open for research. All items originally given some level of security classification were declassified prior to the microfilming project.

To protect fragile audiovisual recordings (such as audio cassettes, film reels, and VHS tapes), the Bentley Historical Library has a policy of converting them to digital formats by a professional vendor whenever a researcher requests access. For more information, please see: http://bentley.umich.edu/research/duplication/.

Copyright:

Copyright is not held by the Regents of the University of Michigan. Patrons are responsible for determining the appropriate use or reuse of materials.

Alternate Format:

This collection has not been digitized by the Bentley Historical Library. As of February 2010, the collection is available in digital form (for a fee) at http://www.footnote.com/documents/19387125/us_expeditionary_force_north_russia/

Preferred Citation:

[item], folder, reel, Historical files of the American Expeditionary Forces, North Russia (National Archives Microfilm M924), Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan


Biography

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed March 15, 1918, between Russia and Germany, removed Russia from the side of the Allies, added to the political chaos within Russia, and caused additional political and military problems for the Allies. On June 2, 1918, the Allied Supreme War Council voted for military intervention at Murmansk and Archangel in North Russia by a force of mixed nationalities under British command. The original objectives of the expedition were limited: to establish a rallying point for those Czech troops inside Russia who were still loyal to the Allies, to guard the supplies sent to the northern ports for the Imperial Russian Army, and to prevent the establishment of German naval bases at the northern ports. On July 17, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson agreed to furnish American troops for the intervention.

On August 9, 1918, the 339th Infantry Regiment, 1st Battalion of the 310th Engineers, 337th Field Hospital, and 337th Ambulance Company, all elements of the 85th Infantry Division, were officially designated the "Murmansk Expedition." On August 27 the expedition, consisting of 143 officers and 4,344 enlisted men under the command of Lt. Col. George E. Stewart, sailed from Newcastle-on-Tyne in England and arrived at Archangel on September 4 where, with other Allied forces, it became part of the command of Maj. Gen. F. C. Poole, British Army. American troops soon began to deploy along a front 450 miles long, extending from Onega in the west to Pinega in the east, and at some points 200 miles distant from Archangel, the site of Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, and also Allied Headquarters. Between September 1918 and May 1919 troops of AEF, North Russia, suffered over 500 casualties in combat against the Bolshevik 6th and 7th Armies.

In addition to the troops composing AEF, North Russia, there were two other American contingents in the area. The American Military Mission to Russia, headed by Col. James A. Ruggles and including several assistant military attaches, reported on significant political and military events to the War Department and to David R. Francis, U.S. Ambassador to the Provisional Government of the Northern Provinces. The North Russia Transportation Corps Expeditionary Forces, consisting of the 167th (Operations) and 168th (Maintenance) Companies, Transportation Corps, were sent to Murmansk in March and April 1919 to operate and maintain the Murmansk Railway so that a line of withdrawal for the icebound Allied force at Archangel might be kept open. Maj. Edward E. MacMorland commanded this contingent, which operated and maintained the Murmansk Railway from its headquarters at Soroka.

Early in 1919 President Wilson and his chief advisers decided to withdraw all American forces from North Russia. During May 1919 Brig. Gen. Wilds P. Richardson, who had assumed command of all U.S. forces in North Russia on April 9, began to concentrate AEF, North Russia, around Archangel preparatory to return to the United States via Brest, France. By June 27 the last of AEF, North Russia, had left for Brest. On July 28 the North Russia Transportation Corps Expeditionary Forces left Murmansk for Brest, and on August 5, 1919, Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, was discontinued.


Collection Scope and Content Note

Creation of Historical Files

The Historical Branch, War Plans Division, 1918-21, and its successor, the Historical Section of the Army War College, 1921- 42, created the Historical Files of the AEF, North Russia. These historical units collected, preserved, indexed, and published documents of historical value relating to the American effort in World War I. In the course of its duties the Historical Branch began collecting and classifying documents of the North Russian intervention about 1920. The first page or cover sheet of many of the documents in this series bear the stamp "HISTORICAL BRANCH" and immediately below the stamp the file designation "57" and another number. The Historical Section of the Army War College continued to add to the Historical Files of the AEF, North Russia, during the 1920's and 1930's. The records comprising the Historical File came from two major sources: Headquarters of AEF, North Russia, and the Military Intelligence Division of the War Department General Staff. In addition, records from several other War Department agencies are included in the series reproduced on this microfilm publication.

Arrangement

The present arrangement of these documents is according to the so-called War Department historical decimal classification scheme, a filing system devised by the Historical Section of the Army War College, which despite its name lacks certain basic elements of a true decimal classification system. According to this scheme each file designation consists of two numbers separated by a hyphen. The number before the hyphen, the master number, represents the organizational entity to which the document was assigned; the number following the hyphen, the subject number, denotes the subject matter of the document. For example, the report of the Chief Surgeon of AEF, North Russia Jonas R. Longley, on the work of the Medical Department in North Russia bears the file designation "23-43.8." The number "23" is the master number for AEF, North Russia, and "43" is the subject number for the Medical Department. The number "43.8" is the designation for Medical Department history and reports. A descriptive list of folder contents and their file designations follows these introductory remarks.

Security Classification

None of the documents reproduced on this microfilm publication are now security-classified, but at one time or another many of them were. Some documents were classified as secret or confidential at the time of their creation and had security-classification markings stamped, typed, or written on them. The Adjutant General's Office reviewed the security classification of this entire series in March 1947 and marked each folder, file cover, or document with a rectangular stamp "CLASSIFICATION CANCELLED" or "CLASSIFICATION CHANGED TO CONFIDENTIAL." Between 1947 and 1970 National Archives and Records Service (NARS) staff members reviewed and declassified a few documents as a result of specific requests made by researchers. The remaining documents were declassified in preparing this microfilm publication.

Description of Records

Among the records included in this series are the following: reports of officers of the American Military Mission to Russia concerning the morale, efficiency, and operations of the AEF, North Russia; compilations of correspondence and issuances of Allied Headquarters and of Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, documenting conditions and events occurring in the Archangel-Murmansk area; British daily and weekly intelligence summaries pertaining to military and political affairs in Russia, Siberia, Germany, and Eastern Europe; and strength reports and returns, orders of battle, and maps and charts showing the strength and deployment of Allied and Bolshevik troops in North Russia.

Subject Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the finding aid database and catalog of The Bentley Historical Library/University of Michigan. Researchers desiring additional information about related topics should search the catalog using these headings.


  • Polar Bear Expedition.
  • Soviet Union -- History -- Allied intervention, 1918-1920.
  • World War, 1914-1918.
  • United States. Army. American Expeditionary Forces, North Russia.
  • United States. Army. Infantry, 339th.
Contents List
Request materials for use in the Bentley Library
Container / Location Title
 
Historical files of the American Expeditionary Force, North Russia 1918-1919 [series]
Roll   1  
Memorandums relating to U.S. Navy vessels in North Russian waters during 1918, 1919 ([23-8.3])
Roll   1  
Strength returns of United States and Allied units in North Russia April-June 1919 ([23-10.5])
Roll   1  
Daily strength reports, AEF, North Russia June-July 1919 ([23-10.5])
Roll   1  
Allied orders of battle Archangel District February 11, 1919, April 15, 1919 ([23-10.6])
Roll   1  
Situation reports on the efficiency and morale of the AEF, North Russia December 1918-March 1919 ([23-11.1])
Roll   1  
Brig. Gen. Wilds P. Richardson's"Notes on the War and on the North Russian Expedition," Undated ([23-11.4])
Roll   1  
Report of Capt. H. S. Martin, American Military Mission, on his personal observations concerning the American intervention in North Russia August 20, 1919 ([23-11.4])
Roll   1  
"Gen. Scott's Report on Russia." ([23-11.4])

(This folder contains nothing more than cross-reference sheets to related records in this and other series.)

Roll   1  
General Order 8, dated , Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, listing officers and men cited for "gallantry in action." June 24, 1919 ([23-11.4])
Roll   1  
"History." ([23-11.4])

(This folder contains nothing more than cross-reference sheets to related records in this and other series.)

Roll   1  
Compilation of correspondence of Allied General Headquarters at Archangel relating to Allied operations in North Russia July 1918-March 1919 ([23-11.5])
Roll   1  
Notebook containing a chronological record of events , compiled at Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, by Lt. John H. Tucker, Operations Officer. April 17-June 18, 1919 ([23-11.5])
Roll   1  
Typescript copy of Lieutenant Tucker's notebook described above. ([23-11.5])
Roll   1  
Notebook of Lieutenant Tucker containing copies of letters, memorandums, orders, and cablegrams of Headquarters, AEF, North Russia April 25-June 18, 1919 ([23-11.5])
Roll   1  
Memorandums and reports on casualties and disposition of dead in North Russia 1918, 1919 ([23-12.3])
Roll   1  
"Insignia." ([23-13.7])

(This folder contains nothing more than cross-reference sheets to related records in this and other series.)

Roll   1  
Report on American Red Cross activities in North Russia Undated ([23-17.3])
Roll   1  
Note on mail service September 10, 1918 ([23-17.8])
Roll   1  
British War Office daily intelligence summaries (26) pertaining to military and political events in Russia, Germany, East Europe, and other areas May-September 1919-January 1920 ([23-20.22])
Roll   1  
Weekly military information summaries with maps issued by Allied General Headquarters at Archangel May-June 1919 ([23-20.3])
Roll   1  
Daily communiques issued by Allied General Headquarters at Archangel May-July 1919 ([23-20.3])
Roll   1  
Bolshevik orders (3) of battle September 1918-February 1919 ([23-22.1])
Roll   1  
Reports pertaining to the strength and distribution of the Bolshevik 6th Army February-May 1919 ([23-22.1])
Roll   1  
Report on Bolshevik strength in North Russia Undated ([23-22.2])
Roll   2  
Memorandums of Col. James A. Ruggles reviewing the activities of the American Military Mission to Russia 1918, 1919 ([23-23])
Roll   2  
Department of State memorandum of May 8, 1920, regarding the history of the American and Allied Military Missions to Russia in 1918, 1919 1918-1920 ([23-23.1])
Roll   2  
Cablegrams (3) from the American consul at Archangel regarding the military situation in North Russia January 1919, February 1919 ([23-23.1])
Roll   2  
Office of Naval Intelligence report announcing the Allied occupation of Archangel August 12, 1918 ([23-23.1])
Roll   2  
Report of Capt. Jacob A. Harzfeld, American Military Mission to Russia, on "the activities of [the] Allied Commission to exchange prisoners captured on [the] Northern Front and observations of conditions in Bolshevik territory." May 7, 1919 ([23-23.1])
Roll   2  
The Operations of the Czechoslovak Army in Russia in the Years 1917-1920 by Vladimir Klecanda. ([23-23.1])

(English translation included.)

Roll   2  
"Attacks on Tolvuya and Onega, ." August 3-4, 1919 ([23-23.1])

(This folder contains nothing more than cross-reference sheets to related records in this and other series.)

Roll   2  
Reports of Col. James A. Ruggles, Military Attache at Archangel and Chief of the American Military Mission to Russia, on military and political events and conditions in the Murmansk and Archangel Districts January-June 1919 ([23-23.1])
Roll   2  
Charts and maps showing strength and deployment of Allied and Bolshevik Armies in Russia January-June 1919 ([23-23.11])
Roll   2  
Sketch map with explanatory remarks of the railroad south of Obozerskaya Station Undated ([23-25.4])
Roll   2  
Monthly activities report of the American Military Mission to Russia for May 1919 ([23-27])
Roll   2  
Reports on the Allied offensive on the Vologda Force Front and the Royal Air Force airfield near Obozerskaya January 1919 ([23-27.8])
Roll   2  
Report of Capt. Eugene Prince, American Military Mission to Russia, on the military situation on the Dvina Front July 6, 1919 ([23-27.3])
Roll   2  
Memorandum regarding the Cafe de Paris in Archangel September 25, 1918 ([23-27.9])
Roll   2  
Plan for a combined Allied naval and military operation September 14, 1918 ([23-32])
Roll   2  
Orders and instructions relating to the departure of AEF, North Russia, from Russia April-June 1919 ([23-32.13])
Roll   2  
Orders issued by Allied General Headquarters at Archangel September 1918-February 1919 ([23-32.15])
Roll   2  
Field messages. ([23-32.16])
Roll   2  
Cablegrams sent by Headquarters, AEF, North Russia April 7-August 23, 1919 ([23-32.16])
Roll   2  
Reports and maps indicating location of Allied and enemy troops 1918, 1919 ([23-32.2])
Roll   2  
Maps of Allied defensive works April 1919 ([23-32.4])
Roll   2  
Situation map of Finland and North Russia on August 15, 1918 ([23-32.6])
Roll   2  
Order providing for military guards on merchant ships discharging or loading at Archangel September 22, 1918 ([23-32.8])
Roll   2  
Report of operations of the 339th Infantry Regiment in North Russia from , compiled by Lt. Charles E. Lewis September 4, 1918-April 1, 1919 ([23-33.2])
Roll   2  
"Report of Expedition to the Murman Coast," , compiled by Lt. Charles E. Lewis September 1918-April 1919 ([23-33.2])
Roll   2  
Extracts from the War Diary of Allied General Headquarters at Archangel August 4, 1918-February 12, 1919 ([23-33.5])
Roll   2  
Summary of principal military events in the Archangel District August 4, 1918-March 24, 1919 ([23-33.6])
Roll   2  
Memorandums relating to Allied troop movements by November 19-December 24, 1918 ([23-34.2])
Roll   2  
Memorandums relating to Allied troop movements by water September 6, 1918-January 16, 1919 ([23-34.6])
Roll   2  
Reports on mutinies and on morale of Allied troops in North Russia by Capt. H. S. Martin July 1919 ([23-36.1])
Roll   2  
Reports on the morale of the AEF, North Russia, by Capts. Jacob A. Harzfeld and Eugene Prince, American Military Mission to Russia February 2-20, 1919 ([23-36.1])
Roll   2  
Note on supply of timber available in the Archangel District September 12, 1918 ([23-42.8])
Roll   2  
Medical arrangements for the Allied Forces in North Russia, Nos. 2-18, issued by the Deputy Director of Medical Services December 19, 1918-April 10, 1919 ([23-43])
Roll   2  
"Medical Service Routine Orders." ([23-43.6])

(This folder contains nothing more than cross-reference sheets to related records in this and other series.)

Roll   2  
Report of Chief Surgeon Jonas R. Longley on the work of the Medical Department, AEF, North Russia, for the period August 1918-March 1919 ([23-43.8])
Roll   2  
Bulletin No. 67, dated , Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, pertaining to mail and food. March 20, 1919 ([23-64.6])
Roll   2  
Reports of inspections of the North Russia Transportation Corps Expeditionary Forces April-July 1919 ([23-66.1])
Additional Descriptive Data
Related material

In addition to the general files of the AEF, North Russia, that can be found among the Records of the American Expeditionary Forces (World War I), 1917-23, Record Group 120, there are numerous documents relating to American activities in North Russia among the records of the American Section of the Supreme War Council, 1917-19 (reproduced as NARS Microfilm Publication 923) in the same record group. Another large series containing much information on the American intervention in North Russia is the general correspondence of the Military Intelligence Division in Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, Record Group 165. The 1910-29 decimal file of the Department of State in General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59, includes extensive documentation on conditions in North Russia during the Russian Civil War. The following three segments of the decimal file relating to Russia and the Soviet Union have been reproduced as microfilm publications by NARS: Records of the Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1910-29 (M316), Records of the Department of State Relating to Political Relations Between the United States and Russia and the Soviet Union, 1910-29 (M333), and Records of the Department of State Relating to Political Relations Between Russia (and the Soviet Union) and Other States, 1910-29 (M340). Another important segment of the decimal file available on microfilm is Records of the Department of State Relating to World War I and Its Termination, 1914-29 (M367).