American Council on Alcohol Problems Records: 1883-2015 (bulk 1920s-1960s)
Summary Information
Title: American Council on Alcohol Problems Records
Creator: American Council on Alcohol Problems.
Inclusive dates: 1883-2015
Bulk dates: 1920s-1960s
Extent: 7 linear feet (in 9 boxes)
Extent: 1 oversize folder
Abstract:
Formerly the Anti-Saloon League of America. Correspondence, reports, minutes, legal files, speeches by temperance leaders, bills relating to the prohibition question; papers (1934-1956) concerning National Temperance and Prohibition Council; pamphlets relating to temperance; and photographs.
Call number: 85650 Bj 2 UBJl
Language: The materials are in English.
Repository: Bentley Historical Library
1150 Beal Ave.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2113
Phone: 734-764-3482
Fax: 734-936-1333
e-mail: bentley.ref@umich.edu
Home Page: http://www.bentley.umich.edu/
Finding aid prepared by: R. David Myers

Access and Use
Acquisition Information:

This record group is comprised mainly of the records of the Office of General Counsel and Legislative Superintendent of the Anti-Saloon League of America. The records were deposited in the Michigan Historical Collections in February of 1969 by the Executive Director of the American Council on Alcohol Problems 4813, successor organization to the Anti-Saloon League.

Access Restrictions:

The record group is open for research.

To protect fragile audiovisual recordings (such as audio cassettes, film reels, and VHS tapes), the Bentley Historical Library has a policy of converting them to digital formats by a professional vendor whenever a researcher requests access. For more information, please see: http://bentley.umich.edu/research/duplication/.

Copyright:

The literary rights to correspondence and other manuscript material in the Anti-Saloon League Legal and Legislative Office series have not been dedicated to the public. Patrons are responsible for determining the appropriate use or reuse of materials.

Alternate Format:

Those portions of this record group dated 1883-1933 were microfilmed in 1979 as part of a joint project of the Michigan Historical Collections, the Ohio Historical Society, and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

Preferred Citation:

item, folder title, box no., American Council on Alcohol Problems Records, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan


History

The Anti-Saloon League of America (A.S.L.A.), established in 1893, was a non-partisan political pressure organization which sought to mobilize church forces against the liquor traffic. One of the most important and most powerful components within the A.S.L.A. was the Office of General Counsel and Legislative Superintendent. The combined offices were charged with lobbying for favorable prohibition measures in Congress and arguing the legal cases which involved the A.S.L.A. Beyond these functionary activities, the Office of General Counsel and Legislative Superintendent, for nearly a decade, served as the leading force in shaping the philosophy and policy of the national A.S.L.A.

The importance of the Office of General Counsel and Legislative Superintendent (hereafter: Legal and Legislative office) resulted from the vigor and tenacity of one man, Wayne Bidwell Wheeler. Known to many as the "Dry Boss," Wheeler used the office to build a strong locus of power from which he impressed his personal philosophy upon the League and influenced national legislation. The dedication which Wheeler manifested from 1916 to 1927 was the culmination of a lifetime of hard work and opposition to the use of alcohol. Born in Brookfield, Ohio in November, 1869, Wheeler worked on his father's farm and attended Brookfield elementary schools. During his youth, he had been frightened by the effect of alcohol on one of his relatives and decided to dedicate his life to prohibition. After graduating from high school in Sharon, Pennsylvania in 1885, he planned to return to his father's farm and continue the family tradition. Wheeler was more interested in academics than agriculture, however, and soon left the farm to pursue advanced education. To save enough money for entrance fees, Wheeler taught in the Brookfield area for two years. He then entered Oberlin College in 1889. Throughout his student days, Wheeler worked at numerous odd jobs to pay tuition. As a center for the growing prohibition sentiment, Oberlin cemented Wheeler's skepticism about liquor. During his sophomore year, he came into contact with Howard Hyde Russell, the founder of the Anti-Saloon League. Impressed by Wheeler's intelligence, capacity for hard work and dedication to prohibition, Russell recruited him for the League. Despite his taxing college schedule, Wheeler began to tour Ohio for the League and also played a substantial role in promoting the first local option law in Ohio. After graduating from Oberlin with a Bachelor's degree in 1893 and a Master's degree in 1894, he accepted the post of superintendent of the League's Cleveland district and used the opportunity to attend the law school at Western Reserve University in Cleveland. Upon graduation from law school in 1898, he became attorney for the Ohio Anti-Saloon League. Three years later he married Ella B. Candy.

In 1903 Wheeler was elected Superintendent of the Ohio League. As Superintendent he continued the League's policy of supporting the dry candidates of the two major political parties and opposed pressure on the League to support the National Prohibition Party. In the 1905 Ohio gubernatorial election, the Ohio League helped to elect a dry Democrat over a wet Republican in the traditionally Republican state. Wheeler was successful in his local leadership role and emerged on the national scene when the A.S.L.A. intensified its campaign for national prohibition in 1913. He lobbied for the A.S.L.A. in the United States Congress, building strong relationships with senators and representatives which he later used to successfully promote wartime prohibition. Wheeler was appointed General Counsel of the A.S.L.A. in 1916 because of his successful career in Ohio and his growing reputation in Washington. From this position he was instrumental in securing the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment. In 1919 Wheeler also took the post of Legislative Superintendent. Combined, the two offices provided him a strong base of power within the A.S.L.A. His strength was enhanced by the fact that he not only enjoyed a good relationship with some members of Congress, but also had a close friendship with his fellow Ohioan, Warren G. Harding. Thus he exerted considerable pressure in the appointment of federal judges and other federal officials.

From 1920 to 1927, Wheeler exercised a powerful influence within the League and in both houses of Congress. One example of Wheeler's power within the A.S.L.A. came in 1924 when he personally secured the election of F. Scott McBride to the office of General Superintendent. In the early part of the 1920's the League split on the question of following an enforcement or educational policy. On one side, General Superintendent Purley A. Baker and his supporters called for a strong educational program to supplement legal prohibition. Baker's followers believed that only a favorable public atmosphere, created by educational programs, would ensure compliance to prohibition laws. On the other side, Wheeler and his followers stressed that strict law enforcement of prohibition and the Volstead Act would end the need for educational activity. Until his death in 1927, the Wheeler modus operandi dominated the A.S.L.A. Following the enforcement philosophy, Wheeler used his offices to launch a program of lobbying for stronger law enforcement measures in Congress to halt the illegal liquor traffic. He called for government agencies to be invested with greater power (such as more lenient search and seizure laws) in order to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment and the Volstead Act. He also successfully lobbied against attempts to make 2.75% beer legal and supported legislation to stop the production of fruit juices in American homes. In addition, Wheeler tried to curtail the use of liquor in the foreign embassies of Washington. In one of his most controversial stands, he committed the A.S.L.A. to supporting legislation that would limit the number of immigrants, believing that most immigrants tended to ignore the prohibition laws. Concerning the A.S.L.A. itself, Wheeler attempted to incorporate the League to relieve its tax burden.

Determined to control the League and to make his influence felt in national affairs, Wheeler drove himself almost fanatically throughout the period 1910 to 1927. Gradually, the hard driving pace began to take its toll. With his health deteriorating rapidly, Wheeler's problems increased when his wife was burned to death in a freak accident. Despite these adversities, poor health did not force him to limit his activities until the early summer of 1927. Wheeler died on September 5, 1927, at the age of 58.

With Wheeler's death, A.S.L.A. Superintendent McBride used the opportunity to shift power from Wheeler's office back to the Superintendent's office. To facilitate the return of power, McBride appointed the less dynamic Edward Bradstreet Dunford to fill the office of General Counsel and Legislative Superintendent. Dunford was born December, 1890 in Manchester, Virginia, and was raised by parents who favored prohibition. He attended Richmond College where he received a degree in law in 1915. Through his job as attorney for the Commissioner of Prohibition in Virginia, he received the financial security that enabled him to marry Laura Bear in 1917. As a competent attorney and a dedicated prohibitionist, Dunford caught Wheeler's eye. In 1920 Wheeler recruited him to serve as the assistant attorney in the Legal and Legislative Office. With seven years of training by the time of Wheeler's death, Dunford seemed a logical replacement as General Counsel and Legislative Superintendent. But unlike his predecessor, Dunford was a more cautious leader and never commanded the national prestige and power which Wheeler had enjoyed.

Throughout the 1920's the prohibition organizations were forced on the defensive. Following the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, many strong advocates of prohibition were convinced that the battle was over. For most prohibitionists, repeal was inconceivable. As a result, financial contributions to the A.S.L.A. and other prohibition organizations declined precipitously. At the same time the A.S.L.A. was no longer able to attract the same caliber of outstanding leadership that had once marked the movement. For these reasons, after 1927, the League exerted less influence in the Congress, and by 1930 was forced to deal with a growing and powerful movement for repeal.

Unable to stem the widening public pressure for repeal, the League turned from the strong law enforcement tendencies of Wheeler to more restrained educational programs. Beginning in 1932, Dunford and other A.S.L.A. leaders fought their last major battle of the prohibition era. In an effort to stop the movement to repeal the 18th Amendment, they urged the government not to submit the issue to state constitutional conventions. Instead, A.S.L.A. leaders advocated the traditional procedure of having the proposed amendment voted on by state legislatures, where the League retained much greater influence. They lost this fight and the subsequent effort to stop repeal. Nevertheless, the A.S.L.A. continued in later years to work for effective prohibition laws.

The name of the organization was changed in 1950 to the National Temperance League, then in 1964 to the American Council on Alcohol Problems.


Collection Scope and Content Note

The records are primarily of the Office of General Counsel and Legislative Superintendent of the Anti-Saloon League of America (1883-1933). Additionally, there are later materials (1934-1969) of the organization following the repeal of the prohibition amendment. The record group consists of seven feet of correspondence, reports, speeches and legal files.

Subject Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the finding aid database and catalog of The Bentley Historical Library/University of Michigan. Researchers desiring additional information about related topics should search the catalog using these headings.


  • Prohibition -- United States.
  • Temperance -- United States.
  • Prohibition -- United States.
  • Temperance -- United States.
  • Women.
  • Cartoons.
  • Photographs.
  • Posters.
  • American Council on Alcohol Problems.
  • Lincoln-Lee Legion, Inc.
  • National Temperance and Prohibition Council.
  • American Council on Alcohol Problems.
  • Anti-Saloon League of America.
  • Anti-Saloon League of Michigan.
  • Cannon, James, 1864-1944.
  • Capper, Arthur, 1865-1951.
  • Cherrington, Ernest Hurst, 1877-1950.
  • Christgau, Oscar Gottlieb.
  • Couzens, James, 1872-1936.
  • Dickinson, Luren Dudley, 1859-1943.
  • Dunford, Edward B. (Edward Bradstreet), 1890-1966.
  • McBride, Francis Scott, 1872-1955.
  • Russell, Howard H. (Howard Hyde), 1855-1946.
  • Smoot, Reed, 1862-1941.
  • Taft, William H. (William Howard), 1857-1930.
  • Vinson, Fred M., 1890-1953.
  • Volstead, Andrew John, 1860-1947.
  • Watson, James E., 1863-1948.
  • Wheeler, Wayne Bidwell, 1869-1927.
Contents List
Request materials for use in the Bentley Library
Container / Location Title
 
Correspondence [series]

The Correspondence series deals with a wide variety of subjects, from efforts to incorporate the A.S.L.A. as a tax-free organization to specific legal points in prohibition laws. Although many letters contain only routine information, some letters from Congressmen explain their reasons for supporting or opposing prohibition legislation. Readers should note that it was the practice of this office to use the obverse of letters received as blank sheets for carbons of the reply. Hence correspondence is not in strict chronological order.

Correspondence prior to ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment concerns Oklahoma's dry law, the 1917 Virginia gubernatorial campaign, and court cases involving prohibition issues. From 1921 to 1923, correspondents discussed the operation of the Volstead Act, problems of prohibition law enforcement, Abraham Lincoln's attitude toward prohibition, and various state prohibition laws. Major issues discussed in 1924 included Congressional appropriations for prohibition enforcement, constitutionality of the Volstead Act, the Cramton Bill designed to correct defects in the Prohibition Law Enforcement Bill (H.R.6645), proposals to legalize 2.75% beer, and other legal aspects of prohibition. These same issues were prominent in 1925, with lengthy debate on the additional question of whether the Anti-Saloon League should be incorporated as a tax-free organization.

Most of the correspondence for 1926 is dated in December, when the Legal Office's attention was occupied by the Tumey v. State of Ohio case, which concerned what agency should receive fines obtained from prohibition law violations. The Legal Office sent letters to state superintendents regarding appropriation of prohibition fines in their states and received answers from almost every state attorney general. During 1927 important legal concerns of the Anti-Saloon League included whether the prohibition amendment should be changed from exclusion of "intoxicating" beverages to the broader category of "alcoholic" beverages; how to collect income tax from illegal bootleggers; prohibition in Puerto Rico; the Tumey v. Ohio case; and possible incorporation of the A.S.L.A. Several Senators and Congressmen wrote letters describing how much discussion there was over use of the word "intoxicating" when the prohibition amendment was debated in Congress.

In 1928 the A.S.L.A. continued to consider incorporation of the League's Educational Foundation for tax purposes. Correspondence with the Internal Revenue Service examined the possibility that contributions to the Educational Foundation could be considered tax deductible because of the A.S.L.A.'s religious affiliations. The League also argued that the Senate should impeach Judge Cooper for his failure to enforce prohibition laws. Prohibition enforcement is the main theme in correspondence for 1929. Important topics include temperance education in public schools, funding needs of the government's prohibition department, failure of the Supreme Court to enforce prohibition laws, whether foreign diplomats should be prosecuted for prohibition violations, and the illegality of making wine and beer at home.

Correspondence from 1930 to 1932 discussed the case of United States v. Sprague concerning constitutionality of the 18th Amendment; a bill to facilitate stricter control over fermented fruit juices; and incorporation of the A.S.L.A. There is also information about the January, 1932 A.S.L.A. convention; close relations between the A.S.L.A. and Senators Arthur Robinson and Morris Sheppard; and Republican and Democratic platform planks advocating legalization of 2.75% beer. Following the November, 1932 election, fear of Prohibition repeal culminated in A.S.L.A. cooperation with the W.C.T.U. in sponsoring a "Resist Repeal" convention in Washington, D.C., December 9-11.

Correspondence for January-June, 1933 deals largely with the fight against the 21st Amendment, including charges that it was unconstitutional, discussion of methods to prevent repeal, and attacks on state ratification convention procedures. There was still some interest in incorporation of the League, possibly due to continuing financial difficulties. From July to December, correspondence focuses on the repeal movement, particularly the alleged unconstitutionality of repeal conventions and charges of fraud in elections to the conventions. The A.S.L.A. at first had tried to stop the entire repeal process, but then attempted to win the elections in order to defeat ratification. Correspondence indicates that the League concentrated its efforts in Missouri, Maine, Arizona and Ohio.

Box   1  
Undated, 1917-1969 (31 folders)
 
Reports and Minutes [series]

The Reports and Minutes contain substantive documents on important aspects of the Legal and Legislative Office. These papers clearly demonstrate the issues which the League deemed the most important, such as the best method for electing dry delegates to the state conventions and the conclusions from experiments on the effects of 2.75% beer.

There are seven folder of undated Reports and Minutes. Within the first undated folder are memorandum of a legal brief concerning the constitutional validity of the 18th Amendment; information concerning the Webb-Kenyon Bill; efforts to increase government control of medicinal liquors; statements favorable to prohibition by presidents from James Madison to Andrew Johnson; and a "Summary of the Provisions of the Proposed Prohibition Enforcement Act" for the District of Columbia. The second undated folder includes a report on the 18th Amendment and its relation to the Constitution, which provides a synopsis of arguments for prohibition, disputes certain "fictions" about alcohol, and discusses future prospects for prohibition; a sermon written by William Jennings Bryan; information on the Supplemental Prohibition Enforcement Act, including how Congressmen voted on the bill; and requests to the government for clarification or rulings on such issues as unlawful possession of liquor and alcohol as the object of larceny.

The third undated folder contains information on A.S.L.A. legislative policy; a list of Wayne Wheeler's important legal cases, particularly those involving prohibition; discussion of A.S.L.A. support for the 16th Amendment, adopted in 1913, which provided for a Federal income tax; an article debating the constitutionality of the Jenks Bill, concerning local versus federal authority over prohibition; Wheeler's evaluation of enforcement of the 18th Amendment, particularly the prohibition codes; a report on manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor containing 2.75% or less alcohol, under regulation of the Wartime Prohibition Act; and information on Congressional and legal case attempts to define the word "intoxicating."

The fourth undated folder contains information about supplemental prohibition bills, Lincoln's prohibition views, state enforcement of the 18th Amendment, state efforts to modify or evade prohibition regulations, concurrent power and the supremacy of Federal law, applicability of the 18th Amendment to Puerto Rico, and whether brewers should be compensated for confiscated liquor. The fifth undated folder contains an A.S.L.A. convention manual; an American Bar Association statement; information concerning a bill to create an Alcoholic Liquor Damage and Indemnity Fund; and literature concerning attempts to pass previous Constitutional amendments.

The last two undated folders include information concerning: legality of constitutional amendment conventions; definitions of "intoxicating liquors" in state statutes adopted prior to the 18th Amendment; the constitutionality of Section 29 of the Prohibition Amendment, dealing with fruit juices and cider; various state tests for drunken driving; the record of Supreme Court Justice Brandeis, whom the A.S.L.A. severely criticized; and a list of dry Congressmen in the 69th Congress (1925-1927).

Reports and Minutes for 1912-1919 include the Post Office Department's "Liquor Bulletin No. 2" concerning regulations against liquor advertising, an article on "The Statewide Initiative and Referendum" statutes, a copy of The Ohio Law Reporter, and information concerning: A.S.L.A. Legislative Committee chairman James Cannon's protests against appointment of Louis Brandeis and William Howard Taft to the Supreme Court, due to their pro-liquor stances; the Reed Amendment to outlaw liquor advertising in the mail; and League involvement in a contested election in Pennsylvania.

Reports and Minutes for 1920-1922 include information concerning: concurrent powers, whether a state legislature can nullify Congressional laws, liquor prosecutions in Federal courts, demands for more efficient enforcement and prosecution of prohibition violators, whether beer should be used as a medicine; and applicability of the 18th Amendment to vessels on the high seas. Material from 1923 deals with such topics as: the Supreme Court's Constitutional role; the President's law enforcement responsibilities; collecting funds for the A.S.L.A. at Sunday church services; requests for New York Governor Al Smith to enforce the 18th Amendment; arguments against repeal of New York's Mulligan-Gage inspection law; and income tax provisions for contributions to the A.S.L.A. This folder also contains a copy of the A.S.L.A. constitution.

Reports and Minutes for 1924 includes information concerning: whether a state can license the sale of 2.5% beer; definitions of the term "intoxicating liquor"; the President's power to pardon those convicted of violating the Volstead Act; a proposed treaty with Britain to stop liquor smuggling; and the Cramton Bill to establish a Bureau of Prohibition under the Treasury Department. Material on the Cramton Bill includes a legal brief, a booklet on hearings before the House Judiciary Committee, and proposed amendments to the bill.

Reports and Minutes for 1925-1927 contains information concerning: various legal problems; industrial alcohol and 2.75% beer; the Couzens Bill; a reorganization bill to create a prohibition department within the executive branch of government; prohibition enforcement authority; applicability of income tax laws to the illegal liquor traffic, and "wet" plans to repeal the 18th Amendment through another constitutional amendment.

Material for 1928-1929 includes: an A.S.L.A. Legal Office report on the 1928 Presidential election; judicial decisions on Congressional authority to endow U.S. Commissioners with power to hear and decide misdemeanor cases; a Legal Office report to the A.S.L.A. Executive Committee concerning regulations and by-laws of the Educational Foundation which relate to its incorporation; proposals to increase penalties under the National Prohibition Act; prohibition resolutions introduced in Congress; copies of state scientific temperance laws; a report on the California grape industry; and a summary of state laws relating to traffic in intoxicating liquors.

Reports and Minutes for 1930 include literature on national constitutional conventions; a response to a New Jersey judge's charge that the 18th Amendment was invalid; clippings and a legal brief on upholding the 18th Amendment; arguments for government control of medicinal spirits and editorials on the Sheppard Bill for prohibition enforcement in Washington, D.C. There are also prohibition surveys of Virginia, Florida, Kentucky and Georgia--including information on legislation, the judiciary, enforcement personnel, public officials' attitudes toward prohibition, and death rates from alcoholism and cirrhosis of the liver.

Material for 1931 includes information concerning: the legality of constitutional conventions; A.S.L.A. constitutional arguments against resubmission of the 18th Amendment; prohibition legislation facts compiled by the A.S.L.A.; a history of prohibition legislation prior to the 18th Amendment; the legality of fermented fruit juices and cider; the Havell Bill for prohibition in the District of Columbia (a copy of the bill is included); and other reports of the Legal and Legislative Office.

Reports and Minutes for 1932 contain information concerning: state laws dealing with 2.75% beer; A.S.L.A. policy when neither major political party supported prohibition; the 1932 A.S.L.A. convention; the repeal movement and state constitutional conventions; state decisions on initiative and referendum; beer as an intoxicating beverage; the status of state prohibition legislation in case the 18th Amendment was repealed; incorporation of the Nebraska Anti-Saloon League; and the "Resist Repeal" convention, December 9-12, 1932 in Washington, D.C.

Reports and Minutes for 1933 deal primarily with legal aspects of state constitutional conventions and the repeal movement, including an outline of the argument against repeal; a statement on methods of electing dry delegates to state conventions; information about state liquor laws and constitutional conventions; and copies of Congressional repeal bills. There are also reports on the most effective state enforcement laws, including the Arizona Control Act and the Colorado Beer Act, and the 1933 report of the A.S.L.A. Legal and Legislative Office.

Box   2  
Undated, 1912-1932 (23 folders)
Box   3  
1933-1949 (25 folders)
Box   4  
1950-1968 (6 folders)
 
Lincoln-Lee Legion [series]

(organization established to encourage individuals to take pledge against alcohol consumption)

Box   4  
1933-1941 (8 folders)
 
Scrapbooks and published materials [series]

Scrapbooks and published materials include a 1927 scrapbook containing obituaries of Wayne B. Wheeler and statements by national leaders concerning Wheeler's career, written shortly after his death. There are also contains copies of the A.S.L.A. publication, Prohibition Enforcement Bulletin, 1922-1923.

Box   4  
Scrapbook concerning the Anti-Saloon League annual convention 1938
Box   4  
Scrapbook concerning the death of Wayne B. Wheeler
Box   4  
Prohibition Enforcement Bulletin 1922-1923
 
Regional Activities [series]

Regional Activities concern the activities of state A.S.L.A. organizations in Virginia, Oklahoma and the District of Columbia. Papers, 1916-1927, concerning A.S.L. activities in Oklahoma include: copies of Oklahoma prohibition laws; a syllabus of an Oklahoma Supreme Court case concerning transportation of liquor; a copy of Oklahoma Senate Bill No. 61, relating to government regulation of liquor sales; two issues of The American Issue: Oklahoma Edition, April, 1913 and April, 1916; copies of several state bills concerning prohibition restrictions and enforcement; a speech by U.S. Senator Robert L. Owen concerning the Sedition Bill; a letter from the Federal Prohibition Director of Oklahoma urging greater publicity for prohibition laws by government officers and civic organizations; and an application for a writ of habeas corpus from a man convicted of prohibition violations.

Papers, 1917-1921, concerning A.S.L. activities in Virginia include: a copy of the Virginia Prohibition Act, approved March 10, 1916; an A.S.L. statement on the liquor trade, which provides a good synopsis of A.S.L. ideology; a statement (1919) of Virginia's Commissioner of Prohibition on the decline of crime since the state adopted prohibition; the Commissioner's first annual report; editorials on the lack of prohibition enforcement in the state; copies of and articles about state prohibition regulations; a report stating that one county lost more tax money from liquor's creation of criminals than it gained from license fees; a copy of Virginia's Layman Prohibition Law (amended 1928); and a report on proposed amendments to the Virginia Constitution. Next is a folder of correspondence, 1907-1915, of the District of Columbia Anti-Saloon League. This consists primarily of copies of outgoing letters from A. E. Shoemaker, Attorney for the A.S.L., dealing with efforts to block liquor license applications, questions concerning license fees, and other daily activities.

Box   4  
Oklahoma 1916-1927
Box   4  
Virginia 1917-1930 (2 folders)
 
District of Columbia
Box   4  
1907-1915
Box   4  
1964
 
Speeches [series]

Speeches are mostly those of Congressmen on bills affecting prohibition. The Speeches contains printed speeches primarily by members of Congress, many of them published in the Congressional Record, and Congressional Committee reports concerning prohibition issues. Speeches, 1911-1919, are by Richmond P. Hobson, William S. Kenyon, Woodrow Wilson, and Richard Yates; and Congressional Committee reports on prohibition bills and hearings. Speeches, 1920-1922, are on prohibition and law enforcement, by A. J. Volstead, Morris Sheppard, William D. Upshaw, Harry M. Daugherty, Thomas L. Blanton, Knute Nelson, Guy D. Goff, A. P. Nelson, Louis C. Cramton, Roy A. Haynes, Thomas Sterling, and others; and an "Explanatory Statement" dealing with the Supplemental Prohibition Enforcement Bill.

Speeches, 1923-1925, are by Louis C. Cramton, Walter F. Lineberger, Israel M. Foster, L. J. Dickinson, John G. Cooper, Thomas Sterling, William D. Upshaw, Richard Yates, John W. Summers, Alben W. Barkley, and others; and reports on the Supplemental Prohibition Act, "Enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment," a Congressional hearing "To Establish an Independent Prohibition Bureau," and hearings on extension of civil service regulations to prohibition agents.

Speeches dated 1926-1927 consist of addresses concerning prohibition by Clyde Kelly, Wesley L. Jones, John N. Tillman, John W. Summers, John G. Cooper, Grant M. Hudson, Edward E. Browne, Lamar Jeffers, B. G. Lowrey, W. T. Fitzgerald, Louis C. Cramton, William E. Borah, William G. McAdoo, and Miles C. Allgood. Speeches, 1928-1929, are by William G. McAdoo, James Cannon, Jr., J. Thomas Heflin, Grant M. Hudson, Morris Sheppard, Hugo L. Black, Wesley L. Jones, Lawrence D. Tyson, William E. Borah, Arthur Capper, Ernest H. Cherrington and others. Speeches for 1930-1933 include prohibition-related addresses by Morris Sheppard, Wesley L. Jones, James Cannon, Jr., Franklin W. Fort, Arthur Capper, James M. Beck, F. Scott McBride, Carroll L. Beedy, Leonidas C. Dyer, Smith W. Brookhart, Maurice H. Thatcher, Clarence F. Lea, and other Congressmen. Also included is the report of hearings on the "Border Patrol" by the Senate Committee on Commerce.

Box   4  
1911-1942 (7 folders)
 
Congressional bills relating to prohibition [series]

Congressional bills are those bills which the Legal and Legislative Office considered important and lobbied to pass or defeat. Congressional Bills concerning prohibition, 1912-1919 include copies of bills to regulate liquor traffic in the District of Columbia; resolutions proposing a national prohibition amendment; bills to repeal the National German-American Alliance; resolutions concerning war-time prohibition and liquor issues; Volstead's bill "To prohibit intoxicating beverages and to regulate the production and use of other alcoholic liquors"; Senate Judiciary subcommittee hearings on "Prohibiting Intoxicating Beverages" (345 pp.); reports on prohibition; and the National Prohibition Act (H.R.6810).

Congressional Bills concerning prohibition, 1920-1922 includes hearings on "Safeguarding of Liquor in Bonded Warehouses"; bills supplemental to the National Prohibition Act; bills concerning various aspects of prohibition; and typed lists of Congressional bills and resolutions related to prohibition.

Congressional Bills for 1923 includes bills and joint resolutions concerning: veterans' benefits; amendments to the National Prohibition Act; deportation of aliens who violate the National Prohibition Act; exclusion of Asiatic laborers from immigration to the United States; prohibition enforcement and regulation; and Constitutional amendment procedures.

Bills and resolutions for 1924 includes proposals concerning: purchase of liquor from a "bootlegger" as grounds for impeachment of any government employee; prohibition of foreign diplomats from transporting or dispensing liquor in the United States; revisions of the National Prohibition Act; prohibition enforcement and regulation; deportation of "certain undesirable aliens"; establishment of a Bureau of Prohibition in the Treasury Department; appropriations for various departments of government; a Constitutional amendment to regulate child labor; United States participation in international conferences for control of the narcotic drug traffic; limitation of the immigration of aliens; repeal of the 18th Amendment (H.J. Res. 273, May 29, 1924); and other government activities. The folder for March-April, 1924 contains approximately 60 different bills "To amend the National Prohibition Act."

Congressional Bills, 1925-1930, concern: deportation of aliens; salaries of Postal Service employees; amendments to the National Prohibition Act; prohibition enforcement; proposed changes in procedures of Federal courts; and applications by state legislatures for calling a national constitutional convention.

Box   5  
1912-1930 (7 folders)
 
Financial Materials [series]

Financial Materials for 1928 consist of the A.S.L.A. Budget Report, January 1 - June 30, 1928, containing departmental budgetary accounts, budgetary apportionments by states, and fund collections and expenses by states, for the A.S.L.A. and the World League Against Alcoholism. Financial Papers for 1930 consist of a Budget Report and a Report of Audit. The Budget Report includes budgetary statements for the A.S.L.A. and general financial statements for the A.S.L.A., the American Issue Publishing Company, the World League Against Alcoholism and the A.S.L.A. Educational Foundation. The Report of Audit for the A.S.L.A. contains an analysis of departmental expense accounts, a statement of funds, a detailed analysis of expenses, and other financial records.

Financial Papers for 1931 consists of the Report of Audit, June 30, 1931, for the World League Against Alcoholism; the Report of Audit for the A.S.L.A.; and an estimate of cash payments due during November, 1931 for these two organizations. Financial Papers for 1932 consists of A.S.L.A. "New Subscription Reports" from the Anti-Saloon League Field Day, January 17, 1932; an estimate of cash payments due during March, 1932; and a few miscellaneous lists of speakers and subscription amounts.

Box   5  
1928-1951 (22 folders)
 
National Temperance and Prohibition Council [series]
Box   5  
1934-1956 (3 folders)
 
Legal Files [series]

Legal Files contain a number of briefs of Federal and state cases which either directly involved the A.S.L.A. or demanded close attention due to their relation to prohibition laws. Undated Legal Files include: a lengthy "Memorandum Concerning Indictments Against the United States Brewers' Association, and Various Brewing Corporations in the State of Pennsylvania"; the printed brief of defendants in an Ohio Supreme Court case dealing with illegal sale of liquor; statements concerning forfeiture statutes in several states; printed briefs for court cases involving illegal liquor sales in West Virginia and a Pennsylvania Congressional election contested by the Prohibition Party candidate; a libel suit against Wayne B. Wheeler and others; a suit against Louis C. Cramton; a brief for an Ohio prohibition case; and a list of "Cases Holding Contrary View and Grounds of Distinction Upon Which They Rest."

Legal Files for 1919 include briefs and other information concerning: Joseph E. Everard v. James Everard's Breweries, et al., which related to the effects of war-time prohibition; Hoffman Brewing Company v. Eisner, et al., which disputed the war prohibition regulations; copy of a letter from Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to Secretary of State Robert Lansing, May 8, 1919, discussing legal aspects of the Reed Amendment concerning interstate transportation of liquor; copy of a letter from Palmer to Lansing, December 5, 1919, concerning effects of the Prohibition Amendment; the Supreme Court opinion in Ruppert v. Caffey, concerning the Volstead Act; and information concerning other cases related to prohibition and liquor questions. Also included is a brief for Everard's Breweries v. Ralph A. Day, et al., which claimed that the Supplemental Prohibition Act of November 23, 1921 was unconstitutional.

Legal Files for 1921 contains: a brief in behalf of Hiram Walker and Sons of Canada, concerning shipment of liquors through the United States to another foreign country; Supreme Court briefs concerning whether liquor stored in a Government bonded warehouse can be removed by the warehouse owner for consumption as a beverage; briefs in the case of Lipke v. Lederer, concerning collection of taxes for liquor under the National Prohibition Act; legal papers concerning several cases dealing with the liquor operations tax; and other prohibition-related cases.

Legal Files for 1922 contains: summaries of legal decisions and precedents related to prohibition; a brief for Piel Brothers v. Ralph A. Day, et al., dealing with enforcement of the National Prohibition Law; the Supreme Court decision in Lipke v. Lederer and a statement discussing the case's implications; a list of state regulations dealing with "Taxation as a means to discourage the prohibited traffic"; and briefs and other legal papers concerning various prohibition cases.

Legal Files for 1923 contains briefs and other legal papers concerning various cases related to prohibition, including: Piel Brothers v. Day; Everard v. Day; Lambert v. Yellowley; Cunard Steamship Company v. Mellon; and Carroll v. United States. These files also contain a copy of a letter from Charles E. Hughes to A. J. Volstead discussing the Cramton Bill regarding liquor in foreign embassies; a synopsis of search and seizure laws relating to intoxicating liquors; a Supreme Court brief for respondents in a suit to require the New York A.S.L. to report its finances connected with the 1922 election campaign; a "Synopsis of record in cases attacking validity of anti-beer bill"; a statement concerning unlawful movement of intoxicating liquors; and a memorandum for Prohibition Commissioner Haynes concerning Rep. John P. Hill of Maryland, who was accused of producing fermented grape juice in his home.

Cases dealing directly with prohibition are less numerous in the Legal Files for 1924 than cases dealing with indirectly related issues such as civil rights, judicial power of the Supreme Court, applications for writs of habeas corpus, power of the President to pardon contempt violations of the Volstead Act, and contempt of court rulings. There is also information concerning the Volstead Act's constitutionality; unlawful transportation of liquor; United States v. John P. Hill; Hixson v. Oakes; Brambini v. U.S.; and R. O. Johnson, et al. v. U.S.

Legal Files for 1925 contains information about: due process of law; U.S. v. Hill; Lambert v. Yellowley; Druggan v. Anderson; and briefs for several other prohibition-related cases. A memorandum from the Federal Prohibition Commissioner's office to Wayne B. Wheeler, offering advice on handling two prohibition cases, suggests a spirit of cooperation between the government and the A.S.L.A.

Legal Files for 1926 contains manuscript material related to three prohibition cases: Tumey v. State of Ohio; the Jack Daniel conspiracy case; and Lambert v. Yellowley. There are also several printed briefs for Tumey v. State of Ohio, as well as printed briefs for Dodge v. United States and for an application for a writ of habeas corpus.

Legal Files, 1927-1930, contains: information about the income tax on illegal liquor traffic; a brief for Kirchner v. Walter, concerning whether the Ohio liquor tax was constitutional; a letter from Assistant Attorney General Mable W. Willebrandt, discussing forfeitures under the National Prohibition Act; an address on forfeiture by Vincent Simonton, Assistant Counsel of the Bureau of Prohibition; a copy of the charge to the jury in the Virginia Dare Vineyards case; and material concerning other prohibition cases.

Legal Files for 1933 contains papers related to legal efforts to block state ratification conventions in Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Ohio, Missouri and Vermont. These briefs, petitions, abstracts and opinions reveal several arguments and tactics adopted by opponents of prohibition repeal.

Box   6  
Undated, 1919-1959 (24 folders)

(scattered dates)

 
Pamphlets [series]

Pamphlets cover a wide range of topics from the harmful effects of liquor to how the Federal government should provide better control over the illegal liquor traffic.

Undated Pamphlets include many pamphlets and leaflets describing the background, principles and operations of the Anti-Saloon League and various aspects of temperance and prohibition. They include "To Drink or Not to Drink," "Wet Slanders of Abraham Lincoln Refuted," "Catholics and Prohibition," "The Battle for National Prohibition," and other articles by Edward B. Dunford, Wayne B. Wheeler, William E. Johnson, Ernest H. Cherrington, Cora Frances Stoddard, Evangeline Booth, and other prohibition supporters.

Pamphlets, 1883-1918, contain: addresses and sermons concerning the harmful medical effects of alcohol, the cost of alcoholic beverages to consumers, and religious arguments against liquor license laws; the A.S.L. "Blue Book," entitled "The Church in Action Against the Saloon"; "The Birth of the Anti-Saloon League"; and pamphlets concerning prohibition laws and the effects of liquor. Pamphlets for 1919 consist of "The Eighteenth Amendment," by Wayne B. Wheeler; the report of Congressional hearings on enforcement of prohibition; and a Congressional report by A. J. Volstead on "Prohibiting Intoxicating Beverages."

Pamphlets, 1920-1922, consist of printed materials concerning prohibition and prohibition organizations, including: the annual report of the New Zealand Alliance for the Abolition of the Liquor Traffic; copies of United States prohibition laws; the annual report of the Virginia Commissioner of Prohibition; "The Prohibition Question, Viewed from the Economic and Moral Standpoint"; the program for the International Convention of the World League Against Alcoholism; and several leaflets regarding prohibition.

Pamphlets for 1923 include: "Beer: Is it Intoxicating Liquor?"; "Laws Relating to National Prohibition Enforcement," published by the Internal Revenue Service; President Harding's address on law enforcement; extracts from Congressional hearings on establishment of an independent prohibition bureau; and other materials concerning prohibition enforcement, search and seizure regulations, and the effects of making liquor easily available.

Pamphlets dated 1924 include: Ernest H. Cherrington's "Report on Behalf of the American Committee on International Relations"; "Regulations Relative to Intoxicating Liquor," published by the Prohibition Unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue; the report and addresses of the Woman's National Convention for Law Enforcement; extracts from Congressional hearings on manufacture and sale of 2.75% beverages; and other pamphlets concerning prohibition.

Pamphlets for 1925 include: information concerning the International Reform Federation; "Is Prohibition a Success After Five Years?," by Wayne B. Wheeler; the annual report of the Legal and Legislative Department of the A.S.L.A., by Wheeler and Edward B. Dunford; articles from The Ohio Law Bulletin and Reporter concerning prohibition cases; and other materials.

Pamphlets for 1926 include: "The League's Policy in the Smith-Brennan Campaign" in Illinois; articles citing the economic benefits of prohibition; "Proposed Amendments to the Constitution" (1889-1926); an address by Howard Hyde Russell; and other materials concerning various A.S.L.A. interests.

Pamphlets dated 1927 include: a biographical sketch of Herbert C. Hoover; "The 18th Amendment," by Edward B. Dunford; a Senate report on "Denaturization of Industrial Alcohol"; a Bureau of Prohibition report on permits for manufacture of and traffic in intoxicating liquors; the report of the A.S.L.A. Legal and Legislative Department, by Dunford; and other printed materials.

Pamphlets for 1928 contain: materials concerning state and national elections; "Alcoholism Mortality as a Problem of Health Officials," by Cora Frances Stoddard; "Education Against Alcoholism," by Ernest H. Cherrington; articles about Herbert Hoover; "Kernel Corn of Kentucky," a novelette exposing the methods employed in trying to head off prohibition in the South; "Some Factors Influencing the Toxic Effect of Alcohol"; addresses to the legislature by Governors Alfred Smith of New York and Harry F. Byrd of Virginia; a copy of Virginia's Layman Prohibition Law; and other printed materials concerning prohibition.

Pamphlets dated 1929 include: "They Almost Had Me Fooled," which refutes criticisms and misrepresentations regarding prohibition; "Proposed Amendments to the Constitution," a compilation of facts published by Congress; an address on making the 18th Amendment effective, by Senator Wesley L. Jones; "Education: The Only Permanent Solution of the Alcohol Problem," by Ernest H. Cherrington; "The Problem and Policy of Prohibition," by Commissioner of Prohibition James M. Doran; proposed revisions of the National Prohibition Act; and other materials concerning prohibition.

Pamphlets for 1930-1931 include: a report of the work of the American Issue Publishing Company, 1910-1930, by Ernest H. Cherrington; the report of the Legal, Legislative and Executive Departments of the A.S.L.A., by Francis Scott McBride and Edward B. Dunford; "After Ten Years," an address by James J. Britt, Chief Counsel of the Bureau of Prohibition, before the A.S.L.A. national meeting in Detroit; "Educating the Masses and the Classes Against Alcoholism," by Cherrington; "The Cigarette as a Physician Sees It"; a report on prohibition enforcement, by the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, and other prohibition materials.

Pamphlets dated 1932 include: a compilation of Virginia "Prohibition Law Amendments"; "Hoover's Betrayal of National Prohibition"; "Constitutional Aspects of National Prohibition," discussing its antecedents, objections to repeal and advisability of modification; the report of the Legal and Legislative Departments, by E.B. Dunford and F. S. McBride; the annual report of the Women's National Committee for Law Enforcement; "Proceedings of the Board of Directors" of the A.S.L.A. at the Washington conference (December 9-13, 1932); Senate committee hearings on amending the National Prohibition Act; and other printed materials concerning prohibition. Pamphlets for 1933 consist of three items: Senate Committee hearings on modification of the Volstead Act; House committee hearings on taxation of "nonintoxicating liquor"; and "Education Against Alcoholism," E. H. Cherrington's report and preview of educational efforts of the World League Against Alcoholism and the A.S.L.A. Department of Education.

Box   7  
Undated, 1883-1959 (24 folders)

(scattered dates)

 
Photographs [series]
Box   8  
Portraits, photographs of meetings, etc. circa 1910s-1930s (5 folders)

(also 1 oversize folder, UBJl)

Box   9 Folder   1
4th Annual Southern Prohibition Convention undated
Box   9 Folder   1
Anti-Saloon League Convention, St. Petersburg, FL undated
Box   9 Folder   1
Thirtieth National Convention Banquet, Columbus, OH December 17, 1938
Box   9 Folder   1
Anti-Saloon League Convention Banquet, Saint Louis December 4, 1935
Box   9 Folder   1
Resist Repeal, Anti Saloon League Convention Banquet, Washington DC December 12, 1932
Box   9 Folder   1
Conn. Delegation to the Anti-Saloon League Convention Banquet, Washington DC January 16, 1932
Box   9 Folder   1
Twenty Fourth National Convention Banquet, Anti Saloon League Convention Banquet, Detroit, MI January 15-19, 1930
Box   9 Folder   1
Final Banquet of the Crisis Convention of the Anti-Saloon League Convention Banquet, Chicago, IL November 5-9, 1925
Box   9 Folder   1
Twenty Fifth Anniversary Banquet, Chicago, IL February 7, 1924
Box   9 Folder   1
Twenty First National Convention Banquet, Workers Conference, Washington DC January 9-11, 1924
Box   9 Folder   2
Last Day, Sixth Convention, Washington DC December 5, 1901
Box   9 Folder   2
Banquet of the Anti-Saloon League Convention Banquet, Washington DC December 18, 1912
Box   9 Folder   2
Eighth National Convention, Washington DC December 10, 1903
Box   9 Folder   2
Gov. Haskell of Oklahoma signing the Billups Prohibition Enforcement Code March 24, 1908
Box   9 Folder   2
Old League Headquarters, Bliss Building
 
Annual conventions and other gatherings (panoramic photos of delegates)
Oversize Folder   1  
Golden Jubilee celebration, Columbus, Ohio November 1913
Oversize Folder   1  
Board of Trustees, 15th National Convention, Columbus, Ohio 1913
Oversize Folder   1  
16th National Convention, Atlantic City July 1915
Oversize Folder   1  
18th National Convention, Washington DC December 1917
Oversize Folder   1  
19th National Convention, Washington DC June 1919
Oversize Folder   1  
National Convention, Washington DC December 1921 (2 images)
Oversize Folder   1  
Thirty Year Jubilee Convention, Washington DC January 1924
Oversize Folder   1  
25th National Convention, Washington DC January 1932
Oversize Folder   1  
15th International Congress Against Alcoholism, visit of delegates to Mt. Vernon September 1920
Oversize Folder   1  
Committee of One Thousand (1 photo in 2 parts)
Oversize Folder   1  
Committee of One Thousand, Washington DC December 1913
Oversize Folder   1  
State Convention, Springfield, Ill. June 1918
Oversize Folder   1  
National Conference, World Wide Prohibition, Columbus, Ohio November 1918
Oversize Folder   1  
Board of Directors, Indianapolis, Ind. April 1924
Oversize Folder   1  
Women's National Committee for Law Enforcement, Washington DC April 1926
Oversize Folder   1  
National Women's Christian Temperance Union Youth's Roll Call December 4, 1931

(President Herbert Hoover is part of the gathering)

 
Newsletters [series]
Box   8  
The American Issue 2015
Additional Descriptive Data
Selective Index of Correspondents
Anti-Saloon League of Michigan.
  • Dec. 3, 1926; Mar. 30, 1942; May 12, 1943; Nov. 12, 1943; Mar. 22, 1944
Borah, William, 1865-1940.
  • March 25, 1922
Cannon, James, 1864-1944.
  • July 8, 1936;Sept. 21, 1936; 1939-1941; 1944
Capper, Arthur, 1865-1951.
  • Apr. 11, 1921; Jan. 5, 1925; Aug. 28, 1935; Sept. 5, 1935; Sept. 9, 1935
Cherrington, Ernest Hurst, 1877-1950.
  • Mar. 2, 1928; Apr. 16, 1928; Apr. 26, 1928; Aug. 25, 1934; Oct. 18, 1934; Apr. 22, 1940
Christgau, Oscar Gottlieb
  • 1934-1941
Couzens, James Joseph, 1872-1936.
  • Jan. 30, 1925; Feb. 3, 1925
Dickinson, Luren Dudley, 1859-1943.
  • Mar. 8, 1940; Mar. 26, 1940
Dunford, Edward Bradstreet, 1890-1966.
  • 1924-1935; 1939-1944; 1946-1956; 1958
McBride, Francis Scott, 1872-1955.
  • May 20, 1929; Sept. 27, 1929; 1932-1939
Russell, Howard Hyde, 1855-1945.
  • Jan. 20, 1928; Dec. 16, 1942
Smoot, Reed, 1862-1941.
  • Mar. 25, 1927
Taft, William Howard, 1857-1930.
  • Dec. 20, 1926; Jan. 20, 1927
Vinson, Frederic Moore, 1890-1953.
  • Mar. 5, 1924; May 21, 1924
Volstead, Andrew John, 1860-1947.
  • June 18, 1921; June 22, 1921; Jan. 29, 1925; Apr. 2, 1927
Watson, James E, 1863-1948.
  • Mar. 21, 1925; Mar. 23, 1925
Wheeler, Wayne Bidwell, 1869-1927.
  • 1917; 1919; 1921-1927