All Series Level Scope and Content Notes
The collection has been divided into four series: Litigation/Court Cases, Political and Cultural Activities, Publications, and Topical Files. The many files of correspondence and press clippings document the types of legal and political battles and causes that Jabara has tackled throughout his career. A limited amount of material in the collection is in Arabic and French, mostly correspondence, press clippings, and newsletters, and is noted as such in the contents list.
The Litigation/Court Cases (8.0 linear feet) series contains eleven subseries: Arab-American Anti-Discrimination (ADC) vs. Janet Reno, Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'rith, Cedar River Lawsuit, Jabara vs. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Norton F. Dacey et al. vs. George Shultz et al., Other Cases, Palestine Congress of North America vs. Alexander Haig, Police Surveillance, Sirhan B. Sirhan Defense, State of Israel vs. Sami Esmail, and Ziad Abu Eain Defense. The series consists primarily of court documents, correspondence, press clippings, testimonies, and surveillance files related to Jabara's legal cases from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s. It is arranged largely as it was received. Less heavily documented cases have been placed in the Other Cases subseries.
In this case, respondents sued petitioners for allegedly targeting them for deportation given their connections to the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), a politically unpopular group. When the suit was pending, Congress passed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996. This act restricted the judicial review power of the Attorney General.
The Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith subseries is dedicated to a case that took place in San Francisco,
California. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), formerly known as Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, is an organization that, among other tasks, monitors activities of extremist organizations and hate groups. The 1993 case involved a San Francisco area antique dealer Roy Bullock, who served as ADL's investigator, and San Francisco police Inspector and former CIA agent Tom Gerard. Bullock and Gerard gathered and forwarded
information about individuals and organizations to the ADL. The investigation revealed that through Bullock and Gerard, ADL had compiled files on thousands of individuals and hundreds of groups across the political spectrum, predominantly Arab and Palestinian individuals and organizations, but also organizations such as NAACP, ACLU, labor unions, ACT-UP, Mother Jones magazine, and Jews for Jesus. Jabara was a member of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) legal team working on a lawsuit against ADL. Material in the subseries is mostly dated 1993, unless otherwise specified, and includes legal research and background materials, court documents (pleadings, summaries) and their drafts, correspondence and memoranda, material about related cases, press releases, and unsorted newspaper articles and clippings.
Brought forth by the Friends of the Cedar River Watershed (1997), this lawsuit was the first in the state of Michigan to challenge a resort's attempt to develop and damage a public river. The resort – Shanty Creek – planned to pump large amounts of water from Cedar River for snow-making and irrigation, as well as use the river as a golf course water hazard. The settlement, however, restructured Shanty Creek's design plan in order to protect Cedar River and minimize environmental damage.
The Jabara vs. FBI subseries consists mainly of court documents stemming from the lengthy trial that spanned the administration of several FBI directors, including L. Patrick Gray, Clarence M. Kelley, and William H. Webster. Jabara filed this case against the FBI, asserting that the FBI's investigation of him not only violated his fourth amendment rights, but also a provision of the Privacy Act. The investigation, which began in 1967, was the result of Jabara's interest and involvement in Arab causes. It included physical surveillance, inspection of bank records, warrantless electronic surveillance by the National Security Agency (NSA), and third-party interviews. The files contain a large amount of correspondence, including that between Jabara and John H.F. Shattuck, his ACLU lawyer. Jabara eventually won his case against the FBI in 1984.
The Jabara vs. Manufacturer's National Bank of Detroit subseries documents Jabara's concern that his activities were being observed and investigated by government agencies. By chance, he learned that the Manufacturer's Bank had inquired about accounts held by him at one of its branches. Upon suing the bank, Jabara discovered that this request had been prompted by an FBI inquiry, which then led to his suit against the FBI. Materials in these files include court documents and Jabara's correspondence with bank management.
Dacey v. Shultz documents Jabara's role as attorney for the prosecution in the Norton Dacey v. George Shultz
case, which challenged the national tax-exempt status of the Jewish fundraising organizations - United Jewish
Appeal and Reconstituted Jewish Agency. This case claimed that these organizations were raising money to fund the political activities of the state of Israel.
This subseries contains court cases/litigation that are of a smaller nature, with less extensive documentation.
This document was created in March and faxed in April.
The Lafferty v. Rogers case is a Freedom of Information
Act suit where the prosecutor sued for the right to access documents relating to the United States government's political and military involvement in the Middle East.
In Palestine Congress of North American v. Alexander Haig, Jabara represented a group of US citizens who, being landholders in Lebanon, sued the Secretary of State Alexander Haig. They claimed that by providing arms to Israel, the US government was responsible for damaging their property in Lebanon.
In Benkert vs. Michigan State Police, the Michigan State police were accused of illegally and unconstitutionally collecting information on various political activists. Court documents, correspondence, press clippings and photocopies of Jabara's Detroit police files are contained in this subseries.
Heavily documented is the case of Sirhan Bishara Sirhan, the Palestinian immigrant who in 1969 was convicted of the murder of Robert F. Kennedy. Jabara, at age 28, became part of the defense team (with George Shibley and Luke McKissack of Los Angeles) that successfully appealed Sirhan's original death sentence. Jabara advised the original defense team (Grant B. Cooper and Russell Parson, later dismissed by Sirhan) on the political, historical, and cultural aspects of the case. Interestingly, despite the closed nature of the case, many conspiracies have arisen as to who really killed RFK. Along with files of court documents, interview transcripts, press clippings, and parole information, this subseries details the failed collaboration agreement between the writer Robert B. Kaiser and Sirhan to produce a book about the case.
Jabara acted as a legal advisor in the defense of Sami Esmail in the State of Israel v. Sami Esmail, an Israeli court case. Sami Esmail, a Palestinian citizen and legal resident of the United States was imprisoned in Israel for alleged involvement in the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, considered a terrorist organization by the state of Israel. When visiting his dying father in Israel, Esmail was arrested and signed a confession. Esmail and his supporters claimed that he was tortured, held without legal counsel, and coerced into confessing. He was convicted in 1978 for membership to a hostile organization and served 10 months of his 15 month sentence. This subseries contains clippings and correspondence relating to Esmail's trial and subsequent imprisonment, as well as unofficial transcripts of the court proceedings.
In this case, Abu Eain was accused of setting off a bomb in a market area in Tiberias, Israel. The bombing killed two young boys and injured more than thirty others. After the bombing, Eain traveled to Chicago where he was arrested and Israel demanded his extradition. Abu Eain, however, sought a writ of habeas corpus to prevent extradition, claiming that there was little evidence for his crimes and that the bombing was politically motivated. The court determined that the bombing was not related to political upheaval, and that he would be surrendered to Israel upon a warrant.
The Political and Cultural Activities (3.5 linear feet) series contains information about Jabara's cultural and political activities. The series has been arranged alphabetically. Perhaps the most extensive portion of the series is the documentation of the 1977 National Lawyers Guild (NLG) Middle East Delegation that traveled to Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and the Occupied Territories in July 1977. This trip was taken to observe and report on the Palestine liberation movement, the state of opposition in Israel, and the condition and treatment of Palestinians living in Israeli Occupied Territories. Jabara was influential in arranging the trip and was also a member of the delegation. Included in this collection are several folders of correspondence, clippings that express the attitude towards the visit from the popular and legal press, and copies of the minority and majority reports compiled and published by the NLG.
Additional areas of strength in this series include press clippings and information about the Arab-American community in the Detroit Metropolitan area, documentation through papers and journals of the human rights abuses of Palestinians living in occupied Israeli territory, refuge camps, and prisons, and documentation of the harassment of Arab-Americans through testimonials and correspondence with Jabara. Materials of interest relating to "Operation Boulder" include correspondence and press clippings. Operation Boulder was a collaborative campaign initiated by President Nixon and included the FBI, CIA, Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the Department of Transportation. It began in September 1972 after 11 Israeli athletes were murdered at the Olympic games in Munich. The campaign called for the intensive investigation and screening of the activity of Arabs in the United States with the aim of eliminating possible terrorist acts against Israeli citizens. The series also contains extensive information about Jabara's native land of Lebanon, including correspondence and press clippings about the civil war in the mid-1970s and the treatment of Lebanese prisoners taken during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982.
The nonprofit Association is open to university graduates of Arab origin, focusing on the development of the Arab world through professional services.
This series covers multiple publications that are not as topical in nature, and cover a wider variety of material.
The Topical Series (6.0 linear feet) parallels Jabara's original arrangement. Jabara's papers were compiled through various subfolder headings. For example, headings include: Bin Laden, Global Response (to 9/11), Friends of the Cedar River, and AIPAC +/- Forward.
The American Israel Public Affairs Committee was
founded in 1951 by Isaiah L. "Si" Kenen. AIPAC's
mission is to empower pro-Israel activists, promoting the U.S.-Israel relationship with members of both political parties in Congress.
Created in 1975, the Federal Election Commission
administers and enforces the Federal Election Campaign
Act (FECA), which governs the financing of federal
elections. The duties of the FEC include disclosing
campaign finance information, enforcing the provisions
of law, and overseeing the public funding of presidential elections. FEC litigation focuses primarily on multiple court cases that involved the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). The focal case was James Akins vs. FEC, in which registered voters questioned if AIPAC was a political committee subject to regulations and reporting requirements enforced by the Federal Election Campaign Act. The regulation in question was spending thresholds, which AIPAC had crossed. Ultimately, the FEC ruled that AIPAC had crossed spending thresholds, but was not required to adhere to reporting because it was an issue-oriented organization rather than campaign-related.
The majority of these materials were sent to Jabara from the National Association of Arab Americans (NAAA).
Fax sent with this document, June 3, 1996.
This topical file highlights human rights and cultural liberties, particularly related to Arab and Muslim culture, immigration, and war crimes. Subsections in this file are individually and thematically based, and emphasize Jabara's concern for Arab human rights in a 9/11 post-world.
The Qana Massacre took place on April 18, 1996 in a village in Southern Lebanon. Israel Defense Forces fired artillery shells at a United Nations compound where Lebanese civilians had taken refuge. 106 civilians were killed and around 116 injured.
This topical file pertains to national and international responses to terrorism, pre and post September 11th. Subsections highlight particular individuals, organizations, regions, and facets of terrorism, for example, Post 9/11 Al Qaeda.
Abu Marzook was born in the Gaza Strip and traveled to the United States to earn his PhD in Industrial Engineering. While living in the U.S., Marzook became involved with Hamas, a Palestinian militant Islamic group. Marzook was elected as Chairman of the Hamas Political Bureau and subsequently moved to Jordan (1991) where he was suspected of planning numerous terrorist attacks. In 1995, Marzook was arrested in the U.S., and Israel requested his extradition. Ultimately, Israel decided not to extradite Marzook and he was deported to Jordan, but was later deported in 1999.
A federal republic of Russia, Chechnya has a complicated history with Russia. Separatist forces continue to advocate for an independent state, and terrorism has been utilized. For example, in October of 2002, Chechen rebels attacked a Moscow theater and held around 900 civilians hostage.
From New Jersey, Mustapha Elnore was charged with perjury during a grand jury investigation into the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Mustapha was also alleged of conspiring to assassinate Rabbi Meir Kahane, as well as being connected to a circle of Brooklyn-based Arab militants in the early 1990s.
The Uncle of Rashid Baz, who shot at a van of Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox Jewish students traveling on the Brooklyn Bridge. The shooting killed one student and injured three others. Bassam Reyati owned the car Baz used to commit the crime. He was convicted of concealing evidence and was sentenced to 5 years of probation and a $1,000 fine.
The massacre, which killed between 762 and 3,500 civilians – Palestinian and Lebanese Shiites – was carried out by a militia connected to the Kataeb Party, with help from Israeli allies. The Party claimed that the motive of the massacre was the assassination of Bachir Gemayel, the leader of the Lebanese Kataeb Party.