P.Mich.inv. 657 / Recto



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About this Item

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Record Details

Inventory Number
P.Mich.inv. 657
Processing Number
Image Side

Background and Physical Properties

Recto; Verso is blank
Archive of Kronion son of Apion, nomographos of the grapheion of Tebtynis
12.9 x 28.7 cm
Conservation Status
frayed away at the bottom, and badly damaged along some folds
Palaeographic Description
A small upright cursive written with a fine pen
Ann Arbor


47 A.D.
Tebtynis, Polemonos meris, Arsinoite nome, province of Egypt
Tebtynis, Polemonos meris, Arsinoite nome, province of Egypt
1921: acquired by Kelsey from Nahman in Cairo
Apynchis son of Orseus & other salt merchants
Type of Text/Title of Work
Guild Ordinance
Ordinance issued by the association of the salt merchants of Tebtynis, appointing one of them to be their supervisor and to collect and pay the public dues for which they are liable after having obtained the monopolistic concession of the sale of salt in Tebtynis and some neighboring villages; it also defines the territory in which all members may sell salt and the areas reserved for certain individual members; fixes the sale prices for the various grades of salt; provides for a monthly meeting; and establishes penalties for breach of the regulations.
Claudius, Emperor;
Apynchis son of Orseus, halopoles, epimeletes & eisakten ton demosion;
Orseus son of Harmiysis, halopoles (see also P.Mich. V, 269-271?);
Harmiysis alias Belles, son of Harmiysis, halopoles;
[- - -], hegoumenos (= Apynchis son of Orseus?);
(unnamed) emporoi
Tebtynis; Kerkesis; Tristomou tou kai Boukolou (Tristomos); metropolis (Arsinoiton polis)
The seventh year of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Imperator, the 25th of the month Kaisareios. The undersigned men, salt merchants of Tebtynis, meeting together have decided by common consent to elect one of their number, a good man, Apynchis, son of Orseus, both supervisor and collector of the public taxes for the coming eighth year of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Imperator, the said Apynchis to pay in all the public taxes for the same trade for the same coming year, and (they have decided) that all alike shall sell salt in the aforesaid village of Tebtynis, and that Orseus alone has obtained by lot the sole right to sell gypsum in the aforesaid village of Tebtynis and in the adjacent villages, for which he shall pay, apart from the share of the public taxes which falls to him, an additional sixty-six drachmai in silver; and that the said Orseus has likewise obtained by lot Kerkesis, alone to sell salt therein, for which he shall likewise pay an additional eight drachmai in silver. And that Harmiysis also called Belles, son of Harmiysis, has obtained by lot the sole right to sell salt and gypsum in the village of Tristomos also called Boukolos, for which he shall contribute, apart from the share of the public taxes which falls to him, five additional drachmai in silver; upon condition that they shall sell the good salt at the rate of two and one-half obols, the light salt at two obols, and the lighter salt at one and one-half obol, by our measure or that of the warehouse. And if anyone shall sell at a lower price than these, let him be fined eight drachmai in silver for the common fund and the same for the public treasury; and if any of them shall be found to have sold more than a stater's worth of salt to a merchant, let him be fined eight drachmai in silver for the common fund and the same for the public treasury; but if the merchant shall intend to buy more than four drachmai's worth, all must sell to him jointly. And if anyone shall bring in gypsum and shall intend to sell it outside, it must be left on the premises of Orseus, son of Harmiysis, until he takes it outside and sells it. It is a condition that they shall drink regularly on the 25th of each month each one a chous of beer . . . in the village one drachme, outside four drachmai, and in the metropolis eight drachmai. But if anyone is in default and fails to satisfy any of the public obligations, or any of the claims that shall be made against him, it shall be permissible for the same Apynchis to arrest him in the main street or in his house or in the field, and to hand him over as aforesaid.
(There follow parts of the ages and signalments of 5 signatories, whose names are lost).

Information on Publications

Series and Volume Editor Year Pg/Nr Photo SB Preferred Citation Corrections
AJP 58 Boak AER 1937 210-219 SB V 8030 Boak AER, AJP 58, 210-219, 1937 -- SB V 8030
F.I.R.A. III. Negotia Arangio-Ruiz V 1943 46 Arangio-Ruiz V, F.I.R.A. III. Negotia, 46, 1943

Information on Publications--Further Republications

Further Republications
Rep Editor - Boak AER; Rep Ser. - P.Mich. V; 1944; No. 245 and pl. I

Information on Publications--Bibliography

C.H. Roberts, JHS 65 (1945) p. 125; L.C. Youtie, BASP 19 (1982) p. 92-94.

Availability/System Requirements



Year Begin
Year End

Technical Details

Image Size
4608 x 3480
File Size
2 MB
Link to this Item

Rights and Permissions

The University of Michigan Library provides access to these materials for educational and research purposes. These materials are in the public domain. If you have questions about the collection, please contact APIS Help. If you would like to request high-resolution images, please contact the Papyrology Collection. If you have concerns about the inclusion of an item in this collection, please contact Library Information Technology.

No Copyright. This work has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.


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Full citation
"P.Mich.inv. 657; Recto". https://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/apis/x-2876/657r_a.tif. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed December 07, 2023.