Marksville Incised, var. Sunflower vessel. Sometimes the bird design is not highlighted by zoned background roughening, and sometimes the bird is broad-billed rather than raptorial as on one tubby pot from Crooks. Height 10.1 cm, diameter 11.3 cm, capacity 640 ml. LSU No. 5533, Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Stamped, var. Marksville vessel. On another pot from Crooks, the broad-billed bird motif is linked with the diagnostic early Marksville crosshatched rim. Height 5.3 cm, diameter 7.3 cm, capacity 120 ml. LSU No. 5717, Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Stamped, var. Marksville vessel. On an unusual U-shaped vessel from Helena Crossing, the head of the bird motif is achieved through the use of multiple incised lines. A multiple line variation of the bird motif also is present at the Coral Snake Mound in the Texas-Louisiana border region. The striking dual mouthed vessel form has no known Lower Mississippi Valley parallels, but a similar form from Pierce Mound A in the Apalachicola regi
Conch shell container, Helena Crossing, Phillips County, Arkansas. Large marine shells presumably were traded along the Gulf Coast on their way into the Southeast. Three Cassis and six Busycon shells found in the Helena Crossing log crypts make the Apalachicola, Florida parallel for the Helena U-shaped vessel a little less far fetched. Helena is the only early Lower Mississippi Valley site with a good representation of marine shells, thus hinting t
Drilled red wolf canines, Helena Crossing, Phillips County, Arkansas. Beads made of marine shells were found with 15 red wolf drilled lower canines in the waist area of a burial in Helena Mound C. Mortuary use of large carnivore canines is not limited to a Hopewellian horizon. Canines are rare, however, in Marksville context. An unidentified large carnivore canine, also drilled, from Saline Point provides the sole parallel with Helena Crossing. A
Mabin Stamped, var. Mabin vessel. Zoned cord-wrapped stick impressions are also found in the Lower Mississippi Valley. A square beaker from Crooks utilizes cord-wrapped stick impressions to emphasize a strange motif which possibly involves a plant/germination theme. Height 8.4 cm, diameter 9.7 cm, capacity 44 ml. LSU No. 1944, Museum of Geoscience.
Mabin Stamped, var. Mabin vessel. An unusually large jar from Crooks again utilizes zoned cord-wrapped stick impressions. The Mabin variety is present at Marksville sites throughout most of the Lower Mississippi Valley, but particularly associated with Point Lake phase in northeastern Louisiana. Height 26.1 cm, diameter estimated 25.0 cm, capacity estimated 8000 ml. LSU No. 2279, Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Stamped, var. Marksville vessel. Another diagnostic decoration shared by Marksville and Illinois Hopewell is the vertically bisected circle motif. A tubby pot from Crooks combines the vertically bisected circle with a crosshatched rim. The sloppy execution and the soft, thick ware of which the pot is fashioned, when compared to the very fine Hopewell vessels in the Illinois Valley, suggest that the direction of diffusion of ceramic ideas
Grinding cornmeal, ca. 1900. A frequent task for Pueblo women was the grinding of cornmeal for meals. Special rooms with sets of metates that ranged from coarse to fine-grained stone were often set aside for this task. Starting with the coarse metate, a woman would use successively finer metates until a fine meal was produced.
Marksville Stamped, var. Marksville vessel. A beaker from Crooks uses a variation of the vertically bisected circle motif in which halves of the concentric circles are shifted up and down respectively. The variation demonstrates reinterpretation of Hopewellian ideas by local Lower Mississippi Valley societies. Height 10.0 cm, diameter 14.2 cm, capacity 1000 ml. LSU No. 5560, Museum of Geoscience.
Ceramic effigy platform pipe. Marksville copies of Hopewellian platform pipes in the local medium, fired clay, are usually plain. One effigy from the Crooks Mound portrays an unidentifiable mammal with a short tail and well-formed phalanges on both hands and feet. The Crooks pipe provides another important example of an attempt by a Marksville individual to duplicate a class of artifacts that reaches exquisite proportions in northern Hopewell. Len
Platform pipe, Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana. Clarence B. Moore excavated two mounds at Saline Point on Red River. In remains of the "upper mound," a local farmer found a rare lithic example of a Marksville platform pipe. It is made of red and buff silt-stone, a local material found in concretionery deposits scattered throughout Avoyelles and surrounding parishes. Similar ceramic platform pipes are known from the Marksville, Crooks, Grand Gulf, Sali
Marksville Incised, var. Sunflower vessel. Red filming crosscuts a number of early Marksville varieties, especially in the northern Yazoo Basin. Zoned red filming on a bowl from Crooks may be used to emphasize a highly stylized version of the bird motif. Height 5.8 cm, diameter 11.2, capacity 340 ml. LSU No. 2276, Museum of Geoscience.
Indian Bay Stamped, var. Cypress Bayou vessel. Unzoned dentate rocker stamping is especially prevalent in the northern Yazoo and upper Tensas Basins. One of the finest examples, however, is from the Crooks site in La Salle Parish, Louisiana. The fine dentate rocker stamping is used as an all-over body decoration. Height 8.7 cm, diameter 8.8 cm, capacity 320 ml. LSU No. 5933 Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Incised, var. Marksville vessel. Wide U-shaped incised lines also are used as an all-over body decoration. On a tubby pot from Crooks, parallel incised lines on the body are combined with dentate rocker stamping along the rim. Typical Marksville hemiconical punctuations separate the two decorations. Height 6.6 cm, diameter 9.2 cm, capacity 230 ml. LSU No. 5530, Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Incised, var. Marksville vessel. Another tubby pot from Crooks has a concentric circle motif, similar to the McGuffee beaker, beneath a Marksville crosshatched rim. Height 9.5 cm, diameter 12.0 cm, capacity 750 ml. LSU No. 5675 or 5979, Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Incised, var. Sunflower vessels. Two additional Crooks vessels exhibit variations in the use of wide-spaced incised lines. The vessel on the right may involve a broken down bird motif. Left vessel: height 5.6 cm, diameter 7.8 cm, capacity 150 ml. Right vessel: height 8.1 cm, diameter 10.9 cm, capacity 510 ml. LSU Nos. 5518 and 5526, Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Stamped, var. Marksville vessel. A large tubby pot from the Crooks Mound illustrates the variation of early Marksville ceramic decorations. Zoned dentate rocker stamping is used to highlight a motif that could represent a stylized bird or a plant motif of some sort. The vessel is clearly early Marksville by association with the crosshatched rim. Height 17.0 cm, diameter 17.5 cm, capacity 3000 ml. LSU No. 5537, Museum of Geoscience.
Marksville Stamped, var. Old River vessel. Non-dentate zoned rocker stamping is less commonly distributed than zoned dentate rocker stamping, but generally found in early Marksville context throughout the Lower Mississippi Valley. The soft paste variety is Old River; the late Marksville improved paste variety is Troyville. An early Marksville Old River beaker from Crooks has the typical notched lip. Height 9.9 cm, diameter 10.7 cm, capacity 600 ml