THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
AN ENCYCLOPEDIC SURVEY
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 1940-75
FEROL BRINKMAN, EDITOR
The University of Michigan
Bentley Historical Library
Page iiPublished with the financial assistance of the Office of the Vice-President for Academic Affairs.
- Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer.....1
- Organization and Change.....2
- Financial Support and Activities.....12
- Physical Properties.....46
- North Campus.....98
- City-University Relations.....99
- College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.....109
- Department of Anthropology.....120
- Department of Astronomy.....123
- Department of Botany.....131
- Department of Chemistry.....134
- Department of Classical Studies.....136
- Department of Computer and Communication Sciences.....139
- Department of Economics.....144
- Department of English Language and Literature.....148
- Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures.....152
- Department of Geography.....156
- Department of Geological Sciences.....160
- Summer Geological Field Training.....165
- Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures.....166
- Department of History.....170
- Department of History of Art.....174
- Department of Journalism.....175
- Department of Linguistics.....179
- Department of Mathematics.....183
- Department of Near Eastern Studies.....187
- Page ivPage
- Department of Philosophy.....190
- Department of Physics.....193
- Department of Political Science.....204
- Department of Psychology.....207
- Department of Romance Languages and Literatures.....212
- Romance Linguistics.....217
- Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures.....219
- Department of Sociology.....220
- Department of Speech Communication and Theater.....223
- Department of Statistics.....226
- Department of Zoology.....227
- Residential College.....230
In 1977, the Bentley Library published the first in a series of update volumes for the four-volume Encyclopedic Survey of the University of Michigan, an account of the history of the University from its inception in 1817 to 1940. The 1977 volume, covering the period from ca. 1940 to 1975, dealt with two presidential administrations, three vice-presidential areas, and most of the University's schools, colleges, libraries and cultural units. This present volume, again covering the period from ca. 1940 to 1975, focuses upon developments in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and upon the role of the Vice-President for Business and Finance. Reports for a number of other University units, still to be covered, will be included in a third, and final, volume.
Again, as in the case of the 1977 volume, primary credit for the editorial work in connection with the project goes to Ferol Brinkman. Mrs. Brinkman's patience, good judgment, and persistence have been crucial to the project's continuity and success. This present volume will prove especially helpful to those who seek information on changes in the University's physical plant over the past third of a century, and who are concerned for developments in the largest college within the University during that same period of time. Treatments of the various departments vary both in coverage and format, in accord with the reports the departments have themselves submitted to us. The result, we believe, provides a broad survey of important general trends in the University's life over a thirty-five-year period but also recounts developments within the units which they themselves see as particularly significant for their departments and disciplines.
The Bentley Library publishes this second update volume as part of its continuing program to preserve the historical sources of the University and encourage their use by historians and other scholars. Funding for the project was provided by the Office of the Vice-President for Academic Affairs.Page [unnumbered]
VICE-PRESIDENT AND CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER
The Office of the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer has evolved over the past fifty years, growing out of the Office of the Secretary, the Office of the Vice-President and Secretary in charge of Business and Finance, and the Office of the Vice-President for Business and Finance. At about the time of World War I, the University established the first University-wide accounting, purchasing, and business procedures as responsibilities of the Office of the Secretary, who at that time was Shirley W. Smith. In 1929 the title of the Office was changed to Vice-President and Secretary in charge of Business and Finance and, during the 1930s, the responsibilities of the Office were enlarged to include accounting, purchasing, investments, cash management, buildings and grounds, services such as printing, and stores, housing, and utilities. In 1945, with the appointment of Robert P. Briggs to the Office upon the retirement of Shirley Smith, the title was changed to Vice-President for Business and Finance, and Herbert G. Watkins, Assistant Secretary, was named Secretary of the University. No further changes in title took place until 1966, when the title was changed to Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer to reflect both the operations scope of the Office and its responsibilities as the chief financial officer for the President and the Regents of all University activities and campuses.
ORGANIZATION AND CHANGE
The University of Michigan Encyclopedic Survey, Part I, page 269, contains the following statement, "The business administration of the University of Michigan from 1842 to 1900, if we are to judge by the volume of business of which there is a record, was relatively simple when compared with the University of 1940." From 1940 to 1977, the volume of business activity also expanded greatly, due to postwar growth and dollar inflation. In 1940 the chief financial officer was Shirley W. Smith, Vice-President and Secretary, and the business and financial management was centered in an Assistant Secretary, Controller, Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, Investment Officer, and Business Manager of Residence Halls. No changes took place in this structure of organization during the next five years, but in 1945, when Shirley Smith retired, the first of a series of changes in organization took place.
With the appointment of Robert P. Briggs as Vice-President for Business and Finance in 1945, Herbert G. Watkins was appointed Secretary and Assistant Vice-President, separating the secretarial duties from the vice-presidency but leaving certain other duties as the responsibility of the assistant vice-president. During the next several years, reflecting the very rapid growth of the University during the post-World War II years, substantial changes were made in the organization, responsibilities, and staff involved in the business and financial offices and activities of the University.
Prior to 1945 the personnel management of office personnel was centered in a Committee on Office Personnel. Early in 1945 the University established the Office of Nonacademic Personnel with responsibility for personnel management functions for all personnel, except faculty, research, and academic administrative staff. Alfred B. Ueker was appointed the first Personnel Officer of the University in the same year, and he held this post until 1959 when he followed Walter Roth as Superintendent of Plant. At that time Charles Allmand was appointed Personnel Officer, to be succeeded in 1966 by Russell Reister, who has held the position since that date.
In 1945 the Office of Plant Superintendent was created, Page 3with responsibility for plant operations, plant extension, and general stores. Walter M. Roth was appointed Plant Superintendent, Lynn Fry was appointed Supervising Architect for plant extension, and O. E. Roszel was placed in charge of General Stores.
On July 1, 1945, R. Gordon Griffith was appointed Investment Officer, and during the same year the organizational concept of Auxiliary Enterprises was recognized. Several operating units, some involved with academic departments, were established as self-sustaining units, with the expectation that revenues from operations would cover expenses of the units. These included the following:
- Printing Department - Edward E. Lofberg
- Binding Department - George E. Craven
- Laundry Department - Donald A. Callnin
- Instrument Shop - Orlan W. Boston
- Blueprint Shop - Henry W. Miller
- Chemistry Stores - Robert J. Carney
During 1946-47 the Federal Government deeded the Willow Run Airport to the University which provided space for the establishment of the Willow Run Laboratories as an engineering and aeronautical research center under the direction of Professor Emerson Conlin. At the same time the airport proper was leased to the Airlines National Terminal Service Company for operation as an airline terminal. (Details of this transaction are contained in the Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vol. 55, No. 16, pp. 119-27, Winter 1949.) Relationships with the airlines were handled first by Colonel Arthur Prine and later by Floyd Wakefield, until the airlines moved to the Detroit Metropolitan Airport in 1966. At that time, John P. Weidenbach was appointed Manager of Willow Run Airport, to supervise the airport as a facility for general aviation activities.
In 1947-48 three more changes were accomplished while Robert Briggs was Vice-President. On July 1, 1947, Wilbur Page 4K. Pierpont, Assistant Professor of Accounting, was appointed Controller; in September 1947, Edmund A. Cummiskey, a practicing lawyer in Detroit, was appointed Attorney, the first appointment of a full-time lawyer to the University administrative staff; and in 1948 Byron J. Green, a practicing Certified Public Accountant, was appointed Assistant Controller with specific responsibility for accounting systems and auditing.
In early 1951 Robert P. Briggs resigned as Vice-President for Business and Finance, and on February 1, 1951, Wilbur K. Pierpont was appointed Vice-President for Business and Finance and Professor of Accounting; later in March of 1966, the title of the office was changed to Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer. During the 1950s the continued rapid expansion of the University, measured by student enrollment, growth in research activities, total expenditures, plant expansion, number of personnel, or other data led to a continuing series of organizational and staff changes to respond to these new and larger responsibilities of the business and financial staff.
In early 1951 the Regents authorized the creation of a Service Enterprises Group for management purposes under the direction of Frances C. Shiel. During the 1950s this Group included the operations of residence halls, food service, laundry, printing, binding, instrument shops, photographic services, rental properties, Inglis House, and parking operations. Inglis House, the residence in Ann Arbor of Mr. and Mrs. James Inglis, was a gift to the University from Mr. and Mrs. Inglis in 1951 and was established soon thereafter as a guest house for distinguished visitors to the University. Rental properties were recognized as a unit in 1952 to provide an organized management of the many houses, farms, and other rental properties owned by the University; and the parking operations unit was established in 1955 when the University started a parking-permit plan for the first parking structure, completed in 1957, and the many parking lots around the University.
In the middle of 1951, Gilbert L. Lee was promoted from Chief Accountant, Engineering Research Institute, to the Controller's position. In succeeding years, from 1951 through 1966, the Controller's Office was assigned responsibility Page 5for the following operating units: the Internal Audit unit, established in late 1951, the Accounting Office, Insurance, Property Control, Tabulating Service, Cashier, Budget Procedures, Transportation, Parking, Radrick Farms, and other units.
Also in 1951 the Purchasing Department was recognized as a major University-wide function and Walter Bulbick was appointed as Director of Purchasing. Mr. Bulbick was a staff member of the University for forty-five years and was succeeded by Eugene O. Ingram in 1966.
The Internal Audit unit was first headed by Byron Green and later by Harold Bell. After 1966 the name of the unit was changed to University Audits. It is charged with coordinating responsibility for outside auditors — federal, state, and professional — in addition to performing the Internal Audit function. A. B. Hicks headed the unit after 1966.
The Accounting Office was headed by Raymond Garlough, Florence Ehnis, Frederick E. Oliver, and Howard Cottrell until 1966. After that date, the unit was headed by Thomas Mason, James England, and William Krumm.
The Payroll Office, a department of the Accounting Office until 1966 when it was assigned directly to the Controller, was headed by Edna Miller, Caroline Maier, Harlan Mulder, Jack Dalrymple, and Mel Amo.
The Insurance Office was first headed by William G. Miller, who was later succeeded by William F. Ryan.
The Property Control Office was first headed by Floyd Wakefield and later by Lynn Dancer.
The Tabulating Service department was headed in 1951 by Kurt Benjamin, and later by Bruce W. Arden, Kenneth R. Manning, and Thomas Thompson. The department name was changed to the Systems and Data Processing department after it was assigned to the Internal Audit and Management Services unit, and was headed by Harry Q. Wasson and Donald N. Butera. After 1966 the Unit's name was changed to the Data Systems Center, and it was headed by Lyle A. Baack and Page 6Charles Wallace.
The Cashier's Office was headed by Gordon B. Jory, Robert R. Roush, Richard P. Koester, Glenn A. Breitner, Thomas F. Hagarty, Joseph R. Welch, and William Turner.
In 1953 A. B. Hicks was appointed as Business Manager of the Engineering Research Institute and in 1956 was promoted to Assistant Controller and Business Manager of the Engineering Research Institute.
In 1956 Frederick E. Oliver was promoted to Assistant Controller and Chief Accountant.
Harlan J. Mulder, as Assistant Controller from 1957 to 1966, became responsible for budget procedures, transportation, parking, Radrick Farms, and several other units. After 1966 his title was Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer.
By 1955 the developments in the North Campus area and the Medical Center, the extensive capital outlay programs, and the extension of the campus in the Ann Arbor and Washtenaw County area led to the appointment of John G. McKevitt to the newly-created post of Assistant to the Vice-President for Business and Finance, with particular responsibilities for campus planning, liaison with the state and local governmental units on building programs, utility and highway developments, and relationships with the City of Ann Arbor. In 1965 William Sturgis became assistant to John McKevitt and, when John McKevitt resigned to accept an appointment at Temple University in 1969, the campus planning function was assigned to the new Office of the Vice-President for State Relations and Planning. At that time William Sturgis became Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer.
In July 1958 Herbert G. Watkins retired as Secretary and Vice-President, after thirty-two years of service to the University. He was replaced by Erich A. Walter as Secretary and Assistant to the President, thus terminating the direct relationship of the Secretary to the Office of the Vice-President for Business and Finance.
Page 7During the years 1956-58 the Flint and Dearborn campuses were started, and business managers were appointed for both of these units, Howard Cottrell for Flint and Robert Beecher for Dearborn. At Flint Robert Roush replaced Howard Cottrell in 1959 and at Dearborn Donald Klaasen replaced Robert Beecher in 1966, to be followed by Richard Schwartz in 1974.
In 1959 the Office of Staff Benefits was established to coordinate the administration of all staff benefit programs, and Howard Cottrell was appointed the first Manager of the Office. He was succeeded by Russell W. Reister in 1961, who was succeeded in 1966 by Donald L. Thiel.
By 1961 the growth in the legal affairs of the University required an additional attorney, particularly for labor and personnel relations, and William P. Lemmer was added to the Attorney's Office as a lawyer specializing in labor affairs. Edmund Cummiskey, the University Attorney since 1947, retired in 1970 to be replaced by Roderick Daane, a practicing lawyer from Detroit, as the University General Counsel. In 1971 the great growth of litigation over student rights, the relationships of individuals to the University, and contractual rights led to the appointment of John Ketelhut to the University legal staff. The growth of hospital and medical legal problems led to the appointment of Carol Stadler in 1972 as a lawyer specializing in health-related legal affairs.
During the tenures in office of Shirley Smith as Vice-President and Secretary and of Robert Briggs as Vice-President in charge of Business and Finance, and for the first ten years of the tenure of Wilbur K. Pierpont, the Executive Secretary for the Office was Ethel Hastings. Upon her death in 1961, after forty-four years of service to the University, Mrs. Hastings was replaced by Helen Meier for a five-year period. In 1966 Dorothy Bell was named as Executive Secretary and held this position until December 31, 1976.
The continuing and enlarging needs for financial and operating analyses of University operations caused the creation in 1961 of the Office of Financial Analysis, with Frederick E. Oliver appointed as first director of the Office. Frederick Oliver continued as Director of this Office until retirement at the end of 1977. He was succeeded Page 8by Sam Plice as Director.
In 1962 James F. Brinkerhoff was employed as the Director of Plant Extension to plan, coordinate, and direct programs for the enlargement, modernization, and rehabilitation of the physical facilities of the University. During the early 1960s a number of other changes took place:
A Gift Receiving Office was established, to provide for the orderly receipt of all gifts to the University, and Donald Thiel was named as the first Manager. Later, when Donald Thiel was named Director of the Staff Benefits Office, Kenneth Copp became Manager of Gift Receiving, succeeded by Sidney Giles, Carol Bradley, and Lucille Doke.
The North Campus Commons was opened in 1965 under the management of Robert West, who was followed by Thomas Beller as Manager in 1969, and in 1971 by Wilma Steketee, who was also Manager of the Michigan League.
The Radrick Farms Golf Course was opened in 1966 under the management of Richard A. McLaughlin. The golf course was constructed on the farm area donated to the University by Regent Frederick Matthaei and provides golf facilities for University faculty, staff, alumni, and visitors.
In 1964 Harold Bell was named as Director of the Office of Management Services, to supervise the Internal Audit department, the Data Processing Department, and relationships with all outside auditors and professional accountants. After Harold Bell resigned to become Comptroller of the University of Chicago in 1966, A. B. Hicks was appointed Director of University Audits, and Donald N. Butera was appointed Director of the Data Processing Department.
In 1966, after fifteen years as University Controller and three months as Vice-President for Business Affairs, Gilbert L. Lee resigned to become Vice-President for Business and Finance at the University of Chicago. Howard Cottrell was appointed Controller to succeed Mr. Lee, and Thomas Mason was appointed Chief Accountant to succeed Howard Cottrell. Samuel J. Plice was appointed as Assistant Controller in 1967 and Joseph Diana was also appointed as Assistant Page 9Controller in 1969.
Following the resignation of Gilbert Lee, and with the continued growth of activities, in 1967 the Office of Business Operations was established and James F. Brinkerhoff was named Director. Responsibilities of this Office included Purchasing, Personnel, Plant Operations, Plant Extension, and Willow Run Airport. At that time John Weidenbach replaced James Brinkerhoff as Director of Plant Extension and Robert Pangburn became Manager of Willow Run Airport.
Frances Shiel, who had been Manager of Service Enterprises since 1951, retired in 1969, after forty-two years of service to the University. With this retirement, many of the service units, Food Service, Laundry, Photographic Services, Binding, and Printing were assigned to Eugene Ingram for responsibility, and the Purchasing Department became the Purchasing and Stores Department. Other units - Parking Operations, Inglis House, Radrick Farms Golf Course, and Martha Cook Dormitory were assigned to Harlan Mulder, the Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer. Rental Properties became part of University Housing, reporting to the Vice-President for Student Affairs, and the North Campus Commons was assigned to the Office of Business Operations.
In 1969-70, with the advent of more formalized management information systems on the campus, Cloy J. Walter was appointed as Director of Administrative Systems, encompassing the Data Processing Center and the implementation of computer-based management information systems.
During the year, Howard Cottrell resigned as Controller and Chandler Matthews was appointed as Controller.
In the summer months of 1970, a Department of Safety was established, bringing together security affairs, fire protection, the Key Office and aspects of environmental health and safety, and Fredrick E. Davids, former Director, Michigan Department of State Police, accepted the Directorship of the Department in October 1970.
In the fall of 1970, the title of the Director of Business Operations was changed to Associate Vice-President Page 10and Director of Business Operations, to recognize the added responsibilities of the Office. At the same time Donald F. Wendel was appointed Director of Plant Operations.
The continuous changes made necessary by the great growth of the University during the decades of the 1950s and the 1960s came to an end in the early part of the 1970s. Gordon Griffith, after serving the University for thirty-four years, twenty-six of them as the Investment Officer, retired in 1971, and George Elgass was appointed as Investment Officer. Later, in 1977, George Elgass left the position to be followed by Norman Herbert. In 1971, James Brinkerhoff resigned his position as Associate Vice-President to become Vice-President at the University of Minnesota, and John Weidenbach, later named as Director of Physical Properties, assumed responsibility for the units previously reporting to the Associate Vice-President, except for Personnel and Purchasing which reported to the Vice-President. In 1973 Paul Spradlin was appointed as Director of Plant Extension. In 1970 Thomas Mason was promoted to Assistant Controller, and in 1974 was appointed Director of Hospital Business Affairs. James England succeeded him as Chief Accountant in 1970 and William B. Krumm became Chief Accountant in 1971. In 1974 Jack T. Dalrymple was promoted to Assistant to the Controller and Mel Amo succeeded him as Manager of Payrolls. Cloy Walter resigned as Director of Administrative Systems and in 1973 Frederick E. Oliver was appointed as Director of Financial Analysis and Administrative Systems. In 1973 Samuel J. Plice was appointed Director of Administrative Systems Planning and in 1976, Director of Administrative Systems.
Throughout the middle 1970s the organization of the Office of the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer was quite stable and, as contrasted to the organization of the Office in the 1940s, consisted of the listed responsibilities under the following individuals on December 31, 1976:
- Administrative Data Systems - Samuel Plice
- Assistant to the Vice-President - Harlan Mulder
- Assistant to the Vice-President - William Sturgis
- Controller of Fiscal Operations - Chandler Matthews
- Financial Analysis - Frederick Oliver
- University Audits - A. B. Hicks
- Page 11Investments - George Elgass
- Personnel - Russell Reister
- Plant Operations and Extension - John Weidenbach
- Purchasing and Stores - Eugene Ingram
On December 31, 1976, Wilbur K. Pierpont concluded twenty-five years as Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer to return to teaching in the Graduate School of Business Administration. James F. Brinkerhoff returned from the University of Minnesota to assume the responsibilities of the Office on that date.
FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND ACTIVITIES
Current Operating Funds
In the period from 1940 to 1977, the amount of annual revenues for current operations has increased from $12,500,000 to $424,500,000.
Three sources of revenue have grown much more significantly than other sources during this long period. Federal support was practically nonexistent in 1940 but has now become a significant part of the revenue pattern, amounting to $72,500,000 in 1976-77 or 17 percent of all revenue for operations. Gifts and other grants have grown by a ratio of fifty times the 1940 level, and the University in recent years has won national recognition for its gift development and gift receiving program. Hospital service costs have risen so rapidly in the last few years and types of services have also so increased that the revenue for this activity is now 46 times that of 1940.
Student fee revenue has maintained the same relationship to the total as existed in 1940. State appropriations, however, have decreased in their share of support for educational and general programs.
The following table of revenues by source in ten-year comparisons since 1940 describes the various major categories of current operations support: Page 13
|(dollars in thousands)|
|Educational and General|
|Student fees||$ 1,812||$ 6,542||$ 9,466||$ 29,562||$ 63,001|
|Federal contracts and grants||15||3,188||23,027||60,754||72,500|
|Gifts and other grants||419||1,102||5,039||16,875||20,726|
|Less restricted revenues held for future expenditure||( 2,596)||381||( 2,553)|
|Total Educational and General||$ 7,926||$24,785||$ 74,565||$189,816||$293,701|
|Hospitals and medical services||$ 2,177||$ 6,443||$ 14,065||$ 42,333||$100,697|
|Student residences and centers||2,075||5,139||9,735||14,748||20,861|
|Athletics, student publications and other||408||1,827||2,625||5,366||9,199|
|Total Auxiliary Activities||$ 4,660||$13,409||$ 26,425||$ 62,447||$130,757|
Page 14The changing functions of the University over the years are reflected in the unusual relative growth of funded research expenditures and student-aid payments. In addition, support services expenditures have increased due to the complexity of present programs for students, faculty, and staff, compared to 1940. Details of expenditures by program are shown for ten-year periods from 1940 in the following table: Page 15
|(dollars in thousands)|
|Educational and General|
|Instruction and departmental research||$ 4,619||$10,900||$ 29,403||$ 72,926||$127,813|
|Other educational services||88||248||663||2,708||6,253|
|Operations and maintenance of plant||921||2,175||5,420||12,195||27,255|
|Total Educational and General||$ 7,658||$24,188||$ 74,414||$191,043||$294,127|
|Hospitals and medical services||$ 2,045||$ 6,388||$ 13,878||$ 42,510||$ 98,211|
|Student residences and centers||1,854||4,931||9,875||14,645||21,040|
|Athletics, student publications and other||408||2,020||2,672||6,139||8,859|
|Total Auxiliary Activities||$ 4,307||$13,339||$ 26,425||$ 63,294||$128,110|
Page 16Higher education expenditures are characterized as salary-intensive. The following table compares ten-year periods from 1940 for current funds expenditures as reported by object classifications. Direct salary expenditure as a share of the total is relatively stable, ranging from 60 to 66 percent over the years. The institution of significant staff benefit programs over the years has resulted in a total compensation percent of over 70 percent in 1976-77.
State Appropriations for General Operations
In 1940 state appropriations for general operations were made biennially, and biennial appropriation periods continued through 1945-47. Top limits were put on these appropriations: $4,804,000 annually for the 1941-43 and 1943-45 bienniums, and $5,867,451 annually for the 1945-47 biennium. An additional appropriation in the amount of $1,250,000 was authorized for current operations in the 1946-47 year.
Also, during the war years, additional appropriations for "state and national defense" were made: $200,000 in 1942-43, $520,000 in 1943-44, and $133,333 in 1944-45.
Beginning in 1947-48 appropriations were made annually from state general funds. For the next ten years, these increased regularly as shown in the following table: Page 17
|Year||Annual Appropriation||Increase Percent|
Economic conditions deteriorated in Michigan during 1957-58. This economic situation resulted in a reduction in state appropriations for operations in 1958-59, compared with the previous year, which caused the adoption of an austerity budget. Also in 1958-59, beginning in December, the state's cash position was so low that monthly payments of authorized state appropriations were suspended for several months. This resulted in the University borrowing from banks to meet payrolls. It was also necessary to defer vendor payments, reduce inventory levels, and take other measures to conserve cash. These suspensions were made up by the end of the year.
Since 1958-59 state appropriations for operations each year have never fallen below the previous year's level and have usually provided increases, albeit at levels insufficient to maintain the former ratios of General Fund support. Increases in student fee revenues have been the sources for making a minimal budget possible in recent years. State appropriations since 1958-59 are reported as follows: Page 18
|Year||Annual Appropriation||Increase Percent|
Another financial crisis of sorts in state funds occurred in 1976. The state's solution for this was a change in its fiscal year. Appropriations were authorized for a short 3-month fiscal period, July 1 to September 30, 1976, with no increase in the monthly payment levels from the 1975-76 fiscal year. The fiscal period of October 1 to September 30 was adopted by the state in 1976-77. The University has not changed its July to June fiscal year.
The legislative fiscal agencies adopted a concept of formula-funding of higher education in 1975. They invited representatives from higher education and the Governor's Office to form a task force with them to develop a procedure for formula-funding. The task force made its first report in 1976. It became known as an "Investment Needs Model" at this time because it was apparent the resulting figures were much larger than could be actually funded by the state. The Governor's Office of Management and Budget utilized parts of the formula report along with some concepts of its own in making its recommended budget for 1977-78. The legislature used its own interpretation of the formula report for the actual 1977-78 appropriations. The formula is extremely complex and will need considerable change and refinement before Page 19it becomes an acceptable funding mechanism for all concerned.
Revenues from federal sources became significant following World War II. A long list of federal agencies has supported instruction, research, and student-aid programs at the University for a number of years. The defense agencies were dominant supporters of research at first, then the emphasis shifted to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, specifically the Public Health Service, for instruction and research in health-related fields. In addition to reimbursements for direct project costs, the government has shared significantly in the cost of overhead for projects.
Federal contracts and grants for educational and general operations at five-year intervals are as follows:
The federal government has furnished funds directly for many building and major renovation projects, including the following for which significant grants were awarded:
|Federal Support||Percent of Total|
|Animal Research Facility||$ 206,529||40.5|
|Buhl Research Center||306,531||54.7|
|Dental and Kellogg Buildings||6,198,868||32.7|
|Fire Service Instruction||158,615||48.9|
|Institute for Science and Technology||427,234||12.9|
|Institute for Social Research||560,168||12.3|
|Federal Support||Percent of Total|
|Kresge Research Building Addition||$1,579,522||22.8|
|Hatcher Graduate Library||1,458,333||14.2|
|Matthaei Botanical Gardens||358,991||20.0|
|Medical Science II and Furstenberg Center||2,664,250||19.6|
|Mental Health Research Institute||510,361||47.5|
|Modern Languages Building||1,000,000||18.1|
|Portage Lake Observatory||250,000||33.6|
|Public Health Buildings||5,164,142||53.4|
|Space Research Building||1,404,605||98.2|
Since 1958 the federal government has funded the major portion (90 percent) of the government student-loan program.
The over-all support from federal sources has been a very important source of financial resources for graduate programs, particularly those in the health sciences, engineering, and physical sciences. Support to a lesser extent has been received for the humanities, languages, and social sciences.
Student fee revenues in 1940 amounted to 23 percent of educational and general revenue, excluding auxiliary activities. In 1977, revenue from this source was 22 percent, a stable relationship over the years. In dollar terms it had grown from $1,812,000 to $63,001,000.
During World War II the federal government paid to the University approximately $4,000,000 for contract instruction to servicemen from 1943 through 1946.
Following World War II, fee revenue paid by students was supplemented by the "G.I. Bill" through payments for veterans by the Veterans Administration of reimbursements for contractually-defined "costs of instruction." This supplemental revenue peaked in 1948-49 and gradually phased out in Page 21the 1950s. After the Korean conflict, this assistance program for veterans was modified by payment of the supplemental allowance directly to veterans, instead of paying the institution.
The term fees charged to students in Ann Arbor since 1940 have characteristically been single comprehensive fees covering instruction and various related student services. parts of these comprehensive fees were allocated to operate the Michigan Union and Michigan League, to supplement intercollegiate athletics revenue, and to support student organizations. Some allocations were also made to finance construction of the Michigan Union addition, North Campus Commons, Administration facilities, Chrisler Arena, and the Central and North Campus Recreation Buildings. Somewhat similar allocations have been made for Dearborn and Flint campus student fees. Beginning in 1976 a separate fee was assessed for health services.
Rates for term student fees (resident undergraduate) have increased from $60 in 1940 to $464 for lower-level students and $526 for upper-level students in 1976-77. Nonresident rates have increased from $100 in 1940 to $1508 for lower-level students and $1626 for upper-level students in 1976-77.
Fee rates in effect in the fall of 1940 continued without change until the fall of 1945 when they were increased. From then until 1970 the rates increased every second or third year. Since 1970 fee rates for most student levels have increased every year. General fund budget needs have increasingly required more student-fee revenue to balance relatively diminishing revenue from other sources. Each time rates are increased, consideration is given to several factors: the dollar amount needed to balance the budget, comparative rates at peer institutions, and the costs of instruction.
In the fall of 1961 the deferred tuition and fee payment plan was instituted, whereby fees could be paid in installments throughout the term. Prior to this, fees were payable in full on registration day.
Differential nonresident rates have traditionally been Page 22assessed for those students who do not qualify as Michigan residents in accordance with Regental residency rules. These rules were modified in 1953 to less stringent definitions as a result of court decisions. The ratio of undergraduate nonresident-term rates to resident rates in 1940 was 1.67 to 1. This ratio gradually widened. In 1948 it was 2.5 to 1, in 1966 it was 2.87 to 1, and since 1972 it has stabilized at 3.25 to 1.
In the fall of 1976, a new fee-rate structure for undergraduates was instituted, whereby assessments were made for each credit hour enrolled, instead of a flat-rate comprehensive fee.
An indication of the change in rates since 1940 is shown in the following table of undergraduate academic year rates.
|Year of Change||Undergraduate|
Gifts and Grants
The total value of monetary gifts over the years recognized in the University books of account has reached $455,997,370 at June 30, 1977. This includes gifts for operating purposes which have been expended and gifts for permanent purposes such as for endowments, student loans, and lands and buildings.
The University is nationally recognized for its volume of gifts. A significant part of this is represented by the Michigan Alumni annual giving program. In honor of the institution's Sesquicentennial year of 1967, a special campaign was mounted, entitled the $55 Million Campaign. It was very successful, resulting in gifts and pledges exceeding $72 million. In the last eleven years, annual gifts have exceeded $20 million every year except one, and have averaged over $24 million per year in this period. In 1973-74 the level was over $29 million, and in 1976-77 it was over $28 million.
In addition to the amounts received and booked as gifts, many pledges of future gifts have been made on behalf of the University, such as beneficiary designations in life insurance policies and in wills, and pledged payment of gifts in future years.
The following table describes the general uses for which gifts were received in ten-year periods from 1939-40: Page 24
|Current Operations||$ 419,470||$1,101,840||$5,042,896||$16,875,044||$20,725,855|
Funds available for student loans have grown from $590,000 in 1939-40 to $44,098,000 in 1976-77. Of this latest figure, $25,302,000 have been received from the federal government under legislation which was first enacted in 1958 in response to a need for more trained citizens, as a result of the Russian Soviets' success with the first satellite launched in 1957, known as "Sputnik." In 1964 the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act was passed to provide matching funds for student loans in the fields of dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. The remainder of the University loan funds have been made available from gifts, and $3,321,000 from University funds to match the federal provisions as required by legislation. Federal legislation also provides collection insurance guarantees for a part of the University loans.
Since the first loans were granted in 1897, the University has awarded $84,498,000 in loans to students. In 1940-41, 2,080 loans were issued for $155,644, for an average loan of $75, compared with 17,747 loans issued for $9,545,413, for an average of $538 per loan during 1976-77. During World War II, the number of student loans dropped to about 400 a year, and then rose to nearly 4,000 during 1946-47. Student loans issued during 1950-51 dropped to 2,527 after most of the veterans had graduated. Since 1950-51, there has been an almost uninterrupted growth in the number of student loans granted per year, the average size student loan, and the amount of loans outstanding. As of June 30, 1976, 52,726 loans amounting to $40,696,000 are outstanding.
The increased demand for student loans is due to a number of factors. During this thirty-seven year period, 1940-41 through 1976-77, Michigan resident tuition rose from $120 to $928 per year, an increase of 673 percent. The room and board rate for a double room increased from $382 to $1,512 for a 296 percent rise. Enrollment in 1940-41 was 12,051 compared with 45,823 students for 1976-77, an increase of 280 percent.
Endowment funds are created primarily by gifts. Fiduciary responsibility must be exercised to protect principal, produce income through effective investment practices, and protect wishes of the donors as expressed in the terms of gifts.
The oldest endowment account is the Federal Land Grant, valued at $550,984, which resulted from sales of lands in Michigan, the proceeds of which were earmarked for the University. These funds were retained in the state treasury, and the state constitution of 1835, section 5 of Article X, protected this amount for the benefit of the University in recognition of federal grants of lands for such purposes (see Volume I, pages 36, 118, 267, and 274). An annual payment of $38,569, representing 7 percent of the endowment principal amount held by the state treasurer, was made to the University by the state. When the state constitution was revised in 1964, this annual payment was discontinued as a separate payment, with the assumption that the small amount involved would be included in the annual state appropriation for operations.
The level of book value of endowment funds has increased from $14,764,000 in 1939-40 to $98,111,000 in 1976-77. At June 30, 1977, market values of the Endowment and Other Invested Funds amounted to $117,577,000 compared to $98,111,000 book value.
These funds are now entitled Endowment and Other Invested Funds and are divided into three sub-groups. The first group, labeled Endowment Funds, includes accounts which allow only the income to be expended, amounting to $62,892,000 at June 30, 1977. A second group, labeled Total Return Funds, includes accounts which allow both principal and income to be expended, and amount to $30,648,000 at June 30, 1977. Annuity and Life Income Funds make up the remainder, representing accounts where commitments exist for payments to living beneficiaries. Page 27
Investments handled by the Investment Office include bonds, common and preferred stocks, mortgages (primarily for University staff members), short-term paper, some real estate properties, and miscellaneous contracts, certificates, and notes. A large source of funds for investment arises from the Endowment funds given to the University over many years. Also invested are amounts of cash temporarily held in various University funds. For many years the University handled its own Employees Retirement Fund for nonacademic staff members, which provided a large source of funds for investment, until the Fund was transferred in 1972 to the Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association and College Retirement Equities Fund.
The volume of investment activity handled by the Office has grown rapidly since 1940. The following table indicates annual investments in ten-year periods.
Policies governing investment procedures change from time to time to reflect financial markets and prospects.
In the 1943-44 President's Report, it was noted that the policy of that time "emphasized conservation of principal in comparison with production of income," which was a forerunner of an increasing concern over income maximization.
In 1945-46 the Regents adopted a policy statement as follows: "In order to carry out the wishes of the donors of endowment funds, due regard shall be given to the production of income from investments as well as to the conservation of the principal of the funds. The investment policy of the University shall be based on the principle of a broad diversification among various fields of investments and among various securities within these fields." No significant change took place, however, in the investments of University funds until 1951-52 when an agency agreement was entered into with the National Bank of Detroit for advice, consultation, and custodial service for investments of the larger endowment funds. At that time a formal program of investing in common stocks was started and, during the next 25 years, common stocks as a percentage of the total market value investment in the Endowment Funds increased from 13 percent in 1951-52 to 58 percent in 1976-77, at which time the maximum authorized limit was 70 percent of market value.
The Consolidated Endowment Pool is a group of individual funds, the terms of which do not require the assets to be invested separately. The principal of such funds must be maintained intact and only the income expended for the particular purposes for which the endowment was created. Thus, it is possible to take a long range approach to the investments of such funds. There is no problem of meeting any future obligations out of the principal, and the fluctuations of security prices are not of great importance except as they provide opportunities to buy and sell or to switch from one type of investment to another. Income is of prime importance, not only from the standpoint of amount but also of stability. Investments include common stocks, bonds, mortgages, land contracts, preferred stocks, and real estate. Page 29Share values are assigned for individual accounts and income distributed on the basis of these shares as currently valued.
The investments of working capital of various University funds are principally commercial paper and U.S. Government agency obligations. The maturities are short-term, and investments are adjusted on a day-to-day basis in accordance with the over-all cash position of the University. Fluctuations in the amount of these investments are therefore considerable.
The Reserve Funds - Investment Pool is a pooling for investment purposes of various University reserve accounts and other funds of this type. Although the funds in this pool may be drawn on for expendable purposes, it is expected that they will not be needed in their entirety in the immediate future. The investments are principally bonds of medium-term maturities. A moderate short-term position is maintained to provide liquidity.
The University has certain funds, mostly endowments, that must be separately invested in accordance with the terms of the gifts or bequest. In a few cases the terms also restrict the investments to certain types, such as bonds or other fixed-income securities. The investments of these funds are in accord with the restrictions or with the authorizations outlined above, with the exceptions of a few securities that have been retained at the request of the donors.
In accordance with the Bylaws, Sec. 3.07 (2), all investment transactions are reported to the Regents at the monthly meetings. The investments of the larger funds are reviewed with the Regents semiannually, and a report of all investments is submitted annually.
The Total Return Fund, established in July 1970, is a pool of individual funds, the terms of which permit the use of some or all of the capital gains, realized or unrealized, and principal in addition to ordinary income. The investment objective of the Total Return Fund is to maximize total return within reasonable standards of prudence. The term "total return" is considered to mean a combination of Page 30income in the ordinary sense and appreciation or depreciation in the market value of the investments, either realized or unrealized. The use of fixed-income securities, convertible issues, and common stocks is governed by the objective, rather than by any specific percentage limitations. There is no limitation on the selection of individual securities by the National Bank of Detroit, Trust Department, provided the University officers concerned with investment approve the purchases.
In 1975 a Donor Pooled Income Fund was established to produce income for beneficiaries with life-income interests.
The Committee on Office Personnel was discontinued January 26, 1945, and its duties were absorbed by the Personnel Office established at that time.
The number of staff members of all types grew rapidly following World War II. Full-time counts grew from an estimated 5,500 in 1945-46 to 7,363 in 1951-52, 9,400 in 1959-60, 13,650 in 1969-70, and 14,121 in 1976-77.
In addition to full-time appointments, the University always has relied upon a relatively large number of part-time workers, including many student employees in the hospital, libraries, and residence halls. Also included are a large number of temporary appointees who work for a period as short as one or two days or who work intermittently from time to time. For the last six or seven years, total part-time counts have ranged between 9,000 and 10,000 per year.
Employee counts taken from payroll records during the month of October are reported annually to the U. S. Census Bureau. These counts are used as the institution's official count of employees for each year. Reports are also furnished monthly and quarterly to the Michigan Employment Security Commission, and these are automatically transmitted to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Annual reports are also furnished to the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Special reports on the number of faculty are furnished each year to the American Association of University Professors and exchanged among the Big Ten universities.
Because of state and federal legislation and administrative requirements instituted over the years since World War II, it has become necessary to maintain separate classifications for employees in the personnel records. Important among these requirements are the union contracts, affirmative action regulations for minorities, sex, and age groups, Page 32and various other labor laws and regulations applicable to selected nonexempt employees.
At the present time personnel records provide data on the following job families: instructional, administrative, professional, office and clerical, technical, service, and trades. Data maintained for these classifications include sex, age, minority status, and exempt or nonexempt status as to certain labor legislation, among other items.
Traditional classifications for full-time instructional positions include Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor, Instructor, and Lecturer.
The history of development of noninstructional classifications on a University-wide basis is described in the following paragraphs:
In 1964, development began for centralized computer records of staff job classification titles and salaries by classification, with the reports being operational and produced on a regular basis by July of 1966. This provided the data necessary for the development of a uniform, University-wide job classification and pay system.
Historically, job descriptions, titles, and pay rates had been established on a departmental or divisional basis, until July 1964, when a system of uniform, University-wide job classifications, classification descriptions, and a wage schedule was adopted for all service and maintenance workers. This was the first step toward the implementation of a University-wide, centrally administered classification and pay program, and it began with this staff group in anticipation of collective bargaining, which occurred in 1967.
The administration of classification and pay programs of Office, Technical, and Professional and Administrative (P&A) staff continued to be primarily decentralized until the development of uniform job classifications, classification descriptions, and salary schedules began in 1967. The initial compensation program consisted of the preparation of classification descriptions for existing job titles and the assignment of each of these classifications to a salary grade and range, using the existing pay grades and ranges Page 33for office jobs (C-1 to C-6) and establishing a new salary schedule for P&A and Technical classifications, which consisted of twenty-four separate salary grades and ranges. This initial program was designed principally around existing job titles and pay rates, rather than a restructuring of what had been done before. To that extent, it was the formalization, documentation, and systematizing of established pay practices for Office and Technical staff and for P&A staff up to middle management levels but excluding higher level (or executive) positions.
In July of 1968, the first University-wide job classification list, salary grade assignments, and salary schedules were published and distributed to unit management for use in preparing the annual salary budget and the processing of salary increases for Office, Technical and P&A staff. The preparation of University job classification descriptions for all classifications continued during this time and, by the Fall of 1969, virtually all job classifications for these staff groups had been described, except for executive level positions.
These classification and pay systems remained in effect until 1973, with numerous adjustments being made to the salary grade assignments of individual classifications and the ongoing establishment and deletion of job classifications.
By 1971, it became apparent that an intensive, systematic review of P&A job classifications was needed in order to (1) update and complete the classification descriptions for P&A positions at all levels (2) formalize the job classification evaluation process, and (3) provide for the inclusion of an additional 800 ungraded "academic" P&A staff in the graded system, which had previously been in the Instructional appointment system. In addition, the extension of the Federal Equal Pay Acts to cover University P&A staff made an equity review of the individual salaries an integral and essential part of the planned study.
The Robert Hayes and Associates consulting firm was retained to assist in the conduct of this compensation study, and work began on it by the spring of 1972. A total of about 4,500 positions and staff were affected by this comprehensive review, which was completed by September of Page 341972, with the resulting program implemented in January of 1973.
Specifically, the study resulted in the adoption of a point evaluation plan to be used in evaluating P&A job classifications for assignment to salary grades; a reduction of P&A job classifications from 694 to 544; the adoption of a twenty-one grade salary-range schedule; the incorporation of 772 ungraded "academic" positions into the graded P&A classification system; the adoption of graded classifications for all levels of P&A positions; and salary adjustments for a total of 386 staff members, to assure the maintenance of equitable salary relationships. The P&A job classification and pay system adopted in 1973 continues to operate to date, largely unchanged from its initial implementation. It should be noted, however, that numerous individual classification and salary grade changes have occurred over time, in the routine maintenance of the system.
With regard to the classification and pay system for Office and Technical staff, the basic system adopted in 1967-68 has remained in effect with little change to the system itself.
The Hutchison Act of 1947 in Michigan provided mediation procedures and established penalties for illegal strikes for public employees. The Public Employee Relations Act of 1965 in Michigan provided for collective bargaining and also prohibited strikes, but provided no strike penalties. Following this legislation in 1965, union activity began at a significant level.
The history of employee union contracts began with the first contract negotiated with the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) for a small number of turbine and boiler operators and operating engineers, effective September 13, 1968. In rapid succession, contracts were negotiated with the Washtenaw County Local Building Trades Board of Directors (WCLBTBD) for skilled tradesmen effective October 4, 1968, and the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees for a large group of service Page 35and maintenance workers on November 15, 1968. On November 13, 1973, the first contract was negotiated with the House Officers Association (HOA), for medical interns and residents at the Medical Center. After lengthy discussions and hearings, a contract was negotiated on March 14, 1975, with the Graduate Employees Organization (GEO) representing a large number of graduate student assistants, research assistants, and teaching assistants. A contract for clerical workers was negotiated on August 21, 1975, with the United Auto Workers (UAW), which was terminated August 31, 1976, after a decertification election of the clerical employees. The newest contract was negotiated on April 9, 1976, after several attempts in recent years, with the University of Michigan Nurses Association (UMNA) for nonsupervisory registered nurses, most of whom work at the University Hospital. Work stoppages of short duration by skilled tradesmen and service workers have occurred occasionally. Fortunately, these have not resulted in major impacts on University operations.
Additional information follows in the detailed descriptions of each union group history:
International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE)
In August 1965, following the passage of Public Act No. 376 of 1965, the IUOE petitioned the Michigan Labor Mediation Board to be recognized as the bargaining agent for the operating engineers, turbine operators, and boiler operators working at the University. An election was delayed while the University challenged the constitutionality of the Act, but following the trades strike in September 1967, and the University's announcement it would follow the election procedures while the courts were deciding the question, an election was held on November 6, 1967.
As a result of that election, Local 546 of the International Union of Operating Engineers was certified as the exclusive bargaining representative of the employees in the affected classifications.
Currently sixty-one employees engaged in the maintenance and operation of the University's heating and power plants Page 36are represented by IUOE. Employees represented by IUOE were first hired at the Flint Campus in November, 1976.
Six contracts have been negotiated with the Operating Engineers. The effective dates have been: September 13, 1968; January 1, 1970; April 1, 1972; March 31, 1974; April 1, 1976; October 1, 1977. The current contract expires November 30, 1979.
Washtenaw County Local Building Trades Board of Directors (WCLBTBD)
The Washtenaw County Local Building Trades Board of Directors (Council) was certified on November 17, 1967, as the exclusive bargaining representative for the various skilled maintenance trades classifications. This unit represents approximately 300 employees. Certification resulted after the Washtenaw Circuit Court ruled on the constitutionality of Public Act No. 379 of 1965, finding that the University employees had the right to organize and bargain collectively.
Five contracts have been negotiated with the Council, effective as follows: October 4, 1968; January 1, 1970; April 1, 1972; July 18, 1974; August 1, 1977. A work stoppage (strike) occurred during the 1974 negotiations from June 26, 1974 to July 18, 1974. The current contract expires July 31, 1979.
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees-Local 1853
AFSCME is an international labor organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. The largest public employee union in the country, it is affiliated with the AFL/CIO. AFSCME Local 1583 represents approximately 2400 service and maintenance employees at the University.
AFSCME filed a petition with the Michigan Employment Relations Commission for a representation election in September of 1967, and an election was held April 25, 1968, resulting in AFSCME's recognition as the bargaining agent (union) for all regular service/maintenance employees except those in the trades and the operating engineers. AFSCME Page 37has negotiated four contracts with the University. The effective dates of the contracts have been: November 15, 1968; February 8, 1971; March 7, 1974; March 24, 1977 (expires March 20, 1979). The 1976-77 negotiations involved a 26 day strike.
AFSCME, over the past several years, has attempted to organize the Professional, Clerical, and Technical employees. The last attempt was in October 1975 when AFSCME lost a representation election of Technical employees.
Unsuccessful attempts to decertify from the union occurred in April 1977 (University Meatcutters) and in May 1977 (employees of printing department).
House Officer's Association
The House Officer's Association represents approximately 600 Interns and Residents at the Medical Center. The Association is an independent labor union which petitioned the Michigan Employment Relations Commission (MERC) for recognition in April 1970. The University challenged that the petitioners were students and not employees under the meaning of the Public Employee Relations Act and, therefore, not covered by the Act. In March 1971, MERC issued a 2-1 decision that a unit of Interns, Residents, and Postdoctoral Scholars was appropriate and ordered a secret ballot election. The University appealed this decision to the Court of Appeals and requested a stay of election. The stay of election was denied and an election was conducted April 21-23, 1971, which resulted in the Association being certified as the bargaining agent. The Court then reversed MERC's decision and the Association appealed this decision to the Michigan Supreme Court. On February 20, 1973, the Supreme Court decided that Interns, Residents, and Postdoctoral Scholars were both students and employees under the Act. The Court further ordered the University to bargain with the Association on employment matters, but excluded bargaining on educational matters. The University entered negotiations with the Association during which Postdoctoral Scholars were excluded from the bargaining unit.
Five contracts have been negotiated with the HOA, Page 38effective: November 13, 1973; October 11, 1974; November 19, 1975; August 31, 1976; August 31, 1977. The current contract expires August 31, 1978.
Graduate Employees' Organization
GEO has represented approximately 2,200 graduate student assistants. The majority of these are in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
In March of 1970, the "University of Michigan Teaching Fellows Union" petitioned MERC for recognition as the bargaining agent for the 1,500 teaching fellows. At a subsequent hearing before the Michigan Employment Relations Commission, the University argued that teaching fellows were not employees within the meaning of the law. The University's position was that teaching fellows were primarily University of Michigan graduate students and not employees. A majority of teaching fellow appointments were given to individuals who were fulfilling a degree requirement by teaching. In such cases the University was not required to pay the individual but, in many instances, chose to do so as a form of financial support. Most teaching fellow appointments were considered an intricate part of the financial support program for graduate students and, in cases where a degree requirement was involved, the fellowships were considered tax exempt. The University further argued that if teaching fellows were to be considered as employees they were part of a larger bargaining unit and, therefore, should not be certified as an appropriate unit by themselves. MERC did not rule on the employment status question but dismissed the teaching fellows' petition on the grounds that if they were employees they were part of a larger unit.
In February of 1974, the Graduate Employees' Organization (GEO) requested recognition by the University as the bargaining agent for all graduate student assistants. GEO set a target date for a strike vote to be taken in the event the University refused to recognize it as the bargaining agent. The University declined to recognize the GEO, but did agree to a consent election if the GEO was able to demonstrate at least a 30 percent showing of interest among the 2,200 graduate student assistants. An election, supervised by Page 39MERC, was held April 1-3, 1974, which was won by GEO.
A first contract was negotiated, becoming effective on March 14, 1975. Salary provisions of the contract were made retroactive to September 1, 1974.
The Graduate Employees' Organization affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers/Michigan Federation of Teachers as Local 3550 in March 1976.
The contract expired August 31, 1976, and a successor contract has not been negotiated; the legal issue of a graduate student's employee status under the Act is now being litigated.
United Auto Workers Local 2001 (Concerned Clericals for Action)
The United Auto Workers (UAW) were elected the collective bargaining representative for 3,300 clerical positions at the University in a run-off election in November of 1974. The run-off was between no union and the UAW due to the fact that no party had received a majority of the votes in a September 1974 election when AFSCME was also on the ballot. Negotiations resulted in a first contract being reached on August 21, 1975, with an expiration date of August 31, 1976. A group of clericals supporting a no union position successfully filed a decertification petition which resulted in a decertification election being conducted by the Michigan Employment Relations Commission on August 11, 1976. The no vote received a majority, and the UAW was decertified with the expiration of the contract on August 31, 1976. Attempts to reorganize a union by the former union supporters have failed to date.
University of Michigan Nurses Association
The Council represents approximately 800 Registered Nurses in various nonsupervisory classifications, almost exclusively working at the Medical Center. The Council is affiliated with the State Organization, Michigan Nurses Association, and with the National Organization, American Page 40Nurses Association.
The MNA tried for a number of years to organize the RNs at the University of Michigan. The first MERC-conducted election was held on December 14, 1967, at which time the nurses voted not to be represented by the Association. In the second election held on January 29, 1975, MNA won the right to represent the nonsupervisory RNs. The unit was certified on February 10, 1975.
Two contracts have been negotiated with the Nurses Association. After one year of bargaining the first labor agreement was signed, effective April 9, 1976 - December 31, 1977. The current contract is effective March 16, 1978 - June 30, 1980, with a single payment of retroactive wages to January 1, 1978, included. The contract established a two-schedule, graduated-step system for payment of wages.
There has been a dramatic growth in employee benefit programs since 1940. These have become a significant part of employee compensation. To serve employee needs better and to provide service and information for these benefits, the Office of Staff Benefits was established in January of 1960. Also at that time the Committee on Staff Benefits was formed to keep current the plans involving employee benefits. In April of 1976, an annual statement to employees was designed and issued for the first time.
Vacation and Holidays
Regular staff members other than faculty on an academic-year basis receive the various benefits described below:
Most professional and administrative staff and 12-month faculty receive twenty-four work days per year as vacation allowance, cumulative to two years. Other level professional and administrative staff, clerical and office staff, technical, trades, and service workers also receive the same vacation allowance after eight years employment, eighteen days per year for from five to eight years employment, and twelve days per year in the first five years of Page 41employment, except as altered by union contracts.
Holidays are recognized on New Years Day, Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, two days at Thanksgiving, Christmas Day, and three "swing" days between Christmas and New Years Days, except as modified by union contracts.
Disability and Preventive Care Income
Nonbargained-for employees are provided temporary salary continuation for sickness or disability: one year at full pay and one year at half pay for faculty and six months at full pay and six months at half pay for professional and administrative staff.
A plan for long-term disability was first proposed by the Regents in October of 1952. The first effective date was July of 1953. It was a self-insured plan for employees aged forty or above and who had been enrolled in a University retirement program for ten years. The plan provided benefits of one-half salary between a range of $125 minimum and $200 maximum per month and paid premiums for retirement and group life insurance. Social Security benefits were integrated in 1960.
On July 1, 1966, the following changes were approved: No minimum age and five years only of service were required. Monthly benefit maximum was raised to $400. Health insurance premiums were also paid.
Further amendments were approved February 3, 1970. Monthly benefit maximum was raised to $700. Monthly benefit maximum was raised to $1,000 July 1, 1972. In December of 1973, Medicare "B" premiums were paid. On July 1, 1975, the monthly benefit maximum was raised to $1,200.
Other more minor changes have also occurred in this plan since 1953.
Health insurance coverage is optional for University Page 42employees. Most exercise the option, as the greater part of the premiums are covered by the University.
In 1939 Blue Cross coverages were offered to the full-time staff and retirees. In 1940 Blue Shield coverages were added.
Major medical insurance coverages began in July of 1960 for faculty and certain other staff members. In December of 1973 coverage was extended to all regular employees and retirees. Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) are the insurors.
The University began its participation in premium payments for health insurance in July of 1963. In January of 1973 the University began paying total premium cost for retirees and spouses of deceased employees. As costs increased over the years, the University has raised its payment share of the monthly premium for active staff, and at June 30, 1977, it was paying up to $65 per month per employee, or about 83 percent of the total premium.
Comprehensive periodic physical examinations were made available free of charge to faculty and certain administrative staff in 1956. In September 1963 the examination frequency was changed to include a one-stop birthday examination annually, and a more complete examination every five years.
In 1976 the University began a program of contributing $6.70 per month for Medicare "B" premiums for those applicable employees and retirees.
Group Life Insurance
Group life insurance coverage is optional for regular employees. The University contributes approximately one-half of the premium. The plan is experience-rated and net costs may vary from year to year.
The plan began in February of 1950 with Prudential Life Insurance Company as the carrier. It required participation of 75 percent of the eligible employees. Coverages vary with age and salary level. Premiums vary with age level.
Page 43Paid-up coverage of $1,000 was provided in July 1953 for retirees. In July of 1961 coverage was improved to approximately one and one-half of salary level. Retiree coverage was increased to $2,000 in July of 1961. In July of 1964 coverage was increased to approximately twice the salary level, and since 1972 ranges from two to three times salary level. From age sixty-five to seventy coverage now reduces gradually to $2,000 for active employees. These are some of the salient changes that have occurred in this benefit program since 1950.
The Older Faculty Plan, a limited plan for faculty members in the 1920s and earlier, is still paying annuities to a few retirees and surviving spouses. The last active member retired under this plan in June of 1963.
In July of 1945 the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) retirement plan for faculty was modified when the University increased its range of contributions to 10 percent from 5 percent, depending upon the vintage of contracts. In July of 1952 the College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) was made available to University employees as a companion plan to TIAA that allowed purchase of stocks to serve as a better hedge against inflation. In July of 1955 salary limits for coverage under TIAA/CREF were eliminated. In January 1962 a salary/annuity option was offered for employees wishing to declare premiums tax-deferred up to 20 percent of salary. By November of 1972 all regular staff became eligible at any appointment fraction for TIAA/CREF participation. In addition to the significant changes listed above, other plan modifications have occurred from time to time.
A retirement plan for nonacademic employees became effective in July of 1942. This plan became the Employees Retirement Plan in 1952 and followed somewhat the same general principles governing the TIAA faculty plan, although differing some in rates and eligibility requirements. Moneys provided by employees and matched by the University were held by the University in a separate fund entitled the "Employee Retirement Fund," and this fund participated in the University's investment program.
Page 44The University contracted with the Connecticut General Corporation to pay out annuities in this fund beginning in October of 1952.
As actuarial reserves exceeded needs for retirement and death benefit requirements from time to time, dividends were distributed to plan members as additional pension benefits.
Compulsory participation at age thirty-five with no service requirement began in January of 1967.
On July 21, 1972, the Regents authorized the use of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) - College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) to replace the Employees' Retirement Plan (ERP), including the transfer of past service benefits, to provide continuing retirement benefits for the members of the Employees' Retirement Plan.
Following that authorization, the members of ERP, consisting of 4,516 service-technical, clerical, and professional-administrative staff, were informed about the features of TIAA-CREF and the various alternatives which were available. The most significant features of TIAA-CREF are immediate vesting, portability, the variable annuity, the salary or annuity option, and the ability for a participant to add additional money to the retirement plan.
By the end of December 1972, the assets of ERP had been transferred and allocations were made to each participant. The total amount of transfer from ERP assets to the Teachers Insurance Annuity Association was $61,856,936. Each participant benefited from a significant increase in the value of common stocks as well as from a release of actuarial reserves based on common stock values which were applicable to the individual's account under the TIAA-CREF plan.
The Congress of the United States in 1954 amended the Federal Social Security Act to permit the inclusion of certain public employees previously excluded from coverage under the Act. This amendment extended the coverage of Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance to these employees as of January 1, 1955. Adoption of the program by the Page 45University was dependent upon a referendum scheduled for September 1955, through which all eligible employees would, by secret ballot, indicate whether they did or did not wish to secure the retirement benefits made available by the 1954 amendment to the Federal Social Security Act. The referendum was held on September 26 and 27, 1955, and 85 percent of the eligible University employees voted to participate, and the University entered the program effective January of 1955. Since that time, the cost of the annual tax has increased greatly, and employees in 1977 are paying 5.85 percent of a salary base of $16,500 which is matched by the University.
An early retirement program was instituted in August of 1974 in which a staff member could retire before the mandatory age of seventy with reduced annuity benefits but group life and health insurance benefits protected, depending upon length of service and age, beginning as low as age fifty-five.
In the fall of 1969, the Personnel Office and the Office of Staff Benefits began an orientation program for prospective retirees entitled "Planning for Retirement Program." Four seminars are held each year for 15 to 20 employees per seminar.
In February of 1960 the Regents approved blanket travel accident insurance policy for the benefit of employees traveling on University business. Coverage for an accident causing death ranged from a minimum of $50,000, or five times annual basic salary, to a maximum of $200,000. Scaled-down coverages apply to permanent disabilities resulting from such accidents. The University pays the full premium cost.
All employees are covered at University expense for medical expenses resulting from on-the-job injury or death.
The total value of physical properties at the University has grown eleven times that recorded in 1940. This period is very significant for its growth in fixed assets. Notable additions were the North Campus in Ann Arbor and the Dearborn and Flint Campuses. The table below indicates this growth over ten-year increments since 1939-40: Page 47
|Land||$ 6,436,305||$ 8,059,450||$ 13,493,428||$ 20,056,527||$ 21,640,857|
Page 48State appropriations for the University of Michigan's building program are shown in the accompanying table. These appropriations include Ann Arbor, Dearborn, and Flint. The first appropriations for the Dearborn and Flint Campuses occurred in 1970-71 and through 1976-77 have amounted to over $20,000,000.
On June 30, 1940, the University owned 10,102 acres of land, 291 acres in the Ann Arbor area and 9,811 acres located elsewhere in the state of Michigan and outside the state. By June 30, 1955, the University owned 18,576 acres of land at original cost value of $9,023,879. Of these, 1,007 acres were in the Ann Arbor area and the rest were in out-state Michigan and at Camp Davis near Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Significant among the out-state holdings were the Biological Station near Cheboygan - 8,809 acres; the Edwin S. George Reserve in Livingston County - 1,335 acres; the Chase S. Osborn Preserve on Sugar Island in the St. Mary's River - 3,144 acres; and the Willow Run Airport in Washtenaw and Wayne Counties - 1,972 acres.
Total land holdings at June 30, 1977, amounted to 20,090 acres at a cost of $21,640,857. Of these lands, 2,582 acres at a cost of $17,486,697 are located in the Ann Arbor area, and of these 1,562.17 acres are within the city limits of Ann Arbor, including the North Campus holdings acquired in the 1950s. Occasionally individual city lots with houses on the campus perimeter became available for sale. Where these benefited the University's campus plans, purchase agreements were negotiated. In some cases these scattered lots were held as income properties for a short time until the land could be used for campus building purposes.
Two significant acreages in the Ann Arbor area, but outside the city limits, are the Botanical Gardens on Dixboro Road, acquired in 1957-58, and Radrick Farms on Dixboro and Geddes Roads, acquired in 1961-62.
Page 50A gift of 70.346 acres in Dexter, Michigan, including the former home of Judge Samuel William Dexter, was received in December of 1950 from the granddaughter Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick.
Important changes in out-state land holdings include the acquisition of the Willow Run Airport property in 1947 by transfer from the Federal Government as war-surplus property and the later transfer of Willow Run Airport to the Wayne County Road Commission in 1977, a reduction of 1,957 acres from the University land records. Additions in out-state holdings since 1955 include:
- 258 acres - Mud Lake in Webster Township of Washtenaw County, acquired in 1954-55 and 1955-56
- 90 acres - increased acquisitions in Stinchfield Woods in 1955-56 and in 1964-65
- 196 acres - Dearborn Campus - a gift acquired in 1957-58
- 134 acres - Willow Run - U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare surplus properties acquired in 1960-61
- 203 acres - Keweenaw Peninsula Rocket Launching Site, acquired in 1963-64
- 53 acres - Flint Campus acquisitions, acquired by gift in 1970-71
- 629 acres - Biological Station additions, acquired in separate parcels throughout the period
- 33 acres - Chase S. Osborn Preserve net additions, finalized in 1973-74
- 330 acres - William A. Harper Preserve in Genesee County, a gift in 1974-75
- 129 acres - St. Pierre Wetlands in Livingston, County, a gift in 1975-76
Significant building additions are described in the following paragraphs by campus areas (Central, North, Medical, Parking Structures, South, Dearborn, Flint, and Off-Campus). Building projects totaling 155 are reported here, representing 114 new projects (actually encompassing 491 different structures), 23 major building additions, 11 remodeling projects where the housed activities were changed, and 7 major renovation projects.
This updating of building activity reports the major part of the postwar building program. Buildings added since 1940, as described in Volume IV, pages 1569-1744, are listed below:
- Central Campus
- 1731 School of Public Health Building - 1943
- 1614 East Engineering Addition - 1947
- 1744 University Terrace Apartments - 1947
- 1569 Literature, Science, and the Arts Building (formerly Administration Building) - 1948
- 1729 School of Business Administration Building - 1949
- 1712 Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall - 1949
- 1664 Inglis House - 1951
- 1677 Madelon Pound House - 1951
- 1707 South Quadrangle - 1951
- 1678 Mason and Haven Halls (additions to Angell Hall) 1952
- 1587 Margaret Bell Pool - 1954
- 1673 Legal Research Library Stack Addition - 1955
- North Campus
- 1688 Mortimer E. Cooley Memorial Laboratory - 1953
- North Campus
- 1589 Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory - 1955
- 1699 Phoenix Memorial Laboratory - 1955
- 1701 Ford Nuclear Reactor - 1956
- Medical Campus
- 1628 Neuroscience Building (formerly Food Service) - 1948
- 1662 Women's Hospital - 1950
- 1658 Outpatient Clinic - 1953
- 1653 Kresge Medical Research Building - 1954
- 1651 Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center - 1954
- 1652 Children's Psychiatric Hospital - 1955
- South Campus
- 1581 Athletic Administration Building - 1948
- 1593 Camp Davis - 1940
- 1596 Camp Filibert Roth - 1942
- 1599 Fresh Air Camp - 1944
- 1601 Speech Camp - 1949
- 1636 Gordon Hall - 1950
- 1701 Portage Lake Observatory - 1950
An addition to the Law Library for stack areas and offices was completed in 1955 and is described in Volume IV, page 1673. This was funded by state appropriations and private gifts for a cost of $687,000. Planning was completed Page 53by York and Sawyer Company, and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was the contractor.
An addition to Couzens Hall at 1300 East Ann Street, mentioned in Volume IV, page 1797, was completed in 1956 at a cost of $2,100,000. This addition increased capacity by 272 students and was financed by bonds paid from operating revenues. R. A. Calder Company was the planner and Spence Brothers were the contractors.
In September of 1954 the Regents approved a contract for an addition to the Michigan Union at 530 South State Street and a comprehensive renovation of the kitchen area. The project was completed in 1956 at a cost of $3,000,000, which was financed partly from funds on hand and the balance from a bond issue secured by future student fee allocations.
A new building for the University Press was constructed at 412 Maynard Street in 1956 from University sources at a cost of $130,000. It included 7,583 gross square feet. Douglas Loree designed the two story structure, and it was completed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company to provide a central campus location for the various publishing offices of the University Press previously scattered about the campus. The cost was met from alumni contributions and University funds. By 1951 the Press had outgrown the building and was moved into rented quarters at 615 East University Avenue. Renamed Extension Service Building, it became the headquarters of the University Extension Service formerly housed in the Administration Building.
The Undergraduate Library at 919 South University Avenue was completed in 1957 at a project cost of $3,076,500, financed from state appropriations. Planning began in 1953 for this unit and Albert Kahn, Associated Architects were appointed as architects. The construction contract was awarded to Spence Brothers of Saginaw, and the structure includes 136,820 gross square feet. It was designed to house reference books, frequently used current periodicals, and all reserved books, formerly housed in scattered campus libraries, which were especially used by undergraduates as well as a large collection of basic source books for undergraduate courses. To provide reader spaces for approximately 2,500 students, large study halls were designed for each of Page 54the four levels of the building. Special features include typing rooms, record-listening rooms, a large multipurpose room and special provisions for blind students. Books are arranged in open-shelf collections and the total floor space is designed to be rearrangeable for any library purpose. The library is unique in that it is only the second of its kind to be built in the United States, and at the time of construction the library was the largest of its kind in the world.
The Regents first discussed the acquisition and prospective uses of the Ann Arbor High School building and land at 105 South State Street in May of 1954. In November purchase was authorized at a cost of $1,400,000, including 2.112 acres valued at $244,000. The structure was built in 1905. In February of 1956 the building was renamed the Henry S. Frieze Building, after a University Latin professor who twice served as acting President, and in July a contract was awarded to the Spence Brothers Company for a significant addition and modernization project amounting to $2,436,000, financed primarily from state appropriations. After lengthy City-University discussions, Thayer Street between East Huron and East Washington Streets was closed permitting an extensive addition to the original building. This Colvin & Robinson designed addition, plus extensive remodeling in the existing facility, included removal of the heating plant and connection of the entire facility to the University's central heating system. The project was completed in December of 1957. The new space was used for certain departments of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the School of Social Work. This facility now provides a total of 197,920 gross square feet of space for these activities.
Mary Butler Markley Residence Hall at 1425 Washington Heights was first planned as a residence for 1,200 single women but is now occupied by both men and women. The construction contract was awarded to George W. Lathrop and Sons, Inc. in March of 1957. The project totaled $6,060,631 and was financed by a loan from the Housing and Home Finance Agency and a term loan secured by future revenues from student housing. The building was completed in February 1959 and includes 283,888 gross square feet. Harley, Ellington & Day, Inc., designed the "H" shaped dormitory, sited on Washington Heights, which contains nine houses in Page 55four wings accommodating 1,200 students. An innovation at the time of completion was a telephone in every room. The dormitory was named to honor Mary Butler Markley, a faculty widow, who had been extremely active in alumnae affairs for many years.
An addition to the Henry Frieze Vaughan Public Health Building at 109 South Observatory Street was completed in 1959 at a cost of $1,700,000. The addition was designed by the architect of the original structure, Lewis J. Sarvis, and constructed by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. The project was financed by a Kellogg Foundation gift, a federal grant, and University funds. Regental action in October 1971 named the structure the Henry Frieze Vaughan Public Health Building in honor of the first dean of the School of Public Health, who served from its organization in 1943 to 1960.
Planning for a Pharmacy Research Building, at 428 Church Street, began in January of 1959 when the firm of Bennett and Straight was approved to draw up architectural plans. A. Z. Shmina and Sons were awarded the construction contract in July of 1959, and the building was completed in December of 1960 at a cost of $1,100,000. This was financed by a federal grant, gifts, and University funds. It provided 36,600 gross square feet for teaching and research activities. The facility is devoted almost entirely to laboratories, most of which accommodate two to four researchers, for both faculty and graduate students. The few offices in the project have laboratories attached. At the time of the building's dedication, it was the nation's largest college building for pharmaceutical research. While many research areas remain, renovations in subsequent years, plus use of spaces in the adjoining C. C. Little Building by pharmacy units, have led to a usage change for the structure reflected in the change of name in 1971 to the College of Pharmacy Building.
During 1959-60 over $600,000 worth of renovations were made to the Michigan League which resulted in an all new cafeteria and serving area with new equipment and furnishings. A 10,000-square-foot area beneath and adjacent to the Mendelssohn Theater was excavated and made into a combined theater workshop and multipurpose area. Opening into an area beneath Page 56the theater's stage, the workshop permits sets and other stage equipment constructed there to be put in place directly on the stage. The renovation project also included minor remodeling of the snack bar, installation of new dishwashing equipment, modernization of the ballroom, serving kitchen, and heating and lighting improvements on the first floor.
In May of 1960 a remodeling project for the West Medical Building was approved with a budget of $850,000 and the contract was awarded to the Kurtz Building Company of Ann Arbor. Colvin, Robinson, Wright and Associates provided architectural services. The building became available for alternative use because of the initial move of the Medical School to its first new building on the Medical Campus. The $925,700 project was funded primarily by state appropriation and was completed in June of 1961, at which time it was renamed the Natural Resources Building. In April of 1973 it was again renamed the Samuel Trask Dana Building, honoring the former Dean Emeritus of the School of Natural Resources.
Planning began in 1954 for the Student Activities Building at 515 East Jefferson Street. In January of 1955 the project was approved. Swanson and Associates were architects, and in November a construction contract was awarded to George W. Lathrop and Sons of Detroit. The project budget was set at $1,750,000 to be financed from borrowings secured by future student fee allocations and University sources. The building was completed in 1957. This is one of few American college structures designed primarily to house student organizations, activities, and services. It houses student organizations on three floors, plus a one-story workshop area at the rear. A Class of 1957 Memorial gift provided for a Memorial Court dedicated to Hank Borda, an active Student Government Council Member of the Class who died of leukemia prior to graduation. Original first floor occupants were the major student activities of the Student Government Council, Panhellenic and Interfraternity Councils, Interhouse Council and Assembly Association, Building Administration Committee, and the offices of the Dean of Women. The second floor provided spaces for the Glee Club, Wolverine Club, International Student Association, Alpha Phi Omega, and similar student activities, plus offices of the Dean of Page 57Men. On the third floor, in addition to large meeting rooms, were Joint Judiciary Headquarters and projection rooms. Basement spaces housed the Student Book Exchange, Art Print Loan Collection, student files, and a mimeograph room. The building had been assigned a site on Jefferson Street which allowed for expansion, and three years after its completion that expansion was begun. Swanson and Associates were appointed as architects in 1959 to plan an addition. A. Z. Shmina and Sons were awarded the construction contract in July of 1960 and it was completed in June of 1961, also financed from student fee allocations. The addition provided spaces for the Office of Admissions, the Student Employment Office, the Office of Veteran Affairs, the Cashier's Office, the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information, and an office for the Coordinator of Student Religious Affairs. The present building carries a book value of $2,500,000 and provides 93,193 gross square feet of space for student organizations and administrative offices. A 1968 Union Study by Consultant Douglas Osterheld of the University of Wisconsin recommended a transfer of all student services from offices in the Student Activities Building to the Michigan Union. In 1970 and 1972 the Regents approved a two-phase program moving toward a centralized student center in the Michigan Union and establishing the Student Activities Building as primarily an office building.
The David M. Dennison Building at 500 Church Street was named in May of 1976 in honor of the late physics professor who was a researcher of international stature and a widely respected member of the faculty. It was first known as the Physics and Astronomy Building for which plans began in May of 1960. In July of 1961 construction began and the building was completed by A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company in April of 1963 at a cost of $3,200,000, financed from state appropriations. It was designed by Albert Kahn Associated Architects and Engineers, Inc., who won two awards for excellence in design, one from the Michigan Society of Architects in 1965 and the other from the American Institute of Architects in 1963. The building encompasses 129,669 gross square feet. Offices and laboratories constructed in 1910 and an 1854-vintage library previously served the Astronomy Department with extremely overcrowded and obsolete spaces. Although not entirely housed in such antiquated space, the Physics Department also was in extremely crowded facilities Page 58due to the tremendous growth of the department. For example, a 32 percent growth took place in the period 1956-1960. Research developments in both fields made it most desirable to effect a physical union of the two departments, and a merging of both the Physics and Astronomy libraries and shops was beneficial to both departments.
Planning for Oxford Houses in the 600 block of Oxford Street began in December of 1960 when Stickel, Moody and Associates were appointed architects for the project. The project was approved at the level of $2,500,000 to be financed from future housing revenues. The construction contract was awarded in May of 1962 to Erickson and Lindstrom Construction Company and the project was completed in August of 1963. The facility consisted of eight structures, including 117,778 gross square feet. It provided space for 420 women students and eight house directors in a cooperative system of living for single students. In October of 1964 the Regents accepted the Community Facilities Administration Honor Award for its Oxford Houses. In 1967 a two-story addition, also designed by Stickels and Associates, was completed by Richard Wagner - Builder. Enabled by a $100,000 grant from the Max Kade Foundation, this new 2,230-square-foot facility provided living quarters for 30 coeds, where only German was to be spoken, and was named the Max Kade German House.
A 33,125 square-foot addition to the Alexander G. Ruthven Museums Building was approved in March of 1963 when a construction contract was awarded to Darin and Armstrong Co. and a project budget was set at $1,200,000. Financing was from a large National Science Foundation grant of $1,000,000 and University sources. The project was completed in March of 1964. It was designed by the Architects Collective, Inc. and provided accommodations for a program of research in animal biosystematics for the Museum of Zoology to serve both visiting and resident scholars. In December 1968 the Regents approved naming the building to honor the zoologist who had served on the faculty as Director of University Museums for seven years and as University President for 22 years.
In March of 1965 the Regents authorized acquisition of the Perry Building and land at 330 Packard Street from the Ann Arbor School District. The $350,000 purchase price was Page 59financed from University sources. This added 48,738 gross square feet to the instructional space of the central campus.
A proposed Administration Building at 503 Thompson Street was authorized for detailed plans and specifications for bids in June of 1965. The original design was prepared by Alden Dow and Associates. Construction contracts were awarded to the Spence Brothers of Saginaw in May of 1966 for a project budget of $2,900,000. The project is financed by a continuation of the loan agreements for the Student Activities Building. The building was completed in August of 1968 and provided 78,944 gross square feet for central administrative functions.
Butcher and Willits, Inc. completed construction of the Nu Sigma Nu house at 1912 Geddes Road at a cost of $361,500 in 1970. Designed by Robert Metcalf, the 14,410 square foot project was financed by gifts, a property exchange, and income of the property. In January 1966 the Regents authorized an agreement with the Nu Sigma Nu Fraternity "to assist duly recognized fraternities and sororities in improving and providing appropriate housing for such organizations as qualify for such assistance under rules and regulations of the offices of the Vice-President for Student Affairs and the Vice-President in charge of Business and Finance." The terms of the agreement with Nu Sigma Nu included the transfer by the fraternity to the University of land which it owned at 1015 E. Huron Street. The University established a fund designated as the Nu Sigma Nu Building Fund and deposited all contributions for this purpose. When sufficient assets were received, the University was to construct and lease to the fraternity a house on Fuller Street on land owned by the University. The site was subsequently shifted to one on Geddes Road. Rental paid by the fraternity was to be sufficient to pay all costs of maintenance of the house and also to provide for repayment over a 15-year period of the amount advanced by the University for construction over and above amounts received as gifts. The University will retain ownership of the house and will rent it to the fraternity for short-term periods.
The Parking and Publications Building at 409-411 E. Jefferson Street, a former grocery store and small restaurant, Page 60was purchased in 1969 for $85,000. Financed from University funds, the facility was remodeled into office spaces for Parking Operations and for University Publications.
The University had rented office space in the Benz Building for two public health research projects prior to January 1969 when the owner contacted the University regarding purchase of the red brick building located at 122 S. First Street. The 46,791-square foot structure had office and storage areas on four floors of an L-shaped building and also a 9,000-square foot parking area. In May 1969 Regental approval was given for purchase of the building from Mr. Carroll Benz to aid in meeting substantial research space requirements of the University and to enable consolidation of some units in other rental spaces. It presently houses the Institute for the Study of Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities. Financing of the $284,000 purchase was from University sources. The purchase price and remodeling cost resulted in a book value of $464,000. Renovations and a firestair addition added 1,290 square feet to the structure.
Extensive remodeling of the East Quadrangle student residence hall at 701 East University Avenue was authorized in April of 1969 for a Residential College division of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The concept of a Residential College developed through a series of faculty committee studies begun in 1963. Associate Dean Burton Thuma was appointed the first director of the Residential College and worked to develop a comprehensive plan and program for both education and facilities. Upon his 1967 retirement, just prior to admission of the first freshman class in the fall of 1967, Dean James H. Robertson succeeded him. The original site for the facility was on University land on the north side of the Huron River along Fuller Road. Placing the College in two remodeled houses of the East Quadrangle was only to be an interim arrangement for two years while the new facility was under construction. Financial restrictions, however, led to the 1967 decision to expand the temporary facilities in the East Quadrangle into a permanent home for the Residential College. Remodeling and renovation was undertaken in three phases. The first phase included renovating mechanical systems, improving handicapped access, and remodeling the former men's Page 61dormitory rooms into classrooms, administrative spaces, library areas, and living units for men and women in the south wing of the Quadrangle. The second phase consisted of similar work in the north wing, while the third phase included a 30,000-square-foot addition, including a 250-seat lecture hall, plus lobbies connecting the north and south wings along the East University and Church Street sides. Swanson Associates provided architectural services for the project. The Henry deKoning Construction Company of Ann Arbor finished its work in August of 1970 at an added capitalized cost of $2,000,000, and this was financed by borrowings secured by residence halls revenues and some University funds.
Growing pedestrian and bicycle traffic in the North University and Forest Avenue area raised serious safety problems at the intersection and along Forest Avenue. The State Highway Department declined signaling at the intersection because of the complexity of signals required and the fact that signaling would significantly slow traffic on Forest. A University study of the problem showed that the physical characteristics of the area would permit a stepless overpass with only a slight grade to be built over Forest Avenue, running from near the North University Building to the vicinity of the Stockwell Hall steps. Such an overpass would eliminate this major traffic hazard, and the Regents approved proceeding with the project. Prior to construction the City of Ann Arbor agreed to close North University Avenue from Forest to Washtenaw which also aided in safety improvement in the area. The Forest Avenue Overpass was completed by the Argersinger-Morse Company in the fall of 1970, financed by University funds in the amount of $482,968.
After the Medical School completed its final move from East University to its second new facility near the Hospital, the old East Medical Building became available for alternate use. In March of 1968 it was approved for remodeling for use by the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the College of Pharmacy. A contract was awarded in July of 1969 to Butcher and Willits Company of Ann Arbor for the remodeling project and the building was renamed the Clarence Cook Little Science Building to honor the renowned cancer research scientist and former University Page 62President. The project was completed in April of 1971, financed from state appropriations and University sources.
In August of 1954 the Regents were notified of the need for additional space for training of dental students. Requests were made for state support for the new Dental Building at 1011 North University Avenue, and the firm of Smith, Hinchman and Grylls was appointed as architects for planning in April of 1963. When completed in 1971, this 307,156-square-foot addition to University facilities was believed to be the most modern and completely equipped structure of its type in the world. Its construction contract was the largest single such contract let by the University. The building is in the form of a hollow square with an attached eight-story research tower and with one wing devoted to one of the most complete professional libraries in existence. It is also attached to the W. K. Kellogg Institute Building on the west. Built in two phases by A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company, classes were able to continue during the period of its construction and the demolition of the 1908 dental building. The new building has increased floor space nearly five times, has allowed a 70 percent enrollment increase, and inauguration of an entirely new individualized curriculum in both dentistry and dental hygiene. The $16,889,845 construction cost was met by federal grants and state appropriations while the additional $395,000 cost of renovations to the adjoining W. K. Kellogg Institute Building were met by a gift of that amount from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation.
Planning for the Thomas Francis Jr. Public Health Building at 1420 Washington Heights began in July of 1964 when Albert Kahn Associates were employed for architectural services. A project budget of approximately $7,000,000 was approved in June of 1966. With two federal grants, a gift from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation of $2,500,000, and funds from University sources, the final cost of $7,240,000 was realized when the building was completed by the Sorenson Gross Company in September of 1971. The seven-story structure includes 169,597 gross square feet and was designed to connect to the original building via a pedestrian walkway at the third level. The new facility provided consolidation within the School of activities previously scattered in 13 different locations. Acting on the recommendation of the Page 63Dean and faculty of the School, the Regents at their October 1971 meeting approved naming this new addition the Thomas Francis, Jr. Public Health Building to honor the late renowned epidemiologist, who had served the School as Professor of Epidemiology from 1941 to 1968.
The Modern Languages Building at 812 East Washington Street was first approved for planning in January of 1965 and construction contracts were awarded in June of 1969. It was completed in October of 1971 at a project cost of $5,766,000, financed mainly from state appropriation and partially from a federal grant. It provided 129,491 gross square feet of added space for instructional activities. Sorenson Gross Construction Company built this four-story structure. Designed by Albert Kahn Associated Architects and Engineers, Inc., the building helps to meet a critical need for classroom and office spaces on the central campus. The basement contains classrooms and a reading room. On the first floor are two auditoriums and two large lecture halls. Entrances are at the four corners of a peripheral corridor. The second floor contains a large language laboratory plus seminar and classrooms. The third and fourth floors contain offices and conference rooms which were planned around two open courts to provide natural light in each office.
The Power Center for Performing Arts at 121 Fletcher Street was first planned in 1964. An offer from Regent Emeritus Eugene B. Power to provide the major source of funds for this project was accepted in November of 1968. Contracts for construction were awarded to the O'Neal Construction Company in March of 1969 and the project was completed in November of 1971 at a cost of $3,600,000, funded by gifts. The facility includes 1,110,630 cubic feet and 58,532 gross square feet. The 1,420-seat structure is sited in Felch Park. Highlights of its Kevin Roche, John Dinkeloo and Associates design are an advanced lighting system, a stage convertible from proscenium to a thrust stage, and the promenade lobby faced with reflecting glass which mirrors Felch Park and features twin glass-enclosed spiral staircases.
In the last twenty-five years, the Heating Plant at Page 641120 East Huron Street has undergone several significant improvements. In 1954 a fifth boiler was added, financed by state appropriations. In 1961 the Regents authorized an additional boiler, fired by gas. This was completed in 1964, funded by state appropriations. Further expansion and modernization was authorized in 1967 for a complete conversion to gas fuel, and in 1972 two turbine generators were acquired to produce added electricity, financed by University funds.
The Alpha Chi Omega sorority house at 1735 Washtenaw Avenue was purchased for $225,000 in 1972 for the School of Business Administration and renamed the Kalmbach Management Center. This purchase was financed from gifts and University sources and provided 22,970 additional gross square feet to the Business Administration facilities.
In May of 1970 the Regents authorized remodeling of the former University School building areas for the School of Education Building at 610 East University Avenue. Colvin, Robinson and Wright were appointed as architects for the project and Saline Construction Company was awarded the construction contract. The work was completed in 1972 at a cost of $1,200,000, financed from University sources.
On October 2, 1972, the former Zeta Psi fraternity house at 1443 Washtenaw Avenue opened as The William Monroe Trotter House, replacing former quarters at South and East University Avenues seriously damaged by fire the previous May. Named for the editor of the first black civil rights newspaper, the Boston Guardian, the 12, 913-square-foot facility is a completely different innovative concept providing coordination of a positive social and cultural environment for black students on the campus. The facility also provides a comfortable environment for black students to seek and receive information from peers and professional staff to aid in their adjustment in the University setting. Purchase and renovation costs of $110,000 were met from University funds and from insurance on the burned building.
The Argus Buildings and land at 405-416 South Fourth Street were acquired from Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. in 1963 at a cost of $1,256,000, financed by University funds. Page 65The three buildings included 2,312,889 cubic feet and 195,353 gross square feet which provided flexible space for storage and service functions. Building Number I was remodeled to provide space for an expanded Amphibian Facility, headquarters for the Alumni Records Office, the Bureau of School Services, as well as storage and service areas for the Library system. Building Number III provided expanded facilities for all units of the Audio-Visual Education Center. When Building Number II was vacated by Argus Optics in 1971, extensive renovations, totaling just over $1,000,000 in University funds, were undertaken to convert the area into office, service, workshop, and studio areas for the Television Center. Ceremonies on September 19, 1974, marked completion of the new Center and the introduction of the Center's new color equipment.
The Business Administration Assembly Hall project at 901 Hill Street was approved in January of 1970. Construction contracts were awarded in May of 1971. The building was completed in November of 1972 at a cost of $1,270,000, financed from gifts and University funds. This two-story building offers year-round facilities for conference and teaching activities of the School of Business Administration, particularly the management and executive training programs conducted by the School. Designed by O'Dell, Hewlett and Luckenbach, construction of this 26,136-square-foot facility was completed by the R. T. Mitchell Construction Company. A 500-seat auditorium within the building is named for Clayton G. Hale, a former Business Administration School faculty member and major donor to the project's funding. First floor facilities also include case discussion rooms and quarters for the executive-in-residence program. On the second floor are conference rooms and offices and a walkway to the main School of Business Administration Building.
The Plant Services Building, a 14,473-square-foot industrial-type building at 1111 Palmer Drive, was designed by Engineering Services to house, in a consolidated area, the Building Service Department Offices and Training Facilities, a Central Campus base of operations for the Elevator Repair Unit, and the Preventive Maintenance Unit, and a small repair area. It was completed in 1973 by the Saline Construction Company at a cost of just under $200,000, financed by University funds.
Page 66The Health Service Building at 207 Fletcher Street was renovated by the E. E. Kurtz Construction Company during 1973-74 at a cost of $428,000. Renovations to update facilities, make handicapped provisions, and to allow use of 10,000 square feet not otherwise usable were completed in 1974. These renovations and some of the fire protection projects undertaken at the same time were funded from University sources, while state funding supported other of the fire protection projects.
The Chemistry Building at 930 North University Avenue was approved for significant renovation in December of 1972. The program was undertaken in a three-phase plan to allow continued use of the building during construction. Charles Sherman Associates provided architectural services for replacement of major mechanical systems, updating of fire exits, improvements for handicapped accessibility and laboratory modernization. R. T. Mitchell Company was the contractor for the project. The first phase was completed in October of 1975, financed from University sources.
In the last two decades the University Library at the center of the campus has undergone two renovation projects. In 1956 and 1957 state appropriations funded a remodeling project of $700,000 at the time the new Undergraduate Library was constructed. A two-floor stack addition was added to the east and west stacks of this structure in 1957 by utilizing space under the roof and in light wells. This addition of 28,046 square feet was designed by Colvin, Robinson and completed by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. The Harlan H. Hatcher Graduate Library (South) was in planning for several years while funding from several sources was acquired. With support from a federal grant, a federal loan, some gift support from the "55 Million" campaign, and pledged student fees, a financing plan was approved in November of 1966. The project was designed by Albert Kahn Associated Architects and Engineers, Inc. A construction contract was awarded to the Lathrop Company in August of 1967. The eight-story building was completed in June of 1970 at a cost of approximately $5,000,000 adding 142,502 gross square feet to the library facilities. The addition provided space to accommodate some 800,000 to 900,000 additional volumes in airconditioned stacks, plus 532. carrels on the second through Page 67sixth floors. One thousand twenty-four book lockers, 200 typewriter lockers, and 10 typing rooms are also located on the second floor. The seventh floor houses the department of rare books and special collections, and on the eighth floor are a map room, a room for papyrology and manuscripts, a 30-seat classroom for teaching, and administrative offices for the library system. This new addition to the south became known as Hatcher-South, while the original structure became known as Hatcher-North. When the Harlan H. Hatcher Graduate Library, South was built, the former library area was badly in need of major rehabilitation. As early as 1965 Albert Kahn and Associates were hired to plan this rehabilitation. State funding was sought and finally obtained in the early 1970s. Work was begun by the Saline Construction Company in 1974 and the project was completed in February 1976 at a cost of just under $4,690,000. This older part of the library was then renamed the Harlan H. Hatcher Graduate Library, North.
Planning for the Institute for Social Research Building, at 426 Thompson Street, began in November of 1959 when additional space was requested of the Regents for this unit. Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was awarded the contract for construction in April of 1964. A unique feature of the floor layout, designed by Alden B. Dow Associates, Inc., is the arrangement of offices in clusters or modules around a central open space lighted by large window walls. This arrangement provides discrete areas for different programs and yet permits easy communication among staff members of a particular research area. Individual offices are small in order to provide privacy for more staff members. Stairs, elevators, and rest rooms are centrally located, therefore, less space is used for hallways, creating additional laboratory and office space. This arrangement yields an extremely efficient use of space - 74 percent - a high ratio of net to gross space for an office building. The building was completed in December of 1965, and it was financed from federal grants, gifts, and University sources for a total cost of just under $2,000,000. An addition to this building was requested and authorized in July of 1970. In December of 1972, 52,100 additional square feet were authorized for the addition, also designed by the Dow firm, and a construction contract was awarded to the R. T. Mitchell Company of Ann Arbor in April of 1974. The addition was completed in April of 1976, Page 68financed from gifts and University sources. The building now encompasses 133,723 gross square feet at a cost of $4,500,000.
The William A. Paton Accounting Center at 951 Hill Street was completed in April of 1976 at a cost of $1,200,000, financed from private gifts. The building project was first approved by the Regents in June of 1973. In November of 1973 the O'Dell, Hewlett, and Luckenbach architectural firm was authorized to complete plans, and in November of 1974 the construction contract was awarded to the R. T. Mitchell Construction Company of Ann Arbor. This excellent and compact facility added 15,239 gross square feet for the teaching and research in accounting programs in the School of Business Administration. Named to honor Michigan's distinguished emeritus Professor of Accounting, this brick two-story air-conditioned structure is sited between the Business Administration Assembly Hall and the Hill Street Parking structure. It contains case discussion rooms, seminar rooms, faculty offices, and television studios and control rooms and support facilities.
In April of 1973 the Regents approved a student fee allocation to finance two new recreational buildings, the Central Campus Recreation Building at 401 Washtenaw and the North Campus Recreational Facility. An increased demand for modern recreational facilities led to this approval of new recreation buildings for both the Central and the North Campuses. The two buildings were authorized for construction in June of 1974, at a combined cost of $7,700,000. The Central Campus building was connected to the Women's Swimming Pool building which was built in 1954 and renamed the Margaret Bell Pool in May of 1966. The Central Campus facility was completed by Spence Brothers Construction Company in July of 1976 at a cost of $4,800,000 and with the pool building provides 182,088 gross square feet of excellent intramural sports space. The aging and inadequate Women's Athletic Building was demolished in 1974 to clear a site for the 132,956-square-foot Central Campus building which would allow it to be built adjacent to Palmer Field and to connect with the Margaret Bell Pool. Alden B. Dow Associated, Inc. designed the facility, available to both men and women. It includes 11 handball and 6 squash courts, a large gymnasium with a one-eighth-mile jogging track, Page 69exercise rooms, sauna-equipped locker rooms, handicapped facilities, plus physical education areas and administrative offices. Another interesting feature of the building are two brightly colored leaded glass windows on the west side of the main lobby portraying Olympic sports symbols in a predominantly maize and blue color scheme. The will of the late Ruth Hooke of Cincinnati provided for and directed that windows in her memory be placed facing the sunset in a suitable location on campus. Designed by Ralph S. Stevenson from an idea developed by Kathleen Segat, the design was executed by Ann Arbor artist Bob Vavrina in hand-blown, full antique glass and opalescent glass.
A Dance Building at 1310 North University Court was added to the Central Campus Recreation Building in 1977. To replace its former cramped and inadequate quarters in Barbour Gymnasium, this 11,493-square-foot specially-designed facility was constructed for the School of Music's Dance Department by Spence Brothers Construction Company. The three-story structure has four large dance studios on the first and third levels. Offices, conference rooms and administrative spaces occupy the second level. The project cost of approximately $500,000 was met from University funds.
The Regents approved plans for the Library Central Service and Stack Building at 2360 Bonisteel Boulevard in September of 1953. To cope with the problems of expanding facilities of the library system, this four-level structure was designed as an economical storage annex by Albert Kahn Associates to house 400,000 older periodicals and books with a limited circulation. The building includes a bindery and a reading room which is available for student use, or materials can be sent to central campus libraries for use there. A construction contract was awarded to Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. in March of 1954. The building was completed in 1955 at a cost of $480,000, which was financed from state appropriations and University funds. This facility added 213,925 cubic feet and 20,077 gross square feet for library functions.
The Aeronautical Engineering Laboratory at 2515 Patterson Street was authorized in August of 1954, and the Page 70construction contract was awarded to Sorenson Gross Construction Company in February of 1955. The Department of Aeronautical Engineering was severely handicapped by its scattered Willow Run facilities in attempting to keep up with the growing research and teaching needs of a rapidly developing field. Regental approval was granted in 1954 for three departmental projects to be sited in the new engineering complex on the North Campus. It was of great importance for both teaching and research purposes that these structures, a low-turbulence wind tunnel, a high-speed wind tunnel, and an aircraft propulsion laboratory, be grouped together and that they be sited near other engineering facilities. Colvin, Robinson and Associates designed the facilities. The project was completed in December of 1955 at a cost of just under $700,000. A total of 524,092 cubic feet and 23,317 gross square feet were included. In 1961 another structure, the Plasma Research Building, was added at a cost of $100,000, including 6,521 gross square feet. Funds for these projects were provided from University sources.
The Printing Service Building at 1101 Beal Avenue was authorized in February of 1955 and completed in 1957 for a cost of $450,000 provided from University sources. This structure contains 354,040 cubic feet and 29,504 gross square feet. Douglas Loree designed the structure and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. completed the construction. It provided space for printing and binding operations, and related storage.
Smith, Hinchman and Grylls designed the 17,958-square-foot Ford Nuclear Reactor which was completed in 1956 by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. as a wing addition to the Phoenix Memorial Laboratories. This additional facility provided further support for research in the field of atomic energy as well as support for the University's teaching program in nuclear engineering. The $952,000 building cost was financed by the generous gift of the Ford Motor Company Fund.
A project, originally constructed as a Civil Defense and Disaster Training Center and changed in 1977 to the Fire Service Instruction and Research Center at 1946 Beal Avenue, was completed in 1959 at a cost of $473,000, financed by a federal grant and state appropriations. The facility was designed by James H. Livingston Associates to provide Page 71better preservice and inservice training opportunities for Michigan firemen, both paid and volunteer. Expansion of the firemanship training program was jointly conducted by the University Extension Service and the State of Michigan Office of Vocational Education, Department of Public Instruction. Development of this program also increased overall fire protection to the University of Michigan. Perron Construction Company completed the facility in 1959. Prior to construction, the Ann Arbor City Council agreed that when the facility was needed as an operating fire station for the area, it would be manned by the Ann Arbor Fire Department. An engine company of the Ann Arbor Fire Department moved into the facility in 1967.
The Cyclotron Building at 2590 Patterson Street was originally planned in April of 1956, contracts for construction were awarded in July of 1960, and the project was completed in October of 1961 at a cost of $1,219,725, financed from state appropriations and University funds. Giffels and Rossetti, Inc. designed this facility specifically to accommodate the cyclotron and synchrotron adequately and safely and to provide office and support areas for the operating staff. Previous quarters in the Randall Laboratory Building not only limited use of the machines but also constituted an exceptionally high radiation hazard in the area. The North Campus site was selected because it offered not only increased safety but proximity to other associated research units. The Henry deKoning Construction Company was the contractor. With the deactivation of the cyclotron, the building became available for other usage. The site was ideal for the 1977 relocation of the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering from their former West Engineering Building spaces. The function of this facility was changed and it was renamed the Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Building in April of 1977.
The Research Activities Building at 2450 Hayward Avenue was completed in the spring of 1963 at a cost of $390,000, financed from University sources. Since the prime use of space in this structure was to be by units undertaking research in the fields of aeronautics and astronautics, the building was sited adjacent to the wind tunnels. Designed by Eberle M. Smith Associates, Inc., the 17,186-square-foot building was constructed by the Perry Construction Company. Page 72A 1964 remodeling project added 369 square feet to the structure.
The Research Administration Building at 1205 Beal Avenue was completed in the spring of 1963 at a cost of $746,000, financed from University sources. The expanded activities of the Office of Sponsored Research Administration led to the development of a program of space needs covering sponsored-research project work and administrative operations by staff members. Since there would be suitable linkage of service areas with the Cooley Building and since the planned building would conform to the Saarinen plan for the North Campus area, it was decided to site the structure immediately north of the Cooley Building. Designed by Swanson Associates, the 32,488-square-foot building was constructed by the A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company.
A North Campus site was selected for the Institute of Science and Technology Building at 2200 Bonisteel Avenue in May of 1960. Smith, Hinchman and Grylls were appointed architects in July. Spence Brothers were awarded the general construction contract in January of 1962, and the project was completed in October of 1963 at a cost of $3,116,000, financed from state appropriations and a federal grant. The facility includes 1,191,083 cubic feet and 83,350 gross square feet. In March of 1966 the Regents were informed that the architects received a First Honor Award for this building from the Michigan Society of Architects.
Planning for the School of Music facility on North Campus began in September of 1952. Eero Saarinen and Associates were engaged as planning architects. Construction contracts were awarded in May of 1957, contingent upon availability of state financing. Work finally began in September of 1962 and the building was completed by Darin and Armstrong in May of 1964 at 1100 Baits Avenue at a cost of $4,182,000, financed from state appropriations and University sources. The School of Music moved from 13 scattered campus locations into this new 110,000-square-foot building. The structure was designed to accommodate 1,000 music majors in 150 individual practice rooms, 40 applied-music teaching studios, 20 classrooms, rehearsal and recital halls, electronic listening and recording rooms, as well as 40 faculty offices, a library, and workshops. In March 1975 the Regents named Page 73the building the Earl V. Moore Building honoring the School's former director and dean who served from 1923 until his 1960 retirement.
Planned originally in 1955 and 1956 as the Fluids Engineering Laboratory units I and II, this project, located at 2350 Hayward Avenue, was renamed in September of 1957 the George Granger Brown Memorial Laboratories to honor the former Dean of the College. The construction contract for the first unit was awarded to Spence Brothers Construction Company in October of 1956, and it was completed in August of 1958 at a cost of $2,000,000 provided by state appropriations. Construction contracts for the second unit were awarded also to Spence Brothers Construction Company in September of 1963, and it was completed in November of 1964 for a cost of about $2,400,000 provided in major part by state appropriations. This large complex contains 2,967,702 cubic feet and 156,797 gross square feet.
The Space Research Laboratory at 2455 Hayward Avenue was financed by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Application for this grant was made in September of 1962. Construction contracts were awarded in March of 1964 to Spence Brothers Construction Company and the building was completed in June of 1965 at a cost of $1,400,000. It contains 56,163 gross square feet. Completion of this two-story building has enabled the University to house its growing space-research activities under one roof on the North Campus near the Aeronautical Engineering, George Granger Brown Memorial Laboratories, and other related facilities. It has also enabled the undertaking of a broad program of space-related research activities in a multidisciplinary research center designed by Architects Collective, Inc. Among those participating in the dedication of the building were U. S. Astronauts Edward White and James McDivitt.
The North Campus Commons at 2101 Bonisteel Boulevard was financed by student-fee allocations and other University revenues. Construction contracts were awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company in February of 1964 and it was completed in June of 1965 at a cost of $1,565,000. This building contains 44,046 gross square feet. The facility was designed by Swanson Associates to include cafeteria Page 74service area, private dining areas, a machine food-vending service area, and to serve as a student center on the North Campus.
The North Campus Service Building at 1655 Dean Street was designed by Jickling and Lyman Architects, Inc. and constructed in 1965 by the Perry Construction Company from University funds at a cost of $469,000. This facility, which contains 393,831 cubic feet and 14,514 gross square feet, was constructed as an incinerator for waste materials and to house boiler services for this area of the campus.
Vera Baits Housing I at 1210-1320 Hubbard Avenue and Vera Baits Housing II at 1421-1440 Hubbard Avenue were planned to meet special needs of certain students on North Campus. These were primarily graduate students who wished housing accommodations only. The project was first known as Cedar Bend Houses I and II and plans were first approved in January of 1964. The project was renamed Vera Baits Housing in July of 1966 to honor the late University Regent. Construction contracts were awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company for Unit I (5 buildings) in December of 1964 and for Unit II (5 buildings) in July of 1965. Unit I was completed in August of 1966 at a cost of $3,400,000, and Unit II was completed in June of 1967 at a cost of $3,600,000. Financing of these structures was from University housing revenues. They provide 295,882 gross square feet of space, and were designed to house 1,206 students.
Bursley Hall at 1931 Duffield Street was completed in April of 1968 at a cost of $7,500,000, financed from University housing revenues. This facility was first planned in November of 1956. Construction contracts were awarded in February of 1965. It provides 339,608 gross square feet for housing and dining services. Designed by Swanson Associates to accommodate 1,180 single students, the dormitory was constructed by the Miller Davis Company. In February of 1958 the project was named for Joseph Aldrich Bursley and Marguerite Knowlton Bursley to honor the late University Dean of Men and his wife.
Construction of the Chrysler Center for Continuing Engineering Education at 2121 Bonisteel Boulevard was made possible by a gift of $1,250,000 from the Chrysler Fund as Page 75part of the $55M Campaign. Personal gifts from several Chrysler Corporation executives aided significantly in furnishing the facility. The total project cost was $1,513,742. Designed by Swanson Associates, the Center is used primarily for continuing-engineering-education conferences, short courses, seminars, and degree-oriented graduate courses for practicing engineers. When unscheduled for engineering uses, the facility is also available to other University units. The building includes seven classrooms, three laboratory-demonstration rooms, two conference rooms and an auditorium. The classrooms are equipped with audio-visual facilities including closed-circuit television. Construction contracts were awarded in July of 1966 to Spence Brothers of Saginaw, and the building was completed in November of 1967. The facility contains 42,262 gross square feet of space.
The North Campus Storage Building at 3241 Baxter Avenue was designed and constructed in three phases by the University's Engineering Services in 1967, 1968, and 1975. This 44,892-square-foot structure, funded from University sources for just over $350,000, was built to provide bicycle storage for the Office of Student Community Relations, Plant Department storage on the North Campus, and office and storage space for Property Disposition, the University unit charged with aiding departments in the disposition and reuse of surplus property items.
The Highway Safety Research Institute at 2901 Baxter Avenue was planned for research and testing of vehicle and road relationships. It was funded by gifts from the General Motors Corporation, the Ford Motor Company, the Automobile Manufacturer's Association, and the Fruehauf Corporation. The general construction contract was awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company of Dearborn, and the project was completed in June of 1969 at a cost of $4,073,000. It includes 1,124,859 cubic feet and 77,082 gross square feet. The building was designed by Harley, Ellington, Cowin and Stirton, Inc. to serve a continuing education program in a new and emerging curriculum and to train graduate students in the area of highway safety.
The Laundry Building at 1665 Dean Road was constructed at a cost of $1,300,000 from University funds. Work began Page 76in March of 1969 and was completed in November. The building includes 1,016,446 cubic feet and 47,250 gross square feet. This structure was completed by Cunningham-Limp Company and replaced a Central Campus building in continuous operation since 1916 which was obsolete and worn out. While not only insuring more effective and efficient operation, siting this facility in the North Campus service area freed valuable Central Campus space for part of the site of the new Dental School complex.
The Computing Center at 1075 Beal Avenue was completed by the E. E. Kurtz Construction Company of Ann Arbor at a cost of $1,300,000. Construction began in October of 1969 and was completed in April of 1971. The project was funded by University sources and private gifts. It houses a large computer facility for academic teaching and research functions. Tarapata, MacMahon, Associates designed this three-story building to provide both reliable environmental controls and flexibility in use of space. Elevated "false" floors, raised approximately two feet from the actual floor, form a reservoir for distributing air through the total building thus eliminating conventional ductwork in a facility that would equal the capacity needed to air-condition 40 to 50 homes. This feature also permits readily accessible storage areas for computer cables and electrical and telephone lines serving the building. It is "ready-made" for expansion of the rapidly growing computer field. The University Computing Center, first established in 1959, has had a fantastic growth which is expected to continue. Long-span construction was used throughout the entire building. Since the walls and unusual beams are weight-bearing, the interior space is entirely free of support columns and was completed with easily movable interior partitions to facilitate space relocation. Computer components are located on all three floors to eliminate transmission lag. Elevator, mechanical, and electrical service areas are masonry cores placed at the sides of the building. The first floor is primarily a public service area, seminar rooms, and key punching and terminal rooms. On the second floor is the main computer room and adjacent open-office work areas, while the third floor houses computer-systems research areas, a library, and administrative offices.
The Northwood Apartments on the North Campus were constructed over a number of years, from September of 1955 to Page 77October of 1972. Planning for North Campus married-student housing was first approved by the Regents in February of 1954. In May of 1955 the name Northwood Apartments was authorized. A minor part of the apartments was reserved for staff members in need of short-term housing. Units I, II and III (of efficiency, 1- and 2-bedroom size) are apartment-complex type structures, while Units IV (of 1-, 2-, and 3-bedroom size) and V (of 2-and 3-bedroom size) are of townhouse design. All units are financed by Housing Revenue Bonds retired by rental income from the units. Northwood V also received a federal interest-subsidy grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Descriptive data about the five projects are included in the table below:
|Completion Date||Sept. 1955||Dec. 1957||Dec. 1958||Feb. 1969||Oct. 1972|
|No. of units||100||296||288||400||400|
|No. of bldgs.||7||40||11||83||79|
|Gross sq. ft.||66,104||184,759||169,900||528,110||559,838|
The Aerospace Engineering Building at 2508 Patterson Street is a 18, 188-square-foot, three-story building connecting the wind tunnel and the propulsion laboratory and serves to centralize the Aerospace Engineering Department on the North Campus into a more effective teaching and research department. Its completion in 1972 also served to release academic spaces on the Central Campus. This University-financed $456,000 project was a design/build structure completed by the Cunningham-Limp Company.
The Bentley Historical Library at 1150 Beal Avenue was built to house the Michigan Historical Collections. In December of 1971 the Regents named the facility in honor of former Regent and Congressman Alvin M. Bentley and Arvella D. Bentley, the major donors to the Library. R. T. Mitchell Construction Company of Ann Arbor was awarded the contract to build in July of 1972, and the building was completed in September of 1973 at a cost of $1,200,000, financed by gifts Page 78from the Bentley family and others. The 32,315-square-foot building designed by Jickling and Lyman Architects, Inc. coordinates a three-level stack area with offices arranged in a ring around the main reading room which is glass-walled and overlooks a landscaped garden and sculpture court. Many of the Library rooms stand as tributes to Michigan people and institutions. A multi-purpose assembly hall just off the main entrance serves for special meetings of groups up to 125. Among the Library's important collections are the papers of 19 Michigan governors and other major public figures, plus papers of University Presidents dating from the first President, the Rev. John Monteith, and documents related to communities in Michigan.
The need for the Architecture and Art Building at 2000 Bonisteel Boulevard was first presented in December of 1954. While the building was designed originally for the College of Architecture and Design, it is now shared by the two separate colleges of Architecture and Art. It is a large structure containing 2,590,539 cubic feet and 221,220 gross square feet. Construction started in September 1972 and the project was completed in August of 1974 at a cost of $8,500,000, financed by state appropriations. Replacing a 1927 structure which was designed for an enrollment of less than 400, this North Campus facility allows for a student body capacity of 1,200. Structurally composed of three rectangular units, two stories high, connected by two corridors, this basic inexpensive loft-type building, designed by Swanson Associates, Inc., has an interior which can be modified to service the changing needs of various programs. Flexibility is achieved by movable furniture and partitions, enabling faculty and students to subdivide areas to meet changing requirements. Spaciousness is achieved through use of inexpensive materials, simple detailing, and open planning. Studios and workshops comprise 80 percent of the interior space. A major building innovation is the built-in interior sprinkling system for fire protection. Constructed by Spence Brothers Construction Company, the new facilities increase options available to larger numbers of students, such as: visual studios laboratory, new computer facilities, weaving looms, ceramic kilns and wheels, metal casting furnaces, jewelry forges, sand blasting equipment, 30 photographic dark rooms, and 18 painting and design studios.
Page 79The Automotive Laboratory at 2320 Herbert Avenue, described in Volume IV, pages 1589-90 and completed in 1956, was renamed the Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory to honor the late Professor of Engineering at the Regents meeting of September 1974.
The Engineering Building I-A project at 2351 Herbert Avenue was funded by state appropriations at a cost of $2,250,000. The Saline Construction Company was awarded the construction contract in July of 1973 and work began in September. The building was completed in January of 1975, and contains 421,440 cubic feet and 37,667 gross square feet. Swanson Associates designed this facility to bring together the programs in water resources conducted by the Departments of Civil and Chemical Engineering and the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science. Sited near the G. G. Brown Laboratories in the Engineering College's North Campus complex, the structure contains instructional and research laboratory facilities for both graduate and undergraduate programs, classrooms, faculty offices, and supporting areas. The building also provides facilities for sanitation engineering, pollution control, and water analysis.
In April of 1973 the Regents approved a student-fee allocation to finance the North Campus Recreation Building at 2375 Hubbard Street, as well as a central campus facility. The two buildings were authorized for construction in June of 1974 at a combined project cost of $7,700,000. The North Campus facility was completed by the Saline Construction Company in July of 1976 at a cost of $2,800,000 and included 970,806 cubic feet and 61,470 gross square feet. Included in this modern facility, available to both men and women in the North Campus area, are five handball and two squash courts, a large gymnasium, a 7,000-square-foot natatorium, weight-training and exercise rooms, administrative offices, and locker and shower facilities, complete with saunas. Facilities for the handicapped have also been incorporated into this structure designed by Colvin, Robinson Associates.
The Zeta Beta Tau fraternity house at 2005 Baits Avenue was renamed the Frederick Stearns Building when it was acquired for the School of Music in June of 1972 at a cost of $215,000. It houses the Stearns Collection of Page 80musical instruments, a world famous collection which had been displayed in Hill Auditorium since 1914. The remodeled 18,021 square-foot building also provides 29 faculty offices and rehearsal facilities for medium-sized musical groups.
Funded by a $600,000 gift from the Kresge Foundation and University funds, a 38,848-square-foot addition to the Kresge Medical Research Building, designed by Giffels and Vallet and Skidmore and constructed by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., opened in January 1956 as a new Medical Library. This four-stack level structure, with a reading room, a conference room, a rare-book room, five group-study rooms and 60 carrels, enabled the Medical Library collection to move from its former inadequate space in the Central Campus General Library. It also permitted combining the Medical, Nursing, and Hospital Libraries.
In July of 1952 the Regents first approved planning for the Medical Science Building I, eventually located at 1335 East Catherine Street. Site selection was made in May of 1953. In January of 1955 it was determined that the Medical School departments of Pathology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology and the School of Nursing would be housed in the structure. The project was completed in September of 1958 at a cost of $8,494,373, financed from state appropriations, and included 262,810 gross square feet. The building design is innovative in medical instruction; the familiar bowl-shaped amphitheater where students surrounded the instructor has been replaced by a closed-circuit color television system which medical educators believe to be an immense teaching improvement.
The Mental Health Research Institute Building project at 205 Washtenaw Place was completed in December of 1959 at a cost of $1,326,700. This was financed by state appropriations and a federal grant. Planning began in February of 1956, and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was authorized for general construction in October of 1958. The structure includes 49,840 gross square feet.
Architects for planning the Kresge Hearing Research Institute Building at 1301 East Ann Street were appointed Page 81in July of 1960, and the firm of Holabird and Root received the contract. The construction contract was awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company in July of 1961, and the project was completed in September of 1962 at a cost of $1,742,136. The building was financed by a gift from the S. S. Kresge Foundation and included 37,537 gross square feet. This generous gift made possible a building devoted to research on hearing and causes of deafness. It was organized with the two-fold purpose of furnishing further knowledge of the hearing process in both health and disease and of training investigators in the knowledge gained and techniques developed.
The Animal Research Facility at 1335 East Catherine Street was financed by a federal grant matched by funds from University sources for a total cost of $500,000. It was designed by Kenneth C. Black Associates, Inc. and the construction contract was awarded to Barton-Malow Co. in March of 1962 and the building was completed in early 1963. It includes 15,473 gross square feet.
The Lawrence D. Buhl Research Center for Human Genetics at 1141 East Catherine Street was constructed by A. Z. Shmina and Sons for a cost of $560,000, financed by federal grants and a private gift from the Buhl Foundation. Since this research function closely related to departmental activities planned for the new Medical Science Building II, it was recommended and approved that the two structures be considered as a unified architectural project (both phases designed by Holabird and Root) to insure coordination of the two units. The building was completed in October of 1963 and includes 16,146 gross square feet.
The Victor C. Vaughan House at 1111 East Catherine underwent extensive renovations and remodeling in 1963, which added 41,113 square feet to the building. Designed by Colvin, Robinson, Wright and Associates and constructed by Perry Construction Company, these changes allowed conversion of the former dormitory to facilities for the Speech Clinic and spaces for some units of the School of Public Health. Formerly located in an old house, the Speech Clinic now had 100 rooms for educational and service activities, including dormitory facilities for about 20 adult aphasic patients, making the University of Michigan Speech Clinic the first Page 82university speech clinic in the nation to offer a residential treatment program for adult aphasics. The $848,735 project cost was met by University funds.
Planning architects Holabird and Root were approved for the Kresge Medical Research Building Addition at 1299 East Ann Street in July of 1961. Spence Brothers Construction Company of Saginaw was awarded the construction contract in April of 1963. The project was completed in September of 1964 at a cost of $1,570,749, financed by a federal grant, and included 40,106 gross square feet.
The 30,419 square foot Parkview Medical Center and an adjacent acre of land were purchased from a group of local physicians in 1967 to provide additional patient service and training facilities. The $1,100,000 purchase price was financed by a loan to be repaid from new revenues of the facility. In 1976 the Scott and Amy Prudden Turner Memorial Clinic was completed as an added wing of this structure.
The Towsley Center for Continuing Medical Education at 271 East Hospital Drive was completed in February of 1969 at a cost of $1,900,000, financed by gifts from the Towsley and Dow Foundations and University funds. Alden Dow and Associates of Midland were the architects and the Henry deKoning Construction Company of Ann Arbor was awarded the construction contract. The building contains 52,207 gross square feet. The facility has a 518 seat auditorium and a 144 seat lecture hall, as well as departmental offices, the Medical Center Alumni Society Office, and the editorial rooms of the Medical Center Journal, plus smaller classrooms and seminar rooms.
The Medical Science Building II at 1137 East Catherine Street was completed in July of 1969 at a cost of $12,700,000, financed by state appropriations, federal funds, private gifts, and University sources. Holabird and Root were assigned as planning architects for this project in June of 1961. Construction contracts were awarded to Spence Brothers of Saginaw and Hydon-Brand Company in November of 1965. The building contains 4,550,853 cubic feet and 333,038 gross square feet. This unit houses the departments of Anatomy, Genetics, Microbiology, and Physiology and also provides Page 83instructional facilities to meet the needs of increased enrollment, plus research areas for both faculty and students. This brought together for the first time all of the Medical School departments in one area. Both Medical Science I and Medical Science II are connected by bridge to the Main Hospital. Remodeling of the lower level for the Furstenberg Student Center was approved in May of 1971 and completed in May of 1974 at a cost of $1,100,000, financed by private gifts and a federal grant. Named for former Medical School Dean, Dr. A. C. Furstenberg, this thoroughly modern facility contains classrooms, audiovisual study areas, and a commons for both students and faculty. The heart of the Center is its audiovisual study area which includes 37 multimedia carrels, all equipped for sound/slide presentations and 10 equipped with videocassette players. There are also 18 microfiche stations and two computer-assisted instruction rooms, plus several class and multipurpose rooms for use by faculty and student groups, and an informal commons with tables, chairs, and vending machines.
In April of 1964 the Regents accepted a gift of $6,000,000 from the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation of Flint for the C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, constructed at 1430 North Hospital Drive. The project, designed by Albert Kahn Associates and constructed by Miller-Davis Company, was completed in September of 1969 at a cost of $9,458,000, financed by the Mott gift, other gifts, and federal funds. The structure includes 2,440,896 cubic feet and 184,461 gross square feet. The unit is a 200-bed, eight-story structure and contains its own pediatric x-ray facilities, operating rooms, anesthesia unit and technical services but, for the sake of economy, does obtain a number of supportive services from the main hospital. There is a special area for teenage patients and, when the hospital opened, its 26-bed Neonatal Intensive Care Unit was believed to be the only one of its kind in the Midwest. A major new feature is a window seat in each room which converts into a bed, allowing a parent to spend the night with the child to aid the child's adjustment to the strange medical environment.
The Upjohn Center for Clinical Pharmacology at 1310 East Catherine Street was completed in March of 1970 at a cost of $1,200,000 from gifts and University sources. Holabird and Root were the architects and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. Page 84was the building contractor. This facility provides 17,880 gross square feet. The Center's main purpose is to study effectiveness in drugs and safety in man, to train physicians in the advanced skills needed for such study, and to provide a base for patient care related to the research and training. It is the focal point for the total University of Michigan Medical Center's concern with the value and safety of drugs.
Following completion of a new Food Service Facility in 1969, studies determined that the former Food Service Building located at 1103 E. Huron was particularly suitable as a neuroscience research facility because of its unique location between the Central Campus and the Medical Center. Extensive remodeling, designed by Harley Ellington Associates, Inc., was undertaken by the R. T. Mitchell Company to develop wet and dry laboratories, animal quarters, offices and related spaces for neuroscience activities which had previously been scattered in both Medical Center and Central Campus areas. Upon completion of this remodeling in 1971, the structure was renamed the Neuroscience Laboratories Building. University funds supported the $1,369,760 project.
The Holden Perinatal Research Laboratory at 250 East Hospital Drive was provided by a gift from the James and Lynelle Holden Fund. Approval was given in June of 1969 for site selection and for Kenneth Black Associates, Inc. as architects. In December of 1970 Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. of Ann Arbor was selected as general contractor. The facility was completed in May of 1972 at a cost of $1,500,000, and provides 19,350 gross square feet. It is the first high-risk-pregnancy patient care and research center in the state of Michigan, and is dedicated to saving the lives of critically ill infants and their mothers. It offers the newest medical facilities and equipment and the highest level treatment available. It is a highly specialized hospital within the huge University Hospital complex. Facilities for both pregnant women and critically ill newborn infants are concentrated on the third level of this compact three-story structure which is attached to both the Mott Children's Hospital and Women's Hospital.
Following completion of construction of the C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, planning was begun on two projects Page 85which would occupy an unfinished area of the first level. To be financed by gift, Medical Center/School and Hospital funds, the James L. Wilson Pediatric Laboratories and the Mott Cardiac Care Study Unit projects were combined to realize architectural and construction cost savings. Prior to construction, these Albert Kahn and Associates Architects and Engineers, Inc. projects were incorporated into the Outpatient Addition project to effect further savings on these $500,000 projects. Also designed by the Albert Kahn firm, the Outpatient Addition spans the corridor areas between the Outpatient Building and C. S. Mott Children's Hospital. Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was the general contractor and completed the structure in 1973. The five-story addition connects the two units by ramp and stairway, facilitates movement of patients between the buildings, and provides much needed expansion room for 10 clinics. The fourth level expansion is particularly significant since it allows consolidation on one level of Emergency Services, the Adult General Medicine Walk-In Clinic and the Pediatric Walk-In Clinic. The 17,523-square-foot, $817,517 structure also enabled extensive remodeling to enlarge the capacity of the Emergency Suite, and was financed by a federal grant of Hill-Burton funds and University Hospital funds.
The former University Motel, now known as Riverview Building, and the former Alpha Epsilon Iota Sorority House, now known as the Hospital Education Center, were purchased in 1974 for Hospital activities at a combined total cost of $420,000. The purchase, renovation, furnishing, and equipping of the two buildings was funded by a loan with repayment from Hospital funds. The former motel facility provided 20,136 square feet of critically needed space for the Psychiatric Adult Ambulatory Care Program while the 8,383 square-foot former sorority house provided facilities for a new program of education and training laboratories for the Physical Therapy Program, and office space for other units of the Medical Center and Medical School.
The Scott and Amy Prudden Turner Memorial Clinic at 1010 Wall Street was provided in a bequest from the will of Amy Prudden Turner. The facility was designed by Warren Holmes Company and Kenneth Black Associate Architects, Inc. Work started in April of 1975 and was completed in August of 1976 at a cost of $1,300,000. The building was constructed Page 86by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. and includes 24,653 gross square feet. This structure is a wing connected to the Parkview Medical Center devoted to the study of gerontology, to the degenerative diseases affecting elderly people, and to providing hospital space for the study, treatment, and healing of people suffering from such diseases.
The Hospital Finance and Personnel Building at 102 Simpson Street was approved in January of 1975 and construction was completed in December of 1976, financed from University sources at a cost of $1,600,000. The structure was built as an addition to the East Medical Parking Structure and provides 35,730 gross square feet for administrative activities, thus allowing re-allocation of Hospital spaces for more clinical and patient services.
The University Hospital - Main Building at 1405 East Ann Street has experienced a large number of renovation and remodeling projects over the years. In recent years, there has been a continuous round of activity of this nature, averaging over $1,000,000 of project volume each year. Improvements to the facility resulting from these projects have caused increases in capitalized value in the building, which on June 30, 1977, stands at the level of $23,045,790. The Hospital was built in 1925 at a cost of $7,048,395 and has seen extensive use in all its years. It contains 7,776,389 cubic feet and 607,389 gross square feet. A new hospital is presently being planned.
The Ann Arbor campus Parking Structures have been built from 1957 through 1976 from revenues obtained from charges for parking and from other University fund sources and have provided adequate parking for University staff in seven strategic locations on the campus. The University faculty and staff parking program was established in 1955 with the advice of the Senate Advisory Committee on University Affairs, Sub-Committee on Campus Planning and Development. The plan for parking facility development was launched in 1956 and in 1958. The firm of O'Dell, Hewlett and Luckenbach prepared a general study of parking structure locations based on sub-campus areas and peripheral sites to provide Page 87convenient access to collector streets. The plan concept was later enlarged in both the Central Campus and Medical Center Planning Studies prepared by Johnson, Johnson and Roy, Inc. The following table provides descriptive information about the structures:
|Year Built||Original Cost||6/30/77 Cost||Cubic Feet||Gross Sq. Ft.||No. of Cars|
|Church St.||1957||$ 631,256||$ 1,193,313*||1,830,860*||219,270*||594*|
In 1956 the Hoover Ball Bearing Plant was acquired at a cost of $1,800,000, financed from University sources. This facility became the Plant Service Buildings at Hoover and Greene Streets. The complex included eight structures containing 3,904,252 cubic feet and 174,813 gross square feet and approximately 13 acres valued at $188,000. These buildings provided a very suitable facility for plant shops, storage, and vehicle service areas, allowing a significantly expanded space for these functions in their move from the previous location at Forest and North University.
The first new administrative office building built at the Hoover and Greene Street location was the Data Processing Center, constructed in 1963 at a cost of $310,000, financed from University sources. This was also the first campus building specifically designed for the use of a major-size computer. In 1966 it was connected with the new Administrative Services Building. It was designed by Charles W. Lane Associates, Inc. and constructed by Spence Brothers Company.
Page 88Following the move from the Central Campus to the Hoover Street complex, Transportation Services continued to grow. In 1969 E. E. Kurtz Company completed a 19,060-square-foot Transportation Services Building at 326 East Hoover Street. Design of this $285,698 University-funded project was by Engineering Services. The unit continued to grow and after detailed studies and exploration of alternate sites on the North Campus and in the South Campus area in 1975, it was determined that further expansion of the present service facility in the Plant area on Hoover Street was the most practical solution to the needs for additional space. Hillyer Construction Company completed a Colvin, Robinson Associates-designed $460,000 expansion and renovation program in 1976. The project was funded from University sources. The facility now contains 586,692 cubic feet and 34,120 gross square feet.
A relocation in an expanded facility was approved in May of 1968 for the Food Stores Building at 3600 Varsity Drive, south of the 1-94 expressway along the Ann Arbor Railroad right-of-way on a 26.59 acre parcel acquired for $60,000. Cunningham-Limp Company, of Birmingham, Michigan, constructed the facility. Work began in October of 1968 and was completed in July of 1970 at a cost of $1,900,000, financed from University sources. The new structure includes 2,245,370 cubic feet and 83,178 gross square feet. The old Food Service Building on Glen Avenue was remodeled for the Neuroscience Laboratories.
The Madison Building at 109 East Madison Street was built about 1900 and formerly housed the Nelson Plumbing Company. This three-story brick structure had been completely rehabilitated in 1968-69, and when it was offered for sale in 1970, the Regents approved purchase at a project price of $415,000. Financing was from University sources, and the 21,731-square-foot addition to University facilities was assigned to the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching and to other academic units which had been housed in overcrowded and leased spaces.
The Administrative Services Building at 1009 Greene Street was approved for construction in February of 1964, and at that time Colvin, Robinson and Wright were approved as architects. The Perry Construction Company was awarded Page 89the construction contract in November of 1964. The building was completed in February of 1966 at a cost of $1,000,000, financed from University sources. It was built contiguous to the Data Processing Building and both structures were combined as the Administrative Services Building at a value of $1,327,000. In October of 1969 approval was given to build an addition and this was completed by the Saline Construction Company in 1971 at an added cost of $800,000, financed from University sources. The present structure includes 1,145,343 cubic feet and 89,745 gross square feet and houses several administrative offices (purchasing, personnel, payroll, staff benefits, audits, and accounting, as well as data processing).
The Regents, in October of 1974, approved the relocation and construction of an enlarged facility for the Chemistry Stores at 3580 Varsity Drive south of the I-94 expressway. Cunningham-Limp Company was engaged to build the facility and work began in December of 1974. It was completed in October of 1974 at a cost of $1,200,000. Funded from University sources, it contains 991,137 cubic feet and 47,711 gross square feet of space.
The Mail Service Building at 1032 Greene Street was acquired in May of 1975 when the Regents approved purchase of the former American Rug Cleaning Works on Greene Street for $77,000. University-funded renovations, totaling $59,922 in this one-story, 5,850-square-foot structure, provided an ideal facility for relocating the University Mail Services in the Plant Service area and away from the Central Campus. The spaces released in the Literature, Science, and Arts Building by the move of the Mail Service were reassigned for academic uses.
The Matt Mann Pool at 616 East Hoover Street was completed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company in March of 1956 at a cost of $828,000, financed from funds made available by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It includes 725,440 cubic feet and 29,407 gross square feet. The pool is sited between the Athletic Administration Building and the Intramural Building. It was designed by Giffels and Vallet and allowed the former Intramural Pool to be used totally for intramural swimming. Complete with locker and training rooms, the new facility provided Page 90spectator seating for 3,000 on three sides of the pool. Special radio and television facilities were also provided. The pool's novel design of a special 20' X 40' diving pool adjacent and connected to the varsity pool resulted from an idea projected by the late Matt Mann, who served as Michigan's swimming coach for many years and for whom the pool was named. This design enables both swimmers and divers to work out simultaneously. An additional feature is a three-elevation diving board.
In September of 1956 the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics financed an addition to the football stadium for a significantly improved Stadium Communications Center at 1201 South Main Street, at a cost of $520,000. It was constructed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company. The Center was designed by Osborn Engineering Company, the firm who designed the Stadium. This new facility replaced the original 1927 press box with a modern, triple-deck, 16,978-square-foot communications center. Situated at the top of the west side of the bowl, between the 20-yard lines, the overhanging structure permitted seating underneath and raised the Stadium's seating capacity from 97,239 to 101,001. The lower deck was designed to accommodate 203 sports writers in three rows of seats. The unenclosed middle deck is reserved for photographers, and the top deck contains 18 radio and television booths. An elevator, lunch room for the working press, as well as such support service areas as dark rooms, duplication machines, and wire service facilities are also provided. Projecting from the center of the first deck on the west side is a private dining room with kitchen, seating approximately 75 persons, for use by the University President for special parties of visiting dignitaries. A private box for use by the President and his party is adjacent.
The Crisler Arena at 333 East Stadium Boulevard was first known as the University Events Building. It was designed by K. C. Black and D. L. Dworsky. First plans were approved by the Regents in February and site selection was made in March of 1964. Work began on the structure in September of 1965 and it was completed by the Spence Brothers Company in June of 1968 at a cost of $6,500,000, financed from gifts and University sources, including student-fee allocations. In February of 1970 the building was renamed in honor of Herbert O. ("Fritz") Crisler, Michigan's former Page 91football coach and long-time athletic director. It contains 8,469,365 cubic feet and 201,127 gross square feet. Sited next to the Michigan Stadium, this arena serves not only as "home court" for varsity basketball and other athletic teams, but also provides assembly facilities for educational, cultural, and entertainment opportunities for students, faculty, and staff. A press box and other support facilities are also provided in the project. Comfortable permanent seating is provided for over 13,000 spectators and, since its completion, the arena has been the site for University Commencement Exercises.
The Sports Service Building at 1200 South State Street was constructed in September of 1971 at a cost of $500,000 from funds furnished by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It was designed by Colvin, Wright and Robinson, Associates, and constructed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company. This 19,709 square foot facility on Ferry Field contains locker, exercise, equipment, and training rooms as well as classrooms which are primarily used by the football program.
The William D. Revelli Band Rehearsal Hall at 350 East Hoover Street was approved by the Regents in July of 1972. Work began on the structure in October of 1972 and the project was completed by Cunningham-Limp Company in July of 1973 at a cost of $475,000, which was financed by gifts. Locating the structure in the athletics area facilitated access for the marching band to its main performance areas. Located directly across from their Elbel (Wines) Field practice areas, this 10,558-square-foot structure serves as headquarters for the Michigan Marching Band. The building was named to honor the man who served as conductor and then director of the University's bands for 36 years. Facilities include a large rehearsal hall, offices, a music library, storage rooms for uniforms, instruments, and property, as well as locker areas for band members.
The Field House at 1116 South State Street was remodeled in November of 1973 and renamed the Yost Ice Arena. Funds for this project were furnished by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. Charles R. Beltz and Company provided engineering services for this $555,134 project. Upon completion of the remodeling, the facility's name was Page 92changed to Yost Ice Arena to better reflect its new usage. It was named in honor of Michigan's famed football coach of early years.
The Track and Tennis Building at 1150 South State Street was approved by the Regents in April of 1973. It was completed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company in May of 1974 at a cost of $1,000,000 which was provided by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It contains 1,985,334-cubic-feet and 69,580 gross square feet and provides space for indoor track, tennis, and various other sports. Locker and shower facilities and the equipment and training rooms in this facility are reserved for Intercollegiate Athletic use. The five indoor tennis courts and the six-lane tartan surfaced running track are at times available for use by townspeople, students, faculty, and staff and their spouses at regularly scheduled hours for minimal fees. The Colvin, Robinson Associates designed the building. It also contains two indoor batting cages and has folding bleachers seating 1,500 to 1,800 for track meets. During vacation periods, the facility has also been used for such events as the Ann Arbor Builder's Show.
The Dearborn Campus was originally a gift from the Ford Motor Company of the Fairlane mansion and accompanying out-buildings and 210 acres of land, and from the Ford Motor Company Fund of $6,500,000 to provide an initial complement of buildings. These gifts were gratefully accepted by the Regents in February of 1957. Preliminary planning was provided by Barr and Linde, architects. In July of 1957, Hubbell, Roth and Clark of Birmingham, Michigan, were employed to design roadways, utilities, and parking areas, and Giffels and Vallet, Inc. of Detroit were employed as architects for the buildings. The general construction contracts were awarded in April of 1958 to Spence Brothers of Saginaw. The first buildings were completed by the fall term of 1959 and consisted of a classroom and administration building, engineering laboratory, and faculty office building.
Student housing facilities at Dearborn were first discussed by the Regents in April of 1962 and construction was Page 93authorized in September of 1962. Work began in the fall of 1963 on the Dearborn Fairlane Apartments and they were completed in February of 1965 at a cost of $700,000 to be financed by unit revenues.
Additional buildings have also been constructed. The Dearborn Classroom and Office Building was started in May of 1972 and completed in December of 1972, financed by state appropriations. The Dearborn Student Activities Building addition was completed in May of 1975, financed by University sources. The Dearborn Engineering Laboratory renovations were completed in December of 1975, financed from state appropriations. A Dearborn parking Structure was completed in November of 1976, financed from University sources.
The Dearborn physical Activities and Recreation Complex - Phase I was begun in March of 1977 and was scheduled for completion in December of 1977. This is financed from University sources.
The June 30, 1977, records for the Dearborn Campus show assets at $1,680,079 for 196.0168 acres of land, and $9,322,580 for thirty-nine buildings.
During 1955-56 planning was under way for the Flint Campus. First classes were held in September of 1956 in temporary spaces while the Mott Memorial Building was under construction, a gift from the Charles S. Mott Foundation. This building was owned by the Flint Board of Education but dedicated for use by the University of Michigan. An agreement between the University and the Flint Board of Education concerning the shared use of facilities was formalized in May of 1959.
Expansion of the Flint Campus facilities was not long in arriving. In February of 1965 the firm of Nurmi, Nelson and McKinley Associates was hired as architects for the expansion program. In March of 1970, 17.27 acres were purchased. A gift of Mr. and Mrs. Colman J. Ross was accepted in November of 1971 for a Chancellor's residence, and this was named the Ross House.
Page 94In October of 1972 the Regents adopted a resolution to relocate the campus from Court Street to a riverfront location near the center of Flint. State financing was sought and obtained for this move.
The Flint Court Street Building, financed by gifts, was completed in December of 1973 by the Cunningham-Limp Company. This served to supply additional needed space pending the move to the new location.
A large classroom and office building was built on the riverfront site, financed by state appropriations. This structure was begun in June of 1974 and completed in January of 1977.
The June 30, 1977, records for the Flint Campus show assets at $1,123,942 for 52.94 acres of land and $10,350,623 for ten buildings.
The Speech Camp near Northport in Leelanau County was acquired in early 1949, largely through a gift from the S. S. Kresge Foundation, and supplemented from University sources. It is described in some detail in Volume IV, pages 1601-03. The initial cost for 26.1 acres and the various buildings was $7,700 for land and $75,000 for buildings. Additions to the structures have resulted in a June 30, 1977 over-all book value for buildings of $144,000. There are 27 buildings presently in use.
Two private residences, one frame and the other brick, originally known as the Dexter Faculty Houses, were constructed by E. R. Young Company in 1956 on property next to Gordon Hall in the village of Dexter. These were financed primarily from a private gift from Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick and supplemented by University sources. These houses were designed by Colvin, Robinson Associates as rental units for faculty occupancy.
The Matthaei Botanical Gardens at 1800 Dixboro Road in Washtenaw County are comprised of 241.75 acres and 16 structures containing 1,481,690 cubic feet and 90,866 gross square Page 95feet. The book values as of June 30, 1977, are $485,656 for land and $1,792,068 for buildings. These facilities were made possible originally by a private gift of the land (and two barns) from Frederick C. Matthaei in 1958. Since that time, buildings have been constructed and land improvements have been made, all financed by additional private gifts, federal grants, and University sources. By the late 1950s it was determined that industrial and traffic development, University growth, and the changing needs of the plant sciences necessitated the search for a new and larger site for the University's Botanical Gardens. Phase I construction consisted of an administration building, two greenhouses, and some research space totaling 29,778 square feet. Alden B. Dow, Inc. furnished architectural services for this and all other phases of the gardens' development. A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company completed the construction of this $576,372 project which was funded from gift and University monies. Phase II of the development added a 12,360-square-foot laboratory project in 1961 which totaled $328,866, funded from a National Science Foundation Grant matched by University funds. An additional part of Phase II development added two more greenhouses totaling 12,360 square feet. Completed by the Perry Construction Company in 1962, the $71,084 greenhouse project was funded from gift and University funds. Also finished at this time was a Superintendent's residence of 2,928 square feet. Built by Ray F. Daum Company this $31,581 structure was financed from University sources. Phase III, completed in 1966 by the Henry deKoning Construction Company, saw the addition of a permanent plant-collection greenhouse, in addition to classroom and office spaces totaling 31,600 square feet. This $884,273 project was funded by a federal grant and by University funds. The Gardens are located in an unusually attractive setting and provide an excellent laboratory for instruction and research.
The Willow Run U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Facilities are located contiguous to Willow Run Airport, primarily east of Beck Road. They consist of 156,229 acres and 39 structures at June 30, 1977, with a book value of $151,300 for land and $1,046,000 for buildings. These properties were acquired through a grant from the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1961 and supplemented by improvements and other additions Page 96from University sources. These facilities are used for research purposes.
As of June 30, 1977, Radrick Farms, at Dixboro and Geddes Roads in Washtenaw County, comprised 654.78 acres and 20 structures with book values of $1,343,198 for land and $393,682 for buildings. The acquisition of these facilities was made possible by an original gift in 1962 from Frederick C. Matthaei and an additional gift in 1965 from the same donor. An additional contiguous 15.89 acres were purchased by the University in 1967-68. Land value was increased in 1967 by construction of an excellent golf course, also with funds provided by Matthaei. The course was designed by the nationally recognized golf course architect Peter Dye of Indianapolis, Indiana, and built by the Maddox Construction Company of St. Charles, Illinois. Construction on the 18-hole, par-72, 6,480-yard course was begun in the fall of 1964.
In January of 1964 the Regents accepted a gift from Calumet and Hecla, Inc. of 203.45 acres of land, valued at $21,392, at the far northern tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula in upper Michigan. This is known as the Keweenaw Peninsula Rocket Launching Site and is used for atmospheric and environmental research purposes.
The Portage Lake Observatory No. 2 at Peach Mountain, in the Waterloo Recreation Area in Washtenaw County, was built by Butcher and Willits, Inc. in April of 1969 at a cost of $589,210. It was designed by Colvin, Robinson, Wright and Associates and contains 93,927 cubic feet and 5,514 gross square feet. It was financed from federal funds and University sources.
Three significant building additions have been constructed at the Biological Station at Douglas Lake near Cheboygan. The Alfred H. Stockard Lakeside Laboratory, a 24,943-square-foot laboratory, classroom, and research facility, was named to honor the late Director of the Biological Station, who had served from 1940 to 1966. It was designed by The Architects Collective, Inc. and was completed in 1966 by the Omega Construction Company. Funding for this $636,000 structure was from a National Science Foundation grant and matching University funds. Also designed by The Architects Collective, Page 97Inc. and completed by Omega Construction Company in 1966 was a 6,299-square-foot residential unit. This $162,000 structure was also funded by National Science Foundation grant money and matching University funds. A new and efficient dining hall and kitchen facility, designed by David Trautman, was completed by Concrete Systems, Inc., in 1976. Replacing a small and outdated unit, this 12,371-square-foot $440,000 structure was funded from unrestricted gifts and University funds.
Occasionally, older buildings needed to be removed to make way for this program of extended development, and in some cases sold to help finance new acquisitions. Major removals are listed as follows:
- 1955 Printing Service (old) - sold
- 1956 Engineering West Annex - razed
- 1956 Contagious Hospital - razed
- 1956 Pemberton-Welch Residence - razed
- 1956 X-Ray Film Storage - razed
- 1957 Laboratory of Medical Research - razed
- 1958 Power Substation - razed
- 1958 Romance Languages - razed
- 1959 ROTC Quartermasters Office - razed
- 1959 Heredity Clinic - razed
- 1961 East Hall - razed
- 1962 Botanical Gardens (old) - sold
- 1964 Music Building and Land (Maynard St.) - sold
- 1964 Beal Residence - razed
- 1965 Institute for Social Research (old) - razed
- 1966 Temporary Classroom Building - razed
- 1967 Physics Building (west) - razed
- 1967 High Temperature Research Laboratory - razed
- 1970 Laundry (old) - razed
- 1975 Flint Campus Apartments - sold
- 1975 Radiation Laboratory - razed
- 1977 Willow Run Laboratory - transferred to Wayne County Road Commission
- 1977 Observatory (1908 Addition) - razed
- 1977 Barbour-Waterman Gym - razed
The most important land acquisition since 1940 is that of the North Campus. With the purchase of the Goss property of 220 acres in December of 1955, which was the largest individual purchase for the North Campus area, recognition was given to this concentration of land area in the University records. Some parcels previously purchased were combined with the Goss purchase, and at this time the North Campus was identified in the University financial reports as a campus geographic area. The first purchase of land (88 acres) was authorized by the Regents on December 16, 1949. With the addition of subsequent purchases up to June 30, 1977, the North Campus total land area is 792 acres at a cost of $1,730,383. The land areas of North Campus were annexed to the City of Ann Arbor for the most part in 1952 with some added annexations in 1960. Altogether, this represents 27 significant parcels purchased in a span of time from 1950 through 1975. During this period a few parcels were sold to private industry seeking a location in this area for research activities of interest to the University. Among these are: 30 acres sold to Climax Molybdenum Company in 1963 and 48 acres to Parke Davis and Company in 1956-57. Many buildings have been constructed on the North Campus since the beginning of its development, some for instruction and research, and others for housing, feeding, recreation, and administrative service functions. The potential exists for more building expansion. Development of the North Campus required utility extensions for electricity, natural gas, city water, sewerage, and telephone services. In addition, layouts and construction of streets, curbs, gutters, and walkways were coordinated with the appropriate city officials. Expenditures for these developments were shared by the University with the city. A successful implementation of landscape planning resulted in a beautiful open setting of groves of trees and expansive green areas interspersed among the buildings.
Physical property values at June 30, 1977, for the North Campus are summarized as follows:
A review of selected statistics at the beginning and end of the 1940-77 period provides a background against which to judge the relationships between the City and the University.
In 1940 the University occupied approximately 8 percent of the city's total land area of 3,672 acres. In 1970, the percentage had remained relatively stable at 10.5 percent, and in 1977 the University occupied 1,560 acres or 10.4 percent of the total city acreage of 15,025. The North Campus lands of 792 acres, or almost 50 percent of the University acreage within the expanded city, represented the major growth area.
In the fall of 1940 the student population was 12,875 or 43 percent of the nonstudent city residents counted in the 1940 census. The 1970 census, which included students, showed the Ann Arbor population to be 99,797. Adjusting this figure for the estimated 26,000 students counted by the census enumerators indicates a nonstudent resident city population of 73,797. A fall 1970 enrollment in Ann Arbor of 32,940 gave a comparable 1970 student to nonstudent residence percentage of 45 percent - a relatively stable percentage. Fall 1976 enrollment in Ann Arbor was 34,754 and the Ann Arbor population was estimated at 106,000, continuing the relative stability at 43 percent.
The University housed 22 percent of its students in 1940, 33 percent in 1970 and 33 percent in 1977.
Therefore, in proportional terms, there remained, over the thirty-seven year period from 1940 to 1977, a stability between students and population and between land owned by the University and land within the City of Ann Arbor.
There are, however, areas of change which lack this same stability. The number of visitors to the University has increased greatly. In 1940-41 the Director of the University Hospital reported 132,327 outpatient visits. In 1970-71, there were 312,808 outpatient visits, an increase of over 180,000. By 1976-77 this figure had grown to just Page 100over 350,000. The Registrar reported 6,791 people participated in noncredit institutes and conferences in 1940-41, while a survey of the major units sponsoring such conferences in 1976-77 indicated an approximate seven-fold increase to 46,645.
Student use of automobiles in the city was controlled by a Regents' regulation in 1940, and some 509 special permits were issued allowing students to drive. By 1946-47 some 3,600 students were driving. The driving regulations were removed in the summer of 1968 and, by fall of 1971, it was estimated 13,000 students would have cars on the campus.
Accommodating to the changes presented by the growth of the city and the University has involved the recognition of common interests in the community at large. The University and city have financed several planning studies over the years, the first being "Measures for Relieving Ann Arbor Street Traffic Conditions" in 1956. Another interesting study dealt with the planning treatment for the Huron River Valley, one of Ann Arbor's important visual amenities.
The fact that the University, as a state institution, is exempt from local taxation has created special problems for the city, particularly during periods of growth. Because of the common interests of the city and the University, the two have worked together to devise means by which the University can purchase required municipal services.
The question of Fire Department and Police Services provides an example of the accommodations reached. Acting under Public Act 98 of the Public Acts of 1929, which authorized contracting for police services, the Regents agreed in 1946 to pay annually a sum equal to the salary of seven policemen to the city "as long as the police service rendered to the University is satisfactory to the Board of Regents." In September 1946, the Regents agreed to purchase a high-pressure fog truck for the use of the City Fire Department, and in 1950 purchased an aerial ladder truck at a cost of $32,000.
In October of 1947 the police agreement was modified to pay the city one-seventh of the total payroll of the Police Department beginning with the fiscal year 1947-48. Page 101In 1951, following adoption of rules and regulations on traffic and parking, the Regents delegated enforcement to the City Police Department and agreed to pay for the acquisition of two radio-equipped motorcycles and the salaries and fringe benefits of two uniformed motorcycle policemen.
In April of 1956 the Regents approved transfer of the fire-fighting equipment to the city and agreed to pay the city 18 percent of the Fire Department operating budget for services rendered by the department to the University. The 18 percent was based upon a comparison of property values, comparative insurance rates, and the number of fire runs over a four-year period.
Effective July 1, 1964, payments for police services were similarly set at 18 percent of the police operating budget. Payments under this formula for 1969-70 amounted to $480,335 for police service, and $305,112 for fire protection. In addition, $56,832 was paid for patrol of University parking facilities.
These arrangements between the city and the University were challenged by Governor William Milliken in his budget message to the Legislature for 1971-72, which stated:
"The University of Michigan and Michigan State University have for some time made payments to their municipal units for police and fire services. Rather than extend this policy to other cities throughout the state, the budget proposed dropping these reimbursements in the belief that the revenue sharing proposal and redistribution of sales, use, intangibles, gasoline and income taxes represent adequate assistance for these services rendered throughout the state."
In writing to the Governor in February 1971, City Administrator Guy C. Larcom, Jr., pointed out:
"Unlike the situation in many other university cities, the University of Michigan, as you well know, is an integral and physical part of the City of Ann Arbor with the central campus area in the downtown portion of the city and with other major land areas such as the north campus within the city limits. The reason for the joint agreements which have Page 102persisted over the years is the recognition by the University and the City that they must plan together in all areas of development and of service and that any effort to split up services would be a costly and hazardous process that could not help the City nor the University."
Following the Governor's recommendation for discontinuation of the 18 percent payment formula for police and fire services, a negotiated direct cost contract was made with the city. A payment of $350,000 was made to the city for 1971-72 police and fire services. (Payments for 1970-71 under the former plan totaled $896,266.)
In July 1974 Regental action authorized payments to the City of Ann Arbor "of up to $475,000 for police and fire services subject to the following conditions:
"That police services are provided by a specific agreement which indicates that manpower and other services are included. That payments for fire service are made with the understanding that they are made for a one-year period only, and that they are to be discontinued in the event that such payments are not authorized by action of the Legislature for subsequent years."
In March 1975 payment of $250,000 was made for Fire Protection Service for the period July 1974 to June 1975. Payments for 1976-77 were $275,000.
Public Act 289, enacted by the legislature and signed by the Governor in 1977, provided a means for payment directly by the state to municipalities for fire protection services received by state facilities.
Ann Arbor's eccentric street patterns, combined with the growth of the city and the University have received much attention. The "Central Campus Planning Study" completed in June 1963 recommended a series of traffic improvements throughout the campus area. A City of Ann Arbor "Thoroughfare Plan" report was issued in November 1963. Subsequently a joint University-City sponsored study, conducted by Harland Bartholemew and Associates entitled "A Traffic and Parking Analysis — The Ann Arbor Thoroughfare Plan in Relation to University of Michigan Central Campus Page 103Study" reviewed the relationship between City and University plans.
The major thrust of the study was to seek ways of improving circulation around the campus, on a "ring" made up of Forest Avenue, Washtenaw Avenue, Hill Street, Division Street, and Huron Street, while closing certain minor streets to automobiles. As a result, the following campus area streets were closed:
- 1. Washington Street between Fletcher Street and Forest Avenue. This closing allowed the construction of the Fletcher Street Parking Structure with entrances on both Fletcher Street and Forest Avenue. (1964)
- 2. North University Avenue east from Forest Avenue to the east boundary of the Margaret Bell Pool site. (1968)
- 3. North University Avenue west from Forest Avenue to Washtenaw Avenue. This allowed the construction of a walkway and pedestrian bridge over Forest Avenue toward the dormitories on the Observatory "hill" and eliminated an especially dangerous conflict between pedestrians and traffic on Forest Avenue. (1968)
- 4. Haven Street between Monroe Street and Hill Street. This closure permitted the construction of the Hill Street Parking Structure. (1969)
- 5. East University Avenue between North and South University Avenues. (1970)
In recent years, major street improvements have been made to Forest Avenue, Fuller Road, and Observatory Street, and the University has shared the cost of these improvement projects with the city.
There was a surprise in one of the Harland Bartholemew recommendations, which suggested a new north-south parkway from Washtenaw Avenue on the south to Fuller Street on the north, using the Arboretum as a route. A University official hastened to disavow that recommendation in a press release, saying, "…the reported recommendation for routing a thoroughfare through the Arboretum area is completely inconsistent Page 104with the assigned use of the property as an arboretum. This route location has not been a part of University plans for campus development and there is no concept or provision for a change in the use of the Arboretum."
Other street closings have included East Jefferson Street in 1945 between State and Maynard Streets to permit construction of the former Administration Building, now the Literature, Science, and Arts Building. Clark Street, in the Medical Center, was closed in 1950, and Thayer Street, between Washington and Huron Streets, was closed in 1955 to permit expansion of the Frieze Building.
Between 1946 and 1977, the University participated in street improvements, curb and gutter, sidewalks, and related expenses to the extent of $2,749,907. Payments were also made to the city in 1940 and 1947 for the expansion of the city's water and sewage treatment plants. Since that time both water and sewer rates have been set at a level to provide revenue for plant expansions.
The University has deeded land to the city for road improvements, two notable examples being 4.21 acres of North Campus land for the construction of the Huron Parkway in 1965 and a strip of land for widening Green Road on the eastern boundary of the North Campus.
In the acquiring of land for expansion of the University, there has long been concern by citizens about the removal of such lands from the tax rolls, thereby decreasing the city's tax base. In acquiring land, the University, beginning with the acquisition of parcels in the Medical Center in 1891, has attempted to acquire undeveloped land for future use. The North Campus development was an acquisition of this type. In addition, subsequent sales of University lands to Parke-Davis in December of 1957, and to the Climax Molybdenum Company in December of 1964 for building research laboratories resulted in a net increase in the tax base of the city. A study for the period July 1956 through December 1968 showed that the University purchases had removed taxable property with an assessed valuation of just under $1,370,000, but that sales of University property had resulted in adding over $3,700,000 in assessed valuation during the same period.
Page 105In 1967 the University sold two acres of land on Green Road to the Ann Arbor Housing Commission for use as a site for public housing. The sale was at an appraised market value of $10,000 per acre.
The Regents in January 1967 agreed to share the cost of an artificial ice rink and swimming pool complex to be built on Fuller Road. The University's contribution of $212,000 permitted enlarging the pool to Olympic size. Under the terms of an agreement with the city, the University participates as a lessee of restricted use time of the facility. Intramural Director Dr. Rodney Grambeau was designated as the University spokesman and coordinator for scheduling University use in accordance with the lease agreement.
The University provided rent-free use to the city of a parcel of land along the Huron River which included seven holes of an 18-hole Municipal Golf Course. The parcel was acquired in 1955, and the city continued its use until February 1968, when improvements to the land for intramural field sports were scheduled by the University. Since that time the Ann Arbor Recreation Department has used the field in the summer for league baseball games.
University-City cooperation pioneered one of the nation's most unique recreation developments in 1968 with the establish ment of the Summer Recreation Program for community youngsters. This innovative and initially very successful addition to the free summer sports opportunities for Ann Arbor children was made possible by the cooperative efforts of the Ann Arbor Recreation Department and Athletic Director Donald B. Canham. Week-long clinics, directed by the varsity coaching staffs in the varsity athletic facilities, provided an opportunity for interested children to learn and gain experience in a variety of sports. Baseball, track, gymnastics, basketball, and football clinics were organized the first year and attendance averaged 880 per day. In 1969 clinics in wrestling, golf and tennis were added, and over 6,000 participated. Girls had been excluded from some of the earlier clinics, but in 1971, after complaints from local women's rights organizations, all clinics were opened to girls as well as boys. Unfortunately, interest in the program fell drastically in 1973 and no program was held in 1974.
Page 106In terms of facilities, the Athletic Department had, in addition to the Fuller playfields, made the varsity baseball field available for scheduling by the Ann Arbor Recreation Department. The 1970 football game between Ann Arbor's Huron and Pioneer High Schools was played in the Michigan Stadium.
Other areas of cooperation have been a summer job program for city teenagers, begun in 1968, and the use of University facilities for polling places. The North Campus Commons, Michigan League, West Quadrangle, South Quadrangle, Mary Markley Hall, and Yost Field House have been used for this purpose.
Many faculty and staff members have made major contributions to the city as members of various units of city government. In the past forty years, five of eight Ann Arbor mayors have been University people: Walter C. Sadler, 1934-41 (Professor of Civil Engineering); Leigh J. Young, 1941-45 (Professor of Silviculture); Samuel J. Eldersveld, 1957-59 (Professor of Political Science); Robert J. Harris, 1969-72 (Professor of Law); and Albert J. Wheeler, 1975-78 (Associate Professor of Dermatology and Microbiology). David S. Pollock (Supervisor of Community Service, University Relations), John Dowson (Professor of Dentistry), John G. McKevitt (Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer), and Clinton N. Hewitt (Assistant University Planner) are among many who served on the City Planning Commission. Mechanical Engineering Professor Jay Bolt devoted many hours to the city's Noise Ordinance while Civil Engineering Professor Donald Cleveland and Natural Resources Professor William Drake have worked with the Ann Arbor Transportation Authority. Numerous University faculty and staff members have also served on the Ann Arbor City Council.
It has been almost traditional that at least one Regent be a resident of the Ann Arbor area. In recent years local residents Roscoe O. Bonisteel, 1946-59; Frederick C. Matthaei, 1960-67; Eugene B. Power, 1956-66; Deane Baker, 1974 — ; and Sarah Goddard Power, 1975 — have served on the Board.
The University and the Ann Arbor Public Schools have long worked together and many University employees have served as trustees of the Board of Education.
Page 107In 1950 the University sold property at Stadium Boulevard and Main Street for the construction of a new Ann Arbor High School and purchased Wines Field (now known as Elbel Field), the High School Athletic Field at Hill and Division Streets, for University intramural use. In 1954 the University purchased the old Ann Arbor High School (since renamed the Frieze Building). In 1964 the Regents agreed to furnish 25 acres on Fuller Road for a second high school, with the understanding that the School of Education would cease to operate grades 10, 11 and 12 of the University School and arrange for an orderly transition of teachers and children to a new facility upon completion. The University purchased the Perry School at Packard and Madison Streets in 1965.
With the University scheduled to close the University School completely in June 1970, and with more married student apartments being constructed on the North Campus, the School Board looked toward the University for some sort of payment for the schooling of children living in this tax-exempt housing.
At the April 1970 meeting, the Regents agreed to make payments to the Ann Arbor Board of Education "…for school services to children living in Northwood Apartments; that the cost for that agreement be charged back to the tenants of Northwood Apartments, effective July 1, 1970; that those monies collected be held in escrow; and that the University join in a suit to determine the legality of payments of such charges…"
At the May 1970 meeting, the Regents modified the position by setting an amount of $6.00 per month per apartment unit and recommended that no payment be made to the schools until an opinion is obtained from the Attorney General or a court as to the legality of such payment.
In January 1971, the Regents resolved, "That the University of Michigan pay to the Ann Arbor School District an amount not to exceed $6.00 per month per unit for the period August 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971." And at the September 1973 meeting, it was "RESOLVED, That in view of the decision on September 18, 1973, by the Michigan Supreme Court in Sprik v. Regents (Docket No. 54432), a payment calculated Page 108as hereinafter provided shall be made by the University to the Ann Arbor Board of Education as soon as practicable. Said payment shall be an amount equal to collections by the University of $6.00 per month per married student rental housing unit for the months of August, 1970, through September, 1973, inclusive. Additional payments calculated in the same manner shall be made quarterly hereafter, and it is FURTHER RESOLVED, That any previous acts or resolutions of this Board which may be construed as inconsistent herewith are hereby expressly repealed and this Resolution shall control in the event of any such inconsistency or ambiguity." The legality of the payment was challenged in the courts. A May 1975 Michigan Supreme Court ruling resolved the dispute and cleared the way for payments to the Ann Arbor Board of Education.
The compiling of the information in this history and the writing of major parts have been accomplished by Frederick E. Oliver, Anita J. Stull, and William S. Sturgis, all long-time members of the staff of the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer.
COLLEGE OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE ARTS
From 1940 to 1944 Literature, Science, and the Arts was guided by Dean Edward Kraus, geologist and authority on gems and precious stones, and for many years Dean of the Summer Session. In 1940 the College student enrollment was 4,895. As America joined the war against the Axis Powers, faculty attendance at monthly meetings rose to an all-time high of 132. Plans were formulated to celebrate the University of Michigan Centennial on October 15, 1941, with James Rowland Angell of Yale as the main speaker. Despite increasing demands of the war effort and leaves of absence granted to faculty members for national service, the College shouldered 60 percent of the educational load at the University. Enrollment declined; the proportion of male and female students shifted drastically, and yet the College swung into the war effort through the establishment of ASTP (Army Specialized Training Programs) and the Japanese Language School.
The accelerated schedules resulted in fatigue and a slackening of interest among both faculty and students. As a consequence, the College Honors Program for carefully selected upper classmen, established in 1938 under the chairmanship of Professor Warner G. Rice, had to be temporarily halted, and the Administrative Board required over 500 students to withdraw for failure to maintain the required level of performance. In 1943 the College faculty chafed under low salaries: Instructor, $2,000; Assistant Professor, $2,500; Associate Professor, $3,500; Professor, $4,400. Faculty welcomed the Regents' provision of a year's salary before retiring at the age of seventy, and began to make plans for the anticipated postwar bulge in veterans' enrollment.
For the College itself, the major innovation under Dean Kraus was a system of faculty evaluation proposed by the local chapter of the American Association of University Professors. All reports were to be filed in the Dean's Office: (1) an annual record of each faculty member's publications; (2) end-of-semester student comments on Page 110pedagogy; and (3) a Committee in every Department to report on each individual faculty member's professional competence. Any faculty member could ask to see his own dossier at any time.
Hayward Keniston, who had come to us as Professor of Spanish from the University of Chicago, was named Dean on March 1, 1945. He immediately recommended and got salary increases in order to maintain an outstanding faculty, higher standards for both teaching and research, and, for the students, a wider educational experience than merely formal courses. With the influx of veterans, committees worked hard and long on curriculum revision, stimulated by the more mature views and greater motivation of the students. Experts, called in from Harvard, Columbia, and other peer institutions, advised that Art and Archeology be reorganized, Greek and Latin joined as "Classics," and that each department submit its plans for the next five years. Two associate deans were appointed to look after problems of counseling, advanced standing, curriculum, and personnel.
In order to attract more recognized scholars to the faculty, Dean Keniston urged an across-the-board increase in salaries of 20 to 25 percent, and the establishment of a few "chairs." Two "firsts" appear in the Dean's reports: a plea that faculty women deserve exactly the same treatment as men, and a series of appended reports by the associate deans on counseling, admissions with advanced standing, and personnel.
Apart from higher salaries there was still needed more time for research, more space, and better equipment. Of ever greater necessity was more and better thinking on the theory and practice of undergraduate education. We deplored the gradual erosion of the University's national character through the limitation of students from outside Michigan. Within, departmental autonomy fostered solidarity and loyalty, but militated against such newly-endorsed interdepartmental and interdisciplinary programs as Great Books, the five-year course in Chemistry and Civil Engineering, the Far East, Latin America, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature. The programs gained headway, thanks to the dedication of many faculty and students. Of great concern were Botany and Zoology, between whom there was little sharing of knowledge, Page 111techniques, and equipment.
Reaffirming their faith in the four-year liberal arts education with departmental concentration at the end, in 1948 the faculty adopted legislation on curriculum and on a sharpened evaluation of their own services. They agreed on triple criteria for promotion: teaching, scholarship, and "service," especially student counseling. "Near" and "Far-Eastern" were in unholy wedlock, so they were separated. Student evaluation began to improve teaching, and several promotions to tenure were made on the basis of outstanding teaching alone.
By 1949 distribution requirements were more exactly defined and greater cooperation was secured between departments. Progress was made in counseling and faculty-student relationship. Freshman English, a perennial problem, was revised, and a system of class visitation was set up to coordinate the many sections taught by teaching fellows. Chairmen of departments were no longer "Heads" with indeterminate terms of office but were often younger men with energy and administrative skill rather than wide reputation and were appointed for specific terms. By 1950 enrollment showed no increase for the first time in five years. Associate Dean Lloyd Woodburn was called to the University of Washington to serve as Dean of its College of Arts and Letters and was replaced by Professor Burton Thuma of Psychology. Associate Dean Charles Peake went off to Knox College and was replaced by Assistant Professor James Robertson of the Department of English.
With the establishment of faculty research grants, faculty morale rose substantially. The Dean and his staff moved to new quarters. The faculty grew larger and stronger than ever before.
There was a strengthening of the faculty through higher salaries, fringe benefits, and leaves of absence, with monetary grants from Rackham for individual research. Six years before, Anthropology and Fine Arts had no doctoral programs. Psychology, Astronomy, and Zoology are now considered departments of distinction. One-half of the departments in the College rank nationally among the first twenty. Of the doctorates granted by Rackham, 62 percent were trained by Page 112LS&A faculty. Dean Keniston urged the appointment of a religious thinker to head up the program in Studies in Religion. He pleaded for a University intellectual "Quarterly," and for a better University Press. He established the Literary College conference of faculty and students on the proposition that you do not prepare youth for the practice of democratic responsibility by preaching to them, but by giving them the opportunity for experience in arriving at group decisions that direct their own futures. After seven lively years Dean Keniston convinced his faculty that its appeal for popular support must be founded on the superior quality of its performance. He had reached the age of retirement. During the interim year of 1951-52 Associate Dean Burton Thuma, with long experience in the Dean's Office, provided continuity.
Dr. Charles Odegaard, erstwhile Professor of Medieval Intellectual History at the University of Illinois, Urbana, then Executive Secretary of the American Council of Learned Societies, was named Dean of the College in 1952. He was welcomed with the completion of new classrooms and faculty offices in the Haven-Mason complex and the four auditoriums adjoining Angell Hall. In his first year he promoted the visitation of high schools as well as junior colleges throughout Michigan, and, with Professor Lionel Laing of the Department of Political Science, brought the faculty code up to date. Insisting on the need for promising teachers and scholars in the lower ranks to work themselves up into the "tenure track," Dean Odegaard was proud that for two years not a single faculty member was appointed from outside above the rank of assistant professor. The Committee on Curriculum, created by Dean Keniston in 1948, became crucial in advancing such functions of LS&A as research interests and undergraduate teaching. Despite the good work of a new committee on classroom and scheduling, still more space was required. The demand for counseling increased, not only for the foundering students but also for the very bright. In favor of the latter was the smooth conduct of Honors for upper classmen in five departments.
During Dean Odegaard's six years as Dean, enrollment in the College increased by 34 percent, from 5,414 to 7,238; over 1,800 upper classmen were concentrating in 65 different fields; semester credit hours increased by 41 percent. Page 113The centrality of LS&A to the University was underscored by the fact that of the total number of semester credit hours taught on the Ann Arbor campus, LS&A was responsible for 53 percent of them. Because of this a fuller and stronger faculty became necessary as well as additional space. Rules for promotion were more stringent; search committees for personnel from other institutions were more vigilant and discriminating. Departmental faculties increased in size and salaries improved. After hours of individual consultation between departmental members of all ranks and the Executive Committee, several new chairmen were chosen and made subject to review after three or five years. The system proved successful and still works well. Research was fostered by integrating such units as museums and the Institute for Social Research into the regular College departments that best suited their disciplines. The establishment of the Undergarduate Library doubled the circulation of books within its first year. Mrs. Roberta Keniston was named its Director and served the student body and faculty in an exemplary way. Librarian Fred Wagman promoted the educational facilities of the College with the aid of an elected LS&A Library Committee.
Dean Odegaard resigned in the summer of 1958. Roger Heyns of the Department of Psychology succeeded him as Dean. His immediate challenge was the competitive offers made to our faculty members by other institutions. Most of them were met, thanks to President Harlan Hatcher and Executive Vice-President Marvin Niehuss, but there was a loss of some outstanding faculty, particularly in the life and physical sciences, largely due to the lack of adequate research facilities and "the absence of a congenial intellectual environment." One answer to this problem was the establishment of a Biophysics Division in the Institute of Science and Technology, which provided more modern equipment and more spacious laboratories. In the same year Dean Heyns reported the acquisition of a National Defense Education grant in the amount of $130,000 which provided for a summer institute in modern European languages designed to upgrade high school foreign language teachers. Professor Otto G. Graf, Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, served as its Director.
Admission for freshmen was tightened by the institution Page 114of national College Entrance Board and Scholastic Aptitude Tests. Area centers, Far Eastern in particular, became more popular and hence needed reenforcement. Dean Heyns and the faculty were persistently plagued by problems of growth exacerbated by the clash between the desire for autonomy and the University duty to cooperate with other schools on the campus. The complex chore of the College is teaching undergraduate liberal arts and preprofessional students as well as a growing number of students enrolled in the Rackham School of Graduate Studies.
In 1960-61 Dean Keniston's hope for a vitalized University Press seemed to be realized under the new Director, Fred Wieck. The Press published 45 titles, 35 of them by members of the LS&A faculty, and sales rose to $1,161,000. During Dean Heyns' term a new Department of Linguistics was created. Professor Otto G. Graf, the Director of the Honors Program, who succeeded Professor Robert Angell, reported that of the first graduating class through Honors a distinguished record was established: 18 received Woodrow Wilson Fellowships in support of graduate studies, five were named Danforth Fellows, 12 National Science Foundation grants were given, and, at long last, a Marshall Scholarship Fellow was named.
The major problem was the old one of maintaining an outstanding faculty and high quality of instruction. Higher salaries and more fringe benefits were of some help, except for the growing number of Teaching Fellows who had far too many of our underclassmen in their charge.
At the end of Dean Heyns four-year deanship, once more the indispensable Burton Thuma stepped in as interim Dean. In 1962-63 the abolition of the rank of instructor partly solved outside competition for faculty. With the University of Wisconsin a "Junior Year Abroad in France" was established at Aix-en-Provence. The space problem was relieved in part by the completion of the Physics-Astronomy Building (now the David M. Dennison Building). Faced with an increasing enrollment, a committee studied the possibilities of a Residential College.
When Professor William Haber of the Department of Economics was appointed Dean in the fall of 1963, the enrollment Page 115had climbed to a new high of 8,779. Faculty "full-time equivalents" reached 971, but still the 291 Teaching Fellows in the College were instructing about 30 percent of the courses, mainly at the freshman and sophomore level. The Residential College was approved by the Regents in April 1964, with Burton Thuma as its first Director. The Honors Program reported a continuation of its successes in national competitions and with the acquisition of foundation support was able to feature speakers and to create an Honors Professorship providing a year's stay for a distinguished scholar. Dean Haber, in anticipation of problems to come, appointed a committee of the most experienced faculty men and women, with Lowell Kelly as Chairman, to study the future of the College and to develop long-range planning.
With the College growing more rapidly than the University as a whole, Dean Haber's office released in January 1965 a committee report entitled Some Issues Controlling the Size of the College. The first year of the three-term calendar a new department, Computer and Communication Sciences, was added. The Honors Program grew apace, with 1,017 students enrolled in all four years of their undergraduate study. Additional housing for Honors students was provided in South Quadrangle, bringing the total number of Honors houses to three. With the cooperation of Wayne State University, Michigan State University, and the University of Wisconsin a Junior Year Abroad in Germany was established at Freiburg.
As the nation struggled with issues like the war in Vietnam and race relations, LS&A naturally became the most open forum on the campus. Issues were fully debated until deft compromises on various levels could be made. Student unrest, reflecting the national trend, continued. The sometimes noisy demands of BAM (Black Action Movement) produced a program in Afro-American Studies. The third week of March 1970 was a dismal low in a community dedicated to teaching and research; there was class disruption and some vandalism. Student demands for controlling their own educational destinies became so strident that fully-attended faculty debates had to be held in Trueblood Auditorium. Adamantly refusing to surrender its prerogative to define its own Bachelor of Arts degree, the faculty, in response to student pressure, did institute a new and different degree, the "Bachelor of Page 116General Studies," which exempted the student from any of the distribution requirements, and also precluded official concentration in any one subject.
The two years, 1968-70, welcomed Professor William L. Hays as the new Interim leader when Dean Haber, reaching retirement age, became Senior Consultant to the central Administration. The Department of Library Science became a new professional school and a Department of Statistics was created. Awakening social commitment among the students was partially met by expanded environmental studies.
The nation had quieted down in the fall of 1970 when Professor Alfred Sussman, Department of Botany, became Acting Dean. Passions were cooled, however, mainly by a financial "recession." Militancy was still alive for women's rights, minority appointments, full disclosure in tenure hearings, and the inclusion of student representatives at departmental Executive Committee meetings. At times faculty innovations were ahead of student demand, as in the creation of more interdepartmental concentrations. About 20 percent of the students were satisfied that a liberal education need not include a foreign language or any of the normally required Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science courses; they opted for the Bachelor of General Studies degree.
A series of lectures called "Liberal Arts and a Democratic Society" was established in honor of Dean Hayward Keniston, made possible by members of the family, colleagues, and friends. The first lecture was given by Professor Erwin Griswold of the Harvard Law School, later Assistant Attorney General of the United States, and the lectures became part of our intellectual life. A later endowment as a memorial to Dean Keniston provided for an annual lecture devoted to Romance Literature, which had been his field of specialization before he became Dean.
Ping-pong diplomacy turned the study of Chinese from an exotic luxury to thirty courses in seven departments. Better to resolve individual problems of students, the Course Mart was established, actually in many ways an accommodation of courses previously featured throughout the country by the "Free Universities." A Student Counseling Office providing "peer counseling" was also established.
Page 117Appointed Dean in 1971, Professor Frank Rhodes of Geology led the LS&A faculty and students in grappling with such national problems as recession, changing public priorities, and uncertainties in the labor market. American colleges and universities faced the fact that soon only 20 percent of the jobs would require a college degree whereas 60 percent of the seekers would possess one. The faculty cooperated with Dean Rhodes during his three-year tenancy in providing greater flexibility in course offering. The students also made adjustments; they became less career-oriented and more concerned about their individual and social needs. Ten percent of them were from Minority groups, compared with the national average for colleges of 5 percent. There were offered 1,400 courses in 2,000 sections; Course Mart alone was responsible for 40. Traditionally "closed" courses were "opened;" Botany-Zoology 106, for example, added 284 extra spaces each semester. In the midst of what came to be known as "the knowledge explosion," faculty and students were imbued with a new intellectual vitality. The Dean's office added three new Associate Deans for curriculum, student affairs, and faculty personnel.
Inflation, increased fees, and retrenchments in Federal support caused the enrollment to decline somewhat. Four-year liberal arts colleges were losing ground to vocational institutions. Throughout this period the Residential College registered a modest growth and "living-learning" programs attracted 18 percent of the students in University dormitories. The Honors Program continued to attract strongly qualified students and grew to 1,600 in number. Their record in the number of scholarships, fellowships, and successful application for admission to the most prestigious professional and graduate schools reflected the quality of the training and counseling which the Honors Program provided.
Four "Collegiate Professorships," each for two years, were established in order to encourage faculty members to develop courses they would not ordinarily teach but which are still rooted in their specific discipline. The continuing need for flexibility was met by instituting 17 "Mini courses" for one-hour credit on "Pass/Fail" basis; the Medieval and Renaissance Collegium, in its third year, increased the process of cross-fertilization; credit by examination up to 60 hours helped those students who had Page 118done part of their work elsewhere. After listening to freshman complaints of poor teaching and large classes, Dean Rhodes recommended the setting up of a few Freshman Seminars limited to 15 students to be taught in discussion-style by experienced professors.
Salaries were still below the university average and in Dean Rhodes' last year as Dean, 1973-74, a 5.9 percent increase in salaries was wiped out by a 7.5 percent rise in inflation. With internal pressure from unionization among faculty, such as the Graduate Employees' Organization, and external pressure to bring all higher education under public supervision, the College never sacrificed long-range planning for ad hoc satisfactions. The setting of College priorities, the reorganization of Biological Sciences, and redefining requirements for the B.A., the B.S., and the B.G.S. degrees demanded much study and the perennial problem of "Freshman Composition" was studied by a special committee under Professor Daniel Fader of the English Department.
As student demands became more varied, counseling became more central to the College's purpose. Enrollment stood at 12,431, a decline of 130 from the previous year, but freshmen continued to be of high quality, for the first time some of them admitted after only three years of high school. "Affirmative Action," however, received more money than, unfortunately, LS&A could find qualified students to spend it on.
After the GEO strike had disrupted instruction throughout the College for four weeks, an agreement was reached whereby teaching assistants would participate in decision-making which determined hours per week and compensation, but the College would determine criteria for appointment, duties, class size, and retention. The report of the Commission on Graduate Degree Requirements, in which LS&A had a more vital stake than anyone else, was approved by the Regents on May 16, 1975. The College had to accept, with all other units on the campus, a 2.5 percent cut in the budget; and nationally we experienced the results of a malaise among high school students, of whom over one-half fell below the combined SAT score of 700.
In these thirty-five years there have been ten Deans Page 119and Acting Deans. This apparently rapid shift in the College's top administration is explained by the high calibre of the persons called to fill that office. They have been consistently drawn off to positions of greater responsibility: to name a few, Dean Charles E. Odegaard to the Presidency of the University of Washington in Seattle; Dean Roger Heyns to the Vice-Presidency for Academic Affairs here and then to California as Chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley; Acting Dean Sussman to the Deanship of the Rackham School of Graduate Studies. Dean Frank Rhodes became Vice President for Academic Affairs and later moved to the Presidency of Cornell University.
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY
The Department of Anthropology was established in 1929 with Carl E. Guthe and J. H. Steward. They were housed in a room in the Museum of Anthropology reserved for research visitors. This was the departmental office until 1954, when the department moved to the basement of Angell Hall. The office remains there to this day, but departmental members have also had offices in Mason Hall, the Special Projects Building, and the Literature, Science and the Arts Building.
In 1940, Leslie A. White, Misha Titiev, and Carl E. Guthe offered some sixteen courses, with an undergraduate major and an M.A. program. Guthe resigned from the University in 1943, and the following year J. B. Griffin and V. H. Jones were added, though without College titles. During the next five years, following the appointment of L. A. White as Chairman, the staff was enlarged by R. K. Beardsley and F. P. Thieme on full time; from the Museum of Anthropology, by A. C. Spaulding, Kamer Aga-Oglu, and E. F. Greenman; K. Pike from Linguistics, and Horace Miner from Sociology. A Ph.D. program was established in 1948, the second in the Midwest, following the University of Chicago. This expansion was stimulated by the increase in student population following World War II, the growing awareness of the importance of understanding different areas of the world, and by the interest and support of Dean Heyward Keniston. By 1955 the staff had expanded to fifteen, and over 75 courses were available to undergraduate and graduate students. In 1965 there were 24 staff members, and by 1970 the department's size stabilized at between 30 and 35 members.
Professor Misha Titiev joined the department in 1936 after two years' activity as director of planning the archeological museum at Williamsburg, Virginia. Professor Titiev's field of specialization centered on American native cultural anthropology, a focus of interest which developed a strong and lasting association with the Hopi communities in Arizona. His interest extended to the Araucanian Indians in Chile, also to Indian cultures in Peru. Under auspices of a Page 121Fulbright fellowship he spent a year at the National University at Canberra, Australia, where he assisted in the establishment of a Department of Anthropology. In 1951 Titiev spent a year as Field Director of the University of Michigan Japanese Center in Okayama, Japan. The direction and conduct of a viable and distinguished Honors degree program in anthropology was in his charge from 1960 until his retirement in 1970.
Student enrollment has risen substantially over the years. In the 1946 fall term there were 10 graduate students and some 640 course enrollments; in the fall term of 1955 there were about 30 graduate students and almost 1,000 course enrollments; in 1964-65 there were 62 graduate students, an average of 1,780 course enrollments and 42 undergraduate majors in anthropology. By 1974-75 there were some 200 graduate students, 130 undergraduate majors and 4,760 course enrollments.
The doctoral program has been highly successful during its almost 30 years. Close to 150 Ph.D.s have been earned in anthropology. Archaeology and ethnology have trained most, followed by physical anthropology with about 15 percent and ethnobotany, a specialized subfield, with four recipients. For the first half of the period most of the theses in archaeology had as their geographical area North America from the Canadian Arctic to Georgia and from the Atlantic coast to the Southwest. They were primarily devoted to the building of cultural sequences and the identification of prehistoric societies. During the second half, archaeological thesis topics tended to be more theoretically oriented, and based on field work in Latin America, Europe, and the Near East. Early theses in ethnology explored various facets of the behavior and beliefs of contemporary American Indian societies. With the greater availability of research funds in the last twenty years, all of the continents as well as the insular Pacific and Caribbean are now listed as areas of field work. Meanwhile thesis orientation has shifted largely towards theoretical problems of anthropological interest. In physical anthropology, theses have been concerned with such problems as dental variation, the presence of strontium in human bone, human mating preferences, sickle cell anemia, and the age of bone. The theses in ethnobotany have dealt with the Page 122interaction between native societies and the plant world in Quebec, the Great Lakes and Southwest, and Hawaii.
The Department of Anthropology has had a series of joint appointments in other departments, institutes, and centers; these reflect the interests of the several staff members over the 35-year period. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, they include History of Art, Botany, Geology and Mineralogy, Linguistics, Political Science, Philosophy, Psychology, Sociology, and Zoology. In Sociology this association eventually developed into a concentration program in Social Anthropology under Horace Miner. A concentration program in Anthropology and Zoology is under E. Goldschmidt. Medical School departments of Anatomy and Human Genetics have had several joint appointments or interacting programs with Anthropology. In the School of Music there is a joint program in Ethnomusicology, and in the Highway Safety Research Institute a physical anthropologist has a major appointment. The staff of the Literary College has had a strong role in several centers of area studies established after World War II. Anthropology staff were active in the founding of the Centers for Afroamerican and African Studies, Human Growth and Development, Japanese Studies, and Near East and North African Studies. They have also been connected with the Centers for Chinese Studies, Research on Economic Development, Russian and East European Studies, and South and Southeast Asian Studies.
Leslie A. White was appointed an Assistant Professor in 1930 and was associated with the department until his retirement in 1969. F. P. Thieme served as Chairman for 1957-58, then becoming Provost of the University of Washington, Seattle. J. A. Spuhler was first Acting Chairman for a year and then served as Chairman until 1967 when he resigned to accept an endowed professorship at the University of New Mexico. Spuhler, like Thieme, was a physical anthropologist. W. D. Schorger, a social anthropologist, was Chairman from 1967 to 1970. He had been acting head during 1965-66 and was followed as Chairman by E. R. Wolf who served but one year, and resigned to accept a Distinguished Professorship at City University of New York. R. K. Beardsley was Acting Chairman in 1971-72. He, like Wolf, was a social anthropologist. Beardsley was also Director of the Center Page 123for Japanese Studies from 1961-63 and was active in its administrative and fund-raising affairs. Schorger was Director of the Center for Near East and North African Studies from 1961-71 and again since 1974. J. B. Griffin became Chairman in 1972, leaving office in 1975 because of retirement.
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY
Heber Doust Curtis became Director of the Observatories of the University and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy on October 1, 1930. Curtis had a clear directive and promise of financial support for developing a new site for an observatory and a new large telescope of world rank for astronomical research. Curtis died on January 9, 1942, just six months before reaching retirement age, without achieving any considerable progress toward completion of the tasks he had been hired to do. McGregor Fund of Detroit, however, had given the University of Michigan a disk of pyrex glass 2.5 meters in diameter for use in the construction of the reflecting telescope that Curtis had designed soon after becoming the Director of the Observatories.
Will Carl Rufus was made Acting Chairman to succeed Curtis. He served throughout the war years until reaching retirement furlough July 1, 1945. All of the members of the department served full time in war-related teaching and research and often were assigned to serve far from the campus and far from any University supervision. Rufus, however, assumed directorial duties with regard to the observatories and produced new designs and plans for the proposed large reflecting telescope. A part of Rufus's plans envisioned a cooperative development by the University of California and the University of Michigan, a type of organization that was to become popular in the postwar years under the name of "consortium." Perhaps Rufus's greatest achievement was the effecting of a complete integration of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory into the academic structure of the Department of Astronomy and the Literary College.
Page 124Allan Douglas Maxwell followed Rufus as Acting Chairman on July 1, 1945. He began the regrouping and reorganization of the department that would be required at the end of the war and on the appointment of a Chairman and Director. On June 30, 1946, Maxwell resigned to accept an appointment at the United States Naval Observatory and Freeman Devold Miller was appointed as a Visiting Associate Professor to assume Maxwell's teaching duties for 1946-47. The observatories and the department, without a director or a chairman, attempted to continue their postwar reorganization throughout the 1946 summer, but most of their efforts were expended in a search for replacements to fill the vacant top positions. At Rufus's request for assistance in attracting suitable candidates, the University administration had allocated $100,000 for a new telescope to be constructed in the development of the area purchased for the Department of Astronomy in 1927. For administrative reasons the Observatory Purchase, the Stinchfield Woods, and the Newkirk Purchase were combined in 1945 into a single holding to be called the Stinchfield Woods under the supervision of the School of Forestry with astronomy granted suitable sites for telescopes.
An end to the search for a director and chairman was reached in 1946 when Leo Goldberg, Assistant Professor of Astronomy assigned to the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, was confirmed as Associate Professor of Astronomy, Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, and Director of the University Observatory. Robert Raynolds McMath had been appointed Director of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory in 1938, and he continued as Director with sole responsibility and authority to act for this part of the department after the appointment of Goldberg.
In the summer of 1946 the McGregor Fund asked the University and the department about intentions for the large disk given to the Observatories for use in a suitable telescope. Judge Henry Schoolcraft Hulbert, secretary of McGregor Fund, expressed dissatisfaction with the almost imperceptible progress of the preceding ten years, and suggested that in view of well-understood promises, the telescope construction should be started immediately and should be named in memoriam to Heber Doust Curtis. The Regents decided to return the 2.5 meter disk, given by McGregor Fund Page 125in January 1935, to the Fund with thanks and regrets that they could see no funds to pay the costs of an instrument of that size. McGregor Fund then agreed to contribute a total of $100,000 during fiscal years 1948-49 and 1949-50 toward construction and equipment leading to the installation of a much smaller telescope of advanced design in the Stinchfield Woods, the telescope to be named The Heber Doust Curtis Memorial Telescope.
The death of Robert Patterson Lamont, February 18, 1948, donor of the Lamont-Hussey Observatory, Bloemfontein, South Africa, and principal financial supporter of its activities and the research of the Observatory in Ann Arbor, caused a careful review of the methods of raising money for the support of astronomy in the University. Throughout the years the University had paid the full costs of astronomical instruction, but almost none of the cost of doing research and operating the observatories. Noninstructional activities were paid for by donations from individuals or foundations.
At the end of the war in 1945 the armed forces began to offer grants and award contracts in support of astronomy and, somewhat later, similar allocations of government money began to be made by agencies created specifically for such tasks. The Office of Naval Research became one of the main supports for astronomical research nationally, and the Michigan Observatories and the Department of Astronomy moved rapidly to get money for their research programs. Important support, in amounts larger than any previously available, came from the Navy for studies in ultraviolet and infrared solar spectroscopy. The National Science Foundation, after its creation in 1950, replaced the ONR as the main source of funds for the support of astronomical research and advanced instruction.
A new research program supported by the Rackham School of Graduate Studies was started at the Lamont-Hussey Observatory in 1948. It was a cooperative project, "The Michigan-Mount Wilson Southern H-alpha Survey" for spectroscopic observation of stars not visible from North America.
Another change in direction of the department, resulting from postwar reorganization occurred in the arrangements Page 126for undergraduate instruction. Earlier departmental policy had decreed that every academic member of the staff from instructor through the rank of professor should teach at least one section of the beginning courses each term in the academic year. This policy was changed in 1947 and responsibility for undergraduate instruction was assigned to a very small number of staff members, with most of the academic staff assigned to advanced instruction and research. The postwar years brought a large increase in the number of undergraduate elections in astronomy.
Infrared solar spectroscopy, supported by ONR, was so successful that specific instruments were designed for its promotion at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, the Mount Wilson Observatory (under McMath-Hulbert supervision) in California, and finally a novel solar vacuum spectroscope was designed and constructed to embody new and improved components and techniques developed during the course of the Navy-sponsored programs. Funds for the new instruments were obtained from private donors; thus, the vacuum spectroscope at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, completed in 1955, was one of the last major astronomical instruments built entirely without assistance from government funding agencies.
From the early war years, in 1942, results from the McMath-Hulbert Observatory's programs, consisting of visual and photographic observation of the sun at frequent intervals whenever possible, had been increasingly demanded by various federal government bureaus, and the cost incurred in making continuous series of reports of changes on the sun was defrayed by government grants and contracts. Such observation and reporting gradually became the largest part of McMath-Hulbert's observing activity, and efforts were made to supplement visual and photographic observations with data on solar activity obtained in the radio region of the spectrum. In the interest of more nearly complete coverage of the sun's changes, new facilities were developed during the 1955-56 year for studies in solar radio astronomy. A cooperative program of the Department of Astronomy and the Department of Electrical Engineering, under contract with the Office of Naval Research, supervised by Frederick Theodore Haddock, Jr., was established. A precision radio reflecting telescope, 8.54 meters in diameter, designed primarily for solar Page 127observations supplemental to the observations of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, was installed in the Stinchfield Woods in 1955. A larger radio reflector, 26 meters in diameter, began operation in broadly-based radio astronomical study on the same site in 1958, but the 8-meter telescope remained available for solar research.
In 1954, after providing leadership for many years in United States astronomy in the Finance Committee of the American Astronomical Society, and after serving as President of the Society (1952) McMath was asked by the National Science Board through the National Science Foundation to be chairman of a committee for the study of "the astronomical needs of the United States" both internally and relative to astronomy world-wide. The work was begun and largely carried forward at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory. It was completed in Ann Arbor, October 27, 1957, at a meeting held for the formation of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy — an Arizona corporation. Thus, in the month of October, 1957, two events — the launching of the first successful artificial satellite of the Earth (October 5, 1957) — and the incorporation of AURA, Inc., started a transformation of astronomy into its modern aspect.
The corporation was created to use National Science Foundation money and other funds as available, for implementation of the recommendations of the McMath Committee. The principal recommendation proposed the establishment of a large astronomical observatory, primarily based in Arizona, but also at other locations both within and outside the United States. McMath became the first Chairman of the Board of Directors of AURA, Inc., and continued to give close and steady attention to all phases of the project until his health failed in 1961. Astronomy world-wide has benefitted enormously from the efforts of the University, its Department of Astronomy, McMath and his colleagues in the formation of AURA, Inc., a prototype of modern astronomical organization, and its three observatories, the Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the Sacramento Peak Observatory. On November 2, 1962, AURA, Inc. named the world's largest solar telescope, located on Kitt Peak, The Robert R. McMath Solar Telescope.
Page 128The Lamont-Hussey Observatory in South Africa has been an important source of research data internationally but it has played a relatively insignificant role in astronomy within the University. The Regents, therefore, voted on April 24, 1953, to discontinue operation of the observatory and to provide for the return of the large objective (0.69 meters in diameter) and its auxiliaries to Ann Arbor. Action on this Regental decision was deferred indefinitely, however, because of requests from the Lowell Observatory and other groups for use of the telescope.
On June 11, 1954, the Regents approved a proposed razing of the Observatory Residence, built in 1868. This continued a slow erosion of the Observatory properties in Ann Arbor that had begun early in the 1900s.
Goldberg resigned in February 1960, but deferred the effective date until August 31, 1960. Haddock was appointed Director of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, July 1, 1961, and Orren Cuthbert Mohler was appointed Director of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, September 1, 1961. On February 1, 1962, Mohler was designated Chairman of the Department of Astronomy and Director of the University of Michigan Observatories.
By Regental decision the Department of Astronomy was required to vacate its offices, classrooms, and telescopes on the site that had been dedicated to astronomy for one hundred and ten years. Office and classroom space in a new Physics-Astronomy Building was allocated to the department, but the future for the Observatory created by Tappan in 1854 and extended by Hussey in 1905 became uncertain. In 1963 the department's astronomical observation was performed mostly at observatories remote from the campus; indeed, many research observations were being made from space vehicles in orbits around the Earth. Only the 0.95-meter-aperture cassegrainian telescope remained useful at the original location, although for many years plans had been made for its removal or replacement. In July, 1963, applications to various agencies for funds to install the 0.95-meter reflector, or to build a new and better telescope on a new site were approved.
With the deferral of the return of the Lamont-Hussey Page 129Observatory to Ann Arbor, this Observatory reopened for full-time research in May, 1963. It resumed its mission of measuring southern double stars.
In 1966 efforts to relocate or replace the 0.95-meter telescope, still on its original location, had produced the beginning of construction of a new building in the Stinchfield Woods near the building for the Heber Doust Curtis Memorial Telescope. A new telescope, a reflector 1.3 meter in aperture eventually was commissioned in this new building in 1969. These additions to the department were paid for from various sources. The University of Michigan paid most of the cost of the housing for the telescope, and most of the cost of the telescope was paid by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
The Heber Doust Curtis Telescope was used extensively in the summer and early autumn of 1967, but in October 1967, this excellent instrument was moved from the Stinchfield Woods to the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, near Vicuna, Chile. The telescope was moved as part of a leaselend agreement between AURA, Inc., and the University of Michigan, whereby all the costs of moving the telescope, refurbishing it, and installing it in working condition in Chile were paid by AURA. The University of Michigan was assigned 122 nights observing time per year by the Cerro Tololo Observatory as the rental fee for the use of the telescope. All costs for the daily operation of the telescope are now (1975) paid by Cerro Tololo.
Observing activities were definitely moving far from the University's campus. On March 9, 1967, an instrument designed and constructed within the University was placed in an orbit around the Earth on board NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory, III. The McMath-Hulbert Observatory thus became the third astronomical observatory in the United States to make observations via satellite. The University of Michigan's Radio Astronomy Observatory had four instruments on orbiting space craft by the end of 1967.
Mohler relinquished the Chairmanship of the department and the Directorship of the University Observatories on September 1, 1970, but continued service as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory. Page 130William Albert Hiltner was appointed Professor of Astronomy and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy.
The growth of AURA and its observatories had reached a nearly dominant position in astronomy in the United States and this success caused questioning about the appropriateness of observational equipment on the campus of any university or college. Political considerations led to an ultimate closing of the Lamont-Hussey Observatory on March 1, 1972. The Observatory had gradually resumed active work in 1963 despite the Regental action of 1953, but increasing attention to the political implications of the connection between the University of Michigan and the Lamont-Hussey Observatory in South Africa brought about the return to Ann Arbor in 1972 of the large objective, auxiliary instruments, and records; and the return to the Municipality of Bloemfontein of the observatory buildings and the land they occupied.
Policies of AURA, Inc. facilitated assigning a location for the 1.3-meter telescope, installed in the Stinchfield Woods in 1969, on land leased for the Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona. In 1974 permission was granted by the National Science Foundation to relocate the telescope on Kitt Peak. Construction was started in November. The telescope was moved and put into operation on the Arizona location in May 1975, with the express purpose of optical support for the SAS-3 X-ray Satellite. The costs of the relocation and improvement of the telescope and supporting facilities came from contributions to the consortium of the University of Michigan, Dartmouth College, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology that was created to operate the telescope. The new institution was named the McGraw-Hill Observatory as an acknowledgment of the principal donor.
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
The imminent involvement of the United States in World War II demanded special duties for students and faculties. Carl LaRue was chosen by the USDA to procure fresh bud-wood of the Brazilian rubber tree from Bolivia, Nicaragua, and Mexico. He and Harley Bartlett, two decades earlier, had pioneered in the cloning of selected high-yielding rubber trees in Sumatra.
Bartlett went to the Panama Canal Zone in the summer of 1940 as botanist with the Gorgas Memorial Institute to attempt to discover the causes of increase in malarial-bearing mosquitoes. On his return to the States he was directly drafted to supervise the propagation of "the best Hevea (rubber) strains (in the Orient) and bring them to tropical America." In the summer of 1941 he succeeded in establishing plantations of choice Hevea clones in Haiti.
In September 1942, Bartlett began a "rubber-land-location assignment" in Mexico and South America which did not terminate until 1944. He supervised the introduction of plantings of the "rubber-bush," guayule, and the Russian dandelion, kok-saghz. This assignment was as much a diplomatic mission as a plant introduction project. It was his opinion in 1944 that "the future of guayule rubber appears very bright at this stage, at least as a hemisphere project, and the Congressional appropriations underwriting further development in many directions — one of which is improving methods for collecting the minute seeds — should greatly advance the culture of the plant in the Americas." In 1979 guayule cultivation again became news as the U.S. Congress legislated and funded for it an immense program in southwestern U.S. desert lands.
Frederick Kroeber Sparrow Jr., mycologist, showed ecumenical spirit in accepting an appointment with the Michigan State Experiment Station, growing milkweed for its floss, to be used in Army Air Corps uniforms. William Campbell Steere, bryologist, participated in the U.S. Cinchona Mission to Ecuador to procure quinine bark to compensate for the cut-off of supplies from the South Pacific. The mission was highly successful. William Randolph Taylor, Page 132now an internationally renowned expert on marine algae, was Senior Biologist in the Oceanographic Section of the Bikini Expedition, Crossroads, which witnessed mankind's first open, scientific demonstration of the power released in atomic fission.
During the years of the war the staff was more than adequate to teach the reduced civilian student population. The course for men in military service was accelerated. All staff members taught sections in the elementary course. The Veterans' "Bulge," following the cessation of the war, would have created great difficulties for all laboratory sciences had not the veterans been so eager for the opportunity of an education.
Professor Bartlett resigned as Chairman in 1947 having completed twenty-four years at that assignment. He retained directorship of the Botanical Gardens at its site near Iroquois Street off Stadium Boulevard, a research facility which he had virtually established in 1919. Professor William Campbell Steere was chosen as Bartlett's successor. In the regrettably short time he was in office (1947-50) he created an efficient operation within the botanical community of the University. Steere recruited new staff members in areas in which we were heretofore not represented: Pierre Dansereau, ecology, Alfred S. Sussman, physiological mycology, Fergus S. H. Macdowell, photobiology, and Robert J. Lowry, cytology, later electron microscopy, and Erich E. Steiner, an Oenothera geneticist.
Upon Steere's sudden decision to accept a professorship at Stanford University where he would be free of administrative duties, Kenneth L. Jones was appointed chairman for a three-year term.
W. Herbert Wagner, Jr., in systematics and morphology, developed courses in systematics of flowering plants, woody plants, and ferns. Elzada U. Clover who had been teaching taxonomy of flowering plants during Bartlett's numerous absences to faraway places, chose to shift her teaching efforts to an applied botany course at the Botanical Gardens.
Under the aegis of the Phoenix Project, a World War II memorial to University of Michigan veterans, the department Page 133received a munificent grant from the Dearborn Motors and Tractor Division of the Ford Motor Company to create the Plant Nutrition Laboratory in a renovated unit of the University Hospital on Catherine Street with fundamental research on soil-plant relationships. A. Geoffrey Norman was appointed Director, with George G. Laties as a full-time researcher. When Bartlett retired as Director of the University Botanical Gardens he was succeeded by Norman who recruited Peter Hypio, horticulture and taxonomy, and Peter Kaufman, physiology and development of vascular plants.
Primarily because of the increasing value of the land as real estate, the University deemed it expedient to disband the Iroquois Street area as a site for the Gardens. Regent Matthaei donated an extensive rural holding on Dixboro Road for relocation of the Gardens and, with the National Science Foundation, financed the buildings.
At about the same time the University Herbarium moved into new quarters in the North University Building. The National Science Foundation made possible the purchase of a great increase in herbarium cases. Also it funded complete renovation of all of the teaching laboratories in the Natural Science Building and of many of the private office/laboratories. It was a major decision on the part of the central administration of the University to approve the expansion and resettlement of the Herbarium and the Gardens. Dean Charles E. Odegaard was responsible for a change in status of Museums (and Herbarium) Curators. All were to have faculty appointments and classroom teaching responsibilities. This helped in the recruitment of new personnel: Edward G. Voss who had devoted himself to a special project on Michigan flora, became Assistant Professor of Botany in 1960 and took over the Aquatic Flowering Plants course developed by Sparrow and (in the Summer Session) the floristic taxonomy offerings at the Biological Station at Douglas Lake.
Titular appointments in Botany were now held by some faculty of the School of Natural Resources, their courses being cross-listed as part of our graduate degree programs. To stimulate research the Regents created divisions within the University which cut across departments and colleges. The Division of Biology, which included nonclinical units in the Medical School, School of Public Health, Natural Page 134Resources, Museums, and College of LS&A, was for several years a very lively affair, perhaps because of the deft chairmanship of Dean Samuel Trask Dana of the School of Natural Resources. Botanists profited as the Regents were pressured to purchase Mud Lake Bog, near Whitmore Lake. A program of distinguished visiting lecturers was initiated.
Jones retired as Chairman, after thirteen years, in 1963. He was replaced by Sussman (who became Associate Dean of LS&A in 1968 and advanced to Dean of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies in 1974). Norman became Vice-President for Research in the University (1964-72). Taylor became our only recipient of the Russel Lectureship "for Distinguished Achievement in Research" (1964). Steiner succeeded Sussman as Chairman of Botany (1968-71), and was followed by Beck (1971-76), whose brilliant studies on Devonian fossils are widely recognized.
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
The history of the Chemistry Department during the thirty-five year period ending in 1975 is marked by major transitions, not only in the numbers of students seeking instruction in the subject, but especially in the tremendous increase in the level of sophistication required by the subject matter. This latter change is evident both in experimental chemistry, where the techniques and instrumentation have greatly multiplied, and in theoretical chemistry, where the explanations of structures and of reactions have extended far beyond anything imagined in 1940.
The growth in student enrollment in general chemistry courses is three-fold from about 800 in 1940 to 2,500 in 1975; enrollments in the total chemistry courses reached 5,000 in 1975. Since the number of undergraduate chemistry majors has never exceeded 75 in one year, it is evident that 97 percent of the freshman teaching is offered as a service to students enrolled in other departments and colleges. This high fraction of service teaching has extended into the sophomore year in recent years where more than 1,200 Page 135premedical students are registered in organic chemistry. The number of graduate-student teaching assistants needed to provide supervision for the first and second-year laboratory sections has become larger (about 100) than can be met by the chemistry graduate majors and it has become necessary to appoint an appreciable number of graduate students who have backgrounds in undergraduate chemistry but who are majoring in other fields.
The size of the regular academic staff doubled from 19 in 1940 to 38 in 1975. The competition among universities for good staff has led to the disappearance of the rank of instructor and, during this period, there has been an increase in tenured staff from 58 percent in 1940 to 84 percent in 1975. One result is that even after allowing for inflation the average staff member costs more now than in 1940.
The problem of increased teaching and research facilities to accommodate more students and staff members is a perennial one. Immediately after the Second World War an addition to the then 30-year old building was constructed in an effort to catch up with the needs of that time. While the total space was doubled, the new addition had to provide for the College of Pharmacy and the Chemistry Stores as well as the Chemistry Department. Since the addition was occupied in 1948, the enrollment in chemistry has doubled and the department is still faced with the need to catch up.
The instrumentation required for undergraduate and graduate instruction and research has now extended well beyond the traditional test tubes, beakers, and flasks to include spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers, optical spectrometers reaching beyond both ends of the visible spectrum, spectrometers detecting magnetic resonance in atomic nuclei and in valence electrons, diffractometers for x-rays and for electrons, high vacuum equipment reaching into the 10-9 torr range, as well as a wide range of electronic circuitry. Need for the use of high-speed computer facilities falls in a special category both for recording and refining raw experimental data and for calculating the properties of theoretical models of structures and reactions. Because an acquaintance with these techniques is now expected in students exposed to chemical training, the costs per student have soared well Page 136beyond the increase due to the "normal" inflation factors and have made excellence in laboratory instruction one of the most difficult things to achieve in the physical sciences.
It is always difficult to single out individuals for particularly important contributions to teaching and research but any list of this period would have to include people like Werner Bachmann, Kasimir Fajans, Philip Elving, Richard Bernstein, Lawrence Brockway, Lawrence Bartell, Martin Stiles and Arthur Ashe. Their contributions have ranged widely from the first synthesis of a sex hormone through fundamental contributions to reaction dynamics and electron diffraction to the synthesis of a whole new class of compounds analogous to pyridine. In addition, the department maintained a consistently high standard of course instruction both at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Finally, perhaps one of the most significant achievements of the department is that it managed to retain a coherent view of the rapidly changing field of chemistry, mainly by the fact of its never having split into well-defined internal subdivisions. This unity is now one of the most significant factors in the growth of its programs and its national recognition.
DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL STUDIES
In 1944 Professor Campbell Bonner retired as chairman of the Department of Greek. He was succeeded by Warren E. Blake, who served as chairman until the two departments — Greek and Latin — were united as the Department of Classical Studies in 1946. John G. Winter retired as head of the Latin Department, but remained as Professor of Latin until his retirement in 1951. Professor James E. Dunlap became chairman of the new department and served until 1957. Under his chairmanship, the department began a program of systematic visitation of high school Latin departments in schools that desired contact with the University. This resulted in greatly increased mutual interest and good will between the secondary schools and the department as well as the University.
Page 137Professor Dunlap was also instrumental in organizing the Michigan Classical Conference, in which he sought to bring together all teachers of Latin, at all levels, in the state. It was also during his chairmanship that Professor Waldo E. Sweet was appointed to the staff of the department. Professor Sweet had already been active on the Michigan campus during several summers preceding his formal appointment, and had conducted Latin Workshops that had attracted national attention. Professor Sweet's pedagogical innovations consisted in presenting the Latin language in terms of structural linguistics. In 1957, Gerda Seligson came to the department, and later was joined by Glenn Knudsvig. Both of these devoted teachers carried on the implementation of the linguistic method and established it as the foundation of instruction in Elementary Latin. Through the Seligson Players and their presentation of Latin comedies, Professor Seligson developed and maintained a lively interest in this aspect of ancient culture.
In 1957 Professor Dunlap retired from the chairmanship, remaining on as Professor of Latin and Greek until his retirement in 1960. In his place, Professor Gerald F. Else of the University of Iowa, was appointed chairman. Professor Else, who had been chairman of the Department of Classics at Iowa for fifteen years, brought to the department a thorough knowledge of administrative procedures and an international reputation for scholarship, particularly in the fields of Greek philosophy and drama. During his chairmanship, the graduate program of the department was completely revised and strengthened, and the more systematic and clear-cut approach to graduate study in the Classics thus brought about resulted in the attraction of larger numbers of graduate students to the department, and to a very marked improvement in their quality.
In 1968 Professor Else asked to be relieved of the chairmanship, which then passed to a succession of younger men of varied talents and specialties, but of equal energy, vision, and scholarship. The chairmanships of Theodore Buttrey (1968-71), John Pedley (Acting, 1971-72), John D'Arms (1972-75, reappointed 1976), and again John Pedley (Acting, 1975-76, during Professor D'Arms' leave of absence) maintained the strong and highly respected programs established by Professor Else.
Page 138In the years between 1946 and 1976, members of the faculty at both junior and senior levels maintained the department's regard for scholarship and produced works of the highest quality. H. C. Youtie continued his activity both here and abroad with addresses, papers and substantial publications in papyrology. On Professor Youtie's retirement in 1976, his work was carried on with the same high standard by his successor, Professor Ludwig Koenen, who came to the staff from the University of Cologne.
In the thirty years since 1946, four aspects of the work of the department are conspicuous. First of these, because of its unique nature, is the work in papyrology already mentioned. It has conferred upon the University the distinction accorded to one of the preeminent centers of papyrological studies in the entire world.
Second was the establishment by Professor Pedley of both graduate and undergraduate programs in Classical Archaeology. Courses on both these levels had previously been taught by Professor Hopkins and others, but it was through Professor Pedley's efforts that these were developed into full-fledged programs in this field. In addition to this, Professor Pedley, as Director of the Kelsey Museum (1973-76), brought about the complete reorganization and remodeling of the Museum.
Third was the founding, organization, and implementation by Professor Else of the Center for the Coordination of Ancient and Modern Studies. Under his direction the Center held a number of successful and informative conferences, issued several publications, and served as a forum for the expression of significant ideas.
Finally, mention should be made of two rather unusual activities of members of the staff. Professors Hopkins and Buttrey both conducted highly successful television programs dealing with Homer, Greek Tragedy, and Archaeology. These programs, recorded by the University of Michigan and broadcast by Detroit's Channel 4, attracted wide attention and much favorable comment, and constituted a unique contribution to the field of ancient studies. They reached viewers not only in Michigan but in many parts of the country, since widespread use was made of the recordings elsewhere.
Page 139Throughout this period, the annual Jerome Lectures were continued in conjunction with the American Academy in Rome. They were delivered by outstanding scholars such as Gisela Richter, Lily Ross Taylor, and George Hanfmann. During this same time, the department was host to a number of distinguished Visiting Professors, each of whom made a more than ephemeral contribution to the cultural pattern.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION SCIENCES
This department began as a graduate program, which in turn had its roots in two research groups: the Phonetics Laboratory in the Department of Speech, and the Logic of Computers Group in the Department of Philosophy. Gordon Peterson directed the former and Arthur Burks directed the latter.
Gordon Peterson was interested in acoustics and phonetics. He built electronic equipment for analyzing speech, made recordings in an echoless room, and studied the basic phonetic patterns of speech. Burks had worked on electronic computers during World War II; his group did research on the logical design of computers and programming language, and on the theory of automata.
Peterson and Burks found their research groups shared a common ground and had the same educational problem: graduate students who wanted to do doctoral dissertations on the subjects covered by their grants but lacked a suitable department. Both felt that Peterson's interest in communication and Burks' in computation constituted an appropriate basis for a new doctoral program. Accordingly, they petitioned the Graduate School.
A number of other University faculty had related interests: Gunnar Hok (Electrical Engineering — information theory), Anatol Rapaport (Mental Health Research Institute — mathematical psychology), Robert Thrall (Mathematics — operations research), Edward Walker (Psychology — cognition), and Herbert Paper (Linguistics). With Peterson and Burks, Page 140they were constituted a committee, which in 1957 was granted the power to award the Ph.D. and M.A. degrees. Gordon Peterson served as chairman of the program until it became a department in 1965.
The original program title, "Language Models and Logical Design," was soon changed to "Communication Sciences." This title carried over to the department, but was in turn changed to "Computer and Communication Sciences" (CCS). For simplicity, this last title is used in referring to both program and department.
The CCS program's objective was to understand information processing and communication in both natural and engineered systems. Some faculty brought knowledge of psychological, social, linguistic, and biological systems. Others worked on the theory and application of electronic computers and electronic communication systems. All were interested in studying the interrelations of natural and artificial languages as modes of communication, and in comparing computational processes in natural and artificial systems.
The initial plan was to rely mostly on courses already offered by related departments. Thus a student would learn about information theory from a course in electrical engineering, about the informational aspects of biology from courses in the biological sciences, and about man as an information-processing system from courses in psychology. While this plan worked well for areas taught by members of the CCS program, it failed in other areas, because a CCS student had to take several courses in order to cover the equivalent of one course of relevant material, and was, moreover, at a disadvantage in academic background.
The program therefore developed its own core curriculum, establishing courses in automata theory, information and probability theory, analog and digital computers; and in natural language, psychology, and biology treated from an information-processing point of view. Students were also required to take a course in modern algebra and, when it became available, an advanced course in programming. After completing the core, they were required to pass an integrative oral examination, with more specialized study and a preliminary examination to come later. Design of the core Page 141curriculum and participation in the qualifying examinations helped to acquaint a diverse faculty with the broad range of subject matter and, further, to define the focus and scope of the new discipline.
Staff were needed to teach these new courses and the more advanced courses they soon generated. Two sources were tapped. First were young scientists in the two original research groups, who were often employed on a temporary basis and were, at least initially, part-time. With few funds, CCS had to rely on this category to organize and teach the needed courses up until several years after it became a department.
The other source of new CCS faculty consisted of individuals already teaching in the University who joined the program to teach courses and work with CCS graduate students. Henry Swain of Pharmacology introduced a course in the informational aspects of biology; Julian Adams of Biology later replaced him. Harvey Garner and Eugene Lawler of Electrical Engineering brought computer courses to CCS. Bernard Galler (Mathematics and the Computing Center) and Bruce Arden and Larry Flanigan (also of the Computing Center), who had been teaching programming courses, added the programming dimension to CCS, which over the years has expanded to a very substantial fraction of the department. Paul Fitts, Arthur Melton, Richard Pew, Stephen Kaplan, and Walter Reitman have all joined at various times to teach the informational aspects of psychology.
By 1965 it was clear that the program needed to become a department in some college. Because most of its support had come from LS&A, and because of the interdisciplinary and theoretical nature of the CCS program, a request was made to LS&A. This request was granted, effective for the fall of 1965. Harvey Garner served as acting chairman till the end of 1966, after which Arthur Burks became chairman and continued until 1971. Bruce Arden was then chairman until 1973, when he left to become chairman of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University. Bernard Galler was the next chairman, until 1975, when he became Associate Dean for Long-Range Planning in LS&A. Larry Flanigan has been chairman since that time.
Page 142When the CCS Department was launched, it had a full-time equivalent faculty of only six. It remained this size until 1972, then in the next few years grew to ten and a half. This was still a very small faculty for a department with so many responsibilities. CCS has greatly expanded its program for undergraduate majors, so that it now has about one hundred and twenty-five at any given time. The department has also developed its programming curriculum, with a rich and varied sequence of programming courses for both graduates and undergraduates. Moreover, as a department it has continued to have from sixty to eighty CCS graduate students enrolled each year, most of whom aim for the doctorate.
Since CCS began as a doctoral program and has now operated for over two decades, it is appropriate to evaluate its accomplishments. It has graduated over ninety Ph.D.s. Two-thirds of these are in universities here and abroad. Other CCS Ph.D.s are at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, International Business Machines (including one IBM Fellow), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Institutes of Health, National Security Agency, Texas Instruments, Weizmann Institute (Israel), Wycliff Bible Translators, and Xerox. Some graduates have formed their own corporations. Moreover, members of the department have had many research grants, and have published numerous professional articles, reports, and books.
It should also be noted that at the time the CCS program began (1957), the subject of computer science as such did not exist. A few people were being trained in established departments, mainly mathematics and electrical engineering, but the Michigan CCS program was the first independent program empowered to award the Ph.D. Its first Ph.D. (and the first anywhere) was awarded in 1959 to John Holland, whose thesis was in automata theory. Starting in the 1960s, educational activities related to computing developed rapidly, and there are now, in the United States alone, over sixty departments awarding the Ph.D. and many more giving bachelor's and master's degrees.
Because of the interdisciplinary way in which it originated, the Michigan CCS Department is unique in its breadth. This approach has been motivated, in part, by the desire to Page 143make the program and its graduates more adaptable, given the rapid rate of technological change in computing and communication. Many students have come to Michigan because of this breadth, and it helps account for the widespread distribution of the graduates.
The department is also unique in its strong emphasis on the relation of computers to natural systems. About 40 percent of the Ph.D.s have written their doctoral theses on natural systems or on formalisms closely related to natural systems, including those trained in the Phonetics Laboratory, while many others have studied the relationships between computers and natural systems beyond the core curriculum. In recent years, the theory of computer modeling of natural systems has been a major focus. Computers, with their tremendous power, are capable of simulating complex systems that are difficult to analyze with standard mathematics. Although specific applications have been and will continue to be made in other departments, a computer theory of modeling and simulation is an appropriate topic for a computer science department. Interest centers on the nature of models and their relation to the system modeled and to the computer that simulates the system, and on general principles for modeling natural systems or engineered systems. The subject also has a bearing on the simulation of programming systems on computers, so that it is relevant, as well, to the programming part of computer science.
Since the Logic of Computers Group was one of the founding components of CCS, it has been funded continuously by government research agencies since its beginning in 1956, and over the years it has provided more than half of the research support in CCS. For the past dozen years it has had its own computing system, although it continues to use the University's Computing Center. The group has produced about 40 percent of the Ph.D.s in the department. From its inception the Logic of Computers Group has done research in logical formalisms related to computers and to natural systems. The earlier research emphasized automata theory and decision problems, graph theory, probabilistic automata, cellular automata and parallel computing. More recently, research has been done in adaptive systems theory, function optimization, modeling and simulation theory, the modeling of natural systems (biology, psychology, anthropology), Page 144and also the history of computers. The group has produced many reports, more than 150 published articles, one patent, and five published books.
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS
The past forty years of Economics Department history have reflected much of the change taking place in the society at large, as well as in the discipline. World War II opened the period, and its immediate impact on the department was a drastic reduction in size. Students and potential students went off to military duty, while a number of senior faculty members, on extended leaves, rendered their service to management of the war effort in Washington. From the last prewar figure of 2,176 enrollment had dropped by the fall of 1944 to 1,106, and the professorial staff was reduced to eleven. Nevertheless, these eleven people strove to offer a full curriculum to the remaining civilian students and members of the campus military units who joined them in class. For Chairman Leo Sharfman it was a challenge to hold things together for the duration of the long, four-year crisis.
When the conflict ended at last the revolutionary Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended in 1945 by what came to be known as the G.I. Bill of Rights, catapulted the department the other way. Although it took a little time for the effects to show up, by the fall of 1947 enrollment peaked at 4,694 and faculty strength was back up to 14 on regular appointment.
During the immediate postwar period economics was headed for some important changes. The Keynesian revolution was now an integral part of the discipline, its tenets institutionalized in the Full Employment Act of 1946. National income accounting had emerged as a corollary, and from these two developments macro-economics arose as a special field. Gardner Ackley returned from government service in Washington, and Richard Musgrave was hired, to teach macro-economics and stabilization policy, respectively.
Page 145At about the same time the Survey Research Center moved from its original Washington connection to the University of Michigan, initiating another new thrust in economic research and teaching. The Economic Behavior Section, directed by George Katona, featured the collection and analysis of empirical data on consumer attitudes and behavior, and the teaching of survey methods and consumer economics entered the department's curriculum. During these years statistics was elevated to a course requirement for concentrators.
Among the economists who joined the Survey Research Center, Lawrence Klein was moving off in yet another direction of quantitative analysis, econometric model building. Klein was brought into the department as a lecturer and he conducted a seminar which undertook to build a model of the U.S. economy. Known as the Klein-Goldberger model it opened a new field of economic scholarship at Michigan and became a prototype for other models around the nation. After Klein's departure in 1955 the Research Seminar in Quantitative Economics continued to flourish under the direction of Daniel Suits from 1955 to 1970, and under codirectors Saul Hymans and Harold Shapiro since 1970. It is both a teaching seminar and a construction laboratory for the continually refined and elaborated forecasting model.
In order to bring an understanding of the model to the business and government officials who make use of its results, the annual Conference on the Economic Outlook was initiated in 1953. Here, each November, the forecast is dramatically revealed, often — in the early days — having emerged in final form from the computer only hours before. A model for the Michigan economy was added to the program in 1972. Now that econometric model building is part of the mainstream and familiar to attendees of the conference, additional topics have been introduced to the Conference program in recent years.
I. Leo Sharfman joined the staff in 1911, became chairman in 1926, and reigned for 28 years with superlative skill in his own style of autocratic democracy. He retired in 1954.
Following Sharfman's retirement the department was a Page 146victim of the virus loosed by Joseph McCarthy. Although it was badly shaken by the impact, its response upheld its honor. Two doctoral students and one staff member were the intended victims. In the student cases, the department sustained its right to judge them on the scholarly merit of their dissertations, not their possible political inclinations. But the valued staff member was lost to the department through voluntary resignation, despite a valiant effort on the part of the new chairman, Gardner Ackley.
With the Ackley chairmanship, the department entered into a new form of organization. The chairmanship became a rotating office, for a five-year term at first, later three. As the burdens of the chairmanship grew with the department, the post of associate chairman was created in 1963, with William Palmer the first to serve in that capacity.
Administratively the department was more or less prepared for the explosive growth of the 1960s, but in terms of staffing these were difficult years. Enrollment, which had receded after the G.I. bulge to 2,235 in the fall of 1952, grew steadily to 5,688 by fall 1969, and 119 Ph.D.s were awarded from 1961-70. Several members went on leave during that decade to serve in high government posts — Gardner Ackley to be a member, then Chairman, of the Council of Economic Advisors and later Ambassador to Italy; Warren Smith to be a member of the Council; Harvey Brazer as Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. The chairmen of the 1960s, Harold Levinson, 1961-62, William Haber, 1962-63, Warren Smith, 1963-67 and 1970-71, Harvey Brazer, 1967-70, were impelled to a pace of hiring which saw 39 additions to the professorial ranks in the decade 1961-71.
The most conspicuous new research and curriculum developments during this period related to international affairs. Economic Development emerged as a field during the 1950s, when the industrial nations adopted a new stance of economic and technical assistance to the undeveloped nations and former colonial territories. In 1960 a full-fledged Ph.D. field was authorized with seven National Defense Education Act fellowships, and Samuel P. Hayes, Jr., launched the Center for Research in Economic Development in 1961. Wolf-gang Stolper succeeded him as Director in 1963. The Center's twin program of research and advisory missions to developing countries grew steadily through the period. Its senior Page 147staff, including Richard Porter and successive directors Elliott Berg and Robin Barlow have regular appointments in the Economics Department.
The Economics Department's connection to the Far East goes well back into its history. Leo Sharfman spent 1910-11 teaching in Tientsin, and Carl Remer, who joined the faculty in 1928, focused his interest on China throughout his career. Alexander Eckstein joined the department a few years after Remer's retirement. He was Chairman of the National Committee on United States-China Relations, which arranged the famous ping-pong diplomacy in 1972 and helped to end two decades of diplomatic estrangement. The department's Far Eastern expertise was enlarged in the 1968-71 period with the appointments of Robert Dernberger and Gary Saxon-house. In addition a program in comparative economic systems was introduced, which also included Morris Bornstein, specialist in Soviet economics.
The central role of quantitative analysis emerged in diverse fields, from Robert Stern's econometric studies of international markets to the new approaches to human capital and labor markets in the work of George Johnson and Frank Stafford. And, during the 1960s, connections were established with other units of the University in the form of joint Ph.D. degree programs. Peter Steiner came in under a joint appointment with the law school, focusing his department work on industrial organization, along with William Shepherd. Appointment of Robin Barlow and William Neenan in Public Finance, and Robert Holbrook and Ronald Teigen in Macroeconomics and Money and Banking, deepened these fields.
In the history of American higher education the 1960s will doubtless be remembered as the era of student activism. The Economics Department played a conspicuous role in this phenomenon, with several of its doctoral students serving as organizers of the prominent Students for a Democratic Society, and, a few years later, the Union for Radical Political Economics. The latter association continues to be active among faculty and students on a number of campuses, although there is no longer a chapter here. Nevertheless, growing student interest in radical political economy, along with some faculty support, led to the introduction of course offerings in this area. Although economics was Page 148a focus of the Black Action Movement in 1970, increases in Black enrollment and the completion of graduate degrees by Black students have fallen below hopeful expectations. This is true also of efforts to recruit Black faculty.
If the 1960s was a period of expansion and excitement, the 1970s might be characterized as a time of reflection and consolidation. New faculty appointments, under the chairmanships of Peter Steiner, 1971-74, Harold Shapiro, 1974-77, and Saul Hymans, 1977-80, represented an effort to add depth to currently offered fields, rather than the addition of new areas. From a faculty of 13 in 1940 the department has grown to a professorial staff numbering 43 in the four decades of this survey. Service to the College and the University has marked the course of the Economics Department's history. Almost every member has, at some time, served on College and University committees, culminating in the appointment of Harold Shapiro to the highest office of this University, the Presidency.
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
During the years of the Depression, a new constituency of students began to enroll at Michigan. As scholarships and employment under NYA and WPA programs made it possible for more students to attend and for families to educate more of their children, women entered in greater numbers and the diversity of undergraduates noticeably increased. In response, the department supplemented its offerings by giving more attention to modern literature and increased its efforts, already well-advanced under the leadership of Clarence D. Thorpe and Charles C. Fries, in the preparation of secondary school teachers.
In the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, the Army proposed that the campus be converted to a manpower training depot, and emphasis on essential war needs led to a plan from within the University that the department be abolished to free its faculty for more martial endeavors. While this idea was not pursued, the war had a profound effect on offerings Page 149and organization. Some of the junior staff enlisted for military service, while others engaged in civilian war work. Many of those remaining in their University positions offered accelerated courses for Armed Services personnel.
Members of the department led in the formation of two new programs that responded to the changed circumstances of the war years. Joseph K. Yamagiwa directed the Army's Japanese Language School for the training of Intelligence officers and faculty of the newly-created Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures. Charles C. Fries organized the English Language Institute in 1941, initially to teach English as a foreign language to speakers of Spanish and later as a center for the preparation of foreign nationals as teachers in their home countries. Like Yamagiwa's program, the Institute continued after the war and eventually became an independent unit of the University. Both efforts brought new faculty to Michigan.
From the beginnings, long service had become a tradition in the department: Demmon had been head from 1881 to 1920; Louis A. Strauss from 1920 to 1938; Louis I. Bredvold from 1938 to 1947; and in 1947, Warner Grenelle Rice began two decades of leadership under which the department prospered as it grew. Rice built the Library and, in addition to his regular duties in the department, served as Director of the University Library from 1941 to 1953.
At the beginning of Rice's chairmanship in 1948, enrollment on the Ann Arbor campus stood at 21,360; by the end of his service, it had increased beyond 36,000. Such growth naturally led to a marked increase in the size of the department, and Rice seized the opportunity to enrich its staff and curriculum.
During the two decades of Rice's chairmanship, faculty were encouraged to develop organized programs of study for both undergraduates and graduates. Joe Lee Davis and Marvin Felheim established American Culture, while Austin Warren brought Comparative Literature to status as a distinct field of graduate teaching. John Arthos and H. V. S. Ogden were particularly active in College Honors and Great Books, and Marvin Felheim instituted the first film courses at the college level. In the early 1960s, Alan T. Gaylord and James Page 150H. Robertson joined a coalition whose efforts resulted in the establishment of the Residential College. In most such initiatives, faculty retained their appointments in the department, but when the Department of Linguistics was formed in 1961, Chavarria-Aguilar, Gedney, and Pike were appointed to the new administrative unit with Albert H. Marckwardt as Chairman-Designate.
Though Robert Frost and Robert Bridges had held visiting appointments for brief periods during the 1920s, creative writing came to occupy its important position at Michigan only after the mighty stimulus of the 1930 bequest that supports the Avery Hopwood and Jule Hopwood prizes. Designated for student writers of fiction, poetry, drama, and the essay, the Hopwood awards continue to attract young writers to whom faculty within the department have devoted themselves with special energy.
The teaching of introductory composition has drawn on a substantial part of the department's energy and, from the earliest days, provided employment for graduate students pursuing doctoral studies. Though many faculty seldom teach in the freshman program, a few have given special leadership, particularly Carleton F. Wells (who devoted himself to the difficult work demanded of the Director from 1936 to 1949), John Weimer, Hubert M. English, Jr., Sheridan Baker, Walter H. Clark, and Bernard Van't Hul.
In his chairmanship Rice emphasized departmental responsibility to educate on all levels. When he joined the department in 1929, there was little question that the University should inform the thinking of secondary school teachers, both in their preparation and through regular contacts with University faculty. Though other colleges and universities in the state came to assume a larger share of this work in the postwar years, Michigan's English professors continued regular contacts with teachers through school accreditation visits, meetings of such organizations as the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club (among whose founders in 1886 was John Dewey) and the Michigan Council of Teachers of English, and, in the 1960s, sponsorship of a series of NDEA summer institutes for high school teachers. Cooperation with the School of Education was maintained through joint appointments. Rice himself was a member of the Commission on English, a national project designed to foster cooperation among school Page 151teachers and university faculties and to provide a rationally organized curriculum for students preparing for college study. Rice supported yet another effort, known as English in Every Classroom, a project aimed at youth who might never reach college.
When Fred Newton Scott surveyed the English Department at Michigan in 1894-95, twenty-one courses were taught by four regular faculty and two graduate assistants; the equivalent of 3,500 hours of credit was given that year for study in English. Eighty years later, nearly five hundred courses and sections were taught by seventy-nine staff members of professorial rank (a high in the department's history), a dozen lecturers, and nearly a hundred graduate students assigned to part-time teaching duties; 45,000 hours of credit were awarded for the year's work in the department. These figures do not include graduate teaching that serves the programs and other departments closely linked to English faculty interests, such as American Culture, Comparative Literature, and Linguistics.
With Rice's retirement in 1968, the department came under the leadership of Russell A. Fraser (1968-73). Like Rice, Fraser encouraged initiatives that led to the formation of new programs of study, among them the Center for Afroamerican and African Studies, the Medieval and Renaissance Collegium, and Women's Studies, of which Margaret A. Lourie served as Director. At Fraser's initiative, the department's teaching schedule was reduced to five from six days a week and the normal course load for faculty from six to four courses each year, thus bringing the department in line with the work load established for most departments in the College some years earlier. During the 1970s, as enrollments in the University stabilized, the number of faculty was accordingly reduced. The department found it hard to respond to an abrupt decline in the number of students preparing for careers in secondary school teaching — from 400 students in 1968-69 to 130 in 1972-73 — and the deference to renewed demands for relevance disturbed the existing balance of historical and contemporary survey courses. When Jay L. Robinson was appointed Chairman in 1975, he inherited innovation but not the growth that had made possible many of the achievements of the past. Even so, substantial funds from the Ford and Mellon foundations were secured to put the Page 152Middle English Dictionary on a sound financial footing and to begin the work of the English Composition Board. New faculty have been appointed and new programs have been instituted including the intensive annual New England Literature Program, a six-week course of study in composition, creative writing, and American literature held in rural New Hampshire.
The 1970s brought a new awareness of the need for curricular reform responsive to students' interests and the necessity of searching for new approaches, some of them interdisciplinary in conception and some responding to such neglected modes of artistic expression as film, fantasy and science fiction, and popular culture. In such new efforts and within the traditional domain of English studies — literature, language, and composition — the department has retained both continuity and the position of leadership established at Michigan more than a century ago.
FAR EASTERN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
Growth of American academic interest in East Asia during and after the Second World War led to the establishment of the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures in 1948. Japanese language had been taught at Michigan since 1936, first in summer sessions and after 1937 in the regular academic year. From 1942 to 1946 Michigan had hosted an Army Japanese Language School (Military Intelligence) for intensive wartime training, and after the war both Japanese and Chinese had become regular language offerings in the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures chaired by Professor William H. Worrell. In 1948 the Oriental program was divided into the Department of Near Eastern Studies and the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures.
The initial faculty of the department consisted of four members: Joseph K. Yamagiwa and Hide Shohara in Japanese, Yao Shen and Bayard Lyon in Chinese, the latter replaced by James I. Crump, Jr., in 1949. Professor Yamagiwa, Page 153who had initiated the teaching of Japanese at Michigan and had directed the wartime Army program, served as chairman of the department from its origin until 1964.
During Professor Yamagiwa's tenure as chairman, the department emphasized the teaching of basic language courses and advanced work in linguistics, and the Japanese field prospered somewhat more than the Chinese field because of the University's determination to develop a strong, broadly-based Japanese studies program. In 1947 this thrust was evidenced by the University's creation of a pioneering cross-departmental, interdisciplinary Center for Japanese Studies and its maintenance of a field research station at Okayama, Japan, for a number of years beginning in 1950. Departmental offerings were diversified somewhat during this period by the employment of visiting appointees for short terms, and a Buddhologist, Arthur Link, was a member of the department from 1957 to 1964.
Fuller and more balanced development of the departmental programs began in the 1960s. This was stimulated by the establishment in 1960 of a federally-funded Far Eastern Language and Area Center, administered by the department under the terms of the National Defense Education Act of 1958, and by a 1961 grant from the Ford Foundation to foster foreign area studies at Michigan, which, among other things, made possible the creation of a Center for Chinese Studies in that year. The University's Chinese Studies faculty quickly grew to a size and distinction challenging that of the Japanese studies faculty, and eventually grew larger. As both Japanese and Chinese area studies became more prominent in the University, the department's course offerings flourished correspondingly.
Introductory language courses were offered in summers on an intensive, wartime-like basis even in the 1950s, and in the 1960s accelerated (double-credit) first- and second-year language courses became regularly established in the department's academic year curriculum. Professor Yamagiwa led a pioneering effort among interested Big Ten universities to sponsor a unified, cooperative summer institute with intensive language courses in Chinese and Japanese; the first in a series of such institutes was conducted in Ann Arbor in 1963. Concurrently, Michigan joined other major American Page 154centers of East Asian studies in sponsoring two field programs for advanced language training: the Inter-University Program for Chinese Language Studies (Taipei) and the Inter-University Center for Japanese Language Studies (Tokyo). Until the mid-1970s, Michigan students, after basic language training in the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures, were sent to these overseas programs in larger numbers than students from any other American university.
In its expansion during the early 1960s, the department also initiated offerings in Korean language. The Korean program, however, never grew beyond small introductory language offerings taught by a part-time native informant under the general supervision of Professor Shohara, in large part because of a University decision not to develop a broad Korean area studies program. The Korean language was not offered after 1966.
Professor Yamagiwa retired from the chairmanship in 1964. After a year's interval during which Associate Professor Paul Denlinger, a specialist in Chinese linguistics, served as acting chairman, Charles O. Hucker joined the department as Professor of Chinese with a five-year term as chairman. A specialist in classical Chinese texts and Chinese history, his mandate from the College and the University was to maintain the department's sound basic language programs and develop a graduate program, especially in literature, of comparable distinction. Professor Hucker was reappointed chairman in 1970 but in 1971 asked to be relieved of administrative duties for health reasons. His six-year tenure as chairman coincided with the steadiest growth of Chinese and Japanese studies, not only at Michigan but nation-wide.
The department continued to administer the University's NDEA Far Eastern Language and Area Center, which provided steadily increased funding for both the Chinese studies and Japanese studies programs, both in and outside the department. In 1967 and 1968 it hosted summer institutes under auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (the organization of Big Ten universities).
During the early 1970s, the United States felt aftershocks of 1960s social and political unrest, slowly disentangled itself from protracted civil war in Vietnam, suffered Page 155the political crisis of Watergate, and experienced steady inflation combined ultimately with a severe 1974-75 economic recession. Throughout the country the growth of Asian studies was curtailed as students increasingly chose programs that, in their perception, were strongly career-oriented. The growth of the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures tapered off; enrollments declined but did not plummet, stabilizing by 1975 at a level below that of the late 1960s.
Departmental leadership during this era of transition and stabilization was provided by Professor Brower. He had been in the first group of Army trainees in Japanese sent to Michigan at the beginning of 1943, had subsequently returned to Michigan for graduate work and been granted the department's first Ph.D. degree in 1952, and had been brought to the departmental faculty from Stanford in 1966. Having served as acting chairman during 1968-69 when Professor Hucker was on leave, he was persuaded to take up the reins again in 1971 when Professor Hucker asked to be relieved, and in 1971 was appointed to a five-year term as chairman. During the transition, administration of the NDEA Far Eastern Language and Area Center passed into the joint care of the Center for Chinese Studies and the Center for Japanese Studies. Earlier, in 1969, the department had withdrawn from active participation in CIC summer institutes, there being sufficient interest among Michigan students to sustain regular summer offerings of first and third-year language courses in Ann Arbor.
Despite a tapering off of enrollments and a gradual tightening of pressure on all University budgets, the regular departmental faculty not only retained a stable size but grew with the appointment in 1973 of Luis O. Gomez as Associate Professor of Buddhist Studies, arranged jointly with the University's new interdepartmental Studies in Religion Program.
Until 1967 the department was housed in offices on the second and fourth floors of Angell Hall, virtually in the center of the University campus. Because of overcrowding in that building, in 1967 the department was moved — together with the Departments of Near Eastern Studies and Linguistics and the administrative offices of the Program in Asian Studies — into quarters rented by the University in Page 156the Gunn Building at 506 East Liberty Street. Being out of the central campus area was perhaps an advantage for the department during the Black Action Movement of 1968 and subsequent campus disorders. But in 1972 the department, together with the Department of Near Eastern Studies, was moved back onto University property, on the third and fourth floors of the Frieze Building.
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
The Department of Geography entered the 1940s with confidence. The emphasis in both teaching and research was on regional geography and land-use studies. Enrollment in introductory and middle-level courses was substantial: there was a small group of undergraduate majors; and, reflecting the department's established reputation as a center for graduate training, a group of twenty-six graduate students working for advanced degrees. The shadow of world-wide events was already visible in 1941 and had its impact on the department. In the fall of 1941, Professor P. E. James left to join the Office of Strategic Services in Washington while Professor R. B. Hall took a one-year leave for a study of Japanese settlements in Latin America. On his return in 1942, Hall, too, joined the Office of Strategic Services. Within less than one year only McMurry and Dodge remained on campus. Davis joined the Navy while Kendall went to Washington as a civilian expert for the War Department.
With American entry in World War II, the University quickly became a major training center for the armed services. Except for legal, medical, and dental programs the Department of Geography participated in virtually all training programs undertaken for the armed services from 1942 through 1945 while continuing to offer courses in its regular teaching schedule. The years provided a unique opportunity for those in the department to acquire extended experience in virtually all phases of geography as it was then practiced.
For the remaining years of the 1940s and during the 1950s the department followed the course well-charted prior to 1940. The strong tradition of regional geography led to Page 157increased staff participation in regional studies, and to additions to the staff in that field — R. N. Pearson replaced Brand in Latin American studies; L. A. P. Gosling brought expertise in the Southeast Asian area. Hall founded the Center for Japanese Studies, providing for an extensive and ambitious program in teaching and research on campus and also at a field station in Okayama, Japan. Kish participated in the starting of a graduate/undergraduate program in Russian Studies. Crary added his expertise to the program in Near Eastern Studies. The appointment of Hall as Director of the Asia Foundation's office and programs in Japan for a five-year period, 1955-60, signaled international recognition of the department's standing in the field of regional studies. Hall received the Order of the Rising Sun, 2nd class, from the Japanese Government for his contribution to the restoration of Japanese universities in the postwar period.
Graduate enrollment in geography rose during the immediate postwar years, nearly doubling to 60 by the late 1950s as did undergraduate enrollment in the introductory and advanced courses, but the number of undergraduate majors remained constant, between 15 and 20 in any given year.
A major change occurred in 1956 when K. C. McMurry stepped down as Chairman after serving in that capacity for thirty-three years. His leadership was closely reflected in the research and teaching carried on in the department. His principal interest — land-use studies — led to his organization of the Michigan summer field camp in geography, a pioneer venture that he directed from the mid-1920s until the end of the 1950s. During this period it was the habit of the faculty to take a weekend spring retreat generally at the state's Department of Natural Resources Pigeon River facilities. Several friends of the department from other parts of the University and state conservation officers attended. Discussions centered on state land use and conservation policy. After McMurry's retirement in 1964, the department appointed O. H. Clark, a long-time staff member of the Michigan Department of Conservation, as Lecturer in land-use studies.
McMurry was succeeded as Chairman by C. M. Davis who held the post for ten years. Afterwards a rotation system Page 158took over with L. A. P. Gosling (1966-69 and 1972-75), M. G. Marcus (1969-72), and D. R. Deskins, Jr. (1975-78) serving as Chairmen. In 1979 Professor Deskins became Associate Dean of the Rackham Graduate School and J. D. Nystuen became Chairman of the Department.
The end of the 1950s signaled a major turning point in directions in geography at Michigan and across the nation. The emphasis shifted from regional geography to more formalized theoretical and quantitative approaches, an increased interest in urban geography, and the stressing of cartography as an important ancillary field.
From 1962 to 1968 the department cooperated with the departments of Geography at Michigan State and Wayne State Universities in forming an organization called the Michigan Interuniversity Community of Mathematical Geographers.
Another major change in the department occurred in the mid-1960s by the reintroduction of teaching and research in physical geography. The separation of geography and geology in 1923 was accompanied by an understanding that geography was to stress the social and economic aspects of the earth sciences leaving physical studies to geology and abstaining from the introduction of courses requiring laboratory periods. The appointment of M. G. Marcus in 1964 signaled a new interest in physical geography. Marcus was joined by T. R. Detwyler and S. I. Outcalt in 1967 and 1971 broadening the base of studies by adding new courses in biogeography and physical processes of arctic and alpine regions. Marcus headed the Icefield Ranges Research Project from 1964 to 1971 in which field stations were maintained in the St. Elias Range in Alaska and the Yukon. S. I. Outcalt continues the arctic studies with field projects in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and elsewhere. He has also visited Siberian tundra research stations in the Soviet Union several times. E. Bannister, with interests in fluvial processes, joined the staff in 1975 to continue the commitment in physical geography.
During this period the long-established courses in regional geography registered a noticeable decline, although teaching and research in regional geography and staff participation in campus-wide programs as organized in centers for regional studies continued. Between 1964 and 1970 R. Murphey in Chinese and South Asian geography, J. F. Kolars in the Page 159geography of the Near East and J. D. Clarkson in Southeast Asian geography were added to the department. From 1973-77 L. A. P. Gosling headed a United Nations funded Pa Mong Resettlement Research Project which investigated resettlement problems expected to be created by flooding associated with reservoir construction in the Lower Mekong Basin of Southeast Asia.
Cultural geography, long represented by staff interests, was strengthened in the late 1960s by the addition of B. Q. Nietschmann and A. Larimore. Nietschmann, in response to student interest, organized a course called "Future Worlds," with University of Michigan faculty and outside lecturers participating. Part of the lecture funds came from the Student Activities Center. The course enrollment exceeded 300 for several years during the early 1970s.
In response to the turbulent '60s, the department participated in a nationwide program designed to bring more minority people into the geography profession. Donald R. Deskins, Jr. became Director of COMGA (Commission on Geography and Afro-America) which supported black graduate students in several universities throughout the nation. More than one million dollars in grants obtained from a variety of federal sources were used in this effort. COMGA was the single most important factor in the marked increase in the number of black professional geographers active in the field in the 1970s.
In 1966, after forty-three years in what had always been cramped quarters in the basement of Angell Hall, the department moved across State Street to the fourth floor of the Literature, Science, and Arts Building. The new quarters provided additional office space for the staff, adequate laboratories for cartography, computers, and physical geography.
Geography at Michigan achieved national recognition both through its graduates and its staff. Of the nearly three hundred persons who received Master's degrees and 163 Ph.D.s awarded during the years covered by this brief survey, all but two were able to receive teaching appointments or employment in local, state, or federal government agencies. Top University recognition was extended to Professors Gosling and Murphey (Distinguished Service Awards), Kolars Page 160(Teaching Award), Nietschmann (Russel Award) and Kish (Russel Lecturership). Staff members held elective offices in several national professional associations. Professors Hall and Kish and Tobler received awards from the Association of American Geographers.
Enrollment in liberal arts courses in geography has declined from peak levels reached in the 1960s and now is at about 2,000 students per year. Graduate students in residence now number between 25 and 30 each year. Career opportunities for those holding doctorate degrees in geography are still primarily in teaching at university level although several graduates have found careers which reflect the technical training in automated cartography and analytical geography toward which the department's program has grown.
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES
The Geology and Mineralogy departments which were separate units in 1908, became a single Department of Geology and Mineralogy in 1961 and were officially renamed the Department of Geological Sciences by Regental action in Fall 1979. Professor Ermine C. Case chaired the Department of Geology and directed the Museum of Paleontology from 1934 through 1939, but Professor Irving D. Scott served as Acting Chairman in 1940-41, while Professor Case continued as Director of the Museum of Paleontology through 1940-41. Subsequently the Department of Geology was chaired by professors Kenneth K. Landes (1941-51), Edwin N. Goddard (1951-56), and James T. Wilson (1956-61). The Department of Mineralogy was chaired by professors Walter F. Hunt (1933-51) and Lewis S. Ramsdell (1951-61). Thereafter, the merged Department of Geology and Mineralogy was chaired by professors Donald F. Eschman (1961 through December 1966, Acting 1977-78), John A. Dorr, Jr. (January 1967 through 1971), Charles I. Smith (1971-77), and William C. Kelly (1978-). The Museum of Paleontology was directed by professors E. C. Case (1928-41), Lewis B. Kellum (1941-66), Robert V. Kesling (1966-74), and Gerald R. Smith (1974-).
Page 161The departments of Geology and Mineralogy moved into the new Natural Science Building in 1915. The Museum of Paleontology moved into the new Museum Building in 1928. From 1915 until 1970 the departments of Geology and Mineralogy occupied increasingly crowded quarters in the Natural Science Building until August when they moved as one department into the newly renovated Clarence Cook Little Science Building (formerly East Medical Building). This added space made it possible to move the Subsurface Laboratory of the department from the North University Building back within the same building. By 1975, however, with the growth of new laboratories, particularly in geophysics, space again became short.
In the undergraduate teaching program changes in interests and personnel, college requirements, the geological profession, and the interests of society at large necessitated frequent course and curriculum changes. The department created new courses, revised others, and variously attempted to meet the dropping enrollments in its introductory courses and to respond to new needs. A one-term combined Physical-Historical Geology laboratory course was instituted (1966) by Professor C. I. Smith. In 1969, the laboratories of this course became open-scheduled autotutorial, the first of this kind in U.S. college geology teaching. Introductory Geology for Engineers, added to the on-campus program in 1954, was also taught at Camp Davis from 1958 through 1964 by Professors Landes, Heinrich, and Cloke.
Professional and societal concerns led in 1971 to creation of an Environmental Geology course including problem-solving practice. The same year the department became associated with the LS&A Environmental Studies Program, directed for several years by Professor D. F. Eschman of the department.
The department long has educated students for professional careers. By 1940 the B.S. undergraduate concentration program offered specializations in physical geology, mineral deposits, petrology, and stratigraphy and invertebrate paleontology. Meteorology, long an interest of the department, was taught to servicemen during World War II, and from 1942 to 1948 appeared as an additional department specialization option at the undergraduate level. Thereafter, meteorology became a specialization of the newly-created Page 162Meteorology and Oceanography Department of the College of Engineering (later renamed the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science). Geophysics became an undergraduate specialization option in 1942. At about the same time, the Mineralogy Department renamed its program Mineralogy and Petrology, thus incorporating certain aspects of the study of rocks. From the early 1950s until the merger, the Mineralogy Department offered specializations in either mineralogy or crystalography. A Vertebrate Paleontology and Stratigraphy option was added in 1957; Geochemistry in 1959. By 1962, shortly after the merger of Geology and Mineralogy, the specialization options consisted of crystallography, mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, physical and historical geology, invertebrate paleontology and stratigraphy, vertebrate paleontology and stratigraphy, and metalliferous geology, reflecting an increased range of faculty competence and interests.
A clear distinction between requirements for "concentration" and "specialization" in the undergraduate geology degree program appeared in 1944. Specialization was intended as a more rigorous preparation for professional work. Later (1962) the terms changed to "cultural" and "professional" concentration, but the intent remained the same. Undergraduate concentrators interested in doing graduate work in law, business administration, or environmental studies tended primarily toward the cultural program with its less rigorous science and mathematics cognate requirements. An upperclass honors concentration program was added in 1960, coinciding with the establishment of the LS&A Honors Program. For many years, prospective secondary school teachers had included geology courses in their programs. In 1967 a formal Teachers Certificate Program in Earth and General Science was initiated, enabling LS&A students to obtain both a concentration degree in geology and a teacher's certificate, and facilitating work toward a master's degree in the substantive field of geology. Throughout the entire period of this history, certain of the faculty offered many introductory and special courses at off-campus University Extension Service centers throughout the state. In 1967, with the addition of Professor Jack L. Hough to the Meteorology and Oceanography Department, the College of Engineering began an undergraduate program in geological oceanography and Professor Hough became an adjunct member of the Department of Geology and Mineralogy.
Page 163Until shortly after World War II, some stable, long-term professional careers were available to graduates holding only the Bachelor of Science degree, but after World War II a graduate degree became a necessity. This stemmed largely from: (1) increasing professionalism of geological science, (2) loss of curriculum time at the undergraduate level due to the need for enhanced cognate science and mathematics backgrounds, and (3) an increase in college requirements which consumed additional undergraduate program time. Thus, paradoxically, although the number of options for specialization in its undergraduate concentration program increased, the department began to discourage early specialization, preferring to emphasize a "core" program which left specialization to the graduate level. Teaching at the graduate level, and faculty and graduate student research in geology and to some extent in mineralogy, still were largely descriptive and field oriented in 1940. Subsequently, interests shifted to a more balanced mixture of field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. A marked growth occurred after about 1970 in research funded by outside agencies. This was largely due to increasing interest in such fields as geophysics, ore deposits, and petrology, where relatively higher funding levels prevailed. Global interests were incorporated in research, especially in the late 1960s and early '70s with the upsurge of interest in the plate tectonics concept. Growth characterized certain departmental graduate programs. Geophysics came to include work in seismology heat flow, and paleomagnetism. Seismological capabilities had existed at the University, as part of astronomy programs, prior to 1941, but in that year a Seismological Observatory, eventually becoming part of nation- and world-wide networks, was established in the Geology Department. Directors were J. T. Wilson (1941-58), J. M. DeNoyer (1958-64), H. N. Pollack (1964-68, 1971-76), P. W. Pomeroy (1968-71), and F. J. Mauk (1976-). The Paleomagnetics Laboratory was established in 1973, directed by R. Van der Voo.
The Subsurface Laboratory, begun in 1941 by Professor K. K. Landes and Dr. George V. Cohee of the U.S. Geological Survey, grew to include thousands of well records from the Great Lakes region, including mounted cuttings, slabbed cores, and drillers' logs. Its directorship passed to Professor L. I. Briggs in 1958. The majority of these records were put into a computerized information retrieval system Page 164providing data for faculty and students, and for researchers from academic institutions and industry outside the University.
The Quaternary Research Laboratory (before 1968 called the Glacial Geology and Polar Research Laboratory), organized in 1961, originally was directed by Dr. James H. Zumberge as a division of the Institute of Science and Technology, but that relationship with the Institute terminated after 1975. Other directors were Dr. C. W. M. Swithinbank (1962-63) and William R. Farrand from 1965 to date. Research projects, supported by substantial outside grants, included coring of sediments in Lake Superior and studies on the Ross Ice Shelf of the Antarctic. Since 1965, interdisciplinary research in archeological geology and Quaternary paleobiology has been included in the laboratory program.
Computer-assisted research had increased by 1965 to the point that a course in computer utilization in the earth sciences was instituted. Availability of funds both internally and from outside granting agencies for the use of the University of Michigan computer facilities stimulated this type of analysis, which now has become an invaluable part of research techniques. University sponsored scanning electron microscope, microprobe, and scanning transmission electron microscope facilities became available and received increasing use.
Because most geology and mineralogy students were male, graduate and undergraduate student numbers diminished markedly during World War II. Degree-holding geologists went either into military service, where some held assignments related to geology, or into other defense or resource related governmental work. Only two graduate degrees were awarded in 1943, none in 1944 and two in 1945. Increased numbers of women, however, were attracted to the field and many of these began to receive graduate degrees in 1946 and shortly thereafter. As the return of men from wartime service quickened in 1946, the number of graduate students increased startlingly to over ten times the prewar figures. This no doubt was aided by financial assistance from the "GI Bill," but also was stimulated by the obvious advantage a more sophisticated education afforded in obtaining good employment in a rapidly expanding discipline. For 15 years thereafter, exceptionally large numbers of masters degrees were awarded, but Ph.D.s also showed a substantial increase over pre-war years. In Page 165the 1977 departmental alumni record, 1,252 living "Geolumni" were listed, some holding two or three degrees from the department.
During World War II the depleted ranks of male geology students were at least partially refilled by increased numbers of women. Many of the latter continued on into successful and distinguished careers in the earth sciences. Of the 731 graduate degrees awarded by the department through 1975, 8 percent were received by women. This rose to 9 percent for 1961-75. Women received 12 percent of the 1,624 degrees at all levels through 1975.
Summer Geological Field Training
The department long has appreciated the value of geological field training, particularly for students at the University of Michigan where outcrops of bedrock locally are few, poor, of limited variety, and structurally simple. The department's first summer field camp, established in 1920 at Mill Springs, Kentucky, served both Geology and Geography. It was directed by Ermine Case (1920), C. O. Sauer of Geography (1921-24), and George M. Ehlers (1924-35). The Geology and Geography camps separated in 1936 when Geology moved its camp to State Bridge, Colorado, remaining there through 1938. That camp was directed by Ehlers. In 1939 the program moved to Camp Davis, near Jackson, Wyoming. Camp Davis, established by the Department of Civil Engineering in 1929, was administered by that department. Ehlers directed the geological program there from 1939-43, Armand J. Eardley from 1943-50, and Edwin N. Goddard in 1951. The department conducted a roving field camp in 1952, while it searched for a new field training headquarters. Boulder, Colorado, was selected. E. N. Goddard served as Director there from 1953-64. Students lived in rooming and boarding houses in Boulder. The six-week field course, conducted mainly in the Colorado Front Range and eastern foothills, included a week-long final trip to examine features elsewhere. A four-week, post-camp field research program was conducted mainly in Huerfano Park, Colorado, where graduate student and faculty field research projects were directed toward a thorough regional analysis of the geology and geologic history of the Park. Many seniors received additional Page 166training as field assistants there under the general direction of Professors Goddard and Louis I. Briggs, but with other faculty members and graduate students participating. Because of the drastically reduced numbers of its concentrators, the department operated no camp in 1962, 1963, or 1964. Field studies continued in Huerfano Park, Colorado, however. In 1964 the number of concentrators needing camp increased. Therefore, after 1964, when Civil Engineering discontinued its summer field program in Wyoming, it was arranged with the University to convert Camp Davis to a geological field station, beginning in 1965 and continuing to the present. The field course for geology concentrators was increased from 6 to 8 weeks. Again some graduate students and faculty members did research in that region. A very successful introductory geology course was established at Camp Davis in 1965. Albion College and Western Michigan University also used the facilities at Camp Davis for field courses in geology and biology during certain years of the post-1964 period. When the department again took over, Camp Davis was directed by J. A. Dorr (1965-68, 1970, 1972-74, 1978), C. I. Smith (1969-71, 1975-77), and P. L. Cloke (1979).
DEPARTMENT OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
The year 1940 was one of deep and general anxiety on college campuses and in departmental offices. War had broken out in Europe in the fall of 1939, and it was quickly evident that, whether our country became a belligerent or not, the historical upheaval in Europe would profoundly affect academia. In 1940 the faculty of the department consisted of about a dozen men distributed over the senior and junior ranks. Professor H. W. Nordmeyer had assumed the headship in 1935 and was to hold this position through the tumultuous 1940s and the growing enrollments of the 1950s until his retirement in 1960. In addition to a full program of undergraduate courses, the departmental faculty was able to offer a complete series of graduate courses and seminars leading to advanced degrees.
Such was the department's situation at the time of our Page 167entry in the war. It was not possible to anticipate the immediate effect of this event on the University and the department. Older faculty members, recalling the virtual abandonment of German studies during and after World War I, feared a repetition. Surprisingly, and perhaps as an indication of a growing cultural maturity in the nation, it did not happen in 1941-45. To be sure, there was a large decrease in the number of male students because of their entry into the armed forces. Younger faculty members were affected also: Professor Otto G. Graf, for example, soon joined the armed forces, eventually attaining the rank of major in the Intelligence Services.
By 1943 the nation was involved in a truly global war in Europe and the Far East. Successful waging of such a war demanded not only the men and implements of war but also the intellectual resources of the nation. Accordingly a number of thousands of army and navy men were sent to college and university campuses for a great variety of specialized and newly created courses which were devised by various departments and schools of the University. The departmental staff was almost totally involved in this Army Specialized Training Program — intensive courses in language and area studies taught to members of the armed forces in small groups. Indeed, the available personnel of the language departments needed to be augmented by faculty from other departments and even by qualified war refugees. And so for a brief period in the University's history there was the exciting and sometimes amusing spectacle of the eradication of sacrosanct departmental and disciplinary boundaries: philosophers taught history, classicists taught German and French, professors of literature taught government and social organization. And although the whole prodigious enterprise lasted only a short time, curricular change and innovation, which became so prominent in succeeding decades received initial impetus and a trial run during 1943-44. Language faculties enjoyed a totally new and unexpected prominence. With the end of the war began an enormous expansion of college enrollments which was to affect profoundly all of higher education in the country.
Two factors which became operative during the 1950s and 1960s necessitated additions and changes in the curricular offerings of the department. The influx of so many new Page 168faculty members, each with his own specialized competence, enabled the department to broaden its curricular appeal. The department now had the students in sufficient numbers to justify these new offerings. To the older established courses, additions were made, particularly in the graduate program: more work in medieval literature, new courses in the 16th and 17th centuries, prose fiction of the 19th and 20th centuries, literary criticism, modern and contemporary literature. Almost no existing course remained as it had been and the demands for new courses stimulated a deeply satisfying and beneficial faculty increase in scholarly publication.
During the decade of the 1960s two modest programs in other Germanic languages were added: Scandinavian (Norwegian, Swedish, Old Norse language and literature) and Netherlandic. The Scandinavian work was made possible by the addition to the staff of Professor Alan Cottrell and Claiborne Thompson; an arrangement with the Netherlands' Ministry of Education provided the department with a visiting scholar annually to conduct the work in Netherlandic.
With the close of the 1950s came the retirements of the two remaining senior men, Professors Wahr and Nordmeyer. Professor Wahr, in a career of more than 40 years, guided generations of students through modern and contemporary German literature. Professor Nordmeyer who led the department through difficult times for 25 years, still found time to contribute substantially to scholarly literature. Professor Clarence K. Pott succeeded him as department chairman until 1971. He in turn was followed in the chairmanship by Professor V. C. Hubbs, who served until 1976.
In 1965, the regular faculty numbered well over 20; over 30 graduate assistants taught the hundreds of undergraduates in the course work of the first two years. There were more than 70 undergraduate concentrates and from 70-80 graduate candidates for master and doctor degrees. Since 1940 the department has awarded 106 doctoral and 364 master degrees.
Through its staff the department also contributed substantially to those programs which cut across departmental lines. When the late Professor of Classics, Clark Hopkins, Page 169introduced, and supervised for a number of years, the Great Books Program, the German Department staff was involved in it from the beginning; at its peak as many as five members taught sections of these courses. On the graduate level, the department welcomed the students of Comparative Literature to its courses. For 14 years Professor Graf was the Chairman of the committee which directed this interdisciplinary program. He has also for 18 years been similarly involved as the Director of the Honors Program of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In recognition of his yeoman services, an Honors Scholarship has been established in his name. The revived emphasis on foreign languages which the war had brought about resulted in a number of activities, some sponsored by the federal government. In 1959, for example, the University was host to a summer National Defense Education Act Institute; the University's modern language departments naturally played a major role in this effort and Professor Graf was named its director, supervising the work of 109 high school teachers of modern languages.
Other activities more directly connected with the German Department were the collaborative effort with several other universities (Wayne State, Wisconsin, Michigan State) in establishing a very successful Junior Year Abroad in Freiburg, West Germany. Out of this a Deutsches Haus was established on our own campus as was the Max Kade Visiting Professorship under the terms of which the department has been enabled to bring a number of distinguished foreign Germanists to the campus on a yearly basis. Professor Hubbs was chiefly instrumental in securing this professorship for the department and the College, and in 1963 Professor Harald Scholler undertook the organization of a Conference on Medieval Studies which attracted a number of scholars from home and abroad of international stature.
The growth of the department in staff and number of students, which had begun during the chairmanship of Professor Nordmeyer, continued at an increased rate during the years of Professor Pott's tenure.
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
With the postwar expansion of undergraduate and graduate enrollments, the History Department's increased responsibilities required a much larger staff. Its members of faculty rank increased from 16 in 1940-41 to 61 in 1973-76. In the same period the number of teaching fellows increased from five to thirty. This change in numbers demanded several interesting changes in the scope and character of the department.
In 1940-41 the department consisted almost entirely of specialists in European (ancient, medieval, and modern) and American history. The growth over the next 35 years was not evenly distributed. The staff teaching west and central European history (including Britain and the British Empire) increased from 11 in 1940-41 to 18 in 1973-76, while the number of department members teaching United States history (colonial to the present) went up from three to nineteen. The most striking growth, however, came in the history of non-Western areas (Europe east of the Oder, Asia, and Africa). In 1940-41 there was only one person teaching such history; by 1975-76 the number so employed increased to 19.
The movement towards a wide geographic scope in the department's offerings began in 1945 with the appointment of Prince Andrei Lobanov-Rostovsky, a Russian emigre, as professor of Russian history. For many years Lobanov-Rostovsky alone taught the history of both Russia and the borderlands of eastern Europe. Today this responsibility is shared by five members of the department, including specialists in the history of medieval and modern Russia, Poland and the Balkans. Even more remarkable has been the growth in the history of Asia, an area almost totally neglected by the department before the appointment of John Hall, a Japanese specialist, in 1948 and Albert Feuerwerker, a Chinese specialist, in 1959. By 1975-76 the six specialists in East Asian history made the department a major center for such studies in the United States. Comparable developments on a somewhat more restricted scale occurred in the study of South Asia and the Middle East (from 1956) and in Southeast Asia (from 1964) and Africa (from 1970). A major responsibility for teaching the history Page 171of the ancient and medieval Near East had been assumed by the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Literature from 1945. In all other non-Western areas, the burden has been borne primarily by the History Department.
The development of non-Western studies in the History Department has been closely associated with the development of the University's centers for area studies, coordinating related studies in different departments and acting as conduits for the transmittal of federal and foundation funds to newly developing fields. The first such unit, the Center for Japanese Studies, was founded in 1947. It was soon followed by equivalent organizations for Chinese, South and Southeast Asian, Russian and East European, Middle East and North African Studies, and more recently by the Center for Afro-American and African Studies. In more traditional areas the utility of this form of organization has led to the creation of the interdepartmental Program in American Culture and the Center for Western European Studies. Members of the History Department have played an active part in the affairs of all the area centers and (as of 1975) had been conspicuous in leadership roles in the Japanese, Chinese, and South Asian centers.
With this geographical expansion went a wider experimentation in historical methodologies. When Professor Sylvia Thrupp joined the department in 1961, she brought with her from Chicago the journal, Comparative Studies in Society and History, which has been published here ever since. (It is now edited by historian Raymond Grew of this department and anthropologist Eric Wolf of New York.) The journal and the interests of several department members made the department a leading center in the development of the comparative approach to history. With outside support, a master's program in comparative studies became a regular feature of the department's offerings. The 1960s and 1970s also saw an increased self-conscious concern by many in the department with new methodologies useful for their own research and the training of graduate students.
The growth of the teaching staff in the decades after 1940 was accompanied by significant changes in its pattern of recruitment. In 1940, the History Department, like almost all equivalent departments of the day, consisted virtually Page 172entirely of white males of Protestant upbringing and northwest European ancestry. By 1960 expansion had been accompanied by the addition of persons of Catholic and Jewish upbringing and of south and east European antecedents, but the department was still entirely Caucasian and male. This limitation was to change very rapidly in succeeding years. Although women had served as visiting professors before, the first woman regularly appointed was the distinguished medievalist, Sylvia Thrupp, who was named Alice Freeman Palmer Professor of History in 1961. Other female appointments followed, slowly at first but with increasing frequency after 1970 so that by 1975-76 there were six women on the teaching staff. In the same years, appointments of Africans, Afro-Americans and Asians further enhanced the cultural diversity of the department.
Before the Second World War, the only funds the department had to support graduate study were a limited number of teaching fellowships and a few awards made by the Rackham Graduate School. After the war, these were greatly enhanced by federal veterans' grants and (from 1958) by grants under the National Defense Education Act for both area studies and open fellowships. The Woodrow Wilson Foundation supported a number of first-year graduate students in the 1950s and 1960s while a few fortunate students received major grants from the Danforth Foundation; substantial grants were also received from the Carnegie Corporation for the Japanese Center and from the Ford Foundation for both area studies and open fellowships. From the late 1960s substantial federal, state, and foundation funding became available through the Rackham School specifically for the support of minority students who for the first time became a numerically significant element in the department's graduate program. After 1970, NDEA and Ford Foundation programs supporting open fellowships were terminated and allocations from the Rackham Graduate School were reduced for all but minority programs. These constraints contributed to the decline in graduate student enrollment in the 1970s.
Undergraduate teaching, however, remained the preponderant activity of the department. Allowing for annual fluctuations, the general trend of enrollments was upwards until about 1970 after which a significant decline set in. European and British history which had been extremely popular fields of study from the First World War through the Second suffered Page 173noticeably from this shift of student interest; even the new field of Russian history which was of increasing popularity in the 1960s shared the common experience after 1970. Asian, African, and Latin-American history had never been as popular as European but were gradually attracting more students (particularly when the Vietnam War caused a temporary keen student interest in East and Southeast Asian affairs); this increase tended to level off after 1970. Thus, a very substantial and increasing part of student enrollment throughout the period was concentrated in United States history. In 1969, a beginning was made in ethnic history with the introduction of courses in Afro-American history.
The opening of the Undergraduate Library in 1958 and the development of paperback publishing considerably altered the pattern of assigned reading in most undergraduate history courses. In the 1940s larger courses relied heavily on one or two textbooks. By the 1960s, instructors had become less dependent on textbooks and much more frequently assigned reading in a variety of paperbacks and in book chapters and articles readily available at the Undergraduate Library.
The administration of the department also changed profoundly in these years. In the 1930s and 1940s the department was directed by a chairman serving an indefinite term. This system appeared to work well in the smaller community of those days, but the larger and more complex department of the postwar years placed enormous pressures on the chairman and seemed to require a wider sharing of responsibilities. In the late 1940s an elected executive committee was established to advise the chairman. By the 1960s the executive committee in turn had to delegate to ad hoc committees some of the responsibility for advising on appointments, tenure, and promotion. An elected curriculum committee with student representation was also established in 1970. In 1953 the department adopted a five-year chairmanship. In 1969, this was changed to a two-year rotating chairmanship but, after seven chairman in ten years, the department adopted a three-year term in 1978-79.
The department's home for many decades, old Haven Hall, burned in 1950. After making do for two years in temporary quarters in the basement of the Rackham Building and in Page 174South Quadrangle, the department was rehoused in 1952 on the third floor of the new Haven Hall. By the mid-1970s the department occupied the third and fourth floors of Haven Hall and fourteen offices in the new Modern Languages Building.
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY OF ART
In 1959 the Department of Fine Arts was changed to History of Art to emphasize its subject and discipline as important branches of general history. Its faculty grew rapidly and by 1973 Professor Harold E. Wethey, Chairman 1940-47, Professors James M. Plumer and Adelaide A. Adams were joined in 1947 by Professor George H. Forsyth, Jr., Chairman 1947-61, and by Professor Max Loehr in 1951. Of the numerous junior faculty appointed after 1947 a considerable proportion ultimately became full professors, among them Professor Marvin J. Eisenberg, Chairman, 1961-69, who was succeeded by Professor Richard Edwards, Chairman 1969-73, and Professor Clifton C. Olds, Chairman beginning in 1973, by which year the full-time teaching staff numbered fifteen. Student enrollments increased correspondingly, at undergraduate and graduate levels, as art history gained an important place among other humanistic disciplines. Survey course enrollments, which never exceeded a few hundred students per academic year in the late 1940s rose to 2,450 in 1973-74, by which time 45 doctorates had been granted by the department. Notably successful has been the graduate program. Directed by Professor Wethey from 1947 to 1964, it has produced a long series of outstanding young art historians.
Having outgrown its cramped quarters in Alumni Memorial Hall, the department occupied Tappan Hall in 1952, where space was available for a Library of Fine Arts and for the Slide and Photograph Collection which became, under the direction of Eleanor S. Collins, one of the largest in the nation (160,000 slides and 52,000 photographs in 1973). Faculty research, resulting in important scholarly publications was facilitated by two departmental research funds. The Freer Page 175Fund was established jointly with the Freer Gallery of Washington in 1949 for scholarly collaboration on the history of Oriental Art, including an exchange of research appointments and joint support of scholarly publications, notably a new periodical, Ars Orientalis, successor to the University's distinguished Ars Islamica. In 1952 Professor Loehr received such an appointment at the Freer Gallery as Honorary Research Associate in Chinese Art; and in 1956 Professor Oleg Grabar, a member of the department since 1954, received a similar research appointment at the Gallery in Islamic Art. For faculty research in Western Art (European and North American) the Forsyth Fund was established in the department in 1955 to pay the costs of research and field work and also publication of the results. Among other projects, it has supported archaeological expeditions to the sixth-century Byzantine Monastery of St. Catherine at Mt. Sinai, a long-term project initiated by the department in 1958, completed by the Kelsey Museum, and now in process of publication. Other unique research facilities of the department are two photographic collections: the Palace Archives Collection, a complete record, authorized by the Taiwan government, of its immense holdings of Chinese art; and the Mount Sinai Archive including many thousands of photographs of Byzantine art of all periods, made during the expeditions to Mt. Sinai.
The department has generously contributed extramural activities for the benefit of the University and the Ann Arbor community. Series of guest lectures are supplemented by the annual Departmental Lectureship, introduced in 1965 by Chairman Eisenberg, which brings a distinguished authority to the campus for a week of lectures and seminars. Often the department joins the Museum of Art in mounting an important exhibition and in preparing for it a meaningful, well-researched catalogue.
DEPARTMENT OF JOURNALISM
Journalism became an independent department in 1929, and exactly 50 years later it was to merge with elements of Page 176the Speech Communication and Theatre Department to become the Department of Communication. When a formal Department of Journalism was established in 1929, it was headed by John L. Brumm. He turned over the chairmanship in 1948 to Wesley H. Maurer, who remained chairman until his retirement in 1966. At that time, he was succeeded by William E. Porter and seven years later Peter Clarke became chairman. The Department of Journalism had only four chairmen.
In a memorandum to University President Clarence Cook Little, Brumm stated the case for professional training for journalism within the broad educational objectives of the University: "The professional courses, under the direction of the faculty in journalism should be designed to enable students to make practical application of the knowledge acquired in their social, industrial, political, and historical studies to the problems of newspaper writing and editing."
Except for broadening to encompass other media, that has remained the teaching philosophy of the department. With the years, the curriculum has expanded to include magazines, technical journals, industrial and business publications, and broadcasting. For the most part, these changes were made without adding new courses which focused on a particular medium. Rather, existing courses were broadened to emphasize similarities across media.
There was steady pressure through the years, especially from the newspapermen of the state, for two changes: for an independent school of journalism, in the pattern of Columbia and Northwestern, and for the journalism faculty to make the Michigan Daily into a laboratory paper.
The University of Michigan never has controlled its student newspaper. Journalism faculty insisted that it was impossible to "direct" a publication without imposing censorship and that it could not teach the values of a free press, while at the same time, censoring a paper. So, the Daily always remained a student-run operation, with its own budget and its own, changing standards. Many journalism students were editors and staff members, but they worked for the Daily on the same extracurricular basis as other students and not for journalism course credit.
Page 177Since 1925, the Department of Journalism has published a laboratory newspaper, The Michigan Journalist, mailed without cost to newspapers, broadcasters and libraries throughout the nation. It is published several times during the school year and serves as a showcase for student reporting and writing.
The University Press Club of Michigan, organized in 1919 by Brumm, brought together the editors of the state for an annual conference to update their knowledge and to solicit their support for the University and for the department. During the 1920s, this organization urged the University administration to set up a school of journalism in its own building, but the administration felt otherwise. The journalism faculty saw the advantage of keeping journalism clearly rooted in and among the broader liberal arts courses. Student professional organizations have brought many enrichments, such as outside speakers and field trips to the formal curriculum.
When the Hopwood Awards were established in 1929 to reward student excellence in all forms of writing, the Department of Journalism was one of the organizing departments. It has remained so through the years.
The crush of returning World War II veterans changed the department as it did all units. In 1947, there were three full-time instructors; by 1970, the number was 11. Always there were part-timers, drawn from nearby media who brought fresh insights to journalism students. While the number of concentrators grew steadily, the size of classes grew even faster. Journalism courses always were popular electives with students in other fields, and the department often offered service courses, specifically geared for students in other schools and colleges, such as Public Health, Engineering, and Education.
Virtually all the men and women who have taught in the department have had media experience. Brumm and Porter were both successful magazine writers, while Maurer owned and operated community newspapers before, during, and after his tenure as chairman. Perhaps the most distinguished professional journalist was Leland Stowe. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for foreign correspondence and a much-honored World Page 178War II correspondent, Stowe continued to live in Ann Arbor and to serve as a roving editor for Reader's Digest.
In 1973 the department launched its mid-career fellowship for journalists, supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities. Professor Ben Yablonky was founding director of the program, which has continued uninterrupted. Twelve experienced news persons came to the Ann Arbor campus for nine months of independent study organized around humanities and professional seminars presented by the department.
The department hosted many conferences and short courses through the years, an activity that would be expanded in 1974 with the generous bequest of Howard R. Marsh, a University alumnus and former Michigan journalist. This gift established the Howard R. Marsh Center for the Study of Journalistic Performance, an endowed center within the department which sponsored visits by outstanding professionals to the campus and which organized conferences and published booklets which might prove useful to working professionals.
In 1953, the first in a series of summer workshops for advisers and staff members of high school publications was held. The Michigan Interscholastic Press Association was housed in the department for 50 years.
Beginning in 1947, the University Lectures in Journalism brought 10 to 12 major speakers to the campus. These included not only famed journalists but also civil liberties attorneys, cartoonists, historians, and controversial figures such as William Worthy, the black journalist denied a passport to report from Cuba and China, and P. D. East, the editor of a Mississippi weekly who used satire to further integration efforts.
The department began offering graduate courses in 1932, and in 1936 the program was revised so as to admit only those who had received their B.A. in journalism at Michigan. Before beginning two years of courses at the graduate level, the student worked for a summer on a Michigan weekly or daily paper.
Maurer organized a unique system of internships in 1947, and the program went national in 1952. By the time Page 179of his retirement, in 1966, 40 students had been on post-B.A. internships, many on Michigan community newspapers; another 40 foreign students had served such internships after a year's campus preparation, and many students had summer internships. The total was about 200. Michigan faculty members traveled to the jobs to confer with the interns and their supervisors.
At the M.A. level, students studied for four semesters on campus and then went on for two-year internships on national publications and occasionally on foreign media. At all levels the students were paid the prevailing wage rates and not exploited by employers or "paid" by the University with academic credit.
The undergraduate and graduate programs were further separated in 1967 and 1968 revisions. The major change at the M.A. level was to combine workshop courses in writing, editing, reporting, and broadcasting into a single firstterm. By the mid-1960s, there were plans to add a doctorate and in 1973, these plans resulted in the Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Mass Communication, supervised by the departments of Journalism, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. This degree was designed to train not only academics, but researchers for the media, industry, and government.
The Haven Hall fire of June, 1950, routed the department from its home of many years. After a few weeks of sanctuary in the Rackham Building, the department took up quarters in Mason Hall, where it remained until 1969. With the move to the former Administration Building, now renamed the Literature, Sciences, and the Arts Building, the department entered the 1970s physically, as well as psychologically, close to the center of the liberal arts tradition.
DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS
At their July, 1961 meeting, the Regents of the University authorized the creation of a new Department of Linguistics Page 180which became a budgetary reality in the academic year 1963-64. Before 1963, courses and degree programs in linguistics were implemented by an interdepartmental program in linguistics.
Linguistics at Michigan figures prominently in the formative period of the discipline in this country. The Linguistic Society of America, founded in 1924, lists among its founding members three faculty members at the University of Michigan: Professor Charles C. Fries (English), Professor Samuel Moore (English), and Professor Fred Newton Scott (Rhetoric and Journalism). Another founding member, Professor Hans Kurath, joined the University at a later time. Of these, Professor Fries is the major early figure in linguistics at Michigan, as the initiator and long-time Director of the Program in Linguistics, the founder of the English Language Institute, and the editor of the Early Modern English Dictionary. Professor Kurath succeeded Professor Fries as Director of the Program in Linguistics.
The Program in Linguistics was set up and supervised by a Committee on Linguistics appointed by the Graduate School. The Directors of the Program were: Charles C. Fries (1945-49), Hans Kurath (1949-52), Albert H. Marckwardt (1952-53, 1954-63), and Joseph K. Yamagiwa (1953-54), who also served as Acting Director of the Program in 1961-62 and as Acting Chairman of the nascent but still unbudgeted department in 1952-53.
The members of the Committee on Linguistics, although officially appointed by the Graduate School, were elected annually by a group called the Linguistics Staff. The Linguistics staff, which by 1963 numbered 33, consisted of faculty members trained in linguistics and engaged in teaching and/or research in linguistics from eight units: the Classical Studies, English, Far Eastern, Germanic, Near Eastern, Romance and Slavic departments, and the Communication Sciences Program. Teaching in linguistics was handled by the various departments having qualified personnel. Responsibility for staffing the four or five basic courses in general linguistics was assumed mainly by the English Department, with courses usually cross-listed in Anthropology although these basic courses were also occasionally offered by faculty members in other departments, e.g. the Near East Department. Beside Page 181the basic courses in general linguistics, the various language departments offered courses in the history and structure of the languages with which they dealt. The Committee on Linguistics, besides seeing that appropriate courses were offered regularly by the various departments, had as its main function the management of the degree programs in linguistics.
The Department of Linguistics was founded in 1963 by the Committee on the Organization of Linguistic Activities (COLA). A major question facing COLA was whether to recommend a linguistics department that would or would not include all elementary language instruction. The latter was recommended. The department did, however, take on some language instruction, beginning with Hindi/Urdu, Sanskrit, and Thai and its language teaching activities have grown as the department has become the home for South and Southeast Asian language instruction and also for instruction in "other" languages, i.e. languages which do not easily fit into the established language departments.
It had been assumed that Professor Marckwardt would be the chairman of the new department, since he had chaired the Program for many years and had been a leader in the movement to change the Program to a department. But when he accepted an appointment at Princeton, it was decided to invite Professor Herbert H. Paper of the Near East Department to be the first chairman of the new department. At the conclusion of his term in 1968, he was followed by John C. Catford who was chairman 1968-71 and William J. Gedney, 1971-75.
As time has passed, the department has also attracted a number of faculty who, though budgeted in other units, have become associated with the department through honorary appointments. These faculty members, particularly those budgetarily in the English Language Institute and also those in Anthropology, have provided the department with an extra measure of strength and of flexibility with regard to course offerings.
For some years the interdepartmental committee, now renamed the Interdepartmental Advisory Committee (IAC), elected by the Linguistics staff, continued to manage the Page 182degree programs. As the department grew in size, strength, and self-confidence, more and more of the old Committee's functions were taken over by internal committees within the department, so that after a period of some years the elected IAC was reduced to managing the programs of only a few students who were still working under the old requirements that prevailed before the founding of the department. When at last only a couple of these students were left on the books the IAC was discontinued. This change had the unfortunate consequence that old Linguistics Staff no longer had any real power or function, since there were no longer any elections for the IAC and no IAC to report to the Linguistics Staff. The last meetings of the Linguistics Staff occurred in connection with planning for the 1973 Linguistic Institute.
The department was initially housed in quarters on the second floor of Angell Hall. In 1967, it moved to rented quarters on the second floor of the Gunn Building, a commercial building on East Liberty Street. This was an awkward arrangement, not only because the department was off campus, but a number of faculty members were in offices in the basement of the east wing of the Frieze Building. In 1972, the department moved into the quarters it occupies today, on the ground floor of the east wing of the Frieze Building.
Linguistic Institutes were begun by the Linguistic Society of America in the late 1920s, when four were held, two at Yale (1928, '29) and two at CCNY (1930, '31). These are university summer sessions in linguistics staffed by local faculty and visitors. After a few years' lapse, occasioned by the depression, Professor Fries revived the Linguistic Institute, bringing it to Michigan in the summer of 1936. It has now been at Michigan for 18 summers.
The English Language Institute, like the interdepartmental Program in Linguistics, was founded by the late Professor Fries. The ELI provides intensive, noncredit instruction in English for foreign students. It has also been a center for research in teaching English as a second language and for the production of teaching materials, as well as being an important site for the training of graduate students. When the Regents established the new department in 1961, the ELI was incorporated as a unit within the department.
Page 183South and Southeast Asian languages are taught. In its first year, the department offered courses in Hindi-Urdu, Sanskrit, and Thai, and the next year added Indonesian. At present, on foundation money from the Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, the department is offering Tagalog and Tamil. Burmese, Marathi, and Pali and Prakrit have also been offered occasionally on a special basis, and Old Javanese is offered in connection with the Indonesian program. The department also offers courses on the literatures and religions of the South and Southeast Asian area. The department's work in modern South and Southeast Asian languages involves close cooperation with the Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, which administers the fellowship program in these languages funded by the federal government and provides major support funding for instruction.
Since the beginning, the department has been regarded as the proper home for instruction in any language which does not fall within the scope of the language departments. It has also offered instruction from time to time in a disparate range of languages including Hungarian, modern Irish, Lithuanian, and Yiddish. Remedial English as a foreign language has been offered regularly since 1966. Finally, since 1973 the department has had a regular program in Ojibwa, offered in cooperation with the Ann Arbor Native American community.
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
The manpower and research demands of the Second World War and immediate postwar years (1941-50) affected the University in many ways. The loss of mathematics enrollment in normal undergraduate programs was offset by the fact that many of the military training programs established on the campus had a mathematics component. This was true of the Air Force's Meteorology Program, the Army Specialized Training Program and the Guided Missiles Program, the Navy's V-12 and Reserve Officers Naval Architecture Groups, as well as of the Engineering Science and Management War Training Program under which government sponsored extension courses Page 184were taught out-of-state.
The war tapped the University's mathematics staff as well as its students. As a result it was necessary to supplement the campus staff with teachers from the astronomy, chemistry, history, mineralogy, and philosophy departments as well as from other institutions.
The pressure on the department's teaching capacity continued after the war as the veterans, supported by the government, turned to higher education. Refresher classes in the late summer were instituted. Interest in mathematics and science was high, and the students were serious and hard-working. The staff, student body, course offerings, and seminars all expanded.
The role of the University of Michigan as a center for mathematical conferences and symposia had been initiated in 1940 when Professors R. L. Wilder and W. L. Ayres directed a topology conference. This type of activity resumed in 1949. The Third Symposium in Applied Mathematics of the American Mathematical Society was held in Ann Arbor with Professor R. V. Churchill as its director.
Military and space research since World War II has attracted strong national support. In 1950, the National Science Foundation was established, and the mathematics department, from its earliest day, has been a recipient of N.S.F. support in many ways. In 1953, concerned that there was a shortage of up-to-date instructors in the nation's colleges, the National Science Foundation commissioned Professor R. L. Wilder and two other mathematicians to design and operate a "refresher" Summer Conference in Collegiate Mathematics in Boulder, Colorado. The following summer Professors T. H. Hildebrandt and P. S. Jones directed an N.S.F-supported program on our campus. Later N.S.F. extended its support to institutes for secondary and elementary teachers of science and mathematics. Professors Phillip Jones, Charles Brumfiel, and Eugene Krause directed a variety of academic-year, summer, and in-service programs for elementary and secondary teachers in the years 1961 to 1971.
Professor R. M. Thrall's wartime work in operations Page 185analysis stimulated his interest in interdisciplinary problems and teaching. This led to joint work with Professor Coombs of Psychology, to a Summer Institute in Mathematics for Social Scientists in 1955 supported by the Ford Foundation and sponsored by the Social Science Research Council, and, in 1966, to a National Institute of Health sponsored institute on mathematics for life scientists. Courses in operations analysis and linear programming, the latter cross-listed with industrial engineering and business administration, are evidence for the broadening utility of mathematics and its recognition at Michigan. Classical and pure mathematics continued to be of major importance in the department, however, as was demonstrated in 1953 by a Conference on Complex Analysis organized by Professors Wilfred Kaplan, Max-well Reade, and Gail Young.
This was also a period of tremendous growth in electronic digital computers and their use. Dr. H. H. Goldstine became a major contributor to their development as a result of his wartime assignment to the Aberdeen proving ground. John W. Car III worked with the engineers who developed and built MIDAC at Willow Run. A strong advocate of the training of students in the use of computers, he was instrumental in the decision to acquire an IBM 650 in 1955 for the Statistical Research Laboratory on campus, directed by C. C. Craig. In 1959 the Ford Foundation supported a Project on the Use of Computers in Engineering Education. R. C. F. Bartels and Bernard A. Galler were members of the Committee responsible for that project. Bartels became the director of the computing center set up that year. Elementary courses relating to the use of the digital computer were initially taught solely in the Mathematics Department. In 1961-62 the department roll listed 57 teaching fellows plus an additional 11 at the computer center. A separate Computer and Communications Science graduate program was organized in 1957. Computer and Communication Science became a separate department of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1965.
The actuarial-science program maintained an active role in the department and developed relationships with the School of Business Administration by joint faculty appointments, cross-listed courses, and joint administration of fellowships and student placement. An Actuarial Science Fellowship Fund, established in the mid-1950s, is supported by a number of leading insurance organizations to promote graduate study Page 186in the field. A number of memorial funds are designated for the support of actuarial students.
The Michigan Mathematical Journal finally came into being in 1952 under the editorship of G. Y. Rainich. George Piranian took over as editor with the 1953-54 issue. Mathematical Reviews, the international abstracting journal owned by the American Mathematical Society, moved to Ann Arbor in 1964 under an agreement with the University which provides it with space and access to our library.
Probably the single most representative characteristic of the department in the postwar years has been the parallel expansion of graduate instruction and faculty research. Graduate enrollment peaked in 1964 with 332 students. Professor G. E. Hay was named to a five-year term as chairman in 1957, renewed for a second five years in 1962. At this time an associate chairmanship was authorized to share the growing administrative load.
The period 1951-65 had its trauma. One arose when Dr. H. Chandler Davis was suspended because of his refusal to testify before the Un-American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives. Many department members supported Dr. Davis, who has continued to be a useful and respected member of the mathematical community since leaving the University. Although occasional losses continued, fine additions have been made to the staff. In 1975, 66 percent of the staff received some extra-university research support from N.S.F. and other sources. The Ziwet Lecturer Program has been maintained. This uses endowment money to bring to campus a distinguished mathematician for a week or two of lecture on his specialty. Since 1936, there have been twenty Ziwet lecturers.
The nearly fifty-year-old tradition of extensive seminars for faculty and advanced students has been maintained: the monthly meetings of the Mathematics Club continue, but now require a small University lecture room. There are two colloquiums weekly. The succession of nationally and internationally sponsored conferences, begun in 1940, expanded in this period to include: Group Theory (1968); a Regional American Mathematical Society Conference on Complex Analysis (1969); a Conference on Optimal Control (1969), sponsored by the Society for Natural Philosophy; a Number Theory Summer Page 187Research Institute (1973) sponsored by N.S.F.; and a Complex Variables Conference. The first (1966) of an annual series of actuarial research conferences, international in scope, was held in Ann Arbor under the direction of Professor Cecil J. Nesbitt and Mr. Edward A. Lew of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.
The actuarial faculty have continued to be active in consulting with reference to insurance and pension programs as well as in contributions to actuarial research, and to the profession as a whole. Professor Donald A. Jones administers the Actuarial Research Clearing House, a distribution service centered at Michigan for actuarial research in preprint form, and Professor Nesbitt has been active in the development of an Actuarial Education and Research Fund, a joint undertaking of the actuarial profession in Canada and the United States.
Other administrative and educational changes during this period were the splitting off of the Statistics Department in 1969, the initiation in 1973 of a graduate program for training teachers for two-year colleges, and the authorization of additional associate chairmen in 1968 and 1973.
DEPARTMENT OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES
Known as the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures since 1930, the department over the years has accumulated numbers of valuable Babylonian, Aramaic, Coptic, Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Ethiopic manuscripts, tablets, papyri and artifacts, still today the basis for research, teaching, and museum exhibits.
World War II saw the permanent addition of Chinese and Japanese to the department's offerings. With the retirement of Chairman Leroy W. Waterman in 1945 and of Chairman William H. Worrell in 1948, the department underwent a major restructuring resulting in its transformation into two new departments: Far Eastern Languages and Literatures, with Associate Professor Joseph K. Yamagiwa as chairman, and Near Page 188Eastern Studies, under George G. Cameron, a scholar of ancient Near Eastern history and languages who was brought from the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago to serve as its head. When Dr. Cameron arrived in February 1949, he alone was the entire faculty of the department. He had been granted leave for the Fall 1948 term to be Annual Professor of the Baghdad School of the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and to do his famous archaeological research on the inscriptions on Darius' Bisitun Monument in Iran. When he retired as Department Head twenty-one years later there were eighteen faculty members in the department and another fourteen Near Eastern specialists in other departments, constituting one of the premier programs in the nation dealing with the Near East and North Africa.
The department's goals were to cover Biblical Studies and the ancient, medieval, and modern languages and civilizations of the present-day Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew (Israeli) lands, with at least a linguistics and a literature specialist for each of these fields. Between 1948 and 1956 Cameron was able to recruit both established and budding scholars to cover most of the basic needs of the department: Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies, medieval and modern Near Eastern History, and Arabic, Persian, and Turkish Studies. He was able as well to bring distinguished visitors during the academic year and in extensive summer programs in 1950 and in 1953 (co-sponsored with the Linguistic Society of America).
This initial period, during which basic department programs were established, included the beginnings of the second phase in the development of Near Eastern Studies at Michigan: the broadening of coverage of the area on an ambitious interdisciplinary basis. In the 1950s permanent faculty were brought in to deal with the area of the Near East in anthropology, economics, geography, history, history of art, political science, and the Graduate Library. Because of the increasing complexity of interdisciplinary coordination and funding in 1961 the University established the Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies under the directorship of William D. Schorger. After that date the Center was responsible for all interdepartmental aspects of Near Eastern Studies. Departmental programs were also greatly strengthened and Modern Hebrew Studies were added.
Page 189The growth of Near Eastern Studies at Michigan during this period was greatly aided by outside funding from a variety of sources in support of faculty expansion, student fellowships, instructional programs, and research projects. In 1951 George Cameron led an interdisciplinary expedition to Iraq and Iran supported by Carnegie, Rockefeller, and University of Michigan funds. The Carnegie Corporation funded three summer sessions devoted to the Near East (1951-53), staffed with outstanding scholars from across the nation. In 1952 Ford Foundation gave a five-year grant of $100,000 for faculty and research development, the first to an "area program" on the Near East at any institution. This and additional Ford Foundation support enabled the University to make several important permanent staff additions, to begin building a Near Eastern library collection second only to those of Harvard and Princeton, and to conduct research and training in the field, including the innovative year-long interdisciplinary field session in Aleppo, Syria, 1953-54. In 1960-62 the department received a National Defense Education Act (NDEA) grant totaling over $500,000 from the U.S. Office of Education for the development of instructional materials for Arabic, Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto; sixteen textbooks resulted from this effort. Additional instructional materials for Arabic, Modern Hebrew, and Turkish were later produced under department and Center auspices.
With George Cameron's retirement as Head of Department in 1969 Ernest McCarus was appointed chairman. The major addition between 1969 and 1975 was that of David Noel Freedman as Director of the new Program on Studies in Religion. With George Cameron's retirement in 1975, Matthew W. Stolper was appointed as Assyriologist and, as in the case of his predecessor, Stolper spent his first official term at Michigan on leave at an archeological dig at Tepe Malyan in Iran.
This period also saw continued concern with effective language teaching. Courses in language pedagogy and practice teaching were instituted for prospective language teachers, as enrollments in Near Eastern language courses rose to all-time highs. In 1974 the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA), the prestigious federally-funded program for intensive advanced-level training in Arabic language at the American University in Cairo, was transferred from the University of Page 190California at Berkeley to Michigan under the directorship of Ernest McCarus.
The department has distinguished itself not only in teaching but also in scholarship. Recognition has come to members of the faculty in the form of honorary degrees, election as officials of professional societies and of national research and training institutes and centers, research grants from the federal government and prestigious foundations, invitations to participate in national and international conferences and committees, mention in biographical references such as Who's Who, journal editorships, and others.
The Department of Near Eastern Studies has built for itself solid programs in Ancient and Biblical Studies and in Arabic, Hebrew, Iranian and Turkish Studies. Not the least of its achievements has been its success in maintaining a spirit of mutual respect and harmonious cooperation and strictly professional attitudes toward the study of the Near and Middle East without yielding to the emotions of the political conditions in the area.
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY
In 1940 the Department of Philosophy had only six regular faculty and about fifteen graduate students. Yet it enjoyed great distinction, with three of its professors internationally known. Moreover, it had evolved from a long tradition of excellence, commencing with the absolute idealists, George Sylvester Morris, John Dewey, and Robert Mark Wenley. Morris was Michigan's first outstanding philosopher. Having served as chairman of Modern Languages and Literature from 1870, he moved to philosophy in 1881 and became chairman there in 1884. He brought Dewey to Michigan in 1884, and Dewey became chairman upon Morris's death in 1889.
Dewey came as an absolute idealist, and the department Page 191continued to think of him as one, though he had begun to move toward pragmatism during his ten years at Michigan. After his departure for the University of Chicago, he was replaced by Wenley, an absolute idealist trained at Glasgow University under Edward Caird. Wenley was chairman from 1896 until 1929, building and presiding over a strong department and making his own contributions to scholarship, but his death marked the end of the department's identification with absolute idealism. By 1940, only one remnant remained: the curriculum included two "pro-seminars," in Kant and Hegel, carrying the implication that this background was needed for satisfactory "seminar" performance.
Wenley had added two young philosophers to the department who were destined to distinguish themselves: Roy Wood Sellars in 1905, and DeWitt H. Parker in 1908. Parker and Sellars designed systems of metaphysics and epistemology in the grand style. While Parker continued the idealistic emphasis in the department, he was not an absolute idealist; rather, he was a panpsychist and voluntarist, being influenced by the individualistic tradition in idealism and by Schopenhauer's emphasis on the will. Sellars, one of the famous critical realists, developed an evolutionary and emergent form of naturalism. Parker and Sellars also extended their systems to special areas of philosophy. Parker applied his voluntarism to ethics and aesthetics; Sellars argued from his naturalism to a humanistic theory of ethics and religion and to a politics of democratic socialism.
Parker, who became chairman in 1929, chose a mathematical logician to fill the vacancy left by the absolute idealist Wenley. C. H. Langford, who taught for over twenty years, was a founder and editor of the Journal of Symbolic Logic and served as president of the Association for Symbolic Logic. Parker's appointment of Langford was the start of the shift toward analytic philosophy, and toward specialization, that would keep the Michigan department in the forefront of English and American philosophy during the period of this account. In 1937, he appointed a second symbolic logician, Paul Henle, as well as the moral philosopher William Frankena. Thus a very small department now had two mathematical logicians, though each did have other strong philosophic interests. In 1946 another moral philosopher, Charles Stevenson, replaced the retiring Charles Vibbert; Page 192the present chronicler, Arthur Burks, also joined the faculty at that time, upon the departure of Henle, who, however, returned later.
Frankena was chairman from 1947 until 1961, years that saw an already distinguished department of six grow to a still more widely recognized department of twelve, and the number of graduate students reach a peak of about sixty. Richard Brandt became chairman in 1964, having taught at Swarthmore College and been chairman there for many years. The administrative skills he brought to Michigan served the department well in a difficult period of a dozen years, during which the faculty grew to about twenty.
The department has been honored and benefitted by the establishment in 1970 of the Tanner Philosophy Library, the gift of Obert Clark Tanner, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Utah, and his wife, Grace Adams Tanner, in memory of their sons, Dean, Steven, and Gordon Tanner. The Tanner Collection now occupies two rooms in Angell Hall; it is widely used by graduate students, undergraduate majors, and members of the faculty. In 1978, the Obert C. and Grace A. Tanner Foundation also created the Tanner Lectures on Human Values, whereby up to ten very generous lectureships are awarded annually to the most eminent scholars in the field of human values, philosophers in the broadest sense of the term. The University of Michigan is one of six universities in this country and England where a permanent lectureship has been established; the Department of Philosophy chooses the lecturer each year and officiates throughout the proceedings.
In brief, the Department of Philosophy has had a faculty highly regarded in both teaching and research during the period of this history, continuing a long and distinguished tradition.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
With the end of World War II and the return to more normal activity, physicists in general found numerous changes in their discipline. The public was now quite aware of the significance of nuclear research. The government, and the scientists themselves, now knew that effective research could be done on a massive scale if it were generously supported. And now technological innovations, particularly in electronics, brought new experiments within reach.
Michigan, with its 42" cyclotron built in the mid-30s, had been active in nuclear research for many years. James Cork, who had had major responsibility for the cyclotron, and H. R. Crane were the senior active nuclear physicists after the war; however the years 1945-50 saw the addition of Wiedenbeck, Pidd, Parkinson, Lennox, and Hough to the faculty. Moreover, since "nuclear physics" at that time included much of what is now called high-energy physics, Hazen, Nierenberg, and Glaser should also be included in that list.
In those years, for what was to prove the last decade of his life, Cork turned from the cyclotron to work with radio-active sources. He used the traditional counters and emulsions for his alpha, beta, and gamma spectroscopy. Wiedenbeck and his numerous students, on the other hand, pressed forward with extensive use of electronic instrumentation for their nuclear structure studies. They undertook coincidence measurements and correlation studies, and they did extensive work on the design and construction of double focusing beta spectrometers.
Direction of the cyclotron project in the postwar years passed from Crane to Wiedenbeck and then, in 1949, to Parkinson. Parkinson and Lennox obtained an Atomic Energy Commission contract to support the Michigan instrument for high-resolution nuclear-structure investigations in a range of energy that was somewhat beyond what Van de Graaff accelerators could reach at that time. This cyclotron remained active with AEC support in the first basement of Randall Laboratory until 1961 when it was moved to the North Campus for a brief period of use as an adjunct to the new, 83" instrument.
Page 194In the mid-1940s H. R. Crane, who had much experience with linear accelerators, devised the concept of a cyclic accelerator that had some portions of the particle path being straight, much like the racetrack at a fairground. The advantage of this over a purely circular or spiral trajectory is that the straight line portions are ideal for the insertion of targets, counters, and other instrumentation that are essential for experiments with the accelerated particles. With the assurance provided by detailed orbit stability calculations done by Dennison and T. Berlin, the massive task of constructing a 200 MeV electron synchrotron was undertaken by Crane and his associates in 1946. Beam was obtained in 1950 and a number of high-energy electron-scattering experiments were carried out. The work had been done with a modest budget by faculty and students who also had classroom responsibilities to meet. Meanwhile, the advantages of the synchrotron concept had been widely recognized and a number of other institutions rapidly constructed their own synchrotrons, often with a generously supported staff of full-time engineers and technicians. Thus the Michigan synchrotron did not remain competitive and the project wound down in the mid-1950s.
Another useful by-product of the synchrotron was that the 600 keV electron injector was available for some Mott scattering experiments that Crane had wanted to do for some time. He proposed that the electron injector be used for a thesis experiment on the polarization that should arise from double scattering. For this it seemed advantageous to confine the electron beam between scatterers with the use of a solenoidal magnetic field, and from their intuitive analysis of the electron behavior in that field they concluded that the electron's magnetic moment would precess in a controlled way and that they could even measure the magnetic moment of the free electron. This was confirmed by the experiment of Louisell, Pidd, and Crane in 1953 and put on a solid theoretical basis by Mendlowitz and Case. The reports of these results at the spring meeting of the American Physical Society aroused much controversy because they contradicted a long and widely-held belief that experiments of this sort were impossible in principle. This experiment, however, and its later refinements are now considered a cornerstone of modern quantum electrodynamics.
Page 195The number of faculty working actively in infrared spectroscopy was somewhat diminished after the war. Barker had become department chairman and was managing a rapidly-changing department with a minimum of administrative assistance. Randall, who had retired in 1941, had shifted his attention to biophysics. So for a few years Dennison not only did theory but also directed experimental research in the infrared. The number of infrared experimentalists increased when Lincoln Smith came on the faculty for the years 1946-49 and when C. Wilbur Peters arrived in 1948. Among the research pursued was a generalization of the hindered-motion problem that Dennison, Uhlenbeck, Cleeton, and Williams had attacked with the first application of microwave spectroscopy in their study of NH3 in the early 1930s.
A major impetus to molecular spectroscopy within the department came with the arrival of G.B.B.M. Sutherland in 1949 who quickly built up a large and active group. Their work encompassed studies of relatively simple molecules, including applications of industrial interest; the work also extended to studies of more complicated molecules of biophysical importance. Ernst Katz joined the faculty in 1946 to do experimental work in solid state, particularly studies of reciprocity failure in emulsions and of motion of charge carriers in solids.
Work in atomic spectroscopy was carried on by Ralph Wolfe and Wallace McCormick. Wolfe and his associates had a long-standing interest in industrial applications of atomic spectroscopy. McCormick, who had been a student of Ralph Sawyer's, continued the program of work in ultraviolet spectroscopy. Sawyer, a mainstay of Michigan spectroscopy for many years was at that time (1946) the civilian technical director of the Bikini atomic weapons test. He returned to the University to be Dean of the Graduate School and, later, Vice-President of the University. He also served as chairman of the governing board of the American Institute of Physics from 1959 to 1971.
Otto Laporte, distinguished for his contributions to the theory of spectra, turned to shock-tube research in the early 1950s. His students constructed a series of instruments with which they studied shocks in gases over a temperature range of 80°K to 800°K; the interpretations and theoretical Page 196conclusions that Laporte drew from this work were widely recognized.
The Evolution of Theoretical Physics. George Uhlenbeck, David Dennison, and Otto Laporte were the major figures in theoretical physics at Michigan in the postwar period. Uhlenbeck continued to work on problems in statistical physics, on gamma-gamma correlations in nuclear decay, and on selected aspects of field theory. Dennison continued his work on the theory of molecular structure while branching out to do some nuclear theory and an important series of calculations on particle trajectories in accelerators. Kenneth Case, who joined the department in 1950, had an interest in the more formal aspects of particle theory and did extensive work in mathematical physics.
In the period 1954-62 there were a number of theorists brought on the faculty: J. Luttinger came in 1954 for a three-year period during which time he worked on condensed matter theory, K. T. Hecht in molecular theory but who was later to shift his interests to nuclear physics. Noah Sherman returned as a faculty member in 1957 to do work on electron scattering and on nuclear theory. G. W. Ford worked in statistical physics, in condensed matter physics, and in the theory of the g-2 experiments. R. R. Lewis did an important series of papers on the tests of symmetry, particularly in the weak interaction; he also contributed in a major way to the discovery of level-crossing spectroscopy. Herbert Uberall specialized in high energy electron scattering theory. Peter Fontana worked on the theory of interatomic forces and on the interaction of resonance radiation with atoms. Paul Phillipson did work on molecular theory during 1960-62. A. C. T. Wu, who came in 1962, worked principally in the formal aspects of field theory and in mathematical physics. The research done by these theorists covered a broad spectrum and the work tended to be done in a fairly individual manner; programmatic research and extended collaborations were not common.
In 1964, however, Marc Ross came as a senior high energy theorist from Indiana, and this was followed in short order by the hiring of a number of younger high energy theorists. Their research was characterized by frequent collaborations and by a highly competitive climate in which preprints were Page 197the usual way of disseminating results and in which telephone contact with experimenters at the national laboratories was essential. The work of this group of theorists included the development of phenomenological Regge/adsorption models that proved quite useful for the classification and prediction of experimental results in strong interaction physics. Their work also included detailed calculations in quantum electrodynamics, theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions, and developments in field theories.
The Bubble Chamber. Important to the progress in high energy physics are the advances in particle-detector technology. The best known example is the bubble chamber that was developed by Donald Glaser with the aid of Phoenix funding in the early 1950s and for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1960. Glaser had come to Michigan to work in the general area of nuclear/particle physics; he, along with many others, was keenly aware of the limitations of cloud chambers, nuclear emulsions, and gas-filled counters that were the conventional detectors of that time. He then thought of using a superheated liquid as a target so that bubbles could form around ionization centers. After his theoretical analysis of bubble formation had given encouraging results, he began experiments with small glass bulbs that were filled with liquid ether. The results achieved with these in 1952 encouraged Glaser and his colleagues to construct metal chambers with glass windows from which truly useful photographs could be obtained.
The first bubble chambers were small, only several inches across, and used a variety of liquids for bubble formation. Liquid hydrogen would have been a first choice because protons are the ideal target nucleus, but hydrogen bubble chambers of a useful size are so complicated and dangerous that their construction has usually been left to the national laboratories. All the bubble chambers built at Michigan have used heavy liquids: the first chamber to yield real physics used propane. Glaser and his colleagues subsequently constructed a bubble chamber that used 20 liters (more than $200,000 worth!) of liquid Xenon. And in 1960-64 the group headed by Sinclair, Roe, and Vander Velde constructed a 40-inch chamber that used freon as the working liquid; the design and construction was done at Randall and at an assembly area in a hanger at the Willow Run Airport. During the Page 198construction time, the group kept active in research physics by becoming users of bubble chambers already in place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. In 1964 the freon chamber was moved to its destination at the Argonne Zero Gradient Proton Synchrotron where it was used until 1971.
High Energy Physics. The bubble chamber was the most productive particle detector of the 1955-65 decade but it had the limitation that each of the photographs taken had to be scanned individually for events of interest; each event then required painstaking measurement. Since a single experiment could require the scanning of hundreds of thousands of photographs, there was an obvious need for automation in the scanning process. Rooms on the third and fourth floors of Randall were given over to the scanning machines. Considerable work was done toward the construction of completely automated scan-and-measure systems that would not require a human observer, but these were not available until rather late in the era of the bubble chamber work.
It was recognized from the very beginning that other particle detectors would be of interest, particularly if they could be triggered only in coincidence with several signatures of the event of interest in a given experiment. Perl and Meyer, who had initially been with the bubble chamber effort, turned to the development of alternative detectors. Perl, with Jones, worked on luminescent chambers and image intensifiers. Meyer and his colleagues did work with spark chambers. Initially these detectors had photographic readouts that required scanning and measurement, but the next step was to use wire chambers so that the events could be detected and measured electronically. In this way it was possible to analyze results even while the experiment was in progress. In recent years, developments with spark, streamer, and wire techniques have made it possible to construct large volume detectors with completely electronic readout.
Experiments in high energy physics continued to form a large fraction of the department's effort during the 1970s. The experiments were done at accelerators both in the U.S. and abroad; indeed Michigan groups had participated in many of the first experiments done with the Fermilab accelerator Page 199and they will be among the first users of the colliding beam facility at Stanford. An extensive series of p-p scattering experiments were done at the Argonne ZGS; when the experiments were done with a polarized beam and a polarized target, a surprising spin-dependence of the p-p cross section was found.
Cosmic rays offer the physicist an opportunity to do experiments at energies far higher than are available from accelerators. Such experiments have been carried out since the mid-1940s by Wayne Hazen, briefly in 1948-50 by William Nierenberg, and by Alfred Hendel as a collaborator of Hazen's since 1958. Hazen and Hendel have worked with cloud chambers, spark chambers, nuclear emulsions, and also with directional UHF/VHF antennas to study showers and radio pulses that are associated with the arrival of very energetic primaries. Lawrence Jones did considerable cosmic ray work in the 1960s with one of the findings being a growth in the cross-section for proton interaction with increasing energy.
Nuclear Physics. It had been increasingly evident throughout the 1950s that a new accelerator would be required if the experimental program on nuclear structure were to be continued. A proposal for a new 83" spiral ridge cyclotron, together with the analyzing magnets needed to do high resolution work with 45 MeV protons, was accepted by the Atomic Energy Commission, and the State of Michigan agreed to provide a new building on North Campus. (The building was constructed to house the new cyclotron on one side and the electron synchrotron on the other, but with the phase-out of the synchrotron project it was decided to move the old cyclotron to the new building, a process during which it was upgraded from 42" to 50".) Construction of the 83" cyclotron required about four years, with the first circulating beam being obtained in 1962. The good energy resolution of the instrument permitted detailed studies of elastic, inelastic, and particle transfer reactions with p,d,T, and α projectiles incident on relatively heavy nuclei.
Nuclear research with activated sources continued with increasingly sophisticated instrumentation. Ever larger multichannel analyzers and higher resolution particle detectors were used for the nuclear spectroscopy program. In 1962 a Page 200high precision bent crystal gamma ray spectrometer was an important addition to their facilities. The nuclear spectroscopy work continued for a number of years during which time investigations with correlation methods and precision energy determinations were used to elucidate the decay schemes of medium mass radioactive nuclei.
In the 1970s, it became a matter of national science policy to concentrate the resources for medium energy nuclear physics in a few regional facilities, much as had been done in high-energy physics two decades previously. Federal funding of the nuclear laboratories at dozens of universities, including Michigan, was sharply curtailed. The result was the phase-out in the mid-1970s of the cyclotron facility on North Campus and also of the nuclear spectroscopy laboratory that had been on the 6th floor of the Dennison building. The nuclear experimentalists from Michigan then became users of more distant accelerators, again following the high energy example. A laboratory for radiocarbon dating was run by Crane from 1953 until 1972 in which hundreds of samples were run.
g-factor. It was clear from the results of the first electron g-factor experiment in 1953 that substantially better results could be obtained. Crane and Pidd together with students Schupp and Wilkinson made the refinements necessary to get a g-factor result that was of major importance to the theorists. Then in the early 1960s Rich measured the g-factor of the positron for his dissertation. In 1965 Crane was chosen to be the new department chairman, and Rich was named to the faculty and gradually assumed leadership of the group. Gilleland did an improved version of the positron experiment, and Wesley did a fourth generation electron experiment to achieve 3 parts per million precision for the measurement. Rich and his students then moved with their expertise in positon/positronium physics to do a test for TCP invariance, a redetermination of the lifetime of positronium, and other experiments with polarized positrons.
Astrophysics/Geophysics. Research related to astrophysical problems has been carried out by many members of the department, but often concurrently with the pursuit of Page 201other problems. Sander has done work on the theory of neutron stars, and Rich and Williams have done measurements on the circular polarization of radiation from white dwarfs. Crane devoted considerable time in the years after his chairmanship to laboratory experiments on geomagnetism, and Meyer worked on the application of counter physics methods to geophysical questions. It was with the arrival of Dennis Hegyi in the mid-70s, however, that the department had a faculty member with a principal commitment to experimental/observational astrophysics; Hegyi's research is on the distribution of mass in galactic halos.
Low Energy Physics. In the years following 1955, many of the physicists working in the three basements of Randall laboratory began an affiliation in what became known as the "resonance group." The affiliation arose from the circumstance of adjacent laboratory space and a common research interest in atomic, molecular, and condensed-matter phenomena that occurred at energies below 50 eV; the affiliation was later formalized by common financial support under a large umbrella contract from the Atomic Energy Commission. Not all of the funding was from the AEC, but there was a strong communal spirit that pervaded the basements at that time.
The resonance group had its origins with Peter Franken and Richard Sands who had come to Michigan, in 1956 and 1957 respectively, from postdoctoral experience at Stanford. Franken had been involved in cyclotron resonance studies of the proton and Sands had been doing EPR work and this work continued, but they initiated a new, common effort on the interaction of light with dilute atomic vapors that led to studies of spin exchange, optical pumping, and to the discovery and application of the level crossing method of fine structure spectroscopy; they hosted an international conference on optical pumping in 1959.
When lasers became available in the early 1960s, a collaboration from the resonance group published the first report of the generation of optical harmonics. Franken undertook a number of other experiments, including tests of the absolute neutrality of un-ionized matter and a search for fractionally charged particles, tests for the deviation of the electrostatic force laser from pure 1/r2 form, and an attempt to use laser ranging as a detector of clear air turbulence.
Page 202Atomic and molecular beam research was started in the department when Jens Zorn came in 1962 to begin a program for the measurement of molecular hyperfine structure and of atomic polarizability. In 1969, he and his students turned to research in collision physics; they developed the time-of-flight method for determination of electron atom cross sections and for the study of molecular dissociation.
Peters continued the Michigan tradition of high precision infrared spectroscopy of small molecules with the spectrometers in the second and third basements of Randall. He also supervised the operation of the ruling engine until the ruling engine was sold. An interesting and useful result emerged in the mid-1950s when Peters, with H. M. Pollard and B. Hirschowitz of the medical school, wanted to make a coherent fiber optic bundle for use as a gastroscope. The first bundles were made from simple glass fibers and were completely unsatisfactory. Peters then suggested varnishing the individual fibers to reduce the crosstalk and this did give some improvement but the overall result was still inadequate. Curtis, after suggesting that the fibers be drawn with an outer sheath of low index glass, was able to draw composite fibers and form them into a fiber optic bundle that gave a satisfactory image; this is the principle behind almost all coherent fiber optics that are in use today.
W. L. Williams joined the faculty in 1965 and began his research program with excited state lifetime studies and with some experiments on electronic and ionic collisions. When R. T. Robiscoe came for the 1966-69 period, he and Williams embarked on a redetermination of the hydrogen fine structure, a subject that has also been investigated, using level crossing spectroscopy. Williams then began an extended collaboration with R. R. Lewis to search for parityviolating effects in atomic hydrogen.
Work in condensed-matter physics had been done in the pre-1963 resonance group with Sands doing EPR on solids at high pressure and with Weinreich doing experiments on the acousto-electric effect. In 1964, T. Michael Sanders began liquid helium work in the department. From measurements of the photoejection of electrons from bubbles in liquid helium, Sanders was able to deduce the radius and effective potential of the bubble. From measurements of the charge trapped in Page 203the vortex lines in rotating liquid helium, he was able to observe the creation and destruction of quantized vortex lines as the angular velocity of the helium changed. He also worked on surface tension in helium and on the magnetic properties of microcrystals at low temperature. Work on the mobility of charges in liquid helium was done by Springett during his time in the department. Then, in the early 1970s, Michael Bretz and his group started extensive studies of the thermodynamic behaviors of two-dimensional helium films that arise when the gas condenses on a prepared substrate and undergoes phase changes.
Biophysics and Macromolecules. The optical and infrared methods used for biophysical and macromolecular studies in the early postwar years were augmented by x-ray and neutron diffraction, microwave and double resonance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy in the times that followed. In the later '60s and early '70s Samuel Krimm and his colleagues have done both experimental and theoretical studies on vibrations of polypeptides, on chain organization in crystalline polyethylene and in collagen, and on the structure of biopolymers and membranes. The research is done in close collaboration with members of other university departments with facilitation from the Macromolecular Research Institute.
Examination of electron transfer mechanisms in biological processes and general studies of the structure and function of proteins have been pursued by Richard Sands and his colleagues since the late 1950s. This work was innovative in its use of ESR in its early days, and since that time a much broader range of spectroscopies have been brought to bear on the questions of interest: electron-nuclear double resonance, electron-electron double resonance, and Mossbauer techniques have all found application.
Buildings and Shops. The two buildings available to the department after the war were West Physics and Randall Laboratory. In West Physics there were classrooms, a few small workspaces, and the instrument shop. Randall housed everything else including the 43" cyclotron, the synchrotron, and the library. It was clear that more space was required and the state agreed to supply it.
Page 204A large, ten-story building with a long, low extension was then built to house physics classrooms, laboratories for teaching and research, faculty offices, and the entire astronomy department. The Physics/Astronomy Library, a colloquium room, and two large lecture halls occupied the low portion of the building. It was completed in 1962-63 and provided considerable relief from the earlier space constraints. At about the same time, the North Campus cyclotron building was also nearing completion and most of the nuclear research facilities, including the 43" cyclotron, moved to the North Campus; this opened up still more space in Randall.
With the opening of the new buildings, physics was obligated to turn West Physics over to the psychologists; the main complication was the transfer of the instrument shop to the first basement of Randall, a move that required extensive renovation of that basement.
The glassblower Guenther Kessler and the shop foreman Hermann Roemer retired in the early 1960s; August Wagner then became foreman of the instrument shop for four years before his own retirement. All three of them had been recruited abroad in the mid-1920s and were an integral part of the Michigan physics tradition.
West Physics burned to the ground in a spectacular fire about one year after the physics department had moved out.
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
From its modest beginning in 1910 the Department of Political Science has experienced a steady growth in its curriculum, range of interests, teaching staff, student patronage, and its ties with other units of the University whose concern with fields of study and research have relevance to political matters. Since 1910, nine individuals have presided over the department as chairmen: Joseph R. Hayden, 1937-44; Everett S. Brown, 1944-47, who also served as acting Chairman from 1942-44 during the absence of Professor Hayden; James K. Pollock, 1947-61; Arthur W. Bromage, 1961-64; Samuel J. Eldersveld, 1964-70; Donald G. Stokes, Page 2051970-71; Harold K. Jacobson, 1972-77; and Samuel H. Barnes, 1977 — .
Curricular offerings have expanded from the five listed in the 1910 University catalogue to some 248 course offerings by 1978-79. Expansion of the department's course programs has been the result primarily of three factors: (1) response to demands for training and research in the constantly widening areas of governmental policy-making and administration; (2) changes in the approach, emphases, and methodology in the range of subject matters with which political science is concerned; and (3) recognition of the department's role as an important element in advancing the University's basic function of preparing its students for active and informed participation in public affairs.
The impact of the first of these factors began to be felt as early as 1913 when the department, responding to a need for specialized training and research service in local government, established a master's degree program in Municipal Administration under the direction of Professor Robert T. Crane. The next year a Bureau of Reference and Research in Government, later re-named the Bureau of Government, was established as a center for carrying on research and service functions in this field. In 1937 the program was reorganized and given a broader focus by the creation of the Institute for Public Administration, under the direction of Professor George C. S. Benson of this department, with a master's in Public Administration as its degree objective. In 1967-68, reflecting a further shift of focus, the Institute was re-named the Institute for Public Policy Studies, with a two-year study and in-service training program terminating in the M.P.P.S. degree. Recently it initiated a Ph.D. program as well. Professor John P. Crecine, of this department, was the Institute's first Director; and it has been headed in recent years by Professor Jack L. Walker of the Department of Political Science. Nine members of the department's instructional staff presently hold joint appointments in the department and on the Institute's staff.
Probably the most profound impact upon the department's curriculum and approach to the subject-matter field of political science has come through its close relationship with the Institute for Social Research, which was established at Page 206the University in 1946. The Institute's Center for Political Studies, under the direction of Professor Warren E. Miller of this department, includes fifteen members of the department's staff through joint appointments. It now provides research facilities and support for the training of a large proportion of the graduate students of the department. Employing the techniques and methodology of empirical research, rather than the normative, descriptive, and analytical approach characteristic of earlier stages in the development of political science as a field of study, the department's offerings now heavily emphasize political behavior studies. These changes were initiated mainly during the chairmanship of Professor Eldersveld during the 1960s. They reflected developments then becoming prevalent in the political science profession itself; and the adaptations and innovations that have been made in the department's main focus of interest and research have been responsible in a very fundamental way for the high ranking it currently enjoys in the nation.
Reflective of the University's continually broadening range of interests has been the department's participation in the offering of area programs of study as well as others directed toward intensive study of specific aspects of American society. Area programs with which the department is currently associated through course offerings include those connected with centers for studies on Japan, China, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, South and Southeast Asia, Afro-America and Africa, and the Near East and Northern Africa. The department has had a close relationship with the Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, maintained jointly by the University and Wayne State University. Programs of a specialized nature in which the department's staff have played prominent roles in recent years have included, among others, the Flint Metropolitan Area research program, the Detroit Area Survey, the Center for Conflict Resolution, and an interdepartmental Ph.D. program in Mass Communications.
The department's current personnel is made up of 27 Professors, 11 Associate Professors, 10 Assistant Professors, and 5 Lecturers and/or Instructors, as well as several additional visiting scholars. Since 1977 former President of the United States Gerald R. Ford, who holds the title of Page 207Adjunct Professor, has appeared on the campus on several occasions under the auspices of the department to conduct seminars and offer lectures on topics connected with national political affairs. Over the years a considerable number of other individuals of distinction in political science in this country and from abroad have been members of the staff as visiting scholars. Individual members of the department's staff have made contributions to the profession of political science in many important ways. Following a tradition of long standing, numerous members of the staff have served the national, state, and local governments in a variety of posts and capacities during their tenure in the department.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Since the turn of the century the Psychology Department had been dominated by two men: Walter B. Pillsbury and John F. Shepard. Under Pillsbury's chairmanship the department grew to a staff of eight and established a local reputation as an excellent teaching department with a research emphasis in experimental psychology.
Pillsbury reached the age of retirement in 1942 and it was decided to select a new chairman from outside the department. In the spring of 1945, Donald G. Marquis, then chairman of the Yale University department, accepted the chairmanship. During the war years, Marquis had been in charge of psychological personnel in the national mobilization. In the twelve years of his chairmanship (1945-57) the department's national reputation increased to the point where it was consistently rated one of the top three departments in the country, a position it has continued to maintain. Between 1945 and 1950 the staff increased from eight to forty persons. Some of this growth was due to the need to handle the postwar student increase. In comparison to the last prewar year, by 1950 the University population had increased 72 percent, the number of psychology graduate students, 200 percent, and the departmental staff 400 percent.
Page 208The department began to take on an interdisciplinary character through the extensive use of joint appointments. The number of staff members for whom the department assumed only partial or no salary responsibility increased dramatically. By 1950 only 13 of the 40 persons listed on the department roster drew full salary from its budget.
Psychological activities were recognized wherever they were found in the University. Joint appointments were set up with the School of Education (W. Olson), Sociology (T. Newcomb), the Psychological Clinic (W. Donahue, D. Miller), Bureau of Psychological Services (C. Coombs) and the Counseling Bureau (E. Bordin).
In addition self-financing institutes were invited to move to Ann Arbor to form an association with the University and the department. By 1948 the Survey Research Center and the Institute for Group Dynamics were already established on campus with over two dozen staff members completely supported from proceeds derived from outside contracts, grants, and services. The next year the two units joined in a single administration to form the Institute for Social Research. During the late 1950s and 1960s new units such as the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge and the Center for Political Studies were established within the Institute making it an outstanding center of theoretical and applied social science. The Mental Health Research Institute and the Vision Research Laboratory were other units which Marquis helped to establish at the University.
This "open door" policy toward joint appointments was not a mere courtesy move. These staff members have been encouraged to participate fully in departmental activities. They teach courses, chair and serve on doctoral committees, and help execute programs of instruction and research. As of 1970, the department held joint appointments with at least twenty-five other University units, offered joint or cross-listed courses with five other departments, and participated in at least five joint programs.
The distinction that Michigan enjoys in the area of social psychology can be attributed in large measure to the cooperative efforts of the department with other University Page 209institutes and departments. In the late 1940s the Joint Program in Social Psychology was established with the Department of Sociology. Each department contributed resources to the program which was administered by a joint committee from both departments. Under the distinguished leadership of Theodore Newcomb and Daniel Katz the program became a national model for the effectiveness of interdisciplinary efforts. In the almost twenty years of its existence the Joint Program in Social Psychology produced around 150 Ph.D.s. Every year numerous foreign scholars, attracted by the cooperative efforts of the two departments and by the associated research institutes come to Michigan to work.
By 1968, however, the administrative difficulties encountered by the joint committee became too complex for the separate departments to resolve and the cooperative program was discontinued. Each department, however, continued to offer separate work in social psychology jointly utilizing each other's courses.
Undergraduate instruction was also uniquely addressed. A coordinator of the introductory course was established to supervise the graduate students who led the discussion sections. The group met weekly to discuss problems of teaching. These seminars on teaching became an effective training ground for the preparation of college teachers. It has been widely copied at many other institutions.
Similarly Marquis supported efforts to improve the total undergraduate curriculum. When Dael Wolfle, Executive Officer of the American Psychological Association, persuaded the Grant Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation to fund a study of undergraduate instruction in psychology in 1951, Marquis accepted and administered the grants. The University of Michigan was the first university to put the recommendations of the resulting study group into effect. A similar study group met at the University of Michigan in 1961 and Michigan faculty members carried out a national survey for the American Psychological Association in 1970.
A senior honors program was established in 1950-51 to enhance the educational opportunity of the most gifted concentrates. Approximately 10 percent of concentrates were selected to participate in a two-semester seminar concerned Page 210with major works while each student pursued an empirical research project individually under close faculty tutelage and then presented a written report in the form of an honors thesis to justify the citation "Honors in Psychology" on the degree. The honors program provided a model for independent study, an opportunity now extended to many non-honors concentrates.
The enthusiasm of this new program, joined with that from a few other departments, English in particular, was expressed in the establishment of several L.S.&A. committees: Honors Citations (1952), Honors Programs (1953), and Curricular Flexibility for Superior Students (1955). The report of the Committee on Honors Programs, under the chairmanship of Atkinson (1954-55), surveyed the state of honors programs in the College and became the focal point of a strong wave of interest to extend this kind of program beyond the 36 percent of departments already having some form of special opportunity for superior talent. This particular committee gave birth to the concept of an honors college within the College which eventually came about with the establishment of the Honors Council and the College Honors Program. That followed a subsequent (1956) report of the Committee on Curricular Flexibility for Superior Students, also chaired by a psychologist, E. Lowell Kelly.
Marquis resigned in 1957. In his twelve years at Michigan the curriculum had been modernized, the staff had increased in numbers and distinction, and its productivity was nationally known. The number of Ph.D.s produced by the department (in five year intervals) had increased from 18 (1941-45), to 37 (1946-50), 129 (1951-55), 120 (1956-60) respectively.
E. Lowell Kelly became acting chairman in 1957 and continued as chairman from 1958 until 1962. Under a new organizational plan the staff was organized into interest areas under the direction of a number of area coordinators. These divisions were: Experimental (including engineering psychology), Clinical, Physiological, Mathematical, Personality and Developmental, Industrial, and General. The activities of the subdisciplines were regulated centrally through the Departmental Office of Graduate Studies.
Page 211A vital aspect of this plan was the opportunity it provided for students and faculty having similar interests to organize their activities in a more effective and intimate manner. This means of organizing curriculum and faculty responsibility allowed the program to expand without suffering the worst features of size — impersonality and a breakdown of student-staff communication.
Wilbert J. McKeachie became acting chairman in 1961 and chairman in 1962 and remained in that position through 1971. The consolidation of the earlier gains had been accomplished and now there were new opportunities requiring expansion. During this period the staff (now including a limited number of advanced graduate student "Associates") increased from 90 to a peak of almost 200.
Michigan was by now well known as being outstanding in clinical and social psychology, but excellence in experimental psychology had not yet been achieved. Staff additions were brought in to help build this area, and the clinical area was strengthened by establishing cordial relations and joint appointments with the Department of Psychiatry to provide new opportunities for the training of clinical psychology interns.
The department pioneered programs in social psychology, mathematical psychology, and clinical psychology. During the sixties, the department continued to produce outstanding students in these fields and built upon the foundation laid down by Marquis and Kelly in human information processing, brain and behavior, organizational psychology, and school psychology. In addition, new graduate programs were inaugurated in developmental psychology, community psychology, and psycholinguistics. The Ph.D. production remained high; 142 between 1961 and 1965, and 148 between 1966 and 1970.
A novel undergraduate development was the Outreach Project which was started by Richard Mann in the mid-sixties in the response to student's demands for relevance in their education. This program offered students the opportunity to do volunteer work in a variety of community human-service facilities. During this period it was not unusual for as many as two-thirds of the students in the introductory course to enroll in the Outreach Project.
Page 212McKeachie was succeeded in the chairmanship by J. E. Keith Smith.
DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
Since 1940, the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures has continued to offer undergraduate and graduate instruction in the languages, literatures and civilizations of France, Spain, Latin America, Italy, and Portugal, with occasional courses in such fields as Rumanian, Catalan, Francophone areas outside of France, etc. The principal additions to the departmental offerings since 1940 have been the emergence of a section for Romance Linguistics and the building up of the programs in Portuguese and in Italian.
Since 1933, the department had been directed by a chairman, advised by an Executive Committee. When Hayward Keniston became chairman in 1940 a major change in the department administration was effected: an elected Executive Committee of four members was constituted. It had two members from the French-Italian side and two from Spanish-Portuguese. One member was elected each year for a four-year term. On Keniston's appointment to the deanship of the College in 1945, Irving A. Leonard assumed the chairmanship. During his term of office, the administrative duties of the department were formally shared with an Associate Chairman for French: Warner Patterson held this appointment from 1945 to his death in 1948; Paul Spurlin filled the post from 1949 to 1951. When Leonard was succeeded as chairman by Charles N. Staubach, it was decided to supplement the Executive Committee by creating a Senior Advisory Council consisting of all the full professors ex officio. This Council was to advise the chair on matters concerning the appointment, retention, promotion, and salary of all members of the regular faculty. These two committees, and the Graduate Committee, were the agencies which, with the Chairman, effectively ran the department. When James C. O'Neill assumed the direction of the department (as Acting Chairman 1959-60, Chairman 1960-73) he urged his colleagues to consider merging the Executive Committee and the Senior Advisory Council Page 213into one effective committee to advise the chair, but they preferred to retain the operating arrangement, and it was continued. When O'Neill resigned the chairmanship in 1973, Frank Casa was appointed chairman.
The department offers instruction at all levels in the French, Italian, Portuguese, Provencal, and Spanish languages and literatures, and in Romance Linguistics. This was already an extensive enterprise in 1940, and its dimensions have increased impressively since then. In 1940, the department had a regular staff of 33 faculty members who taught a total of 205 separate classes during the academic year (Summer Session programs are not included in statistics here or later). In 1975, there were again 33 full-time members in an instructional staff which was teaching 429 separate classes. These years — 1940-1975 — witnessed the invention and then the enormous expansion of a new teaching rank, the Teaching Fellow or part-time graduate assistant. In 1940, there were no classes taught by Teaching Fellows. In 1975, 266 classes were in their charge.
In 1940, the department was still quartered in the Romance Languages Building where it had been since 1928. The first language laboratory, however, was in the South Wing of University Hall. New quarters were allotted to the department in 1959 in the newly-acquired Frieze Building. A language laboratory founded by the department and made available to other language departments had been moved to Mason Hall. In 1971, the present Modern Languages Building was at last completed and the department moved to its present quarters on the fourth floor.
Undergraduate enrollments in the department are largely a function of the foreign-language requirement for various degrees in the College, and of the recommendations for language competence made by the several preprofessional programs. Since the College has maintained a basic requirement of fourth-semester foreign-language competence or the equivalent for the B.A. degree, a large commitment to elementary and secondary language instruction continues to be one of the major responsibilities of the department.
With the beginning of the war, special language training courses were designed in all sections of the department Page 214for students who were soon to enter military service. From 1941 to 1945 such courses were offered in the regular year in French, Spanish, and Italian. Faculty members also lectured on foreign civilizations and gave language training courses in military installations away from Ann Arbor. Then in the summer of 1942 the department furnished staff for both language and area studies in the Civil Affairs Specialist Training Program (CATP) and subsequently also for the Army Specialist Training Program (ASTP) in languages. After the end of hostilities, a special program was set up in the University for the training of field officers from the various military services for possible postwar assignments in Latin America. It had two parts, one an interdisciplinary course in the culture and society of Latin-America, the other an intensive language program in Portuguese and Spanish.
A project worthy of special mention is the department's part in the Foreign Language in the Elementary School program (FLES). When the national enthusiasm for FLES began to emerge, the department organized special FLES training programs in the summer sessions, in which teachers from elementary schools learned the techniques of teaching French or Spanish to students at that level. These programs began in the summer of 1956 and continued for many years with nationally recognized success. The department was also a major participant in one of the pioneer Institutes supported by the National Defense Education Act (NDEA). The Institute at Michigan in the summer of 1959 was one of four held in the nation, the forerunners of many NDEA language institutes to come in the years to follow. It offered special remedial training in French, Spanish, Russian and German to a group of 100 high school language teachers and superintendents chosen in a nation-wide selection.
The department has also been a major supporter of and contributor to several collegiate programs of note. It was represented on the college committee which first devised the Great Books courses for freshmen in 1945, and faculty members from Romance Languages have consistently figured among the teachers in these courses. The departmental faculty has also played an important role in the program in Comparative Literature, with staff members serving on the directing committee and faculty of the program, as well as filling the posts of Director or Associate Director at various Page 215times. When the Residential College was created in 1967, members of the department were instrumental in the early planning of the curriculum, particularly in connection with a novel scheme for integrating foreign language into the programs. The department has supplied the necessary junior teaching staff in French, Spanish, and Italian, and its professors frequently offer courses and seminars in the core curriculum.
The French language and literature have been taught in the College since at least 1848. By 1940, the regular French staff numbered 16 persons who offered a total of 118 classes during the academic year. Since that time, the number of full-time teachers has not varied as greatly as one might expect, because the increasing need for instruction was in large part being met at the level of basic and intermediate language teaching by the employment of a greater number of Teaching Fellows. The peak of student enrollment in French was in 1965 when 305 classes were taught.
The French section offers instruction in the use of French at all levels, in the methods of teaching French, in French civilization and history, and in French literature of all periods. The methods used have followed the development of new approaches in applied linguistics and pedagogy, but the objectives have remained the same.
From the early years of this century, training in the active use of correct French had been provided both in courses and through extracurricular activities. The production of an annual French play performed by students began in 1907 and continued uninterruptedly, except in wartime, for some fifty years.
The range of extracurricular activities in support of language learning in the department has slowly declined over the last few decades. In 1940, the French section had a very active Cercle Francais supported both by town and gown. It met twice monthly, sponsored and usually staffed the annual play (frequently underwriting the publication of a special edition), and organized an annual series of French lectures given by members of the faculty and distinguished guest speakers. Until the late fifties, there was an attractive Maison Francaise during the Summer Session, located in Page 216one of the large sorority houses, with a resident French directress. The French House which now exists in University housing during the regular year serves a similar purpose but for a smaller and different clientele. On the other hand, courses such as those on French film offered by Professor Roy J. Nelson and the easy access to numerous French films on campus every year now offer a source of practice and enrichment which for many years was nowhere available.
The most significant recent addition to the undergraduate program in French is undoubtedly the provision of opportunities for supervised study abroad. In 1962 a Junior Year Abroad, run jointly by the Universities of Michigan and Wisconsin, was set up at Aix-en-Provence. Every year, 25 students from each university spend an entire academic year enrolled regularly in the Universite de Provence, earning a full academic year's credit in their home university. The two universities alternate in providing a French faculty member to be the Resident Director. In the summer of 1974, a program of intensive study of French at the elementary and intermediate levels was established at La Rochelle. Under the direction of French staff from this department, students do a semester's or a year's work for regular university credit. Some are able to complete the College foreign-language requirement during this intensive seven-week session.
The overall picture of graduate studies in French during these thirty-five years is rather different from that of the undergraduate experience. In the thirties, the department had made an active effort to develop a graduate program equal to that of other major universities, and the French section profited from it immediately.
The French section also offered three special graduate programs. Mention has been made of the FLES programs, which included a section for French, in the Summer Sessions from 1955 to 1961. Between 1952 and 1956, a special six-week program for teachers of high-school French and Spanish was organized under the direction of Professor Benjamin Bart, then supervisor of basic instruction in French. Under the National Defense Education Act, a series of Institutes was organized and directed by Professor Jean Carduner. Four of these NDEA French Institutes were offered, the first two in Ann Arbor Page 217in 1966 and 1967, the second two in France, at Sevres and Cahors in 1968 and 1969. These Institutes were created for a special clientele — teachers of advanced high school courses in French literature and civilization, or supervisors of such programs. Some 150 students took advantage of this opportunity to upgrade their professional skills.
Between 1848 and 1940, the department had awarded 110 master's degrees in French and 14 Ph.D.s in Romance Languages and Literatures, with French as the major field. Between 1940 and 1975, 341 master's degrees in French and 84 Ph.D.s in "Romance Languages and Literatures: French" were granted.
Professor Camillo P. Merlino had been the only regular professor of Italian from his appointment in 1930 to his resignation in 1937. After his departure, Vincent A. Scanio was for many years the only full-time staff member of the Italian section. In 1940, ten classes were offered. During the war years, special classes in Italian were provided to various military and civilian programs, and a Conversational Grammar by Professors Scanio and McLaughlin was widely used and received official commendation from the government. As enrollments increased, they were accommodated by the employment of Teaching Fellows and by bringing a series of Visiting Lecturers from Italy to supplement the staff for the upperclass offerings.
By 1970 there were 40 classes taught in Italian. The development of the Romance Linguistics section of the department included the offering of various courses in pre-Italic and Old Italian language, and these courses were available to graduate students in Italian. Since 1940, five master's degrees and one Ph.D. have been granted in Italian.
Before 1948, a few courses in philology were offered in the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures. All of them were ancillary to literary studies, although some courses were required of students in the different languages. Their principal purpose was to provide students with a knowledge of the medieval languages — French, Italian, Provencal or Spanish — so that they could read the literatures of the early periods. In 1949, the Page 218Department of Romance Languages and Literatures instituted its first courses in the field of Romance Linguistics and established a graduate degree program separate from those in literature. In the period 1950-75, 58 master's degrees and 34 doctorates in Romance Linguistics were awarded.
The involvement of Romance Linguistics in elementary language instruction bore valuable fruit also. During World War II linguists had set up a language teaching program for the benefit of civilian administrators, Army and Navy personnel, and prospective members of the occupation forces. It was based on linguistic principles (what was later called Applied Linguistics) and aimed at a practical oral-aural mastery of the language apart from any literary or aesthetic purposes. Under the auspices of the department, a language laboratory was established, and elementary instruction began to show the influence of the postwar trends in language teaching. The existence of a program in Romance Linguistics led eventually to the establishment of an autonomous Romance Linguistics section within the department.
The Spanish section of the department in 1940 counted three tenured faculty members and offered a total of 78 classes during the academic year 1940-41. In addition to the normal basic language instruction, the upperclass and graduate program included a rotation of courses in Cervantes, the theater of the seventeenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the novel of the medieval and Golden Age periods and of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There was one course in Latin-American literature and one in grammar for future teachers.
Staff and course program remained substantially unchanged during the war years. With the end of the war came a major expansion. In 1945, 121 classes were being taught, including nine intermediate literature courses, three for teacher preparation, and eleven graduate courses. A year later, instruction in Portuguese was reintroduced, with basic language courses and two semesters of Portuguese and Brazilian literature. The expansion of the section reflects the greatly increased American interest in Spanish-speaking countries and the development of high school language programs. This is clearly evident in the statistics: by 1960, the section was offering 143 classes in the academic Page 219year, of which 26 were at the advanced undergraduate level, and 17 were graduate courses.
During these years, the Journal Club enjoyed a revival of interest, and Spanish plays were performed annually for the University community as well as for large numbers of high school students and their teachers throughout the state who came to Ann Arbor for the performances and for the Spanish fiesta which often accompanied them. It was in general a stimulating time for Spanish staff and students.
The decade of the sixties was a period of intense activity both in teaching and in scholarship, as the Spanish section sought to handle the problems created by a swollen student population. 167 classes were taught in 1965 and 174 in 1970. Since 1974, the undergraduate offering has been broadened by a seven-week intensive summer program at Salamanca, for elementary and intermediate language study.
DEPARTMENT OF SLAVIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
Courses in the Russian language and Russian literature, as well as Slavic linguistics, were given between the wars by Professor Clarence L. Meader. Courses in the Polish language and Polish literature were introduced in the 1920s by Professor Tadeusz Mitana. From World War II until 1952 the Department of Russian (as it was then called) was chaired by Lidia Naumovna Pargment, who taught the advanced language and literature courses; teaching fellows were responsible for elementary instruction. In 1947 an interdepartmental M.A. program in Russian Studies was organized to supplement the existing departmental B.A. program in Russian.
The present department officially traces its beginnings to the fall of 1952, when Professor James O. Ferrell was brought here as Chairman of the newly established Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures. Under Ferrell's leadership a graduate faculty was hired and an M.A. program in Slavic Languages and Literatures was inaugurated. In 1957 Professor Deming Brown became Chairman; and in 1958 a Page 220Ph.D. program was instituted. From 1961 to 1971 Professor John Mersereau, Jr., served as chairman. During this "post-Sputnik" period the department expanded rapidly in faculty size, breadth of curriculum, and student enrollments. In the early 1960s, when the University was designated a Slavic Language and Area Center under the National Defense Education Act, generous infusions of federal funding were provided in the form of National Defense Foreign Language fellowships and direct salary support for department faculty. By the end of that decade, when federal funding had decreased significantly, the department had achieved its present status and had established itself as one of the leading Ph.D. programs in the field.
The department maintains a vigorous program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Emphasis is placed on Russian language and literature at both levels, but the department is Slavic in the broad sense, offering training in the principal non-Russian Slavic Languages (Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, and Ukrainian) as well as in the literature and folklore of those traditions; and in Slavic linguistics. The department works with other departments and programs at the University, and has especially close ties with the Program in Comparative Literature; it plays a leading role in the Center for Russian and East European Studies, cooperating extensively in both instructional and research activities with the faculty associates from a wide range of departments who form the nucleus of the Center.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
The year 1940 saw the premature death of Roderick D. McKenzie, the first chairman of a department that had become independent in 1930 after 36 years of sociological instruction under the wing of the Economics Department. Dr. Robert C. Angell succeeded as chairman. Under the shadow and reality of World War II the department operated at a reduced level until 1945-46. For 25 years thereafter the department enjoyed increased enrollments at both undergraduate and graduate Page 221levels, growing numbers of concentrating juniors and seniors — from about 65 to more than 200 in the early seventies.
Despite great expansion, the undergraduate program was carried on in much the same way and at much the same level of quality as it had been before 1940. There were, of course, shifts in the balance among substantive fields, most notably the introduction of social anthropology and greater emphasis on social psychology and methods of research.
At the graduate level, changes were much more marked. Fewer entering students were expecting to leave the University after receiving an M.A. After 1960 none were admitted who were not pursuing the Ph.D. Whereas before 1940 graduate students needing support had to become teaching assistants or find nonacademic work, after World War II many were supported by the G.I. Bill or won fellowships provided by such organizations as the Ford Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health.
The surge in graduate work was greatly furthered by the creation of new units, both within and without the department. The first such development was the coming in 1946 of a research team from the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics to form the Survey Research Center under the leadership of Dr. Rensis Likert. The members of this group were principally social psychologists. Several of them were appointed to part-time teaching positions in the Sociology and Psychology departments. Two years later four M.I.T. professors were brought to this campus to form the Research Center for Group Dynamics. The Institute of Social Research was then created to include the two centers, with Dr. Likert as Director.
The addition to the faculty of a number of distinguished social psychologists suggested the creation of a doctoral program in social psychology jointly supported and administrated by the Sociology and Psychology departments. Such a program was approved by the Graduate School in 1947. Dr. Theodore Newcomb, a member of both departments, was selected as the Program's director. Staff members were recruited as teachers from both departments. This innovation was an immediate success. Because admission to the Program required a year's successful graduate work in either of the departments, the students were doubly screened. The number of Page 222admissions per year rose from 12 at the beginning to 20 in the middle fifties. The Program was phased out, however, after 20 years because of difference in educational philosophy between the two departments.
In 1951 the department approved the proposal of Dr. Angus Campbell, then head of the Survey Research Center, and Dr. Ronald Freedman to set up the Detroit Area Study. This is a practicum for first-year graduate students. Typically each year a professor is authorized to conduct a sample survey on a subject bearing on his professional interest, for which interview data would be fruitful. The students in the class receive training by participating in the planning of the interview schedule, taking interviews, coding the resulting schedules for machine analysis, and writing individual reports on some aspect of the investigation.
Dr. Amos H. Hawley was appointed chairman in 1952 and served until 1961. Striking progress continued in research activity. On the initiative of the School of Social Work and with the support of the Russell Sage Foundation, a new doctoral program was established in 1956, the Joint Program in Social Work and Social Science under the direction of Dr. Henry Meyer. The first candidates were admitted in the fall of 1957. This program was the first of its kind and has proved successful in producing broadly-trained workers for the field of social welfare. Through 1975, some 80 of the Ph.D.s awarded were in Social Work and Sociology.
The Center for Research in Social Organization was established within the department in 1960. For ten years the main fields of graduate specialization had been social organization, social psychology, and human ecology and population. Social organization was the most diffuse concept of the three and it was felt that students in that general area needed a focus for their efforts and a place where they could work on research projects.
In 1961 Guy E. Swanson took over as chairman of the department, serving until 1964. He was followed by Albert E. Reiss, 1964-70, and Howard Schuman in 1970-74.
The period 1961-75 began with the establishment of the Population Studies Center. This was a natural development Page 223of three circumstances: the growing interest in demography because of the population explosion, the grants that were coming to departmental members from the Population Council and the Rockefeller Foundation for studies in fertility, and the need for a workplace for the graduate students, including many foreign nationals, who were enrolling. The most distinctive feature of the Center has been its long active and productive relation with institutions in Taiwan, where a sharp reduction in fertility has been achieved. Members of the staff have also had extensive consultations on lowering birth rates with agencies in other developing countries (e.g., Malaysia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, and Mexico), and with governmental and international organizations.
The Center has also conducted significant studies of population distribution and redistribution in the United States, especially as they relate to racial segregation.
The presence of the Institute of Social Research and the Population Studies Center outside the department but with participating professors in them, and the Center for Research in Social Organization within the department has facilitated the obtaining of professorial research grants.
DEPARTMENT OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION AND THEATER
By 1940 the speech and theater program had been in existence at the University of Michigan for almost fifty years. Established in 1892 by Professor Thomas Trueblood, it was one of the first programs of its type in the country. In those beginning days the emphasis was on public speaking and oral reading, but as the years went by courses in other subjects were gradually added until in 1940 there were six well-defined areas of study in the department: rhetoric and public address, theater, oral interpretation, speech pathology, radio broadcasting, and speech pedagogy.
The department maintained its activities through the period of World War II although on a somewhat restricted basis. With the end of the war in 1945, a new period of Page 224growth began. Courses in television were added to the radio broadcasting curriculum and the establishment of the TV center made new facilities available for advanced laboratory work by students. As the 1960s began some instruction in film techniques was made a part of certain TV courses and in 1965 the first of several courses dealing exclusively with film was added to the curriculum. The master's program in radio-television-film offered professional training that qualified many students for positions in broadcasting and film organizations and the Ph.D. program prepared people for research and teaching in a field that was expanding rapidly in educational institutions throughout the country.
There were a number of significant developments in the theater field during this period. One was the expansion of faculty and courses in the area of technical theater, a trend that culminated in the early 1970s with the establishment of a Master of Fine Arts degree in theater design.
Another development was the expansion of opportunities for students, particularly those in the Graduate School, to direct and design theater productions. The number of one-act plays produced each year was increased and the Showcase series of four full-length plays a year, directed and designed by students, was added to the schedule. The introduction of the Summer Repertory program in 1969 also increased the opportunities for student directors and designers.
In 1961 theater at the University of Michigan received a significant boost when the Professional Theater Program was established. Though this program was primarily designed to bring outstanding professional theater to the Ann Arbor community, it was linked to the educational program in a number of ways. Its director became a member of the theater faculty; six fellowships were established for graduate students who were given experience in performing with professional companies; the theater artists who were visitors in Ann Arbor lectured to classes and met with students for informal conversations. In 1973, when the first PTP director retired, the professional and educational theater programs were organized under the same director to achieve better coordination. One result of this step was the establishment of the Guest Artist series which brought a professional actor, director, or designer to Ann Arbor to serve in his Page 225professional capacity in connection with the production of a play and to serve the department additionally as a teacher.
In the 1970s the building of the Power Center for the Performing Arts made another theater available for student productions. The production in 1974 of Shakespeare's Pericles made the theater area one of the few organizations in the country to have produced all of the thirty-seven plays included in the Shakespeare canon.
The speech sciences area of the department in 1940 included a strong speech pathology section which provided teaching and research in the field and a clinical service for University students and residents of the community. The clinic had operated since 1937 under the joint administration of the Speech Department and the Institute for Human Adjustment. In 1947 the audiology section of the program was strengthened through the addition of faculty members and courses and the provision of an audiology service at the Speech Clinic. The speech science area was also expanded with a faculty member in that field and new facilities, including an anechoic chamber. The speech science program separated from the department, however, in the early 1960s and eventually became part of the Department of Computer and Communication Science.
In 1949 the speech pathology and audiology area was expanded when the Kresge Foundation presented the University with the grounds, buildings, and facilities of a summer camp that had been operated on a private basis for a number of years to provide therapy for boys who were stutterers. Under the area's direction, the service was extended to girls and was expanded to include treatment of many other types of problems including hearing loss, aphasia, cerebral palsy, and cleft palate. About 100 boys and girls a year participate in this summer program and it provides resources for a number of research studies each summer. In the late 1950s a program for the treatment of adult aphasia was established. It brought victims of this disorder to the campus where they were residents during the treatment period.
In 1969 the area, then housed in the Victor Vaughn Building in the medical complex of the University, petitioned to become part of the Department of Physical Medicine and Page 226Rehabilitation in the Medical School. The request was granted as of the fall of 1969 and the area continued to offer its undergraduate and graduate programs through the Speech Department.
The area dealing with public address, group discussion, argumentation and related fields (which in the 1970s came to be known as the communications studies area) experienced a growing interest in the behavioral approach to the study of communication. One aspect of this development was that in such subjects as persuasion and group discussion, the emphasis on performance gave way to an emphasis on theory. New types of courses were introduced in the 1970s, among them courses in interpersonal, organizational, and intercultural communication.
In the middle 1960s a Ph.D. in the field of oral interpretation was added to those offered by the department. There was also an increased emphasis on the development of choral reading skills through the addition of courses in readers' and chamber theater.
DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS
The University of Michigan was among the first American universities to offer academic programs in mathematical statistics, but among the last major universities to establish a separate Department of Statistics. The Mathematics Department offered graduate programs in probability and mathematical statistics through the late 1960s and continues presently with programs in probability. The Department of Statistics came into formal existence in the fall of 1969 with William A. Ericson as Acting Chairman and with quarters in Mason Hall. The period of 1969-76 was one of growth and development. The number of active graduate students increased from 5 to 40 and course enrollments virtually doubled. During the period, 13 students earned doctorates in statistics and approximately 50 earned master's degrees. Highly successful courses in applied statistics were introduced, and joint master's degree programs were established with the departments of Economics, Sociology, and Psychology.
Page 227The 1976 year was one of crisis for the department. In 1973-74 the College began an overall evaluation of departments and programs. During early summer 1976 this department was evaluated by a distinguished panel of statisticians: David Blackwell (Berkeley), Herman Chernoff (MIT), and Frederick Mosteller (Harvard). They found the department to be generally healthy and made several specific recommendations. The morale of the faculty was raised considerably when the College endorsed the major recommendations of the Blackwell-Chernoff-Mosteller report. A Statistics Instruction Committee was established in fall of 1976.
On the expiration of W. A. Ericson's second term as chairman in 1977, Michael B. Woodroofe assumed that post.
DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY
In 1940 the senior members of the department were Chairman George R. LaRue (parasitology), A. Franklin Shull (genetics), Peter Okkelberg (embryology) and Paul S. Welch (limnology). A more junior group included Arthur E. Woodhead (parasitology), Frank E. Eggleton (invertebrate zoology), Alfred H. Stockard (vertebrate anatomy), Harry W. Hann (ornithology, and Alvalyn E. Woodward (physiology). Dr. Stockard also served for many years as director of the Biological Station at Douglas Lake. After the war, the influx of veterans swelled enrollment, and additional zoologists were appointed to the department.
In 1949 Professor LaRue resigned as chairman and was replaced by Dugald E. S. Brown, who served until 1965 and was succeeded by John M. Allen (1965-71) and Carl Gans (1971-75). Professor Brown, a physiologist, was charged with maintaining the strength of the department in limnology, genetics, and embryology while strengthening its expertise and curriculum in experimental biology. He also believed that some knowledge of ecology was important not only to zoologists but to all students seeking a liberal education.
Embryology became developmental biology. George W. Nace developed and directed the Amphibian Facility which raises genetically controlled lines of amphibians for zoological Page 228research. Experimental zoology has been an important feature in the department since the beginning of Brown's chairmanship. Most of the faculty in limnology, genetics, and embryology have been experimentalists. Two subdivisions of physiology became distinct enough to require specialists: neurophysiology and endocrinology. Associated with the physiologists and active in departmental affairs was Claire J. Shallabarger (1960-67), who taught radiation biology for the department but drew his salary as Coordinator of Kresge Radioisotope Laboratories in the Medical School. John E. Bardach, of the School of Natural Resources, who studied the physiology of fish, also held a professorial title in zoology from 1956 to 1971.
Chairman Brown also expanded the efforts of the department in cellular biology, a field in which exciting developments were occurring. Ecology beyond the confines of limnology also received emphasis. Its growth stimulated increasing public interest in environmental problems.
The Institute of Human Biology, an independent unit directed for many years by Lee R. Dice, was disbanded as Dice's retirement approached. Of its three main divisions, human genetics was transferred to the Medical School, mouse genetics to the Mammalian Genetics Center of the Department of Zoology, and the ecological research program to the Museum of Zoology. The ecology program became the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, which later lost its separate identity.
The Museum of Zoology and the department had operated as separate units since 1909. Members of the Museum staff taught departmental courses in vertebrate and invertebrate biology, ecology, and evolution and played a major role in the departmental graduate program. Dean Charles E. Odegaard instituted the policy that Museum Curators were to have half-time appointments in the department for the academic year, with the balance of their salary in the Museum.
The curators from the Museum have joined the full-time ecologists in the department in teaching ecology and introductory biology to undergraduates, and they have directed substantial amounts of the doctoral research in zoology. Members from both groups played an important role in developing the Organization for Tropical Studies, a consortium of Page 229which the University is a member. They also contribute to the courses and the research opportunities that the Organization offers in Costa Rica.
Chairman Brown's interest in cellular biology led him to encourage participation of zoology in the interdepartmental concentration program in cellular biology, and to support the establishment of the Biophysics Research Division.
In 1940 the department's space was badly crowded. The Natural Science Building, first occupied in 1915, housed not only the Departments of Zoology, Botany, Geology and Mineralogy but also the School of Natural Resources and part of the Department of Psychology. A few rooms became available when Psychology left the building in 1953. In 1961-63, the Medical School vacated the former West Medical Building, whereupon the School of Natural Resources moved into its present quarters, relinquishing its space in the Natural Sciences Building to the remaining departments. Some of the teaching laboratories in the introductory zoology courses also were moved into the Natural Resources Building.
Even in larger quarters, crowding continued. Teaching laboratories had to be occupied not only throughout the day but also in the evening, and evening sections persisted in 1975. In 1971 space became available after the Medical School vacated the former East Medical Building. Space was released for Geology and Mineralogy and for additional teaching laboratories in the introductory biology courses and in most of the intermediate courses in zoology. The Departments of Zoology and Botany then became the only occupants of the Natural Science Building, which allowed them to expand. Renovating and equipping these new rooms required painstaking supervision, as did the renovation of older space to permit its occupants to do modern research. Members of the department who are curators have always been housed in the Museums Building, and the Mammalian Genetics Center and the Amphibian Facility are also housed outside the Natural Science Building.
The Residential College is a four-year degree-granting liberal arts college within the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts devoted exclusively to undergraduate education. In July 1966, the Planning Committee issued its final report setting forth the rationale and educational objectives of the Residential College along with detailed plans for implementation. In essence, to combat the impersonality and inertial drag of bigness, the planners conceived of a small liberal arts college which would be a living-learning community with common intellectual and cultural experience, a close sense of community, and opportunities for educational innovation. Although the Residential College would have an identity of its own, nevertheless it would remain an integral part of LS&A. In keeping with this main objective, the planners envisioned an undergraduate liberal arts college with a total enrollment of 1,200, with its own campus including a variety of student housing, classrooms, offices, and other facilities, and a core curriculum emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to learning. It would not be an honors college; rather the students admitted would represent a cross section of the LS&A freshman class in ability, interests, and backgrounds. The faculty would come from a wide variety of LS&A departments and, like the students, be self-selected — those interested in teaching undergraduates in a more intimate environment. The curriculum was designed to provide common intellectual experiences for all RC students. In the first two years, students would take a Freshman Seminar, Language and Logic, a year's sequence in humanities, in social sciences, and intensive foreign language study leading to a useful proficiency. In addition, every student during his undergraduate career had to have some experience in the practice of one of the arts. And, finally, each student would sit for comprehensive examinations at the end of the sophomore year and in the field of his concentration during his senior year. The RC would develop its own concentration programs which would not duplicate existing programs in LS&A. RC students would have the option of selecting a major from the combined offerings of the RC and LS&A.
To foster student responsibility for learning, the planners proposed a variety of class sizes from small seminars to large lectures, independent study, tutorials, frequent formal and informal meetings with faculty, and written Page 231evaluations in lieu of grades. Students, along with faculty, would have partnership in college governance.
Because of the primary emphasis on a living-learning community, the planners expected students to remain residential members of the RC for four years. Since the physical environment was so important to their residential expectation, the planners spent much time and thought on the architectural design and layout of the RC campus which was to be on a fifty-acre tract on the north side of the Huron River.
The Planning Committee had consulted broadly within LS&A with Dean Haber and the College Executive Committee, and with LS&A departments and faculty, with Vice-Presidents Allan Smith and Wilbur Pierpont, and with President Harlan Hatcher. As a consequence of these meetings which gave general support to the RC concept, the University Regents at their June 23, 1966, meeting approved the RC schematic drawings, preliminary specifications, and the budget and "authorized proceeding with the project into the final preliminary design stage." The tentative schedule called for bids on June 10, 1967, with construction to be completed by February, 1969. In effect, this Regental action gave official University support for the facilities needed to establish the RC on its own campus.
Rather than wait for the completion of the new RC campus, however, the Planning Committee, with Dean Haber's encouragement, decided to launch the College in interim quarters in Tyler and Prescott houses in East Quadrangle and in the fall 1967, the College admitted its first class of two hundred and seventeen LS&A freshmen after over three years of intensive planning and wide-ranging discussion. Since Dean Thuma planned to retire in 1967, Dean Haber with the endorsement of the Planning Committee appointed Associate Dean James H. Robertson as the RC Director responsible for translating the plans into reality. Dean Robertson, along with Dean Thuma, Professors Newcomb, Cohen, Wunsch, and Robert Rau and Paul Wagner, constituted an administrative staff to prepare for the selection, accommodation, and teaching of the first RC class. Professor Newcomb, in charge of admissions, reported that over 1,400 LS&A freshman had indicated a desire to enroll in the RC. From this group, 220 were selected, who constituted a cross section of the LS&A freshman class Page 232in ability and background and with dynamic differences — they were venturesome, questioning, creatively aware, and non-conforming. These were the qualities the planners had not fully foreseen and were qualities to shape, change, and invigorate the RC from the beginning. The carefully planned core program of courses required of all RC students, for example, ran counter to another basic RC concept, namely, joint student-faculty decision-making authority. If students were to have a voice in shaping their education, the fixed and imposed pattern of the core curriculum was at variance with this principle. Restiveness with the required aspect of the core program grew steadily. But the major emphasis during the first months of the College was on developing a suitable faculty-student governance. Out of many town meetings emerged the Representative Assembly with eight students, eight faculty, and the Director as chairman. This Assembly was the legislative council of the RC, which set up standing committees and controlled the dues collected from students and faculty. The Director, who was the link between the RC and the Dean and Executive Committee of LS&A, reserved the right to veto any Representative Assembly action. This assembly provided the forum for discussion of many important issues, not only curricular matters but serious social and political crises that swept the campus in 1968-71 — the Vietnam War, draft resisters, Black Panthers, corporate recruiters, the ROTC, the Black Action Movement, Kent State. Although RC students and faculty frequently took the lead in responding vigorously to those urgent issues, they did so with more information, more insight, and more civility because of the continuing forum provided by the Representative Assembly.
Another major decision concerned the permanent location of the RC. The planners had drawn up a detailed layout for a self-contained campus across the Huron River with the start in Tyler and Prescott Houses a temporary, interim step. But the members of the Planning Committee actively involved in the RC — Professors Newcomb, Brown, Cohen, Wunsch, Meisel, Benamou, and Robertson — soon perceived that being close to the main campus was a decided advantage to students and staff. They argued that if the Regents would approve a complete renovation of the entire East Quad to suit the needs of the RC, such a home would be preferable to the one envisioned in the original plan. The issue came to a head in March 1968 when the entire RC student body and Page 233staff met with the Regents, President Robben Flemming, and the administrative officers of LS&A and the University. Among the presentations made, those of two RC students — Martha Schwartz and Peter Jepson — were especially persuasive. The Regents subsequently authorized the transformation of the East Quadrangle from a men's dorm to a coeducational residential liberal arts college — the home of the Residential College.
To analyze the persistent issues raised by the required core curriculum, the Representative Assembly created the Core Curriculum Review Committee in April 1969. This faculty-student committee recommended, in February 1970, that interdisciplinary core courses be retained, but that they not be required. This recommendation was adopted by the College. A more sweeping recommendation was made in November 1970, which came to be known as Proposal "C." In essence, this proposal asked LS&A for permission to abolish practically all requirements and to allow each student to construct his own degree program. The proposal was debated vigorously but never finally acted on by LS&A. In the Winter Term 1971, the Educational Policies Committee was created to review college-wide educational policies and to make recommendations for change. This Committee, under the chairmanship of Professor Max Heirich, reported to the Representative Assembly in the Spring 1972, on a variety of important issues affecting life in the College. One of the main problems addressed was the RC's difficulty in attracting and holding selected faculty to plan, teach, and give continuity to the RC educational program. As a result, RC courses and programs had come to rely increasingly on younger nontenured staff, on lecturers, and on predoctoral fellows. The need for an adequate budget and, more important, for the right to appoint and promote its own faculty was emphasized. Dean William Hays recognized the validity of this need, gave what financial help he could, and in his final report as LS&A Dean in June 1970 called special attention to the RC's staffing problem.
In the Fall 1971, Dean Frank Rhodes set up a Residential College Review Committee under the chairmanship of Professor Rhoads Murphey to make a comprehensive study and evaluation of the RC. One of its charges was to determine whether or not the RC should be terminated. To help the Review Committee, the RC Acting Director Ellis Wunsch (Dean Robertson Page 234was on sabbatical leave during the Fall Term, 1971) compiled and edited an excellent self-study. With the help of the RC faculty, staff, and students, Ellis Wunsch gave a perceptive, searching account of the RC's first four years, including shortcomings and problems as well as achievements and successes. One of the main problems was the RC's inability to select, appoint, and reward faculty by rank and tenure. This issue was underscored by the RC Review Committee who, in the Spring 1972, recommended that the RC be given adequate financial support and that it have the same status as a department in selecting and retaining faculty. In addition, the Review Committee recommended the creation of a Joint Board to develop stronger liaison with the LS&A Dean and Executive Committee and with LS&A departments. In the subsequent debates over these and other recommendations in the LS&A Executive Committee and in LS&A Faculty Meetings, the Joint Board proposal was adopted, but the staffing and budget support recommendations were rejected.
Stimulated by the external review criticism, the RC began its fifth year trying to implement the recommendations of the Review Committee. The first RC graduating class had done well in graduate and professional school admissions as well as in creative achievements — many Hopwood winners, two books published by undergraduates, as well as distinctions in drama, dance, and ceramics. Professors Theodore Newcomb and Donald Brown had been conducting comparative research since 1968 on the qualities and achievements of RC students. Their evidence was heartening confirmation of the vision, competence, and loyalty of RC members.
The Joint Board, appointed by Dean Rhodes in December, 1972, was composed chiefly of LS&A faculty with Professor Harold Shapiro as chairman. The Board worked closely with the RC administrative staff in clarifying and developing personnel policies and budget priorities. Specifically, the Board reviewed the status of several important RC faculty who had no departmental appointments, and gained some concessions from departments. The Joint Board, under Professor Shapiro's leadership, became a constructive, influential force in presenting RC needs to Dean Rhodes and the LS&A Executive Committee.
After serving as Director for six years, Associate Dean Page 235Robertson in April 1973 returned to full time teaching. Professor Louis Orlin was appointed Director and, after one year, was replaced by Professor Marc Ross.Page [unnumbered]