COLLEGE OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE ARTS
From 1940 to 1944 Literature, Science, and the Arts was guided by Dean Edward Kraus, geologist and authority on gems and precious stones, and for many years Dean of the Summer Session. In 1940 the College student enrollment was 4,895. As America joined the war against the Axis Powers, faculty attendance at monthly meetings rose to an all-time high of 132. Plans were formulated to celebrate the University of Michigan Centennial on October 15, 1941, with James Rowland Angell of Yale as the main speaker. Despite increasing demands of the war effort and leaves of absence granted to faculty members for national service, the College shouldered 60 percent of the educational load at the University. Enrollment declined; the proportion of male and female students shifted drastically, and yet the College swung into the war effort through the establishment of ASTP (Army Specialized Training Programs) and the Japanese Language School.
The accelerated schedules resulted in fatigue and a slackening of interest among both faculty and students. As a consequence, the College Honors Program for carefully selected upper classmen, established in 1938 under the chairmanship of Professor Warner G. Rice, had to be temporarily halted, and the Administrative Board required over 500 students to withdraw for failure to maintain the required level of performance. In 1943 the College faculty chafed under low salaries: Instructor, $2,000; Assistant Professor, $2,500; Associate Professor, $3,500; Professor, $4,400. Faculty welcomed the Regents' provision of a year's salary before retiring at the age of seventy, and began to make plans for the anticipated postwar bulge in veterans' enrollment.
For the College itself, the major innovation under Dean Kraus was a system of faculty evaluation proposed by the local chapter of the American Association of University Professors. All reports were to be filed in the Dean's Office: (1) an annual record of each faculty member's publications; (2) end-of-semester student comments on Page 110pedagogy; and (3) a Committee in every Department to report on each individual faculty member's professional competence. Any faculty member could ask to see his own dossier at any time.
Hayward Keniston, who had come to us as Professor of Spanish from the University of Chicago, was named Dean on March 1, 1945. He immediately recommended and got salary increases in order to maintain an outstanding faculty, higher standards for both teaching and research, and, for the students, a wider educational experience than merely formal courses. With the influx of veterans, committees worked hard and long on curriculum revision, stimulated by the more mature views and greater motivation of the students. Experts, called in from Harvard, Columbia, and other peer institutions, advised that Art and Archeology be reorganized, Greek and Latin joined as "Classics," and that each department submit its plans for the next five years. Two associate deans were appointed to look after problems of counseling, advanced standing, curriculum, and personnel.
In order to attract more recognized scholars to the faculty, Dean Keniston urged an across-the-board increase in salaries of 20 to 25 percent, and the establishment of a few "chairs." Two "firsts" appear in the Dean's reports: a plea that faculty women deserve exactly the same treatment as men, and a series of appended reports by the associate deans on counseling, admissions with advanced standing, and personnel.
Apart from higher salaries there was still needed more time for research, more space, and better equipment. Of ever greater necessity was more and better thinking on the theory and practice of undergraduate education. We deplored the gradual erosion of the University's national character through the limitation of students from outside Michigan. Within, departmental autonomy fostered solidarity and loyalty, but militated against such newly-endorsed interdepartmental and interdisciplinary programs as Great Books, the five-year course in Chemistry and Civil Engineering, the Far East, Latin America, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature. The programs gained headway, thanks to the dedication of many faculty and students. Of great concern were Botany and Zoology, between whom there was little sharing of knowledge, Page 111techniques, and equipment.
Reaffirming their faith in the four-year liberal arts education with departmental concentration at the end, in 1948 the faculty adopted legislation on curriculum and on a sharpened evaluation of their own services. They agreed on triple criteria for promotion: teaching, scholarship, and "service," especially student counseling. "Near" and "Far-Eastern" were in unholy wedlock, so they were separated. Student evaluation began to improve teaching, and several promotions to tenure were made on the basis of outstanding teaching alone.
By 1949 distribution requirements were more exactly defined and greater cooperation was secured between departments. Progress was made in counseling and faculty-student relationship. Freshman English, a perennial problem, was revised, and a system of class visitation was set up to coordinate the many sections taught by teaching fellows. Chairmen of departments were no longer "Heads" with indeterminate terms of office but were often younger men with energy and administrative skill rather than wide reputation and were appointed for specific terms. By 1950 enrollment showed no increase for the first time in five years. Associate Dean Lloyd Woodburn was called to the University of Washington to serve as Dean of its College of Arts and Letters and was replaced by Professor Burton Thuma of Psychology. Associate Dean Charles Peake went off to Knox College and was replaced by Assistant Professor James Robertson of the Department of English.
With the establishment of faculty research grants, faculty morale rose substantially. The Dean and his staff moved to new quarters. The faculty grew larger and stronger than ever before.
There was a strengthening of the faculty through higher salaries, fringe benefits, and leaves of absence, with monetary grants from Rackham for individual research. Six years before, Anthropology and Fine Arts had no doctoral programs. Psychology, Astronomy, and Zoology are now considered departments of distinction. One-half of the departments in the College rank nationally among the first twenty. Of the doctorates granted by Rackham, 62 percent were trained by Page 112LS&A faculty. Dean Keniston urged the appointment of a religious thinker to head up the program in Studies in Religion. He pleaded for a University intellectual "Quarterly," and for a better University Press. He established the Literary College conference of faculty and students on the proposition that you do not prepare youth for the practice of democratic responsibility by preaching to them, but by giving them the opportunity for experience in arriving at group decisions that direct their own futures. After seven lively years Dean Keniston convinced his faculty that its appeal for popular support must be founded on the superior quality of its performance. He had reached the age of retirement. During the interim year of 1951-52 Associate Dean Burton Thuma, with long experience in the Dean's Office, provided continuity.
Dr. Charles Odegaard, erstwhile Professor of Medieval Intellectual History at the University of Illinois, Urbana, then Executive Secretary of the American Council of Learned Societies, was named Dean of the College in 1952. He was welcomed with the completion of new classrooms and faculty offices in the Haven-Mason complex and the four auditoriums adjoining Angell Hall. In his first year he promoted the visitation of high schools as well as junior colleges throughout Michigan, and, with Professor Lionel Laing of the Department of Political Science, brought the faculty code up to date. Insisting on the need for promising teachers and scholars in the lower ranks to work themselves up into the "tenure track," Dean Odegaard was proud that for two years not a single faculty member was appointed from outside above the rank of assistant professor. The Committee on Curriculum, created by Dean Keniston in 1948, became crucial in advancing such functions of LS&A as research interests and undergraduate teaching. Despite the good work of a new committee on classroom and scheduling, still more space was required. The demand for counseling increased, not only for the foundering students but also for the very bright. In favor of the latter was the smooth conduct of Honors for upper classmen in five departments.
During Dean Odegaard's six years as Dean, enrollment in the College increased by 34 percent, from 5,414 to 7,238; over 1,800 upper classmen were concentrating in 65 different fields; semester credit hours increased by 41 percent. Page 113The centrality of LS&A to the University was underscored by the fact that of the total number of semester credit hours taught on the Ann Arbor campus, LS&A was responsible for 53 percent of them. Because of this a fuller and stronger faculty became necessary as well as additional space. Rules for promotion were more stringent; search committees for personnel from other institutions were more vigilant and discriminating. Departmental faculties increased in size and salaries improved. After hours of individual consultation between departmental members of all ranks and the Executive Committee, several new chairmen were chosen and made subject to review after three or five years. The system proved successful and still works well. Research was fostered by integrating such units as museums and the Institute for Social Research into the regular College departments that best suited their disciplines. The establishment of the Undergarduate Library doubled the circulation of books within its first year. Mrs. Roberta Keniston was named its Director and served the student body and faculty in an exemplary way. Librarian Fred Wagman promoted the educational facilities of the College with the aid of an elected LS&A Library Committee.
Dean Odegaard resigned in the summer of 1958. Roger Heyns of the Department of Psychology succeeded him as Dean. His immediate challenge was the competitive offers made to our faculty members by other institutions. Most of them were met, thanks to President Harlan Hatcher and Executive Vice-President Marvin Niehuss, but there was a loss of some outstanding faculty, particularly in the life and physical sciences, largely due to the lack of adequate research facilities and "the absence of a congenial intellectual environment." One answer to this problem was the establishment of a Biophysics Division in the Institute of Science and Technology, which provided more modern equipment and more spacious laboratories. In the same year Dean Heyns reported the acquisition of a National Defense Education grant in the amount of $130,000 which provided for a summer institute in modern European languages designed to upgrade high school foreign language teachers. Professor Otto G. Graf, Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, served as its Director.
Admission for freshmen was tightened by the institution Page 114of national College Entrance Board and Scholastic Aptitude Tests. Area centers, Far Eastern in particular, became more popular and hence needed reenforcement. Dean Heyns and the faculty were persistently plagued by problems of growth exacerbated by the clash between the desire for autonomy and the University duty to cooperate with other schools on the campus. The complex chore of the College is teaching undergraduate liberal arts and preprofessional students as well as a growing number of students enrolled in the Rackham School of Graduate Studies.
In 1960-61 Dean Keniston's hope for a vitalized University Press seemed to be realized under the new Director, Fred Wieck. The Press published 45 titles, 35 of them by members of the LS&A faculty, and sales rose to $1,161,000. During Dean Heyns' term a new Department of Linguistics was created. Professor Otto G. Graf, the Director of the Honors Program, who succeeded Professor Robert Angell, reported that of the first graduating class through Honors a distinguished record was established: 18 received Woodrow Wilson Fellowships in support of graduate studies, five were named Danforth Fellows, 12 National Science Foundation grants were given, and, at long last, a Marshall Scholarship Fellow was named.
The major problem was the old one of maintaining an outstanding faculty and high quality of instruction. Higher salaries and more fringe benefits were of some help, except for the growing number of Teaching Fellows who had far too many of our underclassmen in their charge.
At the end of Dean Heyns four-year deanship, once more the indispensable Burton Thuma stepped in as interim Dean. In 1962-63 the abolition of the rank of instructor partly solved outside competition for faculty. With the University of Wisconsin a "Junior Year Abroad in France" was established at Aix-en-Provence. The space problem was relieved in part by the completion of the Physics-Astronomy Building (now the David M. Dennison Building). Faced with an increasing enrollment, a committee studied the possibilities of a Residential College.
When Professor William Haber of the Department of Economics was appointed Dean in the fall of 1963, the enrollment Page 115had climbed to a new high of 8,779. Faculty "full-time equivalents" reached 971, but still the 291 Teaching Fellows in the College were instructing about 30 percent of the courses, mainly at the freshman and sophomore level. The Residential College was approved by the Regents in April 1964, with Burton Thuma as its first Director. The Honors Program reported a continuation of its successes in national competitions and with the acquisition of foundation support was able to feature speakers and to create an Honors Professorship providing a year's stay for a distinguished scholar. Dean Haber, in anticipation of problems to come, appointed a committee of the most experienced faculty men and women, with Lowell Kelly as Chairman, to study the future of the College and to develop long-range planning.
With the College growing more rapidly than the University as a whole, Dean Haber's office released in January 1965 a committee report entitled Some Issues Controlling the Size of the College. The first year of the three-term calendar a new department, Computer and Communication Sciences, was added. The Honors Program grew apace, with 1,017 students enrolled in all four years of their undergraduate study. Additional housing for Honors students was provided in South Quadrangle, bringing the total number of Honors houses to three. With the cooperation of Wayne State University, Michigan State University, and the University of Wisconsin a Junior Year Abroad in Germany was established at Freiburg.
As the nation struggled with issues like the war in Vietnam and race relations, LS&A naturally became the most open forum on the campus. Issues were fully debated until deft compromises on various levels could be made. Student unrest, reflecting the national trend, continued. The sometimes noisy demands of BAM (Black Action Movement) produced a program in Afro-American Studies. The third week of March 1970 was a dismal low in a community dedicated to teaching and research; there was class disruption and some vandalism. Student demands for controlling their own educational destinies became so strident that fully-attended faculty debates had to be held in Trueblood Auditorium. Adamantly refusing to surrender its prerogative to define its own Bachelor of Arts degree, the faculty, in response to student pressure, did institute a new and different degree, the "Bachelor of Page 116General Studies," which exempted the student from any of the distribution requirements, and also precluded official concentration in any one subject.
The two years, 1968-70, welcomed Professor William L. Hays as the new Interim leader when Dean Haber, reaching retirement age, became Senior Consultant to the central Administration. The Department of Library Science became a new professional school and a Department of Statistics was created. Awakening social commitment among the students was partially met by expanded environmental studies.
The nation had quieted down in the fall of 1970 when Professor Alfred Sussman, Department of Botany, became Acting Dean. Passions were cooled, however, mainly by a financial "recession." Militancy was still alive for women's rights, minority appointments, full disclosure in tenure hearings, and the inclusion of student representatives at departmental Executive Committee meetings. At times faculty innovations were ahead of student demand, as in the creation of more interdepartmental concentrations. About 20 percent of the students were satisfied that a liberal education need not include a foreign language or any of the normally required Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science courses; they opted for the Bachelor of General Studies degree.
A series of lectures called "Liberal Arts and a Democratic Society" was established in honor of Dean Hayward Keniston, made possible by members of the family, colleagues, and friends. The first lecture was given by Professor Erwin Griswold of the Harvard Law School, later Assistant Attorney General of the United States, and the lectures became part of our intellectual life. A later endowment as a memorial to Dean Keniston provided for an annual lecture devoted to Romance Literature, which had been his field of specialization before he became Dean.
Ping-pong diplomacy turned the study of Chinese from an exotic luxury to thirty courses in seven departments. Better to resolve individual problems of students, the Course Mart was established, actually in many ways an accommodation of courses previously featured throughout the country by the "Free Universities." A Student Counseling Office providing "peer counseling" was also established.
Page 117Appointed Dean in 1971, Professor Frank Rhodes of Geology led the LS&A faculty and students in grappling with such national problems as recession, changing public priorities, and uncertainties in the labor market. American colleges and universities faced the fact that soon only 20 percent of the jobs would require a college degree whereas 60 percent of the seekers would possess one. The faculty cooperated with Dean Rhodes during his three-year tenancy in providing greater flexibility in course offering. The students also made adjustments; they became less career-oriented and more concerned about their individual and social needs. Ten percent of them were from Minority groups, compared with the national average for colleges of 5 percent. There were offered 1,400 courses in 2,000 sections; Course Mart alone was responsible for 40. Traditionally "closed" courses were "opened;" Botany-Zoology 106, for example, added 284 extra spaces each semester. In the midst of what came to be known as "the knowledge explosion," faculty and students were imbued with a new intellectual vitality. The Dean's office added three new Associate Deans for curriculum, student affairs, and faculty personnel.
Inflation, increased fees, and retrenchments in Federal support caused the enrollment to decline somewhat. Four-year liberal arts colleges were losing ground to vocational institutions. Throughout this period the Residential College registered a modest growth and "living-learning" programs attracted 18 percent of the students in University dormitories. The Honors Program continued to attract strongly qualified students and grew to 1,600 in number. Their record in the number of scholarships, fellowships, and successful application for admission to the most prestigious professional and graduate schools reflected the quality of the training and counseling which the Honors Program provided.
Four "Collegiate Professorships," each for two years, were established in order to encourage faculty members to develop courses they would not ordinarily teach but which are still rooted in their specific discipline. The continuing need for flexibility was met by instituting 17 "Mini courses" for one-hour credit on "Pass/Fail" basis; the Medieval and Renaissance Collegium, in its third year, increased the process of cross-fertilization; credit by examination up to 60 hours helped those students who had Page 118done part of their work elsewhere. After listening to freshman complaints of poor teaching and large classes, Dean Rhodes recommended the setting up of a few Freshman Seminars limited to 15 students to be taught in discussion-style by experienced professors.
Salaries were still below the university average and in Dean Rhodes' last year as Dean, 1973-74, a 5.9 percent increase in salaries was wiped out by a 7.5 percent rise in inflation. With internal pressure from unionization among faculty, such as the Graduate Employees' Organization, and external pressure to bring all higher education under public supervision, the College never sacrificed long-range planning for ad hoc satisfactions. The setting of College priorities, the reorganization of Biological Sciences, and redefining requirements for the B.A., the B.S., and the B.G.S. degrees demanded much study and the perennial problem of "Freshman Composition" was studied by a special committee under Professor Daniel Fader of the English Department.
As student demands became more varied, counseling became more central to the College's purpose. Enrollment stood at 12,431, a decline of 130 from the previous year, but freshmen continued to be of high quality, for the first time some of them admitted after only three years of high school. "Affirmative Action," however, received more money than, unfortunately, LS&A could find qualified students to spend it on.
After the GEO strike had disrupted instruction throughout the College for four weeks, an agreement was reached whereby teaching assistants would participate in decision-making which determined hours per week and compensation, but the College would determine criteria for appointment, duties, class size, and retention. The report of the Commission on Graduate Degree Requirements, in which LS&A had a more vital stake than anyone else, was approved by the Regents on May 16, 1975. The College had to accept, with all other units on the campus, a 2.5 percent cut in the budget; and nationally we experienced the results of a malaise among high school students, of whom over one-half fell below the combined SAT score of 700.
In these thirty-five years there have been ten Deans Page 119and Acting Deans. This apparently rapid shift in the College's top administration is explained by the high calibre of the persons called to fill that office. They have been consistently drawn off to positions of greater responsibility: to name a few, Dean Charles E. Odegaard to the Presidency of the University of Washington in Seattle; Dean Roger Heyns to the Vice-Presidency for Academic Affairs here and then to California as Chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley; Acting Dean Sussman to the Deanship of the Rackham School of Graduate Studies. Dean Frank Rhodes became Vice President for Academic Affairs and later moved to the Presidency of Cornell University.
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY
The Department of Anthropology was established in 1929 with Carl E. Guthe and J. H. Steward. They were housed in a room in the Museum of Anthropology reserved for research visitors. This was the departmental office until 1954, when the department moved to the basement of Angell Hall. The office remains there to this day, but departmental members have also had offices in Mason Hall, the Special Projects Building, and the Literature, Science and the Arts Building.
In 1940, Leslie A. White, Misha Titiev, and Carl E. Guthe offered some sixteen courses, with an undergraduate major and an M.A. program. Guthe resigned from the University in 1943, and the following year J. B. Griffin and V. H. Jones were added, though without College titles. During the next five years, following the appointment of L. A. White as Chairman, the staff was enlarged by R. K. Beardsley and F. P. Thieme on full time; from the Museum of Anthropology, by A. C. Spaulding, Kamer Aga-Oglu, and E. F. Greenman; K. Pike from Linguistics, and Horace Miner from Sociology. A Ph.D. program was established in 1948, the second in the Midwest, following the University of Chicago. This expansion was stimulated by the increase in student population following World War II, the growing awareness of the importance of understanding different areas of the world, and by the interest and support of Dean Heyward Keniston. By 1955 the staff had expanded to fifteen, and over 75 courses were available to undergraduate and graduate students. In 1965 there were 24 staff members, and by 1970 the department's size stabilized at between 30 and 35 members.
Professor Misha Titiev joined the department in 1936 after two years' activity as director of planning the archeological museum at Williamsburg, Virginia. Professor Titiev's field of specialization centered on American native cultural anthropology, a focus of interest which developed a strong and lasting association with the Hopi communities in Arizona. His interest extended to the Araucanian Indians in Chile, also to Indian cultures in Peru. Under auspices of a Page 121Fulbright fellowship he spent a year at the National University at Canberra, Australia, where he assisted in the establishment of a Department of Anthropology. In 1951 Titiev spent a year as Field Director of the University of Michigan Japanese Center in Okayama, Japan. The direction and conduct of a viable and distinguished Honors degree program in anthropology was in his charge from 1960 until his retirement in 1970.
Student enrollment has risen substantially over the years. In the 1946 fall term there were 10 graduate students and some 640 course enrollments; in the fall term of 1955 there were about 30 graduate students and almost 1,000 course enrollments; in 1964-65 there were 62 graduate students, an average of 1,780 course enrollments and 42 undergraduate majors in anthropology. By 1974-75 there were some 200 graduate students, 130 undergraduate majors and 4,760 course enrollments.
The doctoral program has been highly successful during its almost 30 years. Close to 150 Ph.D.s have been earned in anthropology. Archaeology and ethnology have trained most, followed by physical anthropology with about 15 percent and ethnobotany, a specialized subfield, with four recipients. For the first half of the period most of the theses in archaeology had as their geographical area North America from the Canadian Arctic to Georgia and from the Atlantic coast to the Southwest. They were primarily devoted to the building of cultural sequences and the identification of prehistoric societies. During the second half, archaeological thesis topics tended to be more theoretically oriented, and based on field work in Latin America, Europe, and the Near East. Early theses in ethnology explored various facets of the behavior and beliefs of contemporary American Indian societies. With the greater availability of research funds in the last twenty years, all of the continents as well as the insular Pacific and Caribbean are now listed as areas of field work. Meanwhile thesis orientation has shifted largely towards theoretical problems of anthropological interest. In physical anthropology, theses have been concerned with such problems as dental variation, the presence of strontium in human bone, human mating preferences, sickle cell anemia, and the age of bone. The theses in ethnobotany have dealt with the Page 122interaction between native societies and the plant world in Quebec, the Great Lakes and Southwest, and Hawaii.
The Department of Anthropology has had a series of joint appointments in other departments, institutes, and centers; these reflect the interests of the several staff members over the 35-year period. In the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, they include History of Art, Botany, Geology and Mineralogy, Linguistics, Political Science, Philosophy, Psychology, Sociology, and Zoology. In Sociology this association eventually developed into a concentration program in Social Anthropology under Horace Miner. A concentration program in Anthropology and Zoology is under E. Goldschmidt. Medical School departments of Anatomy and Human Genetics have had several joint appointments or interacting programs with Anthropology. In the School of Music there is a joint program in Ethnomusicology, and in the Highway Safety Research Institute a physical anthropologist has a major appointment. The staff of the Literary College has had a strong role in several centers of area studies established after World War II. Anthropology staff were active in the founding of the Centers for Afroamerican and African Studies, Human Growth and Development, Japanese Studies, and Near East and North African Studies. They have also been connected with the Centers for Chinese Studies, Research on Economic Development, Russian and East European Studies, and South and Southeast Asian Studies.
Leslie A. White was appointed an Assistant Professor in 1930 and was associated with the department until his retirement in 1969. F. P. Thieme served as Chairman for 1957-58, then becoming Provost of the University of Washington, Seattle. J. A. Spuhler was first Acting Chairman for a year and then served as Chairman until 1967 when he resigned to accept an endowed professorship at the University of New Mexico. Spuhler, like Thieme, was a physical anthropologist. W. D. Schorger, a social anthropologist, was Chairman from 1967 to 1970. He had been acting head during 1965-66 and was followed as Chairman by E. R. Wolf who served but one year, and resigned to accept a Distinguished Professorship at City University of New York. R. K. Beardsley was Acting Chairman in 1971-72. He, like Wolf, was a social anthropologist. Beardsley was also Director of the Center Page 123for Japanese Studies from 1961-63 and was active in its administrative and fund-raising affairs. Schorger was Director of the Center for Near East and North African Studies from 1961-71 and again since 1974. J. B. Griffin became Chairman in 1972, leaving office in 1975 because of retirement.
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONOMY
Heber Doust Curtis became Director of the Observatories of the University and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy on October 1, 1930. Curtis had a clear directive and promise of financial support for developing a new site for an observatory and a new large telescope of world rank for astronomical research. Curtis died on January 9, 1942, just six months before reaching retirement age, without achieving any considerable progress toward completion of the tasks he had been hired to do. McGregor Fund of Detroit, however, had given the University of Michigan a disk of pyrex glass 2.5 meters in diameter for use in the construction of the reflecting telescope that Curtis had designed soon after becoming the Director of the Observatories.
Will Carl Rufus was made Acting Chairman to succeed Curtis. He served throughout the war years until reaching retirement furlough July 1, 1945. All of the members of the department served full time in war-related teaching and research and often were assigned to serve far from the campus and far from any University supervision. Rufus, however, assumed directorial duties with regard to the observatories and produced new designs and plans for the proposed large reflecting telescope. A part of Rufus's plans envisioned a cooperative development by the University of California and the University of Michigan, a type of organization that was to become popular in the postwar years under the name of "consortium." Perhaps Rufus's greatest achievement was the effecting of a complete integration of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory into the academic structure of the Department of Astronomy and the Literary College.
Page 124Allan Douglas Maxwell followed Rufus as Acting Chairman on July 1, 1945. He began the regrouping and reorganization of the department that would be required at the end of the war and on the appointment of a Chairman and Director. On June 30, 1946, Maxwell resigned to accept an appointment at the United States Naval Observatory and Freeman Devold Miller was appointed as a Visiting Associate Professor to assume Maxwell's teaching duties for 1946-47. The observatories and the department, without a director or a chairman, attempted to continue their postwar reorganization throughout the 1946 summer, but most of their efforts were expended in a search for replacements to fill the vacant top positions. At Rufus's request for assistance in attracting suitable candidates, the University administration had allocated $100,000 for a new telescope to be constructed in the development of the area purchased for the Department of Astronomy in 1927. For administrative reasons the Observatory Purchase, the Stinchfield Woods, and the Newkirk Purchase were combined in 1945 into a single holding to be called the Stinchfield Woods under the supervision of the School of Forestry with astronomy granted suitable sites for telescopes.
An end to the search for a director and chairman was reached in 1946 when Leo Goldberg, Assistant Professor of Astronomy assigned to the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, was confirmed as Associate Professor of Astronomy, Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, and Director of the University Observatory. Robert Raynolds McMath had been appointed Director of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory in 1938, and he continued as Director with sole responsibility and authority to act for this part of the department after the appointment of Goldberg.
In the summer of 1946 the McGregor Fund asked the University and the department about intentions for the large disk given to the Observatories for use in a suitable telescope. Judge Henry Schoolcraft Hulbert, secretary of McGregor Fund, expressed dissatisfaction with the almost imperceptible progress of the preceding ten years, and suggested that in view of well-understood promises, the telescope construction should be started immediately and should be named in memoriam to Heber Doust Curtis. The Regents decided to return the 2.5 meter disk, given by McGregor Fund Page 125in January 1935, to the Fund with thanks and regrets that they could see no funds to pay the costs of an instrument of that size. McGregor Fund then agreed to contribute a total of $100,000 during fiscal years 1948-49 and 1949-50 toward construction and equipment leading to the installation of a much smaller telescope of advanced design in the Stinchfield Woods, the telescope to be named The Heber Doust Curtis Memorial Telescope.
The death of Robert Patterson Lamont, February 18, 1948, donor of the Lamont-Hussey Observatory, Bloemfontein, South Africa, and principal financial supporter of its activities and the research of the Observatory in Ann Arbor, caused a careful review of the methods of raising money for the support of astronomy in the University. Throughout the years the University had paid the full costs of astronomical instruction, but almost none of the cost of doing research and operating the observatories. Noninstructional activities were paid for by donations from individuals or foundations.
At the end of the war in 1945 the armed forces began to offer grants and award contracts in support of astronomy and, somewhat later, similar allocations of government money began to be made by agencies created specifically for such tasks. The Office of Naval Research became one of the main supports for astronomical research nationally, and the Michigan Observatories and the Department of Astronomy moved rapidly to get money for their research programs. Important support, in amounts larger than any previously available, came from the Navy for studies in ultraviolet and infrared solar spectroscopy. The National Science Foundation, after its creation in 1950, replaced the ONR as the main source of funds for the support of astronomical research and advanced instruction.
A new research program supported by the Rackham School of Graduate Studies was started at the Lamont-Hussey Observatory in 1948. It was a cooperative project, "The Michigan-Mount Wilson Southern H-alpha Survey" for spectroscopic observation of stars not visible from North America.
Another change in direction of the department, resulting from postwar reorganization occurred in the arrangements Page 126for undergraduate instruction. Earlier departmental policy had decreed that every academic member of the staff from instructor through the rank of professor should teach at least one section of the beginning courses each term in the academic year. This policy was changed in 1947 and responsibility for undergraduate instruction was assigned to a very small number of staff members, with most of the academic staff assigned to advanced instruction and research. The postwar years brought a large increase in the number of undergraduate elections in astronomy.
Infrared solar spectroscopy, supported by ONR, was so successful that specific instruments were designed for its promotion at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, the Mount Wilson Observatory (under McMath-Hulbert supervision) in California, and finally a novel solar vacuum spectroscope was designed and constructed to embody new and improved components and techniques developed during the course of the Navy-sponsored programs. Funds for the new instruments were obtained from private donors; thus, the vacuum spectroscope at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, completed in 1955, was one of the last major astronomical instruments built entirely without assistance from government funding agencies.
From the early war years, in 1942, results from the McMath-Hulbert Observatory's programs, consisting of visual and photographic observation of the sun at frequent intervals whenever possible, had been increasingly demanded by various federal government bureaus, and the cost incurred in making continuous series of reports of changes on the sun was defrayed by government grants and contracts. Such observation and reporting gradually became the largest part of McMath-Hulbert's observing activity, and efforts were made to supplement visual and photographic observations with data on solar activity obtained in the radio region of the spectrum. In the interest of more nearly complete coverage of the sun's changes, new facilities were developed during the 1955-56 year for studies in solar radio astronomy. A cooperative program of the Department of Astronomy and the Department of Electrical Engineering, under contract with the Office of Naval Research, supervised by Frederick Theodore Haddock, Jr., was established. A precision radio reflecting telescope, 8.54 meters in diameter, designed primarily for solar Page 127observations supplemental to the observations of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, was installed in the Stinchfield Woods in 1955. A larger radio reflector, 26 meters in diameter, began operation in broadly-based radio astronomical study on the same site in 1958, but the 8-meter telescope remained available for solar research.
In 1954, after providing leadership for many years in United States astronomy in the Finance Committee of the American Astronomical Society, and after serving as President of the Society (1952) McMath was asked by the National Science Board through the National Science Foundation to be chairman of a committee for the study of "the astronomical needs of the United States" both internally and relative to astronomy world-wide. The work was begun and largely carried forward at the McMath-Hulbert Observatory. It was completed in Ann Arbor, October 27, 1957, at a meeting held for the formation of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy — an Arizona corporation. Thus, in the month of October, 1957, two events — the launching of the first successful artificial satellite of the Earth (October 5, 1957) — and the incorporation of AURA, Inc., started a transformation of astronomy into its modern aspect.
The corporation was created to use National Science Foundation money and other funds as available, for implementation of the recommendations of the McMath Committee. The principal recommendation proposed the establishment of a large astronomical observatory, primarily based in Arizona, but also at other locations both within and outside the United States. McMath became the first Chairman of the Board of Directors of AURA, Inc., and continued to give close and steady attention to all phases of the project until his health failed in 1961. Astronomy world-wide has benefitted enormously from the efforts of the University, its Department of Astronomy, McMath and his colleagues in the formation of AURA, Inc., a prototype of modern astronomical organization, and its three observatories, the Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the Sacramento Peak Observatory. On November 2, 1962, AURA, Inc. named the world's largest solar telescope, located on Kitt Peak, The Robert R. McMath Solar Telescope.
Page 128The Lamont-Hussey Observatory in South Africa has been an important source of research data internationally but it has played a relatively insignificant role in astronomy within the University. The Regents, therefore, voted on April 24, 1953, to discontinue operation of the observatory and to provide for the return of the large objective (0.69 meters in diameter) and its auxiliaries to Ann Arbor. Action on this Regental decision was deferred indefinitely, however, because of requests from the Lowell Observatory and other groups for use of the telescope.
On June 11, 1954, the Regents approved a proposed razing of the Observatory Residence, built in 1868. This continued a slow erosion of the Observatory properties in Ann Arbor that had begun early in the 1900s.
Goldberg resigned in February 1960, but deferred the effective date until August 31, 1960. Haddock was appointed Director of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, July 1, 1961, and Orren Cuthbert Mohler was appointed Director of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, September 1, 1961. On February 1, 1962, Mohler was designated Chairman of the Department of Astronomy and Director of the University of Michigan Observatories.
By Regental decision the Department of Astronomy was required to vacate its offices, classrooms, and telescopes on the site that had been dedicated to astronomy for one hundred and ten years. Office and classroom space in a new Physics-Astronomy Building was allocated to the department, but the future for the Observatory created by Tappan in 1854 and extended by Hussey in 1905 became uncertain. In 1963 the department's astronomical observation was performed mostly at observatories remote from the campus; indeed, many research observations were being made from space vehicles in orbits around the Earth. Only the 0.95-meter-aperture cassegrainian telescope remained useful at the original location, although for many years plans had been made for its removal or replacement. In July, 1963, applications to various agencies for funds to install the 0.95-meter reflector, or to build a new and better telescope on a new site were approved.
With the deferral of the return of the Lamont-Hussey Page 129Observatory to Ann Arbor, this Observatory reopened for full-time research in May, 1963. It resumed its mission of measuring southern double stars.
In 1966 efforts to relocate or replace the 0.95-meter telescope, still on its original location, had produced the beginning of construction of a new building in the Stinchfield Woods near the building for the Heber Doust Curtis Memorial Telescope. A new telescope, a reflector 1.3 meter in aperture eventually was commissioned in this new building in 1969. These additions to the department were paid for from various sources. The University of Michigan paid most of the cost of the housing for the telescope, and most of the cost of the telescope was paid by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
The Heber Doust Curtis Telescope was used extensively in the summer and early autumn of 1967, but in October 1967, this excellent instrument was moved from the Stinchfield Woods to the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, near Vicuna, Chile. The telescope was moved as part of a leaselend agreement between AURA, Inc., and the University of Michigan, whereby all the costs of moving the telescope, refurbishing it, and installing it in working condition in Chile were paid by AURA. The University of Michigan was assigned 122 nights observing time per year by the Cerro Tololo Observatory as the rental fee for the use of the telescope. All costs for the daily operation of the telescope are now (1975) paid by Cerro Tololo.
Observing activities were definitely moving far from the University's campus. On March 9, 1967, an instrument designed and constructed within the University was placed in an orbit around the Earth on board NASA's Orbiting Solar Observatory, III. The McMath-Hulbert Observatory thus became the third astronomical observatory in the United States to make observations via satellite. The University of Michigan's Radio Astronomy Observatory had four instruments on orbiting space craft by the end of 1967.
Mohler relinquished the Chairmanship of the department and the Directorship of the University Observatories on September 1, 1970, but continued service as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory. Page 130William Albert Hiltner was appointed Professor of Astronomy and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy.
The growth of AURA and its observatories had reached a nearly dominant position in astronomy in the United States and this success caused questioning about the appropriateness of observational equipment on the campus of any university or college. Political considerations led to an ultimate closing of the Lamont-Hussey Observatory on March 1, 1972. The Observatory had gradually resumed active work in 1963 despite the Regental action of 1953, but increasing attention to the political implications of the connection between the University of Michigan and the Lamont-Hussey Observatory in South Africa brought about the return to Ann Arbor in 1972 of the large objective, auxiliary instruments, and records; and the return to the Municipality of Bloemfontein of the observatory buildings and the land they occupied.
Policies of AURA, Inc. facilitated assigning a location for the 1.3-meter telescope, installed in the Stinchfield Woods in 1969, on land leased for the Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona. In 1974 permission was granted by the National Science Foundation to relocate the telescope on Kitt Peak. Construction was started in November. The telescope was moved and put into operation on the Arizona location in May 1975, with the express purpose of optical support for the SAS-3 X-ray Satellite. The costs of the relocation and improvement of the telescope and supporting facilities came from contributions to the consortium of the University of Michigan, Dartmouth College, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology that was created to operate the telescope. The new institution was named the McGraw-Hill Observatory as an acknowledgment of the principal donor.
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
The imminent involvement of the United States in World War II demanded special duties for students and faculties. Carl LaRue was chosen by the USDA to procure fresh bud-wood of the Brazilian rubber tree from Bolivia, Nicaragua, and Mexico. He and Harley Bartlett, two decades earlier, had pioneered in the cloning of selected high-yielding rubber trees in Sumatra.
Bartlett went to the Panama Canal Zone in the summer of 1940 as botanist with the Gorgas Memorial Institute to attempt to discover the causes of increase in malarial-bearing mosquitoes. On his return to the States he was directly drafted to supervise the propagation of "the best Hevea (rubber) strains (in the Orient) and bring them to tropical America." In the summer of 1941 he succeeded in establishing plantations of choice Hevea clones in Haiti.
In September 1942, Bartlett began a "rubber-land-location assignment" in Mexico and South America which did not terminate until 1944. He supervised the introduction of plantings of the "rubber-bush," guayule, and the Russian dandelion, kok-saghz. This assignment was as much a diplomatic mission as a plant introduction project. It was his opinion in 1944 that "the future of guayule rubber appears very bright at this stage, at least as a hemisphere project, and the Congressional appropriations underwriting further development in many directions — one of which is improving methods for collecting the minute seeds — should greatly advance the culture of the plant in the Americas." In 1979 guayule cultivation again became news as the U.S. Congress legislated and funded for it an immense program in southwestern U.S. desert lands.
Frederick Kroeber Sparrow Jr., mycologist, showed ecumenical spirit in accepting an appointment with the Michigan State Experiment Station, growing milkweed for its floss, to be used in Army Air Corps uniforms. William Campbell Steere, bryologist, participated in the U.S. Cinchona Mission to Ecuador to procure quinine bark to compensate for the cut-off of supplies from the South Pacific. The mission was highly successful. William Randolph Taylor, Page 132now an internationally renowned expert on marine algae, was Senior Biologist in the Oceanographic Section of the Bikini Expedition, Crossroads, which witnessed mankind's first open, scientific demonstration of the power released in atomic fission.
During the years of the war the staff was more than adequate to teach the reduced civilian student population. The course for men in military service was accelerated. All staff members taught sections in the elementary course. The Veterans' "Bulge," following the cessation of the war, would have created great difficulties for all laboratory sciences had not the veterans been so eager for the opportunity of an education.
Professor Bartlett resigned as Chairman in 1947 having completed twenty-four years at that assignment. He retained directorship of the Botanical Gardens at its site near Iroquois Street off Stadium Boulevard, a research facility which he had virtually established in 1919. Professor William Campbell Steere was chosen as Bartlett's successor. In the regrettably short time he was in office (1947-50) he created an efficient operation within the botanical community of the University. Steere recruited new staff members in areas in which we were heretofore not represented: Pierre Dansereau, ecology, Alfred S. Sussman, physiological mycology, Fergus S. H. Macdowell, photobiology, and Robert J. Lowry, cytology, later electron microscopy, and Erich E. Steiner, an Oenothera geneticist.
Upon Steere's sudden decision to accept a professorship at Stanford University where he would be free of administrative duties, Kenneth L. Jones was appointed chairman for a three-year term.
W. Herbert Wagner, Jr., in systematics and morphology, developed courses in systematics of flowering plants, woody plants, and ferns. Elzada U. Clover who had been teaching taxonomy of flowering plants during Bartlett's numerous absences to faraway places, chose to shift her teaching efforts to an applied botany course at the Botanical Gardens.
Under the aegis of the Phoenix Project, a World War II memorial to University of Michigan veterans, the department Page 133received a munificent grant from the Dearborn Motors and Tractor Division of the Ford Motor Company to create the Plant Nutrition Laboratory in a renovated unit of the University Hospital on Catherine Street with fundamental research on soil-plant relationships. A. Geoffrey Norman was appointed Director, with George G. Laties as a full-time researcher. When Bartlett retired as Director of the University Botanical Gardens he was succeeded by Norman who recruited Peter Hypio, horticulture and taxonomy, and Peter Kaufman, physiology and development of vascular plants.
Primarily because of the increasing value of the land as real estate, the University deemed it expedient to disband the Iroquois Street area as a site for the Gardens. Regent Matthaei donated an extensive rural holding on Dixboro Road for relocation of the Gardens and, with the National Science Foundation, financed the buildings.
At about the same time the University Herbarium moved into new quarters in the North University Building. The National Science Foundation made possible the purchase of a great increase in herbarium cases. Also it funded complete renovation of all of the teaching laboratories in the Natural Science Building and of many of the private office/laboratories. It was a major decision on the part of the central administration of the University to approve the expansion and resettlement of the Herbarium and the Gardens. Dean Charles E. Odegaard was responsible for a change in status of Museums (and Herbarium) Curators. All were to have faculty appointments and classroom teaching responsibilities. This helped in the recruitment of new personnel: Edward G. Voss who had devoted himself to a special project on Michigan flora, became Assistant Professor of Botany in 1960 and took over the Aquatic Flowering Plants course developed by Sparrow and (in the Summer Session) the floristic taxonomy offerings at the Biological Station at Douglas Lake.
Titular appointments in Botany were now held by some faculty of the School of Natural Resources, their courses being cross-listed as part of our graduate degree programs. To stimulate research the Regents created divisions within the University which cut across departments and colleges. The Division of Biology, which included nonclinical units in the Medical School, School of Public Health, Natural Page 134Resources, Museums, and College of LS&A, was for several years a very lively affair, perhaps because of the deft chairmanship of Dean Samuel Trask Dana of the School of Natural Resources. Botanists profited as the Regents were pressured to purchase Mud Lake Bog, near Whitmore Lake. A program of distinguished visiting lecturers was initiated.
Jones retired as Chairman, after thirteen years, in 1963. He was replaced by Sussman (who became Associate Dean of LS&A in 1968 and advanced to Dean of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies in 1974). Norman became Vice-President for Research in the University (1964-72). Taylor became our only recipient of the Russel Lectureship "for Distinguished Achievement in Research" (1964). Steiner succeeded Sussman as Chairman of Botany (1968-71), and was followed by Beck (1971-76), whose brilliant studies on Devonian fossils are widely recognized.
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
The history of the Chemistry Department during the thirty-five year period ending in 1975 is marked by major transitions, not only in the numbers of students seeking instruction in the subject, but especially in the tremendous increase in the level of sophistication required by the subject matter. This latter change is evident both in experimental chemistry, where the techniques and instrumentation have greatly multiplied, and in theoretical chemistry, where the explanations of structures and of reactions have extended far beyond anything imagined in 1940.
The growth in student enrollment in general chemistry courses is three-fold from about 800 in 1940 to 2,500 in 1975; enrollments in the total chemistry courses reached 5,000 in 1975. Since the number of undergraduate chemistry majors has never exceeded 75 in one year, it is evident that 97 percent of the freshman teaching is offered as a service to students enrolled in other departments and colleges. This high fraction of service teaching has extended into the sophomore year in recent years where more than 1,200 Page 135premedical students are registered in organic chemistry. The number of graduate-student teaching assistants needed to provide supervision for the first and second-year laboratory sections has become larger (about 100) than can be met by the chemistry graduate majors and it has become necessary to appoint an appreciable number of graduate students who have backgrounds in undergraduate chemistry but who are majoring in other fields.
The size of the regular academic staff doubled from 19 in 1940 to 38 in 1975. The competition among universities for good staff has led to the disappearance of the rank of instructor and, during this period, there has been an increase in tenured staff from 58 percent in 1940 to 84 percent in 1975. One result is that even after allowing for inflation the average staff member costs more now than in 1940.
The problem of increased teaching and research facilities to accommodate more students and staff members is a perennial one. Immediately after the Second World War an addition to the then 30-year old building was constructed in an effort to catch up with the needs of that time. While the total space was doubled, the new addition had to provide for the College of Pharmacy and the Chemistry Stores as well as the Chemistry Department. Since the addition was occupied in 1948, the enrollment in chemistry has doubled and the department is still faced with the need to catch up.
The instrumentation required for undergraduate and graduate instruction and research has now extended well beyond the traditional test tubes, beakers, and flasks to include spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers, optical spectrometers reaching beyond both ends of the visible spectrum, spectrometers detecting magnetic resonance in atomic nuclei and in valence electrons, diffractometers for x-rays and for electrons, high vacuum equipment reaching into the 10-9 torr range, as well as a wide range of electronic circuitry. Need for the use of high-speed computer facilities falls in a special category both for recording and refining raw experimental data and for calculating the properties of theoretical models of structures and reactions. Because an acquaintance with these techniques is now expected in students exposed to chemical training, the costs per student have soared well Page 136beyond the increase due to the "normal" inflation factors and have made excellence in laboratory instruction one of the most difficult things to achieve in the physical sciences.
It is always difficult to single out individuals for particularly important contributions to teaching and research but any list of this period would have to include people like Werner Bachmann, Kasimir Fajans, Philip Elving, Richard Bernstein, Lawrence Brockway, Lawrence Bartell, Martin Stiles and Arthur Ashe. Their contributions have ranged widely from the first synthesis of a sex hormone through fundamental contributions to reaction dynamics and electron diffraction to the synthesis of a whole new class of compounds analogous to pyridine. In addition, the department maintained a consistently high standard of course instruction both at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Finally, perhaps one of the most significant achievements of the department is that it managed to retain a coherent view of the rapidly changing field of chemistry, mainly by the fact of its never having split into well-defined internal subdivisions. This unity is now one of the most significant factors in the growth of its programs and its national recognition.
DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL STUDIES
In 1944 Professor Campbell Bonner retired as chairman of the Department of Greek. He was succeeded by Warren E. Blake, who served as chairman until the two departments — Greek and Latin — were united as the Department of Classical Studies in 1946. John G. Winter retired as head of the Latin Department, but remained as Professor of Latin until his retirement in 1951. Professor James E. Dunlap became chairman of the new department and served until 1957. Under his chairmanship, the department began a program of systematic visitation of high school Latin departments in schools that desired contact with the University. This resulted in greatly increased mutual interest and good will between the secondary schools and the department as well as the University.
Page 137Professor Dunlap was also instrumental in organizing the Michigan Classical Conference, in which he sought to bring together all teachers of Latin, at all levels, in the state. It was also during his chairmanship that Professor Waldo E. Sweet was appointed to the staff of the department. Professor Sweet had already been active on the Michigan campus during several summers preceding his formal appointment, and had conducted Latin Workshops that had attracted national attention. Professor Sweet's pedagogical innovations consisted in presenting the Latin language in terms of structural linguistics. In 1957, Gerda Seligson came to the department, and later was joined by Glenn Knudsvig. Both of these devoted teachers carried on the implementation of the linguistic method and established it as the foundation of instruction in Elementary Latin. Through the Seligson Players and their presentation of Latin comedies, Professor Seligson developed and maintained a lively interest in this aspect of ancient culture.
In 1957 Professor Dunlap retired from the chairmanship, remaining on as Professor of Latin and Greek until his retirement in 1960. In his place, Professor Gerald F. Else of the University of Iowa, was appointed chairman. Professor Else, who had been chairman of the Department of Classics at Iowa for fifteen years, brought to the department a thorough knowledge of administrative procedures and an international reputation for scholarship, particularly in the fields of Greek philosophy and drama. During his chairmanship, the graduate program of the department was completely revised and strengthened, and the more systematic and clear-cut approach to graduate study in the Classics thus brought about resulted in the attraction of larger numbers of graduate students to the department, and to a very marked improvement in their quality.
In 1968 Professor Else asked to be relieved of the chairmanship, which then passed to a succession of younger men of varied talents and specialties, but of equal energy, vision, and scholarship. The chairmanships of Theodore Buttrey (1968-71), John Pedley (Acting, 1971-72), John D'Arms (1972-75, reappointed 1976), and again John Pedley (Acting, 1975-76, during Professor D'Arms' leave of absence) maintained the strong and highly respected programs established by Professor Else.
Page 138In the years between 1946 and 1976, members of the faculty at both junior and senior levels maintained the department's regard for scholarship and produced works of the highest quality. H. C. Youtie continued his activity both here and abroad with addresses, papers and substantial publications in papyrology. On Professor Youtie's retirement in 1976, his work was carried on with the same high standard by his successor, Professor Ludwig Koenen, who came to the staff from the University of Cologne.
In the thirty years since 1946, four aspects of the work of the department are conspicuous. First of these, because of its unique nature, is the work in papyrology already mentioned. It has conferred upon the University the distinction accorded to one of the preeminent centers of papyrological studies in the entire world.
Second was the establishment by Professor Pedley of both graduate and undergraduate programs in Classical Archaeology. Courses on both these levels had previously been taught by Professor Hopkins and others, but it was through Professor Pedley's efforts that these were developed into full-fledged programs in this field. In addition to this, Professor Pedley, as Director of the Kelsey Museum (1973-76), brought about the complete reorganization and remodeling of the Museum.
Third was the founding, organization, and implementation by Professor Else of the Center for the Coordination of Ancient and Modern Studies. Under his direction the Center held a number of successful and informative conferences, issued several publications, and served as a forum for the expression of significant ideas.
Finally, mention should be made of two rather unusual activities of members of the staff. Professors Hopkins and Buttrey both conducted highly successful television programs dealing with Homer, Greek Tragedy, and Archaeology. These programs, recorded by the University of Michigan and broadcast by Detroit's Channel 4, attracted wide attention and much favorable comment, and constituted a unique contribution to the field of ancient studies. They reached viewers not only in Michigan but in many parts of the country, since widespread use was made of the recordings elsewhere.
Page 139Throughout this period, the annual Jerome Lectures were continued in conjunction with the American Academy in Rome. They were delivered by outstanding scholars such as Gisela Richter, Lily Ross Taylor, and George Hanfmann. During this same time, the department was host to a number of distinguished Visiting Professors, each of whom made a more than ephemeral contribution to the cultural pattern.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION SCIENCES
This department began as a graduate program, which in turn had its roots in two research groups: the Phonetics Laboratory in the Department of Speech, and the Logic of Computers Group in the Department of Philosophy. Gordon Peterson directed the former and Arthur Burks directed the latter.
Gordon Peterson was interested in acoustics and phonetics. He built electronic equipment for analyzing speech, made recordings in an echoless room, and studied the basic phonetic patterns of speech. Burks had worked on electronic computers during World War II; his group did research on the logical design of computers and programming language, and on the theory of automata.
Peterson and Burks found their research groups shared a common ground and had the same educational problem: graduate students who wanted to do doctoral dissertations on the subjects covered by their grants but lacked a suitable department. Both felt that Peterson's interest in communication and Burks' in computation constituted an appropriate basis for a new doctoral program. Accordingly, they petitioned the Graduate School.
A number of other University faculty had related interests: Gunnar Hok (Electrical Engineering — information theory), Anatol Rapaport (Mental Health Research Institute — mathematical psychology), Robert Thrall (Mathematics — operations research), Edward Walker (Psychology — cognition), and Herbert Paper (Linguistics). With Peterson and Burks, Page 140they were constituted a committee, which in 1957 was granted the power to award the Ph.D. and M.A. degrees. Gordon Peterson served as chairman of the program until it became a department in 1965.
The original program title, "Language Models and Logical Design," was soon changed to "Communication Sciences." This title carried over to the department, but was in turn changed to "Computer and Communication Sciences" (CCS). For simplicity, this last title is used in referring to both program and department.
The CCS program's objective was to understand information processing and communication in both natural and engineered systems. Some faculty brought knowledge of psychological, social, linguistic, and biological systems. Others worked on the theory and application of electronic computers and electronic communication systems. All were interested in studying the interrelations of natural and artificial languages as modes of communication, and in comparing computational processes in natural and artificial systems.
The initial plan was to rely mostly on courses already offered by related departments. Thus a student would learn about information theory from a course in electrical engineering, about the informational aspects of biology from courses in the biological sciences, and about man as an information-processing system from courses in psychology. While this plan worked well for areas taught by members of the CCS program, it failed in other areas, because a CCS student had to take several courses in order to cover the equivalent of one course of relevant material, and was, moreover, at a disadvantage in academic background.
The program therefore developed its own core curriculum, establishing courses in automata theory, information and probability theory, analog and digital computers; and in natural language, psychology, and biology treated from an information-processing point of view. Students were also required to take a course in modern algebra and, when it became available, an advanced course in programming. After completing the core, they were required to pass an integrative oral examination, with more specialized study and a preliminary examination to come later. Design of the core Page 141curriculum and participation in the qualifying examinations helped to acquaint a diverse faculty with the broad range of subject matter and, further, to define the focus and scope of the new discipline.
Staff were needed to teach these new courses and the more advanced courses they soon generated. Two sources were tapped. First were young scientists in the two original research groups, who were often employed on a temporary basis and were, at least initially, part-time. With few funds, CCS had to rely on this category to organize and teach the needed courses up until several years after it became a department.
The other source of new CCS faculty consisted of individuals already teaching in the University who joined the program to teach courses and work with CCS graduate students. Henry Swain of Pharmacology introduced a course in the informational aspects of biology; Julian Adams of Biology later replaced him. Harvey Garner and Eugene Lawler of Electrical Engineering brought computer courses to CCS. Bernard Galler (Mathematics and the Computing Center) and Bruce Arden and Larry Flanigan (also of the Computing Center), who had been teaching programming courses, added the programming dimension to CCS, which over the years has expanded to a very substantial fraction of the department. Paul Fitts, Arthur Melton, Richard Pew, Stephen Kaplan, and Walter Reitman have all joined at various times to teach the informational aspects of psychology.
By 1965 it was clear that the program needed to become a department in some college. Because most of its support had come from LS&A, and because of the interdisciplinary and theoretical nature of the CCS program, a request was made to LS&A. This request was granted, effective for the fall of 1965. Harvey Garner served as acting chairman till the end of 1966, after which Arthur Burks became chairman and continued until 1971. Bruce Arden was then chairman until 1973, when he left to become chairman of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University. Bernard Galler was the next chairman, until 1975, when he became Associate Dean for Long-Range Planning in LS&A. Larry Flanigan has been chairman since that time.
Page 142When the CCS Department was launched, it had a full-time equivalent faculty of only six. It remained this size until 1972, then in the next few years grew to ten and a half. This was still a very small faculty for a department with so many responsibilities. CCS has greatly expanded its program for undergraduate majors, so that it now has about one hundred and twenty-five at any given time. The department has also developed its programming curriculum, with a rich and varied sequence of programming courses for both graduates and undergraduates. Moreover, as a department it has continued to have from sixty to eighty CCS graduate students enrolled each year, most of whom aim for the doctorate.
Since CCS began as a doctoral program and has now operated for over two decades, it is appropriate to evaluate its accomplishments. It has graduated over ninety Ph.D.s. Two-thirds of these are in universities here and abroad. Other CCS Ph.D.s are at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, International Business Machines (including one IBM Fellow), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Institutes of Health, National Security Agency, Texas Instruments, Weizmann Institute (Israel), Wycliff Bible Translators, and Xerox. Some graduates have formed their own corporations. Moreover, members of the department have had many research grants, and have published numerous professional articles, reports, and books.
It should also be noted that at the time the CCS program began (1957), the subject of computer science as such did not exist. A few people were being trained in established departments, mainly mathematics and electrical engineering, but the Michigan CCS program was the first independent program empowered to award the Ph.D. Its first Ph.D. (and the first anywhere) was awarded in 1959 to John Holland, whose thesis was in automata theory. Starting in the 1960s, educational activities related to computing developed rapidly, and there are now, in the United States alone, over sixty departments awarding the Ph.D. and many more giving bachelor's and master's degrees.
Because of the interdisciplinary way in which it originated, the Michigan CCS Department is unique in its breadth. This approach has been motivated, in part, by the desire to Page 143make the program and its graduates more adaptable, given the rapid rate of technological change in computing and communication. Many students have come to Michigan because of this breadth, and it helps account for the widespread distribution of the graduates.
The department is also unique in its strong emphasis on the relation of computers to natural systems. About 40 percent of the Ph.D.s have written their doctoral theses on natural systems or on formalisms closely related to natural systems, including those trained in the Phonetics Laboratory, while many others have studied the relationships between computers and natural systems beyond the core curriculum. In recent years, the theory of computer modeling of natural systems has been a major focus. Computers, with their tremendous power, are capable of simulating complex systems that are difficult to analyze with standard mathematics. Although specific applications have been and will continue to be made in other departments, a computer theory of modeling and simulation is an appropriate topic for a computer science department. Interest centers on the nature of models and their relation to the system modeled and to the computer that simulates the system, and on general principles for modeling natural systems or engineered systems. The subject also has a bearing on the simulation of programming systems on computers, so that it is relevant, as well, to the programming part of computer science.
Since the Logic of Computers Group was one of the founding components of CCS, it has been funded continuously by government research agencies since its beginning in 1956, and over the years it has provided more than half of the research support in CCS. For the past dozen years it has had its own computing system, although it continues to use the University's Computing Center. The group has produced about 40 percent of the Ph.D.s in the department. From its inception the Logic of Computers Group has done research in logical formalisms related to computers and to natural systems. The earlier research emphasized automata theory and decision problems, graph theory, probabilistic automata, cellular automata and parallel computing. More recently, research has been done in adaptive systems theory, function optimization, modeling and simulation theory, the modeling of natural systems (biology, psychology, anthropology), Page 144and also the history of computers. The group has produced many reports, more than 150 published articles, one patent, and five published books.
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS
The past forty years of Economics Department history have reflected much of the change taking place in the society at large, as well as in the discipline. World War II opened the period, and its immediate impact on the department was a drastic reduction in size. Students and potential students went off to military duty, while a number of senior faculty members, on extended leaves, rendered their service to management of the war effort in Washington. From the last prewar figure of 2,176 enrollment had dropped by the fall of 1944 to 1,106, and the professorial staff was reduced to eleven. Nevertheless, these eleven people strove to offer a full curriculum to the remaining civilian students and members of the campus military units who joined them in class. For Chairman Leo Sharfman it was a challenge to hold things together for the duration of the long, four-year crisis.
When the conflict ended at last the revolutionary Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended in 1945 by what came to be known as the G.I. Bill of Rights, catapulted the department the other way. Although it took a little time for the effects to show up, by the fall of 1947 enrollment peaked at 4,694 and faculty strength was back up to 14 on regular appointment.
During the immediate postwar period economics was headed for some important changes. The Keynesian revolution was now an integral part of the discipline, its tenets institutionalized in the Full Employment Act of 1946. National income accounting had emerged as a corollary, and from these two developments macro-economics arose as a special field. Gardner Ackley returned from government service in Washington, and Richard Musgrave was hired, to teach macro-economics and stabilization policy, respectively.
Page 145At about the same time the Survey Research Center moved from its original Washington connection to the University of Michigan, initiating another new thrust in economic research and teaching. The Economic Behavior Section, directed by George Katona, featured the collection and analysis of empirical data on consumer attitudes and behavior, and the teaching of survey methods and consumer economics entered the department's curriculum. During these years statistics was elevated to a course requirement for concentrators.
Among the economists who joined the Survey Research Center, Lawrence Klein was moving off in yet another direction of quantitative analysis, econometric model building. Klein was brought into the department as a lecturer and he conducted a seminar which undertook to build a model of the U.S. economy. Known as the Klein-Goldberger model it opened a new field of economic scholarship at Michigan and became a prototype for other models around the nation. After Klein's departure in 1955 the Research Seminar in Quantitative Economics continued to flourish under the direction of Daniel Suits from 1955 to 1970, and under codirectors Saul Hymans and Harold Shapiro since 1970. It is both a teaching seminar and a construction laboratory for the continually refined and elaborated forecasting model.
In order to bring an understanding of the model to the business and government officials who make use of its results, the annual Conference on the Economic Outlook was initiated in 1953. Here, each November, the forecast is dramatically revealed, often — in the early days — having emerged in final form from the computer only hours before. A model for the Michigan economy was added to the program in 1972. Now that econometric model building is part of the mainstream and familiar to attendees of the conference, additional topics have been introduced to the Conference program in recent years.
I. Leo Sharfman joined the staff in 1911, became chairman in 1926, and reigned for 28 years with superlative skill in his own style of autocratic democracy. He retired in 1954.
Following Sharfman's retirement the department was a Page 146victim of the virus loosed by Joseph McCarthy. Although it was badly shaken by the impact, its response upheld its honor. Two doctoral students and one staff member were the intended victims. In the student cases, the department sustained its right to judge them on the scholarly merit of their dissertations, not their possible political inclinations. But the valued staff member was lost to the department through voluntary resignation, despite a valiant effort on the part of the new chairman, Gardner Ackley.
With the Ackley chairmanship, the department entered into a new form of organization. The chairmanship became a rotating office, for a five-year term at first, later three. As the burdens of the chairmanship grew with the department, the post of associate chairman was created in 1963, with William Palmer the first to serve in that capacity.
Administratively the department was more or less prepared for the explosive growth of the 1960s, but in terms of staffing these were difficult years. Enrollment, which had receded after the G.I. bulge to 2,235 in the fall of 1952, grew steadily to 5,688 by fall 1969, and 119 Ph.D.s were awarded from 1961-70. Several members went on leave during that decade to serve in high government posts — Gardner Ackley to be a member, then Chairman, of the Council of Economic Advisors and later Ambassador to Italy; Warren Smith to be a member of the Council; Harvey Brazer as Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. The chairmen of the 1960s, Harold Levinson, 1961-62, William Haber, 1962-63, Warren Smith, 1963-67 and 1970-71, Harvey Brazer, 1967-70, were impelled to a pace of hiring which saw 39 additions to the professorial ranks in the decade 1961-71.
The most conspicuous new research and curriculum developments during this period related to international affairs. Economic Development emerged as a field during the 1950s, when the industrial nations adopted a new stance of economic and technical assistance to the undeveloped nations and former colonial territories. In 1960 a full-fledged Ph.D. field was authorized with seven National Defense Education Act fellowships, and Samuel P. Hayes, Jr., launched the Center for Research in Economic Development in 1961. Wolf-gang Stolper succeeded him as Director in 1963. The Center's twin program of research and advisory missions to developing countries grew steadily through the period. Its senior Page 147staff, including Richard Porter and successive directors Elliott Berg and Robin Barlow have regular appointments in the Economics Department.
The Economics Department's connection to the Far East goes well back into its history. Leo Sharfman spent 1910-11 teaching in Tientsin, and Carl Remer, who joined the faculty in 1928, focused his interest on China throughout his career. Alexander Eckstein joined the department a few years after Remer's retirement. He was Chairman of the National Committee on United States-China Relations, which arranged the famous ping-pong diplomacy in 1972 and helped to end two decades of diplomatic estrangement. The department's Far Eastern expertise was enlarged in the 1968-71 period with the appointments of Robert Dernberger and Gary Saxon-house. In addition a program in comparative economic systems was introduced, which also included Morris Bornstein, specialist in Soviet economics.
The central role of quantitative analysis emerged in diverse fields, from Robert Stern's econometric studies of international markets to the new approaches to human capital and labor markets in the work of George Johnson and Frank Stafford. And, during the 1960s, connections were established with other units of the University in the form of joint Ph.D. degree programs. Peter Steiner came in under a joint appointment with the law school, focusing his department work on industrial organization, along with William Shepherd. Appointment of Robin Barlow and William Neenan in Public Finance, and Robert Holbrook and Ronald Teigen in Macroeconomics and Money and Banking, deepened these fields.
In the history of American higher education the 1960s will doubtless be remembered as the era of student activism. The Economics Department played a conspicuous role in this phenomenon, with several of its doctoral students serving as organizers of the prominent Students for a Democratic Society, and, a few years later, the Union for Radical Political Economics. The latter association continues to be active among faculty and students on a number of campuses, although there is no longer a chapter here. Nevertheless, growing student interest in radical political economy, along with some faculty support, led to the introduction of course offerings in this area. Although economics was Page 148a focus of the Black Action Movement in 1970, increases in Black enrollment and the completion of graduate degrees by Black students have fallen below hopeful expectations. This is true also of efforts to recruit Black faculty.
If the 1960s was a period of expansion and excitement, the 1970s might be characterized as a time of reflection and consolidation. New faculty appointments, under the chairmanships of Peter Steiner, 1971-74, Harold Shapiro, 1974-77, and Saul Hymans, 1977-80, represented an effort to add depth to currently offered fields, rather than the addition of new areas. From a faculty of 13 in 1940 the department has grown to a professorial staff numbering 43 in the four decades of this survey. Service to the College and the University has marked the course of the Economics Department's history. Almost every member has, at some time, served on College and University committees, culminating in the appointment of Harold Shapiro to the highest office of this University, the Presidency.
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
During the years of the Depression, a new constituency of students began to enroll at Michigan. As scholarships and employment under NYA and WPA programs made it possible for more students to attend and for families to educate more of their children, women entered in greater numbers and the diversity of undergraduates noticeably increased. In response, the department supplemented its offerings by giving more attention to modern literature and increased its efforts, already well-advanced under the leadership of Clarence D. Thorpe and Charles C. Fries, in the preparation of secondary school teachers.
In the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, the Army proposed that the campus be converted to a manpower training depot, and emphasis on essential war needs led to a plan from within the University that the department be abolished to free its faculty for more martial endeavors. While this idea was not pursued, the war had a profound effect on offerings Page 149and organization. Some of the junior staff enlisted for military service, while others engaged in civilian war work. Many of those remaining in their University positions offered accelerated courses for Armed Services personnel.
Members of the department led in the formation of two new programs that responded to the changed circumstances of the war years. Joseph K. Yamagiwa directed the Army's Japanese Language School for the training of Intelligence officers and faculty of the newly-created Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures. Charles C. Fries organized the English Language Institute in 1941, initially to teach English as a foreign language to speakers of Spanish and later as a center for the preparation of foreign nationals as teachers in their home countries. Like Yamagiwa's program, the Institute continued after the war and eventually became an independent unit of the University. Both efforts brought new faculty to Michigan.
From the beginnings, long service had become a tradition in the department: Demmon had been head from 1881 to 1920; Louis A. Strauss from 1920 to 1938; Louis I. Bredvold from 1938 to 1947; and in 1947, Warner Grenelle Rice began two decades of leadership under which the department prospered as it grew. Rice built the Library and, in addition to his regular duties in the department, served as Director of the University Library from 1941 to 1953.
At the beginning of Rice's chairmanship in 1948, enrollment on the Ann Arbor campus stood at 21,360; by the end of his service, it had increased beyond 36,000. Such growth naturally led to a marked increase in the size of the department, and Rice seized the opportunity to enrich its staff and curriculum.
During the two decades of Rice's chairmanship, faculty were encouraged to develop organized programs of study for both undergraduates and graduates. Joe Lee Davis and Marvin Felheim established American Culture, while Austin Warren brought Comparative Literature to status as a distinct field of graduate teaching. John Arthos and H. V. S. Ogden were particularly active in College Honors and Great Books, and Marvin Felheim instituted the first film courses at the college level. In the early 1960s, Alan T. Gaylord and James Page 150H. Robertson joined a coalition whose efforts resulted in the establishment of the Residential College. In most such initiatives, faculty retained their appointments in the department, but when the Department of Linguistics was formed in 1961, Chavarria-Aguilar, Gedney, and Pike were appointed to the new administrative unit with Albert H. Marckwardt as Chairman-Designate.
Though Robert Frost and Robert Bridges had held visiting appointments for brief periods during the 1920s, creative writing came to occupy its important position at Michigan only after the mighty stimulus of the 1930 bequest that supports the Avery Hopwood and Jule Hopwood prizes. Designated for student writers of fiction, poetry, drama, and the essay, the Hopwood awards continue to attract young writers to whom faculty within the department have devoted themselves with special energy.
The teaching of introductory composition has drawn on a substantial part of the department's energy and, from the earliest days, provided employment for graduate students pursuing doctoral studies. Though many faculty seldom teach in the freshman program, a few have given special leadership, particularly Carleton F. Wells (who devoted himself to the difficult work demanded of the Director from 1936 to 1949), John Weimer, Hubert M. English, Jr., Sheridan Baker, Walter H. Clark, and Bernard Van't Hul.
In his chairmanship Rice emphasized departmental responsibility to educate on all levels. When he joined the department in 1929, there was little question that the University should inform the thinking of secondary school teachers, both in their preparation and through regular contacts with University faculty. Though other colleges and universities in the state came to assume a larger share of this work in the postwar years, Michigan's English professors continued regular contacts with teachers through school accreditation visits, meetings of such organizations as the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club (among whose founders in 1886 was John Dewey) and the Michigan Council of Teachers of English, and, in the 1960s, sponsorship of a series of NDEA summer institutes for high school teachers. Cooperation with the School of Education was maintained through joint appointments. Rice himself was a member of the Commission on English, a national project designed to foster cooperation among school Page 151teachers and university faculties and to provide a rationally organized curriculum for students preparing for college study. Rice supported yet another effort, known as English in Every Classroom, a project aimed at youth who might never reach college.
When Fred Newton Scott surveyed the English Department at Michigan in 1894-95, twenty-one courses were taught by four regular faculty and two graduate assistants; the equivalent of 3,500 hours of credit was given that year for study in English. Eighty years later, nearly five hundred courses and sections were taught by seventy-nine staff members of professorial rank (a high in the department's history), a dozen lecturers, and nearly a hundred graduate students assigned to part-time teaching duties; 45,000 hours of credit were awarded for the year's work in the department. These figures do not include graduate teaching that serves the programs and other departments closely linked to English faculty interests, such as American Culture, Comparative Literature, and Linguistics.
With Rice's retirement in 1968, the department came under the leadership of Russell A. Fraser (1968-73). Like Rice, Fraser encouraged initiatives that led to the formation of new programs of study, among them the Center for Afroamerican and African Studies, the Medieval and Renaissance Collegium, and Women's Studies, of which Margaret A. Lourie served as Director. At Fraser's initiative, the department's teaching schedule was reduced to five from six days a week and the normal course load for faculty from six to four courses each year, thus bringing the department in line with the work load established for most departments in the College some years earlier. During the 1970s, as enrollments in the University stabilized, the number of faculty was accordingly reduced. The department found it hard to respond to an abrupt decline in the number of students preparing for careers in secondary school teaching — from 400 students in 1968-69 to 130 in 1972-73 — and the deference to renewed demands for relevance disturbed the existing balance of historical and contemporary survey courses. When Jay L. Robinson was appointed Chairman in 1975, he inherited innovation but not the growth that had made possible many of the achievements of the past. Even so, substantial funds from the Ford and Mellon foundations were secured to put the Page 152Middle English Dictionary on a sound financial footing and to begin the work of the English Composition Board. New faculty have been appointed and new programs have been instituted including the intensive annual New England Literature Program, a six-week course of study in composition, creative writing, and American literature held in rural New Hampshire.
The 1970s brought a new awareness of the need for curricular reform responsive to students' interests and the necessity of searching for new approaches, some of them interdisciplinary in conception and some responding to such neglected modes of artistic expression as film, fantasy and science fiction, and popular culture. In such new efforts and within the traditional domain of English studies — literature, language, and composition — the department has retained both continuity and the position of leadership established at Michigan more than a century ago.
FAR EASTERN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
Growth of American academic interest in East Asia during and after the Second World War led to the establishment of the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures in 1948. Japanese language had been taught at Michigan since 1936, first in summer sessions and after 1937 in the regular academic year. From 1942 to 1946 Michigan had hosted an Army Japanese Language School (Military Intelligence) for intensive wartime training, and after the war both Japanese and Chinese had become regular language offerings in the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures chaired by Professor William H. Worrell. In 1948 the Oriental program was divided into the Department of Near Eastern Studies and the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures.
The initial faculty of the department consisted of four members: Joseph K. Yamagiwa and Hide Shohara in Japanese, Yao Shen and Bayard Lyon in Chinese, the latter replaced by James I. Crump, Jr., in 1949. Professor Yamagiwa, Page 153who had initiated the teaching of Japanese at Michigan and had directed the wartime Army program, served as chairman of the department from its origin until 1964.
During Professor Yamagiwa's tenure as chairman, the department emphasized the teaching of basic language courses and advanced work in linguistics, and the Japanese field prospered somewhat more than the Chinese field because of the University's determination to develop a strong, broadly-based Japanese studies program. In 1947 this thrust was evidenced by the University's creation of a pioneering cross-departmental, interdisciplinary Center for Japanese Studies and its maintenance of a field research station at Okayama, Japan, for a number of years beginning in 1950. Departmental offerings were diversified somewhat during this period by the employment of visiting appointees for short terms, and a Buddhologist, Arthur Link, was a member of the department from 1957 to 1964.
Fuller and more balanced development of the departmental programs began in the 1960s. This was stimulated by the establishment in 1960 of a federally-funded Far Eastern Language and Area Center, administered by the department under the terms of the National Defense Education Act of 1958, and by a 1961 grant from the Ford Foundation to foster foreign area studies at Michigan, which, among other things, made possible the creation of a Center for Chinese Studies in that year. The University's Chinese Studies faculty quickly grew to a size and distinction challenging that of the Japanese studies faculty, and eventually grew larger. As both Japanese and Chinese area studies became more prominent in the University, the department's course offerings flourished correspondingly.
Introductory language courses were offered in summers on an intensive, wartime-like basis even in the 1950s, and in the 1960s accelerated (double-credit) first- and second-year language courses became regularly established in the department's academic year curriculum. Professor Yamagiwa led a pioneering effort among interested Big Ten universities to sponsor a unified, cooperative summer institute with intensive language courses in Chinese and Japanese; the first in a series of such institutes was conducted in Ann Arbor in 1963. Concurrently, Michigan joined other major American Page 154centers of East Asian studies in sponsoring two field programs for advanced language training: the Inter-University Program for Chinese Language Studies (Taipei) and the Inter-University Center for Japanese Language Studies (Tokyo). Until the mid-1970s, Michigan students, after basic language training in the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures, were sent to these overseas programs in larger numbers than students from any other American university.
In its expansion during the early 1960s, the department also initiated offerings in Korean language. The Korean program, however, never grew beyond small introductory language offerings taught by a part-time native informant under the general supervision of Professor Shohara, in large part because of a University decision not to develop a broad Korean area studies program. The Korean language was not offered after 1966.
Professor Yamagiwa retired from the chairmanship in 1964. After a year's interval during which Associate Professor Paul Denlinger, a specialist in Chinese linguistics, served as acting chairman, Charles O. Hucker joined the department as Professor of Chinese with a five-year term as chairman. A specialist in classical Chinese texts and Chinese history, his mandate from the College and the University was to maintain the department's sound basic language programs and develop a graduate program, especially in literature, of comparable distinction. Professor Hucker was reappointed chairman in 1970 but in 1971 asked to be relieved of administrative duties for health reasons. His six-year tenure as chairman coincided with the steadiest growth of Chinese and Japanese studies, not only at Michigan but nation-wide.
The department continued to administer the University's NDEA Far Eastern Language and Area Center, which provided steadily increased funding for both the Chinese studies and Japanese studies programs, both in and outside the department. In 1967 and 1968 it hosted summer institutes under auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (the organization of Big Ten universities).
During the early 1970s, the United States felt aftershocks of 1960s social and political unrest, slowly disentangled itself from protracted civil war in Vietnam, suffered Page 155the political crisis of Watergate, and experienced steady inflation combined ultimately with a severe 1974-75 economic recession. Throughout the country the growth of Asian studies was curtailed as students increasingly chose programs that, in their perception, were strongly career-oriented. The growth of the Department of Far Eastern Languages and Literatures tapered off; enrollments declined but did not plummet, stabilizing by 1975 at a level below that of the late 1960s.
Departmental leadership during this era of transition and stabilization was provided by Professor Brower. He had been in the first group of Army trainees in Japanese sent to Michigan at the beginning of 1943, had subsequently returned to Michigan for graduate work and been granted the department's first Ph.D. degree in 1952, and had been brought to the departmental faculty from Stanford in 1966. Having served as acting chairman during 1968-69 when Professor Hucker was on leave, he was persuaded to take up the reins again in 1971 when Professor Hucker asked to be relieved, and in 1971 was appointed to a five-year term as chairman. During the transition, administration of the NDEA Far Eastern Language and Area Center passed into the joint care of the Center for Chinese Studies and the Center for Japanese Studies. Earlier, in 1969, the department had withdrawn from active participation in CIC summer institutes, there being sufficient interest among Michigan students to sustain regular summer offerings of first and third-year language courses in Ann Arbor.
Despite a tapering off of enrollments and a gradual tightening of pressure on all University budgets, the regular departmental faculty not only retained a stable size but grew with the appointment in 1973 of Luis O. Gomez as Associate Professor of Buddhist Studies, arranged jointly with the University's new interdepartmental Studies in Religion Program.
Until 1967 the department was housed in offices on the second and fourth floors of Angell Hall, virtually in the center of the University campus. Because of overcrowding in that building, in 1967 the department was moved — together with the Departments of Near Eastern Studies and Linguistics and the administrative offices of the Program in Asian Studies — into quarters rented by the University in Page 156the Gunn Building at 506 East Liberty Street. Being out of the central campus area was perhaps an advantage for the department during the Black Action Movement of 1968 and subsequent campus disorders. But in 1972 the department, together with the Department of Near Eastern Studies, was moved back onto University property, on the third and fourth floors of the Frieze Building.
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
The Department of Geography entered the 1940s with confidence. The emphasis in both teaching and research was on regional geography and land-use studies. Enrollment in introductory and middle-level courses was substantial: there was a small group of undergraduate majors; and, reflecting the department's established reputation as a center for graduate training, a group of twenty-six graduate students working for advanced degrees. The shadow of world-wide events was already visible in 1941 and had its impact on the department. In the fall of 1941, Professor P. E. James left to join the Office of Strategic Services in Washington while Professor R. B. Hall took a one-year leave for a study of Japanese settlements in Latin America. On his return in 1942, Hall, too, joined the Office of Strategic Services. Within less than one year only McMurry and Dodge remained on campus. Davis joined the Navy while Kendall went to Washington as a civilian expert for the War Department.
With American entry in World War II, the University quickly became a major training center for the armed services. Except for legal, medical, and dental programs the Department of Geography participated in virtually all training programs undertaken for the armed services from 1942 through 1945 while continuing to offer courses in its regular teaching schedule. The years provided a unique opportunity for those in the department to acquire extended experience in virtually all phases of geography as it was then practiced.
For the remaining years of the 1940s and during the 1950s the department followed the course well-charted prior to 1940. The strong tradition of regional geography led to Page 157increased staff participation in regional studies, and to additions to the staff in that field — R. N. Pearson replaced Brand in Latin American studies; L. A. P. Gosling brought expertise in the Southeast Asian area. Hall founded the Center for Japanese Studies, providing for an extensive and ambitious program in teaching and research on campus and also at a field station in Okayama, Japan. Kish participated in the starting of a graduate/undergraduate program in Russian Studies. Crary added his expertise to the program in Near Eastern Studies. The appointment of Hall as Director of the Asia Foundation's office and programs in Japan for a five-year period, 1955-60, signaled international recognition of the department's standing in the field of regional studies. Hall received the Order of the Rising Sun, 2nd class, from the Japanese Government for his contribution to the restoration of Japanese universities in the postwar period.
Graduate enrollment in geography rose during the immediate postwar years, nearly doubling to 60 by the late 1950s as did undergraduate enrollment in the introductory and advanced courses, but the number of undergraduate majors remained constant, between 15 and 20 in any given year.
A major change occurred in 1956 when K. C. McMurry stepped down as Chairman after serving in that capacity for thirty-three years. His leadership was closely reflected in the research and teaching carried on in the department. His principal interest — land-use studies — led to his organization of the Michigan summer field camp in geography, a pioneer venture that he directed from the mid-1920s until the end of the 1950s. During this period it was the habit of the faculty to take a weekend spring retreat generally at the state's Department of Natural Resources Pigeon River facilities. Several friends of the department from other parts of the University and state conservation officers attended. Discussions centered on state land use and conservation policy. After McMurry's retirement in 1964, the department appointed O. H. Clark, a long-time staff member of the Michigan Department of Conservation, as Lecturer in land-use studies.
McMurry was succeeded as Chairman by C. M. Davis who held the post for ten years. Afterwards a rotation system Page 158took over with L. A. P. Gosling (1966-69 and 1972-75), M. G. Marcus (1969-72), and D. R. Deskins, Jr. (1975-78) serving as Chairmen. In 1979 Professor Deskins became Associate Dean of the Rackham Graduate School and J. D. Nystuen became Chairman of the Department.
The end of the 1950s signaled a major turning point in directions in geography at Michigan and across the nation. The emphasis shifted from regional geography to more formalized theoretical and quantitative approaches, an increased interest in urban geography, and the stressing of cartography as an important ancillary field.
From 1962 to 1968 the department cooperated with the departments of Geography at Michigan State and Wayne State Universities in forming an organization called the Michigan Interuniversity Community of Mathematical Geographers.
Another major change in the department occurred in the mid-1960s by the reintroduction of teaching and research in physical geography. The separation of geography and geology in 1923 was accompanied by an understanding that geography was to stress the social and economic aspects of the earth sciences leaving physical studies to geology and abstaining from the introduction of courses requiring laboratory periods. The appointment of M. G. Marcus in 1964 signaled a new interest in physical geography. Marcus was joined by T. R. Detwyler and S. I. Outcalt in 1967 and 1971 broadening the base of studies by adding new courses in biogeography and physical processes of arctic and alpine regions. Marcus headed the Icefield Ranges Research Project from 1964 to 1971 in which field stations were maintained in the St. Elias Range in Alaska and the Yukon. S. I. Outcalt continues the arctic studies with field projects in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and elsewhere. He has also visited Siberian tundra research stations in the Soviet Union several times. E. Bannister, with interests in fluvial processes, joined the staff in 1975 to continue the commitment in physical geography.
During this period the long-established courses in regional geography registered a noticeable decline, although teaching and research in regional geography and staff participation in campus-wide programs as organized in centers for regional studies continued. Between 1964 and 1970 R. Murphey in Chinese and South Asian geography, J. F. Kolars in the Page 159geography of the Near East and J. D. Clarkson in Southeast Asian geography were added to the department. From 1973-77 L. A. P. Gosling headed a United Nations funded Pa Mong Resettlement Research Project which investigated resettlement problems expected to be created by flooding associated with reservoir construction in the Lower Mekong Basin of Southeast Asia.
Cultural geography, long represented by staff interests, was strengthened in the late 1960s by the addition of B. Q. Nietschmann and A. Larimore. Nietschmann, in response to student interest, organized a course called "Future Worlds," with University of Michigan faculty and outside lecturers participating. Part of the lecture funds came from the Student Activities Center. The course enrollment exceeded 300 for several years during the early 1970s.
In response to the turbulent '60s, the department participated in a nationwide program designed to bring more minority people into the geography profession. Donald R. Deskins, Jr. became Director of COMGA (Commission on Geography and Afro-America) which supported black graduate students in several universities throughout the nation. More than one million dollars in grants obtained from a variety of federal sources were used in this effort. COMGA was the single most important factor in the marked increase in the number of black professional geographers active in the field in the 1970s.
In 1966, after forty-three years in what had always been cramped quarters in the basement of Angell Hall, the department moved across State Street to the fourth floor of the Literature, Science, and Arts Building. The new quarters provided additional office space for the staff, adequate laboratories for cartography, computers, and physical geography.
Geography at Michigan achieved national recognition both through its graduates and its staff. Of the nearly three hundred persons who received Master's degrees and 163 Ph.D.s awarded during the years covered by this brief survey, all but two were able to receive teaching appointments or employment in local, state, or federal government agencies. Top University recognition was extended to Professors Gosling and Murphey (Distinguished Service Awards), Kolars Page 160(Teaching Award), Nietschmann (Russel Award) and Kish (Russel Lecturership). Staff members held elective offices in several national professional associations. Professors Hall and Kish and Tobler received awards from the Association of American Geographers.
Enrollment in liberal arts courses in geography has declined from peak levels reached in the 1960s and now is at about 2,000 students per year. Graduate students in residence now number between 25 and 30 each year. Career opportunities for those holding doctorate degrees in geography are still primarily in teaching at university level although several graduates have found careers which reflect the technical training in automated cartography and analytical geography toward which the department's program has grown.
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES
The Geology and Mineralogy departments which were separate units in 1908, became a single Department of Geology and Mineralogy in 1961 and were officially renamed the Department of Geological Sciences by Regental action in Fall 1979. Professor Ermine C. Case chaired the Department of Geology and directed the Museum of Paleontology from 1934 through 1939, but Professor Irving D. Scott served as Acting Chairman in 1940-41, while Professor Case continued as Director of the Museum of Paleontology through 1940-41. Subsequently the Department of Geology was chaired by professors Kenneth K. Landes (1941-51), Edwin N. Goddard (1951-56), and James T. Wilson (1956-61). The Department of Mineralogy was chaired by professors Walter F. Hunt (1933-51) and Lewis S. Ramsdell (1951-61). Thereafter, the merged Department of Geology and Mineralogy was chaired by professors Donald F. Eschman (1961 through December 1966, Acting 1977-78), John A. Dorr, Jr. (January 1967 through 1971), Charles I. Smith (1971-77), and William C. Kelly (1978-). The Museum of Paleontology was directed by professors E. C. Case (1928-41), Lewis B. Kellum (1941-66), Robert V. Kesling (1966-74), and Gerald R. Smith (1974-).
Page 161The departments of Geology and Mineralogy moved into the new Natural Science Building in 1915. The Museum of Paleontology moved into the new Museum Building in 1928. From 1915 until 1970 the departments of Geology and Mineralogy occupied increasingly crowded quarters in the Natural Science Building until August when they moved as one department into the newly renovated Clarence Cook Little Science Building (formerly East Medical Building). This added space made it possible to move the Subsurface Laboratory of the department from the North University Building back within the same building. By 1975, however, with the growth of new laboratories, particularly in geophysics, space again became short.
In the undergraduate teaching program changes in interests and personnel, college requirements, the geological profession, and the interests of society at large necessitated frequent course and curriculum changes. The department created new courses, revised others, and variously attempted to meet the dropping enrollments in its introductory courses and to respond to new needs. A one-term combined Physical-Historical Geology laboratory course was instituted (1966) by Professor C. I. Smith. In 1969, the laboratories of this course became open-scheduled autotutorial, the first of this kind in U.S. college geology teaching. Introductory Geology for Engineers, added to the on-campus program in 1954, was also taught at Camp Davis from 1958 through 1964 by Professors Landes, Heinrich, and Cloke.
Professional and societal concerns led in 1971 to creation of an Environmental Geology course including problem-solving practice. The same year the department became associated with the LS&A Environmental Studies Program, directed for several years by Professor D. F. Eschman of the department.
The department long has educated students for professional careers. By 1940 the B.S. undergraduate concentration program offered specializations in physical geology, mineral deposits, petrology, and stratigraphy and invertebrate paleontology. Meteorology, long an interest of the department, was taught to servicemen during World War II, and from 1942 to 1948 appeared as an additional department specialization option at the undergraduate level. Thereafter, meteorology became a specialization of the newly-created Page 162Meteorology and Oceanography Department of the College of Engineering (later renamed the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science). Geophysics became an undergraduate specialization option in 1942. At about the same time, the Mineralogy Department renamed its program Mineralogy and Petrology, thus incorporating certain aspects of the study of rocks. From the early 1950s until the merger, the Mineralogy Department offered specializations in either mineralogy or crystalography. A Vertebrate Paleontology and Stratigraphy option was added in 1957; Geochemistry in 1959. By 1962, shortly after the merger of Geology and Mineralogy, the specialization options consisted of crystallography, mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, physical and historical geology, invertebrate paleontology and stratigraphy, vertebrate paleontology and stratigraphy, and metalliferous geology, reflecting an increased range of faculty competence and interests.
A clear distinction between requirements for "concentration" and "specialization" in the undergraduate geology degree program appeared in 1944. Specialization was intended as a more rigorous preparation for professional work. Later (1962) the terms changed to "cultural" and "professional" concentration, but the intent remained the same. Undergraduate concentrators interested in doing graduate work in law, business administration, or environmental studies tended primarily toward the cultural program with its less rigorous science and mathematics cognate requirements. An upperclass honors concentration program was added in 1960, coinciding with the establishment of the LS&A Honors Program. For many years, prospective secondary school teachers had included geology courses in their programs. In 1967 a formal Teachers Certificate Program in Earth and General Science was initiated, enabling LS&A students to obtain both a concentration degree in geology and a teacher's certificate, and facilitating work toward a master's degree in the substantive field of geology. Throughout the entire period of this history, certain of the faculty offered many introductory and special courses at off-campus University Extension Service centers throughout the state. In 1967, with the addition of Professor Jack L. Hough to the Meteorology and Oceanography Department, the College of Engineering began an undergraduate program in geological oceanography and Professor Hough became an adjunct member of the Department of Geology and Mineralogy.
Page 163Until shortly after World War II, some stable, long-term professional careers were available to graduates holding only the Bachelor of Science degree, but after World War II a graduate degree became a necessity. This stemmed largely from: (1) increasing professionalism of geological science, (2) loss of curriculum time at the undergraduate level due to the need for enhanced cognate science and mathematics backgrounds, and (3) an increase in college requirements which consumed additional undergraduate program time. Thus, paradoxically, although the number of options for specialization in its undergraduate concentration program increased, the department began to discourage early specialization, preferring to emphasize a "core" program which left specialization to the graduate level. Teaching at the graduate level, and faculty and graduate student research in geology and to some extent in mineralogy, still were largely descriptive and field oriented in 1940. Subsequently, interests shifted to a more balanced mixture of field, laboratory, and theoretical studies. A marked growth occurred after about 1970 in research funded by outside agencies. This was largely due to increasing interest in such fields as geophysics, ore deposits, and petrology, where relatively higher funding levels prevailed. Global interests were incorporated in research, especially in the late 1960s and early '70s with the upsurge of interest in the plate tectonics concept. Growth characterized certain departmental graduate programs. Geophysics came to include work in seismology heat flow, and paleomagnetism. Seismological capabilities had existed at the University, as part of astronomy programs, prior to 1941, but in that year a Seismological Observatory, eventually becoming part of nation- and world-wide networks, was established in the Geology Department. Directors were J. T. Wilson (1941-58), J. M. DeNoyer (1958-64), H. N. Pollack (1964-68, 1971-76), P. W. Pomeroy (1968-71), and F. J. Mauk (1976-). The Paleomagnetics Laboratory was established in 1973, directed by R. Van der Voo.
The Subsurface Laboratory, begun in 1941 by Professor K. K. Landes and Dr. George V. Cohee of the U.S. Geological Survey, grew to include thousands of well records from the Great Lakes region, including mounted cuttings, slabbed cores, and drillers' logs. Its directorship passed to Professor L. I. Briggs in 1958. The majority of these records were put into a computerized information retrieval system Page 164providing data for faculty and students, and for researchers from academic institutions and industry outside the University.
The Quaternary Research Laboratory (before 1968 called the Glacial Geology and Polar Research Laboratory), organized in 1961, originally was directed by Dr. James H. Zumberge as a division of the Institute of Science and Technology, but that relationship with the Institute terminated after 1975. Other directors were Dr. C. W. M. Swithinbank (1962-63) and William R. Farrand from 1965 to date. Research projects, supported by substantial outside grants, included coring of sediments in Lake Superior and studies on the Ross Ice Shelf of the Antarctic. Since 1965, interdisciplinary research in archeological geology and Quaternary paleobiology has been included in the laboratory program.
Computer-assisted research had increased by 1965 to the point that a course in computer utilization in the earth sciences was instituted. Availability of funds both internally and from outside granting agencies for the use of the University of Michigan computer facilities stimulated this type of analysis, which now has become an invaluable part of research techniques. University sponsored scanning electron microscope, microprobe, and scanning transmission electron microscope facilities became available and received increasing use.
Because most geology and mineralogy students were male, graduate and undergraduate student numbers diminished markedly during World War II. Degree-holding geologists went either into military service, where some held assignments related to geology, or into other defense or resource related governmental work. Only two graduate degrees were awarded in 1943, none in 1944 and two in 1945. Increased numbers of women, however, were attracted to the field and many of these began to receive graduate degrees in 1946 and shortly thereafter. As the return of men from wartime service quickened in 1946, the number of graduate students increased startlingly to over ten times the prewar figures. This no doubt was aided by financial assistance from the "GI Bill," but also was stimulated by the obvious advantage a more sophisticated education afforded in obtaining good employment in a rapidly expanding discipline. For 15 years thereafter, exceptionally large numbers of masters degrees were awarded, but Ph.D.s also showed a substantial increase over pre-war years. In Page 165the 1977 departmental alumni record, 1,252 living "Geolumni" were listed, some holding two or three degrees from the department.
During World War II the depleted ranks of male geology students were at least partially refilled by increased numbers of women. Many of the latter continued on into successful and distinguished careers in the earth sciences. Of the 731 graduate degrees awarded by the department through 1975, 8 percent were received by women. This rose to 9 percent for 1961-75. Women received 12 percent of the 1,624 degrees at all levels through 1975.
Summer Geological Field Training
The department long has appreciated the value of geological field training, particularly for students at the University of Michigan where outcrops of bedrock locally are few, poor, of limited variety, and structurally simple. The department's first summer field camp, established in 1920 at Mill Springs, Kentucky, served both Geology and Geography. It was directed by Ermine Case (1920), C. O. Sauer of Geography (1921-24), and George M. Ehlers (1924-35). The Geology and Geography camps separated in 1936 when Geology moved its camp to State Bridge, Colorado, remaining there through 1938. That camp was directed by Ehlers. In 1939 the program moved to Camp Davis, near Jackson, Wyoming. Camp Davis, established by the Department of Civil Engineering in 1929, was administered by that department. Ehlers directed the geological program there from 1939-43, Armand J. Eardley from 1943-50, and Edwin N. Goddard in 1951. The department conducted a roving field camp in 1952, while it searched for a new field training headquarters. Boulder, Colorado, was selected. E. N. Goddard served as Director there from 1953-64. Students lived in rooming and boarding houses in Boulder. The six-week field course, conducted mainly in the Colorado Front Range and eastern foothills, included a week-long final trip to examine features elsewhere. A four-week, post-camp field research program was conducted mainly in Huerfano Park, Colorado, where graduate student and faculty field research projects were directed toward a thorough regional analysis of the geology and geologic history of the Park. Many seniors received additional Page 166training as field assistants there under the general direction of Professors Goddard and Louis I. Briggs, but with other faculty members and graduate students participating. Because of the drastically reduced numbers of its concentrators, the department operated no camp in 1962, 1963, or 1964. Field studies continued in Huerfano Park, Colorado, however. In 1964 the number of concentrators needing camp increased. Therefore, after 1964, when Civil Engineering discontinued its summer field program in Wyoming, it was arranged with the University to convert Camp Davis to a geological field station, beginning in 1965 and continuing to the present. The field course for geology concentrators was increased from 6 to 8 weeks. Again some graduate students and faculty members did research in that region. A very successful introductory geology course was established at Camp Davis in 1965. Albion College and Western Michigan University also used the facilities at Camp Davis for field courses in geology and biology during certain years of the post-1964 period. When the department again took over, Camp Davis was directed by J. A. Dorr (1965-68, 1970, 1972-74, 1978), C. I. Smith (1969-71, 1975-77), and P. L. Cloke (1979).
DEPARTMENT OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
The year 1940 was one of deep and general anxiety on college campuses and in departmental offices. War had broken out in Europe in the fall of 1939, and it was quickly evident that, whether our country became a belligerent or not, the historical upheaval in Europe would profoundly affect academia. In 1940 the faculty of the department consisted of about a dozen men distributed over the senior and junior ranks. Professor H. W. Nordmeyer had assumed the headship in 1935 and was to hold this position through the tumultuous 1940s and the growing enrollments of the 1950s until his retirement in 1960. In addition to a full program of undergraduate courses, the departmental faculty was able to offer a complete series of graduate courses and seminars leading to advanced degrees.
Such was the department's situation at the time of our Page 167entry in the war. It was not possible to anticipate the immediate effect of this event on the University and the department. Older faculty members, recalling the virtual abandonment of German studies during and after World War I, feared a repetition. Surprisingly, and perhaps as an indication of a growing cultural maturity in the nation, it did not happen in 1941-45. To be sure, there was a large decrease in the number of male students because of their entry into the armed forces. Younger faculty members were affected also: Professor Otto G. Graf, for example, soon joined the armed forces, eventually attaining the rank of major in the Intelligence Services.
By 1943 the nation was involved in a truly global war in Europe and the Far East. Successful waging of such a war demanded not only the men and implements of war but also the intellectual resources of the nation. Accordingly a number of thousands of army and navy men were sent to college and university campuses for a great variety of specialized and newly created courses which were devised by various departments and schools of the University. The departmental staff was almost totally involved in this Army Specialized Training Program — intensive courses in language and area studies taught to members of the armed forces in small groups. Indeed, the available personnel of the language departments needed to be augmented by faculty from other departments and even by qualified war refugees. And so for a brief period in the University's history there was the exciting and sometimes amusing spectacle of the eradication of sacrosanct departmental and disciplinary boundaries: philosophers taught history, classicists taught German and French, professors of literature taught government and social organization. And although the whole prodigious enterprise lasted only a short time, curricular change and innovation, which became so prominent in succeeding decades received initial impetus and a trial run during 1943-44. Language faculties enjoyed a totally new and unexpected prominence. With the end of the war began an enormous expansion of college enrollments which was to affect profoundly all of higher education in the country.
Two factors which became operative during the 1950s and 1960s necessitated additions and changes in the curricular offerings of the department. The influx of so many new Page 168faculty members, each with his own specialized competence, enabled the department to broaden its curricular appeal. The department now had the students in sufficient numbers to justify these new offerings. To the older established courses, additions were made, particularly in the graduate program: more work in medieval literature, new courses in the 16th and 17th centuries, prose fiction of the 19th and 20th centuries, literary criticism, modern and contemporary literature. Almost no existing course remained as it had been and the demands for new courses stimulated a deeply satisfying and beneficial faculty increase in scholarly publication.
During the decade of the 1960s two modest programs in other Germanic languages were added: Scandinavian (Norwegian, Swedish, Old Norse language and literature) and Netherlandic. The Scandinavian work was made possible by the addition to the staff of Professor Alan Cottrell and Claiborne Thompson; an arrangement with the Netherlands' Ministry of Education provided the department with a visiting scholar annually to conduct the work in Netherlandic.
With the close of the 1950s came the retirements of the two remaining senior men, Professors Wahr and Nordmeyer. Professor Wahr, in a career of more than 40 years, guided generations of students through modern and contemporary German literature. Professor Nordmeyer who led the department through difficult times for 25 years, still found time to contribute substantially to scholarly literature. Professor Clarence K. Pott succeeded him as department chairman until 1971. He in turn was followed in the chairmanship by Professor V. C. Hubbs, who served until 1976.
In 1965, the regular faculty numbered well over 20; over 30 graduate assistants taught the hundreds of undergraduates in the course work of the first two years. There were more than 70 undergraduate concentrates and from 70-80 graduate candidates for master and doctor degrees. Since 1940 the department has awarded 106 doctoral and 364 master degrees.
Through its staff the department also contributed substantially to those programs which cut across departmental lines. When the late Professor of Classics, Clark Hopkins, Page 169introduced, and supervised for a number of years, the Great Books Program, the German Department staff was involved in it from the beginning; at its peak as many as five members taught sections of these courses. On the graduate level, the department welcomed the students of Comparative Literature to its courses. For 14 years Professor Graf was the Chairman of the committee which directed this interdisciplinary program. He has also for 18 years been similarly involved as the Director of the Honors Program of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In recognition of his yeoman services, an Honors Scholarship has been established in his name. The revived emphasis on foreign languages which the war had brought about resulted in a number of activities, some sponsored by the federal government. In 1959, for example, the University was host to a summer National Defense Education Act Institute; the University's modern language departments naturally played a major role in this effort and Professor Graf was named its director, supervising the work of 109 high school teachers of modern languages.
Other activities more directly connected with the German Department were the collaborative effort with several other universities (Wayne State, Wisconsin, Michigan State) in establishing a very successful Junior Year Abroad in Freiburg, West Germany. Out of this a Deutsches Haus was established on our own campus as was the Max Kade Visiting Professorship under the terms of which the department has been enabled to bring a number of distinguished foreign Germanists to the campus on a yearly basis. Professor Hubbs was chiefly instrumental in securing this professorship for the department and the College, and in 1963 Professor Harald Scholler undertook the organization of a Conference on Medieval Studies which attracted a number of scholars from home and abroad of international stature.
The growth of the department in staff and number of students, which had begun during the chairmanship of Professor Nordmeyer, continued at an increased rate during the years of Professor Pott's tenure.
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
With the postwar expansion of undergraduate and graduate enrollments, the History Department's increased responsibilities required a much larger staff. Its members of faculty rank increased from 16 in 1940-41 to 61 in 1973-76. In the same period the number of teaching fellows increased from five to thirty. This change in numbers demanded several interesting changes in the scope and character of the department.
In 1940-41 the department consisted almost entirely of specialists in European (ancient, medieval, and modern) and American history. The growth over the next 35 years was not evenly distributed. The staff teaching west and central European history (including Britain and the British Empire) increased from 11 in 1940-41 to 18 in 1973-76, while the number of department members teaching United States history (colonial to the present) went up from three to nineteen. The most striking growth, however, came in the history of non-Western areas (Europe east of the Oder, Asia, and Africa). In 1940-41 there was only one person teaching such history; by 1975-76 the number so employed increased to 19.
The movement towards a wide geographic scope in the department's offerings began in 1945 with the appointment of Prince Andrei Lobanov-Rostovsky, a Russian emigre, as professor of Russian history. For many years Lobanov-Rostovsky alone taught the history of both Russia and the borderlands of eastern Europe. Today this responsibility is shared by five members of the department, including specialists in the history of medieval and modern Russia, Poland and the Balkans. Even more remarkable has been the growth in the history of Asia, an area almost totally neglected by the department before the appointment of John Hall, a Japanese specialist, in 1948 and Albert Feuerwerker, a Chinese specialist, in 1959. By 1975-76 the six specialists in East Asian history made the department a major center for such studies in the United States. Comparable developments on a somewhat more restricted scale occurred in the study of South Asia and the Middle East (from 1956) and in Southeast Asia (from 1964) and Africa (from 1970). A major responsibility for teaching the history Page 171of the ancient and medieval Near East had been assumed by the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Literature from 1945. In all other non-Western areas, the burden has been borne primarily by the History Department.
The development of non-Western studies in the History Department has been closely associated with the development of the University's centers for area studies, coordinating related studies in different departments and acting as conduits for the transmittal of federal and foundation funds to newly developing fields. The first such unit, the Center for Japanese Studies, was founded in 1947. It was soon followed by equivalent organizations for Chinese, South and Southeast Asian, Russian and East European, Middle East and North African Studies, and more recently by the Center for Afro-American and African Studies. In more traditional areas the utility of this form of organization has led to the creation of the interdepartmental Program in American Culture and the Center for Western European Studies. Members of the History Department have played an active part in the affairs of all the area centers and (as of 1975) had been conspicuous in leadership roles in the Japanese, Chinese, and South Asian centers.
With this geographical expansion went a wider experimentation in historical methodologies. When Professor Sylvia Thrupp joined the department in 1961, she brought with her from Chicago the journal, Comparative Studies in Society and History, which has been published here ever since. (It is now edited by historian Raymond Grew of this department and anthropologist Eric Wolf of New York.) The journal and the interests of several department members made the department a leading center in the development of the comparative approach to history. With outside support, a master's program in comparative studies became a regular feature of the department's offerings. The 1960s and 1970s also saw an increased self-conscious concern by many in the department with new methodologies useful for their own research and the training of graduate students.
The growth of the teaching staff in the decades after 1940 was accompanied by significant changes in its pattern of recruitment. In 1940, the History Department, like almost all equivalent departments of the day, consisted virtually Page 172entirely of white males of Protestant upbringing and northwest European ancestry. By 1960 expansion had been accompanied by the addition of persons of Catholic and Jewish upbringing and of south and east European antecedents, but the department was still entirely Caucasian and male. This limitation was to change very rapidly in succeeding years. Although women had served as visiting professors before, the first woman regularly appointed was the distinguished medievalist, Sylvia Thrupp, who was named Alice Freeman Palmer Professor of History in 1961. Other female appointments followed, slowly at first but with increasing frequency after 1970 so that by 1975-76 there were six women on the teaching staff. In the same years, appointments of Africans, Afro-Americans and Asians further enhanced the cultural diversity of the department.
Before the Second World War, the only funds the department had to support graduate study were a limited number of teaching fellowships and a few awards made by the Rackham Graduate School. After the war, these were greatly enhanced by federal veterans' grants and (from 1958) by grants under the National Defense Education Act for both area studies and open fellowships. The Woodrow Wilson Foundation supported a number of first-year graduate students in the 1950s and 1960s while a few fortunate students received major grants from the Danforth Foundation; substantial grants were also received from the Carnegie Corporation for the Japanese Center and from the Ford Foundation for both area studies and open fellowships. From the late 1960s substantial federal, state, and foundation funding became available through the Rackham School specifically for the support of minority students who for the first time became a numerically significant element in the department's graduate program. After 1970, NDEA and Ford Foundation programs supporting open fellowships were terminated and allocations from the Rackham Graduate School were reduced for all but minority programs. These constraints contributed to the decline in graduate student enrollment in the 1970s.
Undergraduate teaching, however, remained the preponderant activity of the department. Allowing for annual fluctuations, the general trend of enrollments was upwards until about 1970 after which a significant decline set in. European and British history which had been extremely popular fields of study from the First World War through the Second suffered Page 173noticeably from this shift of student interest; even the new field of Russian history which was of increasing popularity in the 1960s shared the common experience after 1970. Asian, African, and Latin-American history had never been as popular as European but were gradually attracting more students (particularly when the Vietnam War caused a temporary keen student interest in East and Southeast Asian affairs); this increase tended to level off after 1970. Thus, a very substantial and increasing part of student enrollment throughout the period was concentrated in United States history. In 1969, a beginning was made in ethnic history with the introduction of courses in Afro-American history.
The opening of the Undergraduate Library in 1958 and the development of paperback publishing considerably altered the pattern of assigned reading in most undergraduate history courses. In the 1940s larger courses relied heavily on one or two textbooks. By the 1960s, instructors had become less dependent on textbooks and much more frequently assigned reading in a variety of paperbacks and in book chapters and articles readily available at the Undergraduate Library.
The administration of the department also changed profoundly in these years. In the 1930s and 1940s the department was directed by a chairman serving an indefinite term. This system appeared to work well in the smaller community of those days, but the larger and more complex department of the postwar years placed enormous pressures on the chairman and seemed to require a wider sharing of responsibilities. In the late 1940s an elected executive committee was established to advise the chairman. By the 1960s the executive committee in turn had to delegate to ad hoc committees some of the responsibility for advising on appointments, tenure, and promotion. An elected curriculum committee with student representation was also established in 1970. In 1953 the department adopted a five-year chairmanship. In 1969, this was changed to a two-year rotating chairmanship but, after seven chairman in ten years, the department adopted a three-year term in 1978-79.
The department's home for many decades, old Haven Hall, burned in 1950. After making do for two years in temporary quarters in the basement of the Rackham Building and in Page 174South Quadrangle, the department was rehoused in 1952 on the third floor of the new Haven Hall. By the mid-1970s the department occupied the third and fourth floors of Haven Hall and fourteen offices in the new Modern Languages Building.
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY OF ART
In 1959 the Department of Fine Arts was changed to History of Art to emphasize its subject and discipline as important branches of general history. Its faculty grew rapidly and by 1973 Professor Harold E. Wethey, Chairman 1940-47, Professors James M. Plumer and Adelaide A. Adams were joined in 1947 by Professor George H. Forsyth, Jr., Chairman 1947-61, and by Professor Max Loehr in 1951. Of the numerous junior faculty appointed after 1947 a considerable proportion ultimately became full professors, among them Professor Marvin J. Eisenberg, Chairman, 1961-69, who was succeeded by Professor Richard Edwards, Chairman 1969-73, and Professor Clifton C. Olds, Chairman beginning in 1973, by which year the full-time teaching staff numbered fifteen. Student enrollments increased correspondingly, at undergraduate and graduate levels, as art history gained an important place among other humanistic disciplines. Survey course enrollments, which never exceeded a few hundred students per academic year in the late 1940s rose to 2,450 in 1973-74, by which time 45 doctorates had been granted by the department. Notably successful has been the graduate program. Directed by Professor Wethey from 1947 to 1964, it has produced a long series of outstanding young art historians.
Having outgrown its cramped quarters in Alumni Memorial Hall, the department occupied Tappan Hall in 1952, where space was available for a Library of Fine Arts and for the Slide and Photograph Collection which became, under the direction of Eleanor S. Collins, one of the largest in the nation (160,000 slides and 52,000 photographs in 1973). Faculty research, resulting in important scholarly publications was facilitated by two departmental research funds. The Freer Page 175Fund was established jointly with the Freer Gallery of Washington in 1949 for scholarly collaboration on the history of Oriental Art, including an exchange of research appointments and joint support of scholarly publications, notably a new periodical, Ars Orientalis, successor to the University's distinguished Ars Islamica. In 1952 Professor Loehr received such an appointment at the Freer Gallery as Honorary Research Associate in Chinese Art; and in 1956 Professor Oleg Grabar, a member of the department since 1954, received a similar research appointment at the Gallery in Islamic Art. For faculty research in Western Art (European and North American) the Forsyth Fund was established in the department in 1955 to pay the costs of research and field work and also publication of the results. Among other projects, it has supported archaeological expeditions to the sixth-century Byzantine Monastery of St. Catherine at Mt. Sinai, a long-term project initiated by the department in 1958, completed by the Kelsey Museum, and now in process of publication. Other unique research facilities of the department are two photographic collections: the Palace Archives Collection, a complete record, authorized by the Taiwan government, of its immense holdings of Chinese art; and the Mount Sinai Archive including many thousands of photographs of Byzantine art of all periods, made during the expeditions to Mt. Sinai.
The department has generously contributed extramural activities for the benefit of the University and the Ann Arbor community. Series of guest lectures are supplemented by the annual Departmental Lectureship, introduced in 1965 by Chairman Eisenberg, which brings a distinguished authority to the campus for a week of lectures and seminars. Often the department joins the Museum of Art in mounting an important exhibition and in preparing for it a meaningful, well-researched catalogue.
DEPARTMENT OF JOURNALISM
Journalism became an independent department in 1929, and exactly 50 years later it was to merge with elements of Page 176the Speech Communication and Theatre Department to become the Department of Communication. When a formal Department of Journalism was established in 1929, it was headed by John L. Brumm. He turned over the chairmanship in 1948 to Wesley H. Maurer, who remained chairman until his retirement in 1966. At that time, he was succeeded by William E. Porter and seven years later Peter Clarke became chairman. The Department of Journalism had only four chairmen.
In a memorandum to University President Clarence Cook Little, Brumm stated the case for professional training for journalism within the broad educational objectives of the University: "The professional courses, under the direction of the faculty in journalism should be designed to enable students to make practical application of the knowledge acquired in their social, industrial, political, and historical studies to the problems of newspaper writing and editing."
Except for broadening to encompass other media, that has remained the teaching philosophy of the department. With the years, the curriculum has expanded to include magazines, technical journals, industrial and business publications, and broadcasting. For the most part, these changes were made without adding new courses which focused on a particular medium. Rather, existing courses were broadened to emphasize similarities across media.
There was steady pressure through the years, especially from the newspapermen of the state, for two changes: for an independent school of journalism, in the pattern of Columbia and Northwestern, and for the journalism faculty to make the Michigan Daily into a laboratory paper.
The University of Michigan never has controlled its student newspaper. Journalism faculty insisted that it was impossible to "direct" a publication without imposing censorship and that it could not teach the values of a free press, while at the same time, censoring a paper. So, the Daily always remained a student-run operation, with its own budget and its own, changing standards. Many journalism students were editors and staff members, but they worked for the Daily on the same extracurricular basis as other students and not for journalism course credit.
Page 177Since 1925, the Department of Journalism has published a laboratory newspaper, The Michigan Journalist, mailed without cost to newspapers, broadcasters and libraries throughout the nation. It is published several times during the school year and serves as a showcase for student reporting and writing.
The University Press Club of Michigan, organized in 1919 by Brumm, brought together the editors of the state for an annual conference to update their knowledge and to solicit their support for the University and for the department. During the 1920s, this organization urged the University administration to set up a school of journalism in its own building, but the administration felt otherwise. The journalism faculty saw the advantage of keeping journalism clearly rooted in and among the broader liberal arts courses. Student professional organizations have brought many enrichments, such as outside speakers and field trips to the formal curriculum.
When the Hopwood Awards were established in 1929 to reward student excellence in all forms of writing, the Department of Journalism was one of the organizing departments. It has remained so through the years.
The crush of returning World War II veterans changed the department as it did all units. In 1947, there were three full-time instructors; by 1970, the number was 11. Always there were part-timers, drawn from nearby media who brought fresh insights to journalism students. While the number of concentrators grew steadily, the size of classes grew even faster. Journalism courses always were popular electives with students in other fields, and the department often offered service courses, specifically geared for students in other schools and colleges, such as Public Health, Engineering, and Education.
Virtually all the men and women who have taught in the department have had media experience. Brumm and Porter were both successful magazine writers, while Maurer owned and operated community newspapers before, during, and after his tenure as chairman. Perhaps the most distinguished professional journalist was Leland Stowe. Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for foreign correspondence and a much-honored World Page 178War II correspondent, Stowe continued to live in Ann Arbor and to serve as a roving editor for Reader's Digest.
In 1973 the department launched its mid-career fellowship for journalists, supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities. Professor Ben Yablonky was founding director of the program, which has continued uninterrupted. Twelve experienced news persons came to the Ann Arbor campus for nine months of independent study organized around humanities and professional seminars presented by the department.
The department hosted many conferences and short courses through the years, an activity that would be expanded in 1974 with the generous bequest of Howard R. Marsh, a University alumnus and former Michigan journalist. This gift established the Howard R. Marsh Center for the Study of Journalistic Performance, an endowed center within the department which sponsored visits by outstanding professionals to the campus and which organized conferences and published booklets which might prove useful to working professionals.
In 1953, the first in a series of summer workshops for advisers and staff members of high school publications was held. The Michigan Interscholastic Press Association was housed in the department for 50 years.
Beginning in 1947, the University Lectures in Journalism brought 10 to 12 major speakers to the campus. These included not only famed journalists but also civil liberties attorneys, cartoonists, historians, and controversial figures such as William Worthy, the black journalist denied a passport to report from Cuba and China, and P. D. East, the editor of a Mississippi weekly who used satire to further integration efforts.
The department began offering graduate courses in 1932, and in 1936 the program was revised so as to admit only those who had received their B.A. in journalism at Michigan. Before beginning two years of courses at the graduate level, the student worked for a summer on a Michigan weekly or daily paper.
Maurer organized a unique system of internships in 1947, and the program went national in 1952. By the time Page 179of his retirement, in 1966, 40 students had been on post-B.A. internships, many on Michigan community newspapers; another 40 foreign students had served such internships after a year's campus preparation, and many students had summer internships. The total was about 200. Michigan faculty members traveled to the jobs to confer with the interns and their supervisors.
At the M.A. level, students studied for four semesters on campus and then went on for two-year internships on national publications and occasionally on foreign media. At all levels the students were paid the prevailing wage rates and not exploited by employers or "paid" by the University with academic credit.
The undergraduate and graduate programs were further separated in 1967 and 1968 revisions. The major change at the M.A. level was to combine workshop courses in writing, editing, reporting, and broadcasting into a single firstterm. By the mid-1960s, there were plans to add a doctorate and in 1973, these plans resulted in the Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Mass Communication, supervised by the departments of Journalism, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. This degree was designed to train not only academics, but researchers for the media, industry, and government.
The Haven Hall fire of June, 1950, routed the department from its home of many years. After a few weeks of sanctuary in the Rackham Building, the department took up quarters in Mason Hall, where it remained until 1969. With the move to the former Administration Building, now renamed the Literature, Sciences, and the Arts Building, the department entered the 1970s physically, as well as psychologically, close to the center of the liberal arts tradition.
DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS
At their July, 1961 meeting, the Regents of the University authorized the creation of a new Department of Linguistics Page 180which became a budgetary reality in the academic year 1963-64. Before 1963, courses and degree programs in linguistics were implemented by an interdepartmental program in linguistics.
Linguistics at Michigan figures prominently in the formative period of the discipline in this country. The Linguistic Society of America, founded in 1924, lists among its founding members three faculty members at the University of Michigan: Professor Charles C. Fries (English), Professor Samuel Moore (English), and Professor Fred Newton Scott (Rhetoric and Journalism). Another founding member, Professor Hans Kurath, joined the University at a later time. Of these, Professor Fries is the major early figure in linguistics at Michigan, as the initiator and long-time Director of the Program in Linguistics, the founder of the English Language Institute, and the editor of the Early Modern English Dictionary. Professor Kurath succeeded Professor Fries as Director of the Program in Linguistics.
The Program in Linguistics was set up and supervised by a Committee on Linguistics appointed by the Graduate School. The Directors of the Program were: Charles C. Fries (1945-49), Hans Kurath (1949-52), Albert H. Marckwardt (1952-53, 1954-63), and Joseph K. Yamagiwa (1953-54), who also served as Acting Director of the Program in 1961-62 and as Acting Chairman of the nascent but still unbudgeted department in 1952-53.
The members of the Committee on Linguistics, although officially appointed by the Graduate School, were elected annually by a group called the Linguistics Staff. The Linguistics staff, which by 1963 numbered 33, consisted of faculty members trained in linguistics and engaged in teaching and/or research in linguistics from eight units: the Classical Studies, English, Far Eastern, Germanic, Near Eastern, Romance and Slavic departments, and the Communication Sciences Program. Teaching in linguistics was handled by the various departments having qualified personnel. Responsibility for staffing the four or five basic courses in general linguistics was assumed mainly by the English Department, with courses usually cross-listed in Anthropology although these basic courses were also occasionally offered by faculty members in other departments, e.g. the Near East Department. Beside Page 181the basic courses in general linguistics, the various language departments offered courses in the history and structure of the languages with which they dealt. The Committee on Linguistics, besides seeing that appropriate courses were offered regularly by the various departments, had as its main function the management of the degree programs in linguistics.
The Department of Linguistics was founded in 1963 by the Committee on the Organization of Linguistic Activities (COLA). A major question facing COLA was whether to recommend a linguistics department that would or would not include all elementary language instruction. The latter was recommended. The department did, however, take on some language instruction, beginning with Hindi/Urdu, Sanskrit, and Thai and its language teaching activities have grown as the department has become the home for South and Southeast Asian language instruction and also for instruction in "other" languages, i.e. languages which do not easily fit into the established language departments.
It had been assumed that Professor Marckwardt would be the chairman of the new department, since he had chaired the Program for many years and had been a leader in the movement to change the Program to a department. But when he accepted an appointment at Princeton, it was decided to invite Professor Herbert H. Paper of the Near East Department to be the first chairman of the new department. At the conclusion of his term in 1968, he was followed by John C. Catford who was chairman 1968-71 and William J. Gedney, 1971-75.
As time has passed, the department has also attracted a number of faculty who, though budgeted in other units, have become associated with the department through honorary appointments. These faculty members, particularly those budgetarily in the English Language Institute and also those in Anthropology, have provided the department with an extra measure of strength and of flexibility with regard to course offerings.
For some years the interdepartmental committee, now renamed the Interdepartmental Advisory Committee (IAC), elected by the Linguistics staff, continued to manage the Page 182degree programs. As the department grew in size, strength, and self-confidence, more and more of the old Committee's functions were taken over by internal committees within the department, so that after a period of some years the elected IAC was reduced to managing the programs of only a few students who were still working under the old requirements that prevailed before the founding of the department. When at last only a couple of these students were left on the books the IAC was discontinued. This change had the unfortunate consequence that old Linguistics Staff no longer had any real power or function, since there were no longer any elections for the IAC and no IAC to report to the Linguistics Staff. The last meetings of the Linguistics Staff occurred in connection with planning for the 1973 Linguistic Institute.
The department was initially housed in quarters on the second floor of Angell Hall. In 1967, it moved to rented quarters on the second floor of the Gunn Building, a commercial building on East Liberty Street. This was an awkward arrangement, not only because the department was off campus, but a number of faculty members were in offices in the basement of the east wing of the Frieze Building. In 1972, the department moved into the quarters it occupies today, on the ground floor of the east wing of the Frieze Building.
Linguistic Institutes were begun by the Linguistic Society of America in the late 1920s, when four were held, two at Yale (1928, '29) and two at CCNY (1930, '31). These are university summer sessions in linguistics staffed by local faculty and visitors. After a few years' lapse, occasioned by the depression, Professor Fries revived the Linguistic Institute, bringing it to Michigan in the summer of 1936. It has now been at Michigan for 18 summers.
The English Language Institute, like the interdepartmental Program in Linguistics, was founded by the late Professor Fries. The ELI provides intensive, noncredit instruction in English for foreign students. It has also been a center for research in teaching English as a second language and for the production of teaching materials, as well as being an important site for the training of graduate students. When the Regents established the new department in 1961, the ELI was incorporated as a unit within the department.
Page 183South and Southeast Asian languages are taught. In its first year, the department offered courses in Hindi-Urdu, Sanskrit, and Thai, and the next year added Indonesian. At present, on foundation money from the Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, the department is offering Tagalog and Tamil. Burmese, Marathi, and Pali and Prakrit have also been offered occasionally on a special basis, and Old Javanese is offered in connection with the Indonesian program. The department also offers courses on the literatures and religions of the South and Southeast Asian area. The department's work in modern South and Southeast Asian languages involves close cooperation with the Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, which administers the fellowship program in these languages funded by the federal government and provides major support funding for instruction.
Since the beginning, the department has been regarded as the proper home for instruction in any language which does not fall within the scope of the language departments. It has also offered instruction from time to time in a disparate range of languages including Hungarian, modern Irish, Lithuanian, and Yiddish. Remedial English as a foreign language has been offered regularly since 1966. Finally, since 1973 the department has had a regular program in Ojibwa, offered in cooperation with the Ann Arbor Native American community.
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
The manpower and research demands of the Second World War and immediate postwar years (1941-50) affected the University in many ways. The loss of mathematics enrollment in normal undergraduate programs was offset by the fact that many of the military training programs established on the campus had a mathematics component. This was true of the Air Force's Meteorology Program, the Army Specialized Training Program and the Guided Missiles Program, the Navy's V-12 and Reserve Officers Naval Architecture Groups, as well as of the Engineering Science and Management War Training Program under which government sponsored extension courses Page 184were taught out-of-state.
The war tapped the University's mathematics staff as well as its students. As a result it was necessary to supplement the campus staff with teachers from the astronomy, chemistry, history, mineralogy, and philosophy departments as well as from other institutions.
The pressure on the department's teaching capacity continued after the war as the veterans, supported by the government, turned to higher education. Refresher classes in the late summer were instituted. Interest in mathematics and science was high, and the students were serious and hard-working. The staff, student body, course offerings, and seminars all expanded.
The role of the University of Michigan as a center for mathematical conferences and symposia had been initiated in 1940 when Professors R. L. Wilder and W. L. Ayres directed a topology conference. This type of activity resumed in 1949. The Third Symposium in Applied Mathematics of the American Mathematical Society was held in Ann Arbor with Professor R. V. Churchill as its director.
Military and space research since World War II has attracted strong national support. In 1950, the National Science Foundation was established, and the mathematics department, from its earliest day, has been a recipient of N.S.F. support in many ways. In 1953, concerned that there was a shortage of up-to-date instructors in the nation's colleges, the National Science Foundation commissioned Professor R. L. Wilder and two other mathematicians to design and operate a "refresher" Summer Conference in Collegiate Mathematics in Boulder, Colorado. The following summer Professors T. H. Hildebrandt and P. S. Jones directed an N.S.F-supported program on our campus. Later N.S.F. extended its support to institutes for secondary and elementary teachers of science and mathematics. Professors Phillip Jones, Charles Brumfiel, and Eugene Krause directed a variety of academic-year, summer, and in-service programs for elementary and secondary teachers in the years 1961 to 1971.
Professor R. M. Thrall's wartime work in operations Page 185analysis stimulated his interest in interdisciplinary problems and teaching. This led to joint work with Professor Coombs of Psychology, to a Summer Institute in Mathematics for Social Scientists in 1955 supported by the Ford Foundation and sponsored by the Social Science Research Council, and, in 1966, to a National Institute of Health sponsored institute on mathematics for life scientists. Courses in operations analysis and linear programming, the latter cross-listed with industrial engineering and business administration, are evidence for the broadening utility of mathematics and its recognition at Michigan. Classical and pure mathematics continued to be of major importance in the department, however, as was demonstrated in 1953 by a Conference on Complex Analysis organized by Professors Wilfred Kaplan, Max-well Reade, and Gail Young.
This was also a period of tremendous growth in electronic digital computers and their use. Dr. H. H. Goldstine became a major contributor to their development as a result of his wartime assignment to the Aberdeen proving ground. John W. Car III worked with the engineers who developed and built MIDAC at Willow Run. A strong advocate of the training of students in the use of computers, he was instrumental in the decision to acquire an IBM 650 in 1955 for the Statistical Research Laboratory on campus, directed by C. C. Craig. In 1959 the Ford Foundation supported a Project on the Use of Computers in Engineering Education. R. C. F. Bartels and Bernard A. Galler were members of the Committee responsible for that project. Bartels became the director of the computing center set up that year. Elementary courses relating to the use of the digital computer were initially taught solely in the Mathematics Department. In 1961-62 the department roll listed 57 teaching fellows plus an additional 11 at the computer center. A separate Computer and Communications Science graduate program was organized in 1957. Computer and Communication Science became a separate department of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1965.
The actuarial-science program maintained an active role in the department and developed relationships with the School of Business Administration by joint faculty appointments, cross-listed courses, and joint administration of fellowships and student placement. An Actuarial Science Fellowship Fund, established in the mid-1950s, is supported by a number of leading insurance organizations to promote graduate study Page 186in the field. A number of memorial funds are designated for the support of actuarial students.
The Michigan Mathematical Journal finally came into being in 1952 under the editorship of G. Y. Rainich. George Piranian took over as editor with the 1953-54 issue. Mathematical Reviews, the international abstracting journal owned by the American Mathematical Society, moved to Ann Arbor in 1964 under an agreement with the University which provides it with space and access to our library.
Probably the single most representative characteristic of the department in the postwar years has been the parallel expansion of graduate instruction and faculty research. Graduate enrollment peaked in 1964 with 332 students. Professor G. E. Hay was named to a five-year term as chairman in 1957, renewed for a second five years in 1962. At this time an associate chairmanship was authorized to share the growing administrative load.
The period 1951-65 had its trauma. One arose when Dr. H. Chandler Davis was suspended because of his refusal to testify before the Un-American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives. Many department members supported Dr. Davis, who has continued to be a useful and respected member of the mathematical community since leaving the University. Although occasional losses continued, fine additions have been made to the staff. In 1975, 66 percent of the staff received some extra-university research support from N.S.F. and other sources. The Ziwet Lecturer Program has been maintained. This uses endowment money to bring to campus a distinguished mathematician for a week or two of lecture on his specialty. Since 1936, there have been twenty Ziwet lecturers.
The nearly fifty-year-old tradition of extensive seminars for faculty and advanced students has been maintained: the monthly meetings of the Mathematics Club continue, but now require a small University lecture room. There are two colloquiums weekly. The succession of nationally and internationally sponsored conferences, begun in 1940, expanded in this period to include: Group Theory (1968); a Regional American Mathematical Society Conference on Complex Analysis (1969); a Conference on Optimal Control (1969), sponsored by the Society for Natural Philosophy; a Number Theory Summer Page 187Research Institute (1973) sponsored by N.S.F.; and a Complex Variables Conference. The first (1966) of an annual series of actuarial research conferences, international in scope, was held in Ann Arbor under the direction of Professor Cecil J. Nesbitt and Mr. Edward A. Lew of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.
The actuarial faculty have continued to be active in consulting with reference to insurance and pension programs as well as in contributions to actuarial research, and to the profession as a whole. Professor Donald A. Jones administers the Actuarial Research Clearing House, a distribution service centered at Michigan for actuarial research in preprint form, and Professor Nesbitt has been active in the development of an Actuarial Education and Research Fund, a joint undertaking of the actuarial profession in Canada and the United States.
Other administrative and educational changes during this period were the splitting off of the Statistics Department in 1969, the initiation in 1973 of a graduate program for training teachers for two-year colleges, and the authorization of additional associate chairmen in 1968 and 1973.
DEPARTMENT OF NEAR EASTERN STUDIES
Known as the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures since 1930, the department over the years has accumulated numbers of valuable Babylonian, Aramaic, Coptic, Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Ethiopic manuscripts, tablets, papyri and artifacts, still today the basis for research, teaching, and museum exhibits.
World War II saw the permanent addition of Chinese and Japanese to the department's offerings. With the retirement of Chairman Leroy W. Waterman in 1945 and of Chairman William H. Worrell in 1948, the department underwent a major restructuring resulting in its transformation into two new departments: Far Eastern Languages and Literatures, with Associate Professor Joseph K. Yamagiwa as chairman, and Near Page 188Eastern Studies, under George G. Cameron, a scholar of ancient Near Eastern history and languages who was brought from the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago to serve as its head. When Dr. Cameron arrived in February 1949, he alone was the entire faculty of the department. He had been granted leave for the Fall 1948 term to be Annual Professor of the Baghdad School of the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and to do his famous archaeological research on the inscriptions on Darius' Bisitun Monument in Iran. When he retired as Department Head twenty-one years later there were eighteen faculty members in the department and another fourteen Near Eastern specialists in other departments, constituting one of the premier programs in the nation dealing with the Near East and North Africa.
The department's goals were to cover Biblical Studies and the ancient, medieval, and modern languages and civilizations of the present-day Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Hebrew (Israeli) lands, with at least a linguistics and a literature specialist for each of these fields. Between 1948 and 1956 Cameron was able to recruit both established and budding scholars to cover most of the basic needs of the department: Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Studies, medieval and modern Near Eastern History, and Arabic, Persian, and Turkish Studies. He was able as well to bring distinguished visitors during the academic year and in extensive summer programs in 1950 and in 1953 (co-sponsored with the Linguistic Society of America).
This initial period, during which basic department programs were established, included the beginnings of the second phase in the development of Near Eastern Studies at Michigan: the broadening of coverage of the area on an ambitious interdisciplinary basis. In the 1950s permanent faculty were brought in to deal with the area of the Near East in anthropology, economics, geography, history, history of art, political science, and the Graduate Library. Because of the increasing complexity of interdisciplinary coordination and funding in 1961 the University established the Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies under the directorship of William D. Schorger. After that date the Center was responsible for all interdepartmental aspects of Near Eastern Studies. Departmental programs were also greatly strengthened and Modern Hebrew Studies were added.
Page 189The growth of Near Eastern Studies at Michigan during this period was greatly aided by outside funding from a variety of sources in support of faculty expansion, student fellowships, instructional programs, and research projects. In 1951 George Cameron led an interdisciplinary expedition to Iraq and Iran supported by Carnegie, Rockefeller, and University of Michigan funds. The Carnegie Corporation funded three summer sessions devoted to the Near East (1951-53), staffed with outstanding scholars from across the nation. In 1952 Ford Foundation gave a five-year grant of $100,000 for faculty and research development, the first to an "area program" on the Near East at any institution. This and additional Ford Foundation support enabled the University to make several important permanent staff additions, to begin building a Near Eastern library collection second only to those of Harvard and Princeton, and to conduct research and training in the field, including the innovative year-long interdisciplinary field session in Aleppo, Syria, 1953-54. In 1960-62 the department received a National Defense Education Act (NDEA) grant totaling over $500,000 from the U.S. Office of Education for the development of instructional materials for Arabic, Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto; sixteen textbooks resulted from this effort. Additional instructional materials for Arabic, Modern Hebrew, and Turkish were later produced under department and Center auspices.
With George Cameron's retirement as Head of Department in 1969 Ernest McCarus was appointed chairman. The major addition between 1969 and 1975 was that of David Noel Freedman as Director of the new Program on Studies in Religion. With George Cameron's retirement in 1975, Matthew W. Stolper was appointed as Assyriologist and, as in the case of his predecessor, Stolper spent his first official term at Michigan on leave at an archeological dig at Tepe Malyan in Iran.
This period also saw continued concern with effective language teaching. Courses in language pedagogy and practice teaching were instituted for prospective language teachers, as enrollments in Near Eastern language courses rose to all-time highs. In 1974 the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA), the prestigious federally-funded program for intensive advanced-level training in Arabic language at the American University in Cairo, was transferred from the University of Page 190California at Berkeley to Michigan under the directorship of Ernest McCarus.
The department has distinguished itself not only in teaching but also in scholarship. Recognition has come to members of the faculty in the form of honorary degrees, election as officials of professional societies and of national research and training institutes and centers, research grants from the federal government and prestigious foundations, invitations to participate in national and international conferences and committees, mention in biographical references such as Who's Who, journal editorships, and others.
The Department of Near Eastern Studies has built for itself solid programs in Ancient and Biblical Studies and in Arabic, Hebrew, Iranian and Turkish Studies. Not the least of its achievements has been its success in maintaining a spirit of mutual respect and harmonious cooperation and strictly professional attitudes toward the study of the Near and Middle East without yielding to the emotions of the political conditions in the area.
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY
In 1940 the Department of Philosophy had only six regular faculty and about fifteen graduate students. Yet it enjoyed great distinction, with three of its professors internationally known. Moreover, it had evolved from a long tradition of excellence, commencing with the absolute idealists, George Sylvester Morris, John Dewey, and Robert Mark Wenley. Morris was Michigan's first outstanding philosopher. Having served as chairman of Modern Languages and Literature from 1870, he moved to philosophy in 1881 and became chairman there in 1884. He brought Dewey to Michigan in 1884, and Dewey became chairman upon Morris's death in 1889.
Dewey came as an absolute idealist, and the department Page 191continued to think of him as one, though he had begun to move toward pragmatism during his ten years at Michigan. After his departure for the University of Chicago, he was replaced by Wenley, an absolute idealist trained at Glasgow University under Edward Caird. Wenley was chairman from 1896 until 1929, building and presiding over a strong department and making his own contributions to scholarship, but his death marked the end of the department's identification with absolute idealism. By 1940, only one remnant remained: the curriculum included two "pro-seminars," in Kant and Hegel, carrying the implication that this background was needed for satisfactory "seminar" performance.
Wenley had added two young philosophers to the department who were destined to distinguish themselves: Roy Wood Sellars in 1905, and DeWitt H. Parker in 1908. Parker and Sellars designed systems of metaphysics and epistemology in the grand style. While Parker continued the idealistic emphasis in the department, he was not an absolute idealist; rather, he was a panpsychist and voluntarist, being influenced by the individualistic tradition in idealism and by Schopenhauer's emphasis on the will. Sellars, one of the famous critical realists, developed an evolutionary and emergent form of naturalism. Parker and Sellars also extended their systems to special areas of philosophy. Parker applied his voluntarism to ethics and aesthetics; Sellars argued from his naturalism to a humanistic theory of ethics and religion and to a politics of democratic socialism.
Parker, who became chairman in 1929, chose a mathematical logician to fill the vacancy left by the absolute idealist Wenley. C. H. Langford, who taught for over twenty years, was a founder and editor of the Journal of Symbolic Logic and served as president of the Association for Symbolic Logic. Parker's appointment of Langford was the start of the shift toward analytic philosophy, and toward specialization, that would keep the Michigan department in the forefront of English and American philosophy during the period of this account. In 1937, he appointed a second symbolic logician, Paul Henle, as well as the moral philosopher William Frankena. Thus a very small department now had two mathematical logicians, though each did have other strong philosophic interests. In 1946 another moral philosopher, Charles Stevenson, replaced the retiring Charles Vibbert; Page 192the present chronicler, Arthur Burks, also joined the faculty at that time, upon the departure of Henle, who, however, returned later.
Frankena was chairman from 1947 until 1961, years that saw an already distinguished department of six grow to a still more widely recognized department of twelve, and the number of graduate students reach a peak of about sixty. Richard Brandt became chairman in 1964, having taught at Swarthmore College and been chairman there for many years. The administrative skills he brought to Michigan served the department well in a difficult period of a dozen years, during which the faculty grew to about twenty.
The department has been honored and benefitted by the establishment in 1970 of the Tanner Philosophy Library, the gift of Obert Clark Tanner, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Utah, and his wife, Grace Adams Tanner, in memory of their sons, Dean, Steven, and Gordon Tanner. The Tanner Collection now occupies two rooms in Angell Hall; it is widely used by graduate students, undergraduate majors, and members of the faculty. In 1978, the Obert C. and Grace A. Tanner Foundation also created the Tanner Lectures on Human Values, whereby up to ten very generous lectureships are awarded annually to the most eminent scholars in the field of human values, philosophers in the broadest sense of the term. The University of Michigan is one of six universities in this country and England where a permanent lectureship has been established; the Department of Philosophy chooses the lecturer each year and officiates throughout the proceedings.
In brief, the Department of Philosophy has had a faculty highly regarded in both teaching and research during the period of this history, continuing a long and distinguished tradition.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
With the end of World War II and the return to more normal activity, physicists in general found numerous changes in their discipline. The public was now quite aware of the significance of nuclear research. The government, and the scientists themselves, now knew that effective research could be done on a massive scale if it were generously supported. And now technological innovations, particularly in electronics, brought new experiments within reach.
Michigan, with its 42" cyclotron built in the mid-30s, had been active in nuclear research for many years. James Cork, who had had major responsibility for the cyclotron, and H. R. Crane were the senior active nuclear physicists after the war; however the years 1945-50 saw the addition of Wiedenbeck, Pidd, Parkinson, Lennox, and Hough to the faculty. Moreover, since "nuclear physics" at that time included much of what is now called high-energy physics, Hazen, Nierenberg, and Glaser should also be included in that list.
In those years, for what was to prove the last decade of his life, Cork turned from the cyclotron to work with radio-active sources. He used the traditional counters and emulsions for his alpha, beta, and gamma spectroscopy. Wiedenbeck and his numerous students, on the other hand, pressed forward with extensive use of electronic instrumentation for their nuclear structure studies. They undertook coincidence measurements and correlation studies, and they did extensive work on the design and construction of double focusing beta spectrometers.
Direction of the cyclotron project in the postwar years passed from Crane to Wiedenbeck and then, in 1949, to Parkinson. Parkinson and Lennox obtained an Atomic Energy Commission contract to support the Michigan instrument for high-resolution nuclear-structure investigations in a range of energy that was somewhat beyond what Van de Graaff accelerators could reach at that time. This cyclotron remained active with AEC support in the first basement of Randall Laboratory until 1961 when it was moved to the North Campus for a brief period of use as an adjunct to the new, 83" instrument.
Page 194In the mid-1940s H. R. Crane, who had much experience with linear accelerators, devised the concept of a cyclic accelerator that had some portions of the particle path being straight, much like the racetrack at a fairground. The advantage of this over a purely circular or spiral trajectory is that the straight line portions are ideal for the insertion of targets, counters, and other instrumentation that are essential for experiments with the accelerated particles. With the assurance provided by detailed orbit stability calculations done by Dennison and T. Berlin, the massive task of constructing a 200 MeV electron synchrotron was undertaken by Crane and his associates in 1946. Beam was obtained in 1950 and a number of high-energy electron-scattering experiments were carried out. The work had been done with a modest budget by faculty and students who also had classroom responsibilities to meet. Meanwhile, the advantages of the synchrotron concept had been widely recognized and a number of other institutions rapidly constructed their own synchrotrons, often with a generously supported staff of full-time engineers and technicians. Thus the Michigan synchrotron did not remain competitive and the project wound down in the mid-1950s.
Another useful by-product of the synchrotron was that the 600 keV electron injector was available for some Mott scattering experiments that Crane had wanted to do for some time. He proposed that the electron injector be used for a thesis experiment on the polarization that should arise from double scattering. For this it seemed advantageous to confine the electron beam between scatterers with the use of a solenoidal magnetic field, and from their intuitive analysis of the electron behavior in that field they concluded that the electron's magnetic moment would precess in a controlled way and that they could even measure the magnetic moment of the free electron. This was confirmed by the experiment of Louisell, Pidd, and Crane in 1953 and put on a solid theoretical basis by Mendlowitz and Case. The reports of these results at the spring meeting of the American Physical Society aroused much controversy because they contradicted a long and widely-held belief that experiments of this sort were impossible in principle. This experiment, however, and its later refinements are now considered a cornerstone of modern quantum electrodynamics.
Page 195The number of faculty working actively in infrared spectroscopy was somewhat diminished after the war. Barker had become department chairman and was managing a rapidly-changing department with a minimum of administrative assistance. Randall, who had retired in 1941, had shifted his attention to biophysics. So for a few years Dennison not only did theory but also directed experimental research in the infrared. The number of infrared experimentalists increased when Lincoln Smith came on the faculty for the years 1946-49 and when C. Wilbur Peters arrived in 1948. Among the research pursued was a generalization of the hindered-motion problem that Dennison, Uhlenbeck, Cleeton, and Williams had attacked with the first application of microwave spectroscopy in their study of NH3 in the early 1930s.
A major impetus to molecular spectroscopy within the department came with the arrival of G.B.B.M. Sutherland in 1949 who quickly built up a large and active group. Their work encompassed studies of relatively simple molecules, including applications of industrial interest; the work also extended to studies of more complicated molecules of biophysical importance. Ernst Katz joined the faculty in 1946 to do experimental work in solid state, particularly studies of reciprocity failure in emulsions and of motion of charge carriers in solids.
Work in atomic spectroscopy was carried on by Ralph Wolfe and Wallace McCormick. Wolfe and his associates had a long-standing interest in industrial applications of atomic spectroscopy. McCormick, who had been a student of Ralph Sawyer's, continued the program of work in ultraviolet spectroscopy. Sawyer, a mainstay of Michigan spectroscopy for many years was at that time (1946) the civilian technical director of the Bikini atomic weapons test. He returned to the University to be Dean of the Graduate School and, later, Vice-President of the University. He also served as chairman of the governing board of the American Institute of Physics from 1959 to 1971.
Otto Laporte, distinguished for his contributions to the theory of spectra, turned to shock-tube research in the early 1950s. His students constructed a series of instruments with which they studied shocks in gases over a temperature range of 80°K to 800°K; the interpretations and theoretical Page 196conclusions that Laporte drew from this work were widely recognized.
The Evolution of Theoretical Physics. George Uhlenbeck, David Dennison, and Otto Laporte were the major figures in theoretical physics at Michigan in the postwar period. Uhlenbeck continued to work on problems in statistical physics, on gamma-gamma correlations in nuclear decay, and on selected aspects of field theory. Dennison continued his work on the theory of molecular structure while branching out to do some nuclear theory and an important series of calculations on particle trajectories in accelerators. Kenneth Case, who joined the department in 1950, had an interest in the more formal aspects of particle theory and did extensive work in mathematical physics.
In the period 1954-62 there were a number of theorists brought on the faculty: J. Luttinger came in 1954 for a three-year period during which time he worked on condensed matter theory, K. T. Hecht in molecular theory but who was later to shift his interests to nuclear physics. Noah Sherman returned as a faculty member in 1957 to do work on electron scattering and on nuclear theory. G. W. Ford worked in statistical physics, in condensed matter physics, and in the theory of the g-2 experiments. R. R. Lewis did an important series of papers on the tests of symmetry, particularly in the weak interaction; he also contributed in a major way to the discovery of level-crossing spectroscopy. Herbert Uberall specialized in high energy electron scattering theory. Peter Fontana worked on the theory of interatomic forces and on the interaction of resonance radiation with atoms. Paul Phillipson did work on molecular theory during 1960-62. A. C. T. Wu, who came in 1962, worked principally in the formal aspects of field theory and in mathematical physics. The research done by these theorists covered a broad spectrum and the work tended to be done in a fairly individual manner; programmatic research and extended collaborations were not common.
In 1964, however, Marc Ross came as a senior high energy theorist from Indiana, and this was followed in short order by the hiring of a number of younger high energy theorists. Their research was characterized by frequent collaborations and by a highly competitive climate in which preprints were Page 197the usual way of disseminating results and in which telephone contact with experimenters at the national laboratories was essential. The work of this group of theorists included the development of phenomenological Regge/adsorption models that proved quite useful for the classification and prediction of experimental results in strong interaction physics. Their work also included detailed calculations in quantum electrodynamics, theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions, and developments in field theories.
The Bubble Chamber. Important to the progress in high energy physics are the advances in particle-detector technology. The best known example is the bubble chamber that was developed by Donald Glaser with the aid of Phoenix funding in the early 1950s and for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1960. Glaser had come to Michigan to work in the general area of nuclear/particle physics; he, along with many others, was keenly aware of the limitations of cloud chambers, nuclear emulsions, and gas-filled counters that were the conventional detectors of that time. He then thought of using a superheated liquid as a target so that bubbles could form around ionization centers. After his theoretical analysis of bubble formation had given encouraging results, he began experiments with small glass bulbs that were filled with liquid ether. The results achieved with these in 1952 encouraged Glaser and his colleagues to construct metal chambers with glass windows from which truly useful photographs could be obtained.
The first bubble chambers were small, only several inches across, and used a variety of liquids for bubble formation. Liquid hydrogen would have been a first choice because protons are the ideal target nucleus, but hydrogen bubble chambers of a useful size are so complicated and dangerous that their construction has usually been left to the national laboratories. All the bubble chambers built at Michigan have used heavy liquids: the first chamber to yield real physics used propane. Glaser and his colleagues subsequently constructed a bubble chamber that used 20 liters (more than $200,000 worth!) of liquid Xenon. And in 1960-64 the group headed by Sinclair, Roe, and Vander Velde constructed a 40-inch chamber that used freon as the working liquid; the design and construction was done at Randall and at an assembly area in a hanger at the Willow Run Airport. During the Page 198construction time, the group kept active in research physics by becoming users of bubble chambers already in place at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. In 1964 the freon chamber was moved to its destination at the Argonne Zero Gradient Proton Synchrotron where it was used until 1971.
High Energy Physics. The bubble chamber was the most productive particle detector of the 1955-65 decade but it had the limitation that each of the photographs taken had to be scanned individually for events of interest; each event then required painstaking measurement. Since a single experiment could require the scanning of hundreds of thousands of photographs, there was an obvious need for automation in the scanning process. Rooms on the third and fourth floors of Randall were given over to the scanning machines. Considerable work was done toward the construction of completely automated scan-and-measure systems that would not require a human observer, but these were not available until rather late in the era of the bubble chamber work.
It was recognized from the very beginning that other particle detectors would be of interest, particularly if they could be triggered only in coincidence with several signatures of the event of interest in a given experiment. Perl and Meyer, who had initially been with the bubble chamber effort, turned to the development of alternative detectors. Perl, with Jones, worked on luminescent chambers and image intensifiers. Meyer and his colleagues did work with spark chambers. Initially these detectors had photographic readouts that required scanning and measurement, but the next step was to use wire chambers so that the events could be detected and measured electronically. In this way it was possible to analyze results even while the experiment was in progress. In recent years, developments with spark, streamer, and wire techniques have made it possible to construct large volume detectors with completely electronic readout.
Experiments in high energy physics continued to form a large fraction of the department's effort during the 1970s. The experiments were done at accelerators both in the U.S. and abroad; indeed Michigan groups had participated in many of the first experiments done with the Fermilab accelerator Page 199and they will be among the first users of the colliding beam facility at Stanford. An extensive series of p-p scattering experiments were done at the Argonne ZGS; when the experiments were done with a polarized beam and a polarized target, a surprising spin-dependence of the p-p cross section was found.
Cosmic rays offer the physicist an opportunity to do experiments at energies far higher than are available from accelerators. Such experiments have been carried out since the mid-1940s by Wayne Hazen, briefly in 1948-50 by William Nierenberg, and by Alfred Hendel as a collaborator of Hazen's since 1958. Hazen and Hendel have worked with cloud chambers, spark chambers, nuclear emulsions, and also with directional UHF/VHF antennas to study showers and radio pulses that are associated with the arrival of very energetic primaries. Lawrence Jones did considerable cosmic ray work in the 1960s with one of the findings being a growth in the cross-section for proton interaction with increasing energy.
Nuclear Physics. It had been increasingly evident throughout the 1950s that a new accelerator would be required if the experimental program on nuclear structure were to be continued. A proposal for a new 83" spiral ridge cyclotron, together with the analyzing magnets needed to do high resolution work with 45 MeV protons, was accepted by the Atomic Energy Commission, and the State of Michigan agreed to provide a new building on North Campus. (The building was constructed to house the new cyclotron on one side and the electron synchrotron on the other, but with the phase-out of the synchrotron project it was decided to move the old cyclotron to the new building, a process during which it was upgraded from 42" to 50".) Construction of the 83" cyclotron required about four years, with the first circulating beam being obtained in 1962. The good energy resolution of the instrument permitted detailed studies of elastic, inelastic, and particle transfer reactions with p,d,T, and α projectiles incident on relatively heavy nuclei.
Nuclear research with activated sources continued with increasingly sophisticated instrumentation. Ever larger multichannel analyzers and higher resolution particle detectors were used for the nuclear spectroscopy program. In 1962 a Page 200high precision bent crystal gamma ray spectrometer was an important addition to their facilities. The nuclear spectroscopy work continued for a number of years during which time investigations with correlation methods and precision energy determinations were used to elucidate the decay schemes of medium mass radioactive nuclei.
In the 1970s, it became a matter of national science policy to concentrate the resources for medium energy nuclear physics in a few regional facilities, much as had been done in high-energy physics two decades previously. Federal funding of the nuclear laboratories at dozens of universities, including Michigan, was sharply curtailed. The result was the phase-out in the mid-1970s of the cyclotron facility on North Campus and also of the nuclear spectroscopy laboratory that had been on the 6th floor of the Dennison building. The nuclear experimentalists from Michigan then became users of more distant accelerators, again following the high energy example. A laboratory for radiocarbon dating was run by Crane from 1953 until 1972 in which hundreds of samples were run.
g-factor. It was clear from the results of the first electron g-factor experiment in 1953 that substantially better results could be obtained. Crane and Pidd together with students Schupp and Wilkinson made the refinements necessary to get a g-factor result that was of major importance to the theorists. Then in the early 1960s Rich measured the g-factor of the positron for his dissertation. In 1965 Crane was chosen to be the new department chairman, and Rich was named to the faculty and gradually assumed leadership of the group. Gilleland did an improved version of the positron experiment, and Wesley did a fourth generation electron experiment to achieve 3 parts per million precision for the measurement. Rich and his students then moved with their expertise in positon/positronium physics to do a test for TCP invariance, a redetermination of the lifetime of positronium, and other experiments with polarized positrons.
Astrophysics/Geophysics. Research related to astrophysical problems has been carried out by many members of the department, but often concurrently with the pursuit of Page 201other problems. Sander has done work on the theory of neutron stars, and Rich and Williams have done measurements on the circular polarization of radiation from white dwarfs. Crane devoted considerable time in the years after his chairmanship to laboratory experiments on geomagnetism, and Meyer worked on the application of counter physics methods to geophysical questions. It was with the arrival of Dennis Hegyi in the mid-70s, however, that the department had a faculty member with a principal commitment to experimental/observational astrophysics; Hegyi's research is on the distribution of mass in galactic halos.
Low Energy Physics. In the years following 1955, many of the physicists working in the three basements of Randall laboratory began an affiliation in what became known as the "resonance group." The affiliation arose from the circumstance of adjacent laboratory space and a common research interest in atomic, molecular, and condensed-matter phenomena that occurred at energies below 50 eV; the affiliation was later formalized by common financial support under a large umbrella contract from the Atomic Energy Commission. Not all of the funding was from the AEC, but there was a strong communal spirit that pervaded the basements at that time.
The resonance group had its origins with Peter Franken and Richard Sands who had come to Michigan, in 1956 and 1957 respectively, from postdoctoral experience at Stanford. Franken had been involved in cyclotron resonance studies of the proton and Sands had been doing EPR work and this work continued, but they initiated a new, common effort on the interaction of light with dilute atomic vapors that led to studies of spin exchange, optical pumping, and to the discovery and application of the level crossing method of fine structure spectroscopy; they hosted an international conference on optical pumping in 1959.
When lasers became available in the early 1960s, a collaboration from the resonance group published the first report of the generation of optical harmonics. Franken undertook a number of other experiments, including tests of the absolute neutrality of un-ionized matter and a search for fractionally charged particles, tests for the deviation of the electrostatic force laser from pure 1/r2 form, and an attempt to use laser ranging as a detector of clear air turbulence.
Page 202Atomic and molecular beam research was started in the department when Jens Zorn came in 1962 to begin a program for the measurement of molecular hyperfine structure and of atomic polarizability. In 1969, he and his students turned to research in collision physics; they developed the time-of-flight method for determination of electron atom cross sections and for the study of molecular dissociation.
Peters continued the Michigan tradition of high precision infrared spectroscopy of small molecules with the spectrometers in the second and third basements of Randall. He also supervised the operation of the ruling engine until the ruling engine was sold. An interesting and useful result emerged in the mid-1950s when Peters, with H. M. Pollard and B. Hirschowitz of the medical school, wanted to make a coherent fiber optic bundle for use as a gastroscope. The first bundles were made from simple glass fibers and were completely unsatisfactory. Peters then suggested varnishing the individual fibers to reduce the crosstalk and this did give some improvement but the overall result was still inadequate. Curtis, after suggesting that the fibers be drawn with an outer sheath of low index glass, was able to draw composite fibers and form them into a fiber optic bundle that gave a satisfactory image; this is the principle behind almost all coherent fiber optics that are in use today.
W. L. Williams joined the faculty in 1965 and began his research program with excited state lifetime studies and with some experiments on electronic and ionic collisions. When R. T. Robiscoe came for the 1966-69 period, he and Williams embarked on a redetermination of the hydrogen fine structure, a subject that has also been investigated, using level crossing spectroscopy. Williams then began an extended collaboration with R. R. Lewis to search for parityviolating effects in atomic hydrogen.
Work in condensed-matter physics had been done in the pre-1963 resonance group with Sands doing EPR on solids at high pressure and with Weinreich doing experiments on the acousto-electric effect. In 1964, T. Michael Sanders began liquid helium work in the department. From measurements of the photoejection of electrons from bubbles in liquid helium, Sanders was able to deduce the radius and effective potential of the bubble. From measurements of the charge trapped in Page 203the vortex lines in rotating liquid helium, he was able to observe the creation and destruction of quantized vortex lines as the angular velocity of the helium changed. He also worked on surface tension in helium and on the magnetic properties of microcrystals at low temperature. Work on the mobility of charges in liquid helium was done by Springett during his time in the department. Then, in the early 1970s, Michael Bretz and his group started extensive studies of the thermodynamic behaviors of two-dimensional helium films that arise when the gas condenses on a prepared substrate and undergoes phase changes.
Biophysics and Macromolecules. The optical and infrared methods used for biophysical and macromolecular studies in the early postwar years were augmented by x-ray and neutron diffraction, microwave and double resonance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy in the times that followed. In the later '60s and early '70s Samuel Krimm and his colleagues have done both experimental and theoretical studies on vibrations of polypeptides, on chain organization in crystalline polyethylene and in collagen, and on the structure of biopolymers and membranes. The research is done in close collaboration with members of other university departments with facilitation from the Macromolecular Research Institute.
Examination of electron transfer mechanisms in biological processes and general studies of the structure and function of proteins have been pursued by Richard Sands and his colleagues since the late 1950s. This work was innovative in its use of ESR in its early days, and since that time a much broader range of spectroscopies have been brought to bear on the questions of interest: electron-nuclear double resonance, electron-electron double resonance, and Mossbauer techniques have all found application.
Buildings and Shops. The two buildings available to the department after the war were West Physics and Randall Laboratory. In West Physics there were classrooms, a few small workspaces, and the instrument shop. Randall housed everything else including the 43" cyclotron, the synchrotron, and the library. It was clear that more space was required and the state agreed to supply it.
Page 204A large, ten-story building with a long, low extension was then built to house physics classrooms, laboratories for teaching and research, faculty offices, and the entire astronomy department. The Physics/Astronomy Library, a colloquium room, and two large lecture halls occupied the low portion of the building. It was completed in 1962-63 and provided considerable relief from the earlier space constraints. At about the same time, the North Campus cyclotron building was also nearing completion and most of the nuclear research facilities, including the 43" cyclotron, moved to the North Campus; this opened up still more space in Randall.
With the opening of the new buildings, physics was obligated to turn West Physics over to the psychologists; the main complication was the transfer of the instrument shop to the first basement of Randall, a move that required extensive renovation of that basement.
The glassblower Guenther Kessler and the shop foreman Hermann Roemer retired in the early 1960s; August Wagner then became foreman of the instrument shop for four years before his own retirement. All three of them had been recruited abroad in the mid-1920s and were an integral part of the Michigan physics tradition.
West Physics burned to the ground in a spectacular fire about one year after the physics department had moved out.
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
From its modest beginning in 1910 the Department of Political Science has experienced a steady growth in its curriculum, range of interests, teaching staff, student patronage, and its ties with other units of the University whose concern with fields of study and research have relevance to political matters. Since 1910, nine individuals have presided over the department as chairmen: Joseph R. Hayden, 1937-44; Everett S. Brown, 1944-47, who also served as acting Chairman from 1942-44 during the absence of Professor Hayden; James K. Pollock, 1947-61; Arthur W. Bromage, 1961-64; Samuel J. Eldersveld, 1964-70; Donald G. Stokes, Page 2051970-71; Harold K. Jacobson, 1972-77; and Samuel H. Barnes, 1977 — .
Curricular offerings have expanded from the five listed in the 1910 University catalogue to some 248 course offerings by 1978-79. Expansion of the department's course programs has been the result primarily of three factors: (1) response to demands for training and research in the constantly widening areas of governmental policy-making and administration; (2) changes in the approach, emphases, and methodology in the range of subject matters with which political science is concerned; and (3) recognition of the department's role as an important element in advancing the University's basic function of preparing its students for active and informed participation in public affairs.
The impact of the first of these factors began to be felt as early as 1913 when the department, responding to a need for specialized training and research service in local government, established a master's degree program in Municipal Administration under the direction of Professor Robert T. Crane. The next year a Bureau of Reference and Research in Government, later re-named the Bureau of Government, was established as a center for carrying on research and service functions in this field. In 1937 the program was reorganized and given a broader focus by the creation of the Institute for Public Administration, under the direction of Professor George C. S. Benson of this department, with a master's in Public Administration as its degree objective. In 1967-68, reflecting a further shift of focus, the Institute was re-named the Institute for Public Policy Studies, with a two-year study and in-service training program terminating in the M.P.P.S. degree. Recently it initiated a Ph.D. program as well. Professor John P. Crecine, of this department, was the Institute's first Director; and it has been headed in recent years by Professor Jack L. Walker of the Department of Political Science. Nine members of the department's instructional staff presently hold joint appointments in the department and on the Institute's staff.
Probably the most profound impact upon the department's curriculum and approach to the subject-matter field of political science has come through its close relationship with the Institute for Social Research, which was established at Page 206the University in 1946. The Institute's Center for Political Studies, under the direction of Professor Warren E. Miller of this department, includes fifteen members of the department's staff through joint appointments. It now provides research facilities and support for the training of a large proportion of the graduate students of the department. Employing the techniques and methodology of empirical research, rather than the normative, descriptive, and analytical approach characteristic of earlier stages in the development of political science as a field of study, the department's offerings now heavily emphasize political behavior studies. These changes were initiated mainly during the chairmanship of Professor Eldersveld during the 1960s. They reflected developments then becoming prevalent in the political science profession itself; and the adaptations and innovations that have been made in the department's main focus of interest and research have been responsible in a very fundamental way for the high ranking it currently enjoys in the nation.
Reflective of the University's continually broadening range of interests has been the department's participation in the offering of area programs of study as well as others directed toward intensive study of specific aspects of American society. Area programs with which the department is currently associated through course offerings include those connected with centers for studies on Japan, China, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, South and Southeast Asia, Afro-America and Africa, and the Near East and Northern Africa. The department has had a close relationship with the Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, maintained jointly by the University and Wayne State University. Programs of a specialized nature in which the department's staff have played prominent roles in recent years have included, among others, the Flint Metropolitan Area research program, the Detroit Area Survey, the Center for Conflict Resolution, and an interdepartmental Ph.D. program in Mass Communications.
The department's current personnel is made up of 27 Professors, 11 Associate Professors, 10 Assistant Professors, and 5 Lecturers and/or Instructors, as well as several additional visiting scholars. Since 1977 former President of the United States Gerald R. Ford, who holds the title of Page 207Adjunct Professor, has appeared on the campus on several occasions under the auspices of the department to conduct seminars and offer lectures on topics connected with national political affairs. Over the years a considerable number of other individuals of distinction in political science in this country and from abroad have been members of the staff as visiting scholars. Individual members of the department's staff have made contributions to the profession of political science in many important ways. Following a tradition of long standing, numerous members of the staff have served the national, state, and local governments in a variety of posts and capacities during their tenure in the department.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Since the turn of the century the Psychology Department had been dominated by two men: Walter B. Pillsbury and John F. Shepard. Under Pillsbury's chairmanship the department grew to a staff of eight and established a local reputation as an excellent teaching department with a research emphasis in experimental psychology.
Pillsbury reached the age of retirement in 1942 and it was decided to select a new chairman from outside the department. In the spring of 1945, Donald G. Marquis, then chairman of the Yale University department, accepted the chairmanship. During the war years, Marquis had been in charge of psychological personnel in the national mobilization. In the twelve years of his chairmanship (1945-57) the department's national reputation increased to the point where it was consistently rated one of the top three departments in the country, a position it has continued to maintain. Between 1945 and 1950 the staff increased from eight to forty persons. Some of this growth was due to the need to handle the postwar student increase. In comparison to the last prewar year, by 1950 the University population had increased 72 percent, the number of psychology graduate students, 200 percent, and the departmental staff 400 percent.
Page 208The department began to take on an interdisciplinary character through the extensive use of joint appointments. The number of staff members for whom the department assumed only partial or no salary responsibility increased dramatically. By 1950 only 13 of the 40 persons listed on the department roster drew full salary from its budget.
Psychological activities were recognized wherever they were found in the University. Joint appointments were set up with the School of Education (W. Olson), Sociology (T. Newcomb), the Psychological Clinic (W. Donahue, D. Miller), Bureau of Psychological Services (C. Coombs) and the Counseling Bureau (E. Bordin).
In addition self-financing institutes were invited to move to Ann Arbor to form an association with the University and the department. By 1948 the Survey Research Center and the Institute for Group Dynamics were already established on campus with over two dozen staff members completely supported from proceeds derived from outside contracts, grants, and services. The next year the two units joined in a single administration to form the Institute for Social Research. During the late 1950s and 1960s new units such as the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge and the Center for Political Studies were established within the Institute making it an outstanding center of theoretical and applied social science. The Mental Health Research Institute and the Vision Research Laboratory were other units which Marquis helped to establish at the University.
This "open door" policy toward joint appointments was not a mere courtesy move. These staff members have been encouraged to participate fully in departmental activities. They teach courses, chair and serve on doctoral committees, and help execute programs of instruction and research. As of 1970, the department held joint appointments with at least twenty-five other University units, offered joint or cross-listed courses with five other departments, and participated in at least five joint programs.
The distinction that Michigan enjoys in the area of social psychology can be attributed in large measure to the cooperative efforts of the department with other University Page 209institutes and departments. In the late 1940s the Joint Program in Social Psychology was established with the Department of Sociology. Each department contributed resources to the program which was administered by a joint committee from both departments. Under the distinguished leadership of Theodore Newcomb and Daniel Katz the program became a national model for the effectiveness of interdisciplinary efforts. In the almost twenty years of its existence the Joint Program in Social Psychology produced around 150 Ph.D.s. Every year numerous foreign scholars, attracted by the cooperative efforts of the two departments and by the associated research institutes come to Michigan to work.
By 1968, however, the administrative difficulties encountered by the joint committee became too complex for the separate departments to resolve and the cooperative program was discontinued. Each department, however, continued to offer separate work in social psychology jointly utilizing each other's courses.
Undergraduate instruction was also uniquely addressed. A coordinator of the introductory course was established to supervise the graduate students who led the discussion sections. The group met weekly to discuss problems of teaching. These seminars on teaching became an effective training ground for the preparation of college teachers. It has been widely copied at many other institutions.
Similarly Marquis supported efforts to improve the total undergraduate curriculum. When Dael Wolfle, Executive Officer of the American Psychological Association, persuaded the Grant Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation to fund a study of undergraduate instruction in psychology in 1951, Marquis accepted and administered the grants. The University of Michigan was the first university to put the recommendations of the resulting study group into effect. A similar study group met at the University of Michigan in 1961 and Michigan faculty members carried out a national survey for the American Psychological Association in 1970.
A senior honors program was established in 1950-51 to enhance the educational opportunity of the most gifted concentrates. Approximately 10 percent of concentrates were selected to participate in a two-semester seminar concerned Page 210with major works while each student pursued an empirical research project individually under close faculty tutelage and then presented a written report in the form of an honors thesis to justify the citation "Honors in Psychology" on the degree. The honors program provided a model for independent study, an opportunity now extended to many non-honors concentrates.
The enthusiasm of this new program, joined with that from a few other departments, English in particular, was expressed in the establishment of several L.S.&A. committees: Honors Citations (1952), Honors Programs (1953), and Curricular Flexibility for Superior Students (1955). The report of the Committee on Honors Programs, under the chairmanship of Atkinson (1954-55), surveyed the state of honors programs in the College and became the focal point of a strong wave of interest to extend this kind of program beyond the 36 percent of departments already having some form of special opportunity for superior talent. This particular committee gave birth to the concept of an honors college within the College which eventually came about with the establishment of the Honors Council and the College Honors Program. That followed a subsequent (1956) report of the Committee on Curricular Flexibility for Superior Students, also chaired by a psychologist, E. Lowell Kelly.
Marquis resigned in 1957. In his twelve years at Michigan the curriculum had been modernized, the staff had increased in numbers and distinction, and its productivity was nationally known. The number of Ph.D.s produced by the department (in five year intervals) had increased from 18 (1941-45), to 37 (1946-50), 129 (1951-55), 120 (1956-60) respectively.
E. Lowell Kelly became acting chairman in 1957 and continued as chairman from 1958 until 1962. Under a new organizational plan the staff was organized into interest areas under the direction of a number of area coordinators. These divisions were: Experimental (including engineering psychology), Clinical, Physiological, Mathematical, Personality and Developmental, Industrial, and General. The activities of the subdisciplines were regulated centrally through the Departmental Office of Graduate Studies.
Page 211A vital aspect of this plan was the opportunity it provided for students and faculty having similar interests to organize their activities in a more effective and intimate manner. This means of organizing curriculum and faculty responsibility allowed the program to expand without suffering the worst features of size — impersonality and a breakdown of student-staff communication.
Wilbert J. McKeachie became acting chairman in 1961 and chairman in 1962 and remained in that position through 1971. The consolidation of the earlier gains had been accomplished and now there were new opportunities requiring expansion. During this period the staff (now including a limited number of advanced graduate student "Associates") increased from 90 to a peak of almost 200.
Michigan was by now well known as being outstanding in clinical and social psychology, but excellence in experimental psychology had not yet been achieved. Staff additions were brought in to help build this area, and the clinical area was strengthened by establishing cordial relations and joint appointments with the Department of Psychiatry to provide new opportunities for the training of clinical psychology interns.
The department pioneered programs in social psychology, mathematical psychology, and clinical psychology. During the sixties, the department continued to produce outstanding students in these fields and built upon the foundation laid down by Marquis and Kelly in human information processing, brain and behavior, organizational psychology, and school psychology. In addition, new graduate programs were inaugurated in developmental psychology, community psychology, and psycholinguistics. The Ph.D. production remained high; 142 between 1961 and 1965, and 148 between 1966 and 1970.
A novel undergraduate development was the Outreach Project which was started by Richard Mann in the mid-sixties in the response to student's demands for relevance in their education. This program offered students the opportunity to do volunteer work in a variety of community human-service facilities. During this period it was not unusual for as many as two-thirds of the students in the introductory course to enroll in the Outreach Project.
Page 212McKeachie was succeeded in the chairmanship by J. E. Keith Smith.
DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
Since 1940, the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures has continued to offer undergraduate and graduate instruction in the languages, literatures and civilizations of France, Spain, Latin America, Italy, and Portugal, with occasional courses in such fields as Rumanian, Catalan, Francophone areas outside of France, etc. The principal additions to the departmental offerings since 1940 have been the emergence of a section for Romance Linguistics and the building up of the programs in Portuguese and in Italian.
Since 1933, the department had been directed by a chairman, advised by an Executive Committee. When Hayward Keniston became chairman in 1940 a major change in the department administration was effected: an elected Executive Committee of four members was constituted. It had two members from the French-Italian side and two from Spanish-Portuguese. One member was elected each year for a four-year term. On Keniston's appointment to the deanship of the College in 1945, Irving A. Leonard assumed the chairmanship. During his term of office, the administrative duties of the department were formally shared with an Associate Chairman for French: Warner Patterson held this appointment from 1945 to his death in 1948; Paul Spurlin filled the post from 1949 to 1951. When Leonard was succeeded as chairman by Charles N. Staubach, it was decided to supplement the Executive Committee by creating a Senior Advisory Council consisting of all the full professors ex officio. This Council was to advise the chair on matters concerning the appointment, retention, promotion, and salary of all members of the regular faculty. These two committees, and the Graduate Committee, were the agencies which, with the Chairman, effectively ran the department. When James C. O'Neill assumed the direction of the department (as Acting Chairman 1959-60, Chairman 1960-73) he urged his colleagues to consider merging the Executive Committee and the Senior Advisory Council Page 213into one effective committee to advise the chair, but they preferred to retain the operating arrangement, and it was continued. When O'Neill resigned the chairmanship in 1973, Frank Casa was appointed chairman.
The department offers instruction at all levels in the French, Italian, Portuguese, Provencal, and Spanish languages and literatures, and in Romance Linguistics. This was already an extensive enterprise in 1940, and its dimensions have increased impressively since then. In 1940, the department had a regular staff of 33 faculty members who taught a total of 205 separate classes during the academic year (Summer Session programs are not included in statistics here or later). In 1975, there were again 33 full-time members in an instructional staff which was teaching 429 separate classes. These years — 1940-1975 — witnessed the invention and then the enormous expansion of a new teaching rank, the Teaching Fellow or part-time graduate assistant. In 1940, there were no classes taught by Teaching Fellows. In 1975, 266 classes were in their charge.
In 1940, the department was still quartered in the Romance Languages Building where it had been since 1928. The first language laboratory, however, was in the South Wing of University Hall. New quarters were allotted to the department in 1959 in the newly-acquired Frieze Building. A language laboratory founded by the department and made available to other language departments had been moved to Mason Hall. In 1971, the present Modern Languages Building was at last completed and the department moved to its present quarters on the fourth floor.
Undergraduate enrollments in the department are largely a function of the foreign-language requirement for various degrees in the College, and of the recommendations for language competence made by the several preprofessional programs. Since the College has maintained a basic requirement of fourth-semester foreign-language competence or the equivalent for the B.A. degree, a large commitment to elementary and secondary language instruction continues to be one of the major responsibilities of the department.
With the beginning of the war, special language training courses were designed in all sections of the department Page 214for students who were soon to enter military service. From 1941 to 1945 such courses were offered in the regular year in French, Spanish, and Italian. Faculty members also lectured on foreign civilizations and gave language training courses in military installations away from Ann Arbor. Then in the summer of 1942 the department furnished staff for both language and area studies in the Civil Affairs Specialist Training Program (CATP) and subsequently also for the Army Specialist Training Program (ASTP) in languages. After the end of hostilities, a special program was set up in the University for the training of field officers from the various military services for possible postwar assignments in Latin America. It had two parts, one an interdisciplinary course in the culture and society of Latin-America, the other an intensive language program in Portuguese and Spanish.
A project worthy of special mention is the department's part in the Foreign Language in the Elementary School program (FLES). When the national enthusiasm for FLES began to emerge, the department organized special FLES training programs in the summer sessions, in which teachers from elementary schools learned the techniques of teaching French or Spanish to students at that level. These programs began in the summer of 1956 and continued for many years with nationally recognized success. The department was also a major participant in one of the pioneer Institutes supported by the National Defense Education Act (NDEA). The Institute at Michigan in the summer of 1959 was one of four held in the nation, the forerunners of many NDEA language institutes to come in the years to follow. It offered special remedial training in French, Spanish, Russian and German to a group of 100 high school language teachers and superintendents chosen in a nation-wide selection.
The department has also been a major supporter of and contributor to several collegiate programs of note. It was represented on the college committee which first devised the Great Books courses for freshmen in 1945, and faculty members from Romance Languages have consistently figured among the teachers in these courses. The departmental faculty has also played an important role in the program in Comparative Literature, with staff members serving on the directing committee and faculty of the program, as well as filling the posts of Director or Associate Director at various Page 215times. When the Residential College was created in 1967, members of the department were instrumental in the early planning of the curriculum, particularly in connection with a novel scheme for integrating foreign language into the programs. The department has supplied the necessary junior teaching staff in French, Spanish, and Italian, and its professors frequently offer courses and seminars in the core curriculum.
The French language and literature have been taught in the College since at least 1848. By 1940, the regular French staff numbered 16 persons who offered a total of 118 classes during the academic year. Since that time, the number of full-time teachers has not varied as greatly as one might expect, because the increasing need for instruction was in large part being met at the level of basic and intermediate language teaching by the employment of a greater number of Teaching Fellows. The peak of student enrollment in French was in 1965 when 305 classes were taught.
The French section offers instruction in the use of French at all levels, in the methods of teaching French, in French civilization and history, and in French literature of all periods. The methods used have followed the development of new approaches in applied linguistics and pedagogy, but the objectives have remained the same.
From the early years of this century, training in the active use of correct French had been provided both in courses and through extracurricular activities. The production of an annual French play performed by students began in 1907 and continued uninterruptedly, except in wartime, for some fifty years.
The range of extracurricular activities in support of language learning in the department has slowly declined over the last few decades. In 1940, the French section had a very active Cercle Francais supported both by town and gown. It met twice monthly, sponsored and usually staffed the annual play (frequently underwriting the publication of a special edition), and organized an annual series of French lectures given by members of the faculty and distinguished guest speakers. Until the late fifties, there was an attractive Maison Francaise during the Summer Session, located in Page 216one of the large sorority houses, with a resident French directress. The French House which now exists in University housing during the regular year serves a similar purpose but for a smaller and different clientele. On the other hand, courses such as those on French film offered by Professor Roy J. Nelson and the easy access to numerous French films on campus every year now offer a source of practice and enrichment which for many years was nowhere available.
The most significant recent addition to the undergraduate program in French is undoubtedly the provision of opportunities for supervised study abroad. In 1962 a Junior Year Abroad, run jointly by the Universities of Michigan and Wisconsin, was set up at Aix-en-Provence. Every year, 25 students from each university spend an entire academic year enrolled regularly in the Universite de Provence, earning a full academic year's credit in their home university. The two universities alternate in providing a French faculty member to be the Resident Director. In the summer of 1974, a program of intensive study of French at the elementary and intermediate levels was established at La Rochelle. Under the direction of French staff from this department, students do a semester's or a year's work for regular university credit. Some are able to complete the College foreign-language requirement during this intensive seven-week session.
The overall picture of graduate studies in French during these thirty-five years is rather different from that of the undergraduate experience. In the thirties, the department had made an active effort to develop a graduate program equal to that of other major universities, and the French section profited from it immediately.
The French section also offered three special graduate programs. Mention has been made of the FLES programs, which included a section for French, in the Summer Sessions from 1955 to 1961. Between 1952 and 1956, a special six-week program for teachers of high-school French and Spanish was organized under the direction of Professor Benjamin Bart, then supervisor of basic instruction in French. Under the National Defense Education Act, a series of Institutes was organized and directed by Professor Jean Carduner. Four of these NDEA French Institutes were offered, the first two in Ann Arbor Page 217in 1966 and 1967, the second two in France, at Sevres and Cahors in 1968 and 1969. These Institutes were created for a special clientele — teachers of advanced high school courses in French literature and civilization, or supervisors of such programs. Some 150 students took advantage of this opportunity to upgrade their professional skills.
Between 1848 and 1940, the department had awarded 110 master's degrees in French and 14 Ph.D.s in Romance Languages and Literatures, with French as the major field. Between 1940 and 1975, 341 master's degrees in French and 84 Ph.D.s in "Romance Languages and Literatures: French" were granted.
Professor Camillo P. Merlino had been the only regular professor of Italian from his appointment in 1930 to his resignation in 1937. After his departure, Vincent A. Scanio was for many years the only full-time staff member of the Italian section. In 1940, ten classes were offered. During the war years, special classes in Italian were provided to various military and civilian programs, and a Conversational Grammar by Professors Scanio and McLaughlin was widely used and received official commendation from the government. As enrollments increased, they were accommodated by the employment of Teaching Fellows and by bringing a series of Visiting Lecturers from Italy to supplement the staff for the upperclass offerings.
By 1970 there were 40 classes taught in Italian. The development of the Romance Linguistics section of the department included the offering of various courses in pre-Italic and Old Italian language, and these courses were available to graduate students in Italian. Since 1940, five master's degrees and one Ph.D. have been granted in Italian.
Before 1948, a few courses in philology were offered in the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures. All of them were ancillary to literary studies, although some courses were required of students in the different languages. Their principal purpose was to provide students with a knowledge of the medieval languages — French, Italian, Provencal or Spanish — so that they could read the literatures of the early periods. In 1949, the Page 218Department of Romance Languages and Literatures instituted its first courses in the field of Romance Linguistics and established a graduate degree program separate from those in literature. In the period 1950-75, 58 master's degrees and 34 doctorates in Romance Linguistics were awarded.
The involvement of Romance Linguistics in elementary language instruction bore valuable fruit also. During World War II linguists had set up a language teaching program for the benefit of civilian administrators, Army and Navy personnel, and prospective members of the occupation forces. It was based on linguistic principles (what was later called Applied Linguistics) and aimed at a practical oral-aural mastery of the language apart from any literary or aesthetic purposes. Under the auspices of the department, a language laboratory was established, and elementary instruction began to show the influence of the postwar trends in language teaching. The existence of a program in Romance Linguistics led eventually to the establishment of an autonomous Romance Linguistics section within the department.
The Spanish section of the department in 1940 counted three tenured faculty members and offered a total of 78 classes during the academic year 1940-41. In addition to the normal basic language instruction, the upperclass and graduate program included a rotation of courses in Cervantes, the theater of the seventeenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the novel of the medieval and Golden Age periods and of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There was one course in Latin-American literature and one in grammar for future teachers.
Staff and course program remained substantially unchanged during the war years. With the end of the war came a major expansion. In 1945, 121 classes were being taught, including nine intermediate literature courses, three for teacher preparation, and eleven graduate courses. A year later, instruction in Portuguese was reintroduced, with basic language courses and two semesters of Portuguese and Brazilian literature. The expansion of the section reflects the greatly increased American interest in Spanish-speaking countries and the development of high school language programs. This is clearly evident in the statistics: by 1960, the section was offering 143 classes in the academic Page 219year, of which 26 were at the advanced undergraduate level, and 17 were graduate courses.
During these years, the Journal Club enjoyed a revival of interest, and Spanish plays were performed annually for the University community as well as for large numbers of high school students and their teachers throughout the state who came to Ann Arbor for the performances and for the Spanish fiesta which often accompanied them. It was in general a stimulating time for Spanish staff and students.
The decade of the sixties was a period of intense activity both in teaching and in scholarship, as the Spanish section sought to handle the problems created by a swollen student population. 167 classes were taught in 1965 and 174 in 1970. Since 1974, the undergraduate offering has been broadened by a seven-week intensive summer program at Salamanca, for elementary and intermediate language study.
DEPARTMENT OF SLAVIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
Courses in the Russian language and Russian literature, as well as Slavic linguistics, were given between the wars by Professor Clarence L. Meader. Courses in the Polish language and Polish literature were introduced in the 1920s by Professor Tadeusz Mitana. From World War II until 1952 the Department of Russian (as it was then called) was chaired by Lidia Naumovna Pargment, who taught the advanced language and literature courses; teaching fellows were responsible for elementary instruction. In 1947 an interdepartmental M.A. program in Russian Studies was organized to supplement the existing departmental B.A. program in Russian.
The present department officially traces its beginnings to the fall of 1952, when Professor James O. Ferrell was brought here as Chairman of the newly established Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures. Under Ferrell's leadership a graduate faculty was hired and an M.A. program in Slavic Languages and Literatures was inaugurated. In 1957 Professor Deming Brown became Chairman; and in 1958 a Page 220Ph.D. program was instituted. From 1961 to 1971 Professor John Mersereau, Jr., served as chairman. During this "post-Sputnik" period the department expanded rapidly in faculty size, breadth of curriculum, and student enrollments. In the early 1960s, when the University was designated a Slavic Language and Area Center under the National Defense Education Act, generous infusions of federal funding were provided in the form of National Defense Foreign Language fellowships and direct salary support for department faculty. By the end of that decade, when federal funding had decreased significantly, the department had achieved its present status and had established itself as one of the leading Ph.D. programs in the field.
The department maintains a vigorous program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Emphasis is placed on Russian language and literature at both levels, but the department is Slavic in the broad sense, offering training in the principal non-Russian Slavic Languages (Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, and Ukrainian) as well as in the literature and folklore of those traditions; and in Slavic linguistics. The department works with other departments and programs at the University, and has especially close ties with the Program in Comparative Literature; it plays a leading role in the Center for Russian and East European Studies, cooperating extensively in both instructional and research activities with the faculty associates from a wide range of departments who form the nucleus of the Center.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
The year 1940 saw the premature death of Roderick D. McKenzie, the first chairman of a department that had become independent in 1930 after 36 years of sociological instruction under the wing of the Economics Department. Dr. Robert C. Angell succeeded as chairman. Under the shadow and reality of World War II the department operated at a reduced level until 1945-46. For 25 years thereafter the department enjoyed increased enrollments at both undergraduate and graduate Page 221levels, growing numbers of concentrating juniors and seniors — from about 65 to more than 200 in the early seventies.
Despite great expansion, the undergraduate program was carried on in much the same way and at much the same level of quality as it had been before 1940. There were, of course, shifts in the balance among substantive fields, most notably the introduction of social anthropology and greater emphasis on social psychology and methods of research.
At the graduate level, changes were much more marked. Fewer entering students were expecting to leave the University after receiving an M.A. After 1960 none were admitted who were not pursuing the Ph.D. Whereas before 1940 graduate students needing support had to become teaching assistants or find nonacademic work, after World War II many were supported by the G.I. Bill or won fellowships provided by such organizations as the Ford Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health.
The surge in graduate work was greatly furthered by the creation of new units, both within and without the department. The first such development was the coming in 1946 of a research team from the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics to form the Survey Research Center under the leadership of Dr. Rensis Likert. The members of this group were principally social psychologists. Several of them were appointed to part-time teaching positions in the Sociology and Psychology departments. Two years later four M.I.T. professors were brought to this campus to form the Research Center for Group Dynamics. The Institute of Social Research was then created to include the two centers, with Dr. Likert as Director.
The addition to the faculty of a number of distinguished social psychologists suggested the creation of a doctoral program in social psychology jointly supported and administrated by the Sociology and Psychology departments. Such a program was approved by the Graduate School in 1947. Dr. Theodore Newcomb, a member of both departments, was selected as the Program's director. Staff members were recruited as teachers from both departments. This innovation was an immediate success. Because admission to the Program required a year's successful graduate work in either of the departments, the students were doubly screened. The number of Page 222admissions per year rose from 12 at the beginning to 20 in the middle fifties. The Program was phased out, however, after 20 years because of difference in educational philosophy between the two departments.
In 1951 the department approved the proposal of Dr. Angus Campbell, then head of the Survey Research Center, and Dr. Ronald Freedman to set up the Detroit Area Study. This is a practicum for first-year graduate students. Typically each year a professor is authorized to conduct a sample survey on a subject bearing on his professional interest, for which interview data would be fruitful. The students in the class receive training by participating in the planning of the interview schedule, taking interviews, coding the resulting schedules for machine analysis, and writing individual reports on some aspect of the investigation.
Dr. Amos H. Hawley was appointed chairman in 1952 and served until 1961. Striking progress continued in research activity. On the initiative of the School of Social Work and with the support of the Russell Sage Foundation, a new doctoral program was established in 1956, the Joint Program in Social Work and Social Science under the direction of Dr. Henry Meyer. The first candidates were admitted in the fall of 1957. This program was the first of its kind and has proved successful in producing broadly-trained workers for the field of social welfare. Through 1975, some 80 of the Ph.D.s awarded were in Social Work and Sociology.
The Center for Research in Social Organization was established within the department in 1960. For ten years the main fields of graduate specialization had been social organization, social psychology, and human ecology and population. Social organization was the most diffuse concept of the three and it was felt that students in that general area needed a focus for their efforts and a place where they could work on research projects.
In 1961 Guy E. Swanson took over as chairman of the department, serving until 1964. He was followed by Albert E. Reiss, 1964-70, and Howard Schuman in 1970-74.
The period 1961-75 began with the establishment of the Population Studies Center. This was a natural development Page 223of three circumstances: the growing interest in demography because of the population explosion, the grants that were coming to departmental members from the Population Council and the Rockefeller Foundation for studies in fertility, and the need for a workplace for the graduate students, including many foreign nationals, who were enrolling. The most distinctive feature of the Center has been its long active and productive relation with institutions in Taiwan, where a sharp reduction in fertility has been achieved. Members of the staff have also had extensive consultations on lowering birth rates with agencies in other developing countries (e.g., Malaysia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, and Mexico), and with governmental and international organizations.
The Center has also conducted significant studies of population distribution and redistribution in the United States, especially as they relate to racial segregation.
The presence of the Institute of Social Research and the Population Studies Center outside the department but with participating professors in them, and the Center for Research in Social Organization within the department has facilitated the obtaining of professorial research grants.
DEPARTMENT OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION AND THEATER
By 1940 the speech and theater program had been in existence at the University of Michigan for almost fifty years. Established in 1892 by Professor Thomas Trueblood, it was one of the first programs of its type in the country. In those beginning days the emphasis was on public speaking and oral reading, but as the years went by courses in other subjects were gradually added until in 1940 there were six well-defined areas of study in the department: rhetoric and public address, theater, oral interpretation, speech pathology, radio broadcasting, and speech pedagogy.
The department maintained its activities through the period of World War II although on a somewhat restricted basis. With the end of the war in 1945, a new period of Page 224growth began. Courses in television were added to the radio broadcasting curriculum and the establishment of the TV center made new facilities available for advanced laboratory work by students. As the 1960s began some instruction in film techniques was made a part of certain TV courses and in 1965 the first of several courses dealing exclusively with film was added to the curriculum. The master's program in radio-television-film offered professional training that qualified many students for positions in broadcasting and film organizations and the Ph.D. program prepared people for research and teaching in a field that was expanding rapidly in educational institutions throughout the country.
There were a number of significant developments in the theater field during this period. One was the expansion of faculty and courses in the area of technical theater, a trend that culminated in the early 1970s with the establishment of a Master of Fine Arts degree in theater design.
Another development was the expansion of opportunities for students, particularly those in the Graduate School, to direct and design theater productions. The number of one-act plays produced each year was increased and the Showcase series of four full-length plays a year, directed and designed by students, was added to the schedule. The introduction of the Summer Repertory program in 1969 also increased the opportunities for student directors and designers.
In 1961 theater at the University of Michigan received a significant boost when the Professional Theater Program was established. Though this program was primarily designed to bring outstanding professional theater to the Ann Arbor community, it was linked to the educational program in a number of ways. Its director became a member of the theater faculty; six fellowships were established for graduate students who were given experience in performing with professional companies; the theater artists who were visitors in Ann Arbor lectured to classes and met with students for informal conversations. In 1973, when the first PTP director retired, the professional and educational theater programs were organized under the same director to achieve better coordination. One result of this step was the establishment of the Guest Artist series which brought a professional actor, director, or designer to Ann Arbor to serve in his Page 225professional capacity in connection with the production of a play and to serve the department additionally as a teacher.
In the 1970s the building of the Power Center for the Performing Arts made another theater available for student productions. The production in 1974 of Shakespeare's Pericles made the theater area one of the few organizations in the country to have produced all of the thirty-seven plays included in the Shakespeare canon.
The speech sciences area of the department in 1940 included a strong speech pathology section which provided teaching and research in the field and a clinical service for University students and residents of the community. The clinic had operated since 1937 under the joint administration of the Speech Department and the Institute for Human Adjustment. In 1947 the audiology section of the program was strengthened through the addition of faculty members and courses and the provision of an audiology service at the Speech Clinic. The speech science area was also expanded with a faculty member in that field and new facilities, including an anechoic chamber. The speech science program separated from the department, however, in the early 1960s and eventually became part of the Department of Computer and Communication Science.
In 1949 the speech pathology and audiology area was expanded when the Kresge Foundation presented the University with the grounds, buildings, and facilities of a summer camp that had been operated on a private basis for a number of years to provide therapy for boys who were stutterers. Under the area's direction, the service was extended to girls and was expanded to include treatment of many other types of problems including hearing loss, aphasia, cerebral palsy, and cleft palate. About 100 boys and girls a year participate in this summer program and it provides resources for a number of research studies each summer. In the late 1950s a program for the treatment of adult aphasia was established. It brought victims of this disorder to the campus where they were residents during the treatment period.
In 1969 the area, then housed in the Victor Vaughn Building in the medical complex of the University, petitioned to become part of the Department of Physical Medicine and Page 226Rehabilitation in the Medical School. The request was granted as of the fall of 1969 and the area continued to offer its undergraduate and graduate programs through the Speech Department.
The area dealing with public address, group discussion, argumentation and related fields (which in the 1970s came to be known as the communications studies area) experienced a growing interest in the behavioral approach to the study of communication. One aspect of this development was that in such subjects as persuasion and group discussion, the emphasis on performance gave way to an emphasis on theory. New types of courses were introduced in the 1970s, among them courses in interpersonal, organizational, and intercultural communication.
In the middle 1960s a Ph.D. in the field of oral interpretation was added to those offered by the department. There was also an increased emphasis on the development of choral reading skills through the addition of courses in readers' and chamber theater.
DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS
The University of Michigan was among the first American universities to offer academic programs in mathematical statistics, but among the last major universities to establish a separate Department of Statistics. The Mathematics Department offered graduate programs in probability and mathematical statistics through the late 1960s and continues presently with programs in probability. The Department of Statistics came into formal existence in the fall of 1969 with William A. Ericson as Acting Chairman and with quarters in Mason Hall. The period of 1969-76 was one of growth and development. The number of active graduate students increased from 5 to 40 and course enrollments virtually doubled. During the period, 13 students earned doctorates in statistics and approximately 50 earned master's degrees. Highly successful courses in applied statistics were introduced, and joint master's degree programs were established with the departments of Economics, Sociology, and Psychology.
Page 227The 1976 year was one of crisis for the department. In 1973-74 the College began an overall evaluation of departments and programs. During early summer 1976 this department was evaluated by a distinguished panel of statisticians: David Blackwell (Berkeley), Herman Chernoff (MIT), and Frederick Mosteller (Harvard). They found the department to be generally healthy and made several specific recommendations. The morale of the faculty was raised considerably when the College endorsed the major recommendations of the Blackwell-Chernoff-Mosteller report. A Statistics Instruction Committee was established in fall of 1976.
On the expiration of W. A. Ericson's second term as chairman in 1977, Michael B. Woodroofe assumed that post.
DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY
In 1940 the senior members of the department were Chairman George R. LaRue (parasitology), A. Franklin Shull (genetics), Peter Okkelberg (embryology) and Paul S. Welch (limnology). A more junior group included Arthur E. Woodhead (parasitology), Frank E. Eggleton (invertebrate zoology), Alfred H. Stockard (vertebrate anatomy), Harry W. Hann (ornithology, and Alvalyn E. Woodward (physiology). Dr. Stockard also served for many years as director of the Biological Station at Douglas Lake. After the war, the influx of veterans swelled enrollment, and additional zoologists were appointed to the department.
In 1949 Professor LaRue resigned as chairman and was replaced by Dugald E. S. Brown, who served until 1965 and was succeeded by John M. Allen (1965-71) and Carl Gans (1971-75). Professor Brown, a physiologist, was charged with maintaining the strength of the department in limnology, genetics, and embryology while strengthening its expertise and curriculum in experimental biology. He also believed that some knowledge of ecology was important not only to zoologists but to all students seeking a liberal education.
Embryology became developmental biology. George W. Nace developed and directed the Amphibian Facility which raises genetically controlled lines of amphibians for zoological Page 228research. Experimental zoology has been an important feature in the department since the beginning of Brown's chairmanship. Most of the faculty in limnology, genetics, and embryology have been experimentalists. Two subdivisions of physiology became distinct enough to require specialists: neurophysiology and endocrinology. Associated with the physiologists and active in departmental affairs was Claire J. Shallabarger (1960-67), who taught radiation biology for the department but drew his salary as Coordinator of Kresge Radioisotope Laboratories in the Medical School. John E. Bardach, of the School of Natural Resources, who studied the physiology of fish, also held a professorial title in zoology from 1956 to 1971.
Chairman Brown also expanded the efforts of the department in cellular biology, a field in which exciting developments were occurring. Ecology beyond the confines of limnology also received emphasis. Its growth stimulated increasing public interest in environmental problems.
The Institute of Human Biology, an independent unit directed for many years by Lee R. Dice, was disbanded as Dice's retirement approached. Of its three main divisions, human genetics was transferred to the Medical School, mouse genetics to the Mammalian Genetics Center of the Department of Zoology, and the ecological research program to the Museum of Zoology. The ecology program became the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, which later lost its separate identity.
The Museum of Zoology and the department had operated as separate units since 1909. Members of the Museum staff taught departmental courses in vertebrate and invertebrate biology, ecology, and evolution and played a major role in the departmental graduate program. Dean Charles E. Odegaard instituted the policy that Museum Curators were to have half-time appointments in the department for the academic year, with the balance of their salary in the Museum.
The curators from the Museum have joined the full-time ecologists in the department in teaching ecology and introductory biology to undergraduates, and they have directed substantial amounts of the doctoral research in zoology. Members from both groups played an important role in developing the Organization for Tropical Studies, a consortium of Page 229which the University is a member. They also contribute to the courses and the research opportunities that the Organization offers in Costa Rica.
Chairman Brown's interest in cellular biology led him to encourage participation of zoology in the interdepartmental concentration program in cellular biology, and to support the establishment of the Biophysics Research Division.
In 1940 the department's space was badly crowded. The Natural Science Building, first occupied in 1915, housed not only the Departments of Zoology, Botany, Geology and Mineralogy but also the School of Natural Resources and part of the Department of Psychology. A few rooms became available when Psychology left the building in 1953. In 1961-63, the Medical School vacated the former West Medical Building, whereupon the School of Natural Resources moved into its present quarters, relinquishing its space in the Natural Sciences Building to the remaining departments. Some of the teaching laboratories in the introductory zoology courses also were moved into the Natural Resources Building.
Even in larger quarters, crowding continued. Teaching laboratories had to be occupied not only throughout the day but also in the evening, and evening sections persisted in 1975. In 1971 space became available after the Medical School vacated the former East Medical Building. Space was released for Geology and Mineralogy and for additional teaching laboratories in the introductory biology courses and in most of the intermediate courses in zoology. The Departments of Zoology and Botany then became the only occupants of the Natural Science Building, which allowed them to expand. Renovating and equipping these new rooms required painstaking supervision, as did the renovation of older space to permit its occupants to do modern research. Members of the department who are curators have always been housed in the Museums Building, and the Mammalian Genetics Center and the Amphibian Facility are also housed outside the Natural Science Building.
The Residential College is a four-year degree-granting liberal arts college within the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts devoted exclusively to undergraduate education. In July 1966, the Planning Committee issued its final report setting forth the rationale and educational objectives of the Residential College along with detailed plans for implementation. In essence, to combat the impersonality and inertial drag of bigness, the planners conceived of a small liberal arts college which would be a living-learning community with common intellectual and cultural experience, a close sense of community, and opportunities for educational innovation. Although the Residential College would have an identity of its own, nevertheless it would remain an integral part of LS&A. In keeping with this main objective, the planners envisioned an undergraduate liberal arts college with a total enrollment of 1,200, with its own campus including a variety of student housing, classrooms, offices, and other facilities, and a core curriculum emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach to learning. It would not be an honors college; rather the students admitted would represent a cross section of the LS&A freshman class in ability, interests, and backgrounds. The faculty would come from a wide variety of LS&A departments and, like the students, be self-selected — those interested in teaching undergraduates in a more intimate environment. The curriculum was designed to provide common intellectual experiences for all RC students. In the first two years, students would take a Freshman Seminar, Language and Logic, a year's sequence in humanities, in social sciences, and intensive foreign language study leading to a useful proficiency. In addition, every student during his undergraduate career had to have some experience in the practice of one of the arts. And, finally, each student would sit for comprehensive examinations at the end of the sophomore year and in the field of his concentration during his senior year. The RC would develop its own concentration programs which would not duplicate existing programs in LS&A. RC students would have the option of selecting a major from the combined offerings of the RC and LS&A.
To foster student responsibility for learning, the planners proposed a variety of class sizes from small seminars to large lectures, independent study, tutorials, frequent formal and informal meetings with faculty, and written Page 231evaluations in lieu of grades. Students, along with faculty, would have partnership in college governance.
Because of the primary emphasis on a living-learning community, the planners expected students to remain residential members of the RC for four years. Since the physical environment was so important to their residential expectation, the planners spent much time and thought on the architectural design and layout of the RC campus which was to be on a fifty-acre tract on the north side of the Huron River.
The Planning Committee had consulted broadly within LS&A with Dean Haber and the College Executive Committee, and with LS&A departments and faculty, with Vice-Presidents Allan Smith and Wilbur Pierpont, and with President Harlan Hatcher. As a consequence of these meetings which gave general support to the RC concept, the University Regents at their June 23, 1966, meeting approved the RC schematic drawings, preliminary specifications, and the budget and "authorized proceeding with the project into the final preliminary design stage." The tentative schedule called for bids on June 10, 1967, with construction to be completed by February, 1969. In effect, this Regental action gave official University support for the facilities needed to establish the RC on its own campus.
Rather than wait for the completion of the new RC campus, however, the Planning Committee, with Dean Haber's encouragement, decided to launch the College in interim quarters in Tyler and Prescott houses in East Quadrangle and in the fall 1967, the College admitted its first class of two hundred and seventeen LS&A freshmen after over three years of intensive planning and wide-ranging discussion. Since Dean Thuma planned to retire in 1967, Dean Haber with the endorsement of the Planning Committee appointed Associate Dean James H. Robertson as the RC Director responsible for translating the plans into reality. Dean Robertson, along with Dean Thuma, Professors Newcomb, Cohen, Wunsch, and Robert Rau and Paul Wagner, constituted an administrative staff to prepare for the selection, accommodation, and teaching of the first RC class. Professor Newcomb, in charge of admissions, reported that over 1,400 LS&A freshman had indicated a desire to enroll in the RC. From this group, 220 were selected, who constituted a cross section of the LS&A freshman class Page 232in ability and background and with dynamic differences — they were venturesome, questioning, creatively aware, and non-conforming. These were the qualities the planners had not fully foreseen and were qualities to shape, change, and invigorate the RC from the beginning. The carefully planned core program of courses required of all RC students, for example, ran counter to another basic RC concept, namely, joint student-faculty decision-making authority. If students were to have a voice in shaping their education, the fixed and imposed pattern of the core curriculum was at variance with this principle. Restiveness with the required aspect of the core program grew steadily. But the major emphasis during the first months of the College was on developing a suitable faculty-student governance. Out of many town meetings emerged the Representative Assembly with eight students, eight faculty, and the Director as chairman. This Assembly was the legislative council of the RC, which set up standing committees and controlled the dues collected from students and faculty. The Director, who was the link between the RC and the Dean and Executive Committee of LS&A, reserved the right to veto any Representative Assembly action. This assembly provided the forum for discussion of many important issues, not only curricular matters but serious social and political crises that swept the campus in 1968-71 — the Vietnam War, draft resisters, Black Panthers, corporate recruiters, the ROTC, the Black Action Movement, Kent State. Although RC students and faculty frequently took the lead in responding vigorously to those urgent issues, they did so with more information, more insight, and more civility because of the continuing forum provided by the Representative Assembly.
Another major decision concerned the permanent location of the RC. The planners had drawn up a detailed layout for a self-contained campus across the Huron River with the start in Tyler and Prescott Houses a temporary, interim step. But the members of the Planning Committee actively involved in the RC — Professors Newcomb, Brown, Cohen, Wunsch, Meisel, Benamou, and Robertson — soon perceived that being close to the main campus was a decided advantage to students and staff. They argued that if the Regents would approve a complete renovation of the entire East Quad to suit the needs of the RC, such a home would be preferable to the one envisioned in the original plan. The issue came to a head in March 1968 when the entire RC student body and Page 233staff met with the Regents, President Robben Flemming, and the administrative officers of LS&A and the University. Among the presentations made, those of two RC students — Martha Schwartz and Peter Jepson — were especially persuasive. The Regents subsequently authorized the transformation of the East Quadrangle from a men's dorm to a coeducational residential liberal arts college — the home of the Residential College.
To analyze the persistent issues raised by the required core curriculum, the Representative Assembly created the Core Curriculum Review Committee in April 1969. This faculty-student committee recommended, in February 1970, that interdisciplinary core courses be retained, but that they not be required. This recommendation was adopted by the College. A more sweeping recommendation was made in November 1970, which came to be known as Proposal "C." In essence, this proposal asked LS&A for permission to abolish practically all requirements and to allow each student to construct his own degree program. The proposal was debated vigorously but never finally acted on by LS&A. In the Winter Term 1971, the Educational Policies Committee was created to review college-wide educational policies and to make recommendations for change. This Committee, under the chairmanship of Professor Max Heirich, reported to the Representative Assembly in the Spring 1972, on a variety of important issues affecting life in the College. One of the main problems addressed was the RC's difficulty in attracting and holding selected faculty to plan, teach, and give continuity to the RC educational program. As a result, RC courses and programs had come to rely increasingly on younger nontenured staff, on lecturers, and on predoctoral fellows. The need for an adequate budget and, more important, for the right to appoint and promote its own faculty was emphasized. Dean William Hays recognized the validity of this need, gave what financial help he could, and in his final report as LS&A Dean in June 1970 called special attention to the RC's staffing problem.
In the Fall 1971, Dean Frank Rhodes set up a Residential College Review Committee under the chairmanship of Professor Rhoads Murphey to make a comprehensive study and evaluation of the RC. One of its charges was to determine whether or not the RC should be terminated. To help the Review Committee, the RC Acting Director Ellis Wunsch (Dean Robertson Page 234was on sabbatical leave during the Fall Term, 1971) compiled and edited an excellent self-study. With the help of the RC faculty, staff, and students, Ellis Wunsch gave a perceptive, searching account of the RC's first four years, including shortcomings and problems as well as achievements and successes. One of the main problems was the RC's inability to select, appoint, and reward faculty by rank and tenure. This issue was underscored by the RC Review Committee who, in the Spring 1972, recommended that the RC be given adequate financial support and that it have the same status as a department in selecting and retaining faculty. In addition, the Review Committee recommended the creation of a Joint Board to develop stronger liaison with the LS&A Dean and Executive Committee and with LS&A departments. In the subsequent debates over these and other recommendations in the LS&A Executive Committee and in LS&A Faculty Meetings, the Joint Board proposal was adopted, but the staffing and budget support recommendations were rejected.
Stimulated by the external review criticism, the RC began its fifth year trying to implement the recommendations of the Review Committee. The first RC graduating class had done well in graduate and professional school admissions as well as in creative achievements — many Hopwood winners, two books published by undergraduates, as well as distinctions in drama, dance, and ceramics. Professors Theodore Newcomb and Donald Brown had been conducting comparative research since 1968 on the qualities and achievements of RC students. Their evidence was heartening confirmation of the vision, competence, and loyalty of RC members.
The Joint Board, appointed by Dean Rhodes in December, 1972, was composed chiefly of LS&A faculty with Professor Harold Shapiro as chairman. The Board worked closely with the RC administrative staff in clarifying and developing personnel policies and budget priorities. Specifically, the Board reviewed the status of several important RC faculty who had no departmental appointments, and gained some concessions from departments. The Joint Board, under Professor Shapiro's leadership, became a constructive, influential force in presenting RC needs to Dean Rhodes and the LS&A Executive Committee.
After serving as Director for six years, Associate Dean Page 235Robertson in April 1973 returned to full time teaching. Professor Louis Orlin was appointed Director and, after one year, was replaced by Professor Marc Ross.Page [unnumbered]