From 1940 to 1944 Literature, Science, and the Arts was guided by Dean Edward Kraus, geologist and authority on gems and precious stones, and for many years Dean of the Summer Session. In 1940 the College student enrollment was 4,895. As America joined the war against the Axis Powers, faculty attendance at monthly meetings rose to an all-time high of 132. Plans were formulated to celebrate the University of Michigan Centennial on October 15, 1941, with James Rowland Angell of Yale as the main speaker. Despite increasing demands of the war effort and leaves of absence granted to faculty members for national service, the College shouldered 60 percent of the educational load at the University. Enrollment declined; the proportion of male and female students shifted drastically, and yet the College swung into the war effort through the establishment of ASTP (Army Specialized Training Programs) and the Japanese Language School.
The accelerated schedules resulted in fatigue and a slackening of interest among both faculty and students. As a consequence, the College Honors Program for carefully selected upper classmen, established in 1938 under the chairmanship of Professor Warner G. Rice, had to be temporarily halted, and the Administrative Board required over 500 students to withdraw for failure to maintain the required level of performance. In 1943 the College faculty chafed under low salaries: Instructor, $2,000; Assistant Professor, $2,500; Associate Professor, $3,500; Professor, $4,400. Faculty welcomed the Regents' provision of a year's salary before retiring at the age of seventy, and began to make plans for the anticipated postwar bulge in veterans' enrollment.
For the College itself, the major innovation under Dean Kraus was a system of faculty evaluation proposed by the local chapter of the American Association of University Professors. All reports were to be filed in the Dean's Office: (1) an annual record of each faculty member's publications; (2) end-of-semester student comments on Page 110pedagogy; and (3) a Committee in every Department to report on each individual faculty member's professional competence. Any faculty member could ask to see his own dossier at any time.
Hayward Keniston, who had come to us as Professor of Spanish from the University of Chicago, was named Dean on March 1, 1945. He immediately recommended and got salary increases in order to maintain an outstanding faculty, higher standards for both teaching and research, and, for the students, a wider educational experience than merely formal courses. With the influx of veterans, committees worked hard and long on curriculum revision, stimulated by the more mature views and greater motivation of the students. Experts, called in from Harvard, Columbia, and other peer institutions, advised that Art and Archeology be reorganized, Greek and Latin joined as "Classics," and that each department submit its plans for the next five years. Two associate deans were appointed to look after problems of counseling, advanced standing, curriculum, and personnel.
In order to attract more recognized scholars to the faculty, Dean Keniston urged an across-the-board increase in salaries of 20 to 25 percent, and the establishment of a few "chairs." Two "firsts" appear in the Dean's reports: a plea that faculty women deserve exactly the same treatment as men, and a series of appended reports by the associate deans on counseling, admissions with advanced standing, and personnel.
Apart from higher salaries there was still needed more time for research, more space, and better equipment. Of ever greater necessity was more and better thinking on the theory and practice of undergraduate education. We deplored the gradual erosion of the University's national character through the limitation of students from outside Michigan. Within, departmental autonomy fostered solidarity and loyalty, but militated against such newly-endorsed interdepartmental and interdisciplinary programs as Great Books, the five-year course in Chemistry and Civil Engineering, the Far East, Latin America, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature. The programs gained headway, thanks to the dedication of many faculty and students. Of great concern were Botany and Zoology, between whom there was little sharing of knowledge, Page 111techniques, and equipment.
Reaffirming their faith in the four-year liberal arts education with departmental concentration at the end, in 1948 the faculty adopted legislation on curriculum and on a sharpened evaluation of their own services. They agreed on triple criteria for promotion: teaching, scholarship, and "service," especially student counseling. "Near" and "Far-Eastern" were in unholy wedlock, so they were separated. Student evaluation began to improve teaching, and several promotions to tenure were made on the basis of outstanding teaching alone.
By 1949 distribution requirements were more exactly defined and greater cooperation was secured between departments. Progress was made in counseling and faculty-student relationship. Freshman English, a perennial problem, was revised, and a system of class visitation was set up to coordinate the many sections taught by teaching fellows. Chairmen of departments were no longer "Heads" with indeterminate terms of office but were often younger men with energy and administrative skill rather than wide reputation and were appointed for specific terms. By 1950 enrollment showed no increase for the first time in five years. Associate Dean Lloyd Woodburn was called to the University of Washington to serve as Dean of its College of Arts and Letters and was replaced by Professor Burton Thuma of Psychology. Associate Dean Charles Peake went off to Knox College and was replaced by Assistant Professor James Robertson of the Department of English.
With the establishment of faculty research grants, faculty morale rose substantially. The Dean and his staff moved to new quarters. The faculty grew larger and stronger than ever before.
There was a strengthening of the faculty through higher salaries, fringe benefits, and leaves of absence, with monetary grants from Rackham for individual research. Six years before, Anthropology and Fine Arts had no doctoral programs. Psychology, Astronomy, and Zoology are now considered departments of distinction. One-half of the departments in the College rank nationally among the first twenty. Of the doctorates granted by Rackham, 62 percent were trained by Page 112LS&A faculty. Dean Keniston urged the appointment of a religious thinker to head up the program in Studies in Religion. He pleaded for a University intellectual "Quarterly," and for a better University Press. He established the Literary College conference of faculty and students on the proposition that you do not prepare youth for the practice of democratic responsibility by preaching to them, but by giving them the opportunity for experience in arriving at group decisions that direct their own futures. After seven lively years Dean Keniston convinced his faculty that its appeal for popular support must be founded on the superior quality of its performance. He had reached the age of retirement. During the interim year of 1951-52 Associate Dean Burton Thuma, with long experience in the Dean's Office, provided continuity.
Dr. Charles Odegaard, erstwhile Professor of Medieval Intellectual History at the University of Illinois, Urbana, then Executive Secretary of the American Council of Learned Societies, was named Dean of the College in 1952. He was welcomed with the completion of new classrooms and faculty offices in the Haven-Mason complex and the four auditoriums adjoining Angell Hall. In his first year he promoted the visitation of high schools as well as junior colleges throughout Michigan, and, with Professor Lionel Laing of the Department of Political Science, brought the faculty code up to date. Insisting on the need for promising teachers and scholars in the lower ranks to work themselves up into the "tenure track," Dean Odegaard was proud that for two years not a single faculty member was appointed from outside above the rank of assistant professor. The Committee on Curriculum, created by Dean Keniston in 1948, became crucial in advancing such functions of LS&A as research interests and undergraduate teaching. Despite the good work of a new committee on classroom and scheduling, still more space was required. The demand for counseling increased, not only for the foundering students but also for the very bright. In favor of the latter was the smooth conduct of Honors for upper classmen in five departments.
During Dean Odegaard's six years as Dean, enrollment in the College increased by 34 percent, from 5,414 to 7,238; over 1,800 upper classmen were concentrating in 65 different fields; semester credit hours increased by 41 percent. Page 113The centrality of LS&A to the University was underscored by the fact that of the total number of semester credit hours taught on the Ann Arbor campus, LS&A was responsible for 53 percent of them. Because of this a fuller and stronger faculty became necessary as well as additional space. Rules for promotion were more stringent; search committees for personnel from other institutions were more vigilant and discriminating. Departmental faculties increased in size and salaries improved. After hours of individual consultation between departmental members of all ranks and the Executive Committee, several new chairmen were chosen and made subject to review after three or five years. The system proved successful and still works well. Research was fostered by integrating such units as museums and the Institute for Social Research into the regular College departments that best suited their disciplines. The establishment of the Undergarduate Library doubled the circulation of books within its first year. Mrs. Roberta Keniston was named its Director and served the student body and faculty in an exemplary way. Librarian Fred Wagman promoted the educational facilities of the College with the aid of an elected LS&A Library Committee.
Dean Odegaard resigned in the summer of 1958. Roger Heyns of the Department of Psychology succeeded him as Dean. His immediate challenge was the competitive offers made to our faculty members by other institutions. Most of them were met, thanks to President Harlan Hatcher and Executive Vice-President Marvin Niehuss, but there was a loss of some outstanding faculty, particularly in the life and physical sciences, largely due to the lack of adequate research facilities and "the absence of a congenial intellectual environment." One answer to this problem was the establishment of a Biophysics Division in the Institute of Science and Technology, which provided more modern equipment and more spacious laboratories. In the same year Dean Heyns reported the acquisition of a National Defense Education grant in the amount of $130,000 which provided for a summer institute in modern European languages designed to upgrade high school foreign language teachers. Professor Otto G. Graf, Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, served as its Director.
Admission for freshmen was tightened by the institution Page 114of national College Entrance Board and Scholastic Aptitude Tests. Area centers, Far Eastern in particular, became more popular and hence needed reenforcement. Dean Heyns and the faculty were persistently plagued by problems of growth exacerbated by the clash between the desire for autonomy and the University duty to cooperate with other schools on the campus. The complex chore of the College is teaching undergraduate liberal arts and preprofessional students as well as a growing number of students enrolled in the Rackham School of Graduate Studies.
In 1960-61 Dean Keniston's hope for a vitalized University Press seemed to be realized under the new Director, Fred Wieck. The Press published 45 titles, 35 of them by members of the LS&A faculty, and sales rose to $1,161,000. During Dean Heyns' term a new Department of Linguistics was created. Professor Otto G. Graf, the Director of the Honors Program, who succeeded Professor Robert Angell, reported that of the first graduating class through Honors a distinguished record was established: 18 received Woodrow Wilson Fellowships in support of graduate studies, five were named Danforth Fellows, 12 National Science Foundation grants were given, and, at long last, a Marshall Scholarship Fellow was named.
The major problem was the old one of maintaining an outstanding faculty and high quality of instruction. Higher salaries and more fringe benefits were of some help, except for the growing number of Teaching Fellows who had far too many of our underclassmen in their charge.
At the end of Dean Heyns four-year deanship, once more the indispensable Burton Thuma stepped in as interim Dean. In 1962-63 the abolition of the rank of instructor partly solved outside competition for faculty. With the University of Wisconsin a "Junior Year Abroad in France" was established at Aix-en-Provence. The space problem was relieved in part by the completion of the Physics-Astronomy Building (now the David M. Dennison Building). Faced with an increasing enrollment, a committee studied the possibilities of a Residential College.
When Professor William Haber of the Department of Economics was appointed Dean in the fall of 1963, the enrollment Page 115had climbed to a new high of 8,779. Faculty "full-time equivalents" reached 971, but still the 291 Teaching Fellows in the College were instructing about 30 percent of the courses, mainly at the freshman and sophomore level. The Residential College was approved by the Regents in April 1964, with Burton Thuma as its first Director. The Honors Program reported a continuation of its successes in national competitions and with the acquisition of foundation support was able to feature speakers and to create an Honors Professorship providing a year's stay for a distinguished scholar. Dean Haber, in anticipation of problems to come, appointed a committee of the most experienced faculty men and women, with Lowell Kelly as Chairman, to study the future of the College and to develop long-range planning.
With the College growing more rapidly than the University as a whole, Dean Haber's office released in January 1965 a committee report entitled Some Issues Controlling the Size of the College. The first year of the three-term calendar a new department, Computer and Communication Sciences, was added. The Honors Program grew apace, with 1,017 students enrolled in all four years of their undergraduate study. Additional housing for Honors students was provided in South Quadrangle, bringing the total number of Honors houses to three. With the cooperation of Wayne State University, Michigan State University, and the University of Wisconsin a Junior Year Abroad in Germany was established at Freiburg.
As the nation struggled with issues like the war in Vietnam and race relations, LS&A naturally became the most open forum on the campus. Issues were fully debated until deft compromises on various levels could be made. Student unrest, reflecting the national trend, continued. The sometimes noisy demands of BAM (Black Action Movement) produced a program in Afro-American Studies. The third week of March 1970 was a dismal low in a community dedicated to teaching and research; there was class disruption and some vandalism. Student demands for controlling their own educational destinies became so strident that fully-attended faculty debates had to be held in Trueblood Auditorium. Adamantly refusing to surrender its prerogative to define its own Bachelor of Arts degree, the faculty, in response to student pressure, did institute a new and different degree, the "Bachelor of Page 116General Studies," which exempted the student from any of the distribution requirements, and also precluded official concentration in any one subject.
The two years, 1968-70, welcomed Professor William L. Hays as the new Interim leader when Dean Haber, reaching retirement age, became Senior Consultant to the central Administration. The Department of Library Science became a new professional school and a Department of Statistics was created. Awakening social commitment among the students was partially met by expanded environmental studies.
The nation had quieted down in the fall of 1970 when Professor Alfred Sussman, Department of Botany, became Acting Dean. Passions were cooled, however, mainly by a financial "recession." Militancy was still alive for women's rights, minority appointments, full disclosure in tenure hearings, and the inclusion of student representatives at departmental Executive Committee meetings. At times faculty innovations were ahead of student demand, as in the creation of more interdepartmental concentrations. About 20 percent of the students were satisfied that a liberal education need not include a foreign language or any of the normally required Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science courses; they opted for the Bachelor of General Studies degree.
A series of lectures called "Liberal Arts and a Democratic Society" was established in honor of Dean Hayward Keniston, made possible by members of the family, colleagues, and friends. The first lecture was given by Professor Erwin Griswold of the Harvard Law School, later Assistant Attorney General of the United States, and the lectures became part of our intellectual life. A later endowment as a memorial to Dean Keniston provided for an annual lecture devoted to Romance Literature, which had been his field of specialization before he became Dean.
Ping-pong diplomacy turned the study of Chinese from an exotic luxury to thirty courses in seven departments. Better to resolve individual problems of students, the Course Mart was established, actually in many ways an accommodation of courses previously featured throughout the country by the "Free Universities." A Student Counseling Office providing "peer counseling" was also established.
Page 117Appointed Dean in 1971, Professor Frank Rhodes of Geology led the LS&A faculty and students in grappling with such national problems as recession, changing public priorities, and uncertainties in the labor market. American colleges and universities faced the fact that soon only 20 percent of the jobs would require a college degree whereas 60 percent of the seekers would possess one. The faculty cooperated with Dean Rhodes during his three-year tenancy in providing greater flexibility in course offering. The students also made adjustments; they became less career-oriented and more concerned about their individual and social needs. Ten percent of them were from Minority groups, compared with the national average for colleges of 5 percent. There were offered 1,400 courses in 2,000 sections; Course Mart alone was responsible for 40. Traditionally "closed" courses were "opened;" Botany-Zoology 106, for example, added 284 extra spaces each semester. In the midst of what came to be known as "the knowledge explosion," faculty and students were imbued with a new intellectual vitality. The Dean's office added three new Associate Deans for curriculum, student affairs, and faculty personnel.
Inflation, increased fees, and retrenchments in Federal support caused the enrollment to decline somewhat. Four-year liberal arts colleges were losing ground to vocational institutions. Throughout this period the Residential College registered a modest growth and "living-learning" programs attracted 18 percent of the students in University dormitories. The Honors Program continued to attract strongly qualified students and grew to 1,600 in number. Their record in the number of scholarships, fellowships, and successful application for admission to the most prestigious professional and graduate schools reflected the quality of the training and counseling which the Honors Program provided.
Four "Collegiate Professorships," each for two years, were established in order to encourage faculty members to develop courses they would not ordinarily teach but which are still rooted in their specific discipline. The continuing need for flexibility was met by instituting 17 "Mini courses" for one-hour credit on "Pass/Fail" basis; the Medieval and Renaissance Collegium, in its third year, increased the process of cross-fertilization; credit by examination up to 60 hours helped those students who had Page 118done part of their work elsewhere. After listening to freshman complaints of poor teaching and large classes, Dean Rhodes recommended the setting up of a few Freshman Seminars limited to 15 students to be taught in discussion-style by experienced professors.
Salaries were still below the university average and in Dean Rhodes' last year as Dean, 1973-74, a 5.9 percent increase in salaries was wiped out by a 7.5 percent rise in inflation. With internal pressure from unionization among faculty, such as the Graduate Employees' Organization, and external pressure to bring all higher education under public supervision, the College never sacrificed long-range planning for ad hoc satisfactions. The setting of College priorities, the reorganization of Biological Sciences, and redefining requirements for the B.A., the B.S., and the B.G.S. degrees demanded much study and the perennial problem of "Freshman Composition" was studied by a special committee under Professor Daniel Fader of the English Department.
As student demands became more varied, counseling became more central to the College's purpose. Enrollment stood at 12,431, a decline of 130 from the previous year, but freshmen continued to be of high quality, for the first time some of them admitted after only three years of high school. "Affirmative Action," however, received more money than, unfortunately, LS&A could find qualified students to spend it on.
After the GEO strike had disrupted instruction throughout the College for four weeks, an agreement was reached whereby teaching assistants would participate in decision-making which determined hours per week and compensation, but the College would determine criteria for appointment, duties, class size, and retention. The report of the Commission on Graduate Degree Requirements, in which LS&A had a more vital stake than anyone else, was approved by the Regents on May 16, 1975. The College had to accept, with all other units on the campus, a 2.5 percent cut in the budget; and nationally we experienced the results of a malaise among high school students, of whom over one-half fell below the combined SAT score of 700.
In these thirty-five years there have been ten Deans Page 119and Acting Deans. This apparently rapid shift in the College's top administration is explained by the high calibre of the persons called to fill that office. They have been consistently drawn off to positions of greater responsibility: to name a few, Dean Charles E. Odegaard to the Presidency of the University of Washington in Seattle; Dean Roger Heyns to the Vice-Presidency for Academic Affairs here and then to California as Chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley; Acting Dean Sussman to the Deanship of the Rackham School of Graduate Studies. Dean Frank Rhodes became Vice President for Academic Affairs and later moved to the Presidency of Cornell University.