The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
Page  1


The Office of the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer has evolved over the past fifty years, growing out of the Office of the Secretary, the Office of the Vice-President and Secretary in charge of Business and Finance, and the Office of the Vice-President for Business and Finance. At about the time of World War I, the University established the first University-wide accounting, purchasing, and business procedures as responsibilities of the Office of the Secretary, who at that time was Shirley W. Smith. In 1929 the title of the Office was changed to Vice-President and Secretary in charge of Business and Finance and, during the 1930s, the responsibilities of the Office were enlarged to include accounting, purchasing, investments, cash management, buildings and grounds, services such as printing, and stores, housing, and utilities. In 1945, with the appointment of Robert P. Briggs to the Office upon the retirement of Shirley Smith, the title was changed to Vice-President for Business and Finance, and Herbert G. Watkins, Assistant Secretary, was named Secretary of the University. No further changes in title took place until 1966, when the title was changed to Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer to reflect both the operations scope of the Office and its responsibilities as the chief financial officer for the President and the Regents of all University activities and campuses.

Page  2


The University of Michigan Encyclopedic Survey, Part I, page 269, contains the following statement, "The business administration of the University of Michigan from 1842 to 1900, if we are to judge by the volume of business of which there is a record, was relatively simple when compared with the University of 1940." From 1940 to 1977, the volume of business activity also expanded greatly, due to postwar growth and dollar inflation. In 1940 the chief financial officer was Shirley W. Smith, Vice-President and Secretary, and the business and financial management was centered in an Assistant Secretary, Controller, Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, Investment Officer, and Business Manager of Residence Halls. No changes took place in this structure of organization during the next five years, but in 1945, when Shirley Smith retired, the first of a series of changes in organization took place.

With the appointment of Robert P. Briggs as Vice-President for Business and Finance in 1945, Herbert G. Watkins was appointed Secretary and Assistant Vice-President, separating the secretarial duties from the vice-presidency but leaving certain other duties as the responsibility of the assistant vice-president. During the next several years, reflecting the very rapid growth of the University during the post-World War II years, substantial changes were made in the organization, responsibilities, and staff involved in the business and financial offices and activities of the University.

Prior to 1945 the personnel management of office personnel was centered in a Committee on Office Personnel. Early in 1945 the University established the Office of Nonacademic Personnel with responsibility for personnel management functions for all personnel, except faculty, research, and academic administrative staff. Alfred B. Ueker was appointed the first Personnel Officer of the University in the same year, and he held this post until 1959 when he followed Walter Roth as Superintendent of Plant. At that time Charles Allmand was appointed Personnel Officer, to be succeeded in 1966 by Russell Reister, who has held the position since that date.

In 1945 the Office of Plant Superintendent was created, Page  3with responsibility for plant operations, plant extension, and general stores. Walter M. Roth was appointed Plant Superintendent, Lynn Fry was appointed Supervising Architect for plant extension, and O. E. Roszel was placed in charge of General Stores.

On July 1, 1945, R. Gordon Griffith was appointed Investment Officer, and during the same year the organizational concept of Auxiliary Enterprises was recognized. Several operating units, some involved with academic departments, were established as self-sustaining units, with the expectation that revenues from operations would cover expenses of the units. These included the following:

  • Printing Department - Edward E. Lofberg
  • Binding Department - George E. Craven
  • Laundry Department - Donald A. Callnin
  • Instrument Shop - Orlan W. Boston
  • Blueprint Shop - Henry W. Miller
  • Chemistry Stores - Robert J. Carney
Later, in 1948-49, two additional units were established as self-sustaining operations, a central Food Service Department under the direction of H. A. Helle, and later Herbert P. Wagner and Lawrence T. Hayes, and a Photographic Service under Fred Anderegg.

During 1946-47 the Federal Government deeded the Willow Run Airport to the University which provided space for the establishment of the Willow Run Laboratories as an engineering and aeronautical research center under the direction of Professor Emerson Conlin. At the same time the airport proper was leased to the Airlines National Terminal Service Company for operation as an airline terminal. (Details of this transaction are contained in the Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vol. 55, No. 16, pp. 119-27, Winter 1949.) Relationships with the airlines were handled first by Colonel Arthur Prine and later by Floyd Wakefield, until the airlines moved to the Detroit Metropolitan Airport in 1966. At that time, John P. Weidenbach was appointed Manager of Willow Run Airport, to supervise the airport as a facility for general aviation activities.

In 1947-48 three more changes were accomplished while Robert Briggs was Vice-President. On July 1, 1947, Wilbur Page  4K. Pierpont, Assistant Professor of Accounting, was appointed Controller; in September 1947, Edmund A. Cummiskey, a practicing lawyer in Detroit, was appointed Attorney, the first appointment of a full-time lawyer to the University administrative staff; and in 1948 Byron J. Green, a practicing Certified Public Accountant, was appointed Assistant Controller with specific responsibility for accounting systems and auditing.

In early 1951 Robert P. Briggs resigned as Vice-President for Business and Finance, and on February 1, 1951, Wilbur K. Pierpont was appointed Vice-President for Business and Finance and Professor of Accounting; later in March of 1966, the title of the office was changed to Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer. During the 1950s the continued rapid expansion of the University, measured by student enrollment, growth in research activities, total expenditures, plant expansion, number of personnel, or other data led to a continuing series of organizational and staff changes to respond to these new and larger responsibilities of the business and financial staff.

In early 1951 the Regents authorized the creation of a Service Enterprises Group for management purposes under the direction of Frances C. Shiel. During the 1950s this Group included the operations of residence halls, food service, laundry, printing, binding, instrument shops, photographic services, rental properties, Inglis House, and parking operations. Inglis House, the residence in Ann Arbor of Mr. and Mrs. James Inglis, was a gift to the University from Mr. and Mrs. Inglis in 1951 and was established soon thereafter as a guest house for distinguished visitors to the University. Rental properties were recognized as a unit in 1952 to provide an organized management of the many houses, farms, and other rental properties owned by the University; and the parking operations unit was established in 1955 when the University started a parking-permit plan for the first parking structure, completed in 1957, and the many parking lots around the University.

In the middle of 1951, Gilbert L. Lee was promoted from Chief Accountant, Engineering Research Institute, to the Controller's position. In succeeding years, from 1951 through 1966, the Controller's Office was assigned responsibility Page  5for the following operating units: the Internal Audit unit, established in late 1951, the Accounting Office, Insurance, Property Control, Tabulating Service, Cashier, Budget Procedures, Transportation, Parking, Radrick Farms, and other units.

Also in 1951 the Purchasing Department was recognized as a major University-wide function and Walter Bulbick was appointed as Director of Purchasing. Mr. Bulbick was a staff member of the University for forty-five years and was succeeded by Eugene O. Ingram in 1966.

The Internal Audit unit was first headed by Byron Green and later by Harold Bell. After 1966 the name of the unit was changed to University Audits. It is charged with coordinating responsibility for outside auditors — federal, state, and professional — in addition to performing the Internal Audit function. A. B. Hicks headed the unit after 1966.

The Accounting Office was headed by Raymond Garlough, Florence Ehnis, Frederick E. Oliver, and Howard Cottrell until 1966. After that date, the unit was headed by Thomas Mason, James England, and William Krumm.

The Payroll Office, a department of the Accounting Office until 1966 when it was assigned directly to the Controller, was headed by Edna Miller, Caroline Maier, Harlan Mulder, Jack Dalrymple, and Mel Amo.

The Insurance Office was first headed by William G. Miller, who was later succeeded by William F. Ryan.

The Property Control Office was first headed by Floyd Wakefield and later by Lynn Dancer.

The Tabulating Service department was headed in 1951 by Kurt Benjamin, and later by Bruce W. Arden, Kenneth R. Manning, and Thomas Thompson. The department name was changed to the Systems and Data Processing department after it was assigned to the Internal Audit and Management Services unit, and was headed by Harry Q. Wasson and Donald N. Butera. After 1966 the Unit's name was changed to the Data Systems Center, and it was headed by Lyle A. Baack and Page  6Charles Wallace.

The Cashier's Office was headed by Gordon B. Jory, Robert R. Roush, Richard P. Koester, Glenn A. Breitner, Thomas F. Hagarty, Joseph R. Welch, and William Turner.

In 1953 A. B. Hicks was appointed as Business Manager of the Engineering Research Institute and in 1956 was promoted to Assistant Controller and Business Manager of the Engineering Research Institute.

In 1956 Frederick E. Oliver was promoted to Assistant Controller and Chief Accountant.

Harlan J. Mulder, as Assistant Controller from 1957 to 1966, became responsible for budget procedures, transportation, parking, Radrick Farms, and several other units. After 1966 his title was Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer.

By 1955 the developments in the North Campus area and the Medical Center, the extensive capital outlay programs, and the extension of the campus in the Ann Arbor and Washtenaw County area led to the appointment of John G. McKevitt to the newly-created post of Assistant to the Vice-President for Business and Finance, with particular responsibilities for campus planning, liaison with the state and local governmental units on building programs, utility and highway developments, and relationships with the City of Ann Arbor. In 1965 William Sturgis became assistant to John McKevitt and, when John McKevitt resigned to accept an appointment at Temple University in 1969, the campus planning function was assigned to the new Office of the Vice-President for State Relations and Planning. At that time William Sturgis became Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer.

In July 1958 Herbert G. Watkins retired as Secretary and Vice-President, after thirty-two years of service to the University. He was replaced by Erich A. Walter as Secretary and Assistant to the President, thus terminating the direct relationship of the Secretary to the Office of the Vice-President for Business and Finance.

Page  7During the years 1956-58 the Flint and Dearborn campuses were started, and business managers were appointed for both of these units, Howard Cottrell for Flint and Robert Beecher for Dearborn. At Flint Robert Roush replaced Howard Cottrell in 1959 and at Dearborn Donald Klaasen replaced Robert Beecher in 1966, to be followed by Richard Schwartz in 1974.

In 1959 the Office of Staff Benefits was established to coordinate the administration of all staff benefit programs, and Howard Cottrell was appointed the first Manager of the Office. He was succeeded by Russell W. Reister in 1961, who was succeeded in 1966 by Donald L. Thiel.

By 1961 the growth in the legal affairs of the University required an additional attorney, particularly for labor and personnel relations, and William P. Lemmer was added to the Attorney's Office as a lawyer specializing in labor affairs. Edmund Cummiskey, the University Attorney since 1947, retired in 1970 to be replaced by Roderick Daane, a practicing lawyer from Detroit, as the University General Counsel. In 1971 the great growth of litigation over student rights, the relationships of individuals to the University, and contractual rights led to the appointment of John Ketelhut to the University legal staff. The growth of hospital and medical legal problems led to the appointment of Carol Stadler in 1972 as a lawyer specializing in health-related legal affairs.

During the tenures in office of Shirley Smith as Vice-President and Secretary and of Robert Briggs as Vice-President in charge of Business and Finance, and for the first ten years of the tenure of Wilbur K. Pierpont, the Executive Secretary for the Office was Ethel Hastings. Upon her death in 1961, after forty-four years of service to the University, Mrs. Hastings was replaced by Helen Meier for a five-year period. In 1966 Dorothy Bell was named as Executive Secretary and held this position until December 31, 1976.

The continuing and enlarging needs for financial and operating analyses of University operations caused the creation in 1961 of the Office of Financial Analysis, with Frederick E. Oliver appointed as first director of the Office. Frederick Oliver continued as Director of this Office until retirement at the end of 1977. He was succeeded Page  8by Sam Plice as Director.

In 1962 James F. Brinkerhoff was employed as the Director of Plant Extension to plan, coordinate, and direct programs for the enlargement, modernization, and rehabilitation of the physical facilities of the University. During the early 1960s a number of other changes took place:

A Gift Receiving Office was established, to provide for the orderly receipt of all gifts to the University, and Donald Thiel was named as the first Manager. Later, when Donald Thiel was named Director of the Staff Benefits Office, Kenneth Copp became Manager of Gift Receiving, succeeded by Sidney Giles, Carol Bradley, and Lucille Doke.

The North Campus Commons was opened in 1965 under the management of Robert West, who was followed by Thomas Beller as Manager in 1969, and in 1971 by Wilma Steketee, who was also Manager of the Michigan League.

The Radrick Farms Golf Course was opened in 1966 under the management of Richard A. McLaughlin. The golf course was constructed on the farm area donated to the University by Regent Frederick Matthaei and provides golf facilities for University faculty, staff, alumni, and visitors.

In 1964 Harold Bell was named as Director of the Office of Management Services, to supervise the Internal Audit department, the Data Processing Department, and relationships with all outside auditors and professional accountants. After Harold Bell resigned to become Comptroller of the University of Chicago in 1966, A. B. Hicks was appointed Director of University Audits, and Donald N. Butera was appointed Director of the Data Processing Department.

In 1966, after fifteen years as University Controller and three months as Vice-President for Business Affairs, Gilbert L. Lee resigned to become Vice-President for Business and Finance at the University of Chicago. Howard Cottrell was appointed Controller to succeed Mr. Lee, and Thomas Mason was appointed Chief Accountant to succeed Howard Cottrell. Samuel J. Plice was appointed as Assistant Controller in 1967 and Joseph Diana was also appointed as Assistant Page  9Controller in 1969.

Following the resignation of Gilbert Lee, and with the continued growth of activities, in 1967 the Office of Business Operations was established and James F. Brinkerhoff was named Director. Responsibilities of this Office included Purchasing, Personnel, Plant Operations, Plant Extension, and Willow Run Airport. At that time John Weidenbach replaced James Brinkerhoff as Director of Plant Extension and Robert Pangburn became Manager of Willow Run Airport.

Frances Shiel, who had been Manager of Service Enterprises since 1951, retired in 1969, after forty-two years of service to the University. With this retirement, many of the service units, Food Service, Laundry, Photographic Services, Binding, and Printing were assigned to Eugene Ingram for responsibility, and the Purchasing Department became the Purchasing and Stores Department. Other units - Parking Operations, Inglis House, Radrick Farms Golf Course, and Martha Cook Dormitory were assigned to Harlan Mulder, the Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer. Rental Properties became part of University Housing, reporting to the Vice-President for Student Affairs, and the North Campus Commons was assigned to the Office of Business Operations.

In 1969-70, with the advent of more formalized management information systems on the campus, Cloy J. Walter was appointed as Director of Administrative Systems, encompassing the Data Processing Center and the implementation of computer-based management information systems.

During the year, Howard Cottrell resigned as Controller and Chandler Matthews was appointed as Controller.

In the summer months of 1970, a Department of Safety was established, bringing together security affairs, fire protection, the Key Office and aspects of environmental health and safety, and Fredrick E. Davids, former Director, Michigan Department of State Police, accepted the Directorship of the Department in October 1970.

In the fall of 1970, the title of the Director of Business Operations was changed to Associate Vice-President Page  10and Director of Business Operations, to recognize the added responsibilities of the Office. At the same time Donald F. Wendel was appointed Director of Plant Operations.

The continuous changes made necessary by the great growth of the University during the decades of the 1950s and the 1960s came to an end in the early part of the 1970s. Gordon Griffith, after serving the University for thirty-four years, twenty-six of them as the Investment Officer, retired in 1971, and George Elgass was appointed as Investment Officer. Later, in 1977, George Elgass left the position to be followed by Norman Herbert. In 1971, James Brinkerhoff resigned his position as Associate Vice-President to become Vice-President at the University of Minnesota, and John Weidenbach, later named as Director of Physical Properties, assumed responsibility for the units previously reporting to the Associate Vice-President, except for Personnel and Purchasing which reported to the Vice-President. In 1973 Paul Spradlin was appointed as Director of Plant Extension. In 1970 Thomas Mason was promoted to Assistant Controller, and in 1974 was appointed Director of Hospital Business Affairs. James England succeeded him as Chief Accountant in 1970 and William B. Krumm became Chief Accountant in 1971. In 1974 Jack T. Dalrymple was promoted to Assistant to the Controller and Mel Amo succeeded him as Manager of Payrolls. Cloy Walter resigned as Director of Administrative Systems and in 1973 Frederick E. Oliver was appointed as Director of Financial Analysis and Administrative Systems. In 1973 Samuel J. Plice was appointed Director of Administrative Systems Planning and in 1976, Director of Administrative Systems.

Throughout the middle 1970s the organization of the Office of the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer was quite stable and, as contrasted to the organization of the Office in the 1940s, consisted of the listed responsibilities under the following individuals on December 31, 1976:

  • Administrative Data Systems - Samuel Plice
  • Assistant to the Vice-President - Harlan Mulder
  • Assistant to the Vice-President - William Sturgis
  • Controller of Fiscal Operations - Chandler Matthews
  • Financial Analysis - Frederick Oliver
  • University Audits - A. B. Hicks
  • Page  11Investments - George Elgass
  • Personnel - Russell Reister
  • Plant Operations and Extension - John Weidenbach
  • Purchasing and Stores - Eugene Ingram

On December 31, 1976, Wilbur K. Pierpont concluded twenty-five years as Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer to return to teaching in the Graduate School of Business Administration. James F. Brinkerhoff returned from the University of Minnesota to assume the responsibilities of the Office on that date.

Page  12


Current Operating Funds

In the period from 1940 to 1977, the amount of annual revenues for current operations has increased from $12,500,000 to $424,500,000.

Three sources of revenue have grown much more significantly than other sources during this long period. Federal support was practically nonexistent in 1940 but has now become a significant part of the revenue pattern, amounting to $72,500,000 in 1976-77 or 17 percent of all revenue for operations. Gifts and other grants have grown by a ratio of fifty times the 1940 level, and the University in recent years has won national recognition for its gift development and gift receiving program. Hospital service costs have risen so rapidly in the last few years and types of services have also so increased that the revenue for this activity is now 46 times that of 1940.

Student fee revenue has maintained the same relationship to the total as existed in 1940. State appropriations, however, have decreased in their share of support for educational and general programs.

The following table of revenues by source in ten-year comparisons since 1940 describes the various major categories of current operations support: Page  13

(dollars in thousands)
1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1976-77
Educational and General
Student fees $ 1,812 $ 6,542 $ 9,466 $ 29,562 $ 63,001
State appropriations 4,610 11,436 33,687 68,578 114,737
Federal contracts and grants 15 3,188 23,027 60,754 72,500
Gifts and other grants 419 1,102 5,039 16,875 20,726
Investment income 638 779 2,196 6,081 9,382
Departmental activities 432 1,738 3,746 7,585 15,908
Less restricted revenues held for future expenditure ( 2,596) 381 ( 2,553)
Total Educational and General $ 7,926 $24,785 $ 74,565 $189,816 $293,701
Auxiliary Activities
Hospitals and medical services $ 2,177 $ 6,443 $ 14,065 $ 42,333 $100,697
Student residences and centers 2,075 5,139 9,735 14,748 20,861
Athletics, student publications and other 408 1,827 2,625 5,366 9,199
Total Auxiliary Activities $ 4,660 $13,409 $ 26,425 $ 62,447 $130,757
Total Revenue $12,586 $38,194 $100,990 $252,263 $424,458

Page  14The changing functions of the University over the years are reflected in the unusual relative growth of funded research expenditures and student-aid payments. In addition, support services expenditures have increased due to the complexity of present programs for students, faculty, and staff, compared to 1940. Details of expenditures by program are shown for ten-year periods from 1940 in the following table: Page  15

(dollars in thousands)
1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1976-77
Educational and General
Instruction and departmental research $ 4,619 $10,900 $ 29,403 $ 72,926 $127,813
Other educational services 88 248 663 2,708 6,253
Libraries 372 879 2,048 5,989 8,961
Organized research 207 4,639 24,253 52,421 66,782
Extension 131 516 1,075 1,957 2,847
Student services 332 905 2,982 4,744 7,860
Student aid 185 693 2,142 17,069 21,852
Public services 30 535 1,461 3,359 3,908
General administration 651 1,494 899 1,958 5,202
Business operations 116 704 1,569 5,728 8,239
Operations and maintenance of plant 921 2,175 5,420 12,195 27,255
Plant improvement 6 500 2,499 9,989 7,155
Total Educational and General $ 7,658 $24,188 $ 74,414 $191,043 $294,127
Auxiliary Activities
Hospitals and medical services $ 2,045 $ 6,388 $ 13,878 $ 42,510 $ 98,211
Student residences and centers 1,854 4,931 9,875 14,645 21,040
Athletics, student publications and other 408 2,020 2,672 6,139 8,859
Total Auxiliary Activities $ 4,307 $13,339 $ 26,425 $ 63,294 $128,110
Total Expenditures $11,965 $37,527 $100,839 $254,337 $422,237

Page  16Higher education expenditures are characterized as salary-intensive. The following table compares ten-year periods from 1940 for current funds expenditures as reported by object classifications. Direct salary expenditure as a share of the total is relatively stable, ranging from 60 to 66 percent over the years. The institution of significant staff benefit programs over the years has resulted in a total compensation percent of over 70 percent in 1976-77.

Current Funds
Expenditures by Object Classification
(dollars in thousands)
1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1976-77
Salaries $ 7,685 $24,987 $ 66,098 $155,300 $254,158
Staff Benefits -0- 985 4,477 17,521 41,959
Nonsalary 4,280 11,555 30,264 81,516 126,120
Total $11,965 $37,527 $100,839 $254,337 $422,237

State Appropriations for General Operations

In 1940 state appropriations for general operations were made biennially, and biennial appropriation periods continued through 1945-47. Top limits were put on these appropriations: $4,804,000 annually for the 1941-43 and 1943-45 bienniums, and $5,867,451 annually for the 1945-47 biennium. An additional appropriation in the amount of $1,250,000 was authorized for current operations in the 1946-47 year.

Also, during the war years, additional appropriations for "state and national defense" were made: $200,000 in 1942-43, $520,000 in 1943-44, and $133,333 in 1944-45.

Beginning in 1947-48 appropriations were made annually from state general funds. For the next ten years, these increased regularly as shown in the following table: Page  17

Year Annual Appropriation Increase Percent
1947-48 $ 8,670,000 21.8
1948-49 9,750,000 12.5
1949-50 11,436,315 17.3
1950-51 13,156,822 15.0
1951-52 14,845,000 12.8
1952-53 16,936,650 14.1
1953-54 18,796,000 11.0
1954-55 21,052,996 12.0
1955-56 24,383,030 15.8
1956-57 27,500,000 12.8
1957-58 30,250,000 10.0
1958-59 30,000,000 (00.8)

Economic conditions deteriorated in Michigan during 1957-58. This economic situation resulted in a reduction in state appropriations for operations in 1958-59, compared with the previous year, which caused the adoption of an austerity budget. Also in 1958-59, beginning in December, the state's cash position was so low that monthly payments of authorized state appropriations were suspended for several months. This resulted in the University borrowing from banks to meet payrolls. It was also necessary to defer vendor payments, reduce inventory levels, and take other measures to conserve cash. These suspensions were made up by the end of the year.

Since 1958-59 state appropriations for operations each year have never fallen below the previous year's level and have usually provided increases, albeit at levels insufficient to maintain the former ratios of General Fund support. Increases in student fee revenues have been the sources for making a minimal budget possible in recent years. State appropriations since 1958-59 are reported as follows: Page  18

Year Annual Appropriation Increase Percent
1959-60 $ 33,367,275 11.2
1960-61 35,228,953 5.6
1961-62 35,376,647 .4
1962-63 36,667,157 3.6
1963-64 38,225,255 4.2
1964-65 44,086,139 15.3
1965-66 51,255,266 16.3
1966-67 58,094,886 13.3
1967-68 59,160,998 1.8
1968-69 63,272,392 6.9
1969-70 67,317,141 6.4
1970-71 72,632,463 7.9
1971-72 76,573,280 5.4
1972-73 87,680,000 14.5
1973-74 97,778,100 11.5
1974-75 106,603,005 9.0
1975-76 109,848,476 3.0
1976-77 112,495,597 2.4

Another financial crisis of sorts in state funds occurred in 1976. The state's solution for this was a change in its fiscal year. Appropriations were authorized for a short 3-month fiscal period, July 1 to September 30, 1976, with no increase in the monthly payment levels from the 1975-76 fiscal year. The fiscal period of October 1 to September 30 was adopted by the state in 1976-77. The University has not changed its July to June fiscal year.

The legislative fiscal agencies adopted a concept of formula-funding of higher education in 1975. They invited representatives from higher education and the Governor's Office to form a task force with them to develop a procedure for formula-funding. The task force made its first report in 1976. It became known as an "Investment Needs Model" at this time because it was apparent the resulting figures were much larger than could be actually funded by the state. The Governor's Office of Management and Budget utilized parts of the formula report along with some concepts of its own in making its recommended budget for 1977-78. The legislature used its own interpretation of the formula report for the actual 1977-78 appropriations. The formula is extremely complex and will need considerable change and refinement before Page  19it becomes an acceptable funding mechanism for all concerned.

Federal Support

Revenues from federal sources became significant following World War II. A long list of federal agencies has supported instruction, research, and student-aid programs at the University for a number of years. The defense agencies were dominant supporters of research at first, then the emphasis shifted to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, specifically the Public Health Service, for instruction and research in health-related fields. In addition to reimbursements for direct project costs, the government has shared significantly in the cost of overhead for projects.

Federal contracts and grants for educational and general operations at five-year intervals are as follows:

Year Amount
1939-40 $ 14,800
1944-45 1,842,643
1949-50 3,187,844
1954-55 9,310,835
1959-60 23,026,967
1964-65 42,037,732
1969-70 60,754,154
1974-75 68,304,463
1976-77 72,499,854

The federal government has furnished funds directly for many building and major renovation projects, including the following for which significant grants were awarded:

Federal Support Percent of Total
Animal Research Facility $ 206,529 40.5
Biological Station 550,000 68.9
Buhl Research Center 306,531 54.7
Dental and Kellogg Buildings 6,198,868 32.7
Fire Service Instruction 158,615 48.9
Institute for Science and Technology 427,234 12.9
Institute for Social Research 560,168 12.3
Page  20
Federal Support Percent of Total
Kresge Research Building Addition $1,579,522 22.8
Hatcher Graduate Library 1,458,333 14.2
Matthaei Botanical Gardens 358,991 20.0
Medical Science II and Furstenberg Center 2,664,250 19.6
Mental Health Research Institute 510,361 47.5
Modern Languages Building 1,000,000 18.1
Museums Addition 1,033,000 48.8
Portage Lake Observatory 250,000 33.6
Pharmacy Building 322,000 26.0
Public Health Buildings 5,164,142 53.4
Space Research Building 1,404,605 98.2
Hospitals 3,937,303 8.7

Since 1958 the federal government has funded the major portion (90 percent) of the government student-loan program.

The over-all support from federal sources has been a very important source of financial resources for graduate programs, particularly those in the health sciences, engineering, and physical sciences. Support to a lesser extent has been received for the humanities, languages, and social sciences.

Student Fees

Student fee revenues in 1940 amounted to 23 percent of educational and general revenue, excluding auxiliary activities. In 1977, revenue from this source was 22 percent, a stable relationship over the years. In dollar terms it had grown from $1,812,000 to $63,001,000.

During World War II the federal government paid to the University approximately $4,000,000 for contract instruction to servicemen from 1943 through 1946.

Following World War II, fee revenue paid by students was supplemented by the "G.I. Bill" through payments for veterans by the Veterans Administration of reimbursements for contractually-defined "costs of instruction." This supplemental revenue peaked in 1948-49 and gradually phased out in Page  21the 1950s. After the Korean conflict, this assistance program for veterans was modified by payment of the supplemental allowance directly to veterans, instead of paying the institution.

The term fees charged to students in Ann Arbor since 1940 have characteristically been single comprehensive fees covering instruction and various related student services. parts of these comprehensive fees were allocated to operate the Michigan Union and Michigan League, to supplement intercollegiate athletics revenue, and to support student organizations. Some allocations were also made to finance construction of the Michigan Union addition, North Campus Commons, Administration facilities, Chrisler Arena, and the Central and North Campus Recreation Buildings. Somewhat similar allocations have been made for Dearborn and Flint campus student fees. Beginning in 1976 a separate fee was assessed for health services.

Rates for term student fees (resident undergraduate) have increased from $60 in 1940 to $464 for lower-level students and $526 for upper-level students in 1976-77. Nonresident rates have increased from $100 in 1940 to $1508 for lower-level students and $1626 for upper-level students in 1976-77.

Fee rates in effect in the fall of 1940 continued without change until the fall of 1945 when they were increased. From then until 1970 the rates increased every second or third year. Since 1970 fee rates for most student levels have increased every year. General fund budget needs have increasingly required more student-fee revenue to balance relatively diminishing revenue from other sources. Each time rates are increased, consideration is given to several factors: the dollar amount needed to balance the budget, comparative rates at peer institutions, and the costs of instruction.

In the fall of 1961 the deferred tuition and fee payment plan was instituted, whereby fees could be paid in installments throughout the term. Prior to this, fees were payable in full on registration day.

Differential nonresident rates have traditionally been Page  22assessed for those students who do not qualify as Michigan residents in accordance with Regental residency rules. These rules were modified in 1953 to less stringent definitions as a result of court decisions. The ratio of undergraduate nonresident-term rates to resident rates in 1940 was 1.67 to 1. This ratio gradually widened. In 1948 it was 2.5 to 1, in 1966 it was 2.87 to 1, and since 1972 it has stabilized at 3.25 to 1.

In the fall of 1976, a new fee-rate structure for undergraduates was instituted, whereby assessments were made for each credit hour enrolled, instead of a flat-rate comprehensive fee.

An indication of the change in rates since 1940 is shown in the following table of undergraduate academic year rates.

Student Fee Rates - Academic Year
Year of Change Undergraduate
Resident Nonresident
1940 $120 $ 200
1945 130 220
1946 140 300
1948 140 350
1950 150 400
1952 180 430
1955 200 470
1957 250 600
1960 280 750
1962 280 900
1965 348 1,000
1967 420 1,300
1968 480 1,540
1970 568 1,800
1971 660 2,140
1972 696 2,260
1973 800* 2,600*
1975 848* 2,756*
1976 928* 3,016*
Page  23

Gifts and Grants

The total value of monetary gifts over the years recognized in the University books of account has reached $455,997,370 at June 30, 1977. This includes gifts for operating purposes which have been expended and gifts for permanent purposes such as for endowments, student loans, and lands and buildings.

The University is nationally recognized for its volume of gifts. A significant part of this is represented by the Michigan Alumni annual giving program. In honor of the institution's Sesquicentennial year of 1967, a special campaign was mounted, entitled the $55 Million Campaign. It was very successful, resulting in gifts and pledges exceeding $72 million. In the last eleven years, annual gifts have exceeded $20 million every year except one, and have averaged over $24 million per year in this period. In 1973-74 the level was over $29 million, and in 1976-77 it was over $28 million.

In addition to the amounts received and booked as gifts, many pledges of future gifts have been made on behalf of the University, such as beneficiary designations in life insurance policies and in wills, and pledged payment of gifts in future years.

The following table describes the general uses for which gifts were received in ten-year periods from 1939-40: Page  24

1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1976-77
Current Operations $ 419,470 $1,101,840 $5,042,896 $16,875,044 $20,725,855
Student Loans 8,610 16,654 99,398 93,717 142,227
Endowments 291,987 196,269 1,012,164 1,148,576 5,027,438
Physical Properties 1,048,133 82,048 2,259,225 1,146,066 2,416,986
Total $1,768,200 $1,396,811 $8,413,683 $19,263,403 $28,312,506

Page  25

Student Loans

Funds available for student loans have grown from $590,000 in 1939-40 to $44,098,000 in 1976-77. Of this latest figure, $25,302,000 have been received from the federal government under legislation which was first enacted in 1958 in response to a need for more trained citizens, as a result of the Russian Soviets' success with the first satellite launched in 1957, known as "Sputnik." In 1964 the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act was passed to provide matching funds for student loans in the fields of dentistry, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. The remainder of the University loan funds have been made available from gifts, and $3,321,000 from University funds to match the federal provisions as required by legislation. Federal legislation also provides collection insurance guarantees for a part of the University loans.

Since the first loans were granted in 1897, the University has awarded $84,498,000 in loans to students. In 1940-41, 2,080 loans were issued for $155,644, for an average loan of $75, compared with 17,747 loans issued for $9,545,413, for an average of $538 per loan during 1976-77. During World War II, the number of student loans dropped to about 400 a year, and then rose to nearly 4,000 during 1946-47. Student loans issued during 1950-51 dropped to 2,527 after most of the veterans had graduated. Since 1950-51, there has been an almost uninterrupted growth in the number of student loans granted per year, the average size student loan, and the amount of loans outstanding. As of June 30, 1976, 52,726 loans amounting to $40,696,000 are outstanding.

The increased demand for student loans is due to a number of factors. During this thirty-seven year period, 1940-41 through 1976-77, Michigan resident tuition rose from $120 to $928 per year, an increase of 673 percent. The room and board rate for a double room increased from $382 to $1,512 for a 296 percent rise. Enrollment in 1940-41 was 12,051 compared with 45,823 students for 1976-77, an increase of 280 percent.

Page  26

Endowment Funds

Endowment funds are created primarily by gifts. Fiduciary responsibility must be exercised to protect principal, produce income through effective investment practices, and protect wishes of the donors as expressed in the terms of gifts.

The oldest endowment account is the Federal Land Grant, valued at $550,984, which resulted from sales of lands in Michigan, the proceeds of which were earmarked for the University. These funds were retained in the state treasury, and the state constitution of 1835, section 5 of Article X, protected this amount for the benefit of the University in recognition of federal grants of lands for such purposes (see Volume I, pages 36, 118, 267, and 274). An annual payment of $38,569, representing 7 percent of the endowment principal amount held by the state treasurer, was made to the University by the state. When the state constitution was revised in 1964, this annual payment was discontinued as a separate payment, with the assumption that the small amount involved would be included in the annual state appropriation for operations.

The level of book value of endowment funds has increased from $14,764,000 in 1939-40 to $98,111,000 in 1976-77. At June 30, 1977, market values of the Endowment and Other Invested Funds amounted to $117,577,000 compared to $98,111,000 book value.

These funds are now entitled Endowment and Other Invested Funds and are divided into three sub-groups. The first group, labeled Endowment Funds, includes accounts which allow only the income to be expended, amounting to $62,892,000 at June 30, 1977. A second group, labeled Total Return Funds, includes accounts which allow both principal and income to be expended, and amount to $30,648,000 at June 30, 1977. Annuity and Life Income Funds make up the remainder, representing accounts where commitments exist for payments to living beneficiaries. Page  27

1939-40 $14,764,124
1949-50 19,983,069
1959-60 32,104,848
1969-70 61,241,378
1976-77 98,110,702


Investments handled by the Investment Office include bonds, common and preferred stocks, mortgages (primarily for University staff members), short-term paper, some real estate properties, and miscellaneous contracts, certificates, and notes. A large source of funds for investment arises from the Endowment funds given to the University over many years. Also invested are amounts of cash temporarily held in various University funds. For many years the University handled its own Employees Retirement Fund for nonacademic staff members, which provided a large source of funds for investment, until the Fund was transferred in 1972 to the Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association and College Retirement Equities Fund.

The volume of investment activity handled by the Office has grown rapidly since 1940. The following table indicates annual investments in ten-year periods.

BOOK VALUE OF INVESTMENTS (dollars in thousands)
1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1976-77
Bonds $11,043 $23,917 $52,550 $ 93,294 $146,363
Stocks 515 4,537 17,784 44,806 46,949
Other 1,783 4,555 8,486 19,007 22,607
Investments $13,341 $33,009 $78,820 $157,107 $215,919
The bond category includes both long-term and short-term securities. Market value compared to book value in 1976-77 Page  28was $235,600,000.

Policies governing investment procedures change from time to time to reflect financial markets and prospects.

In the 1943-44 President's Report, it was noted that the policy of that time "emphasized conservation of principal in comparison with production of income," which was a forerunner of an increasing concern over income maximization.

In 1945-46 the Regents adopted a policy statement as follows: "In order to carry out the wishes of the donors of endowment funds, due regard shall be given to the production of income from investments as well as to the conservation of the principal of the funds. The investment policy of the University shall be based on the principle of a broad diversification among various fields of investments and among various securities within these fields." No significant change took place, however, in the investments of University funds until 1951-52 when an agency agreement was entered into with the National Bank of Detroit for advice, consultation, and custodial service for investments of the larger endowment funds. At that time a formal program of investing in common stocks was started and, during the next 25 years, common stocks as a percentage of the total market value investment in the Endowment Funds increased from 13 percent in 1951-52 to 58 percent in 1976-77, at which time the maximum authorized limit was 70 percent of market value.

The Consolidated Endowment Pool is a group of individual funds, the terms of which do not require the assets to be invested separately. The principal of such funds must be maintained intact and only the income expended for the particular purposes for which the endowment was created. Thus, it is possible to take a long range approach to the investments of such funds. There is no problem of meeting any future obligations out of the principal, and the fluctuations of security prices are not of great importance except as they provide opportunities to buy and sell or to switch from one type of investment to another. Income is of prime importance, not only from the standpoint of amount but also of stability. Investments include common stocks, bonds, mortgages, land contracts, preferred stocks, and real estate. Page  29Share values are assigned for individual accounts and income distributed on the basis of these shares as currently valued.

The investments of working capital of various University funds are principally commercial paper and U.S. Government agency obligations. The maturities are short-term, and investments are adjusted on a day-to-day basis in accordance with the over-all cash position of the University. Fluctuations in the amount of these investments are therefore considerable.

The Reserve Funds - Investment Pool is a pooling for investment purposes of various University reserve accounts and other funds of this type. Although the funds in this pool may be drawn on for expendable purposes, it is expected that they will not be needed in their entirety in the immediate future. The investments are principally bonds of medium-term maturities. A moderate short-term position is maintained to provide liquidity.

The University has certain funds, mostly endowments, that must be separately invested in accordance with the terms of the gifts or bequest. In a few cases the terms also restrict the investments to certain types, such as bonds or other fixed-income securities. The investments of these funds are in accord with the restrictions or with the authorizations outlined above, with the exceptions of a few securities that have been retained at the request of the donors.

In accordance with the Bylaws, Sec. 3.07 (2), all investment transactions are reported to the Regents at the monthly meetings. The investments of the larger funds are reviewed with the Regents semiannually, and a report of all investments is submitted annually.

The Total Return Fund, established in July 1970, is a pool of individual funds, the terms of which permit the use of some or all of the capital gains, realized or unrealized, and principal in addition to ordinary income. The investment objective of the Total Return Fund is to maximize total return within reasonable standards of prudence. The term "total return" is considered to mean a combination of Page  30income in the ordinary sense and appreciation or depreciation in the market value of the investments, either realized or unrealized. The use of fixed-income securities, convertible issues, and common stocks is governed by the objective, rather than by any specific percentage limitations. There is no limitation on the selection of individual securities by the National Bank of Detroit, Trust Department, provided the University officers concerned with investment approve the purchases.

In 1975 a Donor Pooled Income Fund was established to produce income for beneficiaries with life-income interests.

Page  31



The Committee on Office Personnel was discontinued January 26, 1945, and its duties were absorbed by the Personnel Office established at that time.

The number of staff members of all types grew rapidly following World War II. Full-time counts grew from an estimated 5,500 in 1945-46 to 7,363 in 1951-52, 9,400 in 1959-60, 13,650 in 1969-70, and 14,121 in 1976-77.

In addition to full-time appointments, the University always has relied upon a relatively large number of part-time workers, including many student employees in the hospital, libraries, and residence halls. Also included are a large number of temporary appointees who work for a period as short as one or two days or who work intermittently from time to time. For the last six or seven years, total part-time counts have ranged between 9,000 and 10,000 per year.

Employee counts taken from payroll records during the month of October are reported annually to the U. S. Census Bureau. These counts are used as the institution's official count of employees for each year. Reports are also furnished monthly and quarterly to the Michigan Employment Security Commission, and these are automatically transmitted to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Annual reports are also furnished to the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Special reports on the number of faculty are furnished each year to the American Association of University Professors and exchanged among the Big Ten universities.

Employee Classifications

Because of state and federal legislation and administrative requirements instituted over the years since World War II, it has become necessary to maintain separate classifications for employees in the personnel records. Important among these requirements are the union contracts, affirmative action regulations for minorities, sex, and age groups, Page  32and various other labor laws and regulations applicable to selected nonexempt employees.

At the present time personnel records provide data on the following job families: instructional, administrative, professional, office and clerical, technical, service, and trades. Data maintained for these classifications include sex, age, minority status, and exempt or nonexempt status as to certain labor legislation, among other items.

Traditional classifications for full-time instructional positions include Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor, Instructor, and Lecturer.

The history of development of noninstructional classifications on a University-wide basis is described in the following paragraphs:

In 1964, development began for centralized computer records of staff job classification titles and salaries by classification, with the reports being operational and produced on a regular basis by July of 1966. This provided the data necessary for the development of a uniform, University-wide job classification and pay system.

Historically, job descriptions, titles, and pay rates had been established on a departmental or divisional basis, until July 1964, when a system of uniform, University-wide job classifications, classification descriptions, and a wage schedule was adopted for all service and maintenance workers. This was the first step toward the implementation of a University-wide, centrally administered classification and pay program, and it began with this staff group in anticipation of collective bargaining, which occurred in 1967.

The administration of classification and pay programs of Office, Technical, and Professional and Administrative (P&A) staff continued to be primarily decentralized until the development of uniform job classifications, classification descriptions, and salary schedules began in 1967. The initial compensation program consisted of the preparation of classification descriptions for existing job titles and the assignment of each of these classifications to a salary grade and range, using the existing pay grades and ranges Page  33for office jobs (C-1 to C-6) and establishing a new salary schedule for P&A and Technical classifications, which consisted of twenty-four separate salary grades and ranges. This initial program was designed principally around existing job titles and pay rates, rather than a restructuring of what had been done before. To that extent, it was the formalization, documentation, and systematizing of established pay practices for Office and Technical staff and for P&A staff up to middle management levels but excluding higher level (or executive) positions.

In July of 1968, the first University-wide job classification list, salary grade assignments, and salary schedules were published and distributed to unit management for use in preparing the annual salary budget and the processing of salary increases for Office, Technical and P&A staff. The preparation of University job classification descriptions for all classifications continued during this time and, by the Fall of 1969, virtually all job classifications for these staff groups had been described, except for executive level positions.

These classification and pay systems remained in effect until 1973, with numerous adjustments being made to the salary grade assignments of individual classifications and the ongoing establishment and deletion of job classifications.

By 1971, it became apparent that an intensive, systematic review of P&A job classifications was needed in order to (1) update and complete the classification descriptions for P&A positions at all levels (2) formalize the job classification evaluation process, and (3) provide for the inclusion of an additional 800 ungraded "academic" P&A staff in the graded system, which had previously been in the Instructional appointment system. In addition, the extension of the Federal Equal Pay Acts to cover University P&A staff made an equity review of the individual salaries an integral and essential part of the planned study.

The Robert Hayes and Associates consulting firm was retained to assist in the conduct of this compensation study, and work began on it by the spring of 1972. A total of about 4,500 positions and staff were affected by this comprehensive review, which was completed by September of Page  341972, with the resulting program implemented in January of 1973.

Specifically, the study resulted in the adoption of a point evaluation plan to be used in evaluating P&A job classifications for assignment to salary grades; a reduction of P&A job classifications from 694 to 544; the adoption of a twenty-one grade salary-range schedule; the incorporation of 772 ungraded "academic" positions into the graded P&A classification system; the adoption of graded classifications for all levels of P&A positions; and salary adjustments for a total of 386 staff members, to assure the maintenance of equitable salary relationships. The P&A job classification and pay system adopted in 1973 continues to operate to date, largely unchanged from its initial implementation. It should be noted, however, that numerous individual classification and salary grade changes have occurred over time, in the routine maintenance of the system.

With regard to the classification and pay system for Office and Technical staff, the basic system adopted in 1967-68 has remained in effect with little change to the system itself.

Employee Unions

The Hutchison Act of 1947 in Michigan provided mediation procedures and established penalties for illegal strikes for public employees. The Public Employee Relations Act of 1965 in Michigan provided for collective bargaining and also prohibited strikes, but provided no strike penalties. Following this legislation in 1965, union activity began at a significant level.

The history of employee union contracts began with the first contract negotiated with the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) for a small number of turbine and boiler operators and operating engineers, effective September 13, 1968. In rapid succession, contracts were negotiated with the Washtenaw County Local Building Trades Board of Directors (WCLBTBD) for skilled tradesmen effective October 4, 1968, and the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees for a large group of service Page  35and maintenance workers on November 15, 1968. On November 13, 1973, the first contract was negotiated with the House Officers Association (HOA), for medical interns and residents at the Medical Center. After lengthy discussions and hearings, a contract was negotiated on March 14, 1975, with the Graduate Employees Organization (GEO) representing a large number of graduate student assistants, research assistants, and teaching assistants. A contract for clerical workers was negotiated on August 21, 1975, with the United Auto Workers (UAW), which was terminated August 31, 1976, after a decertification election of the clerical employees. The newest contract was negotiated on April 9, 1976, after several attempts in recent years, with the University of Michigan Nurses Association (UMNA) for nonsupervisory registered nurses, most of whom work at the University Hospital. Work stoppages of short duration by skilled tradesmen and service workers have occurred occasionally. Fortunately, these have not resulted in major impacts on University operations.

Additional information follows in the detailed descriptions of each union group history:

International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE)

In August 1965, following the passage of Public Act No. 376 of 1965, the IUOE petitioned the Michigan Labor Mediation Board to be recognized as the bargaining agent for the operating engineers, turbine operators, and boiler operators working at the University. An election was delayed while the University challenged the constitutionality of the Act, but following the trades strike in September 1967, and the University's announcement it would follow the election procedures while the courts were deciding the question, an election was held on November 6, 1967.

As a result of that election, Local 546 of the International Union of Operating Engineers was certified as the exclusive bargaining representative of the employees in the affected classifications.

Currently sixty-one employees engaged in the maintenance and operation of the University's heating and power plants Page  36are represented by IUOE. Employees represented by IUOE were first hired at the Flint Campus in November, 1976.

Six contracts have been negotiated with the Operating Engineers. The effective dates have been: September 13, 1968; January 1, 1970; April 1, 1972; March 31, 1974; April 1, 1976; October 1, 1977. The current contract expires November 30, 1979.

Washtenaw County Local Building Trades Board of Directors (WCLBTBD)

The Washtenaw County Local Building Trades Board of Directors (Council) was certified on November 17, 1967, as the exclusive bargaining representative for the various skilled maintenance trades classifications. This unit represents approximately 300 employees. Certification resulted after the Washtenaw Circuit Court ruled on the constitutionality of Public Act No. 379 of 1965, finding that the University employees had the right to organize and bargain collectively.

Five contracts have been negotiated with the Council, effective as follows: October 4, 1968; January 1, 1970; April 1, 1972; July 18, 1974; August 1, 1977. A work stoppage (strike) occurred during the 1974 negotiations from June 26, 1974 to July 18, 1974. The current contract expires July 31, 1979.

American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees-Local 1853

AFSCME is an international labor organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. The largest public employee union in the country, it is affiliated with the AFL/CIO. AFSCME Local 1583 represents approximately 2400 service and maintenance employees at the University.

AFSCME filed a petition with the Michigan Employment Relations Commission for a representation election in September of 1967, and an election was held April 25, 1968, resulting in AFSCME's recognition as the bargaining agent (union) for all regular service/maintenance employees except those in the trades and the operating engineers. AFSCME Page  37has negotiated four contracts with the University. The effective dates of the contracts have been: November 15, 1968; February 8, 1971; March 7, 1974; March 24, 1977 (expires March 20, 1979). The 1976-77 negotiations involved a 26 day strike.

AFSCME, over the past several years, has attempted to organize the Professional, Clerical, and Technical employees. The last attempt was in October 1975 when AFSCME lost a representation election of Technical employees.

Unsuccessful attempts to decertify from the union occurred in April 1977 (University Meatcutters) and in May 1977 (employees of printing department).

House Officer's Association

The House Officer's Association represents approximately 600 Interns and Residents at the Medical Center. The Association is an independent labor union which petitioned the Michigan Employment Relations Commission (MERC) for recognition in April 1970. The University challenged that the petitioners were students and not employees under the meaning of the Public Employee Relations Act and, therefore, not covered by the Act. In March 1971, MERC issued a 2-1 decision that a unit of Interns, Residents, and Postdoctoral Scholars was appropriate and ordered a secret ballot election. The University appealed this decision to the Court of Appeals and requested a stay of election. The stay of election was denied and an election was conducted April 21-23, 1971, which resulted in the Association being certified as the bargaining agent. The Court then reversed MERC's decision and the Association appealed this decision to the Michigan Supreme Court. On February 20, 1973, the Supreme Court decided that Interns, Residents, and Postdoctoral Scholars were both students and employees under the Act. The Court further ordered the University to bargain with the Association on employment matters, but excluded bargaining on educational matters. The University entered negotiations with the Association during which Postdoctoral Scholars were excluded from the bargaining unit.

Five contracts have been negotiated with the HOA, Page  38effective: November 13, 1973; October 11, 1974; November 19, 1975; August 31, 1976; August 31, 1977. The current contract expires August 31, 1978.

Graduate Employees' Organization

GEO has represented approximately 2,200 graduate student assistants. The majority of these are in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

In March of 1970, the "University of Michigan Teaching Fellows Union" petitioned MERC for recognition as the bargaining agent for the 1,500 teaching fellows. At a subsequent hearing before the Michigan Employment Relations Commission, the University argued that teaching fellows were not employees within the meaning of the law. The University's position was that teaching fellows were primarily University of Michigan graduate students and not employees. A majority of teaching fellow appointments were given to individuals who were fulfilling a degree requirement by teaching. In such cases the University was not required to pay the individual but, in many instances, chose to do so as a form of financial support. Most teaching fellow appointments were considered an intricate part of the financial support program for graduate students and, in cases where a degree requirement was involved, the fellowships were considered tax exempt. The University further argued that if teaching fellows were to be considered as employees they were part of a larger bargaining unit and, therefore, should not be certified as an appropriate unit by themselves. MERC did not rule on the employment status question but dismissed the teaching fellows' petition on the grounds that if they were employees they were part of a larger unit.

In February of 1974, the Graduate Employees' Organization (GEO) requested recognition by the University as the bargaining agent for all graduate student assistants. GEO set a target date for a strike vote to be taken in the event the University refused to recognize it as the bargaining agent. The University declined to recognize the GEO, but did agree to a consent election if the GEO was able to demonstrate at least a 30 percent showing of interest among the 2,200 graduate student assistants. An election, supervised by Page  39MERC, was held April 1-3, 1974, which was won by GEO.

A first contract was negotiated, becoming effective on March 14, 1975. Salary provisions of the contract were made retroactive to September 1, 1974.

The Graduate Employees' Organization affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers/Michigan Federation of Teachers as Local 3550 in March 1976.

The contract expired August 31, 1976, and a successor contract has not been negotiated; the legal issue of a graduate student's employee status under the Act is now being litigated.

United Auto Workers Local 2001 (Concerned Clericals for Action)

The United Auto Workers (UAW) were elected the collective bargaining representative for 3,300 clerical positions at the University in a run-off election in November of 1974. The run-off was between no union and the UAW due to the fact that no party had received a majority of the votes in a September 1974 election when AFSCME was also on the ballot. Negotiations resulted in a first contract being reached on August 21, 1975, with an expiration date of August 31, 1976. A group of clericals supporting a no union position successfully filed a decertification petition which resulted in a decertification election being conducted by the Michigan Employment Relations Commission on August 11, 1976. The no vote received a majority, and the UAW was decertified with the expiration of the contract on August 31, 1976. Attempts to reorganize a union by the former union supporters have failed to date.

University of Michigan Nurses Association

The Council represents approximately 800 Registered Nurses in various nonsupervisory classifications, almost exclusively working at the Medical Center. The Council is affiliated with the State Organization, Michigan Nurses Association, and with the National Organization, American Page  40Nurses Association.

The MNA tried for a number of years to organize the RNs at the University of Michigan. The first MERC-conducted election was held on December 14, 1967, at which time the nurses voted not to be represented by the Association. In the second election held on January 29, 1975, MNA won the right to represent the nonsupervisory RNs. The unit was certified on February 10, 1975.

Two contracts have been negotiated with the Nurses Association. After one year of bargaining the first labor agreement was signed, effective April 9, 1976 - December 31, 1977. The current contract is effective March 16, 1978 - June 30, 1980, with a single payment of retroactive wages to January 1, 1978, included. The contract established a two-schedule, graduated-step system for payment of wages.

Staff Benefits

There has been a dramatic growth in employee benefit programs since 1940. These have become a significant part of employee compensation. To serve employee needs better and to provide service and information for these benefits, the Office of Staff Benefits was established in January of 1960. Also at that time the Committee on Staff Benefits was formed to keep current the plans involving employee benefits. In April of 1976, an annual statement to employees was designed and issued for the first time.

Vacation and Holidays

Regular staff members other than faculty on an academic-year basis receive the various benefits described below:

Most professional and administrative staff and 12-month faculty receive twenty-four work days per year as vacation allowance, cumulative to two years. Other level professional and administrative staff, clerical and office staff, technical, trades, and service workers also receive the same vacation allowance after eight years employment, eighteen days per year for from five to eight years employment, and twelve days per year in the first five years of Page  41employment, except as altered by union contracts.

Holidays are recognized on New Years Day, Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, two days at Thanksgiving, Christmas Day, and three "swing" days between Christmas and New Years Days, except as modified by union contracts.

Disability and Preventive Care Income

Nonbargained-for employees are provided temporary salary continuation for sickness or disability: one year at full pay and one year at half pay for faculty and six months at full pay and six months at half pay for professional and administrative staff.

Disability Plan

A plan for long-term disability was first proposed by the Regents in October of 1952. The first effective date was July of 1953. It was a self-insured plan for employees aged forty or above and who had been enrolled in a University retirement program for ten years. The plan provided benefits of one-half salary between a range of $125 minimum and $200 maximum per month and paid premiums for retirement and group life insurance. Social Security benefits were integrated in 1960.

On July 1, 1966, the following changes were approved: No minimum age and five years only of service were required. Monthly benefit maximum was raised to $400. Health insurance premiums were also paid.

Further amendments were approved February 3, 1970. Monthly benefit maximum was raised to $700. Monthly benefit maximum was raised to $1,000 July 1, 1972. In December of 1973, Medicare "B" premiums were paid. On July 1, 1975, the monthly benefit maximum was raised to $1,200.

Other more minor changes have also occurred in this plan since 1953.

Health Insurance

Health insurance coverage is optional for University Page  42employees. Most exercise the option, as the greater part of the premiums are covered by the University.

In 1939 Blue Cross coverages were offered to the full-time staff and retirees. In 1940 Blue Shield coverages were added.

Major medical insurance coverages began in July of 1960 for faculty and certain other staff members. In December of 1973 coverage was extended to all regular employees and retirees. Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) are the insurors.

The University began its participation in premium payments for health insurance in July of 1963. In January of 1973 the University began paying total premium cost for retirees and spouses of deceased employees. As costs increased over the years, the University has raised its payment share of the monthly premium for active staff, and at June 30, 1977, it was paying up to $65 per month per employee, or about 83 percent of the total premium.

Comprehensive periodic physical examinations were made available free of charge to faculty and certain administrative staff in 1956. In September 1963 the examination frequency was changed to include a one-stop birthday examination annually, and a more complete examination every five years.

In 1976 the University began a program of contributing $6.70 per month for Medicare "B" premiums for those applicable employees and retirees.

Group Life Insurance

Group life insurance coverage is optional for regular employees. The University contributes approximately one-half of the premium. The plan is experience-rated and net costs may vary from year to year.

The plan began in February of 1950 with Prudential Life Insurance Company as the carrier. It required participation of 75 percent of the eligible employees. Coverages vary with age and salary level. Premiums vary with age level.

Page  43Paid-up coverage of $1,000 was provided in July 1953 for retirees. In July of 1961 coverage was improved to approximately one and one-half of salary level. Retiree coverage was increased to $2,000 in July of 1961. In July of 1964 coverage was increased to approximately twice the salary level, and since 1972 ranges from two to three times salary level. From age sixty-five to seventy coverage now reduces gradually to $2,000 for active employees. These are some of the salient changes that have occurred in this benefit program since 1950.

Retirement Plans

The Older Faculty Plan, a limited plan for faculty members in the 1920s and earlier, is still paying annuities to a few retirees and surviving spouses. The last active member retired under this plan in June of 1963.

In July of 1945 the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) retirement plan for faculty was modified when the University increased its range of contributions to 10 percent from 5 percent, depending upon the vintage of contracts. In July of 1952 the College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) was made available to University employees as a companion plan to TIAA that allowed purchase of stocks to serve as a better hedge against inflation. In July of 1955 salary limits for coverage under TIAA/CREF were eliminated. In January 1962 a salary/annuity option was offered for employees wishing to declare premiums tax-deferred up to 20 percent of salary. By November of 1972 all regular staff became eligible at any appointment fraction for TIAA/CREF participation. In addition to the significant changes listed above, other plan modifications have occurred from time to time.

A retirement plan for nonacademic employees became effective in July of 1942. This plan became the Employees Retirement Plan in 1952 and followed somewhat the same general principles governing the TIAA faculty plan, although differing some in rates and eligibility requirements. Moneys provided by employees and matched by the University were held by the University in a separate fund entitled the "Employee Retirement Fund," and this fund participated in the University's investment program.

Page  44The University contracted with the Connecticut General Corporation to pay out annuities in this fund beginning in October of 1952.

As actuarial reserves exceeded needs for retirement and death benefit requirements from time to time, dividends were distributed to plan members as additional pension benefits.

Compulsory participation at age thirty-five with no service requirement began in January of 1967.

On July 21, 1972, the Regents authorized the use of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) - College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) to replace the Employees' Retirement Plan (ERP), including the transfer of past service benefits, to provide continuing retirement benefits for the members of the Employees' Retirement Plan.

Following that authorization, the members of ERP, consisting of 4,516 service-technical, clerical, and professional-administrative staff, were informed about the features of TIAA-CREF and the various alternatives which were available. The most significant features of TIAA-CREF are immediate vesting, portability, the variable annuity, the salary or annuity option, and the ability for a participant to add additional money to the retirement plan.

By the end of December 1972, the assets of ERP had been transferred and allocations were made to each participant. The total amount of transfer from ERP assets to the Teachers Insurance Annuity Association was $61,856,936. Each participant benefited from a significant increase in the value of common stocks as well as from a release of actuarial reserves based on common stock values which were applicable to the individual's account under the TIAA-CREF plan.

The Congress of the United States in 1954 amended the Federal Social Security Act to permit the inclusion of certain public employees previously excluded from coverage under the Act. This amendment extended the coverage of Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance to these employees as of January 1, 1955. Adoption of the program by the Page  45University was dependent upon a referendum scheduled for September 1955, through which all eligible employees would, by secret ballot, indicate whether they did or did not wish to secure the retirement benefits made available by the 1954 amendment to the Federal Social Security Act. The referendum was held on September 26 and 27, 1955, and 85 percent of the eligible University employees voted to participate, and the University entered the program effective January of 1955. Since that time, the cost of the annual tax has increased greatly, and employees in 1977 are paying 5.85 percent of a salary base of $16,500 which is matched by the University.

An early retirement program was instituted in August of 1974 in which a staff member could retire before the mandatory age of seventy with reduced annuity benefits but group life and health insurance benefits protected, depending upon length of service and age, beginning as low as age fifty-five.

In the fall of 1969, the Personnel Office and the Office of Staff Benefits began an orientation program for prospective retirees entitled "Planning for Retirement Program." Four seminars are held each year for 15 to 20 employees per seminar.

Travel Accident

In February of 1960 the Regents approved blanket travel accident insurance policy for the benefit of employees traveling on University business. Coverage for an accident causing death ranged from a minimum of $50,000, or five times annual basic salary, to a maximum of $200,000. Scaled-down coverages apply to permanent disabilities resulting from such accidents. The University pays the full premium cost.

Workers Compensation

All employees are covered at University expense for medical expenses resulting from on-the-job injury or death.

Page  46



The total value of physical properties at the University has grown eleven times that recorded in 1940. This period is very significant for its growth in fixed assets. Notable additions were the North Campus in Ann Arbor and the Dearborn and Flint Campuses. The table below indicates this growth over ten-year increments since 1939-40: Page  47

1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1976-77
Land $ 6,436,305 $ 8,059,450 $ 13,493,428 $ 20,056,527 $ 21,640,857
Land Improvements 1,952,909 2,536,587 8,194,561 15,403,924 27,749,031
Buildings* 35,916,137 57,704,547 145,495,513 319,139,180 429,566,427
Equipment 13,809,181 22,466,022 46,948,380 107,336,356 166,743,488
Total Values $58,114,532 $90,766,606 $214,131,882 $461,935,987 $642,699,803
Land Acreage 10,102 18,284 19,940 20,923 20,090*

Page  48State appropriations for the University of Michigan's building program are shown in the accompanying table. These appropriations include Ann Arbor, Dearborn, and Flint. The first appropriations for the Dearborn and Flint Campuses occurred in 1970-71 and through 1976-77 have amounted to over $20,000,000.

1939-1940 $ -0-
1940-1941 -0-
1941-1942 25,000
1942-1943 25,000
1943-1944 220,000
1944-1945 -0-
1945-1946 1,500,000
1946-1947 3,300,000
1947-1948 3,200,000
1948-1949 3,969,500
1949-1950 100,000
1950-1951 3,000,000
1951-1952 3,000,000
1952-1953 2,376,203
1953-1954 2,182,000
1954-1955 3,392,000
1955-1956 5,641,460
1956-1957 9,190,000
1957-1958 8,599,000
1958-1959 1,996,606
1959-1960 1,320,983
1960-1961 2,350,000
1961-1962 2,700,000
1962-1963 3,850,000
1963-1964 4,947,000
1964-1965 5,755,000
1965-1966 4,283,893
1966-1967 5,425,000
1967-1968 7,400,000
1968-1969 6,870,000
1969-1970 4,940,000
1970-1971 3,380,845
1971-1972 $724,252
1972-1973 5,100,000
1973-1974 14,988,000
1974-1975 3,647,500
1975-1976 6,244,000
1976-1977 6,166,000


On June 30, 1940, the University owned 10,102 acres of land, 291 acres in the Ann Arbor area and 9,811 acres located elsewhere in the state of Michigan and outside the state. By June 30, 1955, the University owned 18,576 acres of land at original cost value of $9,023,879. Of these, 1,007 acres were in the Ann Arbor area and the rest were in out-state Michigan and at Camp Davis near Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Significant among the out-state holdings were the Biological Station near Cheboygan - 8,809 acres; the Edwin S. George Reserve in Livingston County - 1,335 acres; the Chase S. Osborn Preserve on Sugar Island in the St. Mary's River - 3,144 acres; and the Willow Run Airport in Washtenaw and Wayne Counties - 1,972 acres.

Total land holdings at June 30, 1977, amounted to 20,090 acres at a cost of $21,640,857. Of these lands, 2,582 acres at a cost of $17,486,697 are located in the Ann Arbor area, and of these 1,562.17 acres are within the city limits of Ann Arbor, including the North Campus holdings acquired in the 1950s. Occasionally individual city lots with houses on the campus perimeter became available for sale. Where these benefited the University's campus plans, purchase agreements were negotiated. In some cases these scattered lots were held as income properties for a short time until the land could be used for campus building purposes.

Two significant acreages in the Ann Arbor area, but outside the city limits, are the Botanical Gardens on Dixboro Road, acquired in 1957-58, and Radrick Farms on Dixboro and Geddes Roads, acquired in 1961-62.

Page  50A gift of 70.346 acres in Dexter, Michigan, including the former home of Judge Samuel William Dexter, was received in December of 1950 from the granddaughter Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick.

Important changes in out-state land holdings include the acquisition of the Willow Run Airport property in 1947 by transfer from the Federal Government as war-surplus property and the later transfer of Willow Run Airport to the Wayne County Road Commission in 1977, a reduction of 1,957 acres from the University land records. Additions in out-state holdings since 1955 include:

  • 258 acres - Mud Lake in Webster Township of Washtenaw County, acquired in 1954-55 and 1955-56
  • 90 acres - increased acquisitions in Stinchfield Woods in 1955-56 and in 1964-65
  • 196 acres - Dearborn Campus - a gift acquired in 1957-58
  • 134 acres - Willow Run - U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare surplus properties acquired in 1960-61
  • 203 acres - Keweenaw Peninsula Rocket Launching Site, acquired in 1963-64
  • 53 acres - Flint Campus acquisitions, acquired by gift in 1970-71
  • 629 acres - Biological Station additions, acquired in separate parcels throughout the period
  • 33 acres - Chase S. Osborn Preserve net additions, finalized in 1973-74
  • 330 acres - William A. Harper Preserve in Genesee County, a gift in 1974-75
  • 129 acres - St. Pierre Wetlands in Livingston, County, a gift in 1975-76

Page  51



Significant building additions are described in the following paragraphs by campus areas (Central, North, Medical, Parking Structures, South, Dearborn, Flint, and Off-Campus). Building projects totaling 155 are reported here, representing 114 new projects (actually encompassing 491 different structures), 23 major building additions, 11 remodeling projects where the housed activities were changed, and 7 major renovation projects.

This updating of building activity reports the major part of the postwar building program. Buildings added since 1940, as described in Volume IV, pages 1569-1744, are listed below:

    Central Campus
  • page
  • 1731 School of Public Health Building - 1943
  • 1614 East Engineering Addition - 1947
  • 1744 University Terrace Apartments - 1947
  • 1569 Literature, Science, and the Arts Building (formerly Administration Building) - 1948
  • 1729 School of Business Administration Building - 1949
  • 1712 Alice Crocker Lloyd Hall - 1949
  • 1664 Inglis House - 1951
  • 1677 Madelon Pound House - 1951
  • 1707 South Quadrangle - 1951
  • 1678 Mason and Haven Halls (additions to Angell Hall) 1952
  • 1587 Margaret Bell Pool - 1954
  • 1673 Legal Research Library Stack Addition - 1955
    North Campus
  • page
  • 1688 Mortimer E. Cooley Memorial Laboratory - 1953
Page  52
    North Campus
  • page
  • 1589 Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory - 1955
  • 1699 Phoenix Memorial Laboratory - 1955
  • 1701 Ford Nuclear Reactor - 1956
    Medical Campus
  • page
  • 1628 Neuroscience Building (formerly Food Service) - 1948
  • 1662 Women's Hospital - 1950
  • 1658 Outpatient Clinic - 1953
  • 1653 Kresge Medical Research Building - 1954
  • 1651 Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center - 1954
  • 1652 Children's Psychiatric Hospital - 1955
    South Campus
  • page
  • 1581 Athletic Administration Building - 1948
  • page
  • 1593 Camp Davis - 1940
  • 1596 Camp Filibert Roth - 1942
  • 1599 Fresh Air Camp - 1944
  • 1601 Speech Camp - 1949
  • 1636 Gordon Hall - 1950
  • 1701 Portage Lake Observatory - 1950

Central Campus

An addition to the Law Library for stack areas and offices was completed in 1955 and is described in Volume IV, page 1673. This was funded by state appropriations and private gifts for a cost of $687,000. Planning was completed Page  53by York and Sawyer Company, and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was the contractor.

An addition to Couzens Hall at 1300 East Ann Street, mentioned in Volume IV, page 1797, was completed in 1956 at a cost of $2,100,000. This addition increased capacity by 272 students and was financed by bonds paid from operating revenues. R. A. Calder Company was the planner and Spence Brothers were the contractors.

In September of 1954 the Regents approved a contract for an addition to the Michigan Union at 530 South State Street and a comprehensive renovation of the kitchen area. The project was completed in 1956 at a cost of $3,000,000, which was financed partly from funds on hand and the balance from a bond issue secured by future student fee allocations.

A new building for the University Press was constructed at 412 Maynard Street in 1956 from University sources at a cost of $130,000. It included 7,583 gross square feet. Douglas Loree designed the two story structure, and it was completed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company to provide a central campus location for the various publishing offices of the University Press previously scattered about the campus. The cost was met from alumni contributions and University funds. By 1951 the Press had outgrown the building and was moved into rented quarters at 615 East University Avenue. Renamed Extension Service Building, it became the headquarters of the University Extension Service formerly housed in the Administration Building.

The Undergraduate Library at 919 South University Avenue was completed in 1957 at a project cost of $3,076,500, financed from state appropriations. Planning began in 1953 for this unit and Albert Kahn, Associated Architects were appointed as architects. The construction contract was awarded to Spence Brothers of Saginaw, and the structure includes 136,820 gross square feet. It was designed to house reference books, frequently used current periodicals, and all reserved books, formerly housed in scattered campus libraries, which were especially used by undergraduates as well as a large collection of basic source books for undergraduate courses. To provide reader spaces for approximately 2,500 students, large study halls were designed for each of Page  54the four levels of the building. Special features include typing rooms, record-listening rooms, a large multipurpose room and special provisions for blind students. Books are arranged in open-shelf collections and the total floor space is designed to be rearrangeable for any library purpose. The library is unique in that it is only the second of its kind to be built in the United States, and at the time of construction the library was the largest of its kind in the world.

The Regents first discussed the acquisition and prospective uses of the Ann Arbor High School building and land at 105 South State Street in May of 1954. In November purchase was authorized at a cost of $1,400,000, including 2.112 acres valued at $244,000. The structure was built in 1905. In February of 1956 the building was renamed the Henry S. Frieze Building, after a University Latin professor who twice served as acting President, and in July a contract was awarded to the Spence Brothers Company for a significant addition and modernization project amounting to $2,436,000, financed primarily from state appropriations. After lengthy City-University discussions, Thayer Street between East Huron and East Washington Streets was closed permitting an extensive addition to the original building. This Colvin & Robinson designed addition, plus extensive remodeling in the existing facility, included removal of the heating plant and connection of the entire facility to the University's central heating system. The project was completed in December of 1957. The new space was used for certain departments of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the School of Social Work. This facility now provides a total of 197,920 gross square feet of space for these activities.

Mary Butler Markley Residence Hall at 1425 Washington Heights was first planned as a residence for 1,200 single women but is now occupied by both men and women. The construction contract was awarded to George W. Lathrop and Sons, Inc. in March of 1957. The project totaled $6,060,631 and was financed by a loan from the Housing and Home Finance Agency and a term loan secured by future revenues from student housing. The building was completed in February 1959 and includes 283,888 gross square feet. Harley, Ellington & Day, Inc., designed the "H" shaped dormitory, sited on Washington Heights, which contains nine houses in Page  55four wings accommodating 1,200 students. An innovation at the time of completion was a telephone in every room. The dormitory was named to honor Mary Butler Markley, a faculty widow, who had been extremely active in alumnae affairs for many years.

An addition to the Henry Frieze Vaughan Public Health Building at 109 South Observatory Street was completed in 1959 at a cost of $1,700,000. The addition was designed by the architect of the original structure, Lewis J. Sarvis, and constructed by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. The project was financed by a Kellogg Foundation gift, a federal grant, and University funds. Regental action in October 1971 named the structure the Henry Frieze Vaughan Public Health Building in honor of the first dean of the School of Public Health, who served from its organization in 1943 to 1960.

Planning for a Pharmacy Research Building, at 428 Church Street, began in January of 1959 when the firm of Bennett and Straight was approved to draw up architectural plans. A. Z. Shmina and Sons were awarded the construction contract in July of 1959, and the building was completed in December of 1960 at a cost of $1,100,000. This was financed by a federal grant, gifts, and University funds. It provided 36,600 gross square feet for teaching and research activities. The facility is devoted almost entirely to laboratories, most of which accommodate two to four researchers, for both faculty and graduate students. The few offices in the project have laboratories attached. At the time of the building's dedication, it was the nation's largest college building for pharmaceutical research. While many research areas remain, renovations in subsequent years, plus use of spaces in the adjoining C. C. Little Building by pharmacy units, have led to a usage change for the structure reflected in the change of name in 1971 to the College of Pharmacy Building.

During 1959-60 over $600,000 worth of renovations were made to the Michigan League which resulted in an all new cafeteria and serving area with new equipment and furnishings. A 10,000-square-foot area beneath and adjacent to the Mendelssohn Theater was excavated and made into a combined theater workshop and multipurpose area. Opening into an area beneath Page  56the theater's stage, the workshop permits sets and other stage equipment constructed there to be put in place directly on the stage. The renovation project also included minor remodeling of the snack bar, installation of new dishwashing equipment, modernization of the ballroom, serving kitchen, and heating and lighting improvements on the first floor.

In May of 1960 a remodeling project for the West Medical Building was approved with a budget of $850,000 and the contract was awarded to the Kurtz Building Company of Ann Arbor. Colvin, Robinson, Wright and Associates provided architectural services. The building became available for alternative use because of the initial move of the Medical School to its first new building on the Medical Campus. The $925,700 project was funded primarily by state appropriation and was completed in June of 1961, at which time it was renamed the Natural Resources Building. In April of 1973 it was again renamed the Samuel Trask Dana Building, honoring the former Dean Emeritus of the School of Natural Resources.

Planning began in 1954 for the Student Activities Building at 515 East Jefferson Street. In January of 1955 the project was approved. Swanson and Associates were architects, and in November a construction contract was awarded to George W. Lathrop and Sons of Detroit. The project budget was set at $1,750,000 to be financed from borrowings secured by future student fee allocations and University sources. The building was completed in 1957. This is one of few American college structures designed primarily to house student organizations, activities, and services. It houses student organizations on three floors, plus a one-story workshop area at the rear. A Class of 1957 Memorial gift provided for a Memorial Court dedicated to Hank Borda, an active Student Government Council Member of the Class who died of leukemia prior to graduation. Original first floor occupants were the major student activities of the Student Government Council, Panhellenic and Interfraternity Councils, Interhouse Council and Assembly Association, Building Administration Committee, and the offices of the Dean of Women. The second floor provided spaces for the Glee Club, Wolverine Club, International Student Association, Alpha Phi Omega, and similar student activities, plus offices of the Dean of Page  57Men. On the third floor, in addition to large meeting rooms, were Joint Judiciary Headquarters and projection rooms. Basement spaces housed the Student Book Exchange, Art Print Loan Collection, student files, and a mimeograph room. The building had been assigned a site on Jefferson Street which allowed for expansion, and three years after its completion that expansion was begun. Swanson and Associates were appointed as architects in 1959 to plan an addition. A. Z. Shmina and Sons were awarded the construction contract in July of 1960 and it was completed in June of 1961, also financed from student fee allocations. The addition provided spaces for the Office of Admissions, the Student Employment Office, the Office of Veteran Affairs, the Cashier's Office, the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information, and an office for the Coordinator of Student Religious Affairs. The present building carries a book value of $2,500,000 and provides 93,193 gross square feet of space for student organizations and administrative offices. A 1968 Union Study by Consultant Douglas Osterheld of the University of Wisconsin recommended a transfer of all student services from offices in the Student Activities Building to the Michigan Union. In 1970 and 1972 the Regents approved a two-phase program moving toward a centralized student center in the Michigan Union and establishing the Student Activities Building as primarily an office building.

The David M. Dennison Building at 500 Church Street was named in May of 1976 in honor of the late physics professor who was a researcher of international stature and a widely respected member of the faculty. It was first known as the Physics and Astronomy Building for which plans began in May of 1960. In July of 1961 construction began and the building was completed by A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company in April of 1963 at a cost of $3,200,000, financed from state appropriations. It was designed by Albert Kahn Associated Architects and Engineers, Inc., who won two awards for excellence in design, one from the Michigan Society of Architects in 1965 and the other from the American Institute of Architects in 1963. The building encompasses 129,669 gross square feet. Offices and laboratories constructed in 1910 and an 1854-vintage library previously served the Astronomy Department with extremely overcrowded and obsolete spaces. Although not entirely housed in such antiquated space, the Physics Department also was in extremely crowded facilities Page  58due to the tremendous growth of the department. For example, a 32 percent growth took place in the period 1956-1960. Research developments in both fields made it most desirable to effect a physical union of the two departments, and a merging of both the Physics and Astronomy libraries and shops was beneficial to both departments.

Planning for Oxford Houses in the 600 block of Oxford Street began in December of 1960 when Stickel, Moody and Associates were appointed architects for the project. The project was approved at the level of $2,500,000 to be financed from future housing revenues. The construction contract was awarded in May of 1962 to Erickson and Lindstrom Construction Company and the project was completed in August of 1963. The facility consisted of eight structures, including 117,778 gross square feet. It provided space for 420 women students and eight house directors in a cooperative system of living for single students. In October of 1964 the Regents accepted the Community Facilities Administration Honor Award for its Oxford Houses. In 1967 a two-story addition, also designed by Stickels and Associates, was completed by Richard Wagner - Builder. Enabled by a $100,000 grant from the Max Kade Foundation, this new 2,230-square-foot facility provided living quarters for 30 coeds, where only German was to be spoken, and was named the Max Kade German House.

A 33,125 square-foot addition to the Alexander G. Ruthven Museums Building was approved in March of 1963 when a construction contract was awarded to Darin and Armstrong Co. and a project budget was set at $1,200,000. Financing was from a large National Science Foundation grant of $1,000,000 and University sources. The project was completed in March of 1964. It was designed by the Architects Collective, Inc. and provided accommodations for a program of research in animal biosystematics for the Museum of Zoology to serve both visiting and resident scholars. In December 1968 the Regents approved naming the building to honor the zoologist who had served on the faculty as Director of University Museums for seven years and as University President for 22 years.

In March of 1965 the Regents authorized acquisition of the Perry Building and land at 330 Packard Street from the Ann Arbor School District. The $350,000 purchase price was Page  59financed from University sources. This added 48,738 gross square feet to the instructional space of the central campus.

A proposed Administration Building at 503 Thompson Street was authorized for detailed plans and specifications for bids in June of 1965. The original design was prepared by Alden Dow and Associates. Construction contracts were awarded to the Spence Brothers of Saginaw in May of 1966 for a project budget of $2,900,000. The project is financed by a continuation of the loan agreements for the Student Activities Building. The building was completed in August of 1968 and provided 78,944 gross square feet for central administrative functions.

Butcher and Willits, Inc. completed construction of the Nu Sigma Nu house at 1912 Geddes Road at a cost of $361,500 in 1970. Designed by Robert Metcalf, the 14,410 square foot project was financed by gifts, a property exchange, and income of the property. In January 1966 the Regents authorized an agreement with the Nu Sigma Nu Fraternity "to assist duly recognized fraternities and sororities in improving and providing appropriate housing for such organizations as qualify for such assistance under rules and regulations of the offices of the Vice-President for Student Affairs and the Vice-President in charge of Business and Finance." The terms of the agreement with Nu Sigma Nu included the transfer by the fraternity to the University of land which it owned at 1015 E. Huron Street. The University established a fund designated as the Nu Sigma Nu Building Fund and deposited all contributions for this purpose. When sufficient assets were received, the University was to construct and lease to the fraternity a house on Fuller Street on land owned by the University. The site was subsequently shifted to one on Geddes Road. Rental paid by the fraternity was to be sufficient to pay all costs of maintenance of the house and also to provide for repayment over a 15-year period of the amount advanced by the University for construction over and above amounts received as gifts. The University will retain ownership of the house and will rent it to the fraternity for short-term periods.

The Parking and Publications Building at 409-411 E. Jefferson Street, a former grocery store and small restaurant, Page  60was purchased in 1969 for $85,000. Financed from University funds, the facility was remodeled into office spaces for Parking Operations and for University Publications.

The University had rented office space in the Benz Building for two public health research projects prior to January 1969 when the owner contacted the University regarding purchase of the red brick building located at 122 S. First Street. The 46,791-square foot structure had office and storage areas on four floors of an L-shaped building and also a 9,000-square foot parking area. In May 1969 Regental approval was given for purchase of the building from Mr. Carroll Benz to aid in meeting substantial research space requirements of the University and to enable consolidation of some units in other rental spaces. It presently houses the Institute for the Study of Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities. Financing of the $284,000 purchase was from University sources. The purchase price and remodeling cost resulted in a book value of $464,000. Renovations and a firestair addition added 1,290 square feet to the structure.

Extensive remodeling of the East Quadrangle student residence hall at 701 East University Avenue was authorized in April of 1969 for a Residential College division of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. The concept of a Residential College developed through a series of faculty committee studies begun in 1963. Associate Dean Burton Thuma was appointed the first director of the Residential College and worked to develop a comprehensive plan and program for both education and facilities. Upon his 1967 retirement, just prior to admission of the first freshman class in the fall of 1967, Dean James H. Robertson succeeded him. The original site for the facility was on University land on the north side of the Huron River along Fuller Road. Placing the College in two remodeled houses of the East Quadrangle was only to be an interim arrangement for two years while the new facility was under construction. Financial restrictions, however, led to the 1967 decision to expand the temporary facilities in the East Quadrangle into a permanent home for the Residential College. Remodeling and renovation was undertaken in three phases. The first phase included renovating mechanical systems, improving handicapped access, and remodeling the former men's Page  61dormitory rooms into classrooms, administrative spaces, library areas, and living units for men and women in the south wing of the Quadrangle. The second phase consisted of similar work in the north wing, while the third phase included a 30,000-square-foot addition, including a 250-seat lecture hall, plus lobbies connecting the north and south wings along the East University and Church Street sides. Swanson Associates provided architectural services for the project. The Henry deKoning Construction Company of Ann Arbor finished its work in August of 1970 at an added capitalized cost of $2,000,000, and this was financed by borrowings secured by residence halls revenues and some University funds.

Growing pedestrian and bicycle traffic in the North University and Forest Avenue area raised serious safety problems at the intersection and along Forest Avenue. The State Highway Department declined signaling at the intersection because of the complexity of signals required and the fact that signaling would significantly slow traffic on Forest. A University study of the problem showed that the physical characteristics of the area would permit a stepless overpass with only a slight grade to be built over Forest Avenue, running from near the North University Building to the vicinity of the Stockwell Hall steps. Such an overpass would eliminate this major traffic hazard, and the Regents approved proceeding with the project. Prior to construction the City of Ann Arbor agreed to close North University Avenue from Forest to Washtenaw which also aided in safety improvement in the area. The Forest Avenue Overpass was completed by the Argersinger-Morse Company in the fall of 1970, financed by University funds in the amount of $482,968.

After the Medical School completed its final move from East University to its second new facility near the Hospital, the old East Medical Building became available for alternate use. In March of 1968 it was approved for remodeling for use by the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the College of Pharmacy. A contract was awarded in July of 1969 to Butcher and Willits Company of Ann Arbor for the remodeling project and the building was renamed the Clarence Cook Little Science Building to honor the renowned cancer research scientist and former University Page  62President. The project was completed in April of 1971, financed from state appropriations and University sources.

In August of 1954 the Regents were notified of the need for additional space for training of dental students. Requests were made for state support for the new Dental Building at 1011 North University Avenue, and the firm of Smith, Hinchman and Grylls was appointed as architects for planning in April of 1963. When completed in 1971, this 307,156-square-foot addition to University facilities was believed to be the most modern and completely equipped structure of its type in the world. Its construction contract was the largest single such contract let by the University. The building is in the form of a hollow square with an attached eight-story research tower and with one wing devoted to one of the most complete professional libraries in existence. It is also attached to the W. K. Kellogg Institute Building on the west. Built in two phases by A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company, classes were able to continue during the period of its construction and the demolition of the 1908 dental building. The new building has increased floor space nearly five times, has allowed a 70 percent enrollment increase, and inauguration of an entirely new individualized curriculum in both dentistry and dental hygiene. The $16,889,845 construction cost was met by federal grants and state appropriations while the additional $395,000 cost of renovations to the adjoining W. K. Kellogg Institute Building were met by a gift of that amount from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation.

Planning for the Thomas Francis Jr. Public Health Building at 1420 Washington Heights began in July of 1964 when Albert Kahn Associates were employed for architectural services. A project budget of approximately $7,000,000 was approved in June of 1966. With two federal grants, a gift from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation of $2,500,000, and funds from University sources, the final cost of $7,240,000 was realized when the building was completed by the Sorenson Gross Company in September of 1971. The seven-story structure includes 169,597 gross square feet and was designed to connect to the original building via a pedestrian walkway at the third level. The new facility provided consolidation within the School of activities previously scattered in 13 different locations. Acting on the recommendation of the Page  63Dean and faculty of the School, the Regents at their October 1971 meeting approved naming this new addition the Thomas Francis, Jr. Public Health Building to honor the late renowned epidemiologist, who had served the School as Professor of Epidemiology from 1941 to 1968.

The Modern Languages Building at 812 East Washington Street was first approved for planning in January of 1965 and construction contracts were awarded in June of 1969. It was completed in October of 1971 at a project cost of $5,766,000, financed mainly from state appropriation and partially from a federal grant. It provided 129,491 gross square feet of added space for instructional activities. Sorenson Gross Construction Company built this four-story structure. Designed by Albert Kahn Associated Architects and Engineers, Inc., the building helps to meet a critical need for classroom and office spaces on the central campus. The basement contains classrooms and a reading room. On the first floor are two auditoriums and two large lecture halls. Entrances are at the four corners of a peripheral corridor. The second floor contains a large language laboratory plus seminar and classrooms. The third and fourth floors contain offices and conference rooms which were planned around two open courts to provide natural light in each office.

The Power Center for Performing Arts at 121 Fletcher Street was first planned in 1964. An offer from Regent Emeritus Eugene B. Power to provide the major source of funds for this project was accepted in November of 1968. Contracts for construction were awarded to the O'Neal Construction Company in March of 1969 and the project was completed in November of 1971 at a cost of $3,600,000, funded by gifts. The facility includes 1,110,630 cubic feet and 58,532 gross square feet. The 1,420-seat structure is sited in Felch Park. Highlights of its Kevin Roche, John Dinkeloo and Associates design are an advanced lighting system, a stage convertible from proscenium to a thrust stage, and the promenade lobby faced with reflecting glass which mirrors Felch Park and features twin glass-enclosed spiral staircases.

In the last twenty-five years, the Heating Plant at Page  641120 East Huron Street has undergone several significant improvements. In 1954 a fifth boiler was added, financed by state appropriations. In 1961 the Regents authorized an additional boiler, fired by gas. This was completed in 1964, funded by state appropriations. Further expansion and modernization was authorized in 1967 for a complete conversion to gas fuel, and in 1972 two turbine generators were acquired to produce added electricity, financed by University funds.

The Alpha Chi Omega sorority house at 1735 Washtenaw Avenue was purchased for $225,000 in 1972 for the School of Business Administration and renamed the Kalmbach Management Center. This purchase was financed from gifts and University sources and provided 22,970 additional gross square feet to the Business Administration facilities.

In May of 1970 the Regents authorized remodeling of the former University School building areas for the School of Education Building at 610 East University Avenue. Colvin, Robinson and Wright were appointed as architects for the project and Saline Construction Company was awarded the construction contract. The work was completed in 1972 at a cost of $1,200,000, financed from University sources.

On October 2, 1972, the former Zeta Psi fraternity house at 1443 Washtenaw Avenue opened as The William Monroe Trotter House, replacing former quarters at South and East University Avenues seriously damaged by fire the previous May. Named for the editor of the first black civil rights newspaper, the Boston Guardian, the 12, 913-square-foot facility is a completely different innovative concept providing coordination of a positive social and cultural environment for black students on the campus. The facility also provides a comfortable environment for black students to seek and receive information from peers and professional staff to aid in their adjustment in the University setting. Purchase and renovation costs of $110,000 were met from University funds and from insurance on the burned building.

The Argus Buildings and land at 405-416 South Fourth Street were acquired from Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. in 1963 at a cost of $1,256,000, financed by University funds. Page  65The three buildings included 2,312,889 cubic feet and 195,353 gross square feet which provided flexible space for storage and service functions. Building Number I was remodeled to provide space for an expanded Amphibian Facility, headquarters for the Alumni Records Office, the Bureau of School Services, as well as storage and service areas for the Library system. Building Number III provided expanded facilities for all units of the Audio-Visual Education Center. When Building Number II was vacated by Argus Optics in 1971, extensive renovations, totaling just over $1,000,000 in University funds, were undertaken to convert the area into office, service, workshop, and studio areas for the Television Center. Ceremonies on September 19, 1974, marked completion of the new Center and the introduction of the Center's new color equipment.

The Business Administration Assembly Hall project at 901 Hill Street was approved in January of 1970. Construction contracts were awarded in May of 1971. The building was completed in November of 1972 at a cost of $1,270,000, financed from gifts and University funds. This two-story building offers year-round facilities for conference and teaching activities of the School of Business Administration, particularly the management and executive training programs conducted by the School. Designed by O'Dell, Hewlett and Luckenbach, construction of this 26,136-square-foot facility was completed by the R. T. Mitchell Construction Company. A 500-seat auditorium within the building is named for Clayton G. Hale, a former Business Administration School faculty member and major donor to the project's funding. First floor facilities also include case discussion rooms and quarters for the executive-in-residence program. On the second floor are conference rooms and offices and a walkway to the main School of Business Administration Building.

The Plant Services Building, a 14,473-square-foot industrial-type building at 1111 Palmer Drive, was designed by Engineering Services to house, in a consolidated area, the Building Service Department Offices and Training Facilities, a Central Campus base of operations for the Elevator Repair Unit, and the Preventive Maintenance Unit, and a small repair area. It was completed in 1973 by the Saline Construction Company at a cost of just under $200,000, financed by University funds.

Page  66The Health Service Building at 207 Fletcher Street was renovated by the E. E. Kurtz Construction Company during 1973-74 at a cost of $428,000. Renovations to update facilities, make handicapped provisions, and to allow use of 10,000 square feet not otherwise usable were completed in 1974. These renovations and some of the fire protection projects undertaken at the same time were funded from University sources, while state funding supported other of the fire protection projects.

The Chemistry Building at 930 North University Avenue was approved for significant renovation in December of 1972. The program was undertaken in a three-phase plan to allow continued use of the building during construction. Charles Sherman Associates provided architectural services for replacement of major mechanical systems, updating of fire exits, improvements for handicapped accessibility and laboratory modernization. R. T. Mitchell Company was the contractor for the project. The first phase was completed in October of 1975, financed from University sources.

In the last two decades the University Library at the center of the campus has undergone two renovation projects. In 1956 and 1957 state appropriations funded a remodeling project of $700,000 at the time the new Undergraduate Library was constructed. A two-floor stack addition was added to the east and west stacks of this structure in 1957 by utilizing space under the roof and in light wells. This addition of 28,046 square feet was designed by Colvin, Robinson and completed by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. The Harlan H. Hatcher Graduate Library (South) was in planning for several years while funding from several sources was acquired. With support from a federal grant, a federal loan, some gift support from the "55 Million" campaign, and pledged student fees, a financing plan was approved in November of 1966. The project was designed by Albert Kahn Associated Architects and Engineers, Inc. A construction contract was awarded to the Lathrop Company in August of 1967. The eight-story building was completed in June of 1970 at a cost of approximately $5,000,000 adding 142,502 gross square feet to the library facilities. The addition provided space to accommodate some 800,000 to 900,000 additional volumes in airconditioned stacks, plus 532. carrels on the second through Page  67sixth floors. One thousand twenty-four book lockers, 200 typewriter lockers, and 10 typing rooms are also located on the second floor. The seventh floor houses the department of rare books and special collections, and on the eighth floor are a map room, a room for papyrology and manuscripts, a 30-seat classroom for teaching, and administrative offices for the library system. This new addition to the south became known as Hatcher-South, while the original structure became known as Hatcher-North. When the Harlan H. Hatcher Graduate Library, South was built, the former library area was badly in need of major rehabilitation. As early as 1965 Albert Kahn and Associates were hired to plan this rehabilitation. State funding was sought and finally obtained in the early 1970s. Work was begun by the Saline Construction Company in 1974 and the project was completed in February 1976 at a cost of just under $4,690,000. This older part of the library was then renamed the Harlan H. Hatcher Graduate Library, North.

Planning for the Institute for Social Research Building, at 426 Thompson Street, began in November of 1959 when additional space was requested of the Regents for this unit. Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was awarded the contract for construction in April of 1964. A unique feature of the floor layout, designed by Alden B. Dow Associates, Inc., is the arrangement of offices in clusters or modules around a central open space lighted by large window walls. This arrangement provides discrete areas for different programs and yet permits easy communication among staff members of a particular research area. Individual offices are small in order to provide privacy for more staff members. Stairs, elevators, and rest rooms are centrally located, therefore, less space is used for hallways, creating additional laboratory and office space. This arrangement yields an extremely efficient use of space - 74 percent - a high ratio of net to gross space for an office building. The building was completed in December of 1965, and it was financed from federal grants, gifts, and University sources for a total cost of just under $2,000,000. An addition to this building was requested and authorized in July of 1970. In December of 1972, 52,100 additional square feet were authorized for the addition, also designed by the Dow firm, and a construction contract was awarded to the R. T. Mitchell Company of Ann Arbor in April of 1974. The addition was completed in April of 1976, Page  68financed from gifts and University sources. The building now encompasses 133,723 gross square feet at a cost of $4,500,000.

The William A. Paton Accounting Center at 951 Hill Street was completed in April of 1976 at a cost of $1,200,000, financed from private gifts. The building project was first approved by the Regents in June of 1973. In November of 1973 the O'Dell, Hewlett, and Luckenbach architectural firm was authorized to complete plans, and in November of 1974 the construction contract was awarded to the R. T. Mitchell Construction Company of Ann Arbor. This excellent and compact facility added 15,239 gross square feet for the teaching and research in accounting programs in the School of Business Administration. Named to honor Michigan's distinguished emeritus Professor of Accounting, this brick two-story air-conditioned structure is sited between the Business Administration Assembly Hall and the Hill Street Parking structure. It contains case discussion rooms, seminar rooms, faculty offices, and television studios and control rooms and support facilities.

In April of 1973 the Regents approved a student fee allocation to finance two new recreational buildings, the Central Campus Recreation Building at 401 Washtenaw and the North Campus Recreational Facility. An increased demand for modern recreational facilities led to this approval of new recreation buildings for both the Central and the North Campuses. The two buildings were authorized for construction in June of 1974, at a combined cost of $7,700,000. The Central Campus building was connected to the Women's Swimming Pool building which was built in 1954 and renamed the Margaret Bell Pool in May of 1966. The Central Campus facility was completed by Spence Brothers Construction Company in July of 1976 at a cost of $4,800,000 and with the pool building provides 182,088 gross square feet of excellent intramural sports space. The aging and inadequate Women's Athletic Building was demolished in 1974 to clear a site for the 132,956-square-foot Central Campus building which would allow it to be built adjacent to Palmer Field and to connect with the Margaret Bell Pool. Alden B. Dow Associated, Inc. designed the facility, available to both men and women. It includes 11 handball and 6 squash courts, a large gymnasium with a one-eighth-mile jogging track, Page  69exercise rooms, sauna-equipped locker rooms, handicapped facilities, plus physical education areas and administrative offices. Another interesting feature of the building are two brightly colored leaded glass windows on the west side of the main lobby portraying Olympic sports symbols in a predominantly maize and blue color scheme. The will of the late Ruth Hooke of Cincinnati provided for and directed that windows in her memory be placed facing the sunset in a suitable location on campus. Designed by Ralph S. Stevenson from an idea developed by Kathleen Segat, the design was executed by Ann Arbor artist Bob Vavrina in hand-blown, full antique glass and opalescent glass.

A Dance Building at 1310 North University Court was added to the Central Campus Recreation Building in 1977. To replace its former cramped and inadequate quarters in Barbour Gymnasium, this 11,493-square-foot specially-designed facility was constructed for the School of Music's Dance Department by Spence Brothers Construction Company. The three-story structure has four large dance studios on the first and third levels. Offices, conference rooms and administrative spaces occupy the second level. The project cost of approximately $500,000 was met from University funds.

North Campus

The Regents approved plans for the Library Central Service and Stack Building at 2360 Bonisteel Boulevard in September of 1953. To cope with the problems of expanding facilities of the library system, this four-level structure was designed as an economical storage annex by Albert Kahn Associates to house 400,000 older periodicals and books with a limited circulation. The building includes a bindery and a reading room which is available for student use, or materials can be sent to central campus libraries for use there. A construction contract was awarded to Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. in March of 1954. The building was completed in 1955 at a cost of $480,000, which was financed from state appropriations and University funds. This facility added 213,925 cubic feet and 20,077 gross square feet for library functions.

The Aeronautical Engineering Laboratory at 2515 Patterson Street was authorized in August of 1954, and the Page  70construction contract was awarded to Sorenson Gross Construction Company in February of 1955. The Department of Aeronautical Engineering was severely handicapped by its scattered Willow Run facilities in attempting to keep up with the growing research and teaching needs of a rapidly developing field. Regental approval was granted in 1954 for three departmental projects to be sited in the new engineering complex on the North Campus. It was of great importance for both teaching and research purposes that these structures, a low-turbulence wind tunnel, a high-speed wind tunnel, and an aircraft propulsion laboratory, be grouped together and that they be sited near other engineering facilities. Colvin, Robinson and Associates designed the facilities. The project was completed in December of 1955 at a cost of just under $700,000. A total of 524,092 cubic feet and 23,317 gross square feet were included. In 1961 another structure, the Plasma Research Building, was added at a cost of $100,000, including 6,521 gross square feet. Funds for these projects were provided from University sources.

The Printing Service Building at 1101 Beal Avenue was authorized in February of 1955 and completed in 1957 for a cost of $450,000 provided from University sources. This structure contains 354,040 cubic feet and 29,504 gross square feet. Douglas Loree designed the structure and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. completed the construction. It provided space for printing and binding operations, and related storage.

Smith, Hinchman and Grylls designed the 17,958-square-foot Ford Nuclear Reactor which was completed in 1956 by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. as a wing addition to the Phoenix Memorial Laboratories. This additional facility provided further support for research in the field of atomic energy as well as support for the University's teaching program in nuclear engineering. The $952,000 building cost was financed by the generous gift of the Ford Motor Company Fund.

A project, originally constructed as a Civil Defense and Disaster Training Center and changed in 1977 to the Fire Service Instruction and Research Center at 1946 Beal Avenue, was completed in 1959 at a cost of $473,000, financed by a federal grant and state appropriations. The facility was designed by James H. Livingston Associates to provide Page  71better preservice and inservice training opportunities for Michigan firemen, both paid and volunteer. Expansion of the firemanship training program was jointly conducted by the University Extension Service and the State of Michigan Office of Vocational Education, Department of Public Instruction. Development of this program also increased overall fire protection to the University of Michigan. Perron Construction Company completed the facility in 1959. Prior to construction, the Ann Arbor City Council agreed that when the facility was needed as an operating fire station for the area, it would be manned by the Ann Arbor Fire Department. An engine company of the Ann Arbor Fire Department moved into the facility in 1967.

The Cyclotron Building at 2590 Patterson Street was originally planned in April of 1956, contracts for construction were awarded in July of 1960, and the project was completed in October of 1961 at a cost of $1,219,725, financed from state appropriations and University funds. Giffels and Rossetti, Inc. designed this facility specifically to accommodate the cyclotron and synchrotron adequately and safely and to provide office and support areas for the operating staff. Previous quarters in the Randall Laboratory Building not only limited use of the machines but also constituted an exceptionally high radiation hazard in the area. The North Campus site was selected because it offered not only increased safety but proximity to other associated research units. The Henry deKoning Construction Company was the contractor. With the deactivation of the cyclotron, the building became available for other usage. The site was ideal for the 1977 relocation of the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering from their former West Engineering Building spaces. The function of this facility was changed and it was renamed the Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Building in April of 1977.

The Research Activities Building at 2450 Hayward Avenue was completed in the spring of 1963 at a cost of $390,000, financed from University sources. Since the prime use of space in this structure was to be by units undertaking research in the fields of aeronautics and astronautics, the building was sited adjacent to the wind tunnels. Designed by Eberle M. Smith Associates, Inc., the 17,186-square-foot building was constructed by the Perry Construction Company. Page  72A 1964 remodeling project added 369 square feet to the structure.

The Research Administration Building at 1205 Beal Avenue was completed in the spring of 1963 at a cost of $746,000, financed from University sources. The expanded activities of the Office of Sponsored Research Administration led to the development of a program of space needs covering sponsored-research project work and administrative operations by staff members. Since there would be suitable linkage of service areas with the Cooley Building and since the planned building would conform to the Saarinen plan for the North Campus area, it was decided to site the structure immediately north of the Cooley Building. Designed by Swanson Associates, the 32,488-square-foot building was constructed by the A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company.

A North Campus site was selected for the Institute of Science and Technology Building at 2200 Bonisteel Avenue in May of 1960. Smith, Hinchman and Grylls were appointed architects in July. Spence Brothers were awarded the general construction contract in January of 1962, and the project was completed in October of 1963 at a cost of $3,116,000, financed from state appropriations and a federal grant. The facility includes 1,191,083 cubic feet and 83,350 gross square feet. In March of 1966 the Regents were informed that the architects received a First Honor Award for this building from the Michigan Society of Architects.

Planning for the School of Music facility on North Campus began in September of 1952. Eero Saarinen and Associates were engaged as planning architects. Construction contracts were awarded in May of 1957, contingent upon availability of state financing. Work finally began in September of 1962 and the building was completed by Darin and Armstrong in May of 1964 at 1100 Baits Avenue at a cost of $4,182,000, financed from state appropriations and University sources. The School of Music moved from 13 scattered campus locations into this new 110,000-square-foot building. The structure was designed to accommodate 1,000 music majors in 150 individual practice rooms, 40 applied-music teaching studios, 20 classrooms, rehearsal and recital halls, electronic listening and recording rooms, as well as 40 faculty offices, a library, and workshops. In March 1975 the Regents named Page  73the building the Earl V. Moore Building honoring the School's former director and dean who served from 1923 until his 1960 retirement.

Planned originally in 1955 and 1956 as the Fluids Engineering Laboratory units I and II, this project, located at 2350 Hayward Avenue, was renamed in September of 1957 the George Granger Brown Memorial Laboratories to honor the former Dean of the College. The construction contract for the first unit was awarded to Spence Brothers Construction Company in October of 1956, and it was completed in August of 1958 at a cost of $2,000,000 provided by state appropriations. Construction contracts for the second unit were awarded also to Spence Brothers Construction Company in September of 1963, and it was completed in November of 1964 for a cost of about $2,400,000 provided in major part by state appropriations. This large complex contains 2,967,702 cubic feet and 156,797 gross square feet.

The Space Research Laboratory at 2455 Hayward Avenue was financed by a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Application for this grant was made in September of 1962. Construction contracts were awarded in March of 1964 to Spence Brothers Construction Company and the building was completed in June of 1965 at a cost of $1,400,000. It contains 56,163 gross square feet. Completion of this two-story building has enabled the University to house its growing space-research activities under one roof on the North Campus near the Aeronautical Engineering, George Granger Brown Memorial Laboratories, and other related facilities. It has also enabled the undertaking of a broad program of space-related research activities in a multidisciplinary research center designed by Architects Collective, Inc. Among those participating in the dedication of the building were U. S. Astronauts Edward White and James McDivitt.

The North Campus Commons at 2101 Bonisteel Boulevard was financed by student-fee allocations and other University revenues. Construction contracts were awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company in February of 1964 and it was completed in June of 1965 at a cost of $1,565,000. This building contains 44,046 gross square feet. The facility was designed by Swanson Associates to include cafeteria Page  74service area, private dining areas, a machine food-vending service area, and to serve as a student center on the North Campus.

The North Campus Service Building at 1655 Dean Street was designed by Jickling and Lyman Architects, Inc. and constructed in 1965 by the Perry Construction Company from University funds at a cost of $469,000. This facility, which contains 393,831 cubic feet and 14,514 gross square feet, was constructed as an incinerator for waste materials and to house boiler services for this area of the campus.

Vera Baits Housing I at 1210-1320 Hubbard Avenue and Vera Baits Housing II at 1421-1440 Hubbard Avenue were planned to meet special needs of certain students on North Campus. These were primarily graduate students who wished housing accommodations only. The project was first known as Cedar Bend Houses I and II and plans were first approved in January of 1964. The project was renamed Vera Baits Housing in July of 1966 to honor the late University Regent. Construction contracts were awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company for Unit I (5 buildings) in December of 1964 and for Unit II (5 buildings) in July of 1965. Unit I was completed in August of 1966 at a cost of $3,400,000, and Unit II was completed in June of 1967 at a cost of $3,600,000. Financing of these structures was from University housing revenues. They provide 295,882 gross square feet of space, and were designed to house 1,206 students.

Bursley Hall at 1931 Duffield Street was completed in April of 1968 at a cost of $7,500,000, financed from University housing revenues. This facility was first planned in November of 1956. Construction contracts were awarded in February of 1965. It provides 339,608 gross square feet for housing and dining services. Designed by Swanson Associates to accommodate 1,180 single students, the dormitory was constructed by the Miller Davis Company. In February of 1958 the project was named for Joseph Aldrich Bursley and Marguerite Knowlton Bursley to honor the late University Dean of Men and his wife.

Construction of the Chrysler Center for Continuing Engineering Education at 2121 Bonisteel Boulevard was made possible by a gift of $1,250,000 from the Chrysler Fund as Page  75part of the $55M Campaign. Personal gifts from several Chrysler Corporation executives aided significantly in furnishing the facility. The total project cost was $1,513,742. Designed by Swanson Associates, the Center is used primarily for continuing-engineering-education conferences, short courses, seminars, and degree-oriented graduate courses for practicing engineers. When unscheduled for engineering uses, the facility is also available to other University units. The building includes seven classrooms, three laboratory-demonstration rooms, two conference rooms and an auditorium. The classrooms are equipped with audio-visual facilities including closed-circuit television. Construction contracts were awarded in July of 1966 to Spence Brothers of Saginaw, and the building was completed in November of 1967. The facility contains 42,262 gross square feet of space.

The North Campus Storage Building at 3241 Baxter Avenue was designed and constructed in three phases by the University's Engineering Services in 1967, 1968, and 1975. This 44,892-square-foot structure, funded from University sources for just over $350,000, was built to provide bicycle storage for the Office of Student Community Relations, Plant Department storage on the North Campus, and office and storage space for Property Disposition, the University unit charged with aiding departments in the disposition and reuse of surplus property items.

The Highway Safety Research Institute at 2901 Baxter Avenue was planned for research and testing of vehicle and road relationships. It was funded by gifts from the General Motors Corporation, the Ford Motor Company, the Automobile Manufacturer's Association, and the Fruehauf Corporation. The general construction contract was awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company of Dearborn, and the project was completed in June of 1969 at a cost of $4,073,000. It includes 1,124,859 cubic feet and 77,082 gross square feet. The building was designed by Harley, Ellington, Cowin and Stirton, Inc. to serve a continuing education program in a new and emerging curriculum and to train graduate students in the area of highway safety.

The Laundry Building at 1665 Dean Road was constructed at a cost of $1,300,000 from University funds. Work began Page  76in March of 1969 and was completed in November. The building includes 1,016,446 cubic feet and 47,250 gross square feet. This structure was completed by Cunningham-Limp Company and replaced a Central Campus building in continuous operation since 1916 which was obsolete and worn out. While not only insuring more effective and efficient operation, siting this facility in the North Campus service area freed valuable Central Campus space for part of the site of the new Dental School complex.

The Computing Center at 1075 Beal Avenue was completed by the E. E. Kurtz Construction Company of Ann Arbor at a cost of $1,300,000. Construction began in October of 1969 and was completed in April of 1971. The project was funded by University sources and private gifts. It houses a large computer facility for academic teaching and research functions. Tarapata, MacMahon, Associates designed this three-story building to provide both reliable environmental controls and flexibility in use of space. Elevated "false" floors, raised approximately two feet from the actual floor, form a reservoir for distributing air through the total building thus eliminating conventional ductwork in a facility that would equal the capacity needed to air-condition 40 to 50 homes. This feature also permits readily accessible storage areas for computer cables and electrical and telephone lines serving the building. It is "ready-made" for expansion of the rapidly growing computer field. The University Computing Center, first established in 1959, has had a fantastic growth which is expected to continue. Long-span construction was used throughout the entire building. Since the walls and unusual beams are weight-bearing, the interior space is entirely free of support columns and was completed with easily movable interior partitions to facilitate space relocation. Computer components are located on all three floors to eliminate transmission lag. Elevator, mechanical, and electrical service areas are masonry cores placed at the sides of the building. The first floor is primarily a public service area, seminar rooms, and key punching and terminal rooms. On the second floor is the main computer room and adjacent open-office work areas, while the third floor houses computer-systems research areas, a library, and administrative offices.

The Northwood Apartments on the North Campus were constructed over a number of years, from September of 1955 to Page  77October of 1972. Planning for North Campus married-student housing was first approved by the Regents in February of 1954. In May of 1955 the name Northwood Apartments was authorized. A minor part of the apartments was reserved for staff members in need of short-term housing. Units I, II and III (of efficiency, 1- and 2-bedroom size) are apartment-complex type structures, while Units IV (of 1-, 2-, and 3-bedroom size) and V (of 2-and 3-bedroom size) are of townhouse design. All units are financed by Housing Revenue Bonds retired by rental income from the units. Northwood V also received a federal interest-subsidy grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Descriptive data about the five projects are included in the table below:

Completion Date Sept. 1955 Dec. 1957 Dec. 1958 Feb. 1969 Oct. 1972
Cost $1,000,000 $3,400,000 $2,900,000 $5,300,000 $6,000,000
No. of units 100 296 288 400 400
No. of bldgs. 7 40 11 83 79
Cubic feet 752,592 1,863,592 1,900,797 5,214,756 4,679,617
Gross sq. ft. 66,104 184,759 169,900 528,110 559,838

The Aerospace Engineering Building at 2508 Patterson Street is a 18, 188-square-foot, three-story building connecting the wind tunnel and the propulsion laboratory and serves to centralize the Aerospace Engineering Department on the North Campus into a more effective teaching and research department. Its completion in 1972 also served to release academic spaces on the Central Campus. This University-financed $456,000 project was a design/build structure completed by the Cunningham-Limp Company.

The Bentley Historical Library at 1150 Beal Avenue was built to house the Michigan Historical Collections. In December of 1971 the Regents named the facility in honor of former Regent and Congressman Alvin M. Bentley and Arvella D. Bentley, the major donors to the Library. R. T. Mitchell Construction Company of Ann Arbor was awarded the contract to build in July of 1972, and the building was completed in September of 1973 at a cost of $1,200,000, financed by gifts Page  78from the Bentley family and others. The 32,315-square-foot building designed by Jickling and Lyman Architects, Inc. coordinates a three-level stack area with offices arranged in a ring around the main reading room which is glass-walled and overlooks a landscaped garden and sculpture court. Many of the Library rooms stand as tributes to Michigan people and institutions. A multi-purpose assembly hall just off the main entrance serves for special meetings of groups up to 125. Among the Library's important collections are the papers of 19 Michigan governors and other major public figures, plus papers of University Presidents dating from the first President, the Rev. John Monteith, and documents related to communities in Michigan.

The need for the Architecture and Art Building at 2000 Bonisteel Boulevard was first presented in December of 1954. While the building was designed originally for the College of Architecture and Design, it is now shared by the two separate colleges of Architecture and Art. It is a large structure containing 2,590,539 cubic feet and 221,220 gross square feet. Construction started in September 1972 and the project was completed in August of 1974 at a cost of $8,500,000, financed by state appropriations. Replacing a 1927 structure which was designed for an enrollment of less than 400, this North Campus facility allows for a student body capacity of 1,200. Structurally composed of three rectangular units, two stories high, connected by two corridors, this basic inexpensive loft-type building, designed by Swanson Associates, Inc., has an interior which can be modified to service the changing needs of various programs. Flexibility is achieved by movable furniture and partitions, enabling faculty and students to subdivide areas to meet changing requirements. Spaciousness is achieved through use of inexpensive materials, simple detailing, and open planning. Studios and workshops comprise 80 percent of the interior space. A major building innovation is the built-in interior sprinkling system for fire protection. Constructed by Spence Brothers Construction Company, the new facilities increase options available to larger numbers of students, such as: visual studios laboratory, new computer facilities, weaving looms, ceramic kilns and wheels, metal casting furnaces, jewelry forges, sand blasting equipment, 30 photographic dark rooms, and 18 painting and design studios.

Page  79The Automotive Laboratory at 2320 Herbert Avenue, described in Volume IV, pages 1589-90 and completed in 1956, was renamed the Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory to honor the late Professor of Engineering at the Regents meeting of September 1974.

The Engineering Building I-A project at 2351 Herbert Avenue was funded by state appropriations at a cost of $2,250,000. The Saline Construction Company was awarded the construction contract in July of 1973 and work began in September. The building was completed in January of 1975, and contains 421,440 cubic feet and 37,667 gross square feet. Swanson Associates designed this facility to bring together the programs in water resources conducted by the Departments of Civil and Chemical Engineering and the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science. Sited near the G. G. Brown Laboratories in the Engineering College's North Campus complex, the structure contains instructional and research laboratory facilities for both graduate and undergraduate programs, classrooms, faculty offices, and supporting areas. The building also provides facilities for sanitation engineering, pollution control, and water analysis.

In April of 1973 the Regents approved a student-fee allocation to finance the North Campus Recreation Building at 2375 Hubbard Street, as well as a central campus facility. The two buildings were authorized for construction in June of 1974 at a combined project cost of $7,700,000. The North Campus facility was completed by the Saline Construction Company in July of 1976 at a cost of $2,800,000 and included 970,806 cubic feet and 61,470 gross square feet. Included in this modern facility, available to both men and women in the North Campus area, are five handball and two squash courts, a large gymnasium, a 7,000-square-foot natatorium, weight-training and exercise rooms, administrative offices, and locker and shower facilities, complete with saunas. Facilities for the handicapped have also been incorporated into this structure designed by Colvin, Robinson Associates.

The Zeta Beta Tau fraternity house at 2005 Baits Avenue was renamed the Frederick Stearns Building when it was acquired for the School of Music in June of 1972 at a cost of $215,000. It houses the Stearns Collection of Page  80musical instruments, a world famous collection which had been displayed in Hill Auditorium since 1914. The remodeled 18,021 square-foot building also provides 29 faculty offices and rehearsal facilities for medium-sized musical groups.

Medical Campus

Funded by a $600,000 gift from the Kresge Foundation and University funds, a 38,848-square-foot addition to the Kresge Medical Research Building, designed by Giffels and Vallet and Skidmore and constructed by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc., opened in January 1956 as a new Medical Library. This four-stack level structure, with a reading room, a conference room, a rare-book room, five group-study rooms and 60 carrels, enabled the Medical Library collection to move from its former inadequate space in the Central Campus General Library. It also permitted combining the Medical, Nursing, and Hospital Libraries.

In July of 1952 the Regents first approved planning for the Medical Science Building I, eventually located at 1335 East Catherine Street. Site selection was made in May of 1953. In January of 1955 it was determined that the Medical School departments of Pathology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology and the School of Nursing would be housed in the structure. The project was completed in September of 1958 at a cost of $8,494,373, financed from state appropriations, and included 262,810 gross square feet. The building design is innovative in medical instruction; the familiar bowl-shaped amphitheater where students surrounded the instructor has been replaced by a closed-circuit color television system which medical educators believe to be an immense teaching improvement.

The Mental Health Research Institute Building project at 205 Washtenaw Place was completed in December of 1959 at a cost of $1,326,700. This was financed by state appropriations and a federal grant. Planning began in February of 1956, and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was authorized for general construction in October of 1958. The structure includes 49,840 gross square feet.

Architects for planning the Kresge Hearing Research Institute Building at 1301 East Ann Street were appointed Page  81in July of 1960, and the firm of Holabird and Root received the contract. The construction contract was awarded to A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company in July of 1961, and the project was completed in September of 1962 at a cost of $1,742,136. The building was financed by a gift from the S. S. Kresge Foundation and included 37,537 gross square feet. This generous gift made possible a building devoted to research on hearing and causes of deafness. It was organized with the two-fold purpose of furnishing further knowledge of the hearing process in both health and disease and of training investigators in the knowledge gained and techniques developed.

The Animal Research Facility at 1335 East Catherine Street was financed by a federal grant matched by funds from University sources for a total cost of $500,000. It was designed by Kenneth C. Black Associates, Inc. and the construction contract was awarded to Barton-Malow Co. in March of 1962 and the building was completed in early 1963. It includes 15,473 gross square feet.

The Lawrence D. Buhl Research Center for Human Genetics at 1141 East Catherine Street was constructed by A. Z. Shmina and Sons for a cost of $560,000, financed by federal grants and a private gift from the Buhl Foundation. Since this research function closely related to departmental activities planned for the new Medical Science Building II, it was recommended and approved that the two structures be considered as a unified architectural project (both phases designed by Holabird and Root) to insure coordination of the two units. The building was completed in October of 1963 and includes 16,146 gross square feet.

The Victor C. Vaughan House at 1111 East Catherine underwent extensive renovations and remodeling in 1963, which added 41,113 square feet to the building. Designed by Colvin, Robinson, Wright and Associates and constructed by Perry Construction Company, these changes allowed conversion of the former dormitory to facilities for the Speech Clinic and spaces for some units of the School of Public Health. Formerly located in an old house, the Speech Clinic now had 100 rooms for educational and service activities, including dormitory facilities for about 20 adult aphasic patients, making the University of Michigan Speech Clinic the first Page  82university speech clinic in the nation to offer a residential treatment program for adult aphasics. The $848,735 project cost was met by University funds.

Planning architects Holabird and Root were approved for the Kresge Medical Research Building Addition at 1299 East Ann Street in July of 1961. Spence Brothers Construction Company of Saginaw was awarded the construction contract in April of 1963. The project was completed in September of 1964 at a cost of $1,570,749, financed by a federal grant, and included 40,106 gross square feet.

The 30,419 square foot Parkview Medical Center and an adjacent acre of land were purchased from a group of local physicians in 1967 to provide additional patient service and training facilities. The $1,100,000 purchase price was financed by a loan to be repaid from new revenues of the facility. In 1976 the Scott and Amy Prudden Turner Memorial Clinic was completed as an added wing of this structure.

The Towsley Center for Continuing Medical Education at 271 East Hospital Drive was completed in February of 1969 at a cost of $1,900,000, financed by gifts from the Towsley and Dow Foundations and University funds. Alden Dow and Associates of Midland were the architects and the Henry deKoning Construction Company of Ann Arbor was awarded the construction contract. The building contains 52,207 gross square feet. The facility has a 518 seat auditorium and a 144 seat lecture hall, as well as departmental offices, the Medical Center Alumni Society Office, and the editorial rooms of the Medical Center Journal, plus smaller classrooms and seminar rooms.

The Medical Science Building II at 1137 East Catherine Street was completed in July of 1969 at a cost of $12,700,000, financed by state appropriations, federal funds, private gifts, and University sources. Holabird and Root were assigned as planning architects for this project in June of 1961. Construction contracts were awarded to Spence Brothers of Saginaw and Hydon-Brand Company in November of 1965. The building contains 4,550,853 cubic feet and 333,038 gross square feet. This unit houses the departments of Anatomy, Genetics, Microbiology, and Physiology and also provides Page  83instructional facilities to meet the needs of increased enrollment, plus research areas for both faculty and students. This brought together for the first time all of the Medical School departments in one area. Both Medical Science I and Medical Science II are connected by bridge to the Main Hospital. Remodeling of the lower level for the Furstenberg Student Center was approved in May of 1971 and completed in May of 1974 at a cost of $1,100,000, financed by private gifts and a federal grant. Named for former Medical School Dean, Dr. A. C. Furstenberg, this thoroughly modern facility contains classrooms, audiovisual study areas, and a commons for both students and faculty. The heart of the Center is its audiovisual study area which includes 37 multimedia carrels, all equipped for sound/slide presentations and 10 equipped with videocassette players. There are also 18 microfiche stations and two computer-assisted instruction rooms, plus several class and multipurpose rooms for use by faculty and student groups, and an informal commons with tables, chairs, and vending machines.

In April of 1964 the Regents accepted a gift of $6,000,000 from the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation of Flint for the C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, constructed at 1430 North Hospital Drive. The project, designed by Albert Kahn Associates and constructed by Miller-Davis Company, was completed in September of 1969 at a cost of $9,458,000, financed by the Mott gift, other gifts, and federal funds. The structure includes 2,440,896 cubic feet and 184,461 gross square feet. The unit is a 200-bed, eight-story structure and contains its own pediatric x-ray facilities, operating rooms, anesthesia unit and technical services but, for the sake of economy, does obtain a number of supportive services from the main hospital. There is a special area for teenage patients and, when the hospital opened, its 26-bed Neonatal Intensive Care Unit was believed to be the only one of its kind in the Midwest. A major new feature is a window seat in each room which converts into a bed, allowing a parent to spend the night with the child to aid the child's adjustment to the strange medical environment.

The Upjohn Center for Clinical Pharmacology at 1310 East Catherine Street was completed in March of 1970 at a cost of $1,200,000 from gifts and University sources. Holabird and Root were the architects and Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. Page  84was the building contractor. This facility provides 17,880 gross square feet. The Center's main purpose is to study effectiveness in drugs and safety in man, to train physicians in the advanced skills needed for such study, and to provide a base for patient care related to the research and training. It is the focal point for the total University of Michigan Medical Center's concern with the value and safety of drugs.

Following completion of a new Food Service Facility in 1969, studies determined that the former Food Service Building located at 1103 E. Huron was particularly suitable as a neuroscience research facility because of its unique location between the Central Campus and the Medical Center. Extensive remodeling, designed by Harley Ellington Associates, Inc., was undertaken by the R. T. Mitchell Company to develop wet and dry laboratories, animal quarters, offices and related spaces for neuroscience activities which had previously been scattered in both Medical Center and Central Campus areas. Upon completion of this remodeling in 1971, the structure was renamed the Neuroscience Laboratories Building. University funds supported the $1,369,760 project.

The Holden Perinatal Research Laboratory at 250 East Hospital Drive was provided by a gift from the James and Lynelle Holden Fund. Approval was given in June of 1969 for site selection and for Kenneth Black Associates, Inc. as architects. In December of 1970 Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. of Ann Arbor was selected as general contractor. The facility was completed in May of 1972 at a cost of $1,500,000, and provides 19,350 gross square feet. It is the first high-risk-pregnancy patient care and research center in the state of Michigan, and is dedicated to saving the lives of critically ill infants and their mothers. It offers the newest medical facilities and equipment and the highest level treatment available. It is a highly specialized hospital within the huge University Hospital complex. Facilities for both pregnant women and critically ill newborn infants are concentrated on the third level of this compact three-story structure which is attached to both the Mott Children's Hospital and Women's Hospital.

Following completion of construction of the C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, planning was begun on two projects Page  85which would occupy an unfinished area of the first level. To be financed by gift, Medical Center/School and Hospital funds, the James L. Wilson Pediatric Laboratories and the Mott Cardiac Care Study Unit projects were combined to realize architectural and construction cost savings. Prior to construction, these Albert Kahn and Associates Architects and Engineers, Inc. projects were incorporated into the Outpatient Addition project to effect further savings on these $500,000 projects. Also designed by the Albert Kahn firm, the Outpatient Addition spans the corridor areas between the Outpatient Building and C. S. Mott Children's Hospital. Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. was the general contractor and completed the structure in 1973. The five-story addition connects the two units by ramp and stairway, facilitates movement of patients between the buildings, and provides much needed expansion room for 10 clinics. The fourth level expansion is particularly significant since it allows consolidation on one level of Emergency Services, the Adult General Medicine Walk-In Clinic and the Pediatric Walk-In Clinic. The 17,523-square-foot, $817,517 structure also enabled extensive remodeling to enlarge the capacity of the Emergency Suite, and was financed by a federal grant of Hill-Burton funds and University Hospital funds.

The former University Motel, now known as Riverview Building, and the former Alpha Epsilon Iota Sorority House, now known as the Hospital Education Center, were purchased in 1974 for Hospital activities at a combined total cost of $420,000. The purchase, renovation, furnishing, and equipping of the two buildings was funded by a loan with repayment from Hospital funds. The former motel facility provided 20,136 square feet of critically needed space for the Psychiatric Adult Ambulatory Care Program while the 8,383 square-foot former sorority house provided facilities for a new program of education and training laboratories for the Physical Therapy Program, and office space for other units of the Medical Center and Medical School.

The Scott and Amy Prudden Turner Memorial Clinic at 1010 Wall Street was provided in a bequest from the will of Amy Prudden Turner. The facility was designed by Warren Holmes Company and Kenneth Black Associate Architects, Inc. Work started in April of 1975 and was completed in August of 1976 at a cost of $1,300,000. The building was constructed Page  86by Jeffress-Dyer, Inc. and includes 24,653 gross square feet. This structure is a wing connected to the Parkview Medical Center devoted to the study of gerontology, to the degenerative diseases affecting elderly people, and to providing hospital space for the study, treatment, and healing of people suffering from such diseases.

The Hospital Finance and Personnel Building at 102 Simpson Street was approved in January of 1975 and construction was completed in December of 1976, financed from University sources at a cost of $1,600,000. The structure was built as an addition to the East Medical Parking Structure and provides 35,730 gross square feet for administrative activities, thus allowing re-allocation of Hospital spaces for more clinical and patient services.

The University Hospital - Main Building at 1405 East Ann Street has experienced a large number of renovation and remodeling projects over the years. In recent years, there has been a continuous round of activity of this nature, averaging over $1,000,000 of project volume each year. Improvements to the facility resulting from these projects have caused increases in capitalized value in the building, which on June 30, 1977, stands at the level of $23,045,790. The Hospital was built in 1925 at a cost of $7,048,395 and has seen extensive use in all its years. It contains 7,776,389 cubic feet and 607,389 gross square feet. A new hospital is presently being planned.

Parking Structures

The Ann Arbor campus Parking Structures have been built from 1957 through 1976 from revenues obtained from charges for parking and from other University fund sources and have provided adequate parking for University staff in seven strategic locations on the campus. The University faculty and staff parking program was established in 1955 with the advice of the Senate Advisory Committee on University Affairs, Sub-Committee on Campus Planning and Development. The plan for parking facility development was launched in 1956 and in 1958. The firm of O'Dell, Hewlett and Luckenbach prepared a general study of parking structure locations based on sub-campus areas and peripheral sites to provide Page  87convenient access to collector streets. The plan concept was later enlarged in both the Central Campus and Medical Center Planning Studies prepared by Johnson, Johnson and Roy, Inc. The following table provides descriptive information about the structures:

Year Built Original Cost 6/30/77 Cost Cubic Feet Gross Sq. Ft. No. of Cars
Church St. 1957 $ 631,256 $ 1,193,313* 1,830,860* 219,270* 594*
Catherine St. 1959 569,245 572,508 1,340,592 138,624 427
Thayer St. 1962 856,295 920,334 1,348,062 165,421 443
Thompson St. 1963 999,536 1,002,311 1,852,195 234,730 758
Fletcher St. 1968 2,903,921 3,086,727 3,025,287 383,124 949
East Medical 1968 3,032,591 3,852,127* 5,081,232* 461,188* 1,409*
Hill St. 1970 1,425,810 1,425,810 1,353,065 147,921 495
Total $10,418,654 $12,053,130 15,831,293 1,750,278 5,075

South Campus

In 1956 the Hoover Ball Bearing Plant was acquired at a cost of $1,800,000, financed from University sources. This facility became the Plant Service Buildings at Hoover and Greene Streets. The complex included eight structures containing 3,904,252 cubic feet and 174,813 gross square feet and approximately 13 acres valued at $188,000. These buildings provided a very suitable facility for plant shops, storage, and vehicle service areas, allowing a significantly expanded space for these functions in their move from the previous location at Forest and North University.

The first new administrative office building built at the Hoover and Greene Street location was the Data Processing Center, constructed in 1963 at a cost of $310,000, financed from University sources. This was also the first campus building specifically designed for the use of a major-size computer. In 1966 it was connected with the new Administrative Services Building. It was designed by Charles W. Lane Associates, Inc. and constructed by Spence Brothers Company.

Page  88Following the move from the Central Campus to the Hoover Street complex, Transportation Services continued to grow. In 1969 E. E. Kurtz Company completed a 19,060-square-foot Transportation Services Building at 326 East Hoover Street. Design of this $285,698 University-funded project was by Engineering Services. The unit continued to grow and after detailed studies and exploration of alternate sites on the North Campus and in the South Campus area in 1975, it was determined that further expansion of the present service facility in the Plant area on Hoover Street was the most practical solution to the needs for additional space. Hillyer Construction Company completed a Colvin, Robinson Associates-designed $460,000 expansion and renovation program in 1976. The project was funded from University sources. The facility now contains 586,692 cubic feet and 34,120 gross square feet.

A relocation in an expanded facility was approved in May of 1968 for the Food Stores Building at 3600 Varsity Drive, south of the 1-94 expressway along the Ann Arbor Railroad right-of-way on a 26.59 acre parcel acquired for $60,000. Cunningham-Limp Company, of Birmingham, Michigan, constructed the facility. Work began in October of 1968 and was completed in July of 1970 at a cost of $1,900,000, financed from University sources. The new structure includes 2,245,370 cubic feet and 83,178 gross square feet. The old Food Service Building on Glen Avenue was remodeled for the Neuroscience Laboratories.

The Madison Building at 109 East Madison Street was built about 1900 and formerly housed the Nelson Plumbing Company. This three-story brick structure had been completely rehabilitated in 1968-69, and when it was offered for sale in 1970, the Regents approved purchase at a project price of $415,000. Financing was from University sources, and the 21,731-square-foot addition to University facilities was assigned to the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching and to other academic units which had been housed in overcrowded and leased spaces.

The Administrative Services Building at 1009 Greene Street was approved for construction in February of 1964, and at that time Colvin, Robinson and Wright were approved as architects. The Perry Construction Company was awarded Page  89the construction contract in November of 1964. The building was completed in February of 1966 at a cost of $1,000,000, financed from University sources. It was built contiguous to the Data Processing Building and both structures were combined as the Administrative Services Building at a value of $1,327,000. In October of 1969 approval was given to build an addition and this was completed by the Saline Construction Company in 1971 at an added cost of $800,000, financed from University sources. The present structure includes 1,145,343 cubic feet and 89,745 gross square feet and houses several administrative offices (purchasing, personnel, payroll, staff benefits, audits, and accounting, as well as data processing).

The Regents, in October of 1974, approved the relocation and construction of an enlarged facility for the Chemistry Stores at 3580 Varsity Drive south of the I-94 expressway. Cunningham-Limp Company was engaged to build the facility and work began in December of 1974. It was completed in October of 1974 at a cost of $1,200,000. Funded from University sources, it contains 991,137 cubic feet and 47,711 gross square feet of space.

The Mail Service Building at 1032 Greene Street was acquired in May of 1975 when the Regents approved purchase of the former American Rug Cleaning Works on Greene Street for $77,000. University-funded renovations, totaling $59,922 in this one-story, 5,850-square-foot structure, provided an ideal facility for relocating the University Mail Services in the Plant Service area and away from the Central Campus. The spaces released in the Literature, Science, and Arts Building by the move of the Mail Service were reassigned for academic uses.

The Matt Mann Pool at 616 East Hoover Street was completed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company in March of 1956 at a cost of $828,000, financed from funds made available by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It includes 725,440 cubic feet and 29,407 gross square feet. The pool is sited between the Athletic Administration Building and the Intramural Building. It was designed by Giffels and Vallet and allowed the former Intramural Pool to be used totally for intramural swimming. Complete with locker and training rooms, the new facility provided Page  90spectator seating for 3,000 on three sides of the pool. Special radio and television facilities were also provided. The pool's novel design of a special 20' X 40' diving pool adjacent and connected to the varsity pool resulted from an idea projected by the late Matt Mann, who served as Michigan's swimming coach for many years and for whom the pool was named. This design enables both swimmers and divers to work out simultaneously. An additional feature is a three-elevation diving board.

In September of 1956 the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics financed an addition to the football stadium for a significantly improved Stadium Communications Center at 1201 South Main Street, at a cost of $520,000. It was constructed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company. The Center was designed by Osborn Engineering Company, the firm who designed the Stadium. This new facility replaced the original 1927 press box with a modern, triple-deck, 16,978-square-foot communications center. Situated at the top of the west side of the bowl, between the 20-yard lines, the overhanging structure permitted seating underneath and raised the Stadium's seating capacity from 97,239 to 101,001. The lower deck was designed to accommodate 203 sports writers in three rows of seats. The unenclosed middle deck is reserved for photographers, and the top deck contains 18 radio and television booths. An elevator, lunch room for the working press, as well as such support service areas as dark rooms, duplication machines, and wire service facilities are also provided. Projecting from the center of the first deck on the west side is a private dining room with kitchen, seating approximately 75 persons, for use by the University President for special parties of visiting dignitaries. A private box for use by the President and his party is adjacent.

The Crisler Arena at 333 East Stadium Boulevard was first known as the University Events Building. It was designed by K. C. Black and D. L. Dworsky. First plans were approved by the Regents in February and site selection was made in March of 1964. Work began on the structure in September of 1965 and it was completed by the Spence Brothers Company in June of 1968 at a cost of $6,500,000, financed from gifts and University sources, including student-fee allocations. In February of 1970 the building was renamed in honor of Herbert O. ("Fritz") Crisler, Michigan's former Page  91football coach and long-time athletic director. It contains 8,469,365 cubic feet and 201,127 gross square feet. Sited next to the Michigan Stadium, this arena serves not only as "home court" for varsity basketball and other athletic teams, but also provides assembly facilities for educational, cultural, and entertainment opportunities for students, faculty, and staff. A press box and other support facilities are also provided in the project. Comfortable permanent seating is provided for over 13,000 spectators and, since its completion, the arena has been the site for University Commencement Exercises.

The Sports Service Building at 1200 South State Street was constructed in September of 1971 at a cost of $500,000 from funds furnished by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It was designed by Colvin, Wright and Robinson, Associates, and constructed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company. This 19,709 square foot facility on Ferry Field contains locker, exercise, equipment, and training rooms as well as classrooms which are primarily used by the football program.

The William D. Revelli Band Rehearsal Hall at 350 East Hoover Street was approved by the Regents in July of 1972. Work began on the structure in October of 1972 and the project was completed by Cunningham-Limp Company in July of 1973 at a cost of $475,000, which was financed by gifts. Locating the structure in the athletics area facilitated access for the marching band to its main performance areas. Located directly across from their Elbel (Wines) Field practice areas, this 10,558-square-foot structure serves as headquarters for the Michigan Marching Band. The building was named to honor the man who served as conductor and then director of the University's bands for 36 years. Facilities include a large rehearsal hall, offices, a music library, storage rooms for uniforms, instruments, and property, as well as locker areas for band members.

The Field House at 1116 South State Street was remodeled in November of 1973 and renamed the Yost Ice Arena. Funds for this project were furnished by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. Charles R. Beltz and Company provided engineering services for this $555,134 project. Upon completion of the remodeling, the facility's name was Page  92changed to Yost Ice Arena to better reflect its new usage. It was named in honor of Michigan's famed football coach of early years.

The Track and Tennis Building at 1150 South State Street was approved by the Regents in April of 1973. It was completed by the Henry deKoning Construction Company in May of 1974 at a cost of $1,000,000 which was provided by the Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics. It contains 1,985,334-cubic-feet and 69,580 gross square feet and provides space for indoor track, tennis, and various other sports. Locker and shower facilities and the equipment and training rooms in this facility are reserved for Intercollegiate Athletic use. The five indoor tennis courts and the six-lane tartan surfaced running track are at times available for use by townspeople, students, faculty, and staff and their spouses at regularly scheduled hours for minimal fees. The Colvin, Robinson Associates designed the building. It also contains two indoor batting cages and has folding bleachers seating 1,500 to 1,800 for track meets. During vacation periods, the facility has also been used for such events as the Ann Arbor Builder's Show.

Dearborn Campus

The Dearborn Campus was originally a gift from the Ford Motor Company of the Fairlane mansion and accompanying out-buildings and 210 acres of land, and from the Ford Motor Company Fund of $6,500,000 to provide an initial complement of buildings. These gifts were gratefully accepted by the Regents in February of 1957. Preliminary planning was provided by Barr and Linde, architects. In July of 1957, Hubbell, Roth and Clark of Birmingham, Michigan, were employed to design roadways, utilities, and parking areas, and Giffels and Vallet, Inc. of Detroit were employed as architects for the buildings. The general construction contracts were awarded in April of 1958 to Spence Brothers of Saginaw. The first buildings were completed by the fall term of 1959 and consisted of a classroom and administration building, engineering laboratory, and faculty office building.

Student housing facilities at Dearborn were first discussed by the Regents in April of 1962 and construction was Page  93authorized in September of 1962. Work began in the fall of 1963 on the Dearborn Fairlane Apartments and they were completed in February of 1965 at a cost of $700,000 to be financed by unit revenues.

Additional buildings have also been constructed. The Dearborn Classroom and Office Building was started in May of 1972 and completed in December of 1972, financed by state appropriations. The Dearborn Student Activities Building addition was completed in May of 1975, financed by University sources. The Dearborn Engineering Laboratory renovations were completed in December of 1975, financed from state appropriations. A Dearborn parking Structure was completed in November of 1976, financed from University sources.

The Dearborn physical Activities and Recreation Complex - Phase I was begun in March of 1977 and was scheduled for completion in December of 1977. This is financed from University sources.

The June 30, 1977, records for the Dearborn Campus show assets at $1,680,079 for 196.0168 acres of land, and $9,322,580 for thirty-nine buildings.

Flint Campus

During 1955-56 planning was under way for the Flint Campus. First classes were held in September of 1956 in temporary spaces while the Mott Memorial Building was under construction, a gift from the Charles S. Mott Foundation. This building was owned by the Flint Board of Education but dedicated for use by the University of Michigan. An agreement between the University and the Flint Board of Education concerning the shared use of facilities was formalized in May of 1959.

Expansion of the Flint Campus facilities was not long in arriving. In February of 1965 the firm of Nurmi, Nelson and McKinley Associates was hired as architects for the expansion program. In March of 1970, 17.27 acres were purchased. A gift of Mr. and Mrs. Colman J. Ross was accepted in November of 1971 for a Chancellor's residence, and this was named the Ross House.

Page  94In October of 1972 the Regents adopted a resolution to relocate the campus from Court Street to a riverfront location near the center of Flint. State financing was sought and obtained for this move.

The Flint Court Street Building, financed by gifts, was completed in December of 1973 by the Cunningham-Limp Company. This served to supply additional needed space pending the move to the new location.

A large classroom and office building was built on the riverfront site, financed by state appropriations. This structure was begun in June of 1974 and completed in January of 1977.

The June 30, 1977, records for the Flint Campus show assets at $1,123,942 for 52.94 acres of land and $10,350,623 for ten buildings.


The Speech Camp near Northport in Leelanau County was acquired in early 1949, largely through a gift from the S. S. Kresge Foundation, and supplemented from University sources. It is described in some detail in Volume IV, pages 1601-03. The initial cost for 26.1 acres and the various buildings was $7,700 for land and $75,000 for buildings. Additions to the structures have resulted in a June 30, 1977 over-all book value for buildings of $144,000. There are 27 buildings presently in use.

Two private residences, one frame and the other brick, originally known as the Dexter Faculty Houses, were constructed by E. R. Young Company in 1956 on property next to Gordon Hall in the village of Dexter. These were financed primarily from a private gift from Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick and supplemented by University sources. These houses were designed by Colvin, Robinson Associates as rental units for faculty occupancy.

The Matthaei Botanical Gardens at 1800 Dixboro Road in Washtenaw County are comprised of 241.75 acres and 16 structures containing 1,481,690 cubic feet and 90,866 gross square Page  95feet. The book values as of June 30, 1977, are $485,656 for land and $1,792,068 for buildings. These facilities were made possible originally by a private gift of the land (and two barns) from Frederick C. Matthaei in 1958. Since that time, buildings have been constructed and land improvements have been made, all financed by additional private gifts, federal grants, and University sources. By the late 1950s it was determined that industrial and traffic development, University growth, and the changing needs of the plant sciences necessitated the search for a new and larger site for the University's Botanical Gardens. Phase I construction consisted of an administration building, two greenhouses, and some research space totaling 29,778 square feet. Alden B. Dow, Inc. furnished architectural services for this and all other phases of the gardens' development. A. Z. Shmina and Sons Company completed the construction of this $576,372 project which was funded from gift and University monies. Phase II of the development added a 12,360-square-foot laboratory project in 1961 which totaled $328,866, funded from a National Science Foundation Grant matched by University funds. An additional part of Phase II development added two more greenhouses totaling 12,360 square feet. Completed by the Perry Construction Company in 1962, the $71,084 greenhouse project was funded from gift and University funds. Also finished at this time was a Superintendent's residence of 2,928 square feet. Built by Ray F. Daum Company this $31,581 structure was financed from University sources. Phase III, completed in 1966 by the Henry deKoning Construction Company, saw the addition of a permanent plant-collection greenhouse, in addition to classroom and office spaces totaling 31,600 square feet. This $884,273 project was funded by a federal grant and by University funds. The Gardens are located in an unusually attractive setting and provide an excellent laboratory for instruction and research.

The Willow Run U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Facilities are located contiguous to Willow Run Airport, primarily east of Beck Road. They consist of 156,229 acres and 39 structures at June 30, 1977, with a book value of $151,300 for land and $1,046,000 for buildings. These properties were acquired through a grant from the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1961 and supplemented by improvements and other additions Page  96from University sources. These facilities are used for research purposes.

As of June 30, 1977, Radrick Farms, at Dixboro and Geddes Roads in Washtenaw County, comprised 654.78 acres and 20 structures with book values of $1,343,198 for land and $393,682 for buildings. The acquisition of these facilities was made possible by an original gift in 1962 from Frederick C. Matthaei and an additional gift in 1965 from the same donor. An additional contiguous 15.89 acres were purchased by the University in 1967-68. Land value was increased in 1967 by construction of an excellent golf course, also with funds provided by Matthaei. The course was designed by the nationally recognized golf course architect Peter Dye of Indianapolis, Indiana, and built by the Maddox Construction Company of St. Charles, Illinois. Construction on the 18-hole, par-72, 6,480-yard course was begun in the fall of 1964.

In January of 1964 the Regents accepted a gift from Calumet and Hecla, Inc. of 203.45 acres of land, valued at $21,392, at the far northern tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula in upper Michigan. This is known as the Keweenaw Peninsula Rocket Launching Site and is used for atmospheric and environmental research purposes.

The Portage Lake Observatory No. 2 at Peach Mountain, in the Waterloo Recreation Area in Washtenaw County, was built by Butcher and Willits, Inc. in April of 1969 at a cost of $589,210. It was designed by Colvin, Robinson, Wright and Associates and contains 93,927 cubic feet and 5,514 gross square feet. It was financed from federal funds and University sources.

Three significant building additions have been constructed at the Biological Station at Douglas Lake near Cheboygan. The Alfred H. Stockard Lakeside Laboratory, a 24,943-square-foot laboratory, classroom, and research facility, was named to honor the late Director of the Biological Station, who had served from 1940 to 1966. It was designed by The Architects Collective, Inc. and was completed in 1966 by the Omega Construction Company. Funding for this $636,000 structure was from a National Science Foundation grant and matching University funds. Also designed by The Architects Collective, Page  97Inc. and completed by Omega Construction Company in 1966 was a 6,299-square-foot residential unit. This $162,000 structure was also funded by National Science Foundation grant money and matching University funds. A new and efficient dining hall and kitchen facility, designed by David Trautman, was completed by Concrete Systems, Inc., in 1976. Replacing a small and outdated unit, this 12,371-square-foot $440,000 structure was funded from unrestricted gifts and University funds.

Buildings Removed

Occasionally, older buildings needed to be removed to make way for this program of extended development, and in some cases sold to help finance new acquisitions. Major removals are listed as follows:

  • 1955 Printing Service (old) - sold
  • 1956 Engineering West Annex - razed
  • 1956 Contagious Hospital - razed
  • 1956 Pemberton-Welch Residence - razed
  • 1956 X-Ray Film Storage - razed
  • 1957 Laboratory of Medical Research - razed
  • 1958 Power Substation - razed
  • 1958 Romance Languages - razed
  • 1959 ROTC Quartermasters Office - razed
  • 1959 Heredity Clinic - razed
  • 1961 East Hall - razed
  • 1962 Botanical Gardens (old) - sold
  • 1964 Music Building and Land (Maynard St.) - sold
  • 1964 Beal Residence - razed
  • 1965 Institute for Social Research (old) - razed
  • 1966 Temporary Classroom Building - razed
  • 1967 Physics Building (west) - razed
  • 1967 High Temperature Research Laboratory - razed
  • 1970 Laundry (old) - razed
  • 1975 Flint Campus Apartments - sold
  • 1975 Radiation Laboratory - razed
  • 1977 Willow Run Laboratory - transferred to Wayne County Road Commission
  • 1977 Observatory (1908 Addition) - razed
  • 1977 Barbour-Waterman Gym - razed

Page  98


The most important land acquisition since 1940 is that of the North Campus. With the purchase of the Goss property of 220 acres in December of 1955, which was the largest individual purchase for the North Campus area, recognition was given to this concentration of land area in the University records. Some parcels previously purchased were combined with the Goss purchase, and at this time the North Campus was identified in the University financial reports as a campus geographic area. The first purchase of land (88 acres) was authorized by the Regents on December 16, 1949. With the addition of subsequent purchases up to June 30, 1977, the North Campus total land area is 792 acres at a cost of $1,730,383. The land areas of North Campus were annexed to the City of Ann Arbor for the most part in 1952 with some added annexations in 1960. Altogether, this represents 27 significant parcels purchased in a span of time from 1950 through 1975. During this period a few parcels were sold to private industry seeking a location in this area for research activities of interest to the University. Among these are: 30 acres sold to Climax Molybdenum Company in 1963 and 48 acres to Parke Davis and Company in 1956-57. Many buildings have been constructed on the North Campus since the beginning of its development, some for instruction and research, and others for housing, feeding, recreation, and administrative service functions. The potential exists for more building expansion. Development of the North Campus required utility extensions for electricity, natural gas, city water, sewerage, and telephone services. In addition, layouts and construction of streets, curbs, gutters, and walkways were coordinated with the appropriate city officials. Expenditures for these developments were shared by the University with the city. A successful implementation of landscape planning resulted in a beautiful open setting of groves of trees and expansive green areas interspersed among the buildings.

Physical property values at June 30, 1977, for the North Campus are summarized as follows:

Land $ 1,730,383
Land Improvements 7,262,414
Buildings 80,655,963
TOTAL $89,648,760

Page  99


A review of selected statistics at the beginning and end of the 1940-77 period provides a background against which to judge the relationships between the City and the University.

In 1940 the University occupied approximately 8 percent of the city's total land area of 3,672 acres. In 1970, the percentage had remained relatively stable at 10.5 percent, and in 1977 the University occupied 1,560 acres or 10.4 percent of the total city acreage of 15,025. The North Campus lands of 792 acres, or almost 50 percent of the University acreage within the expanded city, represented the major growth area.

In the fall of 1940 the student population was 12,875 or 43 percent of the nonstudent city residents counted in the 1940 census. The 1970 census, which included students, showed the Ann Arbor population to be 99,797. Adjusting this figure for the estimated 26,000 students counted by the census enumerators indicates a nonstudent resident city population of 73,797. A fall 1970 enrollment in Ann Arbor of 32,940 gave a comparable 1970 student to nonstudent residence percentage of 45 percent - a relatively stable percentage. Fall 1976 enrollment in Ann Arbor was 34,754 and the Ann Arbor population was estimated at 106,000, continuing the relative stability at 43 percent.

The University housed 22 percent of its students in 1940, 33 percent in 1970 and 33 percent in 1977.

Therefore, in proportional terms, there remained, over the thirty-seven year period from 1940 to 1977, a stability between students and population and between land owned by the University and land within the City of Ann Arbor.

There are, however, areas of change which lack this same stability. The number of visitors to the University has increased greatly. In 1940-41 the Director of the University Hospital reported 132,327 outpatient visits. In 1970-71, there were 312,808 outpatient visits, an increase of over 180,000. By 1976-77 this figure had grown to just Page  100over 350,000. The Registrar reported 6,791 people participated in noncredit institutes and conferences in 1940-41, while a survey of the major units sponsoring such conferences in 1976-77 indicated an approximate seven-fold increase to 46,645.

Student use of automobiles in the city was controlled by a Regents' regulation in 1940, and some 509 special permits were issued allowing students to drive. By 1946-47 some 3,600 students were driving. The driving regulations were removed in the summer of 1968 and, by fall of 1971, it was estimated 13,000 students would have cars on the campus.

Accommodating to the changes presented by the growth of the city and the University has involved the recognition of common interests in the community at large. The University and city have financed several planning studies over the years, the first being "Measures for Relieving Ann Arbor Street Traffic Conditions" in 1956. Another interesting study dealt with the planning treatment for the Huron River Valley, one of Ann Arbor's important visual amenities.

The fact that the University, as a state institution, is exempt from local taxation has created special problems for the city, particularly during periods of growth. Because of the common interests of the city and the University, the two have worked together to devise means by which the University can purchase required municipal services.

The question of Fire Department and Police Services provides an example of the accommodations reached. Acting under Public Act 98 of the Public Acts of 1929, which authorized contracting for police services, the Regents agreed in 1946 to pay annually a sum equal to the salary of seven policemen to the city "as long as the police service rendered to the University is satisfactory to the Board of Regents." In September 1946, the Regents agreed to purchase a high-pressure fog truck for the use of the City Fire Department, and in 1950 purchased an aerial ladder truck at a cost of $32,000.

In October of 1947 the police agreement was modified to pay the city one-seventh of the total payroll of the Police Department beginning with the fiscal year 1947-48. Page  101In 1951, following adoption of rules and regulations on traffic and parking, the Regents delegated enforcement to the City Police Department and agreed to pay for the acquisition of two radio-equipped motorcycles and the salaries and fringe benefits of two uniformed motorcycle policemen.

In April of 1956 the Regents approved transfer of the fire-fighting equipment to the city and agreed to pay the city 18 percent of the Fire Department operating budget for services rendered by the department to the University. The 18 percent was based upon a comparison of property values, comparative insurance rates, and the number of fire runs over a four-year period.

Effective July 1, 1964, payments for police services were similarly set at 18 percent of the police operating budget. Payments under this formula for 1969-70 amounted to $480,335 for police service, and $305,112 for fire protection. In addition, $56,832 was paid for patrol of University parking facilities.

These arrangements between the city and the University were challenged by Governor William Milliken in his budget message to the Legislature for 1971-72, which stated:

"The University of Michigan and Michigan State University have for some time made payments to their municipal units for police and fire services. Rather than extend this policy to other cities throughout the state, the budget proposed dropping these reimbursements in the belief that the revenue sharing proposal and redistribution of sales, use, intangibles, gasoline and income taxes represent adequate assistance for these services rendered throughout the state."

In writing to the Governor in February 1971, City Administrator Guy C. Larcom, Jr., pointed out:

"Unlike the situation in many other university cities, the University of Michigan, as you well know, is an integral and physical part of the City of Ann Arbor with the central campus area in the downtown portion of the city and with other major land areas such as the north campus within the city limits. The reason for the joint agreements which have Page  102persisted over the years is the recognition by the University and the City that they must plan together in all areas of development and of service and that any effort to split up services would be a costly and hazardous process that could not help the City nor the University."

Following the Governor's recommendation for discontinuation of the 18 percent payment formula for police and fire services, a negotiated direct cost contract was made with the city. A payment of $350,000 was made to the city for 1971-72 police and fire services. (Payments for 1970-71 under the former plan totaled $896,266.)

In July 1974 Regental action authorized payments to the City of Ann Arbor "of up to $475,000 for police and fire services subject to the following conditions:

"That police services are provided by a specific agreement which indicates that manpower and other services are included. That payments for fire service are made with the understanding that they are made for a one-year period only, and that they are to be discontinued in the event that such payments are not authorized by action of the Legislature for subsequent years."

In March 1975 payment of $250,000 was made for Fire Protection Service for the period July 1974 to June 1975. Payments for 1976-77 were $275,000.

Public Act 289, enacted by the legislature and signed by the Governor in 1977, provided a means for payment directly by the state to municipalities for fire protection services received by state facilities.

Ann Arbor's eccentric street patterns, combined with the growth of the city and the University have received much attention. The "Central Campus Planning Study" completed in June 1963 recommended a series of traffic improvements throughout the campus area. A City of Ann Arbor "Thoroughfare Plan" report was issued in November 1963. Subsequently a joint University-City sponsored study, conducted by Harland Bartholemew and Associates entitled "A Traffic and Parking Analysis — The Ann Arbor Thoroughfare Plan in Relation to University of Michigan Central Campus Page  103Study" reviewed the relationship between City and University plans.

The major thrust of the study was to seek ways of improving circulation around the campus, on a "ring" made up of Forest Avenue, Washtenaw Avenue, Hill Street, Division Street, and Huron Street, while closing certain minor streets to automobiles. As a result, the following campus area streets were closed:

  • 1. Washington Street between Fletcher Street and Forest Avenue. This closing allowed the construction of the Fletcher Street Parking Structure with entrances on both Fletcher Street and Forest Avenue. (1964)
  • 2. North University Avenue east from Forest Avenue to the east boundary of the Margaret Bell Pool site. (1968)
  • 3. North University Avenue west from Forest Avenue to Washtenaw Avenue. This allowed the construction of a walkway and pedestrian bridge over Forest Avenue toward the dormitories on the Observatory "hill" and eliminated an especially dangerous conflict between pedestrians and traffic on Forest Avenue. (1968)
  • 4. Haven Street between Monroe Street and Hill Street. This closure permitted the construction of the Hill Street Parking Structure. (1969)
  • 5. East University Avenue between North and South University Avenues. (1970)

In recent years, major street improvements have been made to Forest Avenue, Fuller Road, and Observatory Street, and the University has shared the cost of these improvement projects with the city.

There was a surprise in one of the Harland Bartholemew recommendations, which suggested a new north-south parkway from Washtenaw Avenue on the south to Fuller Street on the north, using the Arboretum as a route. A University official hastened to disavow that recommendation in a press release, saying, "…the reported recommendation for routing a thoroughfare through the Arboretum area is completely inconsistent Page  104with the assigned use of the property as an arboretum. This route location has not been a part of University plans for campus development and there is no concept or provision for a change in the use of the Arboretum."

Other street closings have included East Jefferson Street in 1945 between State and Maynard Streets to permit construction of the former Administration Building, now the Literature, Science, and Arts Building. Clark Street, in the Medical Center, was closed in 1950, and Thayer Street, between Washington and Huron Streets, was closed in 1955 to permit expansion of the Frieze Building.

Between 1946 and 1977, the University participated in street improvements, curb and gutter, sidewalks, and related expenses to the extent of $2,749,907. Payments were also made to the city in 1940 and 1947 for the expansion of the city's water and sewage treatment plants. Since that time both water and sewer rates have been set at a level to provide revenue for plant expansions.

The University has deeded land to the city for road improvements, two notable examples being 4.21 acres of North Campus land for the construction of the Huron Parkway in 1965 and a strip of land for widening Green Road on the eastern boundary of the North Campus.

In the acquiring of land for expansion of the University, there has long been concern by citizens about the removal of such lands from the tax rolls, thereby decreasing the city's tax base. In acquiring land, the University, beginning with the acquisition of parcels in the Medical Center in 1891, has attempted to acquire undeveloped land for future use. The North Campus development was an acquisition of this type. In addition, subsequent sales of University lands to Parke-Davis in December of 1957, and to the Climax Molybdenum Company in December of 1964 for building research laboratories resulted in a net increase in the tax base of the city. A study for the period July 1956 through December 1968 showed that the University purchases had removed taxable property with an assessed valuation of just under $1,370,000, but that sales of University property had resulted in adding over $3,700,000 in assessed valuation during the same period.

Page  105In 1967 the University sold two acres of land on Green Road to the Ann Arbor Housing Commission for use as a site for public housing. The sale was at an appraised market value of $10,000 per acre.

The Regents in January 1967 agreed to share the cost of an artificial ice rink and swimming pool complex to be built on Fuller Road. The University's contribution of $212,000 permitted enlarging the pool to Olympic size. Under the terms of an agreement with the city, the University participates as a lessee of restricted use time of the facility. Intramural Director Dr. Rodney Grambeau was designated as the University spokesman and coordinator for scheduling University use in accordance with the lease agreement.

The University provided rent-free use to the city of a parcel of land along the Huron River which included seven holes of an 18-hole Municipal Golf Course. The parcel was acquired in 1955, and the city continued its use until February 1968, when improvements to the land for intramural field sports were scheduled by the University. Since that time the Ann Arbor Recreation Department has used the field in the summer for league baseball games.

University-City cooperation pioneered one of the nation's most unique recreation developments in 1968 with the establish ment of the Summer Recreation Program for community youngsters. This innovative and initially very successful addition to the free summer sports opportunities for Ann Arbor children was made possible by the cooperative efforts of the Ann Arbor Recreation Department and Athletic Director Donald B. Canham. Week-long clinics, directed by the varsity coaching staffs in the varsity athletic facilities, provided an opportunity for interested children to learn and gain experience in a variety of sports. Baseball, track, gymnastics, basketball, and football clinics were organized the first year and attendance averaged 880 per day. In 1969 clinics in wrestling, golf and tennis were added, and over 6,000 participated. Girls had been excluded from some of the earlier clinics, but in 1971, after complaints from local women's rights organizations, all clinics were opened to girls as well as boys. Unfortunately, interest in the program fell drastically in 1973 and no program was held in 1974.

Page  106In terms of facilities, the Athletic Department had, in addition to the Fuller playfields, made the varsity baseball field available for scheduling by the Ann Arbor Recreation Department. The 1970 football game between Ann Arbor's Huron and Pioneer High Schools was played in the Michigan Stadium.

Other areas of cooperation have been a summer job program for city teenagers, begun in 1968, and the use of University facilities for polling places. The North Campus Commons, Michigan League, West Quadrangle, South Quadrangle, Mary Markley Hall, and Yost Field House have been used for this purpose.

Many faculty and staff members have made major contributions to the city as members of various units of city government. In the past forty years, five of eight Ann Arbor mayors have been University people: Walter C. Sadler, 1934-41 (Professor of Civil Engineering); Leigh J. Young, 1941-45 (Professor of Silviculture); Samuel J. Eldersveld, 1957-59 (Professor of Political Science); Robert J. Harris, 1969-72 (Professor of Law); and Albert J. Wheeler, 1975-78 (Associate Professor of Dermatology and Microbiology). David S. Pollock (Supervisor of Community Service, University Relations), John Dowson (Professor of Dentistry), John G. McKevitt (Assistant to the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer), and Clinton N. Hewitt (Assistant University Planner) are among many who served on the City Planning Commission. Mechanical Engineering Professor Jay Bolt devoted many hours to the city's Noise Ordinance while Civil Engineering Professor Donald Cleveland and Natural Resources Professor William Drake have worked with the Ann Arbor Transportation Authority. Numerous University faculty and staff members have also served on the Ann Arbor City Council.

It has been almost traditional that at least one Regent be a resident of the Ann Arbor area. In recent years local residents Roscoe O. Bonisteel, 1946-59; Frederick C. Matthaei, 1960-67; Eugene B. Power, 1956-66; Deane Baker, 1974 — ; and Sarah Goddard Power, 1975 — have served on the Board.

The University and the Ann Arbor Public Schools have long worked together and many University employees have served as trustees of the Board of Education.

Page  107In 1950 the University sold property at Stadium Boulevard and Main Street for the construction of a new Ann Arbor High School and purchased Wines Field (now known as Elbel Field), the High School Athletic Field at Hill and Division Streets, for University intramural use. In 1954 the University purchased the old Ann Arbor High School (since renamed the Frieze Building). In 1964 the Regents agreed to furnish 25 acres on Fuller Road for a second high school, with the understanding that the School of Education would cease to operate grades 10, 11 and 12 of the University School and arrange for an orderly transition of teachers and children to a new facility upon completion. The University purchased the Perry School at Packard and Madison Streets in 1965.

With the University scheduled to close the University School completely in June 1970, and with more married student apartments being constructed on the North Campus, the School Board looked toward the University for some sort of payment for the schooling of children living in this tax-exempt housing.

At the April 1970 meeting, the Regents agreed to make payments to the Ann Arbor Board of Education "…for school services to children living in Northwood Apartments; that the cost for that agreement be charged back to the tenants of Northwood Apartments, effective July 1, 1970; that those monies collected be held in escrow; and that the University join in a suit to determine the legality of payments of such charges…"

At the May 1970 meeting, the Regents modified the position by setting an amount of $6.00 per month per apartment unit and recommended that no payment be made to the schools until an opinion is obtained from the Attorney General or a court as to the legality of such payment.

In January 1971, the Regents resolved, "That the University of Michigan pay to the Ann Arbor School District an amount not to exceed $6.00 per month per unit for the period August 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971." And at the September 1973 meeting, it was "RESOLVED, That in view of the decision on September 18, 1973, by the Michigan Supreme Court in Sprik v. Regents (Docket No. 54432), a payment calculated Page  108as hereinafter provided shall be made by the University to the Ann Arbor Board of Education as soon as practicable. Said payment shall be an amount equal to collections by the University of $6.00 per month per married student rental housing unit for the months of August, 1970, through September, 1973, inclusive. Additional payments calculated in the same manner shall be made quarterly hereafter, and it is FURTHER RESOLVED, That any previous acts or resolutions of this Board which may be construed as inconsistent herewith are hereby expressly repealed and this Resolution shall control in the event of any such inconsistency or ambiguity." The legality of the payment was challenged in the courts. A May 1975 Michigan Supreme Court ruling resolved the dispute and cleared the way for payments to the Ann Arbor Board of Education.

The compiling of the information in this history and the writing of major parts have been accomplished by Frederick E. Oliver, Anita J. Stull, and William S. Sturgis, all long-time members of the staff of the Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer.