The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.
Page  52


1952-1974. — By 1953 enrollment in the College had decreased to 498 after a peak of 655 in 1950. There was a brief lull following the heavy influx of World War II veterans, but by 1954 a steady growth in enrollment began, especially in the visual arts programs of the College. In 1972, when ground was broken for a new building on the North Campus to house the various programs of the College, total enrollment had passed 800. The teaching staff of the College, numbering 46 in 1952, had nearly doubled in the two decades.

Less obvious than the growing needs for space and staff during this period were the changing needs of education. The principal programs of instruction, those in architecture and art, are related in many respects, and their partnership in the College had been natural and mutually beneficial. In detail, however, there were marked and growing differences, and it became evident that each curriculum must be projected with its own philosophy and objectives in view.

Architecture at accredited schools had become formalized in five-year undergraduate professional programs by 1952. A sixth, or graduate year was slowly gaining in importance, appealing mainly to the few young architects who wished to specialize or to make teaching a career. Professional standards and the legal responsibilities of postwar practice were influencing the curriculum as were the technical complexities of current building. Under these pressures, in an environment featured by population increase, mechanization, and urbanization, a free generalized curriculum would not suffice. Faculty with superior qualifications and training were required, and an increasing emphasis on professionalism and the growth in specialization began.

In art, the increasing stature of the faculty was attracting greater numbers of students with objectives other than architecture. In drawing, painting, and design, and to some extent in all areas of the visual arts program, the direction was not so much toward professionalism as Page  53toward a greater usefulness to the student in search of a liberal education.

In response to the many changes influencing education, an administrative reorganization was effected in 1954-55 with the establishment of the departments of Art and Architecture. These two departments, along with the much smaller Department of Landscape Architecture, comprised the body of the College for the next decade.

Throughout the period 1952 to 1974 the College was constrained by a serious lack of space. In 1950 the first proposal was made to alleviate this situation — a new building on the newly-developed North Campus. Authorization to proceed with program development was not received until 1964, however, when committees were established in each department to prepare space and equipment needs. Finally, in the summer of 1972, construction funds were approved and work began in September.

From the re-establishment of instruction in architecture in 1906 until the partitioning of the College in 1974, the leadership role of the College had been assigned to four persons. The founder of the College, Emil Lorch, served with distinction until his resignation in 1936. Wells Ira Bennett, a member of the faculty since 1912, was appointed Director of the College in 1937 and in 1938 his title was changed to Dean, a position he filled with honor and devotion until his retirement in 1957. During his long years of service, Dean Bennett was an innovative and perceptive leader in education in art and architecture. He clearly foresaw the momentous change that was to transform the profession of architecture after World War II. He brought in many new faculty members and encouraged them to develop new approaches to architectural education. Under his prompting Michigan became the first architectural school in the country to establish a research program and to create its own research laboratory. A series of annual Ann Arbor Conferences on environmental design topics of interdisciplinary and interprofessional interest in the building field attracted many visitors and helped the College achieve national prominence in the 1950s.

During the Bennett administration the visual arts curriculum became more important academically. Art courses had been established originally to serve only the professional training of young architects. During the war years they had been opened to students from other units across campus. Because of this, the character of Page  54art instruction was necessarily changed. Many new art courses were added by the College and the postwar increase in art student enrollments and faculty size brought the program in art to a level, both quantitatively and qualitatively, which matched that of architecture.

Dean Bennett similarly encouraged the growth in the urban studies curriculum. In 1946 he brought in John Hyde from Washington to establish a graduate program in city planning. He played an active role in the integration of planning studies into the architecture curriculum. During his time of leadership, architecture, planning, and landscape architecture students began working collaboratively with local community groups throughout Michigan in community planning and design projects.

The various educational experiments led to the reorganization of the College and the formation of departments in 1954. In 1957, after 45 years continuous service as a teacher and administrator, Dean Bennett retired.

His successor, Philip N. Youtz of New York, was eminently qualified. He was a good writer and speaker and well-known among professionals throughout the country. He was the inventor of the "lift-slab" technique of concrete construction, now in common use throughout the world. Dean Youtz retired in 1964 and was succeeded by Reginald F. Malcolmson. During his first year, a thorough study was made of the relation of landscape architecture to the College and the decision was reached to transfer this department to the School of Natural Resources. A Department of Urban Planning was established in 1968, evolving from the former city-planning program in the Department of Architecture. The tenure of Dean Malcolmson saw the completion of the new building on North Campus.

As the College grew in size and complexity, others were appointed to share the administrative burden. Walter V. Marshall was appointed as assistant dean in 1947, and upon his retirement in 1960, Herbert W. Johe replaced him in that post. William A. Lewis was named to fill the new position of associate dean. Following the request in March 1973 by Dean Malcolmson to be relieved of his duties effective in August 1974, a committee was formed for the selection of a new dean and also for an evaluation of the administrative and educational functions of the College. Dr. A.G. Norman, Chairman for the Institute for Environmental Quality, was named chairman.

Page  55The Norman Committee submitted its final report on April 11, 1974. Its principal recommendation was to partition the College of Architecture and Design into a School of Art and a College of Architecture and Urban Planning. Upon finding there was general agreement with this recommendation, the Regents approved this division, effective September 1, 1974. George V. Bayliss was appointed Dean of the School of Art, and Robert C. Metcalf was named Dean of the College of Architecture and Urban Planning.

The new Art and Architecture Building was occupied in time to begin the Fall Term 1974. It proved to be a flexible building — designed for one school, it was occupied by two with minimal difficulty. For the School of Art, the generous space and equipment provided was an exciting challenge. For the College of Architecture and Urban Planning, it brought together all teaching units for the first time in many years, and provided space to share in interdisciplinary educational activities with other units on campus. Several innovative teaching spaces were provided, including the Visual Simulation Laboratory, the Building Technology Laboratory, and the Computing Facilities Laboratory. Despite its construction during an inflationary time, the Art and Architecture Building was low in unit cost. The total building area of 221,220 square feet was completed for $6.71 million at $30.33 per square foot. Total project cost, including all fees, site work, parking, furniture, and equipment, was $8.46 million, or $38.26 per square foot.

Page  56Department of Architecture. — By faculty decision enrollment in the department during the period 1954-74 was held steady at approximately 330 students because of the crowded condition of the Architecture Building. Although a new building to house the College of Architecture and Design had been proposed for the North Campus in 1950, and preliminary studies prepared in the summer of 1955, authorization to proceed with program development was not granted until 1964, and another decade would pass before the new building finally became available for occupancy.

In retrospect, the delays in the provision of adequate physical facilities was fortuitous, allowing time for the faculty to reshape the educational programs of the department in response to the momentous changes taking place in society and the profession. There was general agreement that additional changes were required, and in 1954 the faculty initiated a long-range study of the curriculum. Following four years of intensive study, several new courses were introduced in 1958, covering areas not previously identified in the program. The action increased the breadth of the program without sacrifice of depth. It was nonetheless clear that demands being placed on the profession required a more drastic change in the educational programs of schools of architecture. The five-year program was outmoded, and in 1960 studies were initiated to develop and structure a six-year program.

This new six-year program in architecture was implemented in the fall of 1967. It was sufficiently broad and basic to serve as a foundation for any later specialization in graduate work or professional apprenticeship. The program included two years of liberal arts studies, taken in any accredited university or community college, and four years of professional studies. In the professional program, the first two years included a "core" of required studies, culminating in the Bachelor of Science degree. The first professional degree — Master of Architecture — is awarded upon completion of the professional program.

By the fall of 1967, the Architecture Building, built to house 300 students was literally stuffed with more than 800 students. Implementation of the six-year program required several additional classrooms and special laboratories which were not available. The addition of a second floor in the high-ceilinged Room 340 created 3,400 Page  57square feet of new space. Three temporary classrooms and a Building Technology Laboratory were constructed by students and faculty in the old Wood Technology Building adjacent to University Hospital.

With the change to Master of Architecture as the first professional degree, the faculty approved a proposed two-year graduate program leading to the degree Doctor of Architecture (Arch. D.). Under the leadership of Professor Walter B. Sanders, the program offered five areas of study: facilities development, technological advance, human behavior-response, operational aids, and historic analysis. In the fall of 1969, Michigan became the first College of Architecture to offer the two-year professional degree (Arch. D.). Since the death of Professor Sanders in March, 1972, the Arch. D. program has continued to acquire stature under the direction of S.C.A. Paraskevopoulos. Talented young professionals are attracted to the program and their presence serves to upgrade the quality of work throughout the College.

The successful development of the doctoral program was a natural outgrowth of the long history of architectural research work performed at Michigan by faculty and students. George B. Brigham, Jr., had initiated research activity in 1943 with a project to develop a prefabricated plywood house. In 1948 the Architectural Research Laboratory (A.R.L.) was founded. C. Theodore Larson became the first Director of the Laboratory, retaining that position until his retirement in 1972. One of his early contributions was the Development Index, a method of investigation and a means of organizing and facilitating the flow of information needed for the development of man's environment.

The early work of A.R.L. included a series of projects designed to explore the structural possibilities of the Unistrut system of building construction. Its first task was to develop a standardized demountable framing system for school buildings, using Unistrut steel channels and parts. This was followed by development of the "space frame" roof assembly, and in 1954 the Laboratory designed and erected its own building in the courtyard of the Architecture Building. Materials for this building were donated by interested building products manufacturers; the entire structure was assembled by architecture students. For the next twenty years the building served as a center for all sponsored research programs conducted by the Department of Architecture.

Page  58The sponsor of the Unistrut research project, the late Charles W. Attwood, was president of the Unistrut Corporation and an alumnus of the College. With a special grant of $5,000 from him in 1955, the department established a revolving fund, the Charles W. Attwood Research and Publications Fund, to publish its research reports. A number of these have gone into several printings, with worldwide distribution to libraries, business and industrial firms, government agencies, planners and designers.

In 1959 the Laboratory undertook a series of investigations into the effects of environment on the learning process. Projects ranged from basic behavioral research to the development of planning and design criteria for specific building facilities, such as childcare centers, courthouses, and cardiac care units. The Institute of Gerontology works in close collaboration with the Laboratory. Studies have included the spatial and privacy needs of the elderly, their perception and manipulation of their environments, and new approaches to their housing needs.

In 1962, A.R.L. began studies on the use of cellular plastics for low-cost housing in underdeveloped countries. Several prototype structures were erected, creating what some termed a "plastic slum" in the Architecture Building courtyard. A number of promising techniques in building technology were tried, including sprayed foam, folded paper-foam board, spiral generation, and filament wound structures. In recent years, research emphasis has shifted to investigations in the use of solar and wind energy, the forecasting of life-cycle building costs, and the development of computer-based building information systems, the development of techniques for simulating the visual, lighting, acoustical, and thermal performance of buildings, and experimentation in new techniques for developing community involvement in the community planning and design process.

One of the most important tools for research and education is the computer. With the impetus provided by Professor Willard Oberdick and funds by U.S. Steel, a teletype was acquired and coursework was introduced in 1966. In the spring of 1967 the first in a series of continuing education courses was offered in computer applications. Since then a rapid growth and development has occurred, with most technology courses utilizing the computer in design and performance evaluation studies. Under the direction of Professor Harold Borkin, significant advance has been made in the use of computer graphics in Page  59architecture. The ARCH: GRAPHIC system, first devised in 1970, permitted the user to manipulate a set of objects to form shapes, combinations, buildings, even whole cities, within minutes on the face of a cathode ray tube. Recent refinements include techniques of hidden line removal, the ability to sketch buildings for easy input, and to simulate a walk through a complex, thus viewing what has been drawn from a variety of perspectives.

A number of constructive changes were initiated or given new impetus during the period of student activism in the 1960s. Students were provided with much more freedom in the selection of coursework to meet program requirements. Changes were made in the structure and operations of the department to permit and encourage greater participation by students in the management of departmental affairs. The department became an educational resource for the resolution of urban problems. Funds were established to assist in the education of disadvantaged persons from inner city areas. Minority enrollment was encouraged, at first for racial minorities, but later to include women, a distinct minority in the profession of architecture. Affirmative action programs were instituted. A new concern developed for the "user-client" of buildings, as distinct from the "owner-client." Research opportunities increased in human behavior-response to the built environment.

One outgrowth of the period was the development of community assistance programs. About 1949, as part of the teaching program, groups of students and faculty advisers began working with small communities in efforts to formulate community goals and to develop comprehensive growth plans. The Reed City project of 1964-65 was perhaps the most celebrated of these, but all served as an important learning experience for students, faculty and the people of the communities involved. By 1968 it was realized that all previous community service attempts had been of short duration — a year at most — and all had been in small communities.

A new course, "Conflict and Consensus in Urban Problems," was instituted in the graduate program in 1968. The immediate goal was to introduce students to some of the economic, social, and political dynamics encountered by individuals and organizations involved in urban renewal and development. In response to the course, several students and faculty became associated on a work-study basis with neighborhood groups in Detroit, Flint, Page  60and Ann Arbor in an advocacy-architect role. A small group of students, assisted by Professor Harold Himes, began an active participation in the Model Cities Programs in Ann Arbor and Flint. A workshop was established in the Grass Roots Organization Workers (GROW) area, a neighborhood of some 15,000 people located just west of downtown Detroit. In the three-year period, 1968-70, nine students and James Chaffers, a doctoral student, worked under the direction of community leader Mrs. Howard and the GROW community organization to assist in the development of a Neighborhood Plan for Long-Range Growth and Development. On April 11, 1970, for the first time in the history of the city of Detroit, the GROW Neighborhood Plan was adopted as an official part of the map and text of the Detroit City Master Plan.

Other educational experiments have proven effective with less reliance on full-time faculty, an increasing use of part-time professionals, and a greater intermix of students and professionals in work-study programs.

In 1972, for the first time, a firm (Smith, Hinchman & Grylis, Architects and Engineers) was contracted to conduct courses in professional practice and management. That same year, the Professional Exposure Program was inaugurated. Developed and coordinated by Professor Harold Himes, the P.E.P. program required of the student one term in school, while arrangements were made to place her/him in a professional office for an eight-month work-in period.

In the years since 1952 more than a hundred excellent teachers have participated in the educational programs in the Department of Architecture. Of special distinction was the contribution of Professor Sanders, a member of the faculty for twenty-five years, who also served as chairman from 1954 to 1964. He died in March, 1972. The Walter B. Sanders Memorial Fund was established the following year as a permanent endowment to honor his memory.

By 1974 the faculty in architecture numbered 45 persons, the majority of whom were on part-time appointments. Since the founding of the College in 1906, it has been acknowledged that professional activity, either in practice or research, was essential in order to maintain one's teaching capability. This new policy simply recognized that at least one day a week should be devoted to professional activity, and research, in particular, was encouraged.

Page  61Department of Art. — The establishment of separate departments in architecture and art in 1954 signified the extent to which these disciplines developed along individual and increasingly complex lines. The Bachelor of Design degree, established in the mid-30s, signified the combination of traditional "fine arts" education with then relatively new concepts of basic design which were deemed common to all disciplines taught in the College. Still unusual in 1940, similar programs became widespread in major United States art schools after World War II, although rarely in conjunction with the academic resources available at Michigan.

The degree titles underwent change. By 1959 the commonly recognized Bachelor of Fine Arts and Master of Fine Arts were adopted. The design degree was phased out by 1973 although the design curriculum remained a vital constituent of the art program.

A departmental organization based on a chairman, with effective standing committees, proved to be sound. In the new School of Art a version of this structure continues to be used. Robert Iglehart was appointed the first chairman of the Department of Art in 1955. He clearly stated that the primary object of the department was to offer professional education in the various art areas — painting, sculpture, ceramics, printmaking, advertising design, industrial design, interior design, and photography.

In the period following World War II a college education was regarded as an essential qualification for usefulness in the design professions and the fine arts in general. Serious attention was given to photography, cinematography, and television as art forms as well as elements of the exploding graphic design industry.

In 1954 the program in art education was established to serve the needs of the elementary certification program of the School of Education and to provide the specialized requirements of secondary school certification in art. By predicating high school certification on completion of the bachelor degree requirements in art, as well as state education obligations, the University produced well-qualified artist-teachers.

Since the middle 1930s, three design disciplines — industrial design, interior design, and advertising design — have been taught at Michigan. The scope of advertising design in recent times has been acknowledged by adoption Page  62of the terms graphic design and visual communications on a somewhat interchangeable basis.

The industrial design program, guided by Aare Lahti from 1940 until his retirement in 1973, early had a strong relationship with the crafts movement. Later cooperative projects with urban planning and architecture were succeeded by emphasis on links with engineering projects such as the urban vehicle programs of 1973 and 1974. Professor Alfredo Montalvo, a designer, architect, and film maker, succeeded Professor Lahti in 1973.

Interior design, oriented to architecture, was first taught by Professor Catherine Heller. Upon her retirement in 1964, she was succeeded by another Michigan architect, William Carter. Growth of the program brought the appointment of Robert Hanamura, also an architect and artist, in 1973.

Advertising design, developed by Donald Gooch, reflected in content the expanding range of skills found in the modern visual communication field — lettering and calligraphy, typography, still and motion picture photography, television graphics, corporate identity, and packaging. Many of these specialties are major arts in their own right which students are encouraged to elect as parallel concentrations. Following the appointment of Professor Korten in 1964, a Creative Advertising/Communication Arts Workshop was developed as an interdisciplinary senior-level course for students in graphic design, journalism, TV and film, creative writing, and marketing.

A fundamental education in art requires a strong basic program in drawing, especially life drawing, as well as basic design. Such a program is essential to what are called the "fine arts." This term is loosely applied to all non-design concentrations. The majors in the fine arts were expanded upon faculty reviews of the 1952-57 period. Four-term undergraduate concentrations were developed in painting, printmaking, sculpture, photography, and ceramics and were available as concentrations at the Master of Arts level. In 1974 and 1975 two more majors were approved in weaving and fabric design, and jewelry and metalwork.

The occupation of the new School of Art in 1974 permitted an extension in all the above fields. It is possible for a student to pursue work in a given concentration for three years at the undergraduate level, while the fully-equipped studios satisfy the needs of graduate work in any area. In addition, supplementary facilities Page  63exist for work in television and cinematography. The art student is expected to become proficient in more than one art area and to be more than ordinarily interested and able in selected academic pursuits.

The quality of admitted students was such that by 1968 the faculty reduced course requirements to a minimum, involving only fundamentals in freshman art and English, plus a strong history of art sequence. All other work in art and academics became elective. Student educational goals are limited only by the capacity of the various departmental courses and the ability of the student. Special requirements such as art and science preparation for Medical Illustration can be met under the Bachelor of Fine Arts program.

The study of education objectives undertaken by the art faculty in the 1955-59 period paid particular attention to the purposes and limitations of graduate education in art. Proposals of the art faculty were approved by the Rackham Board of Governors in March, 1959. The existing Master of Arts degree was especially revised to serve the purposes of secondary school teachers interested in reinforcing their studio experience in a one-year program. A new two-year degree, the Master of Fine Arts, was authorized which paralleled new criteria for studio art instruction at the college level then being established by the national collegiate art organizations. The two-year Master of Fine Arts subsequently became the accepted terminal degree for studio art education.

Graduate admissions have been carefully controlled to respect the capacity of the School as well as the restricted market for college instructors. The enrollment since 1962 has ranged from 36 to 45 students in the fall term count. The number of applications gradually rose, the ratio of applicants to acceptances reaching 15 to 1 in the mid-70s.

In 1962 discussions were undertaken with the Medical School and University Hospital authorities regarding proposals for a graduate program in medical and scientific illustration. In the fall of 1964 the study resulted in the initiation of the Master of Science in Medical and Biological Illustration with Professor Gerald Hodge as chairman of the program. With funding and shelter provided by the Medical Center, the program has become one of the most respected in North America. The three openings available per year now draw up to 1,250 inquiries.

Page  64The postwar boom in undergraduate admissions created difficult physical problems. To meet the flood of qualified students, the art faculty nearly doubled in number between 1954 and 1960. The need for some control of admissions, other than just meeting academic qualifications, was pressed by Chairman Iglehart. The appointment of an Associate Dean to handle art admissions was approved, and William Lewis was named to the position effective with the winter 1967 term. The establishment that year of a portfolio review as part of the admissions process tended, over the subsequent ten years, to lower the number of applicants while raising their qualifications as artists. Academic measurements remained level over that period and enrollment was stabilized.

As early as 1960, half the admissions to art were transfer students. With the extension of community colleges, the number of qualified transfer applicants rose. In 1974 a third more transfer students were accepted than freshmen, and a significant fraction of the transfers were from other University units.

Though the design of the new building provided for a 50 percent increase in enrolled students, limited finances precluded any significant expansion of faculty or student body when the plant was completed. Rather than increase the admission of freshmen, a slight increase in transfer students was approved in 1974, while additional sections of basic studio courses were added to provide for more non-art students. Sufficient additional classes were offered so that art credits elected by non-art students rose 90 percent between 1973 and 1975. This "salting" of art studio and lecture sections with students from other units proved to be a workable means for negotiating a cross-campus transfer for those students so concerned.

The budgetary problems affected programs in art as in other areas. The deepening money crisis, and the death in 1971 of Professor Gerald Mast, closed the resident program in Grand Rapids, which has been supported by the Extension Service and the Art Department. Art participation in state-wide extension offerings was severly limited by 1974.

A two-week summer program for selected high school students was initiated in 1965 in cooperation with the Bureau of School Services. Although successful and popular, the funding shortage closed the program after six sessions.

Page  65In 1969 Robert Iglehart retired from the chairmanship of the department. Thomas Larkin took the post for a three-year term to allow the department to conduct a thorough search for an educator willing to accept a longer appointment.

Participation of students in the noncurricular activity of the Art Department was sporadic prior to 1968. Exhibitions, the annual College open-house, and similar events occurred at intervals. Government, as such, was nearly nonexistent. Design students worked on the College publication Dimension issued from time to time.

Under Larkin's chairmanship, departmental meetings and committees were opened to student participation. Students accepted their inclusion seriously and contributed hours of work to a number of committee assignments, notably the ongoing chairmanship search committee, the counseling and curriculum committees, and at a later time, the proceedings of the Norman Committee on the College structure and deanship. Senior student advisers have proved invaluable during classification and registration. Student participation contributed materially to the decision to invite George Bayliss to the chairmanship which he accepted effective in the fall term 1972. The year 1969 marked the rise of the Black Action Movement on campus. Most students were openly sympathetic, and the strike was accepted as an expression of belief, but the work in Architecture and Design appeared to go on regardless.

The goals for minority enrollment and employment were accepted in good faith; the field of art has had limited attraction to minority and other underprivileged students, partly due to the uncertain economic rewards of an art career. Black faculty continue in short supply, and capable Black artists remain in demand in the professions as well as education. Since 1965 the department has gained, and lost in turn, several excellent Black teachers.

The number of minority students in the undergraduate program had grown slowly to about 8 percent in 1975, while the much smaller graduate program varied from 5 to 30 percent in minority enrollment between 1968 and 1975. In 1975 art students, with assistance from the Opportunity Program were found to be maintaining a grade-point average of 2.8, with two students establishing the only 4.0 in the School of Art.

In recent years the major interest of students has been less in committee work, other than counseling, and Page  66much more in participation in School operations under the work-study programs. This activity and the yearly production of a most remarkable "Art Student's Survival Manual" were of great value to the Art School.

The 1974 establishment of a School of Art and move to the new facility culminated a quarter century of development and growth which created endless problems for students and faculty in the old Architecture and Design building. The critical reaccreditation report of the National Association of Schools of Art in 1966 outlined the extent to which the facilities fell short of acceptable minima. Despite increasingly tighter budgets, the University administration did what it could to find workable space. For a short time some of the art programs were housed in the old Argus factory. The ceramics and graduate painting programs used a converted commercial garage in 1969, while industrial design found shelter in the basement of the School of Education, and the advertising design staff was set up in a nearby vacant house. Years of work by faculty of the College in defining the nature of the projected North Campus building proved to be worth it. Careful attention to the planning and construction by the building committee and other concerned faculty insured that much of what was desired was actually obtained. Professor William Carter rendered outstanding service in gaining a workable and well-equipped art school in the new building.

In 1972 Professor Bayliss became chairman of the department in time to participate in the completion of the major building. The year 1972 also saw the retirement of five senior faculty men, Professors Gooch, Lahti, LaMore, Prendergast, and Weddige, whose total service to the University exceeded 160 years. In 1973 and 1974 nine new faculty were appointed, an application for a Ford Foundation Grant culminated in the award of $150,000 to be matched by the department, and the Department of Art became the new School of Art, Chairman Bayliss becoming Dean Bayliss, while Associate Dean Lewis of Architecture and Design became Associate Dean of the new Art School. The transfer to North Campus was followed by an academic year of curious excitement with the new building, the new school, new faculty, new funds, and satisfying expansions of curriculums and facilities. The dedication ceremony in April, 1975, conducted in the new gallery, saw the participation of the chief officers of the University and those state officials and legislators deeply involved in the achievement of the building project. Later in the spring of 1975 an appropriate ceremony marked the dedication of the gallery in honor Page  67of Jean Paul Slusser, Emeritus Professor of Art and Emeritus Director of the Museum of Art.

Page  68Department of Landscape Architecture. — The forces effecting drastic changes in the professions were presenting landscape architects with a formidable set of challenges. In the 1920s, city planning and regional planning, both areas of critical importance to landscape architecture, emerged as distinct and separate areas of competence. Landscape architecture during this period was generally identified as a technically oriented profession concerned with the formal design of small-scaled projects.

At Michigan some instruction in city planning had formed part of the landscape architecture curriculum since the inception of the program in 1909. An optional program in city planning had been added in 1935. After the transfer of the department to the College of Architecture and Design in 1939, city planning became an option in the five-year curriculum leading to the degree Bachelor of Architecture. In 1958 Professor Harlow O. Whittemore retired after forty-four years of dedicated service to the University. He had served with distinction as chairman of the Department of Landscape Architecture and Director of the Nichols Arboretum since 1934. Professor George Ross also retired in 1958, leaving the department without faculty. In July of that year, however, Walter L. Chambers of Harvard University was appointed chairman of the department and director of Nichols Arboretum. Walter Johnson was appointed Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, and in November, Charles W. Cares was added to the faculty also as an associate professor. The new faculty completely revised the curriculums in both the undergraduate and graduate programs and introduced a new program leading to the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Landscape Architecture. Enrollment in 1958 was small, but interest in the new programs was lively and enrollment increased dramatically the following year.

Members of the department were active in directing rehabilitation work at the Nichols Arboretum and the Inglis House grounds. Plans were developed to increase the public uses of the Arboretum in order to fulfill the University's obligation to the people of Michigan. Envisioned was a comprehensive collection of all kinds of trees and shrubs viable in this climate, properly arranged, identified and labeled. A new plan was prepared for the setting out of plants in due accordance with the demands of ecology, aesthetic arrangement, and accessibility to visitors. Information was prepared and made available to the public on all aspects of obtaining and cultivating trees and Page  69shrubs in this region. In cooperation with the Extension Service and the Federated Garden Clubs of Michigan, the department introduced Landscape Design Study Courses designed to educate Garden Club members and the general public to recognize good landscape practice and to serve as guardians and critics of outdoor beauty.

In order to accommodate the steady growth in enrollment and staff, in 1963 the department moved from the Architecture Building to the former Cheever House. The space available accommodated 80 students and permitted an increase in research. The faculty continued to investigate the content of courses and programs to adequately train students to assume roles within the expanding scope of the profession. This resulted in a greater emphasis being given to regional land planning and the design of recreational areas. After a thorough study of the relation of landscape architecture to the College, the faculty requested that the department be transferred administratively to the School of Natural Resources.

Page  70Department of Urban Planning. — In 1945 John W. Hyde was appointed as Professor of Planning in the Department of Architecture. A strong interest had developed in city planning, and a senior major in city planning was added in 1946 as an option of the five-year curriculum in architecture. A graduate program leading to the degree Master of City Planning was also established in that year. By 1956 a faculty committee recommended to the Regents that a new department of urban and regional planning be added to the College. The broad scope of the problem — training in urban and regional planning at the University of Michigan — required the participation of all units concerned, and a University Committee on urban planning was appointed to study the problem. In 1965, after a thorough review of previous studies of education in planning, an interdisciplinary planning institute was proposed to coordinate the various planning programs already in existence, but scattered in various units around the campus. Following a formal proposal submitted by the College, the Department of Urban Planning was established in July 1965 with Gerald E. Crane as chairman.

A two-year course of graduate study was prepared — the first year consisting of required courses comprising the "core" program; the second year, of courses intended to provide depth in various aspects of planning of interest to the student.

In the second year of operation of the program, enrollment increased to 30 students, and additional part-time faculty were appointed. Space and equipment was grossly inadequate until the summer of 1970 when the department occupied a vacant house near the Architecture Building. Until the occupation of the new Art and Architecture Building on the North Campus in 1974, enrollment was maintained at approximately 50 students despite a very high application rate. After one year in the new building, enrollment had climbed to 84. Of these, 40 percent were women and 13 percent were minority students.

Curriculum modifications had been made annually since the inception of the program, but during the 1973-74 academic year an extensive revision was accomplished. The first year courses were structured around five core areas of knowledge, team teaching of core courses was introduced, integrative workshops were initiated, and self-study and evaluation procedures were established to monitor the development of both individual students and the program. Special attention was given to the formulation Page  71of dual and interdisciplinary programs such as urban planning and landscape architecture, architecture, business administration, and law.

In the brief period since its formation, the department had made steady progress towards the creation of a first-rate urban planning program. It now has excellent facilities, a good and diversified faculty, a well-rounded curriculum, and ample course offerings.