1952-1974. — By 1953 enrollment in the College had decreased to 498 after a peak of 655 in 1950. There was a brief lull following the heavy influx of World War II veterans, but by 1954 a steady growth in enrollment began, especially in the visual arts programs of the College. In 1972, when ground was broken for a new building on the North Campus to house the various programs of the College, total enrollment had passed 800. The teaching staff of the College, numbering 46 in 1952, had nearly doubled in the two decades.
Less obvious than the growing needs for space and staff during this period were the changing needs of education. The principal programs of instruction, those in architecture and art, are related in many respects, and their partnership in the College had been natural and mutually beneficial. In detail, however, there were marked and growing differences, and it became evident that each curriculum must be projected with its own philosophy and objectives in view.
Architecture at accredited schools had become formalized in five-year undergraduate professional programs by 1952. A sixth, or graduate year was slowly gaining in importance, appealing mainly to the few young architects who wished to specialize or to make teaching a career. Professional standards and the legal responsibilities of postwar practice were influencing the curriculum as were the technical complexities of current building. Under these pressures, in an environment featured by population increase, mechanization, and urbanization, a free generalized curriculum would not suffice. Faculty with superior qualifications and training were required, and an increasing emphasis on professionalism and the growth in specialization began.
In art, the increasing stature of the faculty was attracting greater numbers of students with objectives other than architecture. In drawing, painting, and design, and to some extent in all areas of the visual arts program, the direction was not so much toward professionalism as Page 53toward a greater usefulness to the student in search of a liberal education.
In response to the many changes influencing education, an administrative reorganization was effected in 1954-55 with the establishment of the departments of Art and Architecture. These two departments, along with the much smaller Department of Landscape Architecture, comprised the body of the College for the next decade.
Throughout the period 1952 to 1974 the College was constrained by a serious lack of space. In 1950 the first proposal was made to alleviate this situation — a new building on the newly-developed North Campus. Authorization to proceed with program development was not received until 1964, however, when committees were established in each department to prepare space and equipment needs. Finally, in the summer of 1972, construction funds were approved and work began in September.
From the re-establishment of instruction in architecture in 1906 until the partitioning of the College in 1974, the leadership role of the College had been assigned to four persons. The founder of the College, Emil Lorch, served with distinction until his resignation in 1936. Wells Ira Bennett, a member of the faculty since 1912, was appointed Director of the College in 1937 and in 1938 his title was changed to Dean, a position he filled with honor and devotion until his retirement in 1957. During his long years of service, Dean Bennett was an innovative and perceptive leader in education in art and architecture. He clearly foresaw the momentous change that was to transform the profession of architecture after World War II. He brought in many new faculty members and encouraged them to develop new approaches to architectural education. Under his prompting Michigan became the first architectural school in the country to establish a research program and to create its own research laboratory. A series of annual Ann Arbor Conferences on environmental design topics of interdisciplinary and interprofessional interest in the building field attracted many visitors and helped the College achieve national prominence in the 1950s.
During the Bennett administration the visual arts curriculum became more important academically. Art courses had been established originally to serve only the professional training of young architects. During the war years they had been opened to students from other units across campus. Because of this, the character of Page 54art instruction was necessarily changed. Many new art courses were added by the College and the postwar increase in art student enrollments and faculty size brought the program in art to a level, both quantitatively and qualitatively, which matched that of architecture.
Dean Bennett similarly encouraged the growth in the urban studies curriculum. In 1946 he brought in John Hyde from Washington to establish a graduate program in city planning. He played an active role in the integration of planning studies into the architecture curriculum. During his time of leadership, architecture, planning, and landscape architecture students began working collaboratively with local community groups throughout Michigan in community planning and design projects.
The various educational experiments led to the reorganization of the College and the formation of departments in 1954. In 1957, after 45 years continuous service as a teacher and administrator, Dean Bennett retired.
His successor, Philip N. Youtz of New York, was eminently qualified. He was a good writer and speaker and well-known among professionals throughout the country. He was the inventor of the "lift-slab" technique of concrete construction, now in common use throughout the world. Dean Youtz retired in 1964 and was succeeded by Reginald F. Malcolmson. During his first year, a thorough study was made of the relation of landscape architecture to the College and the decision was reached to transfer this department to the School of Natural Resources. A Department of Urban Planning was established in 1968, evolving from the former city-planning program in the Department of Architecture. The tenure of Dean Malcolmson saw the completion of the new building on North Campus.
As the College grew in size and complexity, others were appointed to share the administrative burden. Walter V. Marshall was appointed as assistant dean in 1947, and upon his retirement in 1960, Herbert W. Johe replaced him in that post. William A. Lewis was named to fill the new position of associate dean. Following the request in March 1973 by Dean Malcolmson to be relieved of his duties effective in August 1974, a committee was formed for the selection of a new dean and also for an evaluation of the administrative and educational functions of the College. Dr. A.G. Norman, Chairman for the Institute for Environmental Quality, was named chairman.
Page 55The Norman Committee submitted its final report on April 11, 1974. Its principal recommendation was to partition the College of Architecture and Design into a School of Art and a College of Architecture and Urban Planning. Upon finding there was general agreement with this recommendation, the Regents approved this division, effective September 1, 1974. George V. Bayliss was appointed Dean of the School of Art, and Robert C. Metcalf was named Dean of the College of Architecture and Urban Planning.
The new Art and Architecture Building was occupied in time to begin the Fall Term 1974. It proved to be a flexible building — designed for one school, it was occupied by two with minimal difficulty. For the School of Art, the generous space and equipment provided was an exciting challenge. For the College of Architecture and Urban Planning, it brought together all teaching units for the first time in many years, and provided space to share in interdisciplinary educational activities with other units on campus. Several innovative teaching spaces were provided, including the Visual Simulation Laboratory, the Building Technology Laboratory, and the Computing Facilities Laboratory. Despite its construction during an inflationary time, the Art and Architecture Building was low in unit cost. The total building area of 221,220 square feet was completed for $6.71 million at $30.33 per square foot. Total project cost, including all fees, site work, parking, furniture, and equipment, was $8.46 million, or $38.26 per square foot.